About 1863, he first proposed time zones for United States railways to teenage girls whom he was teaching. In 1869, he presented his idea to a committee of railway superintendents in New York. As a result, in 1870 he published a pamphlet entitled "A System of National Time for Railroads" wherein he proposed four time zones, each 15° wide, the time of each being one hour different from the next, named Washington, first, second, and third hours. The central meridian of the first zone was the Washington meridian. The borders of all zones were lines of longitude. In 1872, he modified his proposal so that the first zone was centered on the 75th meridian west of Greenwich, with the others 90°, 105°, and 120° west of Greenwich. Now all had geographic borders, such as the Appalachian Mountains for a portion of the border between the first and second zones.[1][2]


Tripartite or T-O maps[edit]

Main article: T and O map

T-O maps, unlike zonal maps, illustrate only the habitable portion of the world known in Roman and medieval times. The landmass was illustrated as a circle (an "O") divided into three portions by a "T". These three divisions were the continents of Asia, Africa and Europe. The vast majority of T-O maps place east at the top, hence the term "orienting" a map from the Latin word oriens for "east". The assertion that T-O maps depict a "flat earth", while common, is unwarranted. The "circle of the lands" in a T-O can just as easily be fit onto the sphere of the Earth as onto a flat, disk-shaped Earth[original research?]. The popularity of the Macrobian maps and the combination of T-O style continents on some of the larger Macrobian spheres illustrate that Earth's sphericity continued to be understood among scholars during the Middle Ages.


Quadripartite or Beatus maps[edit]

Quadripartite maps represent a sort of amalgam of the Zonal and T-O maps by illustrating the three known continents separated by an equatorial ocean from a fourth unknown land, often called Antipodes. Fourteen large quadripartite maps are found illustrating different manuscripts of Beatus of Liébana's popular Commentary on the Apocalypse of St John. These "Beatus maps" are believed to derive from a single (now lost) original which was used to illustrate the missions of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ.[2]


The so-called imperial quaternions (German: Quaternionen der Reichsverfassung "quaternions of the imperial constitution"; from Latin quaterniō "group of four soldiers") were a conventional representation of the Imperial States of the Holy Roman Empire which first became current in the 15th century and was extremely popular during the 16th century.[2]


Apart from the highest tiers of the emperor, kings, prince-bishops and the prince electors, the estates are represented in groups of four. The number of quaternions was usually ten, in descending order of precedence Dukes (Duces), Margraves (Marchiones), Landgraves (Comites Provinciales), Burggraves (Comites Castrenses), Counts (Comites), Knights (Milites), Noblemen (Liberi), Cities (Metropoles), Villages (Villae) and Peasants (Rustici). The list could be shortened or expandend, by the mid-16th century to as many as 45.[3]


It is likely that this system was first introduced under Emperor Sigismund, who is assumed to have commissioned the frescoes in Frankfurt city hall in 1414.[4]


As has been noted from an early time, this representation of the "imperial constitution" does not in fact represent the actual constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, as some imperial cities appear as "villages" or even "peasants". E.g. the four "peasants" are Cologne, Constance, Regensburg and Salzburg. The Burggrave of Stromburg (or Straburg, Strandeck, and variants) was an unknown entity even at the time. The representation of imperial subjects is also far from complete. The "imperial quaternions" are, rather, a more or less random selection intended to represent pars pro toto the structure of the imperial constitution.


the four Prince-Electors of the County Palatine of the Rhine, Saxony, Brandenburg and Bohemia, later also Bavaria (replacing the Palatinate) and Hanover.

Similarly, Counts were grouped into four comital benches with a collective vote each — the Upper Rhenish Bench of Wetterau, the Swabian Bench, the Franconian Bench and the Westphalian Bench.


The medical effects of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima upon humans can be put into the four categories below, with the effects of larger thermonuclear weapons producing blast and thermal effects so large that there would be a negligible number of survivors close enough to the center of the blast who would experience prompt/acute radiation effects, which were observed after the 16 kiloton yield Hiroshima bomb, due to its relatively low yield:[73][74]


Initial stage—the first 1–9 weeks, in which are the greatest number of deaths, with 90% due to thermal injury and/or blast effects and 10% due to super-lethal radiation exposure.

Intermediate stage—from 10–12 weeks. The deaths in this period are from ionizing radiation in the median lethal range – LD50

Late period—lasting from 13–20 weeks. This period has some improvement in survivors' condition.

Delayed period—from 20+ weeks. Characterized by numerous complications, mostly related to healing of thermal and mechanical injuries, and if the individual was exposed to a few hundred to a thousand millisieverts of radiation, it is coupled with infertility, sub-fertility and blood disorders. Furthermore, ionizing radiation above a dose of around 50–100 millisievert exposure has been shown to statistically begin increasing one's chance of dying of cancer sometime in their lifetime over the normal unexposed rate of ~25%, in the long term, a heightened rate of cancer, proportional to the dose received, would begin to be observed after ~5+ years, with lesser problems such as eye cataracts and other more minor effects in other organs and tissue also being observed over the long term.

Charles Milles Manson (born Charles Milles Maddox, November 12, 1934)[2]:136–7 is an American criminal and former cult leader who led what became known as the Manson Family, a quasi-commune that arose in California in the late 1960s. Manson's followers committed a series of nine murders at four locations in July and August 1969


Littleton, C. Scott

Cultural Hybridization and the Indo-European Expansion: The Tripartite/Quadripartite Ideology as a Manifestation of Mestizaje


The Material

It is not possible here to present in complete detail all of the material considered, but a schematised synopsis of the four main traditions would seem a helpful reminder to the reader (fuller summaries of all of the material can be found in the appendix).


As the initial research focused predominantly on the death-stories, these are the narratives represented here. The birth-stories referred to in the table below, however, constitute an equally interesting set of correspondences (see Bek-Pedersen, forthcoming); these will not be discussed in detail here, but it is worth pointing out that they seem to form rather close parallels to each other and that the occurrence of the birth-story and death-story together, attached to the same set of persons, significantly strengthens the grounds for comparison.


Iceland Denmark Ireland Wales

Baldr Balderus Balor Lleu

hero villain villain hero (birth) birth dreams dreams prophecy invulnerable invulnerable invulnerable invulnerable special weapon special weapon special weapon special weapon peculiar circumstances oddly anti-climatic situation special situation special situation lightning weapon lightning weapon eschatology eschatology killed by brother killed by rival killed by grandson killed by rival rival is hero grandson is hero


Icelandic tradition contains two main strains, one focusing on Baldr and Hö


r (

Baldrs draumar



) and one which also involves Loki (




49); similarly, Irish tradition presents a mythological strain (

Cath Maige Tuired

) and a folktale strain.


It might further be said that the birth-story relates to the death-story in one of three ways: it may concern the birth of the one who kills the main character in the death story (Irish), it may concern the birth of the one who avenges him (Icelandic and Danish), or it may present the birth of the character who dies in the death-story (Welsh). The birth-stories show striking similarities to each other, Danish to the Irish folktale tradition, Welsh to




Oppositions and Cooperations in the Baldr Myth


Volume 34, Number 1 & 2, Spring/Summer 2006

dies dies dies dies returns returns name name name water / spring water / spring (birth) (birth) Hö


r / Loki Hotherus Lug Goronwy

Table 1

That the four traditions mentioned in Table 1—Icelandic, Danish, Irish and Welsh—were related seemed evident, and with, to use a textile image, a red thread running through all of the material. However, once a closer and more rigorous treatment of the details of each tradition was initiated, it turned out that the red thread was less than easy to deal with as it was one of those tricky threads, which changes color along the way! It started off red, but then moved into purple, sliding into blue, then green and so forth, thereby making it possible to compare this thread to all the other threads, which were also tangled up in these stories. Thus, following the plot of any one story as though it were a thread revealed parallels to all the other plot-threads with each change of color, but as no two plot-threads followed the same pattern of color changes, it would have been arbitrary to take one thread as a standard against which to measure the others—this would not yield an objective reference frame. Motifs would re-occur across the board, but at different points in relation to the plot-thread, either in widely different contexts or attached to characters fulfilling very different roles. It remained evident that the stories were connected, but


they were connected would change every time the focus of attention shifted from one detail or character to another.




Nick Allen believes that, with certain modifications (notably a 'fourth function' having positive and negative 'aspects'), Dumézil's approach can help us to identify certain enduring patterns in Hindu/Buddhist thought and culture, casting light both on their origins and on their subsequent transformations. However, the relevance of this line of work is not confined to the Indian subcontinent, for it relates to the history of the Indo-European-speaking world in general. For instance, if, as seems clear, the Homeric epics can be shown to be cognate with the Sanskrit Mahâbhârata, this has implications not only for the study of early Greece but also for the history of European literature.


The triad “priests, warriors, producers” is in many cases bracketed by the king at the top and the serf or slave at the bottom

The two extremes are covered by a fourth function, defined as relating to what is other, outside or beyond relative to the core; but the fourth function has two aspects, one valued positively, the other

6 / Nicholas J. Allen


Since the schema has four functions and five slots, one obvious target is McEvilley’s chapter on the elements (300–309): both Greece and India recognize four elements, sometimes adding a fifth.

McEvilley’s tentative conclusions are as follows:

The doctrine of the four elements would seem to have arisen in a single source, perhaps in India, where the developmental sequence is clearer than in Greece, and to have entered Greece in different versions, partly conflated with the Doctrine of the Five Fires and Two Paths. Some Near Eastern background, which can only be vaguely discerned, may have been in effect. The doctrines of the fifth elements, åkåça and aither, surely are cognate concepts....Most likely the Indian concept was imported into Greece in a later phase of the same general wave of Upani‚adic influence which brought the transformations of [concepts of] matter (308–9).

In the present context a case study cannot be developed at length, but at least I hope to show that an Indo-European ancestral doctrine offers a rival hypothesis to diffusion.

The four elements are essentially the same in the two traditions: fire; air, wind, or breath; water; earth. This is the standard order in Greece (sometimes reversed) and seems to follow the order of the functions. The standard order in

Thomas McEvilley: The Missing Dimension / 7

India differs in that air regularly precedes fire (as also happens in Heraclitus). For various reasons I draw mainly on Indian or Indo-Iranian data.

Fire (agni) provides a good starting point since in Vedic India Agni is the priest of the gods (more precisely, its hotar). Though Agni shares priesthood with B®haspati, fire is the only element to enjoy this status. Since the attributes of any one Vedic deity tend to be shared with several others, passages can be cited that constitute exceptions to almost any theological statement; but the priestly role of Agni is such a standard feature of introductions to Vedic religion that citing details would be pedantic. Moreover, the role makes good sense in that it is the fire on the altar, together with the priests around it, that links men to gods. The association between fire and priesthood is equally clear in Zoroastrianism, with its sacred fires entrusted to fire-priests in fire temples, so it is surely at least Indo-Iranian. Fire is thus a strong candidate for interpretation as first-functional (F1), provided that all the other elements can be linked to other functions.6

Air is represented in India by wind, våyu or våta. Unlike Agni, Våyu is a minor figure both in the Vedic and later Hindu pantheons, but he has one important role in the Mahåbhårata. He fathers Bh⁄ma, the second of the five På~∂ava brothers, the one who for half a century has been associated by comparativists with the second function (F2), which pertains to physical force and war.7 Bh⁄ma is indeed the largest and most muscular of the brothers: he once picks up the whole family and carries them with the speed and force of the wind (Mahåbhårata 1.136.16–19; 1.137.23). In his 1968 analysis of Bh⁄ma Dumézil presents Våyu as an old Indo-Iranian war god, who has largely bypassed the Vedas. Moreover, the association between wind and force makes good sense— one has only to think of a hurricane. Thus, as an element, wind is a reasonable candidate for F2.

Dumézil (1973: 77, 1985a: 30, 2000: 121–38) himself connects water with the third function, for instance when writing on the Norse god Niord and his links with the sea.8 Water, whether from rain or irrigation, is essential to the fertility of the peasant’s fields, and fertility is an important component in the definition of this function (together with wealth, abundance, fecundity, large number, health, sexuality...). It is of course needed not only for the growth of plants and crops but also for the well being of herds (often a measure of wealth), not to mention the health of humans. Fertility and well being are more directly linked to water than to wind or fire, and one need hardly mention the common assimila- tion of water and semen (as when rain is viewed as heaven inseminating earth). Water is intrinsically an excellent candidate for F3


Citizenfour is a 2014 documentary film directed by Laura Poitras, concerning Edward Snowden and the NSA spying scandal. The film had its US premiere on October 10, 2014, at the New York Film Festival and its UK premiere on October 17, 2014, at the BFI London Film Festival. The film features Snowden and Glenn Greenwald, and was co-produced by Poitras, Mathilde Bonnefoy, and Dirk Wilutzky, with Steven Soderbergh and others serving as executive producers. Citizenfour received critical acclaim upon release, and was the recipient of numerous accolades, including the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature at the 2015 Oscars.


Kryptos is a sculpture by the American artist Jim Sanborn located on the grounds of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in Langley, Virginia. Since its dedication on November 3, 1990, there has been much speculation about the meaning of the four encrypted messages it bears. Of the four messages, the first three have been solved, while the fourth message remains as one of the most famous unsolved codes in the world. The sculpture continues to be of interest to cryptanalysts, both amateur and professional, who are attempting to decipher the fourth passage. The artist has so far given two clues to this passage.


The Georgia Guidestones is a granite monument erected in 1980 in Elbert County, Georgia, in the United States. A set of 10 guidelines is inscribed on the structure in eight modern languages, and a shorter message is inscribed at the top of the structure in four ancient language scripts: Babylonian, Classical Greek, Sanskrit, and Egyptian hieroglyphs.


The monument stands at an approximate elevation of 750 feet above sea level, about 90 miles (140 km) east of Atlanta, 45 miles (72 km) from Athens, and 9 miles (14 km) north of the center of the city of Elberton.


One slab stands in the center, with four arranged around it. A capstone lies on top of the five slabs, which are astronomically aligned. An additional stone tablet, which is set in the ground a short distance to the west of the structure, provides some notes on the history and purpose of the Guidestones. The structure is sometimes referred to as an "American Stonehenge".[1] The monument is 19 feet 3 inches (5.87 m) tall, made from six granite slabs weighing 237,746 pounds (107,840 kg) in all.[2] The designer and meaning of the Guidestones are unknown, leading to speculation and conspiracy theory.


What Are Rituals?[edit]

According to Cultural Anthropology: A Perspective on the Human Condition; by Emily Shultz and Robert Lavenda, a ritual must fit into four categories. These four categories are:


a repetitive social practice

different from the routines of day to day life

follows some sort of ritual schema

encoded in myth

Shared earning/shared parenting marriage, also known as peer marriage, is a type of marriage where the partners at the outset agree to adhere to a model of shared responsibility for earning money, meeting the needs of children, doing household chores, and taking recreation time in near equal fashion across these four domains


Dr Bruce Maccabee did an extensive triangulation of the four videotapes, determining that the objects were near or over the Goldwater Proving Grounds.[29] Page 5 of Dr. Maccabee's analysis refers to Bill Hamilton and Tom King's sighting position at Steve Blonder's home. Blonder has worked with Dr. Maccabee to fully include his sighting position in the triangulation report. Maccabee has also refined three other sighting positions and lines of sight in 2012.[30]


An unidentified former police officer from Paulden, Arizona is claimed to have been the next person to report a sighting after leaving his house at about 9:15 MST. As he was driving north, he allegedly saw a cluster of reddish or orange lights in the sky, comprising four lights together and a fifth light trailing them. Each of the individual lights in the formation appeared to the witness to consist of two separate point sources of orange light. He returned home and through binoculars watched the lights until they disappeared south over the horizon.[6]


Roswell Deputy Sheriff: 'I saw four dead aliens and 100ft flying saucer at UFO crash site'


Dr Scott wrote: "He thought there are about four beings, around five feet tall with large eyes and feet like ours.


"Their skin was brownish and he didn’t see any blood. Their bodies were being picked up by a lift attached to a crane and swung into a truck.


"It also shows a fourth arm…. That is more than two times long as the higher arms. All four arms are solid objects, not trails.”


Mystery four-armed UFO orbits the sun in startling footage that conspiracy theorists claim proves NASA alien cover-up


On March 13, 1997, thousands of people reported sighting a triangular light formation in the skies over Phoenix and Sonora, Mexico. Local police stations were flooded with calls. Numerous witnesses photographed the object, which reportedly moved south toward Tucson. Four men disappeared while off-roading in Estrella Mountain Park, never to be seen again. It was a night straight out of The X-Files.


That the NATO symbol was (and is) a white star, while the red star was a symbol of Communism? That the most common type of Belgian UFO displayed a Jungian-style quaternity of three bright white stars (lights) surrounding a faint red star?

Promotion is a term used frequently in marketing and is one of the market mix elements. It refers to raising customer awareness of a product or brand, generating sales, and creating brand loyalty. It is one of the four basic elements of the market mix, which includes the four P's: price, product, promotion, and place.[1]


In 2015, the world spent an estimate of US$529.43 billion on advertising.[5] Its projected distribution for 2017 is 40.4% on TV, 33.3% on digital, 9% on newspapers, 6.9% on magazines, 5.8% on outdoor and 4.3% on radio.[6] Internationally, the largest ("big four") advertising conglomerates are Interpublic, Omnicom, Publicis, and WPP.[7]


According to DAGMAR, each purchase prospect goes through 4 steps:







The steps proposed by the AIDA model are as follows:[2][3]


Attention - The consumer becomes aware of a category, product or brand (usually through advertising)

Interest - The consumer becomes interested by learning about brand benefits & how the brand fits with lifestyle

Desire - The consumer develops a favorable disposition towards the brand

Action - The consumer forms a purchase intention, shops around, engages in trial or makes a purchase


Between December 1899 and February 1900, the Bissell Carpet Sweeper Company organized a contest for the best written advertisement. Fred Macey, chairman of the Fred Macey Co. in Grand Rapids (Michigan), who was considered an advertising expert at that time, was assigned the task to examine the submissions to the company. In arriving at a decision, he considered inter alia each advertisement in the following respect:


1st The advertisement must receive "Attention," 2d. Having attention it must create "Interest," 3d. Having the reader's interest it must create "Desire to Buy," 4th. Having created the desire to buy it should help "Decision".[22]


The first published instance of the general concept, however, was in an article by Frank Hutchinson Dukesmith (1866–1935) in 1904. Dukesmith's four steps were attention, interest, desire, and conviction.[23] The first instance of the AIDA acronym was in an article by C.P. Russell in 1921 [24] where he wrote:


An easy way to remember this formula is to call in the “law of association,” which is the old reliable among memory aids. It is to be noted that, reading downward, the first letters of these words spell the opera “Aida.” When you start a letter, then, say “Aida” to yourself and you won’t go far wrong, at least as far as the form of your letter is concerned.



Foote, Cone, Belding (FCB) planning grid[edit]

The FCB planning grid was developed by Richard Vaughan, who was the Senior Vice President at advertising agency, Foote, Cone and Belding, in the 1980s. The planning grid has two dimensions, involvement and information processing. Each dimension has two values, representing extremes of a continuum, specifically involvement (high/low) and information processing (thinking/feeling). These form a 2 X 2 matrix with four cells representing the different types of advertising effects.[64]


The FCB Planning Grid[65]

Info processing

Type of Decision

Thinking Feeling

High-involvement 1. Learn→Feel→Do 2. Feel→Learn→Do

Low-involvement 3. Do→Learn→Feel 4. Do→Feel→ Learn

The FCB planning grid gives rise to a number of implications for advertising and media strategy:[66]



An expensive car is a high-involvement/ rational purchase (i.e., FCB Quadarant 1)

Quadrant 1: High-involvement/ rational purchases: In the first quadrant consumers learn about a product through advertising after which they develop a favourable (or unfavourable) disposition to the product which may or may not culminate in a purchase. This approach is considered optimal for advertising high ticket items such as cars and household furniture. When this is the dominant approach to purchasing, advertising messages should be information-rich and media strategy should be weighted towards media such as magazines and newspapers capable of delivering long-copy advertising.


Quadrant 2: High-involvement/ emotional purchases: In the second quadrant, audiences exhibit an emotional response to advertisements which transfers to products. This approach is used for products such as jewellery, expensive perfumes and designer fashion where consumers are emotionally involved in the purchase. When this mode of purchasing is evident, advertising should be designed to create a strong brand image and media should be selected to support the relevant image. For example, magazines such as Vogue can help to create an up-market image.



Impulse purchases are low-involvement/ emotional purchase items that make consumers feel good (i.e., FCB Quadrant 4)

Quadrant 3: Low-involvement/ rational purchases: The third quadrant represents routine low-involvement purchases evident for many packaged goods such as detergents, tissues and other consumable household items. Consumers make habitual purchases, and after consumption the benefit of using the brand is reinforced which ideally results in long-term brand loyalty (re-purchase). Given that this is a rational purchase, consumers need to be informed or reminded of the product's benefits. Advertising messages should encourage repeat purchasing and brand loyalty while media strategy should be weighted towards media that can deliver high frequency required for reminder campaigns such as TV, radio and sales promotion.


Quadrant 4: Low-involvement/ emotional purchases: In the final quadrant, consumers make low-involvement, relatively inexpensive purchases that make them feel good. Impulse purchases and convenience goods fall into this category. The purchase leads to feelings of satisfaction which, in turn, reinforces the purchase behavior. When this approach is the dominant purchase mode, advertising messages should "congratulate" customers on their purchase choice and the media strategy should be weighted towards options that reach customers when they are close to the point-of-purchase such as billboards, sales promotion and point-of-sale displays. Examples of this approach include "McDonald's – You Deserve a Break Today" and "L'Oreal- Because You're Worth It".


The advertising and marketing literature suggests a variety of different models to explain how advertising works. These models are not competing theories, but rather explanations of how advertising persuades or influences different types of consumers in different purchase contexts. In a seminal paper, Vankratsas and Ambler surveyed more than 250 papers to develop a typology of advertising models. They identified four broad classes of model: cognitive information models, pure affect models, hierarchy of effect models, integrative models and hierarchy-free models.[35]


Broadly, there are four basic approaches to scheduling:[126]



Blitzing,continuity, flighting and pulsing are the main schedule patterns

Blitzing: one concentrated burst of intense levels of advertising, normally during the initial period of the planning horizon

Continuity: a pattern of relatively constant levels throughout a given time period or campaign (i.e. a relatively expensive spending pattern)

Flighting: an intermittent pattern of bursts of advertising followed by no advertising (i.e. a moderate spending pattern)

Pulsing: a combination of both continuity and pulsing; low levels of continuous advertising followed by bursts of more intense levels of advertising; (i.e. alternates between a high spending pattern and a low spending pattern)


In Pompeii (circa 35 CE), Umbricius Scauras, a manufacturer of fish sauce (also known as garum) was branding his amphora which travelled across the entire Mediterranean. Mosaic patterns in the atrium of his house were decorated with images of amphora bearing his personal brand and quality claims. The mosaic comprises four different amphora, one at each corner of the atrium, and bearing labels as follows: [10]


1. G(ari) F(los) SCO[m]/ SCAURI/ EX OFFI[ci]/NA SCAU/RI Translated as "The flower of garum, made of the mackerel, a product of Scaurus, from the shop of Scaurus"

2. LIQU[minis]/ FLOS Translated as: "The flower of Liquamen"

3. G[ari] F[los] SCOM[bri]/ SCAURI Translated as: "The flower of garum, made of the mackerel, a product of Scaurus"

4. LIQUAMEN/ OPTIMUM/ EX OFFICI[n]/A SCAURI Translated as: "The best liquamen, from the shop of Scaurus"


The strategic pyramid is a four-staged hierarchal pyramid that serves as a guideline to establish or re-establish the visual brand language of a business. With the market being flooded with new products, services, and ideas each day, it is vital for businesses to stand out from the crowd. Every brand has a fundamental need to connect with their target market and audience.


This pyramid serves as a reference system for designers and other individuals within the company to better understand and create the brand personality, product attributes, design principles, and signature elements of the brand design.[4] Starbucks Coffee will be used as an example to help better illustrate this pyramid.

ABRELES FOUR TYPES OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS…/types-of-social-movements-768-…/
ABRELES FOUR TYPES OF SOCIAL MOVEMENTS…/types-of-social-movements-768-…/
Cultural Anthropologist David F. Aberle described four types of social movements based upon two fundamental questions: (1) who is the movement attempting to change? (2) how much change is being advocated? Social movements can be aimed at change on an individual level, e.g. Alcoholics Anonymous, which is a support group for recovering alcoholics or change on a broader group or even societal level, e.g. anti-globalization). Social movements can also advocate for minor changes such as tougher restrictions on drunk driving (see MADD) or radical changes like prohibition. The diagram below illustrates how a social movement may either be alternative, redemptive, reformative or revolutionary based on who the movement strives to change and how much change the movement desires to bring about .


In this rubric, conformity refers to the attaining of societal goals by socially accepted means, while innovation refers to the attaining of those goals in unaccepted ways (such as crime and deviance). Innovators find and create their own ways to obtain what they want, and a majority of the time, these new means are considered to be socially unaccepted and deviant. Merton considers ritualism the acceptance of the means but the forfeit of the goals. Ritualists continue to subscribe to the means, but they have rejected the overall goal; they are not viewed as deviant. Retreatism is the rejection of both the means and the goals. Retreaters want to find a way to escape from everything and therefore reject both the goals and the means and are seen as deviant. Rebellion differs from the other four approaches in a number of ways. Temporally, rebellion is a short-term response (unlike the other four). Like retreaters, rebels reject both existing societal goals and means, but unlike retreaters, rebels work at the macro level to replace those existing societal goals and means with new goals and means embodying other values. Innovation and ritualism are the pure cases of anomie as Merton defined it because in both cases there is a contradiction or discontinuity between goals and means.


Pasteur's quadrant is a classification of scientific research projects that seek fundamental understanding of scientific problems, while also having immediate use for society. Louis Pasteur's research is thought to exemplify this type of method, which bridges the gap between "basic" and "applied" research.[1] The term was introduced by Donald Stokes in his book, Pasteur's Quadrant.[2]


Applied and basic research[edit]

As shown in the following table, scientific research can be classified by whether it advances human knowledge by seeking a fundamental understanding of nature, or whether it is primarily motivated by the need to solve immediate problems.


Applied and Basic research

Considerations of use?

No Yes

Quest for




Yes Neils Bohr

Pure basic




Louis Pasteur



basic research


No – Thomas Edison

Pure applied




The result is three distinct classes of research:


Pure basic research, exemplified by the work of Niels Bohr, early 20th century atomic physicist.

Pure applied research, exemplified by the work of Thomas Edison, inventor.

Use-inspired basic research, described here as "Pasteur's Quadrant".


The ICC has four principal organs: the Presidency, the Judicial Divisions, the Office of the Prosecutor, and the Registry. The President is the most senior judge chosen by his or her peers in the Judicial Division, which hears cases before the Court. The Office of the Prosecutor is headed by the Prosecutor who investigates crimes and initiates proceedings before the Judicial Division. The Registry is headed by the Registrar and is charged with managing all the administrative functions of the ICC, including the headquarters, detention unit, and public defense office.


The ICC is governed by an Assembly of States Parties, which is made up of the states which are party to the Rome Statute[18] The Assembly elects officials of the Court, approves its budget, and adopts amendments to the Rome Statute. The Court itself, however, is composed of four organs: the Presidency, the Judicial Divisions, the Office of the Prosecutor, and the Registry.[19]


State parties[edit]

As of March 2016, 124 states[20] are parties to the Statute of the Court, including all the countries of South America, nearly all of Europe, most of Oceania and roughly half of Africa.[21] A further 31 countries[20] have signed but not ratified the Rome Statute.[21] The law of treaties obliges these states to refrain from "acts which would defeat the object and purpose" of the treaty until they declare they do not intend to become a party to the treaty.[22] Four signatory states—Israel, Sudan, the United States and Russia[23]—have informed the UN Secretary General that they no longer intend to become states parties and, as such, have no legal obligations arising from their signature of the Statute.[21][24]

The region now only has four currently producing whisky distilleries: Ailsa Bay,[1] in Girvan owned by William Grant & SonsGlenkinchie distillery, near EdinburghAuchentoshan, near Clydebank; and Bladnoch in Galloway

Wales is served by four regional police forces, Dyfed-Powys PoliceGwent PoliceNorth Wales Police and South Wales Police.[137] Four prisons are in Wales; all in the southern half of the country. Wales has no women's prisons; female inmates are imprisoned in England.

Bioforsk, with research in terrestrial effects of climate and subarctic agriculture, has branches in four places in Northern Norway – Tromsø, Bodø, Tjøtta and Svanhovd in Sør-Varanger.[19][20]


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