The ancient Roman and Byzantine empires had well-developed associations, known as demes, which supported the different factions (or teams) under which competitors in certain sporting events took part; this was particularly true of chariot racing. There were initially four major factional teams of chariot racing, differentiated by the colour of the uniform in which they competed; the colours were also worn by their supporters. These were the Blues, the Greens, the Reds, and the Whites, although by the Byzantine era the only teams with any influence were the Blues and Greens. Emperor Justinian I was a supporter of the Blues.

The Hippodrome Boxes, which had four statues of horses in gilded copper on top, stood at the northern end; and the Sphendone (curved tribune of the U-shaped structure, the lower part of which still survives) stood at the southern end. These four gilded horses, now called the Horses of Saint Mark, whose exact Greek or Roman ancestry has never been determined, were looted during the Fourth Crusade in 1204 and installed on the façade of St Mark's Basilica in Venice.


Throughout the Byzantine period, the Hippodrome was the centre of the city's social life. Huge amounts were bet on chariot races, and initially four teams took part in these races, each one financially sponsored and supported by a different political party (Deme) within the Roman/Byzantine Senate: The Blues (Venetoi), the Greens (Prasinoi), the Reds (Rousioi) and the Whites (Leukoi). The Reds (Rousioi) and the Whites (Leukoi) gradually weakened and were absorbed by the other two major factions (the Blues and Greens).


The four bronze horses that used to be in the Hippodrome, today in Venice.


A Combination of Approaches


Recently, I decided to look in more detail at the teaching of Sensei Hisataka and I realized that the Gokyo (5 teachings) of Shorinjiryu could be superimposed on my own graph to yield a very interesting learning tool. Long time students might remember the 5 teachings as: Ikkyo: Tiger, Nikyo: Crane, Sankyo: Bull, Yonkyo: Snake and finally Gokyo: Dragon. Each teaching stresses the attitude of the particular animal and has particular techniques and stances attributed to them. The fifth teaching being represented by the mythical Dragon is a combination of all the techniques and learnings to fully develop the practitioner in combination of mind, body and spirit. It is thus the ultimate learning. Superimposing the 5 attitudes on the previous graph as we obtain the following:




For completeness the graphic above also illustrates the elements of: water, fire, earth, wind and air as presented by Sensei Hisataka in his training manual “Essential Shorinjiryu Katatedo”. These elements are not discussed in this article as they are considered more mythical and esoteric than practical and useful for the sake of kata and karatedo training purposes. It is also probably important to note at this time that any representation for illustrative purposes is essentially that, a representation, and has its limits and should be taken in the spirit of sharing and further understanding. There is always the possibility for debate, discussion, relabeling and reinterpretation.

16 TEAMS 16 SQUARES QMR–15_UEFA_Champions_League_knockout_phase

The 2014–15 UEFA Champions League knockout phase began on 17 February and concluded on 6 June 2015 with the final at Olympiastadion in Berlin, Germany to decide the champions of the 2014–15 UEFA Champions League. A total of 16 teams competed in the knockout phase.[1]


Times up to 28 March 2015 (round of 16) were CET (UTC+1), thereafter (quarter-finals and beyond) times were CEST (UTC+2).


2014 FIFA World Cup knockout stage

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Main article: 2014 FIFA World Cup

The knockout stage of the 2014 FIFA World Cup was the second and final stage of the competition, following the group stage. It began on 28 June with the round of 16 and ended on 13 July with the final match of the tournament, held at Estádio do Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro. The top two teams from each group (16 in total) advanced to the knockout stage to compete in a single-elimination tournament. A third-place match was played between the two losing teams of the semi-finals.[1]

16 TEAMS- 16 SQUARES QMR–16_CEV_Women%27s_Challenge_Cup

Main phase[edit]

In this stage of the competition, the sixteen qualified teams of the Qualification phase were joined by the sixteen losing teams from the 2015–16 Women's CEV Cup.


To play the game, one must first deal thirteen cards faced up and then turned down. These cards would be the reserve, the top card of which is available for play. Then a card is placed on first of the four foundations to the right of the reserve. This card is the first card of its foundation and all other cards of the same rank must also start the other three foundations.


The initial layout in the game of Canfield.

Below the foundations are four piles, each starting with a card each. This will be the tableau and the top cards of each pile are available for play. Cards on the tableau are built down by alternating colors, while the foundations are built up by suit, wrapping from King to Ace if necessary. Any gaps on the tableau are filled from the reserve; in case the reserve is used up, cards from the waste pile are used. Cards on the reserve can also be distributed to the foundations or to the tableau. Cards on the tableau are also moved one unit, provided that the entire column has to be moved.


Scorpion is a Patience game using a deck of 52 playing cards. Although somewhat related to Spider, the method of game play is akin to Yukon. The object of this game is to form four columns of suit sequence cards from king down to ace.


The game starts with 49 cards dealt into seven columns of seven cards each on the tableau. The first four columns each have three face-down cards with four face-up cards placed over them. The cards in the remaining three columns are all faced up. The three leftover cards are set aside for later.


As earlier mentioned, the object of the game is to build four columns of suit sequences from king down to ace. So when one such column is built successfully, it is a general rule to leave this column alone, unless it covers a face-down card. Solsuite's rules to game, however, states that once such a column is built, it is discarded from the tableau. Either way, it allows some "elbow room" for the other suit columns to be formed.


In Windows 2000 and later versions of Solitaire, right-clicking on open spaces automatically moves available cards to the four foundations in the upper right-hand corner, as in Freecell. If the mouse pointer is on a card, a right click will move only that card to its foundation, provided that it is a possible move. Left double-clicking will also move the card to the proper foundation.


The 144 tiles are arranged in a special four-layer pattern with their faces upwards



Thus valid moves in each of the four orthogonal directions are:


* · o → ¤ o * Jump to right

o · * → * o ¤ Jump to left

* ¤

· → o Jump down

o *

o *

· → o Jump up


The goal is to move cards from the tableau and the reserve piles to the foundation to form 4 piles from ace to king (1 for each suit) and 4 piles of king to ace (1 for each suit). Any reserve card can be moved from the reserve pile to the foundation as long as the card is the next in the foundation suite. Only the top most card of a tableau pile can be moved to a foundation pile. If a tableau pile is empty, any card can be place at the location of the empty pile.


The board used to play En Gehé is one of the biggest mancala boards; it comprises two rows of up to 40-50 pits each. Rows are called el mátuan (sing. ol mátua); pits are called 'n gurtót (sing. en gurtóto). Each team of players own one of the rows. At game setup, there are 4 seeds in each pit, for a total amount of 320-400 seeds needed to play the game. Seeds are called es soido (sing. os soid). Caesalpinia bonduc seeds, or small stones, are traditionally used.


Omweso requires a board of 32 pits, arranged with eight pits lengthwise towards the players, and four pits deep. Each player's territory is the 16 pits on their side of the board. In addition, 64 undifferentiated seeds are needed. This equipment is the same used for many variants of Omweso as well as for the Bao game from Zanzibar and Tanzania. Unlike Bao boards, Omweso boards have no special pit (nyumba).


Before the game, four (4) seeds are placed in each of the eight pits closest to a player to ensure that both players have exactly 32 seeds. The first player is chosen by lot. This player arranges all owned seeds on their side of the board according to preference (The arrangement should be strategic). Then, the second player also arranges their seeds. The first player then makes the first sowing move.


Instead of sowing in a counter-clockwise direction, a player may sow clockwise from any of their four leftmost pits if this results in a capture. Upon re-entering these reverse-captured seeds, the player may sow them clockwise again, if and only if this play results in a direct capture. The player may also choose to sow reverse-captured seeds in the usual counter-clockwise manner, and there is no compulsion to play one direction or the other when the choice is available. During a relay-sowing move, one lap of which ends at one of the four leftmost pits, a player may also change direction and begin sowing the next leg of the move clockwise, if and only if this play results in a direct capture.


Hawalis boards in Oman are composed by 4 rows of 7 holes. At game setup, two seeds are placed in each hole. Each player owns half of the board (2 rows) of the board.


Many such early studies of revolutions tended to concentrate on four classic cases: famous and uncontroversial examples that fit virtually all definitions of revolutions, such as the Glorious Revolution (1688), the French Revolution (1789–1799), the Russian Revolution of 1917, and the Chinese Revolution (also known as the Chinese Civil War) (1927–1949).[15] In his The Anatomy of Revolution, however, the Harvard historian Crane Brinton focused on the English Civil War, the American Revolution, the French Revolution, and the Russian Revolution.[17]


Third, analysts of both revolutions and social movements realized that those phenomena have much in common, and a new 'fourth generation' literature on contentious politics has developed that attempts to combine insights from the study of social movements and revolutions in hopes of understanding both phenomena.[15]


At game setup, 4 seeds are placed in each pit. Similar equipment and game setup are used for in other mancalas.

Nsolo game is usually played by scooping holes in the ground and using small stones or Mongongo nuts for playing pieces. Two players scoop four rows of holes in the ground and begin to play, usually with the help of a number of bystanders. However, carved wooden game boards exist from earlier years and can also still be bought at tourist markets in Livingstone and Lusaka. Several variations of the game exist.


At the beginning of the first game four seeds are placed in each pit except the end pits. Subsequent games also begin with four seeds in each pit, however the ownership of the pits may have changed.



The nominal object of a match is to gain control of all the pits on the board; however, this is so hard the game is usually only played to ten or eleven pits.



Players take turns moving the seeds. On a turn, a player chooses one of the pits under their control. The player removes all seeds from this pits, and distributes them in each pit counter-clockwise from this pit, in a process called sowing. Seeds are not distributed into the end scoring pits. If the last seed ends in an occupied pit, then all the seeds in that pit including the last one are resown starting from that pit. These multiple turns continue until the sowing process ends, either in an empty pit or a capture of four seeds.



If at any time during sowing, a pit has exactly four seeds, all four are immediately captured and removed from play. There can be many such captures during sowing. Also, if the last pit sown into then has four seeds, these four seeds are captured and the sowing process ends.


End of the game[edit]

When there are just eight seeds left on the board, the player who began the game takes these and the game ends. In the next game, each player begins with a pit for each four seeds captured. Since captures are always made in multiples of four, this will be even.


The board used to play Anywoli has two rows of twelve holes each. Anuak call these holes "oto" (pl.: "udi"), meaning "house". At game setup, 4 seeds are placed in each hole. Seeds are called "nyibaré", meaning "children (sons) of the board game".


4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

Players take turns; each owns one of the rows.


At his or her turn, the player takes all the seeds from one of his/her holes and relay sows them counterclockwise. The sowing ends when the last seed falls in an empty hole or when a capture occurs.


Capture occurs whenever, during play, a hole holds exactly four seeds: those seeds are removed from the game, and taken by the player who owns the hole. In the special case where the last seed of a sowing is placed in a hole holding three seeds (thus forming a four-seed hole), the captured seeds are taken by the player who is moving, independent of who owns the hole. This also ends the player's turn.


Quoridor is a 2- or 4-player abstract strategy game designed by Mirko Marchesi and published by Gigamic Games. Quoridor received the Mensa Mind Game award in 1997 and the Game Of The Year in the USA, France, Canada and Belgium.[1]


Janggi (including romanizations changgi and jangki), sometimes called Korean chess, is a strategy board game popular in Korea. The game derived from xiangqi (Chinese chess) and is very similar to it, including the starting position of the pieces, and the 9×10 gameboard, but without the xiangqi "river" dividing the board horizontally in the middle.


The palace contains four diagonal lines extending outwards from the center, forming an "X" shape.


The Game of the Amazons is played on a 10x10 chessboard (or an international checkerboard). Some players prefer to use a monochromatic board. The two players are White and Black; each player has four amazons (not to be confused with the amazon fairy chess piece), which start on the board in the configuration shown at right. A supply of markers (checkers, poker chips, etc.) is also required.


If the same game position occurs four times with the same player to move, either player loses if his or her moves during the repetition (sennichite) are all checks (perpetual check), otherwise the game is considered a draw. However, in Shogi a draw is not counted for. Players have to restart their game(s) until a winner is declared. This is a significant difference from Western Chess, in which a player can play specifically to obtain draws for gaining points. In Shogi there can be only one victorious through wins. When a draw situation in Shogi occurs, the players have to start a new game in which the players switch colours. The player who was white, becomes black and vice versa. Furthermore, depending on the tournament, players who have reached "sennichite" need to start and play their new game in the remainder of their allowed game time. This rule also contributes to making sennichite a rare occurrence. Repetition draws in Shogi are also rare to achieve, since through the four iterations, every iteration needs contain the same positions. For two positions to be considered the same, even the pieces in hand must be the same as well as the positions on the board. Although rare among professional players, Repetition Draws are even rarer in amateur games.


Sennichite (千日手) or Repetition Draw is a rule in shogi stating that the game will end in a draw if the same position is repeated four times during a game.


Contents [hide]

1 Explanation

2 History

3 Example

3.1 Watanabe vs Habu 2012

4 See also

5 Notes

6 References


If the same game position occurs four times with the same player to move, either player loses if his or her moves during the repetition (sennichite) are all checks (perpetual check), otherwise the game is considered a draw. However, in Shogi a draw is not counted for. Players have to restart their game(s) until a winner is declared. This is a significant difference from western chess, in which a player can play specifically to obtain draws for gaining points. In Shogi there can be only one victorious through wins. When a draw situation in Shogi occurs, the players have to start a new game in which the players switch colours. The player who was white, becomes black and vice versa. Furthermore, depending on the tournament, players who have reached sennichite need to start and play their new game in the remainder of their allowed game time. This rule also contributes to making sennichite a rare occurrence. Repetition draws in shogi are also rare to achieve, since through the four iterations, every iteration needs contain the same positions. For two positions to be considered the same, even the pieces in hand must be the same as well as the positions on the board. Although rare among professional players, Repetition Draws are even rarer in amateur games.


The game is lost if a player has no more tokens to play, and since each starts with a set number of tokens, it is clearly necessary to recycle pieces already positioned to keep playing. This is achieved by contriving to line up four pieces of the same colour in a row on the board, at which point those tokens are returned to their owner, and any opposing tokens extending from the line of four are captured.


The Fanorona board consists of lines and intersections, creating a grid with 5 rows and 9 columns subdivided diagonally to form part of the tetrakis square tiling of the plane.


A 5 × 9 portion of the tetrakis square tiling is used to form the board for the Malagasy board game Fanorona. In this game, pieces are placed on the vertices of the tiling, and move along the edges, capturing pieces of the other color until one side has captured all of the other side's pieces. In this game, the degree-4 and degree-8 vertices of the tiling are called respectively weak intersections and strong intersections, a distinction that plays an important role in the strategy of the game.[4] A similar board is also used for the Brazilian game Adugo, and for the game of Hare and Hounds.


The tetrakis square tiling was used for a set of commemorative postage stamps issued by the United States Postal Service in 1997, with an alternating pattern of two different stamps. Compared to the simpler pattern for triangular stamps in which all diagonal perforations are parallel to each other, the tetrakis pattern has the advantage that, when folded along any of its perforations, the other perforations line up with each other, making repeated folding possible.[5]


This tiling also forms the basis for a commonly used "pinwheel", "windmill", and "broken dishes" patterns in quilting.[6][7][8]


This version (also called "Wolf and Sheep", "Hounds and Hare", or "Devil and Tailors") is played on an 8×8 chess/checkerboard. As in draughts, only the dark squares are used. The four hounds are initially placed on the dark squares at one edge of the board; the fox is placed on any dark square on the opposite edge. The objective of the fox is to cross from one side of the board to the other, arriving at any one of the hounds' original squares; the hounds' objective is to prevent it from doing so.


The sixteen attackers, called Muscovites, start in groups of four at the centre of each edge of the board. (In Linnaeus' notes, these squares were embroidered to signify them as the domain of the Muscovites.)

CHESS OF THE FOUR SEASONS (four lements four humours)

The Libro de juegos contains an extensive collection of writings on chess, with over 100 chess problems and variants.[2] Among its more notable entries is a depiction of what Alfonso calls the ajedrex de los quatro tiempos ("chess of the four seasons"). This game is a chess variant for four players, described as representing a conflict between the four elements and the four humors. The chessmen are marked correspondingly in green, red, black, and white, and pieces are moved according to the roll of dice.[2] Alfonso also describes a game entitled "astronomical chess", played on a board of seven concentric circles, divided radially into twelve areas, each associated with a constellation of the Zodiac.[2]


Fidchell (in Irish; also spelled fidhcheall, fidceall, fitchneal or fithchill, and pronounced [ˈfɪðʲçɛlː] in Old Irish) or gwyddbwyll (in Welsh) was an ancient Celtic board game.


Each of the four corners and borders of the diagram is assigned to one of the four Evangelists. 67 pieces are derived from the Eusebian Canons: each Canon defines a number of pieces corresponding to the square of its number of columns. Pieces defined by a specific canon are grouped together on the board: such groups are labeled by a cross and the number of the corresponding canon.


Four more pieces are painted in red (all the others are painted in black) and in the manuscript are mentioned as "different men" (varios viros): two of these four pieces are assigned to the Evangelist John (N14, F6), the other two to Mark (N6, F14). The four “different men” are also labeled on the board as related to the passion of Christ.[7] One of the black pieces (E13) is referenced in the manuscript as "the primary man" and "belongs to none of the evangelists"; it represents "the Unity of the Trinity", the one purpose of the four evangelists. Finally, "the figure 1 in the middle of the alea signifies the indivisible substance of the Trinity, or the supremacy of the first canon".[8]


The 16 pieces of Canon I form the diamond at the center of the board. Canons II, III and IIII, together with the four "different men" and the "primary man", form the circle surrounding the central diamond. Canons V, VI, VII, VIII, IX are organized horizontally along the lines of the board. The four pieces corresponding to each of the four Evangelists in Canon X are placed in the four quadrants of the board (C14, Q14, C6, Q6).


Barbet-Massin[7] notes that this is not the only case in which a tafl game is associated with the Gospels: Cormac's Glossary (900 CE ca) describes Fidchell as


“likeness of a church" because "the fidchell is four-cornered, its squares are right-angled, and black and white are on it ... So also the church in all particulars: fed by four gospels in the four quarters of the earth ...; it is straight in judgements with the rows of scripture; black and white, i.e. good and bad, live in the church".[9]


Asalto is played on a grid of 33 intersection points in the shape of a cross, with a specially denoted arm known as the fortress at the top of the board


When playing German Tactics, the rebel pieces may not move along any horizontal lines except those at the top of the arms of the cross. Officers and Sepoys uses a larger board and has 50 rebel pieces and three officers.[1]

The Four Knights Game is a chess opening that begins with the moves:

1. e4 e5

2. Nf3 Nc6

3. Nc3 Nf6


Three-player variant[edit]

The pieces of the missing fourth player are "hostages". These pieces can be killed or moved by the pieces of the players. When the chief is captured, the normal rules to take control of them apply. The hostage chief can be placed in the maze, but it has no influence on the game.

Djambi (also described as "Machiavelli's chessboard") is a board game and a chess variant for four players, invented by Jean Anesto in 1975. The rulebook in French describes the game, the pieces and the rules in a humorous and theatrical way. Clearly stating that the game pieces intent to represent all wrongdoings in politics.


Fortress chess (or Russian Four-Handed chess) is a four-player chess variant played in Russia in 18th and 19th centuries. The board contains 192 squares including the fortresses at its corners. The fortresses contain 16 squares and various pieces are placed inside.


The game is played by four people in teams of two. At the outset, each player controls an entire quadrant of the board with a full set of chess pieces (minus one pawn). Partners occupy quadrants diagonally across from each other. The diagram at right shows the initial layout of the Forchess board (K=King, Q=Queen, R=Rook, B=Bishop, N=Knight, and P=Pawn). Four squares are initially unoccupied.


Players choose either Officer yellow or Sailor blue and use 16 same-color pieces + 1 score-keeper each. Officer (yellow) starts and players take turns placing their pieces, one at a time, on any empty point, building on those already on the board, to complete and/or block point-scoring combinations.


Start with an empty board, end with a full board ... with 3 ways to score points when placement of four same-color pieces is completed in any of the following combinations:


10 points - 4 same-color pieces in a radius

20 points - 4 same-color pieces in an arc

30 points - 4 same-color pieces in a spiral


Join Five (also known as Morpion solitaire, Cross 'n' Lines or Line Game) is a paper and pencil game for one or two players, played on a plus-shaped grid of dots. The origins of the game are probably in northern Europe. References to the game first appeared in French publications in the 1970s.[1] In addition to being played recreationally, the game has been the subject of theoretical studies[2] and computer searches for solutions.[3]


The game is played on a 4×4 board. Each player has 12 pieces of the same colour but different sizes. Players take turns to place a piece on the board or move their piece that already is on the board. Bigger pieces can be placed so that they cover smaller ones. A player wins by placing four pieces of the same colour in a horizontal, vertical, or diagonal row.


The board consists of 5 vertices and 7 edges. Each player has two pieces. Players take turns to move. At each turn, the player moves one of his two pieces into the adjacent vacant vertex. If a player can't move, he loses.


Battle Sheep is a game for two to four players. It is played on a hexagonal grid representing a pasture.


The board is made up by connecting four parts of the grid at a random configuration. The board must remain connected but may contain holes. Each player receives sixteen sheep of a specific colour and places them all, in a stack, on any free hexagon at the edge of the board.


Battle Sheep is a game for two to four players. It is played on a hexagonal grid representing a pasture.


The board is made up by connecting four parts of the grid at a random configuration. The board must remain connected but may contain holes. Each player receives sixteen sheep of a specific colour and places them all, in a stack, on any free hexagon at the edge of the board.


Pylos is a board game invented by David G. Royffe and published by Gigamic. Two players are given 15 marbles each. They take turns to make a pyramid in a 4 by 4 square grid (note that 15 × 2 = 4 × 4 + 3 × 3 + 2 × 2 + 1). Simple rules allow them to save their marbles — if possible, instead of playing a new marble, a player may rise one of his already played marbles to a higher position, and if any move forms a line or 2×2 square of marbles the player's colour, the player may (and indeed must) remove one or two of his marbles from the board. The winner is the player who completes the pyramid.



A 4x4 square board and each player has 12 color-coded disks.


An uncommon feature in this game is that the goats are piled up on four points of the board at the beginning of the game. The only other hunt game to use this feature is Sher-bakar, a game closely related to Bagh bandi.


Bagh-Chal (Nepali: About this sound बाघ चाल bāgh cāl, Newari:धुँ कासा dhun kasa meaning "Tiger game", ) is a strategic, two-player board game that originates in Nepal. The game is asymmetric in that one player controls four tigers and the other player controls up to twenty goats. The tigers 'hunt' the goats while the goats attempt to block the tigers' movements.


At the start of the game all four tigers are placed on the four corners of the grid, facing the center. No goats are placed on the board during the initial setup.

FOUR TRIANGLE BOARDS FOUR SIDES-16 soldiers 16 squares qmr

Kotu Ellima is a two-player abstract strategy board game from Sri Lanka and India. The game is similar to draughts and Alquerque as players hop over one another's pieces to capture them. However, unlike draughts and standard Alquerque, the game is played on an expanded Alquerque board consisting of four triangular boards attached to the four sides of an Alquerque board


There is no promotion to King. Its actual closest relatives are Peralikatuma and Sixteen Soldiers which are also from the Indian subcontinent. The only real difference between these three closely related games is the number of pieces. In Sixteen Soldiers, each player has 16 pieces hence the name of the game


It is specifically four times the size of an Alquerque board which is the same board used for Zamma. The rules are exactly those of Alquerque, except that captures are not compulsory.


Meurimueng-rimueng peuet ploh translates to "tiger game played with forty".


Contents [hide]

1 Setup

2 Rules

3 Related Games

4 External links

5 References


The board is composed of four Alquerque boards joined together to form a large square board consisting of 81 intersection points. There are a total of 80 game pieces, 40 of which are black played by one player, and the other 40 are white played by the other player.


All three games use the same board which consist of an Alquerque board, and attached on each of its four sides is a triangular patterned board. The only difference between the three games is in the number of pieces. In Sixteen Soldiers, each player has 16 pieces hence the name of the game


The board consist of an Alquerque board, and attached to each of the four sides of the Alquerque board is a triangular patterned board. There are 49 intersections on the board, and the pieces are played on those intersections.


2. Each players pieces are initially set up on the first four ranks of their side of the board, and on the triangle patterned board to the right of the player.


The game consist of a standard Alquerque board but flanked on two of its opposite sides are triangular boards.


Each player has 16 pieces. One player has the black pieces, and the other player has the white pieces, although any two colors or distinguishable objects are appropriate.


Players decide among themselves what colored pieces to play. They also decide who will start first.


Each player's 16 pieces are placed initially on the first four ranks of each player's side of the board.


Another variant which is briefly described in "The Achehnese" (1906) is the game Madranggam (or Mudranggam) which is called "four tigers and sixteen sheep".[4] The same board is used in Machanan / meurimueng-rimueng which is the rimau-rimau board, but it's not explicitly mentioned whether a tiger can capture an odd number of sheep. Perhaps a similar game is described by Walter William Skeat in his work Malay magic (1900)which he refers to as Main Rimau ("Tiger" Game) or Main Rimau Kambing ("Tiger and Goat" Game) as this game consist of usually 4 tigers and a dozen goats.[5] However the design of the board is not described or referenced, nor whether or not the tiger is permitted to capture an odd number of goats.


An interesting and uncommon feature in this game is that the goats, cows, lamb, or men are piled up on four points of the board at the beginning of the game.


2. In the beginning, one tiger is placed on the middle point of the left most column, and the other tiger is placed on the middle point of the right most column. The goats are placed on four different points. They are placed on the second and fourth point of the second left most column, and on the second and fourth point of the middle column. Three of the four points have five goats piled up, and the remaining point has four goats piled up.


Both Captain James Low and H.J.R. Murray described a second version of Mak-yek which resembles more of a hunt game where one player possesses only one piece, and goes against another player with sixteen pieces. The player with one piece can move in any direction except diagonally, and capture a single enemy piece by leaping over it as long as there is an empty square behind it.[1][2] No more detail of the game's rules is provided, but it does appear that the game is played on the same 8 x 8 square board since both authors make no attempt to describe a different board. If it is not the same board, it is at the very least a square board of some dimension since both authors describe that the single piece can leap over one of the sixteen pieces provided it lands on an empty square behind the leapt piece. If this is indeed a hunt game, it is a contrast to most hunt games from around the world and especially in Southeast Asia where most hunt game boards are of a linear pattern. It also would not be a variant of the first version of Mak-yek which is definitely not a hunt game.


On an 8x8 board, 16 men are lined up on each side in two rows, skipping the first and last row. So, from a player's point of view, the second and third row are filled with his own men, and the sixth and seventh row are filled with the opponent's men.


Each player has 16 pieces of which one set is black, and the other is white.


Game play and rules[edit]

1. Players decide who will play the black pieces, and who will play the white pieces. They also decide who will start first.


2. Players play opposite one another across the board with each player having its own triangular board. Players place all of their 16 pieces in the first four ranks of their side of the board. Therefore, each player's triangular board will be filled up with their own pieces, and on the fourth rank, the three middle intersection points are occupied.


Each player begins with two pieces, white and black, for the first player and second player respectively. The game starts with the four pieces on the four corners of the board, with white in the top left and bottom right and black on the other two. White moves first.


Awithlaknakwe (or Stone Warriors, or Game of the Stone Warriors[1]) is a strategy board game from the Zuni Native American Indians of the American Southwest. The board comprises 168 squares with diagonal grids. Two or four may play, with players identified as North, West, South, and East.


Four players[edit]

North and West are partners against South and East. Each team owns one Priest of the Bow (not two).


Incomplete rules[edit]

The rules described by F. H. Cushing and reported by Culin, and subsequently by Bell and Murray, lack specificity on some points:


How a player wins is unclear. One could conjecture that the total number of pieces that reach the opponent's home rank and the number of pieces captured are totaled to determine the winner.[5] The same issue applies when four play.

When four play, it isn't clear whether partners play a combined set of 12 warriors, or each plays a differentiated set of 6 warriors. (The implication is a combined, undifferentiated set.[a])

It is unknown which player traditionally moves first, how the first player is chosen, and the order of turns when four play.


The board is a 4x4 marble hole board. There are 16 marbles total of which 8 are black and 8 are white.

Four Field Kono is an abstract strategy game from Korea. Each player attempts to capture the other player's pieces by jumping over their own piece and landing on the other player's piece.[1] The game not related or similar to another Korean game called Five Field Kono.[2]


A 4 x 4 square board (or grid) is used. Each player has 4 pieces. One plays as the black pieces, and the other plays as the white pieces.

Players decide what colors to play, and who starts first.


Each player's four pieces are initially set up on the first rank of their respective side of the board and which is opposite of one another.



Jul-Gonu (줄 고누 in Korean) is a two-player abstract strategy board game from Korea.[1] It is one of many Gonu games. The game has a relatively small board (4 x 4 square board), and yet offers a challenge at different levels. The game could be played on a larger board, however, it tends to be tiresome. Jul means "lines", and the lines of the board are often drawn on the ground. The game is also referred to as "Ne-Jul-Gonu" (네 줄 고누), i.e. "Four Lines Gonu", referring to the four lines in each direction.


The board is composed of a large circle with an inner middle circle. Four semicircles form a North, South, East, and West arrangement in the interior of the larger circle. The large circle and the smaller middle circle are divided equally into four pie slices. This creates for twenty-one intersection points where the pieces are played upon.


The board consists of a grid of 16×16 squares.

Each player's camp consists of a cluster of adjacent squares in one corner of the board. These camps are delineated on the board.

For two-player games, each player's camp is a cluster of 19 squares. The camps are in opposite corners.

For four-player games, each player's camp is a cluster of 13 squares. Each of the four corners of the board is a camp.


The Diamond gameboard consists of interlocking squares and triangles. White and Black each control 12 game pieces of their own color. Neutral pieces (red-colored in the diagrams) enter the game via captures. The pieces are played on the line intersections (called points, as in Go). White and black (but not red) pieces can move along straight lines to adjacent unoccupied points. A player wins by being the first to occupy all four corners (points) of a board square with their pieces.


The Queen Bee must be placed in one of the first four turns, and if a player's Queen Bee has not yet been placed, that player may not move any pieces. Therefore, it is generally preferable to place the Bee before being forced to do so on the fourth turn.



The goal of the crows is to block the movements of the vultures.


The goal of the vulture is to capture four crows which is enough to prevent the crows from ever blocking its movements.


Len cúa kín ngoa or The game of "tigers eating cattle" is a game from Thailand (formerly Siam). It was observed and documented by Captain James Low in Asiatic Researches (1839).[6] The game resembles Khla si ko and Tiger and Buffaloes in that it is a hunt game that uses a 4 x 4 board. It especially resembles Khla si ko in that the 4 x 4 board is specifically a 4 x 4 square board where game pieces are placed within the squares; moreover, there are 4 tigers versus 12 oxen, and that the opening setup has the tigers on the four corners squares of the board. There are however some features that make this game possibly unique which will be described in the Rules section. The following setup and rules are based upon Low's description, however many parts of his description were vague.



The board is a 4 x 4 square consisting of 16 squares. There are 4 tiger pieces and 12 oxen pieces with each set of pieces distinguishable from the other by color or design. Players decide which animal to play. The game begins with the 4 tigers situated on the four corner squares of the board with the rest of the board empty. The 12 oxen are set beside the board awaiting to be placed on the board.


A 4x4 square grid is used, and this creates 16 intersection points (here-in-forth referred to as "points"). There are 3 tiger pieces and 11 buffalo pieces with each set of pieces distinguishable from the other by color or design. Players decide who will play the Tigers, and who will play the Buffaloes. The board is empty in the beginning with each player's pieces set beside it.



Players alternate their turns throughout the game.

The first stage of the game is the Drop phase. The Buffaloes move first. Four buffaloes are placed on any vacant points on the board. Then the Tiger player places one tiger on any vacant point. Then the Buffalo player places four more of its pieces on any vacant points. Then the Tiger player places another tiger piece onto any vacant point. Then the Buffalo player places its last three buffaloes on any vacant point. Lastly, the Tiger player places its last tiger onto any vacant point.


The L game is a two-player game played on a board of 4×4 squares. Each player has a 3×2 L-shaped piece, and there are two 1×1 neutral pieces (black discs in the diagram).

Four pieces on board

Liberian Queah is a two-player abstract strategy game from Liberia. It is specifically from the Queah tribe. The game is played on a slanted or diagonal square board with only 13 spaces. Pieces move "orthogonally" along these slanted or diagonal square boards. Another unique feature is that each player must have four (and only four) pieces on the board. Each player's captured piece is resupplied at the beginning of their next turn with a piece from their reserve (unless of course the player has no more pieces to resupply with).


Lotus is a board game for two to four players developed by Dominique Teller and published by Ravensburger Spieleverlag. The object of the game is to move one's pieces off the board before the other players. The game board is hexagonal in shape; it has a large image of a Chinese dragon in the middle, and a Chinese character in each board position.



If you have two players, one player is given ten white game pieces while the other player gets ten black game pieces. The pieces are stacked in the middle of the board as one stack of 4 pieces, one stack of 3 pieces, one stack of 2 pieces and one stack of 1 piece. If you have 3 or 4 players then each player gets 6 pieces, stacked in the middle in stacks of 3, 2 and 1. Each player takes turns moving their pieces in an attempt to get to the exit space on the game board. A player can only move a piece that is on top of a stack or that is the only piece left in a stack. The height of the stack determines how far you can move your piece. Therefore; a piece in a stack of 1 can only move 1 space forward, a piece in a stack of 2 can move 2 spaces forward. A player may decide which of the two starting positions to move their piece to, both positions lead to one exit position and no piece can be moved backwards. During your turn, you can stack any of your colored pieces on top of any other single piece, empty position, or existing stack. After the game starts there is no limit to how many pieces can be in a stack. You can move any of your pieces forward, even if you still have pieces in the start square.



These are the rules from the German museum set pictured above:

Two players have sixteen pieces each, which are arranged in two rows facing each other. The goal of the game is to capture all of the opponent's pieces.

The pieces move orthogonally any unobstructed distance. A piece is captured when it is caught between two opposing pieces on adjacent squares in a rank or file. The captured piece is removed from the board. Victory is by capturing more pieces than one's opponent, or by hemming in the opponent's pieces so that movement is impossible.

Similar games[edit]

In China the various board games in the family of Fang Qi (方棋, Square Game) have similar rules. Typically board size varies from 4×4 in Korea (Gonu) to 17×17 in Tibet. Most varieties have the initial "Placing Stone" phase, followed by the "Removing Stone" phase (if any), and then finally the "Capturing Stone" phase.



Makonn is an abstract strategy game from the Seychelles islands off the eastern coast of Africa. The game is a traditional variant of mancala. It is played on four rows of ten holes such as a 10 x 4 hole board. There are variants, and the board design, number of pieces, and rules may change. This game was almost forgotten and is played mostly on the outer islands of the Seychelles. The rules provided in this article are not complete, and this article attempts only to provide a general description of the game based on the available sources.


Game play and rules[edit]

The goal is to capture the most pieces. The board design and size may vary depending on the variant played. Perhaps a more common variant is the 10 x 4 hole board. It is unknown how many pieces there are in the game, and whether any of the pieces belong to any of the players. Each player controls two rows of holes. All moves are capturing moves. A capturing move is when one piece jumps across another piece.


Martian Chess was one of four games in the Icehouse: The Martian Chess Set[2] released by Looney Labs in 1999.[1] The set was Looney Labs's first Icehouse release and first to showcase its potential as a game system. The other three games were IceTowers, IceTraders and Zarcana.[2] In 2001, Icehouse: The Martian Chess Set won the Origins Award for Best Abstract Board Game of 2000.[5] The rules to the game were reissued in 3HOUSE booklet in 2007,[6][7] again by 2013 in Pyramid Primer #1[8][9] and in 2016 as a part of Pyramid Arcade boxed set.[10]


The Mozaic game board consists of 64 tiles (8x8 squares) with a score-keeping "ladder" on either end.

Players choose either amber or cobalt and use 32 same-color gemstones + 1 score-keeper each — four exception gems are included:


ruby-red = miss this turn.

sapphire-green = slide any gem diagonally to an empty adjacent tile.

onyx-black = take two turns.

diamond-white = remove any gem from the board and replace it in the bag.

Exception gemstones are always returned to the bag after a turn.


Start with an empty board, end with a full board ...

The gemstones are placed in the bag and the first player to draw their color from the bag starts. Players then take turns drawing gems, one at a time, and place them on any empty tile on the board.

4 points are scored when placement of four same-color adjacent gems forming a square is completed — existing squares may be built on and expanded.


Points are won with a player's own-color gems (even when placed by the opponent) and always accrued, never deducted. Several point-scoring combinations may be completed at one time with a single gem. Overlooked points are forfeited and, throughout the game, players keep score on their side of the board with an extra gem of their color.


The game is over when the last gemstone is placed, all the tiles are covered and only the four exception gems remain in the bag then, by comparing accrued points totals, the player with the most points is the winner of the game.


After the PWBA folded, female bowlers have had very few national venues in which to bowl, other than the USBC Queens event. A few female bowlers, including Carolyn Dorin-Ballard, Liz Johnson and Kelly Kulick, began competing on the "men's" PBA Tour with limited success. The U.S. Women's Open was resurrected by the USBC in 2007, and it also spawned the creation of the women's series. The trial series featured four events in the early weeks of the 2007-08 PBA season.


The 2007 winners were:


Carolyn Dorin-Ballard - Motor City Classic

Shannon Pluhowsky - Etonic Championship

Joy Esterson - Lake County Indiana Classic

Diandra Asbaty - Great Lakes Classic


From 1962 to 1965, ABC started televising the PBA Tour, starting with a limited number of tournaments on ABC's Wide World of Sports, and later having its own timeslot. Therefore, a round-robin tournament format was implemented to determine the champion. The televised finals would be cut to the top four bowlers after match-play, and then three round-robin matches between the fourth, third and second-seeded bowlers would determine the final two bowlers. If any bowler were to win both of his matches in the round-robin, he would go on to face the tournament leader. If the three bowlers each split their matches to go 1 and 1 in the round-robin, total pinfall would decide which man would advance to the final match to face the tournament leader. The winner of the final match would win the tournament.


From the late 1960s to 1997 (with the exception of one year), televised events were done in a "stepladder" format. Four matches would be held, with the #5 and #4 seeds from the qualifying rounds meeting first. The winner of the first match would bowl the #3 seed, and likewise up to the top spot.


ABC experimented in 1993 with a King Of The Hill format. Under this arrangement, only the top four seeds made it to the television finals, instead of five, with the traditional stepladder format. The #4 and #3 seeds met first, with the winner facing the #2 seed, and that winner then facing the #1 seed. The winner of the tournament faced the current "King" for an additional cash prize. The winner of the King of the Hill match would then bowl the winner of the following week's tournament. The "King" could defend his title even when not competing in the event hosting it. The tour resumed its normal "stepladder" format the following year.


The bowler who won himself the most notoriety for winning "King" matches was Ron Williams, who won only four tourneys in his career, yet held the "King" spot for five consecutive weeks that year.


Special formats were also used on occasion in conjunction with Old Spice deodorant, which sponsored a Winning Never Gets Old challenge annually in the mid-1990s. The winner of the championship would bowl a Seniors Tour bowler for the rights to an extra $10,000.


When the PBA Tour moved to CBS in 1998, a two-match format was adopted. Again going to four bowlers, the #2, #3, and #4 players bowled in one "shootout" match, with the winner facing the tournament's #1 qualifier for the championship. From 1998 to 2000, also, the PBA used gold-colored pins with black stripes or crowns (depending on if Brunswick or AMF was involved in the alley) for their televised finals. The pins returned to regular white in 2001.


When the PBA Tour introduced the World Series of Bowling during the 2009–10 season, the televised finals for all tournaments in the series used the four-man stepladder format. During the 2011 WSOB, an "eliminator" format was used. The top four qualifiers all bowled together, and the top three scorers would move on to the next match, with the lowest score finishing in fourth place. The next match would then take the two top scorers (low score finishing in third place), and these two bowlers competed head-to-head in the final match. Starting in 2012, the WSOB switched back to the four-man stepladder format, with the exception of the PBA World Championship which featured a five-man stepladder final.

FOUR ANIMAL OIL PATTERN EVENTS 16 player quarterfinal 16 squares qmr

Since the 2011 World Series of Bowling, the top 25% of scores from the qualifying rounds of four "animal" oil pattern events have determined the field for the "cashers round" of the PBA World Championship. Additional games are then bowled on the World Championship oil pattern to determine the match play field for the PBA World Championship.[4] For the first time, ESPN aired the entire 16-player quarterfinal "eliminator" rounds in 2011 over four broadcasts (December 11, December 18, January 1 and January 8), with the final round airing on January 15, 2012.


Power stroking is often very similar to cranking and bowlers can often fit in either category, therefore bowlers that use one of these two styles are often simply known as power players. A fourth style, known as helicopter, spinning, or UFO, is a style that is used to great effect in Asia. Finally, many modern bowlers have changed to a one- or two-handed no-thumb delivery. Most of the various forms use different wrist and hand positions and rely on different timings and body positions to accommodate the differences in each style of release.


There are countless ways a bowler can achieve a strike. However, the goal for a bowler on every first ball is to achieve a strike using the method that generates the highest strike percentage. A perfect strike is a strike where the ball hits only four pins: the one, three, five and nine pins. The ball enters the one-three pocket, and then falls into the pit area to the right of where the eight pin previously stood.


A conventional roll of the bowling ball will enter the 1-3 pocket, and continue to roll from right-to-left (right-hander.) The ball actually hits only four pins - the 1, 3, 5 and 9 pins. This type of roll/hit applies to strokers, power strokers and crankers.

Skating is a winter Olympic sport represented by the International Skating Union, and includes four disciplines: figure skating, speed skating (on a traditional long track), short track speed skating, and synchronized skating (the latter is a non-Olympic discipline)




The crucifix position, also known as the salaverry, is a ground grappling position that involves being perpendicularly behind the opponent, chest against back, and controlling the opponent's arms. One of the opponent's arms is controlled using the legs, and the other using the arms, hence effectively putting the opponent in a position resembling a crucifix. This position allows for elbow strikes to the head, or if the opponent is wearing a gi, it allows for a collar strangle called the crucifix choke (in Judo known as jigoku jime, 地獄絞, "hell strangle").[1] It is also possible to have the crucifix position in such a way that a crucifix neck crank can be applied.


There are four jumping events in field athletics: high jump, long jump, triple jump and pole vault. There are four main principles which are applied to all jumping events:


Starting run – this is the period of time where the athlete gathers speed for the take-off. The faster the athlete runs, the more force there is to be converted into the jump.

Take off – this is the transition between the run and the jump with the athlete propelling their body into the air. In the case of the triple jump the propulsion of the body is delayed with a hop, step and jump preceding the take off.

Flight – this is the period of time when the body is airborne, sending them horizontally away from the starting point in the long jump or triple jump and vertically over the bar in the high jump.

Landing – this is the point at which the athlete finishes the jump marking the distance (in the case of the long jump and triple jump) that they have travelled through the air. The landing area is a sand pit for the long jump and triple jump and a mattress for the high jump and pole vault.


In the high jump event, athletes sprint down a runway towards a four metre long horizontal bar and jump vertically over the bar on to a cushioned mattress. The crossbar is increased in height as the competition progresses and more competitors are knocked out. There are various methods of jumping over the bar but the most common is known as the ‘Fosbury Flop,’ where the athlete curves the direction of the run during their last four strides, twisting over the bar and landing on to their back. Whatever their chosen method of jumping over the bar, all contestants are required to make the take off from one foot. Athletes are allowed to touch the crossbar as they jump over but if the bar falls off the vertical supports, the jump is classified as a failure. After three failed jumps a contestant is eliminated from the competition.


The athletic competition included four track sports (stade, diaulos, dolichos and hoplitodromos


In the ancient Olympic Games, as well as the other Panhellenic Games, there were both four-horse (tethrippon, Greek: τέθριππον) and two-horse (synoris, Greek: συνωρὶς) chariot races, which were essentially the same aside from the number of horses.[


A white charioteer; part of a mosaic of the third century AD, showing four leading charioteers from the different colors, all in their distinctive gear


Another alternative set format are so called "short sets" where the first to four games to win by two games. In this format a tie-break is played at four games all. The ITF experimented with this format in low level Davis Cup matches, but the experiment was not continued. Nevertheless, this alternative remains as an acceptable alternative in the ITF rules of Tennis.[26]


The tournament continues until the quarterfinal round (having eight players or teams playing a total of four matches), then the semifinal round (four players or teams, two matches), and finally the final round (with just two players or teams) is played. The winner of the final round is declared the winner of the entire tournament.



A game consists of a sequence of points played with the same player serving, and is won by the first side to have won at least four points with a margin of two points or more over their opponent. Normally the server's score is always called first and the opponent's score second. Score calling in tennis is unusual in that each point has a corresponding call that is different from its point value.


A popular alternative to advantage scoring is "no-advantage" (or "no-ad") scoring, created by James Van Alen in order to shorten match playing time.[12] No-advantage scoring is a scoring method in which the first player to reach four points wins the game. No-ad scoring eliminates the requirement that a player must win by two points. Therefore, if the game is tied at deuce, the next player to win a point wins the game. This method of scoring is used in most World TeamTennis matches.[13][14] When this style of play is implemented, at deuce, the receiver then chooses from which side of the court he or she desires to return the serve. However, in no-ad mixed doubles play gender always serves to the same gender at game point and during the final point of tiebreaks.[15]


Most professional teams have two types of utility players. There are "utility infielders", who usually play all of the infield positions (plus occasionally catcher). Utility outfielders, or fourth outfielders, tend to play all three outfield positions at various times


In baseball, the fourth out is a legal out made by the defense after three outs in a half-inning already have been made. According to the rules, the third out does not cause the ball to become dead; if the fielders make a subsequent out that prevents a run from scoring, this out will supersede the apparent third out, thus becoming the recorded third out.[1] For statistical purposes, the apparent third out is "undone" and the fourth out's result is recorded instead. With the advent of video replay appeals, a new rationale for making extra out(s) has emerged - insurance against a prior out being undone on appeal. These fourth out situations are not the same as four strikeouts in an inning.

Steve Delabar struck out 4 men in the 10th inning, and recorded the win in a 3-2 victory over the Chicago White Sox on August 13, 2012, making him the first pitcher in major league history to record four strikeouts in an extra inning.[


Until four stones have been played (two from each side), stones in the free guard zone (those stones left in the area between the hog and tee lines, excluding the house) may not be removed by an opponent's stone (although they can be moved as long as they are not taken out of play). These are known as guard rocks. If the guard rocks are removed, they are placed back in the positions they were before the shot was thrown, and the opponent's stone is removed from play and cannot be replayed. This rule is known as the four-rock rule or the free guard zone rule (for a while in Canada, a "three-rock rule" was in place, but that rule has been replaced by the four-rock rule).


This rule, a relatively recent addition to curling, was added in response to a strategy of "peeling" opponents' guard stones (knocking them out of play at an angle that caused the shooter's stone to also roll out of play, leaving no stones on the ice). A team in the lead would often employ this strategy during the game. By knocking all stones out, the opponents could at best score one point (if they had the hammer). Alternatively, the team with the hammer could peel rock after rock, which would blank the end, keeping the last rock advantage for another end. This strategy had developed (mostly in Canada) as ice-makers had become skilled at creating a predictable ice surface and the adoption of brushes allowed greater control over the rock. While a sound strategy, this made for an unexciting game. Observers at the time noted that if two teams equally skilled in the peel game faced each other on good ice, the outcome of the game would be predictable from who won the coin flip to have last rock (or had earned it in the schedule) at the beginning of the game. The 1990 Brier was considered by many curling fans as boring to watch because of the amount of peeling and the quick adoption of the Free Guard Zone the following year reflected how disliked this aspect of the game had become.


The free guard zone was originally called the Modified Moncton Rule and was developed from a suggestion made by Russ Howard for the Moncton 100 cashspiel (with the richest prize ever awarded at the time in a tournament) in Moncton, New Brunswick, in January 1990. "Howard's Rule" (later known as the Moncton Rule), used for the tournament and based on a practice drill his team used, had the first four rocks in play unable to be removed no matter where they were at any time during the end. This method of play was altered by restricting the area in which a stone was protected to the free guard zone only for the first four rocks thrown and adopted as a Four-rock Free Guard Zone for international competition shortly after. Canada kept to the traditional rules until a three-rock Free Guard Zone rule was adopted for the 1993-94 season. After several years of having the three-rock rule used for the Canadian championships and the winners then having to adjust to the four-rock rule in the World Championships, the Canadian Curling Association adopted the now-standard Free Guard Zone in the 2002-2003 season.


One of the most fictionalized parts of Cool Runnings was the competition itself. The bobsled competition in the film consists of three individual runs held on three consecutive days, whereas in reality the Olympic bobsled competition consists of four runs - two runs a day held over two consecutive days. In the film, the Jamaicans are regarded as unwelcome outsiders to the Games by other countries (particularly East Germany) and ridiculed. In reality, the Jamaicans were treated as equals and there was no real animosity between the team and their competitors; in fact, the Jamaicans were aided by another team who lent them one of their backup sleds so they could qualify, so they did not have to buy another team's spare sled.


While the Jamaicans did crash their bobsled on their fourth and final run, the film implied the team was a medal contender, having run a world record pace prior to the crash. In reality, they were in 24th place (out of 26) after their first run was completed in 58.04. Their second run was completed in 59.37, which was the next-to-worst time (25th). On the third run, they had the worst time (1:03.19, good for 26th place), which was almost five seconds behind the 25th fastest run. Of the 103 runs that were completed in the four-man competition, nobody else posted a time over one minute. So going into the final run, the Jamaicans were in 26th (last) place with a cumulative time of 3:00.60 after three runs. This placed them 3.23 seconds behind Portugal for 25th place, and 10.19 seconds behind the USSR team that was in third-place heading into the final run. They would have had to complete a world-record shattering time under 48.00 seconds to bring home a medal.[18]

Cool runnings is a movie about a four man Jamaican olympic bob sled team


Far more than other sports, baseball shows an esoteric structure. The game is played on a geomantically perfect square. Each base stands at what would be the quarters in Western esoteric ritual. These four bases also stand for the four elements, though attributions are variable: Home plate, with its coating of dust, seems to be Earth, while third base is traditionally referred to as the "hot corner," signifying Fire. In the center is the pitcher's mound, a circle in the middle of the square mandala, which speaks to us of the fifth element of Spirit, or the center point of wholeness.


Far more than other sports, baseball shows an esoteric structure. The game is played on a geomantically perfect square. Each base stands at what would be the quarters in Western esoteric ritual. These four bases also stand for the four elements, though attributions are variable: Home plate, with its coating of dust, seems to be Earth, while third base is traditionally referred to as the "hot corner," signifying Fire. In the center is the pitcher's mound, a circle in the middle of the square mandala, which speaks to us of the fifth element of Spirit, or the center point of wholeness.

The batter's ordeal may include a trinitarian three strikes, or four balls, which answer to the quadratic structure of the ritual space. The normal game lasts nine innings, that perfect number composed of three squared. Nine men play on a team at any one time (omitting the ritually incorrect designated hitter). These numbers are fraught with religious and occult significance.


When learning the golf swing there are four basic positions you need to learn. You can practice these positions in front of a mirror.


Position 1 – Set Up: Arms close to look like the Letter “V”

Four-ball golf

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A four-ball golf match, used in match play competitions, consists of two teams of two golfers competing directly against each other. Each golfer plays their own ball throughout the round, such that four balls are in play. A team's number of strokes for a given hole is that of the lower scoring team member. It is also known as best ball or more properly better ball.


In stroke play, the scores are added normally, and the team with the lower score at the end of the match wins.


In match play, each hole is won by the team whose member has the lowest score on that hole, and that team is awarded a point for the hole. If the teams tie for a hole, the point for the hole is divided between the teams. At the end of the match, the team with the most points wins.


Four-ball golf is commonly played in team golf competitions such as the Ryder Cup,[1] Solheim Cup, Presidents Cup, and the U.S. Amateur Four-Ball.


The concept of "best ball" can also be adapted to other individual sports, particularly bowling; the TV series Celebrity Bowling used a modified "best ball" format throughout its run.


Is a variation of foursomes, where each side consists of 2 players. Both players play one tee-shot each from every tee. A choice is then made as to which is the more favorable of the 2 ball positions, the other ball being picked up. Thereafter the players play alternate shots. So if A's tee-shot is selected, the playing order from the tee will be A-B-A-B etc until the ball is holed out. If player B's tee-shot is selected, the playing order will be B-A-B-A etc. The team with the lowest score wins the hole.


Hogan breaks down the swing into four parts: The Fundamentals, The Grip, Stance and Posture, and The Swing


The minimum allowed diameter of a golf ball is 42.67 mm and its mass may not exceed 45.93 g. Modern golf balls have a two-, three-, or four-layer design constructed from various synthetic materials. The surface usually has a pattern of 300-450 dimples designed to improve the ball's aerodynamics by reducing the ball's drag-inducing wake and allowing spin on the ball to create lift. The method of construction and materials used greatly affect the ball's playing characteristics such as distance, trajectory, spin and feel. Harder materials, such as Surlyn, usually result in the ball's traveling longer distances, while softer covers, such as Urethane, tend to generate higher spin, more "feel" and greater stopping potential. Golf balls are separated into three groups depending on their construction: two-, three-, or four-piece covers. Generally four-piece golf balls tend to be the most expensive, though price is no assurance of quality.


In the mid-1960s, a new synthetic resin, an ionomer of ethylene acid named "Surlyn," was introduced (by E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company), as were new urethane blends for golf ball covers, and these new materials soon displaced balata as they proved more durable and more resistant to cutting.[11] Along with various other materials that came into use to replace the rubber-wound internal sphere, golf balls came to be classified as either two-piece, three-piece, or four-piece balls according to the number of layered components. These basic materials continue to be used in modern balls, with further advances in technology creating balls that can be customized to a player's strengths and weaknesses, and even allowing for the combination of characteristics that were formerly mutually-exclusive.

Wedges come in a variety of configurations, and are generally grouped into four categories; pitching wedges, sand wedges, gap/approach wedges and lob wedges


There are four main components to every golf swing, and how the golfer executes the proper elements of each will usually translate into good results and lower scores. By breaking the golf swing into so few components seems to mean that golf is an easy game to master, but some players fail to conquer even one of them so they are relegated to high handicaps and poor play. Work on these four parts of the golf swing, and you will enjoy the game more and reduce your handicap.


How you stand up to the golf ball is critical to how you execute the other elements of the swing. At the address, you should have your legs as wide as your shoulders and your weight evenly distributed between both sides of your body. Stand erect, and maintaining that posture, squat vertically until your knees are slightly bent. Raise your club to a horizontal position, then bend from the waist, tilt your upper torso forward and put your club on the ground. while keeping your arms straight. Regardless of the length of your club, where your clubhead lands on the ground is the proper position of the golf ball. Finally, do not grip your club so tightly that you create tension in your arms or the rest of your body.



Your backswing is nothing more than taking the club up and to top of your body, but there are numerous things to remember. First, if you are right-handed, you should keep your left arm straight all the way through your backswing. Second, you should rotate both your shoulders and your hips as you take the club back. At the top of your backswing, your shoulders ideally should have turned so that your left is underneath your right and your hips have rotated about half that much. You'll know that you have made progress with your backswing if, at the top, your club is pointed at the target and it is close to parallel to the ground due to the hinging of your wrists.



Start your downward motion by moving your weight from the right to the left side. Keep your wrists cocked until your club is about parallel to the ground; then release them as you approach the moment of impact. Throughout both the backswing and downswing, your body should rotate on an axis and your head should remain in the same position for the entire golf shot.



Complete your golf shot by continuing your swing through the golf ball, making sure that the club goes toward the target. If you don't do this, your downswing most likely will be affected, and your clubface will not remain aimed at your target.




If you are planning to go out and buy cheap manuals on getting the best golf swing in a few days, then you should think again because there is no such thing that works. Golfing is about golf swing drills and nothing else. If you want a good golf swing, all you need is an understanding of the four primary golf swing basics and a lot of subsequent practice. Here are the four basics of a golf swing and their relevant descriptions.



1. The grip: golf swing


The first thing you will need to get right with your golf swing is the grip. Your grip will have a major role to play in your lift back, the actual shot and the follow through. There are mainly three types of grips including the ‘overlap’ where the smallest finger of your right hand overlaps over the index finger of your left, the ‘interlock’ where the same two fingers intertwine instead of overlapping, and the baseball grip where there is no overlap or interlocking.

2. The posture:


One thing that you cannot compromise upon if you want a good golf swing is your posture. The postures of all professional golfers are the same because it needs to be. The ideal posture for a good golf swing involves parallel oriented feet with shoulder distance, slightly flexed knees, clean bend from the hip without slouching, a straight back and hands and arms positioned under your body.


3. The pivot:


Many professional golf trainers and players swear by the fact that the pivot is the most important part of a golf swing. The reason why most professionals say this is that this is the most difficult aspect of a golf swing. In fact, you cannot get the pivot right by conscious thinking. Instead, you have to develop it through repetition and practice. In different words, you cannot think the pivot to be right; you have to develop muscle memory for it.


4. The alignment:


Once you have the grip, the posture and the pivot figured out, you can start working on the alignment of the shot for that perfect golf swing. The alignment refers to the direction your body and club are aligned when you hit the shot. When you are looking at the ball, it is likely that you will lose sight of your end target. Hence, you have to choose something that is between the ball and the target and focus on it while aiming your shot.


Yet another option for offensive set is called a 4–2 or double hole; there are two center forward offensive players in front of the goal. Double hole is most often used in "man up" situations, or when the defense has only one skilled "hole D", or to draw in a defender and then pass out to a perimeter player for a shot ("kick out").


Another, albeit less common offense, is the "motion offense", sometimes nicknamed "washing machine offense", in which two "weak-side" (to the right of the goal for right-handed players) perimeter players set up as a wing and a flat. The remaining four players swim in square pattern in which a player swims from the point to the hole and then out to the strong side wing. The wing moves to the flat and the flat to the point. The weak side wing and flat then control the tempo of play and try to make passes into the player driving towards the center who can then either shoot or pass. This form of offense is used when no dominate hole set is available, or the hole defense is too strong. It is also seen much more often in women's water polo where teams may lack a player of sufficient size or strength to set up in the center. The best advantage to this system is it makes man-coverage much more difficult for the defender and allows the offense to control the game tempo better once the players are "set up". The main drawback is this constant motion can be very tiring as well as somewhat predictable as to where the next pass is going to go.


Sword dances in China, known as jian wu, began as a military training exercise with swords and spears which evolved into an elaborate acrobatic dance.[1] Jian wu was one of four classical dances that were used in the Chinese opera. Each of these dances was very meaningful within the opera performances and they often were used for plot descriptions and characterization.[2] Sword dancing also found a use in Chinese culture through communicating with the supernatural; sword dancing was done in an effort to communicate feelings to the dead spirits that may be disrupting a household.[3]


These forms of early drama were popular in the Tang Dynasty where they further developed. For example, by the end of the Tang Dynasty the Canjun Opera had evolved into a performance with more complex plot and dramatic twists, and it involved at least four performers.[11] The early form of Chinese theatre became more organized in the Tang Dynasty with Emperor Xuanzong (712–755), who founded the "Pear Garden" (梨园/梨園; líyuán), the first academy of music to train musicians, dancers and actors.[12] The performers formed what may be considered the first known opera troupe in China, and mostly performed for the emperors' personal pleasure. To this day operatic professionals are still referred to as "Disciples of the Pear Garden" (梨园弟子 / 梨園弟子, líyuán dìzi).[13]



12th century painting by Su Hanchen; a girl waves a peacock feather banner like the one used in Song Dynasty dramatical theater to signal an acting leader of troops

Song to Qing[edit]

By the Song Dynasty, Canjun Opera had become a performance that involved singing and dancing, and led to the development of Zaju (雜劇). Forms such as the Zaju and Nanxi (南戏) further matured in the Song Dynasty (960–1279). In the Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368), acts based on rhyming schemes and innovations such as specialized roles like Dan (旦, dàn, female), Sheng (生, shēng, male), Hua (花, huā, painted-face) and Chou (丑, chŏu, clown) were introduced into the opera. Although actors in theatrical performances of the Song Dynasty strictly adhered to speaking in Classical Chinese onstage, during the Yuan Dynasty actors speaking or performing lyrics in the vernacular tongue became popular on stage.[14]


In the Yuan poetic drama, one person sang for the all four acts, but in the poetic dramas that developed from Nanxi during the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), all the characters were able to sing and perform. A playwright Gao Ming late in the Yuan Dynasty wrote an opera called Tale of the Pipa which became highly popular, and became a model for Ming Dynasty drama as it was the favorite opera of the first Ming emperor Zhu Yuanzhang.[15][16] The presentation by now resemble the Chinese opera of today, except that the librettos were then very long.[1] The operatic artists were required to be skilled in many fields; according to Recollections of Tao An (陶庵夢憶) by Zhang Dai, performers had to learn how to play various musical instruments, singing and dancing before they were taught acting.[17]

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.


A boat without a cox is known as a coxless or "straight" boat. Besides the single and double, straight pairs and fours are the most common coxless boats at regattas in the US. Because of their speed and lack of maneuverability, eights without a cox are very rare and dangerous.[4]


Coxes in either coxed pairs, fours, quads, eights, or octuples can use a cox box, most models of which show the rate in strokes per minute of the person sitting in the stroke seat (the seat at the rear of the boat, from whom the rate of strokes per minute and timing is taken).[4]


For an eight man crew three or four speakers are set down the length of the boat; for a four-man crew two speakers are used. Pairs may not have speakers if coxed from the stern but will have one if coxed from the bow (in front of the rowers).


Handel Pops

A generous scoop of Handel's homemade ice cream covered in our rich, dark, gourmet chocolate served on a stick! Handel's serves four flavors at all times: vanilla, chocolcate, mint chocolate chip and a special flavor of the month.

Ben & Jerry's is known for its unconventional ice cream flavors, but now it's attempting to reshape the way we eat the frozen treat. The Vermont-based brand has introduced four new flavors, and each one has all the elements of an ice cream sundae.


Borrowing from its Karamel Sutra flavor, which features a core of soft caramel, all four of the new flavors, dubbed the "core" line, include two ice creams, separated by a sweet and gooey streak down the middle.


The four new flavors include Hazed & Confused, with chocolate and hazelnut ice creams with fudge chips and a hazelnut fudge core; That's My Jam, with raspberry and chocolate ice creams with fudge chips and a raspberry core; Peanut Butter Fudge, with chocolate and peanut butter ice creams with miniature peanut butter cups and a peanut butter fudge core; and Salted Caramel with sweet cream ice cream, blonde brownies and a salty caramel core.


Why it rates: Santa Barbara-based ProYo makes tasty bars of probiotic frozen yogurt that are loaded with 20 grams of protein. They come in four flavors — vanilla bean, banana vanilla, blueberry pomegranate and Dutch chocolate. The 4-ounce easy-squeeze tubes make them convenient for breakfast on the go, a pre- or post-workout snack or a late-night indulgence. They contain no artificial preservatives, colors or flavors, and each serving is about 140 calories.


The fundamental concept of this system is to break down your own target zone into 4 quadrants:

Outside and above your secondary

Outside and below your secondary

Inside your secondary, above your sword

Inside your secondary, below your sword


The general idea of this system is that by simplifying everything into one of four defensive actions, you short cut your decision making of ‘how do I defend this attack?’, and move quickly into defending yourself. Wherever your opponent’s point goes, you counter with a deflection from your secondary, putting your sword to an opening in their defense, usually just inside of their sword arm, and pushing forward with a counter attack.


There are a multitude of systems that can help this process, but I find the easiest and most flexible to be the ones presented by the Italian Masters of the early 17th Century. After distilling the works of Ridolfo Capo Ferro (1610), Nicoletto Giganti (1606), and Salvator Fabris (1606), we can find that all of these masters present a system that is fundamentally based on a quadrant defense. In these systems, more often than not, the secondary device (often a dagger) parries the incoming attack and a simultaneous counter attack occurs with the sword. The simultaneous action and reaction in this system allows for the secondary to be used primarily on defending the opponent’s attack and frees the sword to make the counter attack safely. The simultaneous attack and defense also cuts down the time the opponent has to react to your strike.

The quadrant defense:

The fundamental concept of this system is to break down your own target zone into 4 quadrants:

Outside and above your secondary

Outside and below your secondary

Inside your secondary, above your sword

Inside your secondary, below your sword

In each case, the defense is enacted to close the line of attack with the secondary and support the action by counter attacking with the sword. We are not simply impeding the arriving attack, but pushing forwards to actively disrupt and deflect the incoming attack. Also, by pushing forwards instead of sideways, we do not open a space between the sword and the secondary that the opponent can take advantage of.

Note in the examples below how the arms are portrayed moving forwards to defend the incoming attack.

The following images present examples from Capo Ferro’s 1610 treatise (Gran Simulacro…)[1] and a 1644 German-French reprint of Giganti’s 1606 (Scola overo teatro…)[2]:

Defenses in quadrant 1, outside and above your secondary:

– Giganti with sword and dagger

– Capo Ferro with sword and cape

– Capo Ferro with sword and Rotella

Defenses in quadrant 2, outside and below your secondary:

– Giganti

– Capo Ferro

Defenses in quadrant 3, inside your secondary, above your sword:

– Giganti

– Capo Ferro

Defenses in quadrant 4, inside your secondary, below your sword:

– Giganti

– Capo Ferro

The general idea of this system is that by simplifying everything into one of four defensive actions, you short cut your decision making of ‘how do I defend this attack?’, and move quickly into defending yourself. Wherever your opponent’s point goes, you counter with a deflection from your secondary, putting your sword to an opening in their defense, usually just inside of their sword arm, and pushing forward with a counter attack.


There are numerous local variations. Conventional Cowboy pool uses only four balls, the cue ball and three numbered balls, the 1, 3, and 5. The balls have a set opening placement: The 1 ball is placed on the head spot; the 3 ball on the foot spot; and the 5 ball on the center spot. As in the game of snooker, pocketed balls are immediately respotted to their starting position. Beginning with cue ball in-hand from the kitchen – the area behind a pool table's head string – the incoming player must contact the 3 ball first. If the player fails to do so, the opponent may either force the player to repeat the break shot, or elect to break him or herself.[1][3]

Cowboy pool (or simply Cowboy) is a hybrid pool game combining elements of English billiards through an intermediary game, with more standard pocket billiards characteristics.[1] The game employs only four balls, the cue ball and three numbered balls, the 1, 3 and 5. It is played to 101 points, with points being awarded for a host of different shot types.


Oval (1909–present): 2.500 miles; 4 turns; counter-clockwise.

Automobile Road Course (2000-2007): 2.605 miles; 13 turns; clockwise.

Motorcycle Road Course (2008–2013): 2.621 miles; 16 turns; counter-clockwise.

Automobile Road Course (2009–2013): 2.534 miles; 13 turns; clockwise.

Automobile Road Course (2014–present): 2.439 miles; 14 turns; clockwise.

Motorcycle Road Course (2014–present): 2.591 miles; 16 turns; counter-clockwise.


On August 16–17 the same year, thirty-five NASCAR teams took part in an open test at the Speedway. It was held as the teams returned from the second race at Michigan, the Champion Spark Plug 400. The top 35 teams in NASCAR points received invitations. Hosting the test in August mimicked the weather conditions expected for the race in 1994. Several thousand spectators attended, and many announcements were made. NASCAR legend Richard Petty, who had retired from competition the previous November, took four laps himself, then donated his car to the Speedway museum.[12]


Circuit information

Surface Asphalt

Turns 4


Surface Asphalt

Length 1.25 mi (2.01 km)

Turns 4



Most are designed for two or three people, though four-passenger models exist.


Before 1991, PWC emissions were unregulated in the United States. Many were powered by two-stroke cycle engines, which are smaller and lighter than four-stroke cycle engines but more polluting. Simple two-stroke engines are lubricated on a "total loss" method, mixing lubricating oil with their fuel; they are estimated to create exhaust in excess of 25% of their fuel and oil unburned in addition to the products of incomplete and complete combustion.


The Sea-Doo boats were a four seater Sportster 150 with 155 hp or 215 hp, a four-seater Speedster


Sea-Doo Hydrocross is a driving game, developed by Vicarious Visions and published by Vatical Entertainment. It was released on June 6, 2001 on the Playstation after many delays, though the planned Nintendo 64 release never came to fruition. Project lead was Bill Armintrout and game designer was Mitch Booker.[1]


Formation dance is another style of competitive dance recognised by the IDSF. In this style, multiple dancers (usually in couples and typically up to 16 dancers at one time) compete on the same team, moving in and out of various formations while dancing.


Scholes, not a dancer but a musician, offers support for this view, stating that the steady measures of music, of two, three or four beats to the bar, its equal and balanced phrases, regular cadences, contrasts and repetitions, may all be attributed to the "incalculable" influence of dance upon music.[21]


The traditional ring—such as that used by WWE—is four-sided, but other configurations exist, such as the six-sided rings used by Global Force Wrestling (GFW) and Lucha Libre AAA World Wide (AAA). GFW, then known as Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, first used it beginning in 2004, before briefly reverting to a four-sided one at the 2010 Genesis pay-per-view until June 2014 when the six-sided one returned.[3]


The term squared circle is often used by wrestling promotions and promoters to refer to the ring.[1]


A boxing ring is the space in which a boxing match occurs. A modern ring, which is set on a raised platform, is square with a post at each corner to which four parallel rows of ropes are attached with a turnbuckle. Unlike its cousin the wrestling ring, the ropes in a boxing ring are generally connected together between the posts.


Steve Borden and Jim Hellwig originally teamed as part of Powerteam USA, a group of four wrestlers who debuted in 1985 after being trained by Red Bastien and Rick Bassman. In addition to Borden and Hellwig, the group consisted of Garland Donoho and Mark Miller.[1] The team was managed by Bassman as they tried to break into the wrestling business. After only a short time in the business both Donoho and Miller quit due to lack of success and business savvy.[1] Manager Rick Bassman would eventually become a pro wrestler himself and a wrestling and Mixed Martial Arts promoter in California where he founded and runs Ultimate Pro Wrestling. Hellwig and Borden remained, teaming together as they traveled to Jerry Jarrett's Continental Wrestling Association and later on to Bill Watts Universal Wrestling Federation.[2]

Fourth return to WWE[edit]

WWE Hall of Fame (2011)[edit]

On April 2, 2011, The Road Warriors with Paul Ellering were inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame.


There are two positions for basic iron cross form. Neither is more correct than the other; simply choose the one that best reflects your individual strengths. If your shoulders are stronger than your lats, perform an iron cross by "rolling" your shoulders forward as you descend into position. If your lats are dominant, pull your shoulders back and contract the lats strongly while going into the cross.


The exception is if you're training to pull from a cross to a higher position (Maltese, planche, etc.) in which case the shoulder forward version will be necessary to allow you the leverage to complete the movement.


Shoulders rolled forward Shoulders rolled back



Regardless of which position you prefer, when performing an iron cross, it's important that you're able to just see your hands out of the corner of your eyes. Don't turn your head to check position, but rather use your peripheral vision. If you can't catch a glimpse of your hands, then they're too far back behind your shoulders. If you can see them clearly, they're too far forward of your shoulders.


In the crucifix, you statically hold weights out to the side for time. While the event can be practiced using dumbbells, it is best to practice with one of the various implements used, such as axes and hammers, as it feels different.

Begin standing, and raise your arms out to the side holding the implements. Your arms should be parallel to the ground. In competition, judges or sensors are used to let you know when you break parallel. Hold for as long as you can. Typically, the weights should be heavy enough that you fail in 30-60 seconds.


Four-point field goals are available in a few variations of the game under special rules, but the NFL, college and high school football only offer three-point field goals


In order to keep play moving, the offense must make a certain amount of progress (10 yards in most leagues) within a certain number of plays (3 in Canada, 4 in the United States), called downs. If the offense does indeed make this progress, a first down is achieved, and the team gets 3 or 4 more plays to achieve another 10 yards. If not, the offense loses possession to their opponent at the spot where the ball is. More commonly, however, the team on offense will, if they have a minimal chance of gaining a first down and have only one play left to do it (fourth down in the U.S., third down in Canada), attempt a scrimmage kick. There are two types of scrimmage kick: a punt is when the ball is kicked downfield as far as possible; the kicking team loses possession of the ball after the kick and the receiving team can attempt to advance the ball. The other scrimmage kick is a field goal attempt. This must be attempted by place kick or (more rarely) drop kick, and if the kicked ball passes through the goal set at the edge of the opponent's end zone, the team scores three points. (Four-point field goals are available in a few variations of the game under special rules, but the NFL, college and high school football only offer three-point field goals.) In Canada, any kick that goes into the end zone and is not returned, whether it be a punt or a missed field goal, is awarded one single point.


At all adult levels of the game, a game is 60 timed minutes in length, split into four 15-minute quarters. (High school football uses 12-minute quarters, and the general rule is that the younger the players, the shorter the quarters typically are.) Because of the halftime, quarter breaks, time-outs, the minute warnings (two minutes before the end of a half in the NFL, three minutes in Canadian football), and frequent stoppages of the game clock (the clock stops, for example, after every incomplete pass and any time a ball goes out of bounds), the actual time it takes for a football game to be completed is typically over three hours.[11]



Crucifix Weightlifting Exercise

The Crucifix exercise is one that I have never seen anyone carry out in the gym unless they happen to be training with me, to me this is surprising as its such a great exercise.


Many of you who follow strongman competitions will know the Crucifix as its one of the competition lifts. The Crucifix involves lifting a weight in each hand until your arms are out stretched so your in the crucifix position and then standing in this position as long as you can, needless to say its a killer!


Crucifix Exercise


Equipment - Dumbbells or Kettlebells of desired weight


Preparation - Stand straight with your feet shoulder width apart and the weights by your side.


Movement - Lift the weights until your arms are straight out to the side with your hands slightly higher than shoulder height and your hands are facing palm up. Stay with your hands and arms in this position for as long as possible.


Note - Remember to start light as this is extremely hard and many people try to lift heavier than they physically can. There is no point cheating by bending your arms at the elbows or letting your arms/hands drop lower than the position they are meant to be in so keep your arms high and straight.


Reps/Sets Try to hold the weights for two minutes at one set only.






Untangle and decompress the highly overcharged upper back and shoulders with Yoga Tune Up®’s Reverse Crucifix pose featured in the video clip below. This pose takes care of stretching and releasing tension in not only the teres minor and deltoids, both discussed in the previous blog, but it also stretches and relieves tension from the trapezius, rhomboids, the infraspinatus and literally every upper back and shoulder muscle.


To add on to the benefits of the Reverse Crucifix, consider adding in a Yoga Tune Up® Therapy Ball sequence to relieve the teres minor, a hot spot for tension. You can use one Therapy Ball, a pair in a tote or an Alpha Ball to do the work.






Years ago, when I was collaborating with David Bowie, I did a life size portrait of him with his arms outstretched and feet pointing in a crucifixion pose. Much more recently, I took this theme up in a body of work titled The Dancing Jesus. It struck me that if one removed the cross from the crucifix, the figure of Christ looks like he is dancing. This lead to a performance using a jazzed up version of the hymn Lord of the Dance and had a performer dancing as Jesus and flanked by tow life size bronze Christ figures, one of which was doing the Charleston and wearing high heels. In addition to this I did a body of paintings and drawings around this theme as well as pure gold sculpture and others in pure silver where the Christ figure kicks his back leg out, but is otherwise a perfect Crucifix figure. Without the cross, or holes in the hands or the thorns, the God king, devoid of suffering celebrates life and the resurrection.