The global language system is the "ingenious pattern of connections between language groups". Dutch sociologist Abram de Swaan developed this theory in 2001 in his book Words of the World: the global language system and according to him, "the multilingual connections between language groups do not occur haphazardly, but, on the contrary, they constitute a surprisingly strong and efficient network that ties together - directly or indirectly - the six billion inhabitants of the earth." The global language system draws upon the world system theory to account for the relationships between the world's languages and divides the world's languages into a hierarchy consisting of four levels, namely the

Square 1: peripheral,

Square 2: central,

Square 3: supercentral and

Square 4: hypercentral languages.

According to de Swaan, the global language system has been constantly evolving since the time period of the early 'military-agrarian' regimes.[1] Under these regimes, the rulers imposed their own language and so the first 'central' languages emerged, linking the peripheral languages of the agrarian communities via bilingual speakers to the language of the conquerors. Then was the formation of empires, which resulted in the next stage of integration of the world language system.

Firstly, Latin emerged from Rome. Under the rule of the Roman Empire, under which an extensive group of states were ruled by, the usage of Latin stretched along the Mediterranean coast, the southern half of Europe, and more sparsely to the North and then into the Germanic and Celtic lands. Thus, Latin evolved to become a central language in Europe from 27 BC to 476 AD.

Secondly, there was the widespread usage of the pre-classical version of Han Chinese in contemporary China due to the unification of China in 221 BC by Qin Shi Huang.

Thirdly, Sanskrit started to become widely spoken in South Asia from the widespread teaching of Hinduism and Buddhism in South Asian countries.

Fourthly, the expansion of the Arabic empire also lead to the increased usage of Arabic as a language in the Afro-Eurasian land mass.

Heilbron's version of the global system of language in translations has four levels:

Level 1: Hypercentral position — English currently holds the largest market share of the global market for translations; 55-60% of all book translations are from English. It strongly dominates the hierarchical nature of book translation system.

Level 2: Central position — German and French each hold 10% of the global translation market.

Level 3: Semi-central position — There are 7 or 8 languages "neither very central on a global level nor very peripheral", making up 1 to 3% of the world market (like Spanish, Italian and Russian).

Level 4: Peripheral position — Languages from which" less than 1% of the book translations worldwide are made", including Chinese, Japanese and Arabic. Despite having large populations of speakers, "their role in the translation economy is peripheral as compared to more central languages".

The fourth square is always different from the previous three


Kiyosaki has gained fame for creating "The CASHFLOW Quadrant", a conceptual tool which he developed to categorize the four major ways income is earned in the world of money. Depicted in a diagram, this concept entails four groupings, split with two crossed lines (one vertical and one horizontal). In each of the four groups there is a letter representing a way in which an individual may earn income. The letters are as follows.

E: Employee – Working for someone else.

S: Self-employed or Small business owner – Where a person owns his own job and is his own boss.

B: Business owner – A person who owns a business to make money; typically where the owner's physical presence is not required.

I: Investor – Investing money in order to receive a larger income in the future or analyses other businesses as potential investments.

In this model the investor encompasses the previous three, making it the fourth square which contains the other three squares, the quadrant model pattern.


The four Passive/Defensive cultural norms are:







Aggressive/defensive cultures[edit]

This style is characterized with more emphasis on task than people. Because of the very nature of this style, people tend to focus on their own individual needs at the expense of the success of the group. The aggressive/defensive style is very stressful, and people using this style tend to make decisions based on status as opposed to expertise.[25]

Oppositional - This cultural norm is based on the idea that a need for security that takes the form of being very critical and cynical at times. People who use this style are more likely to question others work; however, asking those tough question often leads to a better product. Nonetheless, those who use this style may be overly-critical toward others, using irrelevant or trivial flaws to put others down.

Power - This cultural norm is based on the idea that there is a need for prestige and influence. Those who use this style often equate their own self-worth with controlling others. Those who use this style have a tendency to dictate others opposing to guiding others’ actions.

Competitive - This cultural norm is based on the idea of a need to protect one’s status. Those who use this style protect their own status by comparing themselves to other individuals and outperforming them. Those who use this style are seekers of appraisal and recognition from others.

Perfectionistic - This cultural norm is based on the need to attain flawless results. Those who often use this style equate their self-worth with the attainment of extremely high standards. Those who often use this style are always focused on details and place excessive demands on themselves and others.

Organizations with aggressive/defensive cultures encourage or require members to appear competent, controlled, and superior. Members who seek assistance, admit shortcomings, or concede their position are viewed as incompetent or weak. These organizations emphasize finding errors, weeding out "mistakes" and encouraging members to compete against each other rather than competitors. The short-term gains associated with these strategies are often at the expense of long-term growth.


Kim Cameron and Robert Quinn (1999) conducted research on organizational effectiveness and success. Based on the Competing Values Framework, they developed the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument that distinguishes four culture types.

Competing values produce polarities like flexibility vs. stability and internal vs. external focus - these two polarities were found to be most important in defining organizational success. The polarities construct a quadrant with four types of culture:

Clan culture (internal focus and flexible) - A friendly workplace where leaders act like father figures.

Adhocracy culture (external focus and flexible) - A dynamic workplace with leaders that stimulate innovation.

Market culture (external focus and controlled) - A competitive workplace with leaders like hard drivers

Hierarchy culture (internal focus and controlled) - A structured and formalized workplace where leaders act like coordinators.


This wikipedia website has a ton of quadrant models


Charles Handy (1976), popularized Roger Harrison (1972) with linking organizational structure to organizational culture. The described four types of culture are:

Power culture: concentrates power among a small group or a central figure and its control is radiating from its center like a web. Power cultures need only a few rules and little bureaucracy but swift in decisions can ensue.

Role culture: authorities are delegated as such within a highly defined structure. These organizations form hierarchical bureaucracies, where power derives from the personal position and rarely from an expert power. Control is made by procedures (which are highly valued), strict roles descriptions and authority definitions. These organizations have consistent systems and are very predictable. This culture is often represented by a "Roman Building" having pillars. These pillars represent the functional departments.

Task culture: teams are formed to solve particular problems. Power is derived from the team with the expertise to execute against a task. This culture uses a small team approach, where people are highly skilled and specialized in their own area of expertise. Additionally, these cultures often feature the multiple reporting lines seen in a matrix structure.

Person culture: formed where all individuals believe themselves superior to the organization. It can become difficult for such organizations to continue to operate, since the concept of an organization suggests that a group of like-minded individuals pursue organizational goals. However some professional partnerships operate well as person cultures, because each partner brings a particular expertise and clientele to the firm.'s_quadrant


Pasteur's quadrant is a label given to a class of scientific research methods that both seek fundamental understanding of scientific problems, and, at the same time, seek to be eventually beneficial to society. Louis Pasteur's research is thought to exemplify this type of method, which bridges the gap between "basic" and "applied" research. The term was introduced by Donald Stokes in his book, Pasteur's Quadrant. The model is based on two axes once again

Square 1: Quest for fundamental understanding and no consideration of use.Pure basic

research(Bohr). The first square is not the doer, but is more mental. This is the idealist

Square 2:No quest for understanding and no consideration of use. The guardian is very conservative and tends to want things to be the way they are

Square 3: No quest for understanding and consideration of use. (Edison) The third square is the doer. This is the artisan who is not abstract and mental, but is a doer.

Square 4: Quest for fundamental understanding and consideration of use.Use-inspired

basic research (Pasteur)- This is the rational who is abstract and utilitarian, looking for use. The rational is a doer.


There are four stages in a product's life cycle in respect to the Product Life Cycle Theory:






The location of production depends on the stage of the cycle.




Stage 1: Introduction[edit]

This is where the new product is introduced to the market, the customers are unaware about the product. To create demand, producers promote the new product to stimulate sales. At this stage, profits are low and there are only a few competitors. As more units of the product sell, it enters the next stage automatically.[2]


For example, a new product invented in the United States for local consumers is first produced in the United States because that is where the demand is, and producers want to stay close to the market to detect consumer response. Characteristics of the product and the production process are in a state of change during this stage as firms familiarize themselves with the product and the market. No international trade takes place. [3]


Stage 2: Growth[edit]

In this stage, demand for the product increases sales. As a result, production costs decrease and profits are high. The product becomes widely known and competitors enter the market with their own version of the product. To attract as many consumers as possible, the company that developed the original product increases promotional spending. When many potential new customers have bought the product, it enters the next stage.[4]


Stage 3: Maturity[edit]

In the maturity stage of the Product life cycle, the product is widely known and many consumers own it. In the maturity phase of the product life cycle, demand levels off and sales volume increases at a slower rate. There are several competitors by this stage and the original supplier may reduce prices to maintain market share and support sales. Profit margins decrease, but the business remains attractive because volume is high and costs, such as for development and promotion, are also lower. [5] The industry contracts and concentrates — the lowest cost producer wins here.


In addition, foreign demand for the product grows, but it is associated particularly with other developed countries, since the product is catering to high-income demands. For instance, in the case of the newly invented product, this rise in foreign demand (assisted by economies of scale) leads to a trade pattern whereby the United States exports the product to other high-income countries. Other developments also occur in the maturing product stage. Once the American firm is selling to other high-income countries, it may begin to assess the possibilities of producing abroad in addition to producing in the United States. With a plant in France, for example, not only France but other European countries can be supplied from the French facility rather than from the U.S. plant. Thus, an initial export surge by the United States is followed by a fall in U.S. exports and a likely fall in U.S. production of the good. [6]


Stage 4: Decline[edit]

By this time in the product’s life cycle, the characteristics of the product itself and of the production process are well known; the product is familiar to consumers and the production process to producers. This occurs when the product peaks in the maturity stage and then begins a downward slide in sales. Eventually, revenues drop to the point where it is no longer economically feasible to continue making the product. Investment is minimized. The product can simply be discontinued, or it can be sold to another company. Production may shift to the developing countries. Labor costs again play an important role, and the developed countries are busy introducing other products. For instance, the trade pattern shows that the United States and other developed countries have now started importing the product from the developing countries.[7]




The duration of each stage depends on demand, production costs and revenues. Low production costs and a high demand ensures a longer product life. When production costs are high and demand is low, it is not offered on the market for a long time and, eventually, is withdrawn from the market in the '‘decline'’ stage.[8] Note that a particular firm or industry (in a country) stays in a market by adapting what they make and sell, i.e., by riding the waves.uongo .


The fourth is always different. Fifth is questionable


The titanic was a four funneled liner or four stacker. It is one of the most famous ships in history. Its catastrophe is one of the most famous in history as well and a movie was made out of it. I do not think its a coincidence it was a four fuel liner ship, reflecting the quadrant four.

A four funnel liner, four funnelled liner or four stacker is an ocean liner with four funnels. The SS Great Eastern, launched on 31 January 1858 (a full 40 years ahead of any comparable ships), was the only ocean liner to sport five funnels. As one funnel was later removed,[1] the Great Eastern, by default, became the first ocean liner to have four funnels. The SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, launched on 4 May 1897, was the next ocean liner to have four funnels and was one of the first of the golden era of ocean liners that became prominent in the early- to mid-20th century.[2] The most famous[citation needed] four funnel liners are the RMS Titanic, which sank after striking an iceberg on her maiden voyage on 14 April 1912, and the RMS Lusitania, which was torpedoed on 7 May 1915 during the First World War.

In all, fifteen four funnel liners were built (five were built and owned by Germany, nine by the UK, and one by France): the Great Eastern in 1858 and the remaining fourteen between 1897 and 1922. Four of these were sunk during the World Wars, and apart from the Titanic, the remainder were scrapped.[3] RMS Mauretania was the fastest of all four funnelled liners. The last four funnelled liner ever built was the SS Windsor Castle but two funnels were removed making RMS Aquitania the last four funnel liner in service and the only one to survive service during both World Wars. HMHS Britannic was one of the largest of all the four funnel liners.

Really 16 fuel liners have been thought to have been built. The 16th was supposed to have been built in Italy but it is a mystery if it was ever built. 16 is the fourth square of the fourth quadrant. 16 is always different.


Summer Fields is a boys' independent day and boarding preparatory school in Summertown, Oxford. It was originally called Summerfield and used to have a subsidiary school Summerfields, St Leonards-on-Sea (known as "Summers mi").


The boys are organised into four "leagues". One of them is named Maclaren after the Founder; the others are Moseley (after Henry Moseley), Congreve (after William La Touche Congreve), and Case (after William Sterndale Case, master from 1910 to 1922). Each league has its own identifying colour: Case red, Congreve yellow, Maclaren green, and Moseley blue. In their leagues the boys wear a polo shirt in the league colour, along with the rest of the uniform, blue corduroys, and brown shoes. On Sundays as well as on special days, such as the school concert, and the end of term, boys wear a tweed jacket, with a light blue coloured shirt, black shoes, and grey flannel trousers. Their ties are in their league colours.


Francis Bacon listed what he called the idols (false images) of the mind. He described these as things which obstructed the path of correct scientific reasoning.

Idols of the Tribe (Idola tribus): This is humans' tendency to perceive more order and regularity in systems than truly exists, and is due to people following their preconceived ideas about things.

Idols of the Cave (Idola specus): This is due to individuals' personal weaknesses in reasoning due to particular personalities, likes and dislikes.

Idols of the Marketplace (Idola fori): This is due to confusions in the use of language and taking some words in science to have a different meaning than their common usage.

Idols of the Theatre (Idola theatri): This is the following of academic dogma and not asking questions about the world.

These four fallacies are sometimes compared to a similar list in the first part of Roger Bacon's Opus Majus which, although it was much older, had not been printed in Francis Bacon's time.


Weber is one of the most famous sociologists of all time. Working at half a century later than Marx, Weber claims there to be in four main social classes: the upper class, the white collar workers, the petite bourgeoisie, and the manual working class. Weber's theory more-closely resembles contemporary Western class structures, although economic status does not currently seem to depend strictly on earnings in the way Weber envisioned.


Most groups have a reason for their existence, be it increasing the education and knowledge, receiving emotional support, or experiencing spirituality or religion. Groups can facilitate the achievement of these goals.[14] The circumplex model of group tasks, by Joseph McGrath[15] organizes group related tasks and goals. Groups may focus on several of these goals, or one area at a time. The model divides group goals into four main types, which are further sub-categorized


Generating: coming up with ideas and plans to reach goals

Planning Tasks

Creativity Tasks

Choosing: Selecting a solution.

Intellective Tasks

Decision-making Tasks

Negotiating: Arranging a solution to a problem.

Cognitive Conflict Tasks

Mixed Motive Task

Executing: Act of carrying out a task.

Contests/Battles/Competitive Tasks

Performance/Psychomotor Tasks,_organizations,_and_communities


The fourth is always different



Groups of two persons (called by many names: dyads, pairs, couples, etc.) are important either while standing alone or as building blocks of larger groupings. An infant requires a caregiver in order to survive, so life begins in a pair relationship that is apt to influence later ones.


Pair relations can be trivial and fleeting (like that of a clerk and customer at a checkout stand) or multi-purpose and enduring (like a lifelong marriage). Unlike a larger group, though, which can replace lost members and last indefinitely, a dyad exists only as long as both member participate.


Pairing off is very common for several reasons. It is simpler to relate to one other person than to several at once. We are comfortable in dealing with someone who is similar to ourselves, and any two persons can usually find common traits or experiences to serve as "hook up points" between them. On the other hand, we are also fascinated by people who are different from us. Novelty, of course, wears off.


Differences can be the basis for long-term alliances when they are complementary. He can fix the lawn mower and she is a good cook; Gilbert writes the book and Sullivan composes the music. Topping all is that "game that two are playing," sexual mating, with its many and powerful effects on human affairs.



Groups with three members (triads, trios, troikas, etc.) are hard to maintain. After all, it is easier to deal with one other person than with two. Besides, two of the people in a triad are apt to find it easier to relate to each other than to the other partner. That can motivate the neglected party to drop out of the group.


Where polygamy is practiced, a husband taking a second wife will often provide her with separate quarters so as to have two pair relationships instead of a contentious household of three adults. In polyamory, at least two types of relationships are observed: a "V" relationship, where one partner has a romantic relationship with both other members, and a triad, where everyone is involved romantically. Either situation may or may not prove to be satisfying and lasting.


In history, three leaders have sometimes attempted to share political power in a triumvirate, with little long-term success.


On the other hand, groups of three can be very stable if there is a leader and two followers, such as a family of a single parent and two children. Likewise, a subordinate may be related to two power-figures, e.g., an only child with two parents.



With the notable exception of vocal and musical quartets, groups of four tend not to last very long. Two persons in the group are apt to find it more satisfying to relate to each other than to either of the others. If the other two feel left out, they have at least that in common. They may feel a need to counteract the advantage a pair has when acting together over an individual operating alone. The relationship becomes one of two pairs rather than an effective group of four members.


In decision-making groups the tendency to split two against two can lead to frustrating stalemates. Differences can be resolved more easily if the group starts out with three or five rather than four members.


On the other hand, a group of four can be stable if it depends upon unique contributions from each of its members. In a musical quartet each participant’s part is different and essential. The more experience the musicians have in playing together the better they can perform. Some such groups stay together for decades.


Stability can also result when there is one leader and three subordinates. A similar but short-lived pattern occurs at cocktail parties: studies of social gatherings find frequent clusters of one person talking and three listening.


After much negotiation, the following outcomes of the Yalta Conference emerged:

Unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany, the division of Germany and Berlin into four occupational zones controlled by the United States, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union.

Germany was divided into four occupied zones: Great Britain in the northwest, France in the southwest, the United States in the south and the Soviet Union in the east. Berlin, the capital city situated in Soviet territory, was also divided into four occupied zones.


The Saxons were divided into four subgroups in four regions. Nearest to the ancient Frankish kingdom of Austrasia was Westphalia, and farthest away was Eastphalia. In between these two kingdoms was that of Engria (or Engern) and north of these three, at the base of the Jutland peninsula, was Nordalbingia.


Charlemagne was engaged in almost constant warfare throughout his reign,[45] often at the head of his elite scara bodyguard squadrons, carrying his legendary sword Joyeuse. In the Saxon Wars, spanning thirty years and eighteen battles, he conquered Saxonia and proceeded to convert it to Christianity.


The Germanic Saxons were divided into four subgroups in four regions. Nearest to Austrasia was Westphalia and furthest away was Eastphalia. Between them was Engria and north of these three, at the base of the Jutland peninsula, was Nordalbingia.


Max Weber (1864-1920) was a sociologist who was expressing his concern with rationalization. Rationalization is the process whereby an increasing number of social actions and social relationships become based on considerations of efficiency or calculation. Weber believes that there are four ideal types of social actions. Ideal types are used as a tool to look at real cases and compare them to the ideal types to see where they fall. No social action is purely just one of the four types.

Traditional Social Action: actions controlled by traditions, “the way it has always been done”

Affective Social Action: actions determined by one’s specific affections and emotional state, you do not think about the consequences

Value Rational Social Action: actions that are determined by a conscious belief in the inherent value of a type of behavior (ex: religion)

Instrumental-Rational Social Action: actions that are carried out to achieve a certain goal, you do something because it leads to a result


The Polynesian “compass” is the shape of a cross and it was made out of sticks crossed together. It is called a mattang. Like many other sailors, the Polynesians used the sun and stars, cloud formations and flights of birds to navigate over large expanses of open ocean (can you guess why clouds and birds could be helpful in finding land?). But the Polynesians also learned how to read wave patterns. Throw a stone into the water and what happens–the stone sinks of course, but circles of waves are made centred on where the stone fell. In much the same way, waves in the sea hit an island and are reflected back. The mattang is a tool showing all the basic patterns that waves can form when they bounce off land. An experienced Polynesian sailor would be able to read the wave patterns and tell which direction to go to find land. Stationary cloud formations, caused by temperature changes when cool sea air passes over warmer land areas, and the presence of many birds, show land is not too far away even if it cannot yet be seen.


Neptune's innermost four moons—Naiad, Thalassa, Despina and Galatea—orbit close enough to be within Neptune's rings. The next-farthest out, Larissa, was originally discovered in 1981 when it had occulted a star. This occultation had been attributed to ring arcs, but when Voyager 2 observed Neptune in 1989, it was found to have caused it. Five new irregular moons discovered between 2002 and 2003 were announced in 2004.[118][119] A new moon and the smallest yet, S/2004 N 1, was found in 2013. Because Neptune was the Roman god of the sea, Neptune's moons have been named after lesser sea gods.[34]

The fifth is always a lot different than the previous four. It was not discovered until 1981 and it is outside of Neptune's rings.


Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America is a 1989 book by David Hackett Fischer that details the folkways of four groups of people who moved from distinct regions of Great Britain (Albion) to the United States. The argument is that the culture of each of the groups persisted, to provide the basis for the modern United States.[1] Fischer explains "the origins and stability of a social system which for two centuries has remained stubbornly democratic in its politics, capitalist in its economy, libertarian in its laws and individualist in its society and pluralistic in its culture."[2] Fischer describes Albion's Seed as a modified Teutonic germ theory within the framework of the Frontier Thesis and the migration model.

Contents [hide]

1 Four folkways

1.1 Origins

1.2 Key characteristics

2 See also

3 References

4 External links

Four folkways[edit]

The four migrations are discussed in the four main chapters of the book:

East Anglia to Massachusetts

The Exodus of the English Puritans (Pilgrims influenced the Northeastern United States' corporate and educational culture)[3]

The South of England to Virginia

Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants (Gentry influenced the Southern United States' plantation culture)[4]

North Midlands to the Delaware Valley

The Friends' Migration (Quakers influenced the Middle Atlantic and Midwestern United States' industrial culture)[5]

Borderlands to the Backcountry

The Flight from North Britain (Scotch-Irish, or border English, influenced the Western United States' ranch culture and the Southern United States' common agrarian culture)[6]

Fischer includes satellite peoples such as Welsh, Scots, Irish, Dutch, French, Germans, Italians and a treatise on black slaves in South Carolina. Fischer covers voting patterns and dialects of speech in four regions that span from their Atlantic colonial base to the Pacific.

Fischer remarks on his own connective feelings between the Chesapeake and Southern England in Albion's Seed but attempts to flesh that out in Bound Away: Virginia and the Westward Movement, a corollary of his work in the book.[7]


Fischer states that the book's purpose is to examine the complex cultural processes at work within the four folkways during the time period. Albion's Seed argues, "The legacy of four British folkways in early America remains the most powerful determinant of a voluntary society in the United States."

The term "folkways" was originally conceived of by William Graham Sumner, a 19th-century American sociologist. Sumner's treatise Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals posits:

"The folkways are habits of the individual and customs of the society which arise from efforts to satisfy needs; they are intertwined with goblinism and demonism and primitive notions of luck (sec. 6), and so they win traditional authority. Then they become regulative for succeeding generations and take on the character of a social force. They arise no one knows whence or how. They grow as if by the play of internal life energy. They can be modified, but only to a limited extent, by the purposeful efforts of men. In time they lose power, decline, and die, or are transformed. While they are in vigor they very largely control individual and social undertakings, and they produce and nourish ideas of world philosophy and life policy. Yet they are not organic or material. They belong to a superorganic system of relations, conventions, and institutional arrangements."[8]

Key characteristics[edit]

Fischer describes his modified application of the folkways concept as "the normative structure of values, customs and meanings that exist in any culture," which rise from social and intellectual origins. More specifically, Fischer's definition of folkways are that they "are often highly persistent, but they are never static. Even where they have acquired the status of a tradition they are not necessarily very old. Folkways are constantly in the process of creation, even in our own time."

Each of the four distinct folkways is comparatively described and defined in the following terms:

Speech Ways: "Conventional patterns of written and spoken language; pronunciation, vocabulary, syntax and grammar."

Building Ways: "Prevailing forms of vernacular architecture and high architecture, which tend to be related to one another."

Family Ways: "The structure and function of the household and family, both in ideal and actuality."

Marriage Ways: "Ideas of the marriage-bond, and cultural processes of courtship, marriage and divorce."

Gender Ways: "Customs that regulate social relations between men and women."

Sex Ways: "Conventional sexual attitudes and acts, and the treatment of sexual deviance."

Child-Rearing Ways: "Ideas of child nature and customs of child nurture."

Naming Ways: "Onomastic customs including favoured forenames and the descent of names within the family."

Age Ways: "Attitudes towards age, experiences of aging and age relationships."

Death Ways: "Attitudes towards death, mortality rituals, mortuary customs and mourning practices."

Religious Ways: "Patterns of religious worship, theology, ecclesiology and church architecture."

Magic Ways: "Normative beliefs and practices concerning the supernatural."

Learning Ways: "Attitudes toward literacy and learning, and conventional patterns of education."

Food Ways: "Patterns of diet, nutrition, cooking, eating, feasting and fasting."

Dress Ways: "Customs of dress, demeanor, and personal adornment."

Sport Ways: "Attitudes toward recreation and leisure; folk games and forms of organized sport."

Work Ways: "Work ethics and work experiences; attitudes toward work and the nature of work."

Time Ways: "Attitudes toward the use of time, customary methods of time keeping, and the conventional rhythms of life."

Wealth Ways: "Attitudes towards wealth and patterns of its distribution."

Rank Ways: "The rules by which rank is assigned, the roles which rank entails, and the relations between different ranks."

Social Ways: "Conventional patterns of migration, settlement, association and affiliation."

Order Ways: "Ideas of order, ordering institutions, forms of disorder, and treatment of the disorderly."

Power Ways: "Attitudes toward authority and power; patterns of political participation."

Freedom Ways: "Prevailing ideas of liberty and restraint, and libertarian customs and institutions."


The Stakeholders quadrant matrix has four options

You may now have a long list of people and organizations that are affected by your work. Some of these may have the power either to block or advance. Some may be interested in what you are doing, others may not care. Map out your stakeholders on a Power/Interest Grid as shown by the image, and classify them by their power over your work and by their interest in your work. There are other tools available to map out your stakeholders and how best to influence then.[7]

For example, your boss is likely to have high power and influence over your projects and high interest. Your family may have high interest, but are unlikely to have power over it. Someone's position on the grid shows you the actions you have to take with them:[8]

High power, interested people: these are the people you must fully engage and make the greatest efforts to satisfy.

High power, less interested people: put enough work in with these people to keep them satisfied, but not so much that they become bored with your message.

Low power, interested people: keep these people adequately informed, and talk to them to ensure that no major issues are arising. These people can often be very helpful with the detail of your project.

Low power, less interested people: again, monitor these people, but do not bore them with excessive communication.



The Double-Cross System, or XX System, was a World War II anti-espionage and deception operation of the British Security Service, a civilian organisation usually referred to by its cover title MI5. Nazi agents in Britain – real and false – were captured, turned themselves in or simply announced themselves and were then used by the British to broadcast mainly disinformation to their Nazi controllers. Its operations were overseen by the Twenty Committee under the chairmanship of John Cecil Masterman; the name of the committee comes from the number 20 in Roman numerals: "XX" (i.e. double crosses).


Quadrant III Grand Matrix Strategies

Using a Grand Strategy Matrix approach, what strategies are recommended for a firm that is a weak competitor in a slow-growing market? Elaborate on what these strategies could mean for a college or university.

200 words, apa citation

Solution Preview

The grand strategy matrix is a structured outline of procedures that a business could perform if it finds itself in one of four competition environments: 1) Quadrant I - rapid market growth and strong competitive position; 2) Quadrant II - rapid market growth and weak competitive position; 3) Quadrant III - slow market growth and weak competitive position; and 4) slow market growth and strong competitive position.

Quadrant III, which is slow market growth and weak competitive position, represents the most difficult of the environments in terms of business success. Four strategies that could be used by a business in that position is retrenchment, related unrelated diversification, conglomerate diversification and liquidation divestiture.

Retrenchment is used to reduce the ...



Travis Hirschi identified four main characteristics: "attachment to others", "belief in moral validity of rules", "commitment to achievement", and "involvement in conventional activities".[23] The more a person features those characteristics, the less likely (s)he is to become deviant (or criminal). On the other hand, if these factors are not present, a person is more likely to become a criminal. Hirschi expanded on this theory with the idea that a person with low self control is more likely to become criminal…/4orgculture.png
According to Robert E. Quinn and Kim S. Cameron at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, there are four types of organizational culture: Clan, Adhocracy, Market, and Hierarchy.
Clan oriented cultures are family-like, with a focus on mentoring, nurturing, and “doing things together.”
Adhocracy oriented cultures are dynamic and entrepreneurial, with a focus on risk-taking, innovation, and “doing things first.”
Market oriented cultures are results oriented, with a focus on competition, achievement, and “getting the job done.”
Hierarchy oriented cultures are structured and controlled, with a focus on efficiency, stability and “doing things right.”

The Number 4

This cultural concept is based on the Aboriginal belief that natural occurrences happen in fours and four is a sacred number. Often, giving thanks to the Creator mentions the four elements, earth, air, wind and fire, the 4 seasons, 4 directions, 4 human races, 4 chambers of the heart, 4 quadrants of the body, 4 sections of the brain. Four puffs are taken when the ceremonial pipe is smoked, water is poured four times over the hot rocks in the sweat lodge etc.


The Fourth Estate (or fourth power) is a societal or political force or institution whose influence is not consistently or officially recognized. "Fourth Estate" most commonly refers to the news media, especially print journalism or "the press". Thomas Carlyle attributed the origin of the term to Edmund Burke, who used it in a parliamentary debate in 1787 on the opening up of press reporting of the House of Commons of Great Britain.[1] Earlier writers have applied the term to lawyers, to the British queens consort (acting as a free agent, independent of the king), and to the proletariat. The term makes implicit reference to the earlier division of the three Estates of the Realm.

First Estate[edit]

The First Estate comprised the entire clergy, traditionally divided into "higher" and "lower" clergy. Although there was no formal demarcation between the two categories, the upper clergy were, effectively, clerical nobility, from the families of the Second Estate. In the time of Louis XVI, every bishop in France was a nobleman, a situation that had not existed before the 18th century.[4]

At the other extreme, the "lower clergy" (about equally divided between parish priests and monks and nuns) constituted about 90 percent of the First Estate, which in 1789 numbered around 130,000 (about 0.5% of the population).

Second Estate[edit]

The Second Estate (Fr. deuxieme état) was the French nobility and (technically, though not in common use) royalty, other than the monarch himself, who stood outside of the system of estates.

The Second Estate is traditionally divided into "noblesse d'épée" ("nobility of the sword"), and "noblesse de robe" ("nobility of the robe"), the magisterial class that administered royal justice and civil government.

The Second Estate constituted approximately 1.5% of France's population.[citation needed] Under the ancien régime ("old rule/old government"), the Second Estate were exempt from the corvée royale (forced labour on the roads) and from most other forms of taxation such as the gabelle (salt tax) and most important, the taille (the oldest form of direct taxation). This exemption from paying taxes led to their reluctance to reform.

Third Estate[edit]

Coat of arms of pre-revolutionary Kingdom of France

Kingdom of France


Estates of the realm


French nobility



Seigneurial system

v t e

The Third Estate comprised all of those who were not members of the above and can be divided into two groups, urban and rural, together making up 97% of France's population.[citation needed] The urban included the bourgeoisie, as well as wage-labourers. The rural included free peasants (who owned their own land) who could be prosperous and villeins (serfs, or peasants working on a noble's land). The free peasants paid disproportionately high taxes compared to the other Estates and were unhappy because they wanted more rights. In addition, the First and Second Estates relied on the labour of the Third, which made the latter's unequal status all the more glaring.

There were an estimated 27 million people in the Third Estate when the French Revolution started.

Men and women shared the hard life of physical labour and food shortages. Most were born within this group and died as a part of it, too. It was extremely rare for people of this ascribed status to make it out into another estate. Those who did so managed as a result of either being recognized for their extraordinary bravery in a battle or entering religious life.[5] A few commoners were able to catch the eye of the second estate, marry, and join them, although this was quite rare.[5]

Notice how the fourth is different and transcendent. Most people do not refer to the fourth estate. But it is not completely different like the fifth would be. The fourth is different, yet encompasses the previous three and points to the fifth.

The fourth is always different


The tower of hanoi is an example

Of the quadrant model phenomena that the first three are similar and the fourth is different and transcendent. Also the graphical nature of the tower of hanoi is the sierpunski triangle, and i discussed the nature of the sierpinski triangle is one trianlge divided into four, reflecting the quadrant four


With four pegs and beyond Edit

Although the three-peg version has a simple recursive solution as outlined above, the optimal solution for the Tower of Hanoi problem with four pegs (called Reve's puzzle), let alone more pegs, is still an open problem. This is a good example of how a simple, solvable problem can be made dramatically more difficult by slightly loosening one of the problem constraints.


The fact that the problem with four or more pegs is an open problem does not imply that no algorithm exists for finding (all of) the optimal solutions. Simply represent the game by an undirected graph, the nodes being distributions of disks and the edges being moves and use breadth first search to find one (or all) shortest path(s) moving a tower from one peg onto another one. However, even smartly implemented on the fastest computer now available, this algorithm provides no way of effectively computing solutions for large numbers of disks; the program would require more time and memory than available. Hence, even having an algorithm, it remains unknown how many moves an optimal solution requires and how many optimal solutions exist for 1000 disks and 10 pegs.


Though it is not known exactly how many moves must be made, there are some asymptotic results. There is also a "presumed-optimal solution" given by the Frame-Stewart algorithm, discovered independently by Frame and Stewart in 1941.[17] The related open Frame-Stewart conjecture claims that the Frame-Stewart algorithm always gives an optimal solution. The optimality of the Frame-Stewart algorithm has been computationally verified for 4 pegs with up to 30 disks.[18]


For other variants of the four-peg Tower of Hanoi problem, see Paul Stockmeyer's survey paper.[

There are several languages in India belonging to different language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 75% of Indians, the Dravidian languages spoken by 20% of Indians and other languages by rest of Indians.[1][2] Other languages spoken in India belong to the Austroasiatic, Sino-Tibetan, a few other minor language families and isolates.[3]:283 More than three millennia of language contact has led to significant mutual influence among the four predominant language families in mainland India and South Asia.

The fourth is different.


The Japanese archipelago (日本列島 Nihon Rettō?) is the group of islands that forms the country of Japan, and extends roughly from northeast to southwest along the northeastern coast of the Eurasia mainland, washing upon the northwestern shores of the Pacific Ocean. It consists of islands from the Sakhalin island arc and the Northeastern Japan arc.

The term Home Islands was used at the end of World War II to define the area of Japan to which its sovereignty and the constitutional rule of the Emperor would be restricted.[citation needed] The term is also commonly used today to distinguish the archipelago from Japan's colonies and other territories in the first half of the 20th century.[1]

The archipelago consists of 6,852 islands ("island" defined as land more than 100 m in circumference), of which 430 are inhabited.[2] The four main islands, from north to south, are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu; Honshu is the largest and referred to as the Japanese mainland.


The Quadrant Shopping Centre is the principal under-cover shopping centre in Swansea, Wales. The centre opened in 1979.[1] Since the 1980s it has been home to the Swansea Devil, a controversial carved wooden statue of the Devil.


The centre and surrounding areas are owned by the City and County of Swansea council.[2]

The Quadrant Cycle Company was a company in Birmingham, England that was established in 1890 as a bicycle manufacturer. They advanced to make motorcycles from 1899 until their demise in 1928. They also made a tricar called Carette in 1899 and a small number of cars for about two years around 1906.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.


The pyramid remained the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years,[6] unsurpassed until the 160-metre-tall (520 ft) spire of Lincoln Cathedral was completed c. 1300. The accuracy of the pyramid's workmanship is such that the four sides of the base have an average error of only 58 millimetres in length.[7] The base is horizontal and flat to within ±15 mm (0.6 in).[8] The sides of the square base are closely aligned to the four cardinal compass points (within four minutes of arc)[9] based on true north, not magnetic north,[10] and the finished base was squared to a mean corner error of only 12 seconds of arc.[11] The completed design dimensions, as suggested by Petrie's survey and subsequent studies, are estimated to have originally been 280 royal cubits high by 440 cubits long at each of the four sides of its base. The ratio of the perimeter to height of 1760/280 royal cubits equates to 2π to an accuracy of better than 0.05% (corresponding to the well-known approximation of π as 22/7). Some Egyptologists consider this to have been the result of deliberate design proportion. Verner wrote, "We can conclude that although the ancient Egyptians could not precisely define the value of π, in practice they used it".[12] Petrie, author of Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh concluded: "but these relations of areas and of circular ratio are so systematic that we should grant that they were in the builder's design".[13] Others have argued that the Ancient Egyptians had no concept of pi and would not have thought to encode it in their monuments. They believe that the observed pyramid slope may be based on a simple seked slope choice alone, with no regard to the overall size and proportions of the finished building.[14]

There are three boat-shaped pits around the pyramid, of a size and shape to have held complete boats, though so shallow that any superstructure, if there ever was one, must have been removed or disassembled. In May 1954, the Egyptian archaeologist Kamal el-Mallakh discovered a fourth pit, a long, narrow rectangle, still covered with slabs of stone weighing up to 15 tons. Inside were 1,224 pieces of wood, the longest 23 metres (75 ft) long, the shortest 10 centimetres (0.33 ft). These were entrusted to a boat builder, Haj Ahmed Yusuf, who worked out how the pieces fit together. The entire process, including conservation and straightening of the warped wood, took fourteen years.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.


Passive/defensive cultures[edit]

Norms that reflect expectations for members to interact with people in ways that will not threaten their own security are in the Passive/Defensive Cluster.

The four Passive/Defensive cultural norms are:





In organizations with Passive/Defensive cultures, members feel pressured to think and behave in ways that are inconsistent with the way they believe they should in order to be effective. People are expected to please others (particularly superiors) and avoid interpersonal conflict. Rules, procedures, and orders are more important than personal beliefs, ideas, and judgment. Passive/Defensive cultures experience a lot of unresolved conflict and turnover, and organizational members report lower levels of motivation and satisfaction.


Noise: The Political Economy of Music is a non-fiction book by French economist and scholar, Jacques Attali.


Attali's essential argument in Noise: The Political Economy of Music (French title: Bruits: essai sur l'economie politique de la musique) is that music, as a cultural form, is intimately tied up in the mode of production in any given society. For Marxist critics, this idea is nothing new. The novelty of Attali's work is that it reverses the traditional understandings about how revolutions in the mode of production take place:


"[Attali] is the first to point out the other possible logical consequence of the “reciprocal interaction” model—namely, the possibility of a superstructure to anticipate historical developments, to foreshadow new social formations in a prophetic and annunciatory way. The argument of Noise is that music, unique among the arts for reasons that are themselves overdetermined, has precisely this annunciatory vocation; that the music of today stands both as a promise of a new, liberating mode of production, and as the menace of a dystopian possibility which is that mode of production’s baleful mirror image."[1]


Four Stages of Music[edit]

Attali believes that music has gone through four distinct cultural stages in its history: Sacrificing, Representing, Repeating, and a fourth cultural stage which could roughly be called Post-Repeating. These stages are each linked to a certain "mode of production"; that is to say, each of these stages carries with it a certain set of technologies for producing, recording and disseminating music, and also concomitant cultural structures that allow for music's transmission and reception.


Sacrificing refers to the pre-history of modern music—the period of purely oral tradition. In historical terms, this period could be dated to anytime before about 1500 AD. This is the period before mass-produced, notated music—a period when the musical tradition exists solely in the memory of people, generally in the form of oral songs and folktales. Here, Attali characterizes music as being contrasted to the "noise" of nature—of death, chaos and destruction. In other words, music stands in contrast to all of those natural forces that threaten man and his cultural heritage. The purpose of music in this era is to preserve and transmit that cultural heritage, by using music to reinforce memory. Music in this period is ubiquitous and often tied up in festival. He calls the chapter Sacrificing because in this era, music is a ritualized, structuralized sublimation of the violence of nature.


Representing refers to the era of printed music—roughly 1500-1900 AD. During this era, music becomes tied to a physical medium for the first time, and therefore becomes a commodity for sale in the marketplace. During this era, Attali characterizes music as being a spectacle that is contrasted to silence—think of the hushed anticipation that greets the professional performer in the concert hall. During this era, music also becomes separated from the human life-world: no longer the purview of peasants at their labor, music becomes a highly complex, mechanical process that is articulated by specialists. He calls this chapter Representing because the project of the performer is to "re-present" music—to bring it out of absence and into presence by drawing the intent of the composer from the page and articulating it to a waiting audience:


"Beginning in the eighteenth century, ritualized belonging became representation. The musician… became a producer and seller of signs who was free in appearance, but in fact almost always exploited and manipulated by his clients… The attitude of music then changed profoundly: in ritual, it was one element in the totality of life… In contrast, in representation there was a gulf between the musicians and the audience; the most perfect silence reigned in the concerts of the bourgeoisie… The trap closed: the silence greeting the musicians was what created music and gave it autonomous existence, a reality. Instead of being a relation, it was no longer anything more than a monologue of specialists competing in front of consumers. The artist was born, at the same time that his work went on sale…" (Attali, 46-47)


Repeating refers to the era of recorded and broadcast sound—roughly 1900 AD-present. During this period, notation (which could be thought of as a highly coded, written guide to how music should be sounded) was replaced by recording (which is the sounding of music, trapped and preserved on vinyl, tape or disc). During this era, Attali asserts that the goal of music is not memory or quality, but fidelity—the goal of those engaged in the musical project (which includes not only composers and performers, but sound engineers, studio execs and the like) is to record sound as clearly and flawlessly as possible, and to perfectly reproduce these recordings. In this era, each musical work is contrasted to the other versions of itself—the key question for the musician becomes: how faithfully can he re-produce the "original" recording? Attali calls this chapter Repeating, then, because each musical act is a repetition of what came before: music is made up of ever-more-perfect echoes of itself:


"The advent of recording thoroughly shattered representation. First produced as a way of preserving its trace, it instead replaced it as the driving force of the economy of music… for those trapped by the record, public performance becomes a simulacrum of the record: an audience generally familiar with the artist’s recordings attends to hear a live replication… For popular music, this has meant the gradual death of small bands, who have been reduced to faithful imitations of recording stars. For the classical repertory, it means the danger… of imposing all of the aesthetic criteria of repetition—made of rigor and cold calculation—upon representation." (Attali, 85)


Also important to Repeating are Attali’s ideas of Exchange-Time and Use-Time. Attali defines Exchange-Time as the time spent towards earning the money needed to purchase a recording, whereas Use-Time involves the time spent listening to recordings by the purchaser. In a society made up of recording labels and radio stations, far more recordings are produced than an individual can listen to in a lifetime, and in an effort to spend more time in Use-Time than in Exchange-Time people begin to stockpile recordings of what they want to hear. Attali states that this stockpiling has become the main method of use by consumers, and in doing so, shorter musical works have been valorized. More importantly, according to Attali, this process of stockpiling removes the social and political power from music. (Attali, 101)


Attali hints at a Post-Repeating era in his chapter 'Composing', but never fully develops his theory of it. While many readers consider this to be influenced by electronic musical techniques such as sampling, remixing and electronic manipulation (which were common in 1985 when the English translation was published), it is doubtful that they would have influenced Attali given that "Noise" was first published in French in 1977 (and one can assume the manuscript was completed at least several months prior to publication).



In its original form the Prisoner's Dilemma Game (PDG) described two awaiting trial prisoners, A and B, each faced with the choice of betraying the other or remaining silent. The "game" has four possible outcomes: (a) they both betray each other, and are both sentenced to two years in prison; (b) A betrays B, which sets A free and B is sentenced to four years in prison; (c) B betrays A, with the same result as (b) except that it is B who is set free and the other spends four years in jail; (d) both remain silent, resulting in a six-month sentence each. Clearly (d) ("cooperation") is the best mutual strategy, but from the point of view of the individual betrayal is unbeatable (resulting in being set free, or getting only a two-year sentence). Remaining silent results in a four-year or six-month sentence. This is exemplified by a further example of the PDG: two strangers attend a restaurant together and decide to split the bill. The mutually best ploy would be for both parties to order the cheapest items on the menu (mutual cooperation). But if one member of the party exploits the situation by ordering the most expensive items, then it is best for the other member to do likewise. In fact, if the fellow diner's personality is completely unknown, and the two diners are unlikely ever to meet again, it is always in one's own best interests to eat as expensively as possible. Situations in nature that are subject to the same dynamics (rewards and penalties) as the PDG define cooperative behaviour: it is never in the individual's fitness interests to cooperate, even though mutual cooperation rewards the two contestants (together) more highly than any other strategy.[23] Cooperation cannot evolve under these circumstances.


However, in 1981 Axelrod and Hamilton[22] noted that if the same contestants in the PDG meet repeatedly (the so-called Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game, IPD) then tit-for-tat (foreshadowed by Robert Triver's reciprocal altruism theory) is a robust strategy which promotes altruism.[22][23][24] In "tit-for-tat" both players' opening moves are cooperation. Thereafter each contestant repeats the other player's last move, resulting in a seemingly endless sequence of mutually cooperative moves. However, mistakes severely undermine tit-for-tat's effectiveness, giving rise to prolonged sequences of betrayal, which can only be rectified by another mistake. Since these initial discoveries, all the other possible IPD game strategies have been identified (16 possibilities in all, including, for instance, "generous tit-for-tat", which behaves like "tit-for-tat", except that it cooperates with a small probability when the opponent's last move was "betray".[25]), but all can be outperformed by at least one of the other strategies, should one of the players switch to such a strategy. The result is that none is evolutionarily stable, and any prolonged series of the iterated prisoner's dilemma game, in which alternative strategies arise at random, gives rise to a chaotic sequence of strategy changes that never ends.[23][26][27]


The handicap principle


A male peacock with its beautiful but clumsy, aerodynamically unsound tail—a handicap, comparable to a race horse's handicap.


The best horses in a handicap race carry the largest weights, so the size of the handicap is a measure of the animal's quality

In the light of the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game failing to provide a full answer to the evolution of cooperation or altruism, several alternative explanations have been proposed.



However, in 1981 Axelrod and Hamilton[22] noted that if the same contestants in the PDG meet repeatedly (the so-called Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game, IPD) then tit-for-tat (foreshadowed by Robert Triver's reciprocal altruism theory) is a robust strategy which promotes altruism.[22][23][24] In "tit-for-tat" both players' opening moves are cooperation. Thereafter each contestant repeats the other player's last move, resulting in a seemingly endless sequence of mutually cooperative moves. However, mistakes severely undermine tit-for-tat's effectiveness, giving rise to prolonged sequences of betrayal, which can only be rectified by another mistake. Since these initial discoveries, all the other possible IPD game strategies have been identified (16 possibilities in all, including, for instance, "generous tit-for-tat", which behaves like "tit-for-tat", except that it cooperates with a small probability when the opponent's last move was "betray".[25]), but all can be outperformed by at least one of the other strategies, should one of the players switch to such a strategy. The result is that none is evolutionarily stable, and any prolonged series of the iterated prisoner's dilemma game, in which alternative strategies arise at random, gives rise to a chaotic sequence of strategy changes that never ends.[23][26][27]

The vervet monkey gives a distinct alarm call for each of its four different predators, and the reactions of other monkeys vary appropriately according to the call



Using a comparative approach to behavior allows one to evaluate the target behavior from four different, complementary perspectives, developed by Niko Tinbergen.[4] First, one may ask how pervasive the behavior is across species (i.e. how common is the behavior between animal species?). Second, one may ask how the behavior contributes to the lifetime reproductive success of the individuals demonstrating the behavior (i.e. does the behavior result in animals producing more offspring than animals not displaying the behavior)? Theories addressing the ultimate causes of behavior are based on the answers to these two questions.


Third, what mechanisms are involved in the behavior (i.e. what physiological, behavioral, and environmental components are necessary and sufficient for the generation of the behavior)? Fourth, a researcher may ask about the development of the behavior within an individual (i.e. what maturational, learning, social experiences must an individual undergo in order to demonstrate a behavior)? Theories addressing the proximate causes of behavior are based on answers to these two questions. For more details see Tinbergen's four questions.


Tinbergen's four questions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tinbergen's four questions, named after Nikolaas Tinbergen, are complementary categories of explanations for behaviour. These are also commonly referred to as levels of analysis.[1] It suggests that an integrative understanding of behaviour must include both a proximate and ultimate (functional) analysis of behaviour, as well as an understanding of both phylogenetic/developmental history and the operation of current mechanisms.[2]


Contents [hide]

1 Four categories of questions and explanations

1.1 Table of categories

1.2 Evolutionary (ultimate) explanations

1.2.1 1 Function (adaptation)

1.2.2 2 Phylogeny (evolution)

1.3 Proximate explanations

1.3.1 3 Mechanism (causation)

1.3.2 4 Ontogeny (development)

2 Causal relationships

3 Examples

3.1 Vision

3.2 Westermarck effect

4 Use of the four-question schema as "periodic table"

5 Notes and references

5.1 References

6 External links

6.1 Diagrams

6.2 Derivative works

Four categories of questions and explanations[edit]

When asked about the purpose of sight in humans and animals, even elementary school children can answer that animals have vision to help them find food and avoid danger (function/adaptation). Biologists have three additional explanations: sight is caused by a particular series of evolutionary steps (phylogeny), the mechanics of the eye (mechanism/causation), and even the process of an individual's development (ontogeny). Although these answers may be very different, they are consistent with each other. This idea was formulated in the 1960s when Tinbergen delineated the four questions based on Aristotle's Four Causes.[3]


This schema constitutes a basic framework of the overlapping behavioural fields of ethology, behavioural ecology, comparative psychology, sociobiology, evolutionary psychology, and anthropology. It was in fact Julian Huxley who identified the first three questions, Niko Tinbergen gave only the fourth question, but Julian Huxley's questions failed to distinguish between survival value and evolutionary history, so Tinbergen's fourth question helped resolve this problem.[4]


Evolutionary (ultimate) explanations[edit]

1 Function (adaptation)[edit]

Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is the only scientific explanation for why an animal's behaviour is usually well adapted for survival and reproduction in its environment. However, claiming that a particular mechanism is well suited to the present environment is different from claiming that this mechanism was selected for in the past due to its history of being adaptive.[5] The literature conceptualizes the relationship between function and evolution in two ways. On the one hand, function and evolution are often presented as separate and distinct explanations of behaviour.[6]


On the other hand, the common definition of adaptation, a central concept in evolution, is a trait that was functional to the reproductive success of the organism and that is thus now present due to being selected for; that is, function and evolution are inseparable. However a trait can have a current function that is adaptive without being an adaptation in this sense, if for instance the environment has changed. Imagine an environment in which having a small body suddenly conferred benefit on an organism when previously body size had had no effect on survival.[7]


A small body's function in the environment would then be adaptive, but it wouldn't become an adaptation until enough generations had passed to in which small bodies were advantageous to reproduction for small bodies to selected for. Given this, it is best to understand that presently functional traits might not all have been produced by natural selection.[8] The term "function" is preferable to "adaptation", because adaptation is often construed as implying that it was selected for due to past function.


2 Phylogeny (evolution)[edit]

Evolution captures both the history of an organism via its phylogeny, and the history of natural selection working on function to produce adaptations.[9] There are several reasons why natural selection may fail to achieve optimal design (Mayr 2001:140–143; Buss et al. 1998). One entails random processes such as mutation and environmental events acting on small populations. Another entails the constraints resulting from early evolutionary development. Each organism harbors traits, both anatomical and behavioural, of previous phylogenetic stages, since many traits are retained as species evolve.


Reconstructing the phylogeny of a species often makes it possible to understand the "uniqueness" of recent characteristics: Earlier phylogenetic stages and (pre-) conditions which persist often also determine the form of more modern characteristics. For instance, the vertebrate eye (including the human eye) has a blind spot, whereas octopus eyes do not. In those two lineages, the eye was originally constructed one way or the other. Once the vertebrate eye was constructed, there were no intermediate forms that were both adaptive and would have enabled it to evolve without a blind spot.


Proximate explanations[edit]

3 Mechanism (causation)[edit]

Proximate causal mechanisms correspond to Aristotle's material cause. Some prominent classes of proximate causal mechanisms include:


The brain: For example, Broca's area, a small section of the human brain, has a critical role in linguistic capability.

Hormones: Chemicals used to communicate among cells of an individual organism. Testosterone, for instance, stimulates aggressive behaviour in a number of species.

Pheromones: Chemicals used to communicate among members of the same species. Some species (e.g., dogs and some moths) use pheromones to attract mates.

In examining living organisms, biologists are confronted with diverse levels of complexity (e.g. chemical, physiological, psychological, social). They therefore investigate causal and functional relations within and between these levels. A biochemist might examine, for instance, the influence of social and ecological conditions on the release of certain neurotransmitters and hormones, and the effects of such releases on behaviour, e.g. stress during birth has a tocolytic (contraction-suppressing) effect.


However, awareness of neurotransmitters and the structure of neurons is not by itself enough to understand higher levels of neuroanatomic structure or behaviour: "The whole is more than the sum of its parts." All levels must be considered as being equally important: cf. transdisciplinarity, Nicolai Hartmann's "Laws about the Levels of Complexity."


4 Ontogeny (development)[edit]

In the latter half of the twentieth century, social scientists debated whether human behaviour was the product of nature (genes) or nurture (environment in the developmental period, including culture).


An example of interaction (as distinct from the sum of the components) involves familiarity from childhood. In a number of species, individuals prefer to associate with familiar individuals but prefer to mate with unfamiliar ones (Alcock 2001:85–89, Incest taboo, Incest). By inference, genes affecting living together interact with the environment differently from genes affecting mating behaviour. A homely example of interaction involves plants: Some plants grow toward the light (phototropism) and some away from gravity (gravitropism).


Many forms of developmental learning have a critical period, for instance, for imprinting among geese and language acquisition among humans. In such cases, genes determine the timing of the environmental impact.


A related concept is labeled "biased learning" (Alcock 2001:101–103) and "prepared learning" (Wilson, 1998:86–87). For instance, after eating food that subsequently made them sick, rats are predisposed to associate that food with smell, not sound (Alcock 2001:101–103). Many primate species learn to fear snakes with little experience (Wilson, 1998:86–87).[10]


See developmental biology and developmental psychology.

In sociobiology and behavioural ecology, the term "mating system" is used to describe the ways in which animal societies are structured in relation to sexual behaviour. The mating system specifies which males mate with which females, and under what circumstances. There are four basic systems:


The four basic mating systems[4]:160–161[5]

Single female Multiple females

Single male Monogamy Polygyny

Multiple males Polyandry Polygynandry



Simplified population models usually start with four key variables (four demographic processes) including death, birth, immigration, and emigration. Mathematical models used to calculate changes in population demographics and evolution hold the assumption (or null hypothesis) of no external influence. Models can be more mathematically complex where "...several competing hypotheses are simultaneously confronted with the data."[4] For example, in a closed system where immigration and emigration does not take place, the rate of change in the number of individuals in a population can be described as:
























{\frac {dN}{dT}}=B-D=bN-dN=(b-d)N=rN,

where N is the total number of individuals in the population, B is the raw number of births, D is the raw number of deaths, b and d are the per capita rates of birth and death respectively, and r is the per capita average number of surviving offspring each individual has. This formula can be read as the rate of change in the population (dN/dT) is equal to births minus deaths (B - D).[3][5]


Using these techniques, Malthus' population principle of growth was later transformed into a mathematical model known as the logistic equation:















{\frac {dN}{dT}}=aN\left(1-{\frac {N}{K}}\right),


On September 30, 2007, Dawkins, Christopher Hitchens, Sam Harris, and Daniel Dennett met at Hitchens' residence for a private, unmoderated discussion that lasted two hours. The event was videotaped and titled "The Four Horsemen".

Culture shock is a concept in sociology that describes an anxiety that somebody feels when experiencing a culture that he is unfamiliar with. There are four stages of culture shock, and these stages fit the quadrant model. The phases of culture shock, according to sociologists are

Square 1: Honeymoon phase. During this phase the person has a kind of romantic view of the alien culture and even kind of likes it. He associates with people who know his language and enjoys the new experiences. The first square is the idealist personality type. The idealist tends to look at things in a positive light.

Square 2: Negotiation phase. After about three months differences between the culture become apparent and produce anxiety in the individual. He begins to become aware of false friends, becomes aware of linguistic faux pas, and realizes that he does not know how to receive necessary things like medical help for illnesses like in his home land.

Square 3: Adjustment phase. Around 6 to 12 months the person falls into routines and things become easier for him. The third square is the doing stage. He is now making adjustments and getting what he needs to get done.

Square 4: Adaptation phase. Now the person can conduct himself masterfully in the new culture. He has now transformed himself to be bicultural. The fourth square is death of the old and birth of the new.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

According to sociologists there are four types of social movements. Aberle introduced this model of social movements accepted by sociologists today. It fits the quadrant model pattern. Social movements are designated through two dichotomies. One is limited change v. radical change. The other is everyone v. specific individuals. The four movements are

Square 1:Alternative social movements are at the individual level and advocate for minor change; redemptive social movements are at the individual level and advocate for radical changes. This fits with the idealist. Idealists tend to have ideas that the majority does not have since they are abstract. They also are more conservative and like the status quo. They want to be accepted more because they are cooperative. So they do not want

Square 2:Reformative movements occur at a broader group or societal level and advocate for minor changes. This fits with the guardian. There are a lot of guardians. But they are cooperative and do not want to see the status quo completely toppled.

Square 3: Revolutionary moments occur at a broader group or societal level and advocate for radical changes. Revolutionary movements fit the artisan who is more violent. There are also a lot of artisans.

Square 4: A redemptive social movement is radical in scope but centers on the individual. There are not so many rationals and they are abstract so their ideas might not be shared by the majority. But they are also utilitarian like the artisan and do not mind radical changes.


In his Power and Prestige (1966) and Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology (1974), Gerhard Lenski expands on the works of Leslie White and Lewis Henry Morgan,[22] developing the ecological-evolutionary theory. He views technological progress as the most basic factor in the evolution of societies and cultures.[22] Unlike White, who defined technology as the ability to create and utilise energy, Lenski focuses on information—its amount and uses.[22] The more information and knowledge (especially allowing the shaping of natural environment) a given society has, the more advanced it is.[22] He distinguishes four stages of human development, based on advances in the history of communication.[22] In the first stage, information is passed by genes.[22] In the second, when humans gain sentience, they can learn and pass information through by experience.[22] In the third, humans start using signs and develop logic.[22] In the fourth, they can create symbols and develop language and writing.[22] Advancements in the technology of communication translate into advancements in the economic system and political system, distribution of goods, social inequality and other spheres of social life. He also differentiates societies based on their level of technology, communication and economy: (1) hunters and gatherers, (2) agricultural, (3) industrial, and (4) special (like fishing societies).[22]


The Pitcairn Islands form the southeasternmost extension of the geological archipelago of the Tuamotus of French Polynesia, and consist of four islands: Pitcairn Island, Oeno Island (atoll with five islets, one of which is Sandy Island), Henderson Island and Ducie Island (atoll with four islets).


With only about 50 permanent inhabitants, originating from four main families,[3] Pitcairn is the least populous national jurisdiction in the world

Ducie Island /ˈduːsi/ is an uninhabited atoll in the Pitcairn Islands. It lies 535 kilometres (332 mi) east of Pitcairn Island, and 354 kilometres (220 mi) east of Henderson Island, and has a total area of 1.5 square miles (3.9 km2), which includes the lagoon. It is 1.5 miles (2.4 km) long, measured northeast to southwest, and about 1 mile (1.6 km) wide. The island is composed of four islets: Acadia, Pandora, Westward and Edwards.

Ducie Island /ˈduːsi/ is an uninhabited atoll in the Pitcairn Islands. It lies 535 kilometres (332 mi) east of Pitcairn Island, and 354 kilometres (220 mi) east of Henderson Island, and has a total area of 1.5 square miles (3.9 km2), which includes the lagoon. It is 1.5 miles (2.4 km) long, measured northeast to southwest, and about 1 mile (1.6 km) wide. The island is composed of four islets: Acadia, Pandora, Westward and Edwards.


The atoll consists of four islets: Acadia, Pandora, Westward and Edwards.[33] The last three of these can be accessed on foot from Acadia at low tide.[29] The islets were named by Harald Rehder and John Randall, who visited the atoll during an expedition by the Smithsonian Institution in 1975.[34]


Acadia Islet, along the atoll's north and east rim, is larger than the other three islets combined, measuring 140 acres (57 ha).[29] Very long and thin, the islet is largely forested and is composed of ridges of coral rubble. It is named after the Acadia, a ship that was wrecked on Ducie in 1881.[35]

Pandora Islet, in the south, is the second largest. It is composed of sand and coral rubble that borders the lagoon. It is named after HMS Pandora.[36]

Edwards Islet lies immediately to the east of Pandora Islet and has the same characteristics. It is named after Edward Edwards, captain of HMS Pandora.[36]

Westward Islet, west of Pandora Islet, is the smallest. It appears sandy from a distance, but the soil is composed of coral rubble and dead shells. Its highest point rises 15 feet (4.6 m) above average sea level. It is named after the Westward, the ship that carried the members of the National Geographic Society and the Oceanic Institute during their 1970–71 expedition.[30]



Maui Nui or Greater Maui, is a modern geologists' name given to a prehistoric Hawaiian Island

1.2 million years ago, Maui Nui was 14,600 square kilometres (5,600 sq mi),[1] 40% larger than the present-day island of Hawaiʻi. Sea levels were lower than today's due to distant glaciation locking up the Earth's water during ice ages, thus exposing more land. As the volcanoes slowly settled by subsidence due to the weight of the shield volcanoes and erosion, the saddles between them slowly flooded, forming four islands: Maui, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi and Kahoʻolawe by about 200,000 years ago. Another former volcanic island lying west of Molokaʻi was completely submerged and covered with a cap of coral; it is now known as Penguin Bank.

The sea floor between these four islands is relatively shallow, about 500 metres (1,600 ft) deep, and all of the islands except Kahoʻolawe were joined during the low sea levels of the last glacial maximum, about 20,000 years ago. But at the outer edges of former Maui Nui, as with the edges of all Hawaiian Islands, the floor plummets to the abyssal ocean floor of the Pacific Ocean. The steep slopes can result in massive landslides due to flank collapse, including one which removed most of the northern half of East Molokaʻi.

Administratively, the current islands remaining from Maui Nui comprise Maui County (with the minor exception of a tiny part of Molokaʻi which comprises Kalawao County).…/03_04_10.html
The four islands of Maui, Moloka`i, Lana`i, and Kaho`olawe were once all connected as a vast landmass known as Maui Nui, literally "big Maui."



In Allen's world-historical theory of kinship, humanity began with a tetradic-Dravidian system based on cross-cousin marriage and defined by alternate generation, prescriptive, and classificatory equations


Roger Harrison's four-culture typology, and adapted by Charles Handy, suggests that unlike organizational culture, corporate culture can be 'imported'.


Hofstede demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behavior of organizations and identified four dimensions of culture (later five[38]) in his study of national cultures:


Power distance (Mauk Mulder, 1977) – Different societies find different solutions regarding social inequality. Although invisible, inside organizations power inequality of the "boss-subordinate relationships" is functional and according to Hofstede reflects the way inequality is addressed in the society. "According to Mulder's Power Distance Reduction theory subordinates will try to reduce the power distance between themselves and their bosses and bosses will try to maintain or enlarge it", but there is also a degree to which a society expects there to be differences in the levels of power. A high score suggests that there is an expectation that some individuals wield larger amounts of power than others. A low score reflects the view that all people should have equal rights.

Uncertainty avoidance is the way of coping with uncertainty about the future. Society copes with it with technology, law and religion (though different societies have different ways of addressing it), and according to Hofstede organizations deal with it with technology, law and rituals, or in two ways – rational and non-rational, with rituals being the non-rational. Hofstede listed some of the rituals as the memos and reports, some parts of the accounting system, a large part of the planning and control systems, and the nomination of experts.

Individualism vs. collectivism – disharmony of interests on personal and collective goals (Parsons and Shils, 1951). Hofstede raises the idea that society's expectations of Individualism/Collectivism will be reflected by the employee inside the organization. Collectivist societies will have more emotional dependence on members in their organizations; when in equilibrium an organization is expected to show responsibility to members. Extreme individualism is seen in the US. In fact, collectivism in the US is seen as "bad". Other cultures and societies than the US will therefore seek to resolve social and organizational problems in ways different from American ways. Hofstede says that a capitalist market economy fosters individualism and competition, and depends on it, but individualism is also related to the development of the middle class. Some people and cultures might have both high individualism and high collectivism. For example, someone who highly values duty to his or her group does not necessarily give a low priority to personal freedom and self-sufficiency.

Masculinity vs. femininity – reflects whether a certain society is predominantly male or female in terms of cultural values, gender roles and power relations.

Long- Versus Short-Term Orientation[38] which he describes as "The long-term orientation dimension can be interpreted as dealing with society's search for virtue. Societies with a short-term orientation generally have a strong concern with establishing the absolute Truth. They are normative in their thinking. They exhibit great respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to save for the future, and a focus on achieving quick results. In societies with a long-term orientation, people believe that truth depends very much on situation, context and time. They show an ability to adapt traditions to changed conditions, a strong propensity to save and invest, thriftiness, and perseverance in achieving results."[39]

These dimensions refer to the effect of national cultures on management, and can be used to adapt policies to local needs. In a follow up study, another model[38] is suggested for organizational culture.

Daniel Denison[edit]

Daniel Denison's model (1990) asserts that organizational culture can be described by FOUR general dimensions – Mission, Adaptability, Involvement and Consistency. Each of these general dimensions is further described by the following three sub-dimensions:


Mission – Strategic Direction and Intent, Goals and Objectives and Vision

Adaptability – Creating Change, Customer Focus and Organizational Learning

Involvement – Empowerment, Team Orientation and Capability Development

Consistency – Core Values, Agreement, Coordination/Integration

Denison's model also allows cultures to be described broadly as externally or internally focused as well as flexible versus stable. The model has been typically used to diagnose cultural problems in organizations.



Charles Handy[edit]

Charles Handy (1976), popularized Roger Harrison (1972) with linking organizational structure to organizational culture. The described four types of culture are:[42]


Power culture: concentrates power among a small group or a central figure and its control is radiating from its center like a web. Power cultures need only a few rules and little bureaucracy but swift in decisions can ensue.

Role culture: authorities are delegated as such within a highly defined structure. These organizations form hierarchical bureaucracies, where power derives from the personal position and rarely from an expert power. Control is made by procedures (which are highly valued), strict roles descriptions and authority definitions. These organizations have consistent systems and are very predictable. This culture is often represented by a "Roman Building" having pillars. These pillars represent the functional departments.

Task culture: teams are formed to solve particular problems. Power is derived from the team with the expertise to execute against a task. This culture uses a small team approach, where people are highly skilled and specialized in their own area of expertise. Additionally, these cultures often feature the multiple reporting lines seen in a matrix structure.

Person culture: formed where all individuals believe themselves superior to the organization. It can become difficult for such organizations to continue to operate, since the concept of an organization suggests that a group of like-minded individuals pursue organizational goals. However some professional partnerships operate well as person cultures, because each partner brings a particular expertise and clientele to the firm.


Kim Cameron and Robert Quinn[edit]

See also: Archetype

Kim Cameron and Robert Quinn (1999) conducted research on organizational effectiveness and success. Based on the Competing Values Framework, they developed the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument that distinguishes four culture types.


Competing values produce polarities like flexibility vs. stability and internal vs. external focus – these two polarities were found to be most important in defining organizational success. The polarities construct a quadrant with four types of culture:


Clan culture (internal focus and flexible) – A friendly workplace where leaders act like father figures.

Adhocracy culture (external focus and flexible) – A dynamic workplace with leaders that stimulate innovation.

Market culture (external focus and controlled) – A competitive workplace with leaders like hard drivers

Hierarchy culture (internal focus and controlled) – A structured and formalized workplace where leaders act like coordinators.

Cameron and Quinn designated six characteristics of organizational culture that can be assessed with the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI).


Clan cultures are most strongly associated with positive employee attitudes and product and service quality.[43] Market cultures are most strongly related with innovation and financial effectiveness criteria. The primary belief in market cultures that clear goals and contingent rewards motivate employees to aggressively perform and meet stakeholders' expectations; a core belief in clan cultures is that the organization's trust in and commitment to employees facilitates open communication and employee involvement. These differing results suggest that it is important for executive leaders to consider the match between strategic initiatives and organizational culture when determining how to embed a culture that produces competitive advantage. By assessing the current organizational culture as well as the preferred situation, the gap and direction to change can be made visible as a first step to changing organizational culture.


Deal and Kennedy[edit]

Deal and Kennedy (1982)[10] defined organizational culture as the way things get done around here.


Deal and Kennedy created a model of culture that is based on 4 different types of organizations. They each focus on how quickly the organization receives feedback, the way members are rewarded, and the level of risks taken:[41]


Work-hard, play-hard culture: This has rapid feedback/reward and low risk resulting in: Stress coming from quantity of work rather than uncertainty. High-speed action leading to high-speed recreation. Examples: Restaurants, software companies.[41]

Tough-guy macho culture: This has rapid feedback/reward and high risk, resulting in the following: Stress coming from high risk and potential loss/gain of reward. Focus on the present rather than the longer-term future. Examples: police, surgeons, sports.[41]

Process culture: This has slow feedback/reward and low risk, resulting in the following: Low stress, plodding work, comfort and security. Stress that comes from internal politics and stupidity of the system. Development of bureaucracies and other ways of maintaining the status quo. Focus on security of the past and of the future. Examples: banks, insurance companies.[10][41]

Bet-the-company culture: This has slow feedback/reward and high risk, resulting in the following: Stress coming from high risk and delay before knowing if actions have paid off. The long view is taken, but then much work is put into making sure things happen as planned. Examples: aircraft manufacturers, oil companies.

The Gartner Magic Quadrant (MQ) is the brand name for a series of market research reports published by Gartner Inc., a US-based research and advisory firm. According to Gartner, the Magic Quadrant aims to provide a qualitative analysis into a market and its direction, maturity and participants.[1]

Their analyses are conducted for several specific technology industries and are updated every 1–2 years.

Gartner rates vendors upon two criteria: completeness of vision and ability to execute.Using a methodology which Gartner does not disclose, these component scores lead to a vendor position in one of four quadrants:

Leaders are said to score higher on both criteria: the ability to execute and completeness of vision. These are said to be typically larger, mature businesses.

Challengers are said to score higher on the ability to execute and lower on the completeness of vision. Typically larger, settled businesses with what Gartner claims to be minimal future plans for that industry.

Visionaries are said to score lower on the ability to execute and higher on the completeness of vision. Typically smaller companies.

Niche players are said to score lower on both criteria: the ability to execute and completeness of vision. Typically new additions to the Magic Quadrant.

The Microsoft Scenarios is four “future of the world” scenarios that Microsoft uses to test its strategies, and is the basis of Listening to the Future by Dan Rasmus and Rob Salkowitz. The diagram is used for scenario planning, and the idea is that if a strategy seems robust to the four scenarios (the metaphor used is “wind tunnel testing”), then it is a good strategy. The quadrant diagram is

Square 1: more regionalized, centralized and hierarchical- continental drift

Square 2: more regionalized, distributed and networked- frontier fiction

Square 3: centralized and hierarchical, more globalized- proud tower

Square 4: more globalized, distributed and networked- freelance planet

David Allen’s Making It All Work is a book with a quadrant diagram that he calls the self management matrix in which he has two axis. One is perspective, the other is control. The types that he ultimately presents are

Square 1: High perspective low control- the visionary crazy- maker

Square 2: Low perspective low control- the victim- responder

Square 3: High perspective high control- master and commander

Square 4: High perspective high control- implementer

Big Four (banking)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The Big Four is the colloquial name for the four main banks in several countries, where the banking industry is dominated by just four institutions and where the phrase has gained currency.


Contents [hide]

1 International use

2 Australia/New Zealand

3 Belgium

4 Brazil

5 Canada

6 China

7 Finland

8 France

9 Germany

10 Greece

11 Hong Kong

12 Hungary

13 Indonesia

14 Ireland

15 Italy

16 Japan

17 Lebanon

18 Luxembourg

19 Netherlands

20 Pakistan

21 Portugal

22 Singapore

23 South Africa

24 South Korea

25 Spain

26 Sweden

27 Thailand

28 United Kingdom

29 United States

30 Vietnam

31 References

International use[edit]

Internationally, the term "Big Four Banks" has traditionally referred to the following central banks:[1]


United States The Federal Reserve

China The People's Bank of China

Japan The Bank of Japan

European Union The European Central Bank

The Bank of England is occasionally also included in the list:[2]


United Kingdom The Bank of England

Australia/New Zealand[edit]

See also: Banking in Australia

In Australia, the "big four banks" refers to the four largest banks[3] by market share, who between them hold 80% of the home loan markets in the country. In 2012, their combined total asset is A$2.66 trillion, which is about 200% of Australian GDP in 2011. In order of total assets, these are:


National Australia Bank (NAB)

Commonwealth Bank (CBA) (was owned by Commonwealth Australian Government up to 1996)

Australia and New Zealand Banking Group (ANZ)

Westpac (WBC)

A longstanding policy of the federal government in Australia has been to maintain this status quo, called the "four pillars policy". The policy has been maintained through the Global Recession of 2008–09, as Westpac acquired St.George Bank and the Commonwealth Bank acquired Bankwest, reinforcing the special status of the "big four".


Being New Zealand's closest neighbour, with very close ties culturally and economically, has helped Australia dominate the banking sector there. Often referred to collectively as the 'big banks'[4][5][6] or the 'big Aussie banks', the "Big Four" Australian banks also dominate the New Zealand banking sector in the form of:


Australia and New Zealand Banking Group, or ANZ, also comprising the former business of The National Bank.

ASB Bank, formerly Auckland Savings Bank, wholly owned by the Commonwealth Bank

The Bank of New Zealand (BNZ), wholly owned by the National Australia Bank

Westpac, formerly known as WestpacTrust after a merger with the Trust Bank.

Together they hold over 90% of gross loans and advances in New Zealand [7] as well as close to 90% of all mortgages.[8]


These four subsidiaries are massively profitable and in some cases even outperform the Australian parent company.[9] The extent to which they dominate the banking sector can be seen in profits: In the 2012/2013 financial year, the largest of the Big Banks, ANZ New Zealand, made a profit of NZ$1.37 billion. The smallest, BNZ, made a profit of NZ$695 million.[4] State-owned Kiwibank, community trust-owned TSB Bank, SBS Bank (formerly Southland Building Society) and Heartland Bank, the next four largest banks by profit, made NZ$97 million,[10] NZ$73.5 million,[11] NZ$14 million[12] and NZ$7 million (albeit with an underlying result of about NZ$30 million) respectively.[13] In other words, the profit of New Zealand's next four largest banks (after the Big Four) is equal to less than 30% of the smallest of the Big Four, BNZ.



The "Big Four" banks of Belgium are a result of national- and international mergers in the early 90s.


Belfius, government owned bank

BNP Paribas Fortis, subsidiary of BNP Paribas

ING Bank, subsidiary of the ING Group

KBC Bank, including its CBC Banque subsidiary in the French Community of Belgium and KBC Brussels brand in the Brussels-Capital Region


In Brazil, the "big four", according to the Central Bank of Brazil database ( are:


Banco do Brasil - The largest bank in Brazil; state-run.

Itaú Unibanco - The largest private bank.

Caixa Econômica Federal - state-run.

Banco Bradesco


See also: Big Five (banks)

The term "Big Five", is used as opposed to four, with five banks dominating Canadian banking. The operation of Canadian banks include retail banking, mutual funds, insurance, credit cards, and brokerage activities. In addition, they have large international subsidiaries operated through subsidiaries (i.e. CIBC FirstCaribbean International Bank, and TD Bank, N.A.). The Canadian banking operations of the Big Five are largely conducted out of each parent company, unlike U.S. banks that use a holding company structure to hold their primary retail banking subsidiaries. The Big Five include:


Royal Bank of Canada

Toronto-Dominion Bank

Bank of Nova Scotia

Bank of Montreal

Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce


See also: Banking in China

During the 1920s, the term “Big Four” applied to the Four Northern Banks of the Republic of China (i.e. the four most capitalized commercial banks in Northern China).[14] These were the Yien Yieh Commercial Bank, the Kincheng Banking Corporation, the Continental Bank and The China & South Sea Bank. These were contrasted with the Three Southern Banks of Southern China.


By 1949, the Big Four banks were the Bank of China, the Bank of Communications, the Central Bank of China and the Farmers Bank of China. All four were state-owned banks. These four, together with Central Trust of China, Postal Savings and Remittance Bureau of China, Central Cooperative Treasury of China, were called the "Four Banks, Two Bureaus, One Treasury" or "四行两局一库".[15]


Currently, in the People's Republic of China, the Big Four commercial banks ("四大商业银行") are:


Bank of China

China Construction Bank

Industrial and Commercial Bank of China

Agricultural Bank of China

and have been described as such in the Western press. All four are state-controlled banks with commercial banking operations.



The biggest banks in Finland are:


Nordea (predominantly Swedish), Danske (predominantly Danish), Osuuspankki (fully Finnish) and the fourth place is a tie between Aktia, S-pankki and Ålandsbanken.


Finland does not follow the Big 4 model so much as a model of 3 Major + 3 minor.


In the past, pre-1995, the situation was more akin to the "Big Four" model with SYP, KOP, Postipankki and Säästöpankki ruling the banking sector of the country.


This era came to pass, however, by a string of bankruptcies and restructuring.



BNP Paribas

Crédit Agricole

Société Générale



In Germany, the largest four banks are:


Deutsche Bank



DZ Bank


In Greece, after a series of mergers and acquisitions following the Greek government-debt crisis, the sector has concentrated with the below 4 banks controlling more than 90% of the market.


National Bank of Greece

Piraeus Bank

Alpha Bank

Eurobank Ergasias

In 2013 the National Bank of Greece attempted to acquire Eurobank Ergasias but later the plan was abandoned.


Hong Kong[edit]


Bank of China

Hang Seng Bank

Standard Chartered


OTP Bank


K&H Bank

Raiffaisen Bank




In Indonesia, the largest four banks are:


Bank Rakyat Indonesia

Bank Mandiri

Bank Central Asia

Bank Negara Indonesia


In Ireland, the term "big four" applies to the four largest banks by market capitalisation.[16][17] These all operate in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, and have a wider international presence; these banks also issue banknotes in Northern Ireland.[18][19]


Bank of Ireland

Allied Irish Banks (operates as First Trust Bank in Northern Ireland)[20]

Danske Bank (also operates as Danske Bank in Northern Ireland[21]) - Irish Branch of Danske Bank A/S since 2007.

Ulster Bank - Subsidiary of The Royal Bank of Scotland Group since 2000/2001

Ever since Danske Bank has phased out its personal banking services, it has been suggested that either KBC Ireland or Permanent TSB could replace, in the medium-term, Danske Bank in the "Big Four" ranking.



In Italy the term "big four" is not explicitly used. Banks are rated according to their market capitalization. The first four in 2015 are:[22]


Intesa Sanpaolo


UBI Banca

Banca Mediolanum


In Japan, the "big four" are:[23]


Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group

Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group

Mizuho Financial Group

Japan Post Bank


In Lebanon, where the banks have retained their banking secrecy laws since 1956, which is prevalent in the whole MENA region, and while adopting international measures to fight money laundering, the "big four" banks consist of:[24]


Audi Saradar Bank (founded in 1830 and ranked on the Forbes Magazine Global 2000 list of largest public companies in the world in 2016)

Byblos Bank (founded in 1950 as “Société Commerciale et Agricole Byblos Bassil Frères & Co.”)

BLOM: Banque du Liban et d'Outre-Mer S.A.L (founded in 1951)

FRANSABANK (founded in 1921 as Société Centrale de Banque)

Furthermore, as of September 2016, there are more than 51 banks in Lebanon, one of the smallest countries in the middle east, the fact that has always made investors from the Arab countries, especially the GCC petrodollar in addition to the European and world investors, to place their funds in the Lebanese banks.



The big four full-service in Luxembourg are:[25]


Banque et Caisse d'Épargne de l'État (Spuerkeess), state owned bank

Banque Internationale à Luxembourg,

BGL BNP Paribas

ING Luxembourg

It should be noted that there are bigger banks in Luxembourg, but these only deliver a limited number of services such as investment banking, private banking or corporate banking only. Luxembourg is a financial center.



The "big four" banks in the Netherlands by market concentration are:[26]


ING Group



de Volksbank, state owned banking arm of SNS Reaal

It should be noted that the market leader for the Netherlands, ING Group, is one of the largest multinational banking and financial service corporations in the world, with products and services reaching over 41 countries worldwide. [27]



The "top five" banks of Pakistan are:[28]


Habib Bank

MCB Bank Limited

National Bank of Pakistan

United Bank

Allied Bank Limited


In Portugal, the "big four" are:[29]


Banco Comercial Português

Banco Português de Investimento

Caixa Geral de Depósitos (state-owned)

Novo Banco (former Banco Espírito Santo)


DBS Bank


United Overseas Bank

South Africa[edit]

In South Africa, the "big four" are:[30]


Standard Bank (Not at all related to Standard Chartered Bank)

FirstRand Bank (operators of First National Bank)

Nedbank - owned by Old Mutual.

Barclays Africa Group Limited trading as ABSA (also capitalised as Absa)- majority owned by Barclays since 2005; remainder owned by the public.

South Korea[edit]

In South Korea, the term "Big Five", is used as opposed to four. The "big five" are:[citation needed]


KB Kookmin Bank

Nonghyup Bank

Shinhan Bank

Woori Bank

Hana Bank


In Spain, the "big four" are:[31]


Bankia (Bank of Madrid and Valencia)

BBVA (Bank of Bilbao and Biscay)

Caixabank (Bank of Barcelona and Seville)



In Sweden, the "big four" are:[32]


Nordea Bank AB

Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken AB

Svenska Handelsbanken AB

Swedbank AB


before Siamese Revolution the banking system are control by foreign power particularly the "big four" European bank


The Hongkong and Shanghai Bank in 1888 (Now HSBC)

The Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China in 1894 (ฺNow Standard Chartered Bank Thailand)

Banque de l'Indochine in 1897 (Now Banque Calyon a Subsidiaries of Crédit Agricole)

Mercantile Bank of India in 1923 (์Now Citibank Thailand a Subsidiaries of Citigroup)

in 2014, the "big four" Bank [33] Together they hold over 66% of gross loans and controlling more than 67% of total assets in banking system [34]


Bangkok Bank

Siam Commercial Bank

Krung Thai Bank


United Kingdom[edit]

In relation to the United Kingdom, the phrase "big four banks" is currently used to refer to the four largest UK-based banking groups, being:




Lloyds Banking Group; and

The Royal Bank of Scotland Group.[35][36]

Until 1970, the phrase "big five banks" was used to refer to the five largest UK clearing banks (institutions which clear bankers' cheques), which in England and Wales were:


Barclays Bank (now part of Barclays);

Midland Bank (now HSBC Bank and part of HSBC);

Lloyds Bank (now part of Lloyds Banking Group);

National Provincial Bank and

Westminster Bank

After the merger of Westminster Bank and National Provincial Bank to form NatWest (now part of The Royal Bank of Scotland Group) in 1970, the term "big four" was used.


In Scotland the "big four" were:


The Royal Bank of Scotland ("RBS") (part of The Royal Bank of Scotland Group);

Bank of Scotland (part of Lloyds Banking Group);

Clydesdale Bank (part of CYBG plc); and

Trustee Savings Bank ("TSB") (now part of TSB ).[37]

United States[edit]

In the United States, the "big four" banks hold 39% of all U.S. customer deposits (as of 2015), and consist of:[38][39]


JPMorgan Chase (headquartered in New York, New York, bank chartered in Columbus, Ohio)

Bank of America (headquartered and bank chartered in Charlotte, North Carolina)

Citigroup (headquartered in New York, New York, bank chartered in Sioux Falls, South Dakota)

Wells Fargo (headquartered in San Francisco, California, bank chartered in Sioux Falls, South Dakota)

From a retail banking perspective, U.S. Bancorp (headquarters in Minneapolis, Minnesota/bank charter Cincinnati, Ohio) and PNC Financial Services (headquarters in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania/bank charter Wilmington, Delaware) both have significantly more branches than Citibank, the retail banking arm of Citigroup.[40] However, Citibank still has significantly more assets than U.S. Bancorp and PNC.[41]



In Vietnam, the "big four" banks by total assets are four commercial banks:






The Four Asian Tigers or Four Asian Dragons is a term used in reference to the highly free-market and developed economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. These nations and areas were notable for maintaining exceptionally high growth rates (in excess of 7 percent a year) and rapid industrialization between the early 1960s (mid-1950s for Hong Kong) and 1990s. By the 21st century, all four had developed into advanced and high-income economies, specializing in areas of competitive advantage. For example, Hong Kong and Singapore have become world-leading international financial centers, whereas South Korea and Taiwan are world leaders in manufacturing information technology. Their economic success stories have served as role models for many developing countries,[1][2][3] especially the Tiger Cub Economies.




In economics courses you will learn about the four tiger economies. A tiger economy is the economy of a country which undergoes rapid economic growth, usually accompanied by an increase in the standard of living.[1] The term was originally used for the Four Asian Tigers (South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore) as tigers are important in Asian symbolism, which also inspired the Tiger Cub Economies (Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines).

While economics courses will talk about the four tiger economies there is also the tiger cubs the wolfs and the lionsège_des_Quatre-Nations

The Collège des Quatre-Nations ("College of the Four Nations"), also known as the Collège Mazarin after its founder, was one of the colleges of the historic University of Paris. It was founded through a bequest by the Cardinal Mazarin. At his death in 1661, he also bequeathed his library, the Bibliothèque Mazarine, which he had opened to scholars since 1643, to the Collège des Quatre-Nations.

The name of the college alludes to the four nations of students at the medieval Parisian university. It was not intended for students of the historical university nations, but for those coming from territories which had recently come under French rule through the Peace of Westphalia (1648) and the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659).[1]

According to the Cardinal's will it was to have the following composition:

Flanders, Artois, Hainaut, and Luxembourg (20 students);

Alsace and other Germanic territories (15);

Roussillon, Conflent, and Cerdagne (10);

Pignerol and the Papal states

Notable students of the college include the encyclopedist Jean le Rond d'Alembert (1717–1783), the actor Henri Louis Cain (1728–1778), the painter Jacques-Louis David (1748–1825), the critic Julien Louis Geoffroy (1743–1814) and the chemist Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743–1794).,[3] the mathematician Adrien-Marie Legendre…/study-gu…/summary-chapters-17-20
Aristotle presents four kinds of tragedy:
a) complex - depending entirely on reversal and recognition at the climax
b) pathetic - motivated by passion
c) ethical - motivated by moral purpose
d) simple - without reversal or recognition

Aristotle distinguishes among four types of agents on the basis of their character:

The wicked, who doesn't even know what the right action is and, even worse, confuses virtue (moral/character excellence) with vice. He may think, for example, that prodigality is a virtue.

The weak willed, who knows what the human excellencies are, but fails to perform the right action either because his moral perception fails him, or because he is moved by contrary passions.

It's fair to say that all of us have experienced this state.

The strong willed, who knows what to do and what kind of person to be and acts correctly without, however, feeling any pleasure in it. He brings himself to do it, as it were, like Kant’s misanthrope who, however, conscientiously performs his duty towards humanity.

The virtuous, who knows what to do, what kind person to be, and being that kind of person feels pleasure in acting virtuously.

Fowers book recites Aristotle’s four kinds of character. The four character types emerge from the combination of the two dimensions of moral duty and one’s personal inclinations. Moral duty refers to acting toward what is good, whereas the latter refers to the emotional inclination to act on one’s desires. The four kinds of character that emerge are as follows:
1. The Continent Character is one who has selfish, amoral, or immoral desires, but exhibits control over them in the service of acting morally. For example, a man in a committed relationship who lusts after another woman but inhibits acting on those feelings because the betrayal of his wife goes against the good would be acting as a continent character. Interestingly, Kant believed that the moral and the personal inclinations were inevitably in conflict and the times when an individual suppressed his desires and acted morally were examples of the highest good.
2. The Incontinent Character knows what the right or virtuous thing is to do, but does not have the self-control to live by his morals. Continuing with the example above, this would be an individual who would know that it was wrong to betray his wife and have a casual affair, but would give into his desires, perhaps feeling guilty afterwards.
3. The Vicious Character, in contrast, feels no conflict between inclinations and moral duty because he has no moral sense of the good. Such individuals simply act on their own selfish inclinations, as these are seen as what is valuable. Continuing with the above example, a vicious character would cheat on his wife with no guilt and simply work to solve the problem of her finding out about it so that it would not inconvenience him.
4. The Virtuous Character also feels no conflict between emotional inclinations and moral duty. Why? Because the virtuous character has trained his emotional system to be aligned with his moral inclinations. In short, at a deep emotional level, the virtuous character wants to do the good. While such a character might indeed have sexual feelings for another, he would feel pride and connection in acting in a loyal, trustworthy manner and the very thought of cheating or acting immorally is deeply aversive for the virtuous character. In contrast to Kant, Aristotle believed that the virtuous character represented the highest ideal.


Wiltshire housing estate built in shape of swastika

Householders in Devizes, Wiltshire were amazed to discover their homes have been built in the shape of a swastika.






An aerial view of the dozen homes in Waiblingen Way Devizes, Wilts., reveals they look just like Hitler's hated symbol. The 1960s council estate is built at the end of Waiblingen Way - a road named after the town's twin settlement in Germany

An aerial view of the dozen homes in Waiblingen Way Devizes, Wilts Photo: Bluesky /

By Telegraph reporters and agencies10:24AM GMT 17 Nov 2013

Residents of a quiet housing estate twinned with a German town were shocked to find their homes are shaped -- like a swastika.

An aerial view of the dozen houses in Devizes, Wiltshire reveals they look just like Hitler's symbol.

The 1960s council estate is built at the end of Waiblingen Way - a road named after the town's twin settlement of Waiblingen in south west Germany.

A local resident said: "When I saw the aerial pictures I just couldn't believe it.

"We had no idea that our houses looked just like the swastika symbol but there isn't much we can do about it now."

There's always been a desire to let people kill Nazis in video games. It's been on the priority list since the beginning of the medium. If the graphics technology had existed at the time, Pong would've featured Hitler's severed head being bounced and bruised between two paddles. (Note to self: Next Candy Crush?????)


There's always been a roadblock in front of the game designers who've so deeply wanted to provide a fun, safe space for people to kill Nazis: The unsettling feeling of seeing swastikas and/or Hitler in your video games. Nintendo of America, in particular, had (and still has, I believe) policies banning Nazi iconography; other video game producers and manufactures were also varying levels of skittish.


But that's evolved over the years. Modern, more realistic, Teen- or Mature-rated World War II video games are now swimming in swastikas. In older games, they were a rarity. Here are 11 awkward moments with swastikas, Nazis and Hitler in video game history.

Bionic Commando (NES, 1988)




Bionic Commando was the most Nazi-heavy game created for the original Nintendo. Not that people knew it in the U.S. (Unless your pen pal in Japan told you on Usenet or something.) Virtually all of the Nazi references were thoroughly scrubbed when the game transitioned from Japan to the U.S.


The original name, Hitler's Revival: Top Secret, was changed to Bionic Commando. All swastikas were changed to eagles. The plot of neo-Nazis figuring out how to reincarnate Hitler was changed to a group called the Badds reincarnating their leader, Master-D. Ooooh, I hate those Badds.


But even though Hitler was now Master-D... they didn't bother to change his look. When you faced him in the final battle, he still had his Charlie Chaplin mustache. (Although, once you beat him, his face still exploded in a rare moment of Nintendo gore.)


The Legend of Zelda (NES, 1986)




There's a dungeon level in the original Legend of Zelda that's shaped like a swastika. Sort of.


I mean, it is shaped like a swastika, only it's not, technically, a swastika. It's the manji symbol, which was a symbol associated with good luck in several Asian countries and religions. Once the Nazis appropriated it for their use, that should've killed it -- but it didn't. When people visit India, that places is still full of swastikas. (And extraordinarily cocky cows.)


So Nintendo designed a level to look like a swastika, and it's remained that way through every subsequent re-release of the game.


Bonk's Adventure (TurboGrafx-16, 1992)




Bonk was the attempted flagship Mario character of TurboGrafx-16. One of the early bosses in the first Bonk game was apparently a grandma (or hipster?) with platform shoes and swastikas embroidered on her lapels. No explanation was ever given for this, although, based solely on this one screenshot, I think they could've gone with, "We had really, really, really bad graphic designers on staff."


Golgo 13: Top Secret Episode (NES, 1988)




In the final battle, you face off against Hitler's brain, which produces a seemingly endless supply of cyborg Hitler clones and floating heads. (Hitler retains most of his look but is named "Smirk." You face off against an endless supply of Smirk clones and heads. Thus far we've seen Hitler renamed Master-D and Smirk. Creativity was weird in the '80s.)


Like many old Nintendo games, though, the difficulty level was set to "virtually impossible." And the ending was comically unsatisfying; when you finally killed 1,000 Hitlers and accurately sniped Hitler's brain, the game rewarded you by saying, ". . . AT LAST, THE BATTLE HAS BEEN FINISHED . . ."


Then it went to credits. And yes, the only possibility here is that the Japanese game designers were intentionally screwing with you on behalf of the Axis.


The Rocketeer (SNES, 1992)




I've been a big fan of The Rocketeer ever since I first saw it in theaters (21 years ago, gasp and clutch pearls). Howard Hughes and the Rocketeer fights Nazi, climactically on top of a Zeppelin. Can't beat that, right? Anyway, in the Super Nintendo adaptation of the game, the fight took place on any ol' Zeppelin, not the Nazi Zeppelin featured in the PC version of the game. In this case, PC ironically (I think it's ironic, and not just Internet ironic) meaning personal computer, not politically correct.


Iron Tank: The Invasion of Normandy (NES, 1988)




This was an early WWII game that went way over the top in hiding the Nazi imagery from Americans. Not only did they edit out the swastikas from the Japanese version -- they turned the Nazi flags blue. That's a quick way to infuriate purists, semi-purists, AND the Bloods and Crips.


Kid Dracula (Famicom, 1990)




This version of Kid Dracula would show up in black-and-white (or, rather, medium gray and light olive) on Game Boy. When it got to Game Boy, it was censored. But in Japan, he was fighting either KKK members or ghosts with swastikas on either their hoods or... um... ghost foreheads?


Persona 2: Innocent Sin (PSP, 2000)




This is a rare case where the Japanese version got the censorship and the U.S. version didn't. I think it comes back to someone at Sony having a hand-written card, a la Homer Simpson, that says, "Do the opposite of what Nintendo does." Nintendo censors Nazis in America and not Japan? Then we'll censor them in Japan and not America!


Anyway, in the Japanese version, they "softened" and Poochie-fied Hitler by putting him in shades. Which is just so much worse.


Wolfenstein 3D (SNES, 1994)




The Wolfenstein series has been carrying the video game banner of Nazi killing for three decades now. Various systems have allowed different amounts of swastika and Hitler appearances. Super Nintendo did the most thorough editing job. They got rid of all the swastikas... renamed Germany the "Master State" (which is, arguably, more offensive)... renamed Hitler as "Staatmeister"... had all the bad guys speak English, not German... and, in the most eye-opening twist, they even shaved Hitler's mustache.


In spite of all of that, there was still zero percent mystery as to what the game was all about.


Sonic Unleashed (PS2/Wii/360/PS3, 2008)




Modern video games are fine with Nazi imagery -- as long as it's in a historical context. Or, at least, a totally believable, organic story context, like zombie Nazis have come back to life trying to reclaim Hitler's gold and burn all the Woody Allen movies. But Sonic Unleashed didn't qualify. Here, a designer decided to put swastika designs onto some snowmen's clothes. Normally, you'd fly past them at high speeds and wouldn't see them. But if you slowed down, you could see then quite clearly. Sega ended up patching this. And thus, the 45,327th Sonic the Hedgehog video game was saved.


Phozon (Arcade, 1983)




Phozon was an early arcade game that had you build molecules. Well, not real molecules, just shapes that looked like molecules. Occasionally they were molecules shaped like swastikas, it seems. This game was only released in Japan, never the U.S., in what I assume was a successful quest not to give American children any chance to become interested in science.

The Swastika: Symbol Beyond Redemption? Paperback – Mar 4 2008

by Steven Heller (Author)

3.3 out of 5 stars 4 customer reviews

See all 4 formats and editions

Kindle Edition

CDN$ 14.29

Read with Our Free App


from CDN$ 19.55

6 Used from CDN$ 19.55

7 New from CDN$ 86.88


CDN$ 30.95

3 Used from CDN$ 20.48

18 New from CDN$ 15.48

Unlimited FREE Two-Day Shipping for Six Months When You Try Amazon Student

A Russian opera singer has pulled out of a star role at this year's Bayreuth Festival in Germany following publicity about a swastika tattoo.


Tasmania was colonised by successive waves of aboriginal people from southern Australia during glacial maxima, when the sea was at its lowest. The archeological and geographic record suggests a period of drying with the colder glacial period, with a desert extending from southern Australia into the midlands of Tasmania - with intermittent periods of wetter, warmer weather. People migrating from southern Australia into peninsular Tasmania would have crossed stretches of seawater, desert and finally found oases in the King highlands (now King Island). Recent research by the late linguist John Taylor suggests that there were four successive waves of migration over 40,000 years, classified by languages cognate with continental australian aboriginal language:

c39 000 BP - first migration commenced from the Otway/Murray River estuary via the King Highlands

c17 000 BP - new immigrants from South Grampians region enter Tasmania and displace Palawa

c17 000 BP - third wave of immigrants enter via the Furneaux highlands from Gippsland

c17 000 - 5 000BP - final wave of immigration via the King highlands from Mt Gambier/Warrnambool region

16 is the squares of the quadrant model


The 16 Habits of Mind identified by Costa and Kallick include:


Thinking and communicating with clarity and precision Managing impulsivity

Gathering data through all senses

Listening with understanding and empathy

Creating, imagining, innovating

Thinking flexibly

Responding with wonderment and awe

Thinking about thinking (metacognition)

Taking responsible risks

Striving for accuracy

Finding humor

Questioning and posing problems

Thinking interdependently

Applying past knowledge to new situations

Remaining open to continuous learning
Organization of space in territories[edit]

Two people not affecting each other's personal space

Reaction of two people whose regions of personal space are in conflict
While personal space describes the immediate space surrounding a person, territory refers to the area which a person may "lay claim to" and defend against others.[2] There are four forms of human territory in proxemic theory. They are:

Public territory: a place where one may freely enter. This type of territory is rarely in the constant control of just one person. However, people might come to temporarily own areas of public territory.
Interactional territory: a place where people congregate informally
Home territory: a place where people continuously have control over their individual territory
Body territory: the space immediately surrounding us


Interpersonal distance[edit]

Hall described the interpersonal distances of man (the relative distances between people) in four zones: intimate space, personal space, social space, and public space.




A chart depicting Edward T. Hall's interpersonal distances of man, showing radius in feet and meters

Intimate distance for embracing, touching or whispering

Close phase – less than 6 inches (15 cm)

Far phase – 6 to 18 inches (15 to 46 cm)

Personal distance for interactions among good friends or family

Close phase – 1.5 to 2.5 feet (46 to 76 cm)

Far phase – 2.5 to 4 feet (76 to 122 cm)

Social distance for interactions among acquaintances

Close phase – 4 to 7 feet (1.2 to 2.1 m)

Far phase – 7 to 12 feet (2.1 to 3.7 m)

Public distance used for public speaking

Close phase – 12 to 25 feet (3.7 to 7.6 m)

Far phase – 25 feet (7.6 m) or more.

Scholars distinguish between four different forms of intimacy: physical, emotional, cognitive, and experiential.[8]


Physical intimacy is sensual proximity or touching,[9] examples include being inside someone's personal space, holding hands, hugging, kissing, petting or other sexual activity.

Emotional intimacy, particularly in sexual relationships, typically develops after a certain level of trust has been reached and personal bonds have been established. The emotional connection of "falling in love", however, has both a biochemical dimension, driven through reactions in the body stimulated by sexual attraction (PEA, phenylethylamine),[10] and a social dimension driven by "talk" that follows from regular physical closeness or sexual union.[11]

Cognitive or intellectual intimacy takes place when two people exchange thoughts, share ideas and enjoy similarities and differences between their opinions. If they can do this in an open and comfortable way, they can become quite intimate in an intellectual area.

Experiential intimacy is when two people get together to actively involve themselves with each other, probably saying very little to each other, not sharing any thoughts or many feelings, but being involved in mutual activities with one another. Imagine observing two house painters whose brushstrokes seemed to be playing out a duet on the side of the house. They may be shocked to think that they were engaged in an intimate activity with each other, however from an experiential point of view, they would be very intimately involved.[12] FOUR EMOTIONS BASED ON NEUROLOGY TURNER

Turner analyzed a wide range of emotion theories across different fields of research including sociology, psychology, evolutionary science, and neuroscience. Based on this analysis, he identified four emotions that all researchers consider being founded on human neurology including assertive-anger, aversion-fear, satisfaction-happiness, and disappointment-sadness. These four categories are called primary emotions and there is some agreement amongst researchers that these primary emotions become combined to produce more elaborate and complex emotional experiences. These more elaborate emotions are called first-order elaborations in Turner's theory and they include sentiments such as pride, triumph, and awe. Emotions can also be experienced at different levels of intensity so that feelings of concern are a low-intensity variation of the primary emotion aversion-fear whereas depression is a higher intensity variant.

Here is another excerpt from my book the quadrant model
The Chernobyl nuclear reactor incident is the most famous nuclear reactor accident, and left enormous amounts of devastating that still lasts in 2015. The nature of the accident and the nature of the reactors fits the quadrant model pattern. There were four reactors. The first three did not explode on the accident that left ruin. The fourth exploded. The ruin from the Chernobyl disaster came from the fourth nuclear reactor. The nature of the quadrant model is that the first three are always different from the fourth. Also the character of the problems at Chernobyl fit the quadrant model pattern.
Square 1: Accident 1. In 1982 there was a meltdown in reactor 1. It was not a bad accident and the reactor was made optional again in several months.
Square 2: Accident 2. In 1986 there was a disaster in reactor number 4. The radioactive cloud spread to Norway.
Square 3: Accident 3: In 1991 there was a fire in reactor number 2.
Square 4: Accident 4. The roof collapsed. The nature of this problem was not like the previous three. That is the nature of the quadrant model. The fourth is always different.

Lufthansa Flight 181 was a Boeing 737–230 Adv aircraft named Landshut that was hijacked on 13 October 1977 by FOUR members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, who called themselves Commando Martyr Halima.


Key German rescue personnel[edit]

Colonel Ulrich Wegener (48)

Federal Border Protection (Bundesgrenzschutz) officer who was the liaison officer with the German Interior Ministry at the time of the Munich massacre by the PLO near during the 1972 Olympic Games. He was subsequently appointed by the West German government to establish and lead an elite anti-terrorist squad. The unit was officially established on 17 April 1973 as a part of Germany's federal border guard service and the name GSG 9 stood for Grenzschutzgruppe 9 (border guard group 9) and was chosen simply because the Bundesgrenzschutz already had eight regular border guard groups. At the outset Wegener trained with both the British SAS and the Israeli Sayeret Mat'kal who were the only known established anti-terrorist units in the world at that time. He also participated in the rescue of Israeli hostages in Operation Entebbe in 1976.[1] Wegener planned and commanded the GSG 9 Operation Fire Magic to successfully rescue the Landshut hostages at Mogadishu. After his retirement from GSG 9, Wegener worked as a consultant to help establish counter-terrorism units for various foreign countries. Wegener is currently a member of the KÖTTER GmbH & Co. KG Verwaltungsdienstleistungen Security Committee.

Major Klaus Blatte (38)

Deputy Commander of GSG 9 in 1977 and one of the four assault squad leaders that stormed the Landshut at Mogadishu. When Wegener retired, he succeeded him as the next Commander of GSG 9.

Minister Hans-Jürgen Wischnewski (55)

Minister of State at the Federal Chancellery who was designated by Chancellor Helmut Schmidt as his special envoy to coordinate the political negotiations with the various foreign governments to facilitate the release or rescue of the Landshut hostages. Due to his excellent contacts and personal relationships with Arab leaders he was nicknamed "Ben Wisch" by the German press. He lost office after the CDU regained power in 1982 and became a travelling consultant to Arab, African and South American countries advising them on negotiating techniques and pacification policies to deal with terrorist and insurgent groups. He died in 2005.

Chancellor Helmut Schmidt (59)

German Federal Chancellor between 1974 and 1982 (Bundeskanzler) who adopted a tough, uncompromising stance over the kidnapping of Hanns-Martin Schleyer and the Lufthansa 181 hijacking in 1977. He authorised the GSG 9 mission to rescue the Landshut hostages and his anti-terrorist policies were successful in overcoming the long-standing threat that had been posed by the Red Army Faction. After retiring from the Bundestag in 1986 he was one of the founders of the committee supporting the EMU and the creation of the European Central Bank. He died in 2015.

Sabena Flight 571 was a scheduled passenger flight from Vienna to Tel Aviv operated by the Belgian national airline, Sabena. On 8 May 1972 a Boeing 707 passenger aircraft operating that service, captained by British pilot Reginald Levy, DFC,[1] was hijacked by FOUR members of the Black September Organization, a Palestinian terrorist group.


It involved flying an assault force in four Hercules C-130 transport planes to Uganda, in darkness and undetected. The commandos had just three minutes to evade a cordon of paratroopers, storm the old terminal and kill the terrorists. Much could go wrong – and it almost did.


This is the remarkable account of the successful completion of Operation Entebbe as Lt. Col. (res.) Avi Mor – the navigator of three of the four planes sent to rescue the hostages in Uganda – describes in detail his experience in directing 103 Jewish hostages to freedom.


The second and third Israeli planes arrived six minutes later, carrying reinforcements and troops assigned to help fight the Ugandan forces surrounding the airport. “I had the great honor of being the leading navigator for aircrafts two, three, and four,” Lt. Col. (res.) Mor said proudly.


The fourth aircraft – the only aircraft with enough gas to fly to Entebbe and back to Israel, arrived empty, ready to evacuate the hostages and take them home. “The rest of us had no details about the first aircraft and what was going on down there. I was in the second aircraft and, whether the first was successful or not, we had to land at the airport precisely six minutes after them,” Lt. Col. (res.) Mor said. “Luckily, they succeeded and, in six minutes, killed the terrorists and rescued the hostages.”


Within 20 minutes of their arrival, IDF soldiers began evacuating the hostages in the fourth aircraft. “Our mission was accomplished the instant the hostages had left Entebbe,” Lt. Col. (res.) Mor recalled.


Airplane hijackings were, frighteningly, not unusual in the early 1970s. So, on Sunday, June 27, 1976, when Air France Flight 139 was taken over by four terrorists, passengers tried to remain calm.


The flight was on its way from Tel Aviv to Paris. But after an unscheduled stop in Athens, four people — two Arabs and two Germans — produced automatic weapons and grenades with the pins pulled, announcing that the plane had “been taken over by a commando of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.” As they did, “many of [the passengers] began ripping off their Jewish star necklaces and throwing them on the floor.”…
According to this book "Powell classified the development of beliefs into four stages- hecastotheism, zootheism, physetheism, and psychotheism."
And according to this book "the savage divides the world into four quarters"

The strain theory of suicide postulates that suicide is usually preceded by psychological strains. A psychological strain is formed by at least two stresses or pressures, pushing the individual to different directions. A strain can be a consequence of any of the four conflicts: differential values, discrepancy between aspiration and reality, relative deprivation, and lack of coping skills for a crisis. Psychological strains in the form of all the four sources have been tested and supported with a sample of suicide notes in the United States and in rural China through psychological autopsy studies. The strain theory of suicide forms a challenge to the psychiatric model popular among the suicidologists in the world.

The strain theory of suicide is based on the theoretical frameworks established by previous sociologists, e.g. Durkheim (1951), Merton (1957), and Agnew (2006), and preliminary tests have been accomplished with some American (Zhang and Lester 2008) and Chinese data (Zhang 2010; Zhang, Dong, Delprino, and Zhou 2009; Zhang, Wieczorek, Conwell, and Tu 2011).

There could be four types of strain that precede a suicide, and each can be derived from specific sources. A source of strain must consist of two, and at least two, conflicting social facts. If the two social facts are non-contradictory, there would be no strain.



Merton's theory on deviance stems from his 1938 analysis of the relationship between culture, structure and anomie. Merton defines culture as an "organized set of normative values governing behavior which is common to members of a designated society or group". Social structures are the "organized set of social relationships in which members of the society or group are variously implicated".[18] Anomie, the state of normlessness, arises when there is "an acute disjunction between the cultural norms and goals and the socially structured capacities of members of the group to act in accord with them".[18] In his theory, Merton links anomie with deviance and argues that the discontinuity between culture and structure have the dysfunctional consequence of leading to deviance within society.[19]

The term anomie, derived from Émile Durkheim, for Merton means a discord between cultural goals and the legitimate means available to reach them.[20] Applied to the United States, he sees the American dream as an emphasis on the goal of monetary success, but without a corresponding emphasis on the legitimate avenues to attaining the Dream. In other words, Merton believes that the American Dream is a cultural ideal, but the ways in which people go about obtaining it are not the same. This can lead to a considerable amount of deviance (in the Parsonian sense). This theory is commonly used in the study of criminology (specifically the strain theory).


Merton's Paradigm of Deviant Behaviour[21]

Attitude to Goals Attitude to Means Modes of Adaptation

accept accept Conformity

accept reject Innovation

reject accept Ritualism

reject reject Retreatism

reject/accept reject/accept Rebellion

In this rubric, conformity refers to the attaining of societal goals by socially accepted means, while innovation refers to the attaining of those goals in unaccepted ways (such as crime and deviance). Innovators find and create their own ways to obtain what they want, and a majority of the time, these new means are considered to be socially unaccepted and deviant. Merton considers ritualism the acceptance of the means but the forfeit of the goals. Ritualists continue to subscribe to the means, but they have rejected the overall goal; they are not viewed as deviant. Retreatism is the rejection of both the means and the goals. Retreaters want to find a way to escape from everything and therefore reject both the goals and the means and are seen as deviant. Rebellion differs from the other four approaches in a number of ways. Temporally, rebellion is a short-term response (unlike the other four). Like retreaters, rebels reject both existing societal goals and means, but unlike retreaters, rebels work at the macro level to replace those existing societal goals and means with new goals and means embodying other values. Innovation and ritualism are the pure cases of anomie as Merton defined it because in both cases there is a contradiction or discontinuity between goals and means.


The sociology of science was a field that Merton was very interested in and remained very passionate about throughout his career. Merton was interested in the interactions and importance between social and cultural structures and science. For example, he did pioneering historical research in his PhD dissertation on the role of military institutions in stimulating scientific research during the era of the Scientific Revolution. Merton carried out extensive research into the sociology of science, developing the Merton Thesis explaining some of the religious causes of the Scientific Revolution, and the Mertonian norms of science, often referred to by the acronym "Cudos". This is a set of ideals that are dictated by what Merton takes to be the goals and methods of science and to be binding on scientists. They include:


Communism – the common ownership of scientific discoveries, according to which scientists give up intellectual property in exchange for recognition and esteem.

Universalism – according to which claims to truth are evaluated in terms of universal or impersonal criteria, and not on the basis of race, class, gender, religion, or nationality;

Disinterestedness – according to which scientists are rewarded for acting in ways that outwardly appear to be selfless;

Organized skepticism – all ideas must be tested and are subject to rigorous, structured community scrutiny.

The CUDOS set of Mertonian scientific norms is sometimes identified as Communism, Universalism, Disinterestedness, *Originality* (novelty in research contributions), and Skepticism (instead of Organized Skepticism). This is a subsequent modification of Merton's norm set, as he did not refer to Originality in the essay that introduced the norms (The Normative Structure of Science [1942]).


Sociopolitical typology refers to four types, or levels, of a political organization: “band,” “tribe,” “chiefdom,” and “state” created by the anthropologist Elman Service.



Elman Service’s work is fundamental to cultural materialism, one among several influential paradigms in modern anthropology. Ethnographic and archaeological studies in hundreds of places have revealed many correlations between economy and social and political organizations. These types correlate with adaptive strategies or economic typology.


Thus, foragers as an economic type tend to have band organization. Similarly, many pastoralists and horticulturalists have lived in tribal societies or, more simply, tribes. While most chiefdoms had farming economies, herding was important in some of the Middle Eastern chiefdoms. The non-industrial states usually had an agricultural base. With food production come the larger, denser populations and more complex economies than are found among foragers. New regulatory problems were created by these features and that gave rise to more complex relations and linkages.


foragers (hunter-gatherer): band society

horticulture: tribe

pastoralism: chiefdom

agriculture: state

There have been many sociopolitical trends reflecting the increased regulatory demands associated with food production. Archaeologists study these trends through time, and cultural anthropologists observe them among contemporary groups.



Elman Service, Primitive Social Organization (1962), Profiles in Ethnology (1963), Origins of the State and Civilization (1975)qaz

In 242–240 BC, the Tribal Assembly (comitia tributa) in the Roman Republic included 35 tribes (four "urban tribes" and 31 "rural tribes"). The Latin word as used in the Bible translates as Greek phyle: "race, tribe, clan," and ultimately the Hebrew, meaning or "sceptre". In the historical sense, "tribe", "race" and "clan" can be used interchangeably.

Model-based biases result when an individual is biased to choose a particular "cultural model" to imitate. There are four major categories of model-based biases: (1) prestige bias, (2) skill bias, (3) success bias, (4) similarity bias


The games studied in game theory are well-defined mathematical objects. To be fully defined, a game must specify the following elements: the players of the game, the information and actions available to each player at each decision point, and the payoffs for each outcome. (Eric Rasmusen refers to these four "essential elements" by the acronym "PAPI".)





The winner was tit for tat, a program based on "equal retaliation", and Dawkins illustrates the four conditions of tit for tat.


Unless provoked, the agent will always cooperate.

If provoked, the agent will retaliate.

The agent is quick to forgive.

The agent must have a good chance of competing against the opponent more than once.

Social behaviour[edit]…/File:Game_Theory_Strategic_Socia…

Alternatives for game theoretic social interaction
Games like Hawk Dove and War of Attrition represent pure competition between individuals and have no attendant social elements. Where social influences apply, competitors have four possible alternatives for strategic interaction. This is shown on the adjacent figure, where a plus sign represents a benefit and a minus sign represents a cost.

In a Cooperative or Mutualistic relationship both "donor" and "recipient" are almost indistinguishable as both gain a benefit in the game by co-operating, i.e. the pair are in a game-wise situation where both can gain by executing a certain strategy, or alternatively both must act in concert because of some encompassing constraints that effectively puts them "in the same boat".
In an Altruistic relationship the donor, at a cost to himself provides a benefit to the recipient. In the general case the recipient will have a kin relationship to the donor and the donation is one-way. Behaviours where benefits are donated alternatively (in both directions) at a cost, are often called altruistic, but on analysis such "altruism" can be seen to arise from optimised "selfish" strategies
Spite is essentially a “reversed” form of altruism where an ally is aided by damaging the ally’s competitor(s). The general case is that the ally is kin related and the benefit is an easier competitive environment for the ally. Note: George Price, one of the early mathematical modellers of both altruism and spite, found this equivalence particularly disturbing at an emotional level.[18]
Selfishness is the base criteria of all strategic choice from a game theory perspective – strategies not aimed at self-survival and self-replication are not long for any game. Critically however, this situation is impacted by the fact that competition is taking place on multiple levels - i.e. at a genetic, an individual and a group level.


Hawk Dove[edit]


Solution of the Hawk Dove game for V=2, C=10 and fitness starting base B=4. The fitness of a Hawk for different population mixes is plotted as a black line, that of Dove in red. An ESS (a stationary point) will exist when Hawk and Dove fitness are equal: Hawks are 20% of population and Doves are 80% of the population.

Main article: Chicken (game)

The first game that Maynard Smith analysed is the classic Hawk Dove[a] game. It was conceived to analyse Lorenz and Tinbergen's problem, a contest over a shareable resource. The contestants can be either Hawk or Dove. These are two subtypes or morphs of one species with different strategies. The Hawk first displays aggression, then escalates into a fight until it either wins or is injured (loses). The Dove first displays aggression, but if faced with major escalation runs for safety. If not faced with such escalation, the Dove attempts to share the resource.[1]


Payoff Matrix for Hawk Dove Game

meets Hawk meets Dove

if Hawk V/2 - C/2 V

if Dove 0 V/2

Given that the resource is given the value V, the damage from losing a fight is given cost C:[1]



If a Hawk meets a Dove he gets the full resource V to himself

If a Hawk meets a Hawk – half the time he wins, half the time he loses…so his average outcome is then V/2 minus C/2

If a Dove meets a Hawk he will back off and get nothing - 0

If a Dove meets a Dove both share the resource and get V/2



The actual payoff however depends on the probability of meeting a Hawk or Dove, which in turn is a representation of the percentage of Hawks and Doves in the population when a particular contest takes place. That in turn is determined by the results of all of the previous contests. If the cost of losing C is greater than the value of winning V (the normal situation in the natural world) the mathematics ends in an ESS, a mix of the two strategies where the population of Hawks is V/C. The population regresses to this equilibrium point if any new Hawks or Doves make a temporary perturbation in the population. The solution of the Hawk Dove Game explains why most animal contests involve only ritual fighting behaviours in contests rather than outright battles. The result does not at all depend on good of the species behaviours as suggested by Lorenz, but solely on the implication of actions of so-called selfish genes.[1]

Heres an excerpt from my book QMR
The four Continents of the Earth were once connected but separated to four separate bodies of land. They fit the quadrant model pattern. According to the principle underlying the quadrant model of connectivity between quadrants, it makes sense that all of the continents were once connected. The squares are separate, but very interlinked. This principle is seen in the forces of physics. There are four forces, but physicists say that these forces were all once one. They are separate, but they are also connected. The continents are
*Square one: Afro-Eurasia
*Square two: America
*Square three: Antarctica
*Square four: Australia--the fourth always seems to not belong. It is often not thought to be a separate continent.,_technology,_engineering,_and_mathematics

Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM, previously SMET) is a term that refers to the FOUR academic disciplines of science,[note 1] technology, engineering and mathematics.[1] The term is typically used when addressing education policy and curriculum choices in schools to improve competitiveness in science and technology development. It has implications for workforce development, national security concerns and immigration policy.[1]

The Four Commanderies of Han (漢四郡, 한사군) are Lelang, Lintun, Xuantu and Zhenfan commanderies in northern Korean Peninsula and part of the Liaodong Peninsula.[1][2] set up by Emperor Wu of the Han dynasty in early 2nd century BC after his conquest of Wiman Joseon. The commanderies were set up to control the populace in the area as far south as the Han River, with a core area at Lelang near present-day P'yongyang,[3] which was previously under the control of Gojoseon. The accurate positions of the commanderies other than Lelang commandery are still under debate.

Four Diamonds is a charitable organization based out of Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center. Its ultimate objective is to "conquer childhood cancer".


The fund was established in 1972 by Charles and Irma Millard following the death of their son Chris from pediatric cancer. The name refers to "The Four Diamonds", a fantasy story (later made into a TV movie) written by Chris shortly before succumbing to the disease at the age of 14.[1]


Social mobility was high, as the ancient regime collapsed and emerging samurai needed to maintain large military and administrative organizations in their areas of influence. Most of the samurai families that survived to the 19th century originated in this era, declaring themselves to be the blood of one of the four ancient noble clans: Minamoto, Taira, Fujiwara and Tachibana. In most cases, however, it is hard to prove these claims.


The Four Turnings


The Anglo-American Saeculum


















LATE MEDIEVAL — — — (1485)

Wars of the Roses

(1459–1487) —

REFORMATION 51 years (1536)

Protestant Reformation

(1517–1542) 52 years (1588)

Armada Crisis

(1569–1594) 103 years

NEW WORLD 52 years (1640)

Puritan Awakening

(1621–1649) 49 years (1588)

Glorious Revolution

(1675–1704) 101 Years

REVOLUTIONARY 52 years (1741)

Great Awakening

(1727–1746) 40 years (1781)

American Revolution

(1773–1794) 92 years

CIVIL WAR 50 years (1831)

Transcendental Awakening

(1822–1844) 32 years (1863)

Civil War

(1860–1865) 82 years

GREAT POWER 33 years (1896)

Third Great Awakening

(1886–1908) 48 Years (1944)

Great Depression

and World War II 81 years

MILLENNIAL 30 years (1974)

Consciousness Revolution

(1964–1984) 51 years? (2025?)

Global Financial Crisis

(2008–2029?) 81 years?

Below is a description of each of the four turnings, including which generational archetype fills each phase of life during that type of era. We also note which generation came of age during the most recent example of each turning, and how it contributed to that era’s mood. The descriptions refer to a four-phase model of social change devised by the famous sociologist Talcott Parsons, who hypothesized that society moves into a new phase every time the availability or demand for social order rises or falls.



First Turning

The First Turning is a High. Old Prophets die, Nomads enter elderhood, Heroes enter midlife, Artists enter young adulthood—and a new generation of Prophets is born. This is an era when institutions are strong and individualism is weak. Society is confident about where it wants to go collectively, even if those outside the majoritarian center feel stifled by the conformity. America’s most recent First Turning was the post-World War II American High, beginning in 1946 and ending with the assassination of John Kennedy in 1963, a key lifecycle marker for today’s older Americans. Coming of age during this High was the Artist archetype Silent Generation (born 1925 to 1942). Known for their caution, conformity, and institutional trust, Silent young adults embodied the ethos of the High. Most married early, sought stable corporate jobs, and slipped quietly into America’s gleaming new suburbs.


In Parsons’ terms, a First Turning is an era in which both the availability of social order and the demand for social order are high. Examples of earlier First Turnings include the post-Civil War Reconstruction Era, sometimes called the Victorian High of industrial growth and stable families, and the post-Constitution Era of Good Feelings, when Thomas Jefferson celebrated the advance of science and empire.



Second Turning

The Second Turning is an Awakening. Old Nomads die, Heroes enter elderhood, Artists enter midlife, Prophets enter young adulthood—and a new generation of child Nomads is born. This is an era when institutions are attacked in the name of personal and spiritual autonomy. Just when society is reaching its high tide of public progress, people suddenly tire of social discipline and want to recapture a sense of personal authenticity. Young activists and spiritualists look back at the previous High as an era of cultural poverty. America’s most recent Awakening was the “Consciousness Revolution,” which spanned from the campus and inner-city revolts of the mid 1960s to the tax revolts of the early ‘80s. Coming of age during this Awakening was the Prophet archetype Boom Generation (born 1943 to 1960), whose passionate idealism and search for authentic self-expression epitomized the mood of the era.


In Parsons’ terms, a Second Turning is an era in which the availability of social order is high, but the demand for such order is low. Examples of earlier Second Turnings include the Third Great Awakening around 1900, marked by labor protests, Billy Sunday evangelicals, and “new woman” feminists, and the Transcendental Awakening, which Henry David Thoreau described as a period “when we have lost the world…and begin to find ourselves.”



Third Turning

The Third Turning is an Unraveling. Old Heroes die, Artists enter elderhood, Prophets enter midlife, Nomads enter young adulthood—and a new generation of child Heroes is born. The mood of this era is in many ways the opposite of a High. Institutions are weak and distrusted, while individualism is strong and flourishing. Highs follow Crises, which teach the lesson that society must coalesce and build. Unravelings follow Awakenings, which teach the lesson that society must atomize and enjoy. America’s most recent Unraveling was the Long Boom and Culture Wars, beginning in the early 1980s and probably ending in 2008. The era opened with triumphant “Morning in America” individualism and drifted toward a pervasive distrust of institutions and leaders, an edgy popular culture, and the splitting of national consensus into competing “values” camps. Coming of age during this Unraveling was the Nomad archetype Generation X (born 1961-1981), whose pragmatic, free-agent persona and Survivor-style self-testing have embodied the mood of the era.


In Parsons’ terms, a Third Turning is an era in which both the availability of social order and the demand for such order are low. Examples of earlier Unravelings include the periods around the “roaring” 1920s of Prohibition, the Mexican War in the 1850s, and the French and Indian Wars in the 1760s. These were all periods of cynicism and bad manners, when civic authority felt weak, social disorder felt pervasive, and the culture felt exhausted.



Fourth Turning

The Fourth Turning is a Crisis. Old Artists die, Prophets enter elderhood, Nomads enter midlife, Heroes enter young adulthood—and a new generation of child Artists is born. This is an era in which America’s institutional life is torn down and rebuilt from the ground up—always in response to a perceived threat to the nation’s very survival. Civic authority revives, cultural expression finds a community purpose, and people begin to locate themselves as members of a larger group. In every instance, Fourth Turnings have eventually become new “founding moments” in America’s history, refreshing and redefining the national identity. America’s most recent Fourth Turning began with the stock market crash of 1929 and climaxed with World War II. The generation that came of age during this Fourth Turning was the Hero archetype G.I. Generation (born 1901 to 1924), whose collective spirit and can-do optimism epitomized the mood of the era. Today’s Hero archetype youth, the Millennial Generation (born 1982 to 2004) show many traits similar to those of the G.I. youth, including rising civic engagement, improving behavior, and collective confidence.


In Parsons’ terms, a Fourth Turning is an era in which the availability of social order is low, but the demand for such order is high. Examples of earlier Fourth Turnings include the Civil War in the 1860s and the American Revolution in the 1770s—both periods of momentous crisis, when the identity of the nation hung in the balance.


Moods of the Four Turnings






ELDERHOOOD Nomad Hero Artist Prophet

MIDLIFE Hero Artist Prophet Nomad

YOUNG ADULTHOOD Artist Prophet Nomad Hero

CHILDHOOD Prophet Nomad Hero Artist

FAMILIES Strong Weakening Weak Strengthening

CHILD NURTURE Loosening Underprotective Tightening Overprotective

GAP BETWEEN GENDER ROLES Maximum Narrowing Minimum Widening

IDEALS Settled Discovered Debated Championed

INSTITUTIONS Reinforced Attacked Eroded Founded

CULTURE Innocent Passionate Cynical Practical

SOCIAL STRUCTURE Unified Splintering Diversified Gravitating

WORLDVIEW Simple Complicating Complex Simplifying

SPECIAL PRIORITY Maximum Community Rising Individualism Maximum Individualism Rising Community

SOCIAL MOTIVATOR Shame Conscience Guilt Stigma

SENSE OF GREATEST NEED Do What Works Fix Inner World Do What Feels Right Fix Outer World

VISION OF FUTURE Brightening Euphoric Darkening Urgent

WARS Restorative Controversial Inconclusive Total



Four generational archetypes: Heroes, Artists, Prophets, & Nomads


In their book The Fourth Turning, Howe and Strauss identified four generational archetypes: Hero, Artist, Prophet, and Nomad. Each consists of people born in a roughly 20-year period. As each archetypal generation reaches the end of its 80-year lifespan, the cycle repeats.


Each archetypal generation goes through the normal phases of life: childhood, young adulthood, mature adulthood, and old age. Each tends to dominate society during middle age (40–60 years old) then begins dying off as the next generation takes the helm.


This change of control from one generation to the next is called a “turning” in the Strauss/Howe scheme. The cycle repeats on a “fourth turning” as a new hero generation comes of age and replaces the nomads. Each fourth turning, however, is a great crisis.


(The turnings have their own characteristics, which I describe in detail in this article. Today’s economic and political landscape, unfortunately, makes it clear we are about halfway through the fourth turning.)

The Wonderland murders, also known as the Four on the Floor Murders[1] or the Laurel Canyon Murders, are four unsolved murders that occurred in Los Angeles on July 1, 1981.[2] It is assumed that six people were targeted to be killed in the known drug house of the Wonderland Gang, five of whom were present. Four of those five, Billy DeVerell, Ron Launius, Joy Miller, and Barbara Richardson, died from extensive blunt-force trauma injuries. Only Ron Launius' wife, Susan Launius, survived the attack, allegedly masterminded by organized crime figure and nightclub owner Eddie Nash. He, his henchman Gregory DeWitt Diles,[3][4] and porn star John Holmes were at various times arrested, tried, and acquitted for their involvement in the murders.

Inside the Next ‘Making a Murderer’: Satanic Panic, Homophobia, and the San Antonio Four

The documentary Southwest of Salem, which premiered at Tribeca, is a riveting true-crime film about four lesbian women wrongfully convicted of a gang rape.

Jen Yamato



04.18.16 11:28 PM ET

It was the equivalent of a modern-day witch-hunt: In the summer of 1994, four San Antonio lesbians were accused, arrested, and subsequently convicted on charges that they gang-raped two girls in a sensational case that preyed on the Satanic panic that had swept the nation, as well as the prejudiced suspicion that homosexuality was a precursor to child abuse.

FOUR MAJOR HAWAIIAN ISLANDS- I lived on Kauai two years

Jurassic Park found most of its locations on Kauai, smallest and most beautiful of the four major Hawaiian islands, despite the best efforts of Hurricane Iniki, which flattened the sets.…/article/pii/S0047235209000191

Crimes of the Big Four motorcycle gangs

Thomas Barker, , Kelly M. Human
Show more
Get rights and content
Motorcycle clubs (MCs) can be divided into conventional and deviant clubs. The most deviant clubs are those known as 1 percent or outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs). The Big Four OMGs are the Hells Angels MC, the Outlaws MC, the Bandidos MC, and the Pagans MC. The first three, although American based, have international chapters and are the largest motorcycle gangs in the world. All four are known for their criminal activity and violence toward each other. There has been little scholarly research on these secret and dangerous motorcycle clubs. This research, utilizing a LexisNexis newspaper search classified the criminal activity of each of the Big Four gangs using a biker criminality typology developed by Quinn and Koch. The study found that the members of the Big Four gangs are involved in a wide range of criminal activities with the most common being ongoing enterprises/organized crime such as drugs and weapons trafficking. There were also numerous instances of spontaneous and planned violent acts against rivals and others. The study added to the limited body of knowledge on these deviant groups and suggests further areas of research.


Four astronauts – Captain Theo Cooper (Routh), Dr. Emily McTier (Lotz), Bug Kieslowski (Feldman) and Cole Dvorak (Cook) – begin a 400-day long simulation on Earth intended to study the long-term effects of space travel.


400 Days is an independent 2015 American psychological science fiction film written and directed by Matt Osterman, and starring Brandon Routh, Caity Lotz, Ben Feldman, and Dane Cook as astronauts sent on a 400-day-long simulated mission to a distant planet to test the psychological effects of deep space travel. In the United States, the film premiered in theaters, on-demand, and digitally on January 12, 2016.

The Four Stages of the American Political Party System 1st Edition

The Four Steps to the Epiphany Hardcover – July 17, 2013

by Steve Blank (Author)

4.6 out of 5 stars 200 customer reviews

See all 5 formats and editions



Read with Our Free App



16 Used from $29.42

37 New from $22.50


from $11.40

31 Used from $11.40

5 New from $98.99

Innovation You: Four Steps to Becoming New and Improved Hardcover – July 26, 2011

by Jeff Degraff (Author)

4.5 out of 5 stars 22 customer reviews

See all 5 formats and editions



Read with Our Free App



28 Used from $2.00

9 New from $11.49

1 Collectible from $9.80



Free with your Audible trial

We can sort experiences into four broad categories according to where they fall along the spectra of the two dimensions. (See the exhibit “The Four Realms of an Experience.”) The kinds of experiences most people think of as entertainment—watching television, attending a concert—tend to be those in which customers participate more passively than actively; their connection with the event is more likely one of absorption than of immersion. Educational events—attending a class, taking a ski lesson—tend to involve more active participation, but students (customers, if you will) are still more outside the event than immersed in the action. Escapist experiences can teach just as well as educational events can, or amuse just as well as entertainment, but they involve greater customer immersion. Acting in a play, playing in an orchestra, or descending the Grand Canyon involve both active participation and immersion in the experience. If you minimize the customers’ active participation, however, an escapist event becomes an experience of the fourth kind—the esthetic. Here customers or participants are immersed in an activity or environment, but they themselves have little or no effect on it—like a tourist who merely views the Grand Canyon from its rim or like a visitor to an art gallery.



The Four Realms of an Experience


Generally, we find that the richest experiences—such as going to Disney World or gambling in a Las Vegas casino—encompass aspects of all four realms, forming a “sweet spot” around the area where the spectra meet. But still, the universe of possible experiences is vast. Eventually, the most significant question managers can ask themselves is “What specific experience will my company offer?” That experience will come to define their business.


Rodney Glen King (April 2, 1965 – June 17, 2012) was an African American taxi driver, who became internationally known after being beaten by Los Angeles Police Department officers following a high-speed car chase on March 3, 1991. A witness, George Holliday, videotaped much of the beating from his balcony, and sent the footage to local news station KTLA. The footage shows four officers surrounding King, several of them striking him repeatedly, while other officers stood by. Parts of the footage were aired around the world, and raised public concern about police treatment of minorities in the United States.


Four officers were charged with assault with a deadly weapon and use of excessive force. Three were acquitted of all charges. The jury acquitted the fourth of assault with a deadly weapon but failed to reach a verdict on the use of excessive force. The jury deadlocked at 8–4 in favor of acquittal at the state level. The acquittals are generally considered to have triggered the 1992 Los Angeles riots, in which 55 people were killed and over 2,000 were injured, ending only when the California national guard was called in.


The acquittals also led to the federal government's obtaining grand jury indictments for violations of King's civil rights. The trial of the four in a federal district court ended on April 16, 1992, with two of the officers being found guilty and subsequently imprisoned. The other two were acquitted again.

A picture of the last four Tasmanian Aborigines of solely indigenous descent c. 1860s. Truganini, the last to survive, is seated at far right.


16 SQUARES IN QUADRANT MODEL- 16 squares of Blacksburg


The quadrans (literally meaning "a quarter") or teruncius ("three unciae") was a low-value Roman bronze coin worth one quarter of an as. The quadrans was issued from the beginning of cast bronze coins during the Roman Republic with three pellets representing three unciae as a mark of value. The obverse type, after some early variations, featured the bust of Hercules, while the reverse featured the prow of a galley. Coins with the same value were issued from other cities in Central Italy, using a cast process.


After ca. 90 BC, when bronze coinage was reduced to the semuncial standard, the quadrans became the lowest-valued coin in production. It was produced sporadically until the time of Antoninus Pius (AD 138–161). Unlike other coins during the Roman Empire, the quadrans rarely bore the image of the emperor.


The Greek word for the quadrans was κοδράντης (kodrantes), which was translated in the King James Version of the Bible as "farthing".[1] In the New Testament a coin equal to one half the Attic chalcus was worth about 3/8 of a cent. In Mark's gospel, when a poor widow gave two mites or λεπτα (lepta) to the Temple Treasury, the gospel writer noted that this amounted to one quadrans.[2]

The Taj Mahal is also rich in symbolism, both peculiar to Islamic cornerstones such as the Quran, and also concepts such as birth, life, death and divinity. For instance, the four minarets of the Taj Mahal symbolize the four pillars of the divine throne guarded by angels in the Garden of Eden, while the Taj Mahal building itself is symbol of the divine throne.9 The night-gardens on the side of the complex are symbolic of death, and the day-gardens are symbolic of life.


Charbagh on an incomplete Persian "garden carpet", 17th century


Four central axial water courses define Char Bagh Garden's quadrilateral layout at Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, 1572

Of the four monuments that dominated the perimeter of the Naqsh-e Jahan square, the Lotfollah Mosque, opposite the palace, was the first to be built. The purpose of this mosque was for it to be a private mosque of the royal court, unlike the Shah mosque|Masjed-e Shah, which was meant for the public.[17] For this reason, the mosque does not have any minarets and is of a smaller size. Indeed, few Westerners at the time of the Safavids even paid any attention to this mosque, and they certainly did not have access to it. It wasn't until centuries later, when the doors were opened to the public, that ordinary people could admire the effort that Shah Abbas had put into making this a sacred place for the ladies of his harem, and the exquisite tile-work, which is far superior to those covering the Shah Mosque.



Naghsh-i Jahan square, the charbagh Royal Square (Maidan) in Isfahan, constructed between 1598 and 1629


Siyi was a derogatory Chinese name for various peoples bordering ancient China, namely, the Dongyi 東夷 "Eastern Barbarians", Nanman 南蠻 "Southern Barbarians", Xirong 西戎 "Western Barbarians", and Beidi 北狄 "Northern Barbarians".

The Chinese mytho-geography and cosmography of the Zhou Dynasty (c. 1046–256 BCE) was based upon a round heaven and a square earth. Tianxia 天下 "[everywhere] under heaven; the world" encompassed Huaxia 華夏 "China" (also known as Hua, Xia, etc.) in the center surrounded by non-Chinese "barbarian" peoples. See the Hua–Yi distinction for details of this literally Sinocentric worldview.

The Siyi construct, or a similar one, was a logical necessity for the ancient tianxia system. Liu Junping and Huang Deyuan (2006:532) describe the universal monarch with combined political, religious, and cultural authorities: "According to the Chinese in the old times, heaven and earth were matched with yin and yang, with the heaven (yang) superior and the earth (yin) inferior; and the Chinese as an entity was matched with the inferior ethnic groups surrounding it in its four directions so that the kings could be valued and the barbarians could be rejected." The authors (2006:535) propose that Chinese ideas about the "nation" and "state" of China evolved from the "casual use of such concepts as "tianxia", "hainei"( four corners within the sea) and "siyi" 四夷 (barbarians in four directions)."

Located in the cardinal directions of tianxia were the sifang 四方 "Four Directions/Corners", situ 四土 "Four Lands/Regions", sihai 四海 "Four Seas", and Siyi 四夷 "Four Barbarians/Foreigners". The (c. 3rd century BCE) Erya (9, Wilkinson 2000: 710) defines sihai as " the place where the barbarians lived, hence by extension, the barbarians": "九夷, 八狄,七戎, 六蠻, 謂之四海" – "the nine Yi, eight Di, seven Rong, and six Man are called the four seas".

These Siyi directionally comprised Yi 夷 to the east of China, Man 蠻 in the south, Rong 戎 in the west, and Di 狄 in the north. Unlike the English language with one general word barbarian meaning "uncultured or uncivilized peoples", Chinese had many specific exonyms for foreigners. Scholars such as Herrlee Glessner Creel (1970: 197) agree that Yi, Man, Rong, and Di were originally the Chinese names of particular ethnic groups or tribes. During the Spring and Autumn Period (771–476 BC), these four exonyms were expanded into (Pu 2005: 45) "general designations referring to the barbarian tribes".



Fourth branch of government

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In the American political system, the fourth branch of government refers to a group that influences the three branches of government defined in the American Constitution (legislative, executive and judicial). Such groups can include the press (an analogy for the Fourth Estate), the people, and interest groups. U.S. independent administrative government agencies, while technically part of the executive branch (or, in a few cases, the legislative branch) of government, are sometimes referred to as being part of the fourth branch.


Contents [hide]

1 The press

2 The people

3 Interest groups

4 Administrative agencies

5 Popular culture

6 See also

7 References

The press[edit]

The concept of the media or press as a fourth branch stems from a belief that the news media's responsibility to inform the populace is essential to the healthy functioning of the democracy.[1] The phrase "Fourth Estate" may be used to emphasize the independence of the press particularly when this is contrasted with the press as a "fourth branch".[2]


The people[edit]

Justice Antonin Scalia's majority opinion, The People are the fourth branch via grand juries [1]. The grand jury is mentioned in the Bill of Rights, but not in the body of the Constitution. It has not been textually assigned, therefore, to any of the branches described in the first three Articles”. It "is a constitutional fixture in its own right". In fact the whole theory of its function is that it belongs to no branch of the institutional government, serving as a kind of buffer or referee between the Government and the people (United States v. Williams, 1992).


Interest groups[edit]

In an article titled "The 'Fourth Branch' of Government", Alex Knott of the Center for Public Integrity asserted in 2005 that "special interests and the lobbyists they employ have reported spending, since 1998, a total of almost $13 billion to influence Congress, the White House and more than 200 federal agencies."[3]


Administrative agencies[edit]

The administrative agencies that are funded from public money may exercise powers granted by Congress. Without appropriate controls and oversight this practice may result in a bureaucracy (in the original literal sense). Some critics have argued that a central paradox at the heart of the American political system is democracy's reliance on what the critics view as undemocratic bureaucratic institutions that characterize the administrative agencies of government.[4] An argument made for calling administrative agencies a "fourth branch" of government is the fact that such agencies typically exercise all three constitutionally divided powers within a single bureaucratic body: That is, agencies legislate (a power vested solely in the legislature by the Constitution)[5] through delegated rulemaking authority; investigate, execute, and enforce such rules (via the executive power these agencies are typically organized under); and apply, interpret, and enforce compliance with such rules (a power separately vested in the judicial branch).[6] Additionally, non-executive, or "independent" administrative agencies are often called a fourth branch of government, as they create rules with the effect of law, yet may be comprised at least partially of private, non-governmental actors.


Popular culture[edit]

In The Simpsons episode "Sideshow Bob Roberts" (originally aired October 9, 1994), Springfield's leading conservative talk radio host, Birch Barlow (a parody of leading American conservative talk radio host Rush Limbaugh) welcomes listeners to his show by introducing himself as the "fourth branch of government" and the "51st state."

In 2007, the short-lived ABC drama-thriller Traveler, the fourth branch existed as a secret society created by the Founding Fathers and composed of the oldest families in the United States, whose purpose is to implement checks and balances on the U.S. government to guide the true course of America.

Rapper and political activist Immortal Technique has a track entitled the "4th branch," in which he applies the role of said branch to the media in a pejorative manner. He implies in this track (or pretty much explicitly states) that the US media of the time acts more like another part of the government instead of its own independent entity, and he gives some of his reasons for this belief on the track.

"4th Branch" is also the name of a record label - 4th Branch Records, owned by DJ Prezzident, based in Columbia, Missouri.

Four Horsemen of the Infocalypse

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Four Horsemen of the Infocalypse is a term for internet criminals, or the imagery of internet criminals.

Contents [hide]

1 Popular usage

2 Examples

3 References

4 External links

Popular usage[edit]

A play on Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, it refers to types of criminals who use the internet to facilitate crime and consequently jeopardize the rights of honest internet users. There does not appear to be an exact definition for who the Horsemen are, but they are usually described as terrorists, drug dealers, pedophiles, and organized crime. Other sources use slightly different descriptions but generally refer to the same types of criminals. The term was coined by Timothy C. May in 1988, who referred to them as "child pornographers, terrorists, drug dealers, etc."[1] when discussing the reasons for limited civilian use of cryptography tools. Among the most famous of these is in the Cypherpunk FAQ,[2] which states:


8.3.4. "How will privacy and anonymity be attacked?"



like so many other "computer hacker" items, as a tool for the "Four Horsemen": drug-dealers, money-launderers, terrorists, and pedophiles.

17.5.7. "What limits on the Net are being proposed?"


Newspapers are complaining about the Four Horsemen of the Infocalypse:

terrorists, pedophiles, drug dealers, and money launderers

The term seems to be used less often in discussions about online criminal activity, but more often in discussions about the negative, or chilling effects such activity has had on regular users' daily experiences online. It is also used frequently to describe the political tactic "Think of the children". A message from the same mailing list states:[3]


How to get what you want in 4 easy stages:

Have a target "thing" you wish to stop, yet lack any moral, or practical reasons for doing so?

Pick a fear common to lots of people, something that will evoke a gut reaction: terrorists, pedophiles, serial killers.

Scream loudly to the media that "thing" is being used by perpetrators. (Don't worry if this is true, or common to all other things, or less common with "thing" than with other long established systems—payphones, paper mail, private hotel rooms, lack of bugs in all houses etc.)

Say that the only way to stop perpetrators is to close down "thing", or to regulate it to death, or to have laws forcing en-mass tapability of all private communications on "thing". Don't worry if communicating on "thing" is a constitutionally protected right, if you have done a good job in choosing and publicising the horsemen in 2, no one will notice, they will be too busy clamouring for you to save them from the supposed evils.

The four supposed threats may be used all at once or individually, depending on the circumstances:[4]



In 2013, the director of the Safe Internet League (a voluntary censorship group in Russia) claimed that pedophiles, perverts, drug dealers “and other creeps”[5] were using the Tor anonymity software, as a reason why the software should be outlawed. This list did not mention terrorists or money-launderers directly, but did use the catch-all phrase "other creeps" that potentially includes them.


In 2015, the UK Conservative party claimed that their proposed “new communications data legislation will strengthen our ability to disrupt terrorist plots, criminal networks and organised child grooming gangs”,[6] echoing the "child pornographers, terrorists, drug dealers, etc." quote of Timothy C. May.


Later in 2015, Gamma Group released a statement claiming that their surveillance technology is used "against terrorist threats, drug cartels, other major organised crime, and paedophile rings."[7] as justification for concerns that it was being used to target opposition politicians and media groups in Uganda. With money-laundering treated as a major organised crime, this quote matches very closely with the list given in the Cypherpunk FAQ.

Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse in popular culture

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


[hide]This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)

This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2009)

This article may contain indiscriminate, excessive, or irrelevant examples. (April 2011)

The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse have appeared many times in popular culture.


Contents [hide]

1 In real life

2 In entertainment and media

2.1 Film

2.2 Literature and comic books

2.3 Music

2.4 Tabletop roleplaying games

2.5 Television

2.6 Video games

3 References

In real life[edit]

The "Four Horsemen" is the professional wrestling faction that competed in the National Wrestling Alliance and World Championship Wrestling in the 1980s and 1990s. The faction's original incarnation consisted of Ric Flair, Arn Anderson, Ole Anderson, Tully Blanchard, and James J. Dillon, with other members including Lex Luger, Sid Vicious, Sting, Steve McMichael, Dean Malenko, Chris Benoit, Brian Pillman, Curt Hennig, Barry Windham, and Paul Roma. In WWE NXT, Flair's daughter Charlotte, Sasha Banks, Bayley and Becky Lynch were nicknamed as "The Four Horsewomen" due to their matches helping to push the female wrestling roster in the show, even though the four of them were never on the same faction at the same time.

"The Four Horsemen", an informal discussion (30 September 2007) between Richard Dawkins, Christopher Hitchens, Sam Harris and Daniel Dennett, during which they discuss definitions of atheism and the legitimacy of their criticism of religion.[1]

Four Horsemen of the Infocalypse, a term for Internet criminals, or the imagery of internet criminals.

The Four Horsemen of Notre Dame was a group of football players at the University of Notre Dame under coach Knute Rockne in 1924. They were Harry Stuhldreher, Don Miller, Jim Crowley, and Elmer Layden. A United States Postal Service stamp was issued in their honor in 1998 bearing a black-and-white image from 1925 of the four players all on dark horses.

"The Four Horsemen of the Supreme Court" refers to four United States Supreme Court justices Pierce Butler, James McReynolds, George Sutherland, and Willis Van Devanter, who consistently voted to overturn much of President Roosevelt's New Deal initiatives during the Great Depression.

Psychologist John Gottman uses the term for the four most destructive behaviors harming relationships

"The Hideous Four Horsemen - Terror, Bewilderment, Frustration, Despair. Unhappy drinkers will understand!" is an important reference within the Big Book by Alcoholics Anonymous (Page 151, Chapter 11, "A Vision For You").

The Four Horseman of the Apocalypse in linguistics, Paul Postal, John R. Ross, George Lakoff, and James McCawley, initiated and did early work with generative semantics. This went against Noam Chomsky, the father of modern linguistics.

In entertainment and media[edit]




In The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1921), a silent movie produced by Metro Pictures Corporation, based on the eponymous novel by Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, the Four Horsemen were implied to be the result of human greed and war.

Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1962), another film based on the same book that changes the timeline from the First to the Second World War. Starring Charles Boyer and Glenn Ford, and directed by Vincente Minnelli

Clint Eastwood's Pale Rider (1985) also alludes to Death on a pale horse, played by him.

At least two of the Four Horsemen appear near the end of The Rapture (1991). However, their role is mostly off-camera and allegorical. Also, the film mislabels War as the first Horsemen.

In Tombstone (1993), during the opening in a Mexican town, Johnny Ringo quotes the biblical Book of Revelation: "Behold the pale horse". The man who "sat on him was Death... and Hell followed with him".

In The Crow: Wicked Prayer (2005), four satanic cult members call themselves after the non-biblical four horseman - Death (David Boreanaz) who drives a black car, War (Marcus Chong) who drives a red SUV, Famine (Tito Ortiz) who drives a sickly yellow muscle car, and Pestilence (Yuji Okumoto) who drives a green Ford Pinto truck.

Horsemen (2009) features murders that are inspired by the Four Horsemen.

Now You See Me (2013) features a group of magicians who go by the name of The Four Horsemen.

X-Men: Apocalypse is a (2016) film whose lead character Apocalypse is seen in a post-credit teaser in the film X-Men: Days of Future Past with the Four Horsemen watching as he builds pyramids. During the film, his initial Horsemen are killed when he is betrayed and sealed in his own tomb, but he escapes centuries later when a cult discovers his final resting place, emerging into the modern world and recruiting new 'Horsemen', in the form of Magneto, Psylocke, Storm and Archangel, enhancing their powers to ensure their service to him. In the course of the film, however, he is opposed by the newly reassembled X-Men, with the final battle seeing Archangel killed when he tries to attack the X-Men in their jet and is trapped in it as it crashes while Nightcrawler teleports the team to safety. Witnessing Apocalypse's dismissal of his former ally, Storm rebels against him while Magneto is reminded of his past friendship with Xavier, Psylocke deciding to flee after the X-Men attack Apocalypse en masse and destroy him.

Literature and comic books[edit]

(Alphabetical by author or comics publisher)


Emerson Abreu, one of the writers of Brazilian comic book series Monica Teen, presents a variation of the mythology, where the Horsemen are called Horses and they serve an evil mysterious entity named "The Serpent" (possibly alluding to either the biblical Genesis Serpent or Ancient Serpent). Each Horse is presented every two years, with three of them having been shown so far: the spoiled high-school girl Penha as "The Red Horse of War", the evil creature known as the Flying Donkey (resulting from the merging between sorceress Berenice and the spirit of her deceased daughter) as "The Pale Horse of Death", and Captain Fray (a recurring supervillain from Monica's Gang with the power of polluting everything, and Smudge's alleged uncle) as "The White Horse of Decay". The fourth Horse will be presented in 2018, while the Serpent itself will only be shown in 2020.

Incarnations of Immortality, a long-running series of fantasy novels by Piers Anthony, was influenced by the mythology of the Four Horsemen. The titles of two books in the series, On a Pale Horse and Wielding a Red Sword, refer to Death and War respectively, though they are not formally titled such; the books revolve around characters whose supernatural duties are similar to those of the Horsemen. The Incarnation of War has four associated lesser incarnations in a seeming of the Four Horsemen: Famine, Pestilence, Conquest, and Slaughter.

The Four Horsemen appear in Archie Comics' Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Adventures comics. War also appears as a playable character in the Super NES version of the Tournament Fighters video game.

In Blart: The Boy Who Didn't Want To Save The World, by Dominic Barker, Blart and the gang, when facing Zoltab, have to fight the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.

Women of the Apocalypse,[2] an anthology of four novellas by Eileen Bell, Roxanne Felix, Ryan T. McFadden, and Billie Milholland (ISBN 978-1-77053-000-3) features four modern, Albertan heroines facing down the Four Horsemen, in four speculative fiction variants on the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.

In The Talismans of Shannara by Terry Brooks, Shadowen who have taken the forms of the Four Horsemen are dispatched to kill Walker Boh.

In Army of Darkness comics, published first by Dark Horse Comics and then Dynamite Entertainment, Ash is faced with the Four Horsemen.

In DC Comics, the Four Horsemen of Apokolips were foretold in the Crime Bible. They were created by a coalition of evil scientists and caused Black Adam to go insane by killing his brother-in-law Osiris, and his wife Isis, though he killed all of them. Their leader is Death, and they were later able to possess people's bodies to resurrect themselves. Sobek is the Horseman of Famine, Yurrd.

In the Unicron Trilogy portion of Transformers, co-published by Hasbro and Takara, the Four Horsemen are Transformers who serve under Unicron.[3]

Jonathan Hickman's East of West features three of the four horsemen as they seek revenge for their brother (the fourth) who was murdered (ongoing series).

Los Cuatro Jinetes del Apocalipsis (The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse), a Spanish novel by Vicente Blasco Ibáñez whose English translation by Charlotte Brewster Jordan was the best-selling novel in the U.S. in 1919. (ISBN 978-1-4264-0564-8)

The Lords of Deliverance series by Larissa Ione feature the four horsemen of the Apocalypse named as Pestilence, Famine, War and Death. In the series they try to avoid breaking their seals and causing an Apocalypse.[citation needed]

Seraph of the End, a manga series written by Takaya Kagami, is set in a post-apocalyptic setting with creatures called the "Four Horsemen of John" that roam the ruins. Some of the main cast also carry the weapons of the horsemen: Yoichi carries a bow, Yu carries a sword, Kimizuki carries twin swords (in place of scales) while Shinoa carries a scythe.

The Four Horseman play critical roles in Kevin Kauffmann's Forsaken Comedy trilogy. Niccolo — the Horseman of Pestilence — acts as a major protagonist in the series.

In Marvel Family #48, the Marvels face the Four Horsemen in a story titled "The Four Horsemen Ride Again", wherein they try to cause disasters through humans. They are classed as Famine, Fire, Plague, and War. Unlike most depictions, it is claimed War is caused by the others.

The Horsemen of Apocalypse are a team of Marvel Comics supervillains (usually manipulated superheroes; Angel, Wolverine and Gambit, for example, all had stints as Horsemen of Death) who serve Apocalypse, an ancient, evil mutant who believes in survival of the fittest and causes disasters to this end.

Those who come to retrieve Sethe in Toni Morrison's novel Beloved are referred to as the four horsemen: "When the four horsemen came—schoolteacher, one nephew, one slave catcher and a sheriff—the house on Bluestone Road was so quiet they thought they were too late” (174).

The title of best-selling author James Patterson's fifth book in the Women's Murder Club series, The 5th Horseman, is a reference to the biblical story.

Terry Pratchett has parodied the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse several times.

In Good Omens, co-written with Neil Gaiman, the Four Horsemen (or Horsepersons, as War is female) ride motorcycles. Pestilence is changed out for Pollution, who took over in 1936 when Pestilence left "muttering something about Penicillin." War is a war correspondent, and Famine is the author of a bestselling diet book. They have aliases that allude to their traditional colors (i.e. Raven Sable, Carmine Zuigiber). There is also a group of four Hells Angels that follow them, taking the names of more mundane plagues such as Cruelty to Animals and No Alcohol Lager.

In Thief of Time, part of Pratchett's Discworld series, a fifth horseman is mentioned: Ronnie Soak (Kaos spelled backwards). He is the fifth member who quit before the group became famous and now works as a milkman. The book also explores how the Horsemen have become more man-based during their time in existence, such as War now largely old and dependent on his wife to remind himself of his daily activities. Death is also a major recurring character in the series.

In Scud: The Disposable Assassin by Rob Schrab, Scud fights and kills the four horsemen of the apocalypse

In the novel "Darksiders: the Abomination Vault", the four horsemen undertake the role of destroying legendary magical weapons known as the "Grand Abominations". The book features only Death and War of the biblical four, with Conquest and Famine being replaced with Fury and Strife.

In the novel "Tantrics of Old", the Four Horsemen are part of the larger story arc and their origins are discussed from the perspective of the mythology within the book.


William Control's Revelations album is split into 4 EPs, each named after one of the four horses that the horsemen rode - The Pale, The Black, The Red and The White.

Heroes, Saints and Fools, an album by Saracen features the song Horsemen of the Apocalypse.

"4 Horsemen of the apocalypse", LP 1985, Bollock Brothers (containing "Faith healer")

The punk band The Clash, on their album London Calling, have a song called "Four Horsemen".

The album artwork for Muse's fourth studio album, Black Holes and Revelations, features the four horsemen sitting around a table on the planet Mars. Their respective horses are small, and on the table in front of them, to represent how each affliction of the horsemen has outgrown those of their horses.

Thrash metal band Metallica's 1983 song "The Four Horsemen" directly references the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. However, in their version the riders are Time, Famine, Pestilence and Death (perhaps for Metrical-Rhythmical reasons), while in the Bible the first three are "Conquest" or "Pestilence", "War" and "Famine". Horsemen of the Apocalypse was also one of Metallica's demos.

Parody band Beatallica wrote the song "For Horsemen", a mash-up of Metallica's "The Four Horsemen" and The Beatles' "For No One".

The song "The Four Horsemen" on the Judas Priest album Nostradamus directly references the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.[vague]

The lyrics to "Cattle and the Creeping Things" by The Hold Steady refer to the Four Horsemen (among several other Biblical references): "They got to the part with the cattle and the creeping things. They said I'm pretty sure we've heard this one before. Don't it all end up in some revelation? With four guys on horses, and violent red visions? Famine, and death, and pestilence and war? I'm pretty sure I heard this one before."

The lyrics to "Revelations" by DragonForce feature a veiled reference to the Four Horsemen in the latter part of the chorus: "And the Horsemen shall come, they will judge all your lives, Revelations will now be unveiled."

The punk band Gallows reference the four horsemen in their song "Death Voices" with the lyric 'Four riders, four horses. Bring me famine, bring me death. Bring me war and pestilence.'.

In the song "The Man Comes Around" by Johnny Cash, there are multiple references at the beginning and end of the song to the four horsemen, namely Pestilence or Conquest and the pale horserider Death.

Megadeth's song "Blessed Are The Dead" from the album United Abominations refers to a "White horse on the clouds of death, a red warhorse to end all wars, a pale horse and pestilence led by a black horse with famine and scales", referencing the Four Horsemen. However, the white horse and the pale horse's representations are switched, with the white horse representing death instead of pestilence, and vice versa for the pale horse. The album cover also features mascot Vic Rattlehead with traits of the Horsemen (white with blood-stained wings like Conquest, long black hair and a black cloak resembling the black horse of Famine, wielding various firearms like the sword used by the War Horseman, and has pale, veinous-looking skin like that of Death).[4])

Klaxons refer directly to the four horsemen of the apocalypse in a hidden track at the end of their debut studio album.

Aphrodite's Child's song "The Four Horsemen" directly references the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.

The song Revelation (Death's Angel) by Manowar features many references to the Four Horsemen and the Apocalypse itself.

Marilyn Manson's song, "Four Rusted Horses" references the four horsemen as being worn out.

The band Jesus H. Christ & The Four Hornsmen Of The Apocalypse is a reference.

The extreme metal band Demonoid's debut album Riders of the Apocalypse is a concept album about the Four Horsemen.

Swedish metal guitarist Yngwie Malmsteen has a song called 'Four Horsemen (Of The Apocalypse)' on his 2008 album Perpetual Flame.

Finnish doom metal band Reverend Bizarre has a song called 'Apocalyptic Riders'. The song has direct citations from the Bible about The Four Horsemen.

The music video "I Feel Better" by Hot Chip is loosely based on The Four Horsemen of The Apocalypse

In the storyboard film for Gorillaz' Rhinestone Eyes, the Boogieman is hinted at being a contemporary of the Horsemen, or possibly the Fifth Seal.

In the music video for Magnetic Man's "Getting Nowhere ft John Legend" it depicts 4 urban BMX riders in hoodies biking throughout the city. The 4 bikers are seen wearing Black, White, Red and Grey hoodies, symbolizing the colors of the Horsemen. Throughout the video they are present during situations of conflict, famine and death.

Rapper Canibus has a song called 'Horsementality' (aka 'Abide By') on his album 2000 B.C. (Before Can-I-Bus) featuring Ras Kass, Kurupt, Killah Priest. The four came together and formed the super group called The HRSMN aka "The Four Horsemen" where each member references themselves to each rider.

The cover of the "Weird Al" Yankovic album Alpocalypse features Yankovic riding the black horse (whose mane has Yankovic's trademark curly hair), accompanied by the other three horsemen.

Die Apokalyptischen Reiter [German for The Riders of the Apocalypse] a German Metal Band

The Horsemen feature prominently in The Indelicates album David Koresh Superstar.

In the song "The Grand Conjuration" by Opeth from Ghost Reveries makes a reference to the pale horse rider (Death) searching the Earth.

In the Genesis song "Anyway", from The Lamb Lies Down on Broadway, the character Rael is facing death in an underground cave and sings "Anyway, they say she comes on a pale horse, But I'm sure I hear a train."

The Harvey Danger song "Plague of Locusts", off the EP Sometimes You Have to Work on Christmas (Sometimes), directly refers to the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse in the lines, "The names are in the Book, not yours, Four horsemen ride the range, Hark! The herald angels' carnage, Pestilence and bloodshed wash away all your mistakes, Before they cast your wretched flesh into the Fiery Lake."

Norwegian Black Metal band Satyricon refer directly to the four horsemen and the apocalypse, in the song "The Dawn of a new Age" from the album Nemesis Divina

Entombed has a song called "Warfare, Plague, Famine, Death" in reference to the four horsemen, on their album Serpent Saints - The Ten Amendments

The punk rock band The Dead Milkmen entitled their 1997 greatest hits album "Death Rides a Pale Cow". This is a combination of the band's symbol (a hand-drawn smiling cow with "x-ed" out eyes) and Death riding upon a pale horse.

Australian Metalcore band Parkway Drive's song 'Leviathan I' contains the lyrics "Show me War. Show me Pestilence." and their song 'Dark Days' contains the lyrics "Behold the Pale Horse", in reference to Death.

Polish alternative rock/post-punk band Kult have a song entitled "Jeźdźcy" (Polish for "The Horsemen") on their album "Spokojnie"; the song describes the first three riders to carry Famine, War and Death, respectively whilst the last one which is referred to as "more powerful than the other three" brings "Love", "Faith" and "Hope" as well as "the Sun" and "Stars".

Norwegian Complextro artist Savant's album Protos contains a song called 'Rider In Red', named after the second rider.

Americana songwriter and musician Ray Wylie Hubbard's 2009 album A. Enlightenment B. Endarkenment (Hint: There is no C) contains the song The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse whose lyrics directly reference Revelations and end each stanza with 'the Four Horseman of the Apocalypse.'

Tabletop roleplaying games[edit]

Deadlands and its sequels call the Four Horsemen the "Reckoners" and each has dominion over some area of the Weird West, with their Servitors directly furthering the goals of each. Their ultimate goal is to walk the earth in bodily form, which they achieve shortly before the events of Deadlands: Hell on Earth.


(Alphabetical by series)


In Babylon 5 the Centauri ambassador Londo Mollari refers to his three unloved wives as "Famine", "Pestilence" and "Death", which is ironic as apparently such labelling leaves the title of "War" to himself.

In the Charmed episode "Apocalypse Not", the horsemen are depicted as well-dressed demons who run the Apocalypse like a business, and have to try to bring it about by a certain time or they will be vanquished by the Source of all Evil. Although the sisters temporarily trap War in a dimensional portal, they are forced to work with the other three Horsemen when Prue Halliwell is trapped in the rift as well, but the sisters' willingness to leave Prue in the portal to stop the Horsemen by keeping War trapped prompts the higher powers to release Prue as their willingness to sacrifice their sister for the world suggests that the Apocalypse will not succeed. Interesting to note, Conquest was replaced by Strife, instead of the usual proxy of Pestilence.

The Colbert Report, an American late night news satire television program, features a recurring segment called "Four Horsemen of the A-Pop-calypse". In this segment, Stephen Colbert's character denounces the media (divided into the four categories of books, television, movies and radio) for supposedly hastening the apocalypse.[5]

In Dexter, Season 6, episode 3 "Smokey and the Bandit", the closing scene of the episode sees the Season 6 villains staging the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse in order to scare residents of Miami, and features a close-up on the severed head of a man previously killed.

In Digimon Adventure, the final enemies the Digidestined face are the four Dark Masters (MetalSeadramon, Machinedramon, Puppetmon, and Piedmon), followed by Apocalymon, paralleling the story of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.

In the Hercules: The Legendary Journeys episode "Revelations," the archangel Michael releases the Four Horsemen one by one to end the World. Hercules and Iolaus team with Ares in an attempt to stop them. When Hercules sacrifices himself to stop Death, Michael states that this was a test to see if humanity can be given another chance which Hercules succeeded in. The Four Horsemen were assumed to have been resealed afterwards.

In Highlander: The Series, the Four Horsemen are the Immortals Kronos (the leader of the Horsemen), Methos (Duncan McLeod's friend who previously refused to admit to being a Horseman, also claimed himself as Death), Silas, and Caspian.

In Jericho, season 1, episode 3 "Four Horsemen", after the storm ceases, Jake devises a plan in which four cars drive in four directions in an attempt to contact survivors and gather information. Gray Anderson, the Mayor's main political rival, refers to the scout party as "The Four Horsemen".

The Messengers features a group of four people chosen by "The Man" (Diogo Morgado) as the new Horsemen of the Apocalypse, in a mission to break the seven seals. Until now, only three horsemen were confirmed:

Rose Arvale (Anna Diop) is Death and is a regular character. She is a former nurse who initially acts as the de facto leader, claiming to have the gift of speaking and understanding any universal language. However, on the ninth episode ("Death Becomes Her") the Messengers learn that she is a Horseman despite not sharing any ideal of The Man's for world domination. Her real powers reside in dark magic.

Senator Cindy Richards (Lauren Bowles) is War and debuts in the fourth episode ("Drums of War"). She had a son who was killed while serving in the Armed Forces, and then she planned to have the Afghan Prime Minister assassinated.

Leland Schiller/"Abaddon" (Sam Littlefield) is Pestilence and debuts in the sixth episode ("Metamorphosis"). Known anonymously as a vigilante hacker, Leland wants revenge against an insurance company that denied the medical support for his ill mother. After his attempt was foiled by the Messengers, he was sent to prison, only to be soon released by Rose Arvale.

In a Metalocalypse two-minute animated promo for Darksiders II (aired August 17, 2012) the members of Dethklok play Darksiders II and end up summoning the games protagonist the Horseman Death (who appears in animated form).

In fourth series finale of Misfits, the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse are featured, as guest character Nadine accidentally released the horsemen, but instead of horses they rode black bmx's.

In The Real Ghostbusters animated TV series from 1986, there is an episode where the protagonists hunt the Four Horsemen in order to stop the Apocalypse.

In the Red Dwarf episode "Gunmen of the Apocalypse", the regulars find themselves in a computer simulation of a Wild West town, facing a gunfight against the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.

In the episode "Cracked China" of Robot Chicken, the Four Horsemen are referenced in a sketch called "Apocalypse Ponies", parodying both My Little Pony and the Four Horsemen.

In Sleepy Hollow, the headless horseman is revealed to be one of the Four Horsemen, Death, summoned back to life by a mysterious coven practicing black magic in Sleepy Hollow; Ichabod Crane is the man responsible for cutting off his head when the horseman served in the British army during the war for independence while Crane fought for the patriots, the two being summoned back to life at the same time due to their blood mingling after Crane and the Horseman killed each other. The horseman seeks his head in order to regain his full power, summon the other three horsemen and begin the apocalypse, his current powers limited to being indestructible apart from exposure to sunlight. The Headless Horseman's identity is later revealed to be Abraham Van Brunt, the former fiancé of Crane's wife Katrina, who was killed by the Hessians during an aborted ambush. The Horseman of Pestilence later appeared as the entity responsible for the disappearance of the Roanoke Colony by infecting them with a fatal disease that could not be cured by any other means apart from the colony hiding in an area concealed from the rest of the world. In the first-season finale, the Horseman of War was revealed to be Henry Parish, AKA Jeremy Crane, Crane's resurrected son and the Sin-Eater who helped Crane escape his connection to the Horseman, angry at how his parents' actions led him to be buried alive for centuries due to his mother's interrupted attempt to save his life. As of the end of the second season, Henry turned against Moloch and was killed when he attempted to take the power of an ancient coven of witches, while Abraham was last shown consenting to attempts to restore his humanity so long as he was not kept prisoner, but Pestilence has not been seen since his debut, and the identity of the fourth Horseman is unknown; however, the demon Moloch has stated that there have been Horsemen before the current wave, suggesting that replacements for Henry and Abraham could have been summoned. Abraham was trapped within Pandora's Box by new villain Pandora at the start of the third season, but was released at the conclusion of the series by Crane to fight Pandora, reasoning that he was not an Apocalypse-level threat now that Moloch was dead, departing once Pandora had been defeated with his skull once more in his possession. Despite this, he returned without his head in the fourth season, initially attempting to kill the President of the United States to claim her head as a substitute for his own, but is briefly trapped before being released by new series antagonist Dreyfuss.

In the The Simpsons episode "Simpsons Bible Stories", the Simpson family sleep through a church sermon and wake up to the apocalypse, where the Four Horsemen are shown riding on a red cloud through the sky.

In the episode "Bart Gets an Elephant", when Stampy the elephant walks through the Flanders' yard, Ned Flanders wakes up and gasps, "It's the four elephants of the apocalypse!" Maude immediately corrects him, "That's horsemen, Ned."[6]

In Squidbillies season 3 episode "Armageddon It On!", the Cuyler clan briefly meets Horseman of Pestilence (voiced by Riley Martin). Despite being one of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Cuylers are not fazed by his presences (at first they think he is part of the US Air Force). He shows his power by releasing a plague of "scorpions with human faces" and turns water into blood, however to his astonishment and disgust the squids eat the scorpions and drink the blood. Early and Granny are also unimpressed by him and question why he is even one of the Four Horsemen as he doesn't seem to measure up to the other 3 Horsemen (War, Famine, and Death). Insulted the Horsemen leaves but warns to prepare for the end of days.

An episode of Stargate SG-1, "The First Horseman", references the Horseman Pestilence as a deadly disease, created by a Prior of the Ori, is spread across the face of the Earth.

In Supernatural, the Four Horsemen are referenced in the fourth-season episode "Death Takes A Holiday" by the demon Alistair before he goes to kill two reapers in an effort to break a seal that will lead to releasing Lucifer from Hell. Alistair claims that the scythe he is carrying was borrowed from an old friend who didn't "really ride a pale horse" but who does "have three amigos" who are "jonesing for the Apocalypse". After the raising of Lucifer at the end of the fourth season, the Horsemen are unleashed onto the world. Each takes the form of an male with an appropriately coloured car and a ring that imbues them their power. However, these rings are also the only apparent weakness of War, Famine and Pestilence, as removing their rings weakens them considerably, although Death is unaffected by the removal of his ring (Also, Death is only following Lucifer's agenda due to a spell binding him to Lucifer, although the other three Horsemen appear to be willing servants of Lucifer). In "Hammer of the Gods", the final message of the archangel Gabriel reveals that the Horsemens' rings have the power to recapture Lucifer by re-opening his Cage when they are put together and a particular spell is chanted.

In the fifth-season episode "Good God, Y'All!", War, portrayed by Titus Welliver, makes an appearance. He drives a cherry red Ford Mustang and uses the ring on his right ring finger to make people hallucinate and kill each other by provoking conflict; in the episode, he divides a town by causing two groups to believe that the other side has been possessed by demons, but his influence is ended when Sam and Dean manage to cut off his ring.

In the episode "My Bloody Valentine", Famine, portrayed by James Otis, appeared as a sick, wheelchair bound old man and causes suicides in a town by making people consume/perform what they hunger for until their death; examples include a couple hungering for love literally eating each other, a man on a diet gorging himself on Twinkies, a former alcoholic drinking himself to death, and even the protagonist's angelic ally Castiel is attacked through his vessel's hunger for red meat. Arriving with an entourage of demons in a black SUV, Famine would feast on souls until he was strong enough to spread on his own. He was defeated when Dean Winchester proved immune to his powers- albeit because Dean was spiritually dead after the difficulties he had experienced during the Apocalypse- and Sam Winchester's old demonic powers were awakened when Famine restored his addiction to demon blood, allowing Sam to use his demonic powers to attack Famine by attacking the demons he had just consumed.

Pestilence, portrayed by Matt Frewer appears at the end of "Hammer Of The Gods". He walks into a service station and spreads disease by spreading sickly, green slime everywhere and bringing flies into the place. He is then shown driving away in a dirty Pinto whilst flies flood the car; his rampage is shown in the next episode, "The Devil You Know", causing regional outbreaks of swine flu across the nation. He actively appeared in "Two Minutes to Midnight", shown capable to infect humans with a plethora of diseases, also being a pivotal part of Lucifer's apocalypse; his pandemic of swine flu allowed the distribution of the Croatoan virus under the guise of vaccines. He was working in a nursing home, crafting hybrid diseases that caused instant death. Castiel was ultimately responsible for destroying him when he proved partly immune to Pestilence's powers despite his weakened condition.

Later in the season, The Horsemen Death is summoned to Earth by Lucifer via a ritual in the episode "Abandon All Hope", albeit unseen. He is then mentioned in "Dead Men Don't Wear Plaid", though again not seen, where he raises fifteen dead who return to their families only to turn rabid after a certain time. In "Two Minutes to Midnight", Death, now portrayed by Julian Richings, is shown walking along the street with a cane; he bumps into a man, who after making a pithy remark, soon falls over dead. Death drives a pale 1959 Cadillac Eldorado Seville. Death explains to Dean that he is unwillingly bound to Lucifer, and is not particularly interested in the apocalypse. Death provides his ring, extracting a promise that Dean will do anything to stop Lucifer. This version of Death claims to be as old as, if not older than, God, as neither of them can remember who came first. An eternal being, Death reappears after the apocalypse, helping Dean recover Sam's soul- still trapped in Lucifer's Cage even after his body was rescued- helping the Winchesters restore Castiel to normal after he was driven mad by the souls he acquired from Purgatory by providing them with the means to perform a ritual to separate the Purgatory souls from Castiel, and coming to talk to Sam when he faced death after failing to complete the trials to seal Hell. Death was killed by Dean in the tenth-season finale when he was preparing to kill Dean to free him from the Mark of Cain- Dean using Death's scythe to slay him- later Sam met another Reaper and after a subsequently conversation with that Reaper revealing that a new Death will be formed and resurrections will no longer be permitted.

In the final episode of Tru Calling, "T'was the Night Before Christmas...Again", Tru calls her foil character Jack the fourth horseman of the apocalypse, as he is frequently referenced as "death".

The Walking Dead episode "Arrow on the Doorpost" was originally titled "Pale Horse".[7]

In the final season of X-Men: Evolution, Apocalypse captured and changed Mystique, Storm, Professor Xavier, and Magneto into his Horsemen, giving them the names War, Famine, Pestilence, and Death, each of them containing abilities that their given name implies.

In The Young Ones, season 1, episode 5 "Interesting", which first aired in the UK in 1982, Rick Mayall and Nigel Planer are preparing the house for a party when a born-again Christian preacher, played by Dawn French pushes her way inside. As she warns the guys to behold Armageddon and the four horsemen of the apocalypse the scene cuts to a surreal comedy sketch featuring the Four Horsemen on a hillside.

Video games[edit]

(Alphabetical by title)


In Ace Combat 5: The Unsung War, there is a mission called The Four Horsemen.

In Afterlife, the Four Horsemen are depicted as the Four Surfers of the Apocalypso, which are summoned if a player stays in extreme debt for too long a period. The Four Surfers appear riding a wave of fire and destruction and destroy the player's afterlife, thus ending the game.

In Apocalypse, Trey Kincaid (the protagonist, played by Bruce Willis) must battle The Reverend, who has unleashed The Four Horsemen who were called Death, Plague, War and Beast, who are the minor boss fights.

In The Binding of Isaac, the horsemen appear as bosses throughout the game.

In Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare, the four primary antagonists are collectively referred to as "the Four Horsemen". One of them on the group photograph remains unidentified, but is implied to be already dead (he's crossed out like the others will be). In the games sequel, "Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2", the main antagonist, Vladimir Makarov, bears a heavy likeliness to the unidentified horseman from the first game. Considering both the exploits of Makarov and that the Modern Warfare series was planned as a trilogy, it is very likely that he is the Second Horseman 'War'.

In Champions: Return to Arms, the Four Horsemen can be battled in a bonus stage.

In City of Heroes, players must defeat the four Riders in the second mission of The Lady Grey Task Force. These Riders are said to be among the alien Rikti race's most fearsome warriors and have the names Rider: War, Rider: Famine, Rider: Pestilence, and Rider: Death. In this high level (45-50) task force, a team of both heroes and villains can work together to defeat these enemies as they appear repeatedly throughout the mission. The mission culminates in a battle against all four Riders at once and allows players to continue onward in their drive to save the world from total war and invasion by the alien forces of the Rikti.

In The Darkness, after the protagonist commits suicide he finds himself in the Otherworld and must locate physical manifestations of the Four Horsemen before proceeding through the level and return to the living; only Death (three people upside-down on a cross) and War (a massive, grotesque cannon) are necessary to complete this section.

In Darksiders, the player takes on the role of War, one of the four legendary Horsemen of the apocalypse. The game begins with War starting the apocalypse. However, it turns out that is not supposed to occur as the seven seals were not broken. As a result, War is stripped of his powers and returns to Earth 100 years later to find out who is responsible for initiating the apocalypse and destroying the balance between Heaven, Hell, and Earth. The other three horsemen are only mentioned in dialogue and are only seen arriving from far away at the game's end. The game's manual lists their names as "Death", "Strife" and "Fury". The sequel, Darksiders II, features Death in the spotlight, trying to redeem his brother.

In Fall from Heaven, the most popular modification for Civilization 4, as the armaggedon counter increases, four horsemen (Stephanos the conqueror, Bubos the warbringer, Yersinia the plague-bringer and Ars Moriendi, death itself) appear, terrorizing the human civilizations.

In Fallout Tactics: Brotherhood of Steel, players can randomly stumble across the four horsemen while wandering the world map (The encounter being named "Four Horsemen of the Post-Apocalypse" in reference to the nuclear war). They are sitting around a campfire, and make comments about the apocalypse, which has already occurred. Each horseman is in the "almost dead" health range, indicating that they have very low health compared to their maximum health. However, if a player attempts to heal any of the horseman, it becomes obvious that they each have ridiculous amounts of health, and that "almost dead" is still extremely high. Upon exiting the area, the player's party leader is switched for the squad member with the lowest charisma, thanks to the chaotic nature of the horsemen.

In Final Fantasy VII, the final boss uses an attack called "Pale Horse."

In Final Fight: Streetwise, a psychotic priest named Father Bella created a powerful strength-enhancing drug called "glow", who hopes to use the drug to bring about the apocalypse, thus Bella created his own Four Horsemen consist of Weasel as War, Dino "Blades" as Famine, Pestilence created by Dr. Chang, and the protagonist of the original Final Fight game Cody as Death who is also Kyle's older brother. Originally the role of Death was to Devin "The Stiff" Aronac but his transformation was incomplete due his defeat by Kyle as he had the letters "DE" to spell out Death.

In Fire Emblem: Path of Radiance and Fire Emblem: Radiant Dawn, the once-evil kingdom of Daein holds four generals of utmost skill and power in battle who are referred to as the "Four Riders"—a reference to the Four Horsemen.

The Four Horsemen of Apocalypse was a game project by 3DO.

In Guild Wars, one of the quests in The Underworld is called the Four Horsemen, where one has to kill four ghostly horsemen. However, these are named differently.

In Heroes of Newerth, five characters have alternate avatars named, "War", "Famine", "Pestilience", "Death", and "Conquest"

In Heroes Over Europe, upon receiving a Hawker Tempest, Danny Miller comments "seems the RAF wanted me to be one of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse".

In Hexen 2, the Four Horsemen are featured as episode bosses. They appear in the order of Famine, Death, Pestilence and War. Each of the episodes featuring the Horsemen had a unique historical cultural setting in which they took place: Medieval Europe for Famine, Mesoamerica for Death, Ancient Egypt for Pestilence, and Greco-Rome for War. In the story, the Horsemen are said to be the generals of Eidolon, who is the final boss of the game.

"Ice Station Santa", the first of the 5 episodes of Sam & Max Beyond Time and Space for Xbox 360/Wii/PC, will require you to collect four horsemen action figures for a puzzle

"League of Legends", one of the playable characters, Yorick Mori, had his abilities named after the four horsemen: Omen of War, Omen of Pestilence, Omen of Famine, and Omen of Death.

In Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake, a boss battle takes place where four assassins calling themselves the Four Horsemen attack Solid Snake in an elevator.

The final level in Nethack features the three riders Death, Famine, and Pestilence. The fourth rider, War, is assumed to be the player.

In Quake Mission Pack 2: Dissolution of Eternity the temple itself features a unique set of stained glass windows, displaying the four Riders of the Apocalypse: Pestilence, Death, War and Famine.

In Quake 4 the convoys which carries the EMPs to the tetranode are called "War", "Famine", "Pestilence" and "Death".

In the Red Dead Redemption downloadable add-on, Undead Nightmare, 4 of the mountable mythical beings are horses labeled as Pestilence, War, Famine, and Death. They are associated with their own Rank, gaining a rank for every horse mounted and tamed. Each horse has its own special ability allowing you to deal with the undead differently. They are known as "The Four Horses of the Apocalypse."

RuneScape refers to the four horsemen in the "Stronghold of Security" area, except the names War, Famine, Pestilence, and Death are applied to Dungeon Levels as opposed to actual characters. At the end of every level, a finishing reward of an opposing nature to the dungeon is awarded. The rewards are "The Gift Of Peace", "The Grain of Plenty", "The Box Of Health", and "The Cradle Of Life" respectively.

In Scribblenauts Unlimited it is possible to spawn Pestilence, Famine, War, and Death.

In Shin Megami Tensei: Nocturne and Shin Megami Tensei: Devil Summoner 2: Raidou Kuzunoha vs. King Abaddon the Four Horsemen appear as Red Rider, White Rider, Black Rider and Pale Rider and present challenging boss battles to the protagonists of both games.

"The Four Horsemen" are bosses encountered in Naxxramas, a raid in World of Warcraft: Sir Zeliek as the White Rider of Conquest, Alexandros Mograine (now Baron Rivendare) as the Red Rider of War, Lady Blaumeux as the Black Rider of Famine, and Thane Korth'azz as the Pale Rider of Death. Naxxramas was originally a level 60 raid, however with the release of the Wrath of the Lich King expansion it was re-tuned for level 80 players and the original version was removed.

In the "World of Warcraft: Legion" expansion, four new horsemen make an appearance as a part of the Knights of the Ebon Blade, the faction for players in the Death Knight class. Their leader is Darion Mograine, the Red Rider of War and the son of Alexandros Mograine. The other riders are: Sally Whitemane, former High Inquisitor of the Scarlet Crusade, as the White Rider of Conquest. Nazgrim, former general of the Horde, as the Black Rider of Famine. Lastly Thoras Trollbane, last king of the kingdom Stromguard, as the Pale Rider of Death. These new horsemen are under the player's command in their order hall if they are a Death Knight.

The Horsemen of Apocalypse appear in the browser-based game Marvel: Avengers Alliance on Facebook. In the 16th Spec-Ops, Apocalypse selects four new Horsemen: X-23 as War, Rogue as Famine, Beast as Pestilence, and Iceman as Death.

In the Xenosaga series, one of the main characters - chaos insinuating that the four U.R.T.V. variants (biological weapons) - Rubedo, Albedo, Citrine and Nigredo (from no. 666 to 669) are the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse

The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse appear in the Role Playing Game Rudra no Hihou, a game only released in Japan. They appear in order to destroy the human race to be replaced by a new one.






by Dr. Richard Griggs University of Capetown © 1992 Center for World Indigenous Studies

Fourth World:

Nations forcefully incorporated into states which maintain a distinct political culture but are internationally unrecognized.

A convenient shorthand for the Fourth World would be internationally unrecognized nations. These are the 5,000 to 6000 nations representing a third of the world's population whose descendants maintain a distinct political culture within the states which claim their territories. In all cases the Fourth World nation is engaged in a struggle to maintain or gain some degree of sovereignty over their national homeland.


After World War II the core of the state system split into two large geopolitical blocs of associated interests. A Euro-American bloc of states with political and economic ties came to be called the First World. Japan was later added to this monopoly of power. The term Second World distinguished the First World from the other geopolitical bloc: the communist-socialist states including the Soviet Union China, North Korea, North Vietnam and until recently, Eastern Europe. The states not aligned with either bloc of geopolitical power were regarded as the "Third World." These newly decolonized states were also the economically disadvantaged ones having just emerged from centuries of colonialism. Their situation of economic dependency on the First and Second Worlds (neo-colonialism and debt-burdens) is today the more commonplace connotation for the term Third World. The ancient nations from which the patchwork quilt of states was stitched have no internationally recognized sovereignty but their geopolitical force through self- determination movements is challenging the entire state system. Thus a new term has developed since the 1970s, the Fourth World.


The term Fourth World first came into wide use in 1974 with the publication of Shuswap Chief George Manuel's: The Fourth World: An Indian Reality. Manuel thought of the Fourth World as the "indigenous peoples descended from a country's aboriginal population and who today are completely or partly deprived of the right to their own territories and its riches. "(40) This is a valid definition. However, prejudices and misconceptions regarding the terms "aboriginal" and "indigenous" abound including an exclusive association with New World "Indians". In this manner, many indigenous nations in Europe, the Soviet Union, the Middle and Far East, such as Wales, Catalonia, Brittany, Flanders, Bavaria, Slovakia, Slovenia, Armenia, Georgia, Palestine, Kurdistan, Khalistan, Balochistan, Tibet, and hundreds more are forgotten or discarded. This is particularly unfortunate in the case of Europe because so much can be learned from examining the experience of Fourth World nations at the core of the European-derived system of states. Thus, we find the definition of "internationally unrecognized nations" precise, concise and less geographically limiting.


A definition which is too broad to express the geopolitical situation of oppressed nations is offered by a number of ecological and political organizations associated with the Schumacherian "small is beautiful" school. Influenced by such thinkers and writers as Leopold Kohr, E. F. Schumacher, John Papworth, and Kirkpatrick Sale, these groups are part of a movement toward decentralization and self-determination but do not share the same genesis as Fourth World nations. Hence, the definition of the Fourth World offered by such publications as the Fourth World News and Resurgence, the Journal of the Fourth World concerns the advocacy of more human scale institutions of any kind: [The] Fourth World embraces small nations of under twelve million inhabitants, groups working for their autonomy and independence at all levels from the neighborhood to the nation, minority groups whether ethnic, linguistic, cultural or religious, and those in the fields of peace action, ecology, economics, energy resources, women's liberation, and the whole spectrum of the alternative movement, who are struggling against the giantism of the institutions of today's mass societies and for a human scale and a non-centralized, multi-cellular, power-dispersed world order.(41) This definition of the Fourth World is far too broad and inclusive to be useful in explaining the historical expansion of states and the state-nation conflict it engendered. Clearly, the Fourth World by either definition is the outcome of a struggle between the forces of centralization and decentralization. However, this is an ancient struggle which is unrelated to many of the contemporary social movements listed in that definition. Kohr, Schumacher, Papworth and Sale all show a sympathy for Fourth World nations but are more concerned with the broader question of the size of states and what can be done to scale them down. That state expansion is a problem generated by the conquest of nations is not always explicit in their literature.


The Fourth World has also been used to designate:

the poorest, and most undeveloped states of the world;

any oppressed or underprivileged victim of a state.

R.G. Ridker used it in the first manner in the 1976 publication Changing Resource Problems of the Fourth World.(42) The use of this term has gained some currency among economists but has no relevance for the internationally unrecognized nations discussed here. In 1972, Ben Whittaker of the Minority Rights Group applied the term Fourth World to refer to any oppressed group, failing to distinguish between true ethnic and social minorities and historic nations.(43) Noel Dyck's 1985 publication, Indigenous Peoples and the Nation- State continued to support the conception of the Fourth World as "minority population that have no hope of ever prevailing within their respective national societies... [and] suffer from economic subjugation. "(44) Janusz Bugajski's 1991 publication, Fourth World Conflicts, reiterates the economistic, victimized image of the Fourth World: ...a whole range of tribal and peasant societies that... share a number of attributes, including a low level of political and economic integration in the state system, an inferior political status, and an underprivileged economic position.(45) Whittaker, Dyck, and Bugajski employ the term in a manner which presents the Fourth World as "not so much discreet groups of people or as specified societies" but as "complex political, economic and ideological relations" within the state.(46) This suggests weakness, victimization, and a convenient abstraction for seemingly invisible, intangible, immobile societies. The geopolitical force internationally unrecognized nations represent is totally unaccounted for. These are peoples who through both peaceful and military means are challenging the entire state system. Furthermore, not all Fourth World nations are "economically underprivileged." Some are the most economically advanced regions in their respective states such as Croatia and Slovenia in Yugoslavia, the three Baltic States in the Soviet Union (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia), Catalonia in Spain, or Wurtemburg in Germany.


Finally, mixing minorities, tribes and ethnic groups in a single category with nations results in a definition too broad to account for the common historical experience of internationally unrecognized nations. The inadequacy of these terms and others are considered below.



40. Quoted in Burger, Julian, THE GAIA ATLAS OF FIRST PEOPLES, London: Gaia Books Ltd., 1990.

41. Albery, Nicholas and Mark Kinzley, HOW TO SAVE THE WORLD: A FOURTH WORLD GUIDE TO THE POLITICS OF SCALE, Wellingborough, Northamptonshire: Turnstone Press, 1984.

42. Ridker, R.G. (ed.), CHANGING RESOURCE PROBLEMS OF THE FOURTH WORLD, Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1976.

43. Whittaker, Ben, THE FOURTH WORLD: VICTIMS OF GROUP OPPRESSION, London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1972.

44. Dyck, Noel, INDIGENOUS PEOPLES AND THE NATION-STATE, St. John's: Memorial University of Newfoundland, p. 236-237, 1985.

45. Bugajski, Janusz, FOURTH WORLD CONFLICTS: COMMUNISM AND RURAL SOCIETIES, Boulder: Westview Press, p. 1, 1991.







by Dr. Richard Griggs University of Capetown © 1992 Center for World Indigenous Studies

Fourth World:

Nations forcefully incorporated into states which maintain a distinct political culture but are internationally unrecognized.

A convenient shorthand for the Fourth World would be internationally unrecognized nations. These are the 5,000 to 6000 nations representing a third of the world's population whose descendants maintain a distinct political culture within the states which claim their territories. In all cases the Fourth World nation is engaged in a struggle to maintain or gain some degree of sovereignty over their national homeland.


After World War II the core of the state system split into two large geopolitical blocs of associated interests. A Euro-American bloc of states with political and economic ties came to be called the First World. Japan was later added to this monopoly of power. The term Second World distinguished the First World from the other geopolitical bloc: the communist-socialist states including the Soviet Union China, North Korea, North Vietnam and until recently, Eastern Europe. The states not aligned with either bloc of geopolitical power were regarded as the "Third World." These newly decolonized states were also the economically disadvantaged ones having just emerged from centuries of colonialism. Their situation of economic dependency on the First and Second Worlds (neo-colonialism and debt-burdens) is today the more commonplace connotation for the term Third World. The ancient nations from which the patchwork quilt of states was stitched have no internationally recognized sovereignty but their geopolitical force through self- determination movements is challenging the entire state system. Thus a new term has developed since the 1970s, the Fourth World.


The term Fourth World first came into wide use in 1974 with the publication of Shuswap Chief George Manuel's: The Fourth World: An Indian Reality. Manuel thought of the Fourth World as the "indigenous peoples descended from a country's aboriginal population and who today are completely or partly deprived of the right to their own territories and its riches. "(40) This is a valid definition. However, prejudices and misconceptions regarding the terms "aboriginal" and "indigenous" abound including an exclusive association with New World "Indians". In this manner, many indigenous nations in Europe, the Soviet Union, the Middle and Far East, such as Wales, Catalonia, Brittany, Flanders, Bavaria, Slovakia, Slovenia, Armenia, Georgia, Palestine, Kurdistan, Khalistan, Balochistan, Tibet, and hundreds more are forgotten or discarded. This is particularly unfortunate in the case of Europe because so much can be learned from examining the experience of Fourth World nations at the core of the European-derived system of states. Thus, we find the definition of "internationally unrecognized nations" precise, concise and less geographically limiting.


A definition which is too broad to express the geopolitical situation of oppressed nations is offered by a number of ecological and political organizations associated with the Schumacherian "small is beautiful" school. Influenced by such thinkers and writers as Leopold Kohr, E. F. Schumacher, John Papworth, and Kirkpatrick Sale, these groups are part of a movement toward decentralization and self-determination but do not share the same genesis as Fourth World nations. Hence, the definition of the Fourth World offered by such publications as the Fourth World News and Resurgence, the Journal of the Fourth World concerns the advocacy of more human scale institutions of any kind: [The] Fourth World embraces small nations of under twelve million inhabitants, groups working for their autonomy and independence at all levels from the neighborhood to the nation, minority groups whether ethnic, linguistic, cultural or religious, and those in the fields of peace action, ecology, economics, energy resources, women's liberation, and the whole spectrum of the alternative movement, who are struggling against the giantism of the institutions of today's mass societies and for a human scale and a non-centralized, multi-cellular, power-dispersed world order.(41) This definition of the Fourth World is far too broad and inclusive to be useful in explaining the historical expansion of states and the state-nation conflict it engendered. Clearly, the Fourth World by either definition is the outcome of a struggle between the forces of centralization and decentralization. However, this is an ancient struggle which is unrelated to many of the contemporary social movements listed in that definition. Kohr, Schumacher, Papworth and Sale all show a sympathy for Fourth World nations but are more concerned with the broader question of the size of states and what can be done to scale them down. That state expansion is a problem generated by the conquest of nations is not always explicit in their literature.


The Fourth World has also been used to designate:

the poorest, and most undeveloped states of the world;

any oppressed or underprivileged victim of a state.

R.G. Ridker used it in the first manner in the 1976 publication Changing Resource Problems of the Fourth World.(42) The use of this term has gained some currency among economists but has no relevance for the internationally unrecognized nations discussed here. In 1972, Ben Whittaker of the Minority Rights Group applied the term Fourth World to refer to any oppressed group, failing to distinguish between true ethnic and social minorities and historic nations.(43) Noel Dyck's 1985 publication, Indigenous Peoples and the Nation- State continued to support the conception of the Fourth World as "minority population that have no hope of ever prevailing within their respective national societies... [and] suffer from economic subjugation. "(44) Janusz Bugajski's 1991 publication, Fourth World Conflicts, reiterates the economistic, victimized image of the Fourth World: ...a whole range of tribal and peasant societies that... share a number of attributes, including a low level of political and economic integration in the state system, an inferior political status, and an underprivileged economic position.(45) Whittaker, Dyck, and Bugajski employ the term in a manner which presents the Fourth World as "not so much discreet groups of people or as specified societies" but as "complex political, economic and ideological relations" within the state.(46) This suggests weakness, victimization, and a convenient abstraction for seemingly invisible, intangible, immobile societies. The geopolitical force internationally unrecognized nations represent is totally unaccounted for. These are peoples who through both peaceful and military means are challenging the entire state system. Furthermore, not all Fourth World nations are "economically underprivileged." Some are the most economically advanced regions in their respective states such as Croatia and Slovenia in Yugoslavia, the three Baltic States in the Soviet Union (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia), Catalonia in Spain, or Wurtemburg in Germany.


Finally, mixing minorities, tribes and ethnic groups in a single category with nations results in a definition too broad to account for the common historical experience of internationally unrecognized nations. The inadequacy of these terms and others are considered below.



40. Quoted in Burger, Julian, THE GAIA ATLAS OF FIRST PEOPLES, London: Gaia Books Ltd., 1990.

41. Albery, Nicholas and Mark Kinzley, HOW TO SAVE THE WORLD: A FOURTH WORLD GUIDE TO THE POLITICS OF SCALE, Wellingborough, Northamptonshire: Turnstone Press, 1984.

42. Ridker, R.G. (ed.), CHANGING RESOURCE PROBLEMS OF THE FOURTH WORLD, Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1976.

43. Whittaker, Ben, THE FOURTH WORLD: VICTIMS OF GROUP OPPRESSION, London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1972.

44. Dyck, Noel, INDIGENOUS PEOPLES AND THE NATION-STATE, St. John's: Memorial University of Newfoundland, p. 236-237, 1985.

45. Bugajski, Janusz, FOURTH WORLD CONFLICTS: COMMUNISM AND RURAL SOCIETIES, Boulder: Westview Press, p. 1, 1991.



The Fourth World (2011)

55min | Documentary, Adventure, History | August 2012 (USA)

The Fourth World Poster

A quick look at the slums of Nairobi, Guatemala City, and Manila.

Director: Mark Volkers

Writer: Mark Volkers

Star: Mark Volkers

16 ISLANDSà_Tiên_Islands

Hà Tiên Islands (Vietnamese: Quần đảo Hà Tiên) is an archipelago locating in the Gulf of Thailand.


The Hà Tiên Islands lie off the coast of Hà Tiên, to the east of Phú Quốc Island. The archipelago is in turn 11 nautical miles (20 km; 13 mi), 9.7 nautical miles (18.0 km; 11.2 mi) and 16 nautical miles (30 km; 18 mi) away from the coast of Hà Tiên, the mainland of Vietnam and Phú Quốc Island.[1] There are in total 16 islands


The Gilbert Islands (Gilbertese: Tungaru;[1] formerly Kingsmill or King's-Mill Islands[2]) are a chain of sixteen atolls and coral islands in the Pacific Ocean about halfway between Papua New Guinea and Hawaii. They form the main part of Kiribati ("Kiribati" is the Kiribati rendition of "Gilberts"[1]).

There used to be four villages on the island - Ooma (Uma), Tabiang, Tapiwa (Tabwewa), and Buakonikai

Islands of Four Mountains

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Islands of Four Mountains


Islands of the Four Mountains, from ISS

Islands of Four MountainsCoordinates: 52°52′33″N 169°47′42″W is an island grouping of the Aleutian Islands in Alaska, United States. The chain includes, from west to east, Amukta, Chagulak, Yunaska, Herbert, Carlisle, Chuginadak, Uliaga, and Kagamil islands. This island chain is located between Amukta Pass and the Andreanof Islands to the west, and Samalga Pass and the Fox Islands to the east. These islands have a total land area of 210.656 sq mi (545.596 km²) and have no permanent population.[1] The two largest islands are Yunaska and Chuginadak. Chuginadak is mainly made up of the active volcano Mount Cleveland.[2]


The name is translated from Russian Четырехсопочные Острова (Ostrova Chetyre Soposhnye) meaning "Islands of Four Volcanoes" (Sarichev, 1826, map 3). The early Russian explorers named the islands by this term because of four prominent volcanoes, each located on a separate island. The Aleut name Unigun (Uniiĝun[3] in the modern Aleut orthography) was reported in 1940 by Father Veniaminov. There appears to be confusion regarding the names of these islands, possibly because only four of the five are on most early maps and charts. The present names were gathered in 1894 by a field party on the USS Concord and published in 1895 by the U.S. Navy Hydrography Office (Chart 8).[4] This is the first island in the Aleutian time zone, 1 hour behind Alaska with daylight saving time as of 2010.


Greater Antilles, the four largest islands of the Antilles—Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico—lying north of the Lesser Antilles chain. They constitute nearly 90 percent of the total land area of the entire West Indies.


The Greater Antilles are a group of larger islands in the Caribbean Sea. They include 4 major islands – Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola and, the smallest, Puerto Rico. These islands (as the rest of the Caribbean) enjoy warm sunny weather, beautiful sandy beaches and lush vegetation, intermixed with a variety of cultural, social and historical traditions. These vibrant and diverse islands have much more to offer to their guests than just warm sea and sun and sandy beaches.


Micronesia (from Greek: μικρός, mikrós, "small" + Greek: νῆσος, nêsos, "island") is a subregion of Oceania, comprising thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean. It has a shared cultural history with two other island regions, Polynesia to the east and Melanesia to the south.


The region has a tropical marine climate, and is part of the Oceania ecozone. There are four main archipelagos along with numerous outlying islands.

Scotland has over 790 offshore islands, most of which are to be found in four main groups: Shetland, Orkney, and the Hebrides, sub-divided into the Inner Hebrides and Outer Hebrides

Orkney Islands

Churchill Barrier 1, blocking Kirk Sound

Similarly, four Orkney islands are joined to the Orkney Mainland by a series of causeways known as the Churchill Barriers. They are:


South Ronaldsay


Lamb Holm

Glims HolmÎles_Maria

Îles Maria or simply Maria, also known as Hull Island,[2] is a small coral atoll in the Pacific Ocean. Its original name is Nororotu. The nearest land is Rimatara situated 205 kilometres (127 miles) to the ESE.


The atoll consists of four islets (îles), with a dense atoll forest[3] and a very shallow lagoon, supporting numerous bird species.[4] The island is uninhabited now, but at one time was the site of a penal colony.[5] Copra is occasionally harvested at the island.[4]


The four islands are:


Île du Sud

Île Centrale

Île de l' Ouest

Île du Nordêt

The Yap Main Islands is considered to be made up of four separate islands: Yap Island proper (Marbaq), Gagil-Tamil, Maap (Yapese: Maap′), and Rumung. The four are contiguous, though separated by water, and are surrounded by a common coral reef.

Japan's "mainland" consists of four primary islands: Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku.

Long Island is an island located just off the northeast coast of the United States and a region within the U.S. state of New York. Stretching east-northeast from New York Harbor into the Atlantic Ocean, the island comprises four counties: Kings and Queens (which comprise the New York City boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, respectively) to the west; then Nassau and Suffolk to the east.

By 1000 BC the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gatherer tribes, warrior societies, highland plutocracies, and port principalities.[48]

Java is divided into four provinces, West Java, Central Java, East Java, and Banten, and two special regions, Jakarta and Yogyakarta.

The island as well as nearby islands are administratively jointly, divided into four provinces:


Banten, capital: Serang

West Java, capital: Bandung

Central Java, capital: Semarang

East Java, capital: Surabaya


and 4 cultural zones:


Western Java (Banten, West Java, and Jakarta)

Central Java (Central Java and Yogyakarta)

East Java excluding Madura Island

Madura Island


In 1596, a four-ship expedition led by Cornelis de Houtman was the first Dutch contact with Indonesia.


Four major cultural areas exist on the island: the kejawen or Javanese heartland, the north coast of the pasisir region, the Sunda lands of West Java, and the eastern salient, also known as Blambangan. Madura makes up a fifth area having close cultural ties with coastal Java.[37] The kejawen Javanese culture is the island's most dominant. Java's remaining aristocracy are based here, and it is the region from where the majority of Indonesia's army, business, and political elite originate. Its language, arts, and etiquette are regarded as the island's most refined and exemplary.[37] The territory from Banyumas in the west through to Blitar in the east and encompasses Indonesia's most fertile and densely populated agricultural land.[37]


Greater Sunda Islands





Sulawesi, formerly known as Celebes (/ˈsɛlᵻbiːz/ or /sᵻˈliːbiːz/), is an island in Indonesia. One of the FOUR Greater Sunda Islands, and the world's eleventh-largest island, it is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. Within Indonesia, only Sumatra, Borneo and Papua are larger in territory, and only Java and Sumatra have larger populations.


The landmass of Sulawesi includes four peninsulas: the northern Minahasa Peninsula; the East Peninsula; the South Peninsula; and the South-east Peninsula

Bali has a caste system based on the Indian Hindu model, with four castes:

Sudra (Shudra) – peasants constituting close to 93% of Bali's population.[74]

Wesia (Vaishyas) – the caste of merchants and administrative officials

Ksatrias (Kshatriyas) – the kingly and warrior caste

Brahmana (Brahmin) – holy men and priests

The island and the very small islands administered with it are split into four regencies (local government districts). These are Sumba Barat (West Sumba), Sumba Barat Daya (Southwest Sumba), Sumba Tengah (Central Sumba) and Sumba Timur (East Sumba). The island accounted for 14.6% of the provincial population in 2010. The provincial capital is not on the island, but in Kupang, West Timor.



Located off the northwest tip of Bird's Head Peninsula on the island of New Guinea, in Indonesia's West Papua province, Raja Ampat, or the Four Kings, is an archipelago comprising over 1,500 small islands, cays, and shoals surrounding the four main islands of Misool, Salawati, Batanta, and Waigeo


The name of Raja Ampat comes from local mythology that tells about a woman who finds seven eggs. Four of the seven eggs hatch and become kings that occupy four of Raja Ampat biggest islands whilst the other three become a ghost, a woman, and a stone.

Misool, formerly spelled Mysol (Dutch: Misoöl), is one of the four major islands in the Raja Ampat Islands in West Papua (formerly Irian Jaya), Indonesia

Socotra (Arabic: سُقُطْرَى‎‎ Suquṭra), also spelled Soqotra, is an island and a small archipelago of four islands in the Arabian Sea

There are four major islands, as well as many smaller ones, in the country: Grande Comore; Moheli; Anjouan; and Mayotte. Mayotte, however, voted against impendence and is still governed by France.

San Miguel Archipelago is a chain of four tropical islands located in one of the most preserved areas Panama.

Socotra is an archipelago of four islands off the coast of Yemen in the Indian Ocean. The largest island is also called Socotra, and makes up about 95% of the archipelago's landmass. The unique and numerous endemic plant and animal species make this island extremely alien-looking. On the archipelago, about 300 species are endemic, meaning they only live in one location.


The Pribilof Islands (formerly the Northern Fur Seal Islands) are a group of four volcanic islands off the coast of mainland Alaska, in the Bering Sea, about 200 miles (320 km) north of Unalaska and 200 miles (320 km) southwest of Cape Newenham. The Siberia coast is roughly 500 miles (800 km) northwest. About 200 km2 (77 sq mi) in total area, they are mostly rocky and are covered with tundra, with a population of 572 as of the 2010 census.

The Revillagigedo Islands (Spanish: Islas Revillagigedo, IPA: [reˈβiʝa xiˈxeðo]) or Revillagigedo Archipelago are a group of four volcanic islands in the Pacific Ocean, known for their unique ecosystem.
Tonga is divided into four main island groups. In the south is Tongatapu Group, where the capital of Nuku’alofa can be found. A hundred kilometres north is the Ha’apai Group, and 100 kilometres further north is the Vava’u Group. In the far north, 300 kilometres from Vava’u, lie the remote Niuas, a fascinating part of Tonga where traditional life still thrives.

The Acteon Group includes four atolls of relatively small size:






None of the islands on these atolls have permanent inhabitants.



The first recorded European to sight the Acteon Group was Pedro Fernández de Quirós on 5 February 1605. He described the group as "four islands crowned by coconut palms". On the different texts describing his voyage by other members of this Spanish expedition they were charted as "Las Cuatro Coronadas" (The four Crowned), "Las Cuatro Hermanas" (The Four Sisters), "Las Virgenes" (The Virgins) or "Las Anegadas" (The Flooded ones).[2]


A rediscovery of this group is generally credited to Thomas Ebrill, captain of the Tahitian trading vessel Amphitrite, who discovered these islands in 1833. However, they were named 4 years later by Lord Edward Russell – commander of the HMS Actaeon (1831) – after his vessel. In 1983 these atolls were struck by a cyclone.[3]



Administratively the four atolls of the Acteon group belong to the commune of the Gambier Islands.

The Duke of Gloucester Islands include four atolls of relatively small size:





Hereheretue (19°52′S 144°58′W) is located slightly off to the northwest of the group of the other three atolls which lie at 20°40′S 143°20′W and are uninhabited; the only permanently inhabited island of the Îles du Duc de Gloucester is Hereheretue (57 inhabitants in 2002).



First sighting recorded by Europeans was by the Spanish expedition of Pedro Fernández de Quirós on 4 February 1606. They were named Cuatro Coronas (Four Crowns in Spanish). Gaspar González de Leza, pilot of Fernández de Quiros, charted them as Cuatro Anegadas (in Spanish, the Flooded Four).[2]

The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.[1][2]

When the world's first football association, The Football Association (FA), was formed in 1863, its geographical remit was not clear: there was no specification of whether it covered just England, all of the United Kingdom, the British Empire or even the entire world. The question was answered when the Scottish Football Association (SFA) was founded in 1873.


The third national football association, the Football Association of Wales (FAW) was founded in 1876 and a fourth, the Irish Football Association (IFA), was founded in 1880. Football therefore developed with separate associations and national teams for each of the countries of the United Kingdom or "Home Nations".

New Zealand is divided into sixteen regions for devolved local government


Canadian Confederation (French: Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.[1][2] Upon confederation, the old province of Canada was divided into Ontario and Quebec; along with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the new federal state was thus composed of four provinces.

In 2008, historian Andrew Smith advanced a very different view of Confederation’s ideological origins. He argues that in the four original Canadian provinces, the politics of taxation were a central issue in the debate about Confederation

The four corners of Canadian political subdivisions hypothetically meet at a point near 60°N 102°W.[1][2] These are the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan and the territories of the Northwest Territories (NWT) and Nunavut.[1]

Contents [hide]

1 Geography

2 Gallery

3 See also

4 References

5 External links


The four corners area is located between Kasba Lake to the north and Hasbala Lake to the south. It is located by an area of marginal taiga forest, which happens to be the only place in Nunavut which is not Arctic tundra or ice cap.[2] It is hundreds of kilometres from any road or railway, but can be accessed from nearby Kasba Lake Airport/Water Aerodrome as well as from Points North Landing near Wollaston Lake.[3]


The establishment of Nunavut in 1999 led to the creation of Canada's only quadripoint at this location.[2] In the legal definition of Nunavut, its border is specified as "Commencing at the intersection of 60°00'N latitude with 102°00'W longitude, being the intersection of the Manitoba, Northwest Territories and Saskatchewan borders".[6][7] Since the intersection does not lie exactly at those coordinates, the laws are not perfectly clear about whether or not the Nunavut–NWT boundary, which has not been completely surveyed,[8] is to meet the others in a quadripoint. Surveys began in 2011.[9][10]


Nowhere does the charm and hospitality of Ireland shine more than the Irish Pub. The 4P's, a real neighborhood pub, is an institution in Falls Church. It was established in 1997 & purchased by Colm & Ciara in 2004. It has universal appeal that transcends nationality. It exemplifies the charm and relaxed lifestyle of the Irish people. We continue this great tradition by serving quality food in a pleasant atmosphere. Along with our regular menus our Chef prepares nightly specials with fresh local ingredients.

Ireland has historically been divided into four provinces: Connacht, Leinster, Munster and Ulster

Each Province is today represented by its own unique arms and flag, these are joined together to represent various All Ireland sports teams and organisations via the Four Provinces Flag of Ireland and a four province Crest of Ireland, examples include the Ireland national field hockey team, Ireland Curling team, Ireland national rugby league team, Ireland national rugby union team and Irish Amateur Boxing Association.

The Irish Rugby Football Union is the governing body for rugby union in Ireland. The IRFU is divided into four branches which represent the four provinces of Ireland: Ulster, Munster, Leinster and Connacht.

Europe has been traditionally divided into regions based on location according to the four points of the compass: Eastern Europe, southern Europe, Western Europe, and northern Europe. The British Isles are often considered a separate region but can be included as a part of Western Europe.

16 Great Kingdoms of India


Rock Drawings in Valcamonica: Camunian rose and two human figures (one in martellina, the other in graffiti)

The Camuni or Camunni were an ancient population located in Val Camonica during the Iron Age (1st millennium BC); the Latin name Camunni was attributed to them by the authors of the 1st century. They are also called ancient Camuni, to distinguish them from the current inhabitants of the valley (the Camuni or Camunians). The Camunni were among the greatest producers of rock art in Europe; their name is linked to the famous rock engravings of Valcamonica.


The Camunian rose (or in Italian Rosa camuna) is the name given to a particular symbol represented among the rock carvings of Val Camonica (Brescia, Italy). It consists of a meandering closed line that winds around nine cup marks. It is engraved in the form symmetrical, asymmetrical or swastika.


There are many theories about its meaning, Emmanuel Anati suggests that it might symbolize a complex religious concept, perhaps a solar symbol linked to the astral movement. In Val Camonica this motif dates back to the Iron Age, particularly from the 7th to 1st centuries BC. There is only one doubtful case datable at the Final Bronze Age (1,100 BC). These figures are placed mainly in the Middle Camonica Valley (Capo di Ponte, Foppe of Nadro,[1] Sellero, Ceto and Paspardo), but numerous cases are in the Low Valley too (Darfo Boario Terme and Esine).



Camunian rose in the swastika shape on the rock 57 of Vite, Paspardo

The motif has been deeply studied by Paola Farina, who created a corpus of all the "camunian roses" known in Val Camonica: she counted 84 "roses" engraved on 27 rocks. Three basic types have been determined:[2]


swastika type: the 9 cup-marks make a 5 by 5 cross; the contour forms four arms that bend about 90° and every arm includes one of the top cup-marks of the cross. There are 16 “roses” of this type;

asymmetric-swastika type: the disposition of the 9 cup-marks is the same as the previous; but the contour is different, because only two arms bend 90°, while the other ones join together in a single bilobate arm. There are 12 “roses” of this type;

quadrilobate type: the 9 cup-marks are aligned in three columns of three cups; the contour develops into four orthogonal and symmetric arms, and everyone includes a cup-mark. It is the more widespread type of “camunian rose”, there are 56 examples.



Quadripartite or Beatus maps[edit]

Quadripartite maps represent a sort of amalgam of the Zonal and T-O maps by illustrating the three known continents separated by an equatorial ocean from a fourth unknown land, often called Antipodes. Fourteen large quadripartite maps are found illustrating different manuscripts of Beatus of Liébana's popular Commentary on the Apocalypse of St John. These "Beatus maps" are believed to derive from a single (now lost) original which was used to illustrate the missions of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ.[2]


Types of mappae mundi[edit]


Diagram illustrating the major categories of mappae mundi.

Extant mappae mundi come in several distinct varieties, including:


Zonal or Macrobian maps

Tripartite or "T-O" maps

Quadripartite maps (including the Beatus maps)

complex maps

Medieval world maps which share some characteristics of traditional mappae mundi but contain elements from other sources, including Portolan charts and Ptolemy's Geography are sometimes considered a fifth type, called "transitional mappae mundi".


Zonal maps[edit]

Zonal maps are pictures of the East Hemisphere. Their purpose was to illustrate the concept that the world is a sphere with 5 climate zones:


The northern frigid zone

the northern temperate zone

the equatorial tropical zone

the southern temperate zone

the southern frigid zone

Of these, only the two temperate zones were believed to be inhabitable, and the known world was contained entirely within the northern temperate zone's Eastern Hemisphere. Because most surviving Zonal maps are found illustrating Macrobius' Commentary on Cicero's Dream of Scipio (an excerpt of Cicero's De Re Publica), this type of map is sometimes called "Macrobian". In their simplest and most common form, Zonal mappae mundi are merely circles divided into five parallel zones, but several larger Zonal maps with much more detail have survived.


Tripartite or T-O maps[edit]

Main article: T and O map

T-O maps, unlike zonal maps, illustrate only the habitable portion of the world known in Roman and medieval times. The landmass was illustrated as a circle (an "O") divided into three portions by a "T". These three divisions were the continents of Asia, Africa and Europe. The vast majority of T-O maps place east at the top, hence the term "orienting" a map from the Latin word oriens for "east". The assertion that T-O maps depict a "flat earth", while common, is unwarranted. The "circle of the lands" in a T-O can just as easily be fit onto the sphere of the Earth as onto a flat, disk-shaped Earth[original research?]. The popularity of the Macrobian maps and the combination of T-O style continents on some of the larger Macrobian spheres illustrate that Earth's sphericity continued to be understood among scholars during the Middle Ages.


Quadripartite or Beatus maps[edit]

Quadripartite maps represent a sort of amalgam of the Zonal and T-O maps by illustrating the three known continents separated by an equatorial ocean from a fourth unknown land, often called Antipodes. Fourteen large quadripartite maps are found illustrating different manuscripts of Beatus of Liébana's popular Commentary on the Apocalypse of St John. These "Beatus maps" are believed to derive from a single (now lost) original which was used to illustrate the missions of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ.[2]


Complex maps[edit]

The "complex" or "great" world maps are the most famous mappae mundi. Although most employ a modified T-O scheme, they are considerably more detailed than their smaller T-O cousins. These maps show coastal details, mountains, rivers, cities, towns and provinces. Some include figures and stories from history, the Bible and classical mythology. Also shown on some maps are exotic plants, beasts and races known to Medieval scholars only through Roman and Greek texts. Prior to its destruction in World War II, the Ebstorf map at 3.5 m (11 ft 6 in) across was the largest surviving mappa mundi. Today that honor is held by the surviving center portion of the Hereford map which is 147 cm across and 175 cm top to bottom. Other important maps in this group are the Cotton or Anglo-Saxon map, the Psalter map and the Henry of Mainz map. The somewhat later mappae mundi that accompany the popular Polychronicon of Ranulf Higden should probably be viewed as degenerate form of the earlier complex maps.


Complex mappae mundi include:




Ancient Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist cosmology held that the Earth is a disc consisting of four continents grouped around a central mountain (Mount Meru) like the petals of a flower. An outer ocean surrounds these continents.[39] This view of traditional Buddhist and Jain cosmology depicts the cosmos as a vast, oceanic disk (of the magnitude of a small planetary system), bounded by mountains, in which the continents are set as small islands.[39]


In the 2nd century BC, Crates of Mallus devised a terrestrial sphere that divided the Earth into four continents, separated by great rivers or oceans, with people presumed living in each of the four regions.[58] Opposite the oikumene, the inhabited world, were the antipodes, considered unreachable both because of an intervening torrid zone (equator) and the ocean. This took a strong hold on the medieval mind.

The Altaians were annexed by the Four Oirat of Western Mongols in the 16th century

The Four Oirat (Dorben Oirad), also known as the Alliance of the Four Oirat tribes or the Oirat confederation (Oirads; Mongolian: Дөрвөн Ойрад; in the past, also Eleuths), was the confederation of the Oirat tribes, which marked the rise of the Western Mongols in Mongolian history.


Despite the universal currency of the term "Four Oirat" among Eastern Mongols and Oirats and numerous explanations by historians, no consensus has been reached on the identity of the original four tribes. While it is believed that the term Four Oirats refers to the Choros, Torghut, Dorbet and Khoid tribes,[2] there is a theory that the Oirats were not consanguineous units but political-ethnic units, composed of many patrilineages.[3]

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

The Dörbet (Kalmyk: Дөрвд, Dörwd; Mongolian: Дөрвөд, Dörwöd, ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠳ, lit. "the Fours"; Chinese: 杜尔伯特部; pinyin: Dù'ěrbótè Bù; also known in English as the Derbet) is the second largest subgroup of Mongol people in modern Mongolia and was formerly one of the major tribes of the Four Oirat confederation in the 15th-18th centuries. In early times, the Dörbet and the Dzungars were ruled by collateral branches of the Choros. The Dörbets are distributed among the western provinces of Mongolia, Kalmykia, and in a small portion in Heilongjiang, China. In modern-day Mongolia, the Dörbets are centered in Uvs Province.örbet_Oirat

Contents [hide]

1 History

2 Number

3 Notable people

4 References

5 External links


A Dörben clan of Duwa Sohor's four sons existed within the Khamag Mongol confederation in the 12th century; but their relation with the Dörbets is unclear. However, the Dörbets appeared in the early 15th century as part of the Four Oirats.The name probably means "döröv"; "four" (Middle Mongolian: dörbe).

A European depiction of the four khans, Temür (Yuan), Chapar (House of Ögedei), Toqta (Golden Horde), and Öljaitü (Ilkhanate), in the Fleur des histoires d'orient.[110]ür_Chabar_Toqta_Öldjeïtu.jpeg



By the time of Kublai's death in 1294, the Mongol Empire had fractured into four separate khanates or empires, each pursuing its own separate interests and objectives: the Golden Horde khanate in the northwest; the Chagatai Khanate in the middle; the Ilkhanate in the southwest; and the Yuan dynasty in the east based in modern-day Beijing



When he was asked who should succeed him, Alexander said, “The strongest”, which answer led to his empire being divided between four of his generals: Cassander, Ptolemy, Antigonus, and Seleucus (known as The Diadochi or `successors').

First Macedonian War (214 to 205 BC)

2 Second Macedonian war (200 to 196 BC)

3 Seleucid War (192 to 188 BC)

4 Third Macedonian War (172 to 168 BC)

5 Fourth Macedonian War (150 to 148 BC)


Various former government officials, politicians, authors, and military leaders (including the following people: James Woolsey[8] Alexandre de Marenches,[9] Eliot Cohen,[10] and Subcomandante Marcos[11]) have attempted to apply the labels of the “Third World War” and “Fourth World War” to various past and present global wars since the closing of the Second World War, for example, the Cold War and the War on Terror, respectively. Among these are former American, French, and Mexican government officials, military leaders, politicians, and authors: Despite their efforts, none of these wars are commonly deemed world wars.

I do not know how the Third World War will be fought, but I can tell you what they will use in the Fourth — rocks! ~ Albert Einstein


The Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), often called simply the Dutch War (French: Guerre de Hollande; Dutch: Hollandse Oorlog), was a war fought by France, Sweden, Münster, Cologne and England against the Dutch Republic, which was later joined by the Austrian Habsburg lands, Brandenburg-Prussia and Spain to form a Quadruple Alliance.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

The four-volume MASKS OF GOD: Primitive Mythology, Oriental Mythology, Occidental Mythology, Creative Mythology, 4 volume set (I - IV):


In his eighties, Campbell launched a multi-volume Historical Atlas of World Mythology that set out to investigate the major mythological periods. He proposed a stage model of cultural development. The earliest era is indicated by shamanistic hunter-gatherers. This is the beginning of symbolic thinking. Next come the planters' rituals of birth, death, and rebirth. The third stage involves high civilizations of Goddesses, heroes, and priestly orders. Finally, a stage that leads into the current era, in which the individuals are able to comprehend illumination directly as an internal state. All regions of the planet to not go through these stages simultaneously. In contemporary time, cultures can be found that exhibit the perspectives of each of the four stages.


This series was to build on Campbell’s idea, first presented in The Hero with a Thousand Faces, that myth evolves over time through four stages:


The Way of the Animal Powers—the myths of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers which focus on shamanism and animal totems. This volume was covered in two parts: Mythologies of the Primitive Hunter-Gathers and Mythologies of the Great Hunt.

The Way of the Seeded Earth—the myths of Neolithic, agrarian cultures which focus upon a mother goddess and associated fertility rites. This volume was to be covered in five parts, of which three were completed: The Sacrifice, Mythologies of the Primitive Planters: The Northern Americas, and Mythologies of the Primitive Planters: The Middle and Southern Americas. Two additional parts were planned: Mythologies of the Primitive Planters: Africa and South-western Asia and Mythologies of the Primitive Planters: Southern Asia.

The Way of the Celestial Lights—the myths of Bronze Age city-states with pantheons of gods ruling from the heavens, led by a masculine god-king.

The Way of Man—religion and philosophy as it developed after the Axial Age (c. 6th century BC), in which the mythic imagery of previous eras was made consciously metaphorical, reinterpreted as referring to psycho-spiritual, not literal-historical, matters. This transition is evidenced in the East by Buddhism, Vedanta, and philosophical Taoism; and in the West by the Mystery Cults, Platonism, Christianity and Gnosticism.

Campbell claimed to have compared Finnegans Wake and the book form of The Skin of Our Teeth and found "nearly two hundred and fifty analogues—characters, themes, and finally a four-line, word-for-word quote."[3]


Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None (German: Also sprach Zarathustra: Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen, also translated as Thus Spake Zarathustra) is a philosophical novel by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, composed in four parts between 1883 and 1885 and published between 1883 and 1891.[1] Much of the work deals with ideas such as the "eternal recurrence of the same", the parable on the "death of God", and the "prophecy" of the Übermensch, which were first introduced in The Gay Science.[2]

The Mirabal Sisters (Spanish pronunciation: [erˈmanas miɾaˈβal], Hermanas Mirabal) were four Dominican sisters who opposed the dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo and were involved in clandestine activities against his regime.[1] Three of the sisters were assassinated on 25 November 1960. The assassinations turned the Mirabal sisters into "symbols of both popular and feminist resistance".[2]


The "four crazy days" and the "four spirits"

Late that night he awoke and started up naked, about to leave the tent. His wife called, “Kehuq, come back, are you crazy?” She made him put on his clothes. The man was like a crazy person and kept wandering away. He continued crazy for four days, getting worse whenever he ate anything. After four days he began to improve.

When he recovered, Kehuq could dance. His spirit left him, and he was possessed by the strange shaman’s spirit. Kehuq taught the people the shaman’s songs and also taught them how to carve the shaman’s face in wood. He was now gifted with shamanic powers. He taught them how to let their spirits go out from their bodies and come back in, pulling themselves back into their bodies as if they were pulling themselves backward into their underground igloos. The songs gave them power, power to heal the sick, to close up mortal wounds, to predict the future, bring animals to the hunter, change the weather, and speak with the dead. (see E. Turner 1996, 207)

This is just one of many Inuit accounts telling of a four-day “crazy” period, typically followed by a very successful hunting period, and also by healing gifts and other benefits.

The Story of Claire, the Inuit Healer

My Inuit healer-friend Claire belonged to an unspoken sisterhood of shamans (E. Turner 1996, 204–7), and experienced curious “timeout,” or blanking-out, episodes. Claire, who was a Christian and a respected local healer, experienced at different stages of her life at least four gaps in ordinary consciousness that psychologists in our culture would diagnose as fugue or even psychosis—but these episodes did not derive from psychosis. They were irruptions of shamanic powers just as the ancient Inuit knew such irruptions, typically lasting four days. They involve meeting with something fearful, such as the spirit of a dead or dangerous animal, after which this entity, having first afflicted the budding shaman, then changes and becomes the shaman’s helper.

Claire’s first recorded chaotic state should not be given a psychological label, however, because we cannot regard it as an illness described by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association 1994). It appears that in 1970 Claire was in Anchorage in an expensive hotel, alone for four days, for reasons unknown. There she had some kind of transformation. A person who did not know Claire’s powers would think she was crazy. Her condition was characterized by glossolalia, the phenomenon of “speaking in tongues.”

That was one episode. Then in 1984, when Claire was not doing much healing, she had another visitation, a very disturbing one. Claire began to continually see a devil figure in her peripheral vision. In the negative phase of this episode, Claire uttered a torrent of nonsense words that nobody could understand. It was glossolalia again. This greatly upset her relatives. Claire told them irritably, “Don’t be like that, you don’t think I’m anything, do you? I can’t help it, it comes to me.” But at the end of the episode’s four-day period Claire was able to pray again to Jesus, and afterward her healing power was stronger than before, as it was after each of these events. Jesus, of course, is the obverse of the devil, and if he were Clarie’s helper spirit he would then be her guide in healing. This switch from dangerous to helpful is one that often manifests itself in spirits in precontact days.

Claire went through another encounter with her trouble, whatever it was—maybe the devil again. On Thursday January 14, 1988, I found her lying on her couch, very depressed. She had her eyes shut, and she blurted out words critical of her family and others. I was frightened. Was she angry with me? I put down beside her some ripe pears I had brought for her, and left. Four days later she was herself again. What I had seen had all the hallmarks of a shamanic episode.

During a visit I made in 1991, yet another repeat of this state seemed to occur. I heard that Claire had returned from the hospital where she had been a patient from May 28 to June 2. I went to her house with a gift. When she saw me she turned convulsively and flung herself into my arms. We were crying. I stroked her wild gray hair and haggard face. When we recovered she told me the doctor at the hospital had given her the wrong medicine. She was really mad at him. “I’ll get an attorney,” she said. Now she was off all medicine and feeling better by the minute. I wondered what ailment the doctor thought he had prescribed the medicine for.

Such is the way a shaman is made. The vision, the four-day crazy period, and the coming of the shaman’s powers appear in all the stories of the creation of Inuit shamans. This is also the general pattern of the other shamanic initiations I describe here, though these are from altogether different societies. All three initiations, Inuit, African, and Nepalese, happen to the chosen person at the will of a spirit and are preceded by something like a near-death experience or a frightening depression. The three shamans who undergo these initiations learn that they must never renege on their craft, must never refuse to heal, must cause no harm by their power, and must not attribute the power to themselves. This is the shaman ethic, and it is commonly found wherever Shamanism exists.

In the journey I have made through the experiences of healers, I have encountered various understandings, not only of spirits but of the human soul. Among the Lungu of north-eastern Zambia, for example, ngulu spirits struggle with their human host so that their host will allow them to appear (Willis et al. 1999, 95), and for this reason there is blackness at first. Both Kehuq and Claire experienced similar cruel episodes outside of normalcy, without realizing there would be a gift at the end of it. Such episodes are a matter of the deepest being, a matter of that “thing” beyond value, the soul. These episodes fragment a person’s ordinary existence, and afterward there follows the entry of a beneficent spirit of overwhelming power, causing shock and blackness at first—as with Saul (later Paul) on his horse (Acts 9:1–6).

The soul exists in reality, a sensitive living entity. When the breakthrough occurs, the heart fires up, the lungs suddenly spread wide with a kind of recognition—with a gasp, like the lungs of a newborn baby. The very pores quiver in goose bumps. It is one’s consciousness that is changed, for it is set at-large, “with no fixed boundaries . . . There was a permeability and flexibility between self and other, an infinite flexibility,” as the anthropologist Willis described it when he shared the change of consciousness with the Lungu of Zambia (1999, 103). This soul is not in our own hands. It does not operate by the laws of ordinary consciousness.

My next account of shamanic initiation, also full of similarities to the previous ones, is set in Nepal some six thousand miles away from northern Alaska, among stone huts straddling the mountain slopes of the Himalayas. The religion here is Shamanism and Animism, with a trace of Buddhism. In 1976 anthropologist Larry Peters was working in Nepal when he encountered the shaman Bhirendra. Bhirendra told Larry the story of how he became a shaman. The episodes of initiation Bhirendra described proceed in almost exactly the same manner as in the stories above: affliction, followed by benefits.

The Story of Bhirendra of Nepal: “How I Became a Shaman”

When I was thirteen, something came over me. I started shaking violently without knowing why. I couldn’t stay still for a minute even when I wasn’t trembling. My grandfather was making me mad through possession, and I ran off into the forest, naked, for three days. I found myself where three rivers cross, in the cemetery. The cemetery was terrifying. Out came a horde of demons with long crooked fangs, and others with no heads at all and eyes in the middle of their chests. Some of them carried death flags, and still others brought decaying corpses along with them. I ran. They chased me and leapt on me and started eating me. This was the end.

“Help, help!” I cried. “Help me, gods, I’m only a boy!”

I drew out my dagger to defend myself, but I dropped it. It fell on a rock and out came a long spark. Immediately everything changed. It was daytime and I was alive. The demons were gone.

When I got home I told my parents everything. They said, “Your grandfather saved you. It was his dagger that saved your life. You have to know that your grandfather went off to Tibet nine years ago and never returned.”

My father said, “You’re going to need a guru to train you in Shamanism.” My shaman uncle started to teach me: rituals, prayers, everything. My good grandfather’s spirit, the one who made me mad in the first place and who protected me, was with me all the time, inside of me, teaching me.

I had no choice in being a shaman. I was chosen. If I refused, I’d have gone completely mad and committed suicide. I’d never have been able to stop shaking. I was cured by becoming a shaman.

I learned to do healing. I learned the ritual to open the top of my head and let my spirit go out on a journey accompanied by my protecting spirit, in order to seek lost souls separated from their bodies.

The last stage was a ritual of vision in the cemetery, a climb to the highest heavens. For this the people went to the cemetery and erected a temporary shelter on stilts and decorated it with white soul flowers. For six days I played my drum alone, fasting. On the seventh day I saw myself walking into a beautiful garden with flowers of many colors. I saw a very tall building that reached up into the sky. It had a golden staircase of nine steps leading to the top. I climbed the nine steps and saw at the top Ghesar Gyalpo himself, the supreme god of the shamans, sitting on a white throne covered with soul flowers. He was dressed in white and his face was all white. He had long hair and a white crown. He gave me milk to drink and told me I would attain much power, shakti, to be used for the good of my people.

I left the sanctuary and returned to the village. The people and my guru were on the way out to meet me, and cheering they carried me back.

It’s hard to explain this experience to you. It—it makes me cry. It was the most significant experience of my life, and from then on, my entire life changed. (paraphrased from Peters [1981, 79–110 passim])

The story shows precisely the same days of confusion and wild action as the “craziness” of Kehuq, even the scenes of running off naked, the not eating, the presence of an ancestor spirit who makes the first call and who is later felt to be inside the shaman teaching him, and the drumming. Here in addition is a ladder to heaven, a connection like the IÒupiat boat in the sky, the tunnel in a near-death experience, or, as in the story of Jacob’s ladder (Gen. 28:11–19), the radiant path to the light. A curious similarity can be noted between Kehuq’s vision of the shaman with one eye in the middle of his brow and Bhirendra’s vision of demons with eyes in the middle of their chests. Another similarity is in the matter of the soul entering and exiting the body: with Kehuq, it is the way you let yourself down backwards into your igloo, and with Bhirendra, it is through the top of the head before going on a shaman journey.

Shamans are thus given the gift of healing through spirits, and their miracle medicine is beneficent power. Their call is to take up a different mode of being in the world, a mode taught them by the spirits and sometimes called the “shamanic state of consciousness.” In this state, experienced shamans are able to release their souls from their bodies and to “fly out” to the place where the soul of a sick person is wandering, lost.

My final story of the initiation of a healing shaman describes how a Ndembu medicine man, Muchona, was caught up in the spirit’s purpose. The Ndembu are a forest people of northwestern Zambia. This story tells of Muchona’s first initiation into the work of spirit healing. His vocation as a spirit healer started with an affliction caused by the spirit of his dead mother, who herself had had illnesses and whose spirit, after her death, wanted Muchona to become a healer. This spirit attack and its cure began Muchona’s career as a medicine man.

Muchona of Zambia Tells the Story of His Vocation

I kept getting ill. I was caught by a very heavy sickness in the body, and I found it hard to breathe. It was like being pricked by needles in my chest, and sometimes my chest felt as though it was blown up by a bicycle pump. I could only mutter, “Boyi, boyi.” My ears felt completely blocked up. I was like a drunken person and kept slipping to the ground in a fit. Then I kept dreaming of two of my mother’s brothers and of my father. And I dreamed of my mother. My relatives went to a diviner to see what was wrong. When the diviner tossed the objects in his basket, the seed of the palm tree came up on top of the objects in the basket. This is the tree used for palm wine.

The diviner said, “That means you’re suffering from the sickness of Kayong’u. It’s the sickness that comes before the call to be a doctor and diviner. Those four spirits in your dreams have come out of the grave to catch you and enter you, because they want you to become a diviner and treat people’s illnesses. I can’t make out who that fourth spirit is, the image is too weak.” It was the shadow of my mother.

So, I realized that four spirits were determined to make me take on this difficult job. And it’s a dangerous one! I could tell the divination was true: it was my destiny to take this course; the spirits wanted it. The drum ritual for making a doctor began. All night long the elder doctors washed me with medicine. I kept shuddering convulsively to the Kayong’u drum rhythm; the spirits were doing whatever they liked with me. Every time I shuddered it was like being drunk or epileptic, as if I was suddenly struck in the liver by lightning or beaten with a hoe-handle and stopped up.

Early in the morning while it was still dark the doctors seated me before a new ritual fire of green wood. When it began to be light, the old doctor who was in charge, a hunter-diviner, came up to me holding a red rooster by its legs, wings, and at the top of its head. The rooster, who crows in the morning, was there to end my sleep, to wake me up. The Kayong’u spirit also wakes up people it has caught. It makes them breathe hoarsely, like a rooster or a goat. The same thing happens when an initiated diviner is about to shake the basket full of divining objects: the person’s voice changes and the person doesn’t use the Lunda language anymore, but speaks hoarsely in another tongue. Diviners sometimes make a deep wheezing noise in the course of ordinary conversation. I can’t help doing it myself when I talk. It’s the voice of the Kayong’u spirit inside me.

Faced with the rooster I saw its color was red, the color of the shedding of blood. My mother used it in her women’s rituals. It came to me. Blood!

I sprang forward in a sudden spasm, in a trance. My teeth snapped, and the rooster’s head lay apart from its body. What had I done? I had beheaded it. I seemed crazy. Blood was pouring out of the head, so I took it up as it bled and beat it on my heart to quiet my mind. Then the big doctor ordered a goat to be beheaded. Its blood poured out on the ground—and the blood was also for the spirit in me. I lapped it up where it puddled.

They took the rooster’s head and put it on a pole made from the tree of the ancestor’s tears. My dead rooster was up there in contact with the ancestors, with the spirits. All was opened, now that the rooster was killed. The openings of my body that had been stopped up, my nostrils, ears, and eyes, were released and became supersensitive. From the killed animal I obtained wakefulness and sharpened senses, necessary for a diviner who needs to seek out hidden things.

Now the sun was rising. The doctors kept me quietly waiting while they went on some strange business in the bush. This is what they were doing: the old doctor took a hoe, a cupful of the goat’s blood, the hearts of the rooster and goat, and a collection of special sharp objects. The old doctor led a procession of men and women doctors out of the village into the bush. Soon the path forked. Usually people make a choice which fork to take because they know the way, but these people were diviners. They didn’t take either of the forks but went straight on into wild bush. They were seeking a certain path to a secret place. They knew more than other people; they had secret knowledge. That’s how they found a kapwipu tree, a hard wood, a sign of misfortune to begin with followed by success. They hunkered down and prayed to the spirits who were burdening me, then started to hoe up a mound of earth at the foot of the tree in the shape of a crocodile, with legs and a tail. Next they took the hearts of the rooster and goat and used some of the special sharp objects, a needle and razor, to prick the hearts. The pricking was the pain that sick people feel before they’re healed. Now that the hearts were pricked, the sick person wouldn’t feel it again because it was already done. They hid all these objects, including a knife, a bracelet, and a string of beads, in various places under the soil of the crocodile mound. Then they brought the drums and beat out the Kayong’u drum rhythm. They were ready.

They came for me. They led me to the crocodile in the bush and seated me on its neck.

“Okay,” said the old doctor. “What have you come here for, eh? Speak up.”

“To look for divination,” I said. “To be healed. To be a healer. I’m looking for my spirit.”

“Now, divine! Find the objects.”

A great power came upon me. My hands went out over the mound and a fierce pricking entered my fingers. My fingers plunged in, pushed by the spirit, and in a flash I found everything except the needle, and I snatched up the needle an instant later. I could divine. Now, whenever I work at divining, the sense of that pricking returns. It’s the thing that tells the diviner how to scan the objects tossed in the basket and see the cause of the client’s illness or bad luck, or see whether someone’s death was brought about by a witch or sorcerer. The diviner will gain the sharpness of the needle and the cutting power of the knife and of the sharp teeth of a human or crocodile. The diviner goes straight to the point in hidden matters. He sees the right ritual to use by shaking the basket, and his fingers see by the sharpness of the needle. The divining objects and sharpness help one another.

Because I found all the objects the doctors praised me and the women trilled aloud. I was extraordinarily happy. We danced home. I was cured of my illness, which had completely disappeared, and I was protected. The very spirit that had made me sick cured me and immediately entered my body to aid me in making correct decisions. As the saying goes: Making a new healer starts by the healer getting sick. Kutachika wakata.

Shortly after the ritual I sought out an experienced diviner and apprenticed myself to him. Now I could learn the difficult craft operations and interpretations needed for the profession. I learned all the herbs; I even learned how to cure a woman who was suffering from delusions as a result of puerperal fever. For that cure I had to venture alone into the graveyard, full of ghosts and far from the firelight. Only there could I exorcize the agencies of evil at work on the poor woman, making her writhe and babble nonsense. I had to subdue my fear to my curative vocation. (paraphrased from V. Turner [1967, 131–45])

Here are the same themes of sickness, falling in a fit as if drunk, an ancestor spirit’s intention that the chosen person become a diviner, the moment of opening up, and the shamanic gifts: healing, second sight, and happiness. All these healers-to-be know the dream-like state, the falling (or falling into forgetfulness), and in the case of the last two, Bhirendra and Muchona, the sense of being beaten and tormented. Muchona’s voice becomes “different” after his experience; his life too changes. These healers knew happiness and helped their people, and we note how the teaching of the power enters all of their stories. The basic features of spontaneous spirit initiation are all here, in these initiations in Arctic America, Nepal, and Africa. The similarities of these stories from cultures so distant from each other are obvious, and the significance of this cannot be denied. One has to accept that humans anywhere may go through the same processes, and that the processes are spiritual ones. It dawns on us that this tendency toward religion is inborn, an endowment, a biological predisposition, existing for the purpose of just such a communication with spirits, and that perhaps the only common human process to which it can be compared is childbirth, a biological event. The practice of religious healing is the most generally beneficent activity in which anyone can engage, for it is a matter of full consciousness and the expansion of being.


This chapter is not written from the point of view of regular anthropology—which itself is in need of expanding its field of study and correcting what is now termed its “cognocentrism”—nor does it follow the complex philosophy that plumbs the mystery of the individual, a separate, solitary being who is likely to create his or her own imaginary life. What it does do is present facts about the mystery of human permeability. Humans are permeated by each other and by spirits. Willis among the Lungu of northern Zambia made a bridge to this discovery when he experienced communitas, the prime, natural, unstructured social sense (1999, 117–19). This may be the same sense felt among the Pentecostals and in many sacred communities. The IÒupiat tribe, in order to survive in their fearsome land, needed a battery of power from their ancestors. They surely needed to know how to switch it on more than they would need to know in later years how to switch on the furnace in their prefabricated houses.

Peters (1981) documented how the good grandfather of Bhirendra, the man who had been a shaman, came back from his grave in Tibet. Yet a dead shaman is not truly a dead shaman, but rather a shaman all the more powerful over time and space. In the case of Bhirendra’s grandfather, it was a matter of the passing of ten years and of a distance of a thousand miles. So Bhirendra was to learn. The spirit of his grandfather entered into his body and rooted itself there, in all benevolence, giving the young shaman its own powers to overcome the illnesses and fears of his patients and to point them to the beauty of the healing that came from the heavenly throne of Bhirendra’s vision.

My old friend Muchona is dead, and his son now stands as elder in the Christian Fellowship church—a church related to the Apostles of Maranke, the Assemblies of God, and the Pentecostals. There Muchona the younger gives healing through the Holy Spirit, and the brethren also fall in the spirit and remember nothing.

So the threads weave back and forth. Muchona still lives. The Pentecostals draw down the power. Healers throughout America—little by little—learn the power. That peculiar language of the spiritual world is heard. Healers of different persuasions stare at each other in conferences, suddenly recognizing they are talking about the same thing, something very hard to put into words. The hands of the healers can feel it. Is the spirit pricking? Truthful accounts from all over the world—accounts of actual experiences—do succeed in saying it, just as William James found when he took on a similar task in assembling The Varieties of Religious Experience (1958/1902). He let the spirit flow in his words describing the many religious conversions. He did not adopt a cold objective style, and his book has never been equaled.

As for talking about what spirits are, I have found this cannot be done without “listening,” without a kind of prayer or an “invocation” to the spirits, as it is grandly called. But it’s more like pleading, “C’mon, give, give. Please.” Could people—possibly—know what spirits are? One gets the sense that the drive to analyze according to ordinary comprehension has never and will never learn the language of such matters. But through stories, for some reason, one can understand. This is a very serious business, this matter of stories. One asks, why does the inquiry work through stories? It is because of human permeability, because other people’s experience may become actually “one’s own.” One sees through such a story—as Victor Turner said of the spontaneous social drama—right into the experience of the person who experienced it and it becomes one’s own, “whole cloth.” Stories touch on a very spiritual matter, they slip under one’s skin, so to speak, they cause one spirit to slide into another in the same way that healing works, by the cominginto-concrete-reality of sympathy—sym-pathy, which has the literal meaning “feeling with.”

This very sympathy is needed in order to grasp the idea that humans are contacting other entities and are in active relationship with them, and that there is a spiritual world “out there” that has its own patterns and its own ways of acting. In our stories about spirits, that world appears to be not so hard to describe, because the spirits come visually, unlike energy or power, which are not visually experienced. People experience possession by spirits, incorporation by them. All this makes the psyche look much simpler than what many of today’s psychologists and psychiatrists have concluded when they say that spirits are a condition of the mind. Furthermore, up comes in 3-D an understanding of the soul, very much a spirit, wedded deep to the human body and spreading in an aura outside, creating it, the permeable organ itself, and everything that shakti, or power, says it is, and what Jacob Levy Moreno says it is, and just as LÈvi-Bruhl put it, even Jung: it is the unlimited psyche, connected with everything else in mystical participation.

The theory, then, is that there is a soul, and that the work of examining it will add to the knowledge of humanity—which is anthropology. This prime claim, the existence of the soul, is accepted by the mass of humanity. But it is philosophically unhealthy for scholars who have no sense of the soul—because they have been trained otherwise—to describe healing in reductive language (as if we took our food in the form of carbon, nitrogen, and calcium atoms). Furthermore, the principle of human rights is involved. All societies have a right to the knowledge of the spiritual experiences of their sister-societies, each story set out with respect and honor, and dealt with in accordance to the people’s own accounts.


In the Proto-Indo-European mythology each social group had its own god or family of gods to represent it and the function of the god or gods matched the function of the group. Many such divisions occur in the history of Indo-European societies:


Southern Russia: Bernard Sergent associates the Indo-European language family with certain archaeological cultures in Southern Russia and reconstructs an Indo-European religion based upon the tripartite functions.[4]

Early Germanic society: The supposed division between the king, nobility and regular freemen in early Germanic society.[5]

Norse mythology: Odin (sovereignty), Týr (law and justice), the Vanir (fertility).[6][7][note 1] Odin has been interpreted as a death-god[9] and connected to cremations,[10] and has also been associated with ecstatic practices.[11][10]

Classic Greece: The three divisions of the ideal society as described by Socrates in Plato's The Republic. Bernard Sergent examined the trifunctional hypothesis in Greek epic, lyric and dramatic poetry.[12]

India: The three Hindu castes, the Brahmans or priests; the Kshatriya, the warriors and military; and the Vaishya, the agriculturalists, cattle rearers and traders.[13] The Shudra, a FOURTH Indian caste, is an "outer" or serf caste serving the other three. A 2001 study found that the genetic affinity of Indians to Europeans is proportionate to caste rank, the upper castes being most similar to Europeans whereas lower castes are more like Asians. The researchers believe that the Indo-European speakers entered India from the Northwest, mixing with or displacing proto-Dravidian speakers, and may have established a caste system with themselves primarily in higher castes.[14]

Campbell writes: FOUR FUNCTIONS MYTH
"In the long view of the history of mankind, four essential functions of mythology can be discerned. The first and most distinctive – vitalizing all – is that of eliciting and supporting a sense of awe before the mystery of being."[66]
"The second function of mythology is to render a cosmology, an image of the universe that will support and be supported by this sense of awe before the mystery of the presence and the presence of a mystery."[66]
"A third function of mythology is to support the current social order, to integrate the individual organically with his group;"[67]
"The fourth function of mythology is to initiate the individual into the order of realities of his own psyche, guiding him toward his own spiritual enrichment and realization."[68]


Society was organized in a caste system, of which the Ali'i were leaders. Other castes included Kahuna (priests, healers, and other professionals such as chanters or carpenters), and Maka'ainana (commoners). As mentioned above, religion played a huge role in the legal system of the time, dictating when the people could fish, make war, and how they could eat. The four largest islands were normally controlled by Ali'i 'aimoku, or high cheifs, who owned all of the land they had power over. These high cheifs then delegated control of sections of the island to the district ali'i who distributed the land to commoners. In a system resembling the feudal system seen during the Medeival period in Europe, these commoners payed tribute to a konohiki (overseer) in return for being allowed to reside there.


At the time of European contact in 1778, Hawaiian society comprised four levels. People were born into specific social classes; social mobility was not unknown, but it was extremely rare. The Kapu System separated Hawaiian society into four groups of people:


• Aliʻi, the ruling class of chiefs and nobles (kings, high chiefs, low chiefs) considered to be of divine origin who ruled specific territories and who held their positions on the basis of family ties and leadership abilities - the chiefs were thought to be descendants of the gods;


• Kahuna, the priests (who conducted religious ceremonies at the heiau and elsewhere) and master craftsmen (experts in medicine, religion, technology, natural resource management and similar areas) who ranked near the top of the social scale


• Makaʻainana, commoners (the largest group) those who lived on the land - primarily laborers, farmers, fishermen, and the like; they labored not only for themselves and their families, but to support the chiefs; and


• Kauwa (or Kauā), social outcasts, "untouchables" — possibly lawbreakers or war captives, who were considered "unclean" or kapu. Their position was hereditary, and they were attached to "masters" in some sort of servitude status. Marriage between higher castes and the kauwa was strictly forbidden.

Ghaus Ansari (1960) named the following four broad categories of Muslim social divisions in India:[10]

Ashraf, who claim foreign-origin descent from Afghans, Arabs, Persians, Turks etc.

E.g. Mughal, Pathan, Sayyad, Sheikh

Converts from upper castes

E.g. Muslim Rajputs

Converts from other "clean" castes

E.g. Darzi, Dhobi, Dhuniya, Gaddi, Faqir, Hajjam (Nai), Julaha, Kabaria, Kumhar, Kunjra, Mirasi, Manihar, Qassab, Teli

Converts from untouchable castes

E.g. Bhangi


In addition to their traditions of family sovereignty, the Ottomans drew strength from their origins as ghazis. The ghazi principle fueled their urge for conquest and then helped them to structure their developing society. The social structure of settled, urban Islamic society consisted of four social groupings: 1) the men of the pen, that is, judges, imams (prayer leaders), and other intellectuals; 2) the men of the sword, meaning the military; 3) the men of negotiations, such as merchants; and 4) the men of husbandry, meaning farmers and livestock raisers. Life on the frontier was far less structured; society there was divided into two groups, the askeri (the military) and the raya (the subjects). Besides protecting the realm and the raya, the askeri conquered new territories, thus bringing more raya and wealth into the empire.




Angalkuq: “Shaman or Medicine Man”

Print Name: 1.-Tangvagai




The following four prints make up the full set. They represent four stages in a traditional Yup’ik healing ceremony. The images are photographs of the artist which have been manipulated through various media. They represent Aarnaquq, his great, great grandfather and namesake who was a well-respected healer.

CSP 05-112(a) Tangvagai (“He is watching them”)

CSP 05-112(b) Caugai (“He is confronting them”)

CSP 05-112(c) Callugai (“He is fighting them”)

CSP 05-112(d) Pellugtaa (“He brought them through”)

Add to cart

CSP 05-112(a)- CSP 05-112(d). A series of four, two-color lithographs on Somerset Satin white and Rives BFK white. Paper size: 30” x 22 1/4”. Image size: 10 5/8” x 8”. Each print is an edition of 16. Collaborating printer Frank Janzen, TMP. The four prints are sold as a complete set only. Current Price $1,700.00.

All prices are retail. Full documentation is provided with each print. Shipping and handling are extra.


The Midewiwin consisted of a number of individuals who had been initiated into the society in a ceremony that took place in four stages. Each stage confered a greater level of power upon the initiate. There was a cost associated with each stage, and not all individuals went beyond the first. Members advanced from one degree to another by making offerings to the older members and undergoing an initiation consisting of moral instructions as well as lessons in the names and uses of medicines. Instruction in the higher degrees pertained to special mysteries of the Midewiwin, the properties of rare herbs, and the nature of poisons. Only initiated members of the Midewiwin understood the manner of recording on birch-bark scrolls the lectures given to each member and the Midewiwin records.

The Midewiwin—-Society of the Mide-—consists of an indefinite number of Mide of both sexes.

The society is graded into four separate and distinct degrees. The greater power attained by one in making advancement depends upon the fact of his having submitted to ‘being shot at with the medicine sacks’ in the hands of the officiating priests.



Indigenous shamanic practitioners, on the other hand, practice healing with an eye towards imagery and community (Achterberg, 1985). In his monumental work, Eliade (1964) discusses the three stages of becoming a shaman: election, instruction, and initiation. Samuels and Rockwood-Lane (2003) have taken Eliade’s three stages and added a fourth, “the practice of shamanism” (p.15).

As stated, the stages of shamanic training are the calling, instruction, initiation, and shamanic practice. It is my hypothesis that one can compare the stages of allopathic medical training and find multiple similarities to shamanic practice. The four stages of shamanic training will be compared to a similar stage of medical education in this country.

Shamanic initiations vary and can occur as part of the training process or spontaneously. Initiation creates shamans from those who have been called, but not all who are called become shamans (Pratt, 2007). Four general forms of initiation have been described: traditional or cultural, instantaneous, wounded healer, and dismemberment (Pratt). Traditional initiation is the ordered progression similar to a medical residency; the shaman will go through graduated stages as deemed worthy. Instantaneous initiation can occur with near death experiences. The wounded healer may have emotional, physical, or mental challenges that result in a spiritual insight or awareness that comes once they have surrendered to their wounds. Dismemberment or spiritual deconstruction is a state whereby the shamanic initiate experiences a spiritual death in a shamanic state of consciousness. The commitment of the shaman is lifelong which adds to the power of the vocation for the community. While the vocation of the physician is powerful and helpful to the community, it is not permanent and is subject to retirement, loss of medical license, change of employment and so forth.

Medical education begins in a four-year accredited allopathic or osteopathic institution. The educational phase experienced in medical school is followed by the initiation of residency, and then the rigors of medical practice. Education received by medical students is similar to the shamanic trainee; the training is over many years, and there are tests and rites of passage. One receives a degree to practice medicine upon graduation, but this does not singularly convey the power to practice medicine in this country. In our culture, after completing medical school, one must obtain a medical license by completing board exams and a minimum number of years in graduate education ("Your doctor’s education", 2000). The allopathic healer learns through ceremony and ritual. An example of ritualistic education in medicine is seen by evaluating the ritual of the operating suite. The patient is instructed to fast before the surgery in order to prepare the body, and at times, the physician is also fasting because of strenuous work schedules. The surgical suite is structured with the patient in the center of the room with arms outstretch in a Christ-like crucifixion posture, while the room is continuously sanitized by air filters. The attending physician escorts the medical resident in training into the surgical suite; both garbed in the traditional surgical gown. In many instances, the resident physician will only monitor the elder physician commence the healing practice of surgery.

Here is another excerpt from my book the Quadrant Model of Reality

Noam Chomsky revolutionized linguistics with his theories on grammar. Chomsky proposed that language, and the rules governing it, is an innate capacity built into humans. Chomsky developed the "Chomsky hierarchy", which presents four types of languages. They are

Square 1: Type 0 grammars. The first level is RECURSIVELY ENUMERABLE languages, which can be recognized by Turing machines.

Square 2: Type 1 grammars. The second level is context sensitive languages. These languages can be recognized by a nondeterministic Turing machine whose tape is bounded by a constant times the length of the input.

Square 3: Type 2 grammars. The third level is context-free languages. These languages are exactly all languages that can be recognized by a non-deterministic pushdown automaton.

Square 4: Type 3 grammars. The fourth level is regular languages. These languages are exactly all languages that can be decided by a finite state automaton.

It has a permanent population of only four residents


The Tokugawa government intentionally created a social order called the Four divisions of society (shinōkōshō), that would stabilize the country. This system was based on the ideas of Confucianism that spread to Japan from China. By this system, society was composed of samurai (侍 shi), farming peasants (農 nō), artisans (工 kō) and merchants (商 shō). Samurai were placed at the top of society because they started an order and set a high moral example for others to follow. The system was meant to reinforce their position of power in society by justifying their ruling status. Peasants came second because they produced the most important commodity, food. According to Confucian philosophy, society could not survive without agriculture.[1] Third were artisans because they produced nonessential goods.

Merchants were at the bottom of the social order because they generated wealth without producing any goods. As this indicates, the classes were not arranged by wealth or capital but by what philosophers described as their moral purity.

In actuality, shinōkōshō does not accurately describe Tokugawa society.[2] Buddhist and Shinto priests; or court nobles (kuge); and outcast classes including eta and hinin (those sold or sentenced into indentured servitude) were not included in this description of hierarchy. In some cases, a poor samurai could be little better off than a peasant and the lines between the classes could blur, especially between artisans and merchants in urban areas. Still, the theory provided grounds for restricting privileges and responsibilities to different classes and it gave a sense of order to society. In practice, solidified social relationships in general helped create the political stability that defined the Edo period. [3]

Samurai Edit

Samurai functioned as the warrior class in Japan; they constituted about 7–8% of the population. The other classes were prohibited from possessing long swords such as the tachi or katana. Carrying both a long and a short sword became the symbol of the samurai class.

During the feudal period, samurai were warriors that fought for a lord in a feudal relationship. The Edo period, however, was largely free from both external threats and internal conflicts. Instead, the samurai maintained their fighting skills more as an art than to fight. Samurai were paid a stipend from their lord, limiting their ties to the economic base. In addition, samurai could not own land, which would have given them income independent from their duty. Samurai generally lived around their daimyō's castle, creating a thriving town or city environment around the middle of a domain.

There were social stratifications within the samurai class. Upper-level samurai had direct access to their daimyō and could hold his most trusted positions. Some achieved a level of wealth that allowed them to retain their own samurai vassals. Mid-level samurai held military and bureaucratic positions and had some interactions with their daimyō if needed. Low-level samurai could be paid as little as a subsistence wage and worked as guards, messengers and clerks. Positions within the class were largely hereditary and talented samurai could not rise above a few social steps beyond their birth.[4]

Outside the traditional samurai–lord relationship were rōnin, or masterless samurai were generally afforded very low levels of respect, had no income, and often became gamblers, bandits, or other similar occupations.

Peasants Edit

Life for rural peasants focused on their villages. Peasants rarely moved beyond their villages, and journeys and pilgrimages required a permit, but young people occasionally sought seasonal employment outside of their village. As a result, people were highly suspicious of outsiders. Social bonding, critical to the survival of the whole village,also reinforced through seasonal festivals. Villages were highly collective; there were strong pressures to conform and no room to deviate from custom.[5] Though there were conflicts, they were seen as disruptive to the village and order and were to be limited as much as possible.[6]

The peasant class owned land, but rights to tax this land were given to the daimyō. Peasants worked to produce enough food for themselves and still meet the tax burden. Most agriculture during this time was cultivated by families on their own land in contrast to the plantation or hacienda model, implemented elsewhere.[7]

Peasants could amass relatively large amounts of wealth but remained in the same class because of their association with the land. Wealthier families and those that held their own land and paid taxes were held in much higher regard and had more political influence in village matters. However, the survival of the village depended on every household cooperating to meet the tax burden and overcome natural disasters such as famines.

Merchants and artisans Edit

By 1800, as much as 10% of the population of Japan may have lived in large towns and cities, one of the highest levels in the world at the time.[8] The daimyōs and their samurai did not produce any goods themselves, but they used the tax surplus from the land to fuel their consumption. Their needs were met by artisans, who moved to be around the castles, and merchants, who traded local and regional goods. Each class in the city was restricted to living in its own quarter.

Merchants grew increasingly powerful during this period. Wealthy merchant houses arose to organize distributors and hold legal monopolies. As their wealth grew, merchants wanted to consume and display their wealth in the same manner as the samurai, but laws prevented them from doing so overtly. Still, their consumption combined with that of the samurai served to reinforce the growth of the merchant and artisan classes.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

The four occupations or "four categories of the people"[1] (simplified Chinese: 士农工商; traditional Chinese: 士農工商 ) was a hierarchic social class structure developed in ancient China by either Confucian or Legalist scholars as far back as the late Zhou Dynasty and is considered a central part of the Fengjian social structure (c. 1046–256 BC).[2]

In descending order, these were the shi (gentry scholars), the nong (peasant farmers), the gong (artisans and craftsmen), and the shang (merchants and traders).[2] In some manner this system of social order was adopted throughout the Chinese cultural sphere. In Japanese it is called mibunsei (身分制) and is sometimes stated as "Shi, nō, kō, shō" (士農工商, shinōkōshō?), in Korean as "Sa, nong, gong, sang" (사농공상), and in Vietnamese as "Sĩ, nông, công, thương (士農工商). The main difference in adaptation was the definition of the shi (士).


Society in the Joseon Dynasty was built upon Neo-Confucianist ideals, namely the three fundamental principles and five moral disciplines. There were four classes, the yangban nobility, the "middle class" chungin, sangmin, or the commoners and the cheonmin, the outcasts at the very bottom. Society was ruled by the yangban, who constituted 10% of the population and had several privileges. Slaves were of the lowest standing.

In theory, there were three social classes, but in practice, there were four. The top class were the yangban, or "scholar-gentry",[5] the commoners were called sangmin or yangmin, and the lowest class was that of the cheonmin.[6] Between the yangban and the commoners was a fourth class, the chungin, "middle people".[7]


Women could only have four types of "professions" in Joseon: they could become gungnyeo (palace women), shamans, physicians or gisaeng

FOUR HOLY KINGS KOREA…/File:Korea-Jinan-Isanmyo_(shine)…
The Isanmyo, a Sinist shrine built in 1925 to worship the four holy kings Dangun, Taejo, Sejong and Gojong. It is one of the few surviving shamanic temples in Korea.




The Ryōmin (lit. Good citizens) were the upper-class, divided into the four following subcastes[citation needed]


Kanjin (官人), government officials

Kōmin (公民), citizens

Shinabe (品部), professionals and tradesmen relevant to court functions

Zakko (雑戸), tradesmen, especially those relevant to the military, considered of a lower class than the previous three

In 1935, the Central Government enacted currency reforms to limit currency issuance to four major government controlled banks: the Bank of China, Central Bank of China, Bank of Communications and later the Farmers Bank of China. The circulation of silver dollar coins was prohibited, and private ownership of silver was banned. A new currency issued in its place was known as fabi (法幣, pinyin: fǎbì) or "legal tender".


In the late Russian Empire the estates were called sosloviyes. The four major estates were: nobility (dvoryanstvo), clergy, rural dwellers, and urban dwellers, with a more detailed stratification therein. The division in estates was of mixed nature: traditional, occupational, as well as formal: for example, voting in Duma was carried out by estates. Russian Empire Census recorded the reported estate of a person.


Riksdag of the Estates (formally: Swedish: Riksens ständer; informally: Swedish: Ståndsriksdagen) was the name used for the Estates of Sweden when they were assembled. Until its dissolution in 1866, the institution was the highest authority in Sweden next to the king. It was a Diet made up of the Four Estates, which historically were the lines of division in Swedish society:






Representatives of the four estates on a commemorative coin (reverse).



An oak leaf cluster is a miniature bronze or silver twig of four oak leaves with three acorns on the stem that is authorized by the United States Armed Forces as a ribbon device for a specific set of decorations and awards of the United States Army, Air Force, and Department of Defense to denote subsequent decorations and awards.[2]


The bronze oak leaf cluster represents one additional award, while the silver oak leaf cluster is worn in lieu of five bronze oak leaf clusters.[3]


Contents [hide]

1 Criteria and wear

1.1 Examples

2 Decorations and awards

3 Other nations

4 See also

5 References

Criteria and wear[edit]

Oak leaf clusters are worn with the stems of the leaves pointing to the wearer’s right. For medals,  13⁄32 inch oak leaf clusters are worn on the medal's suspension ribbon. If four oak leaf clusters are worn on the suspension ribbon, the fourth is placed above the middle one in the row of three.[3] For service ribbons,  5⁄16 inch oak leaf clusters are worn, with no more than four oak leaf clusters being worn side by side.[3][4] If the number of authorized oak leaf clusters exceeds four, a second ribbon is authorized for wear and is worn after the first ribbon.[3] The second ribbon counts as one additional award, after which more leaf clusters may be added to the second ribbon. If future awards reduce the number of oak leaf clusters worn on the first ribbon due to bronze oak leaf clusters being replaced by a silver oak leaf cluster, the second ribbon is removed and the appropriate number of devices is placed on the first ribbon.[3]


The four-region system, used in some administrative and statistical contexts, and also as a loose cultural grouping, includes the western and eastern regions within the central region, while grouping the provinces of Sukhothai, Phitsanulok, Phichit, Kamphaeng Phet, Phetchabun, Nakhon Sawan and Uthai Thani in the northern region. This is also the regional system most commonly used on national television, when discussing the weather or regional events. It divides the country into the following regions:


Northern Thailand

Northeastern Thailand

Central Thailand

Southern Thailand


Different types of schemes[edit]

The card schemes come in two main varieties - a three-party scheme (or closed scheme) or a four-party scheme (or open scheme).


Four-party scheme[edit]

Card schemes4.jpg

In a four-party scheme, the issuer and acquirer are different entities, and this type of scheme is open for other institutions to join and issue their own cards. This signifies card schemes such as Visa, MasterCard, Verve Card, UnionPay and RuPay. There is no limitations as to who may join the scheme, as long as the requirements of the scheme are met.



The scheme defines geographic places at four scales or levels, from "botanical continents" down to parts of large countries:[7]


Continental – nine botanical continents

Regional – each botanical continent is divided into between two and ten sub-continental regions

Area or "botanical country" – most regions are subdivided into units generally equating to a political country, but large countries may be split or outlying areas omitted

"Basic recording units" – the lowest level is only used for very large countries, subdividing them into states or provinces on purely political grounds

Standardized codes are used to represent the units at each level. Numerical codes are used for Levels 1 and 2, alphabetic codes for Levels 3 and 4.


Oceania was originally conceived as the lands of the Pacific Ocean, stretching from the Strait of Malacca to the coast of the Americas. It comprised four regions: Polynesia, Micronesia, Malaysia (now called the Malay Archipelago), and Melanesia.


The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a regional trade organisation and Free trade area consisting of four European states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland.[1] The organisation operates in parallel with the European Union (EU), and all the four member states participate in the EU's single market.[2]


BBC English Regions is the division of the BBC responsible for local television, radio, web and teletext services in England, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. It is one of the BBC's four 'Nations' – the others being BBC Scotland, BBC Wales and BBC Northern Ireland.[1]


The Four Regions[edit]

The current BBC English Regions division was the product of the controversial Broadcasting in the Seventies report – a radical review of the BBC's network radio and non-metropolitan broadcasting structure – published on 10 July 1969.[6]


Before this the structure of regional broadcasting in England had remained virtually unchanged since the late 1920s, when the establishment of four regional radio transmission stations covering England had led to a regional structure on similar lines. BBC North was based in Manchester and covered the area from Cheshire and Sheffield northwards, BBC Midlands and East Anglia was based in Birmingham covering a swathe of central England from the Potteries to Norfolk, and BBC South and West was based in Bristol covering the area south and west of a line from Gloucester to Brighton. The London area, though it had regional transmission infrastructure of its own, produced only national programming and wasn't considered to be a region as it acted as the sustaining service for the other regions.


These regions (alongside the national regions BBC Scotland, BBC Wales and BBC Northern Ireland that performed a similar role outside England) were well-suited to delivering the pre-war BBC Regional Programme and the post-war BBC Home Service that replaced it. By the 1960s, though, the growth of television, the birth of the more locally based ITV franchises in 1955 and the development of smaller BBC Local Radio stations (made possible by the development of FM radio) were making the structure look increasingly anachronistic.


Mercosur or Mercosul (Spanish: Mercado Común del Sur, Portuguese: Mercado Comum do Sul, Guarani: Ñemby Ñemuha, Southern Common Market) is a sub-regional bloc. Its FOUR full members are Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela (which was suspended on December 1, 2016).

excerpt from my book the quadrant model of reality
The seven Kings of Rome fit the quadrant model pattern. They are
Square 1: Romulus. Romulus was a good king. The first is always good.
Square 2: Numa Pompilius. He was a king who established order, structure and religion in Rome. The second square is order.
Square 3: Tullus Hostilius. His name means hostile. The third square is always bad and destructive. He was a warlike king. 
Square 4: Ancus Marcius. He was a philosophical king. The fourth square is related to intelligence.
Square 5: Lucius Tarquinius Priscus. This is the first square of the second quadrant. Priscus was very into order and political structure, structuring things like the senate.
Square 6: Servius Tullius. He built temples and was very popular. Square 6 is the second square of the second quadrant. This square is the most associated with order and religiosity. He helped people like the poor. He served people, hence the name Servius. The sixth square is related to serving people. It is faith. The sixth personality type is the ESFJ who loves to help people.
Square 7: Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. He is the third square of the second quadrant. The third square is always bad. He was proud and the monarchy of Rome ended with him.

Maya (摩耶?) was one of four Takao-class heavy cruisers, active in World War II with the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN)


The Takao-class cruiser (高雄型) was a class of four heavy cruisers of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) launched between May 1930 and April 1931. They all served during World War II.


Four ships of the class were launched. All served in World War II and all were sunk or disabled as a result of the Battle of Leyte Gulf in October 1944.


Name Builder Laid Launched Commissioned Fate

Takao (高雄) Yokosuka Navy Yard 28 Apr 1927 12 May 1930 31 May 1932 Scuttled 27 October 1946 by British Forces

Atago (愛宕) Kure Navy Yard 28 Apr 1927 16 June 1930 30 Mar 1932 Sunk 23 October 1944 by the submarine USS Darter.

Maya (摩耶) Kōbe-Kawasaki Shipbuilding Yard 4 Dec 1928 8 Nov 1930 30 June 1932 Sunk 23 October 1944 by the submarine USS Dace.

Chōkai (鳥海) Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard

The four Myōkō-class cruisers (妙高型巡洋艦 Myōkō-gata jun'yōkan?) were built for the Imperial Japanese Navy in the late 1920s. Three were lost during World War II.ōkō-class_cruiser

The ships in the class were:


Name Builder Laid Launched Commissioned Fate

Myōkō (妙高) Yokosuka Navy Yard 25 October 1924 16 April 1927 31 July 1929 Scuttled, 8 July 1946

Nachi (那智) Kure Navy Yard 26 November 1924 15 June 1927 26 November 1928 Sunk, 4 November 1944 in Manila Bay by aircraft from USS Lexington

Haguro (羽黒) Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard 16 March 1925 24 March 1928 25 April 1929 Sunk, 16 May 1945 by Royal Navy 26th Destroyer Flotilla

Ashigara (足柄) Kōbe-Kawasaki Shipbuilding Yard 11 April 1925 22 April 1928 20 August 1929 Sunk, 8 June 1945 by submarine HMS Trenchant


A further impetus to achieve the Eight-Eight Fleet ideal came from an additional expansion of the U.S. Navy under American President Woodrow Wilson's 1919 plan to build another set of 16 capital ships (on top of the 16 already authorized in 1916). In 1920, under Prime Minister Hara Takashi, a reluctant Diet was persuaded to accept a plan to bring the "Four-Four" set of modern ships up to "Eight-Eight" strength by 1927. This would have involved augmenting the Amagi-class battlecruisers with an additional four fast battleships of the new Kii class, which were marginally slower and more powerful. A further four battleships (No. 13-16) would have been built, with 18-inch guns. If completed, this would have been an "Eight-Eight Fleet" in full; if one included the oldest ships of the navy, the Fusō and Kongō classes, then the even higher goal of an "Eight-Eight-Eight Fleet" with not two but three eight-ship battle squadrons could be realized.


The Eight-Eight Fleet Program (八八艦隊 Hachihachi Kantai?) was a Japanese naval strategy formulated for the development of the Imperial Japanese Navy in the first quarter of the 20th century, which stipulated that the navy should include eight first-class battleships and eight armoured cruisers or battlecruisers.


Contents [hide]

1 History and development

2 First "Eight-Eight"

3 Second "Eight-Eight Fleet"

4 Washington Naval Treaty

5 Notes

6 References

History and development[edit]

The "Eight-Eight Fleet" concept originated in post-Russo-Japanese War period with the 1907 Imperial Defense Policy, which was a settlement reached by the competing Army and Navy factions of the Japanese government.[1]


The Naval faction, inspired by the Mahanian doctrine of Satō Tetsutarō, argued that Japanese security could only be guaranteed by a strong navy. Satō argued that to ensure security, Japan should be capable of defeating the power which represented the greatest potential threat. In the 1907 Imperial National Defense Policy, Japan’s military focus shifted away from the defeated Imperial Russia and towards the United States as the primary threat to Japan's future security. In Japanese minds, the United States had proven to be an aggressive expansionist power in Asia, with its annexation of the Kingdom of Hawaii and colonization of the newly formed First Philippine Republic. The Open Door Policy towards China was in conflict with Japanese aspirations on the Asian mainland, and its immigration policies were perceived as an indication of American racial enmity towards the Japanese.


Based on a theoretical United States Navy strength of 25 battleships and cruisers, Japanese naval theoreticians postulated that Japan would need a fleet of at least eight first-line battleships and eight cruisers for parity in the Pacific Ocean. When Naval Minister Admiral Yamamoto Gonnohyoe presented the budget request for this fleet to the Diet of Japan, the amount was more than twice that of the entire Japanese national budget at the time.


The Eight-Eight Fleet policy was controversial because of the enormous cost of battleships, and only once was authorization given by the Diet of Japan for a building program which would have reached the "Eight-Eight Fleet" ideal. To complicate matters further, while the "Eight-Eight Fleet" plan lasted over a decade, the ships required for it changed; by 1920 the ships which had been ordered in 1910 to start to fulfill the plan were becoming obsolete.


Various alternative plans were discussed, including a reduction in the plan to "Eight-Four Fleet" program, of later to an "Eight-Six Fleet" program.


First "Eight-Eight"[edit]


Mutsu, a Nagato-class dreadnought battleship, at anchor, shortly after completion

The first serious attempt to build an "Eight-Eight Fleet" came in 1910, when the Naval General Staff proposed a building program of eight battleships and eight armored cruisers (by that time, they would inevitably become battlecruisers). The Navy Ministry cut back this request for political reasons, to seven battleships and three armored cruisers. The Cabinet eventually recommended one battleship and four battlecruisers, and the Diet authorized these ships in 1911. The battlecruisers became the Kongō class and the battleship was Fusō: all technologically advanced ships of admirable design.


The 1913 program saw a further three battleships authorized, making a total of "four-four". These ships, Yamashiro, Ise and Hyūga, were sister ships or cousins of Fusō.


In 1915, the Navy proposed another four battleships, to reach an "Eight-Four Fleet". This was rejected by the Diet. However, in 1916 the Diet agreed to an additional battleship and two battlecruisers. In 1917, in response to the U.S. Navy's plan to build an additional ten battleships and six battlecruisers, the Diet authorized a further three battleships; and in 1918 the Cabinet authorized another two battlecruisers. In total, the authorization existed for an "Eight-Eight Fleet".


The new ships started were the two Nagato-class battleships, the two Tosa-class battleships, and a total of four Amagi-class battlecruisers: all modern, capable ships carrying 16-inch guns. Only the two Nagato-class ships were eventually completed in their intended role. One Tosa and one Amagi were completed as aircraft carriers.


Second "Eight-Eight Fleet"[edit]


Akagi (A former Japanese battlecruiser converted to an aircraft carrier) being relaunched in April 1925.

So great was the difference in capability between this generation of ships and those of five years previously that the "Eight-Eight Fleet" plan was restarted: Nagato was now regarded as Ship No.1 in the new project, and planners now began to write off the older battleships and battlecruisers. On this revised basis the Navy was back down to a "Four-Four Fleet".


A further impetus to achieve the Eight-Eight Fleet ideal came from an additional expansion of the U.S. Navy under American President Woodrow Wilson's 1919 plan to build another set of 16 capital ships (on top of the 16 already authorized in 1916). In 1920, under Prime Minister Hara Takashi, a reluctant Diet was persuaded to accept a plan to bring the "Four-Four" set of modern ships up to "Eight-Eight" strength by 1927. This would have involved augmenting the Amagi-class battlecruisers with an additional four fast battleships of the new Kii class, which were marginally slower and more powerful. A further four battleships (No. 13-16) would have been built, with 18-inch guns. If completed, this would have been an "Eight-Eight Fleet" in full; if one included the oldest ships of the navy, the Fusō and Kongō classes, then the even higher goal of an "Eight-Eight-Eight Fleet" with not two but three eight-ship battle squadrons could be realized.


Washington Naval Treaty[edit]

The Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 put an end to these construction plans. Under the terms of the treaty all the ships still being built — which meant all ships started after Nagato, the first ship of the 1916 building program — had to be broken up or converted into aircraft carriers. A special exemption was made for the battleship Mutsu, which was nearing completion and which had a special place in many Japanese hearts, with many of the funds for her construction raised by public subscription.


The treaty established a maximum tonnage for the Japanese navy as 60% of the U.S. Navy and the British Royal Navy. For this reason, it was vociferously opposed by many Imperial Japanese Navy officers, including Admiral Satō Tetsutarō. This group formed the influential Fleet Faction which later achieved Japan's withdrawal from the treaty. Ironically, the treaty probably restricted British and especially American ship building much more than Japanese due to the difference in industrial capability.


Although Japanese Navy procurement still proceeded along the lines of initial "Eight-Eight Fleet" plans for several years, changes in naval strategy and the development of naval aviation made the term an anachronism by the 1930s.


Before the advent of the all-steel navy in the late 19th century, a capital ship during the Age of Sail was generally understood as a ship that conformed to the Royal Navy's rating system of a ship of the line as being of the first, second, third or fourth rates:


First rate: 100 or more guns, typically carried on three or four decks. Four-deckers suffered in rough seas, and the lowest deck could seldom fire except in calm conditions.

Second rate: 90–98 guns.

Third rate: 64 to 80 guns (although 64-gun third-raters were small and not very numerous in any era).

Fourth rate: 46 to 60 guns. By 1756, these ships were acknowledged to be too weak to stand in the line of battle and were relegated to ancillary duties, although they also served in the shallow North Sea and American littorals where larger ships of the line could not sail.


The Imperial Japanese Navy (大日本帝国海軍) built four battlecruisers, with plans for an additional four, during the first decades of the 20th century.


To that end, the concept of the Eight-Eight fleet was developed, where eight battleships and eight battlecruisers would form a cohesive battle line.


FOUR BATTLESHIPSō-class_battlecruiserō-class_battlecruiser

The Kongō-class battlecruiser (金剛型巡洋戦艦 Kongō-gata jun'yōsenkan?) was a class of four battlecruisers built for the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) immediately before World War I. Designed by British naval architect George Thurston, the lead ship of the class was the last Japanese capital ship constructed outside Japan, by Vickers.[1]


During the late 1920s, all but Hiei were reconstructed and reclassified as battleships. After the signing of the London Naval Treaty in 1930, Hiei was reconfigured as a training ship to avoid being scrapped. Following Japan's withdrawal from the London Naval Treaty, all four underwent a massive second reconstruction in the late 1930s. Following the completion of these modifications, which increased top speeds to over 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph), all four were reclassified as fast battleships.



Ship    Builder[8]    Laid down[8]    Launched[8]    Completed[8]    Fate[13]

Kongō    Vickers, Barrow-in-Furness    17 January 1911    18 May 1912    16 August 1913    Torpedoed and sunk by the submarine USS Sealion, 21 November 1944

Hiei    Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, Yokosuka    4 November 1911    21 November 1912    4 August 1914    Sunk during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, 13 November 1942

Kirishima    Mitsubishi Shipyard Co., Nagasaki    17 March 1912    1 December 1913    19 April 1915    Sunk during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, 15 November 1942

Haruna    Kawasaki Dockyard Co., Kobe    16 March 1912    14 December 1913    Sunk by US aircraft, 28 July 1945; broken up from 1946

Due to a lack of available slipways, the latter two were the first Japanese warships to be built by Japanese private shipyards.[3] Completed by 1915, they were considered the first modern battlecruisers of the Imperial Japanese Navy.[1] According to naval historian Robert Jackson, they "outclassed all other contemporary [capital] ships".[5] The design was so successful that the construction of the fourth battlecruiser of the Lion-class—HMS Tiger—was halted so that design features of the Kongō class could be added.[5]


The Amagi class (天城型 Amagi-gata?) was a series of four battlecruisers planned for the Imperial Japanese Navy as part of the Eight-eight fleet.


After proposals from the IJN in 1911 and 1912 for massive shipbuilding programs, the Cabinet compromised down to a "four-four" plan; under this, three new battleships and no new battlecruisers were authorized.[7] The Navy did not agree, and instead called for an "eight-four" fleet, while the Imperial Defence Council called for the original eight-eight. The Cabinet relented, and by July 1914, it was decided to aim first for an eight-four fleet, followed by the eight-eight fleet. The eight-four plan was presented to the Diet of Japan in 1915; it aimed to have the eight battleships and four battlecruisers by 1923 with the building of two Nagato-class and two Tosa-class battleships. The problem with this was that the old plan intended all of the ships of the eight-eight fleet to be under eight years old; by the time these new ships were completed, Fusō and the first two Kongō ships would be past their replacement age.[8]


The plan was approved in 1917, along with funding for two battlecruisers which became the Amagi class. In late 1917, the Navy proposed to expand the eight-four plan by adding two more battlecruisers; this was approved, and two more Amagi-class ships were ordered. However, having eight 41 cm (16 in) gun ships (four battleships and four battlecruisers) on order put an enormous financial strain on Japan, which was spending about a third of its national budget on the Navy. The massive size and scale of its building program was rapidly driving up the cost of naval construction and armament.[8]


The Sendai-class vessels were part of the Eight-eight fleet program, with the first four of eight planned vessels authorized in 1921. However, due to the Washington Naval Treaty, the final four vessels were never authorized, and the fourth vessel was cancelled during construction, as the Japanese Navy decided to concentrate on heavy cruiser procurement instead.[3] Jintsū, as with other vessels of her class, was intended for use as the flagship of a destroyer flotilla.


The Mogami class (最上型?) were four cruisers built for the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) during the 1930s. They were initially classified as light cruisers under the weight and armament restrictions of the London Naval Treaty. After Japan refused to comply any longer with that agreement, all four ships were rearmed with larger guns and were reclassified as heavy cruisers. All four fought in World War II and were sunk.


The Mogamis have been seen by naval architects as a design failure. The IJN's Naval staff insisted that each new class be superior to anything else in its category, yet designers strove to stay in compliance with treaty regulations. As a result, the initial construction of these ships was overly light; within their first few years of service, all four had to be reconstructed to remain seaworthy. They were also unstable seaboats due to excessive topweight and their welded seams cracked under the stress of firing their own main guns.


All four ships participated in the Japanese invasion of the Dutch East Indies. Mogami and Mikuma were present at the Battle of Sunda Strait and contributed to the sinkings of the cruisers HMAS Perth and USS Houston.


In June 1942, all four took part in the Battle of Midway, where Mogami and Mikuma collided trying to avoid a submarine attack; Mikuma was finished off on 6 June 1942 by aircraft from aircraft carriers USS Enterprise and Hornet. The heavily damaged Mogami limped home and spent ten months in yard, during which her afterparts were completely rebuilt, and "X" and "Y" turrets were replaced by a flight deck (with the intention to operate 11 aircraft).



Sub class Name Builder Laid Launched Completed Fate

Mogami Mogami (最上) Kure Naval Arsenal 27 October 1931 14 March 1934 28 July 1935 Scuttled after massive battle damage during the Battle of Surigao Strait on 25 October 1944

Mikuma (三隈) Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard 24 December 1931 31 May 1934 29 August 1935 Sunk during the Battle of Midway on 5 June 1942

Suzuya Suzuya (鈴谷) Yokosuka Naval Arsenal 11 December 1933 20 November 1934 31 October 1937 Sunk during the Battle off Samar on 25 October 1944

Kumano (熊野) Kōbe-Kawasaki Shipbuilding Yard 5 April 1934 15 October 1936 31 October 1937 Sunk during the Philippine campaign on 25 November 1944 by aircraft of USS Ticonderoga


Yokosuka Naval Arsenal (横須賀海軍工廠 Yokosuka kaigun kōshō?) was one of four principal naval shipyards owned and operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy, and was located at Yokosuka, Kanagawa prefecture on Tokyo Bay, south of Yokohama.


The four Agano-class cruisers (阿賀野型軽巡洋艦 Agano-gata keijun'yōkan?) were light cruisers operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy.[2] All were named after Japanese rivers. Larger than previous Japanese light cruisers, the Agano-class vessels were fast, but with little protection, and were under-gunned for their size. They participated in numerous actions during World War II.

Four ships were budgeted under the 1939 4th Naval Replenishment Programme, three from the Sasebo Naval Arsenal and one from Yokosuka Naval Arsenal.


Name Builder Laid down Launched Commissioned Fate

Agano Sasebo Naval Arsenal 18 June 1940 22 October 1941 31 October 1942 Torpedoed, 16 February 1944

Noshiro Yokosuka Naval Arsenal 4 September 1941 19 July 1942 30 June 1943 Sunk in air attack, 26 October 1944

Yahagi Sasebo Naval Arsenal 11 November 1941 25 October 1942 29 December 1943 Sunk in air attack, 7 April 1945

Sakawa 21 November 1942 9 April 1944 30 November 1944 Sunk as target ship, 2 July 1946

Settlements range in character from farming communities and frontier villages to urban suburbs and neighborhoods. The four largest settlements, Modi'in Illit, Ma'ale Adumim, Beitar Illit and Ariel, have achieved city status. Ariel has 18,000 residents, while the rest have around 37,000 to 55,500 each.


Gush Etzion (Hebrew: גּוּשׁ עֶצְיוֹן‎, lit. Etzion Bloc) is a cluster of Jewish settlements located in the Judaean Mountains, directly south of Jerusalem and Bethlehem in the West Bank. The core group includes four Jewish agricultural villages that were founded in 1940-1947 on property purchased in the 1920s and 1930s, and destroyed by the Arab Legion before the outbreak of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, in the Kfar Etzion massacre.

Merneptah Stele is one of four known contemporary inscriptions from antiquity containing the name of Israel, the others being the Tel Dan Stele, the Mesha Stele, and the Kurkh Monolith

Forty is also:

Literally in other fields, after the Civil War, there were plans to offer the freed slaves 40 acres and a mule.

To understand a people, you must live among them for 40 days. ~Arabic proverb[13][14]

the caliber of the bullet in a number of firearms cartridges, most notably the .40 S&W. (The 10mm Auto, although designated as metric caliber, uses the same caliber, and often uses the same bullets.)

in the Saying "Life begins at forty"

in the expression "forty winks", meaning a short sleep

The highest number ever counted to on Sesame Street

A song by Dave Matthews Band

the number of years of marriage as the ruby wedding anniversary

the code for direct dial international phone calls to Romania

the number in the designation of:

Interstate 40, a freeway that runs from California to North Carolina

U.S. Route 40, the 2,285-mile (3,677 km) highway that runs from Baltimore, Maryland, to Park City, Utah, a portion of which follows the National Road

European route E40 from Calais to Ridder

the A40 and M40, important highways in the UK. The A40 is a trunk road in England and Wales, connecting London to Fishguard. The M40 motorway is the second motorway in the British transport network to connect London to Birmingham

"40", a 1983 song by U2 from their album War

"40" is the title of a song by Franz Ferdinand

The number of spaces in a standard Monopoly game board

The American-Japanese hard rock band Crush 40 featured in Sega's Sonic the Hedgehog franchise with guitarist Jun Senoue and vocalist Johnny Gioeli

The radio program American Top 40

The radio program Rick Dees' Weekly Top 40

the number of thieves in Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves and in Ali Shar and Zumurrud, from Thousand and One Nights (both the numbers 40 and 1001 are more likely to mean "many" than to indicate a specific number)

the customary number of hours in a regular workweek in some Western countries.

the number of positions on a number of radio countdown programs, most notably American Top 40 and American Country Countdown.

for The Early Show segment "Chef on a Shoestring", chefs are given a $40 budget.

The number of weeks for an average term of pregnancy, counting from the woman’s last menstrual period.

A 40-ounce bottle of malt liquor, referenced in the song "40oz. to Freedom" by Sublime.

Canadian hip hop producer Noah Shebib is known as "40".

Forty Shades of Green is a visual term for rural Ireland, Johnny Cash popularized it with his 1961 song of the name.

The Tessarakonteres, or 40, the largest ship of antiquity, constructed by Ptolemy IV

Forty is the only integer whose English name has its letters in alphabetical order.

Forty Foot, a promontory on the southern tip of Dublin Bay, Ireland, from which people have been swimming in the Irish Sea all year round for some 250 years


Forty acres and a mule refers to a promise made in the United States for agrarian reform for former enslaved African American farmers, by Union General William Tecumseh Sherman on January 16, 1865. It followed a series of conversations between Secretary of War Edwin M Stanton and Radical Republican abolitionists Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens[1] following disruptions to the institution of slavery provoked by the American Civil War. Many freedmen believed and were told by various political figures that they had a right to own the land they had long worked as slaves, and were eager to control their own property. Freed people widely expected to legally claim 40 acres (16 ha) of land (a quarter-quarter section) and a mule after the end of the war, long after proclamations such as Sherman's Special Field Orders, No. 15 and the Freedmen's Bureau Act were explicitly reversed.

40 Acres and a Mule Filmworks is the production company of noted American filmmaker Spike Lee.[1][2]


40 Acres and a Mule Filmworks is the production company of noted American filmmaker Spike Lee.[1][2]


Beginning with the now-iconic phrase "Four score and seven years ago"—referring to the United States Declaration of Independence in 1776—Lincoln examined the founding principles of the United States as stated in the Declaration of Independence. In the context of the Civil War, Lincoln also memorialized the sacrifices of those who gave their lives at Gettysburg and extolled virtues for the listeners (and the nation) to ensure the survival of America's representative democracy: that "government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."


The .40 S&W (10×22mm Smith & Wesson in unofficial metric notation) is a rimless pistol cartridge developed jointly by major American firearms manufacturers Smith & Wesson and Winchester.[3] The .40 S&W was developed from the ground up as a law enforcement cartridge designed to duplicate performance of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) reduced-velocity 10mm Auto cartridge which could be retrofitted into medium-frame (9mm size) semi-automatic handguns. It uses 0.40-inch (10 mm) diameter bullets ranging in weight from 105 to 200 grains (6.8 to 13.0 g).[4]


To take forty winks is to take a nap for a short period of time (usually not in bed),[1] or to take a short sleep during the day.[2] Related idiomatic sayings such as could not sleep a wink provide the mental picture of a wink being the shortest type of sleep available and "forty winks" therefore gives an indication of an appropriate short sleep.




In the American vernacular, a forty-ounce or simply forty is a glass or plastic bottle that holds 40 fluid ounces (1.18 litres, or 2.5 U.S. pints) of malt liquor.[1] Malt liquors are commonly sold in 40 fluid ounce bottles, among other sizes, as opposed to the standard twelve ounce (355 mL) bottle that contains a single serving of beer, although many malt liquors are offered in varying volumes. American domestic "malt liquors" tend to be very inexpensive although this is not necessarily true for foreign imports that are also labeled "malt liquor".[citation needed]

Examples of malt liquors sold in forty ounce bottles include Olde English 800, Colt 45, Mickey's, Camo 40, Black Fist, Country Club, Black Bull, Labatt Blue Dry 6.1/7.1/8.1/9.1/10.1, WildCat, Molson Dry 6.5/7.5/8.5/10.1, Private Stock, Big Bear, St. Ides, Steel Reserve 211, B40 Bull Max, King Cobra, Jeremiah Weed, and Hurricane. Dogfish Head Brewery has sporadically produced a high-end bottle-conditioned forty called "Liquor de Malt".[4] Ballantine markets its ale in a forty-ounce bottle as well.


Forties are often mentioned in hip-hop and rap culture by rap stars endorsing the "40" Ounce tradition. A similar trend was common around the late 1990s' and early 2000s' punk scene, with such songs as "40.oz Casualty" by The Casualties and "Rock the 40. Oz." by Leftöver Crack; and "40oz. to Freedom" by Sublime.


At least for a brief period in the mid-1990s, some brands of malt liquor, including Olde English 800, Colt 45, and Mickey's, were available in even larger, 64-ounce glass bottles. Forty-ounce bottles are not permitted in some US states, such as Florida, where the largest container that a malt beverage may be sold at retail is 32 US fluid ounces,[5] although there is no evidence that this has any impact on the amount any one individual may consume at a given time.[citation needed]


The Tessarakonteres (Greek: τεσσαρακοντήρης, "forty-rowed"), or simply "forty" was a very large galley reportedly built in the Hellenistic period. The name "forty" refers to the number of rowers on each column of oars that propelled it. It would have been the largest ship constructed in antiquity, and probably the largest human-powered vessel ever built. According to Plutarch, its enormous size made it impractical and it was built only for show.



Ptolemy IV, who ordered the ship built

Contents [hide]

1 Sources

2 Configuration of the oars

3 Specifications

3.1 Details

3.2 Use

4 References

5 Further reading


The "forty" was reportedly built by Ptolemy IV Philopator of Egypt in the 3rd century BC. It was first described by his contemporary Callixenus of Rhodes in the lost Peri Alexandreias. In the early-3rd century AD, Athenaeus quotes this in his Deipnosophistae.[1][2]


“ Philopator built a ship with forty ranks of rowers, being two hundred and eighty cubits long and thirty-eight cubits from one side to the other; and in height up to the gunwale it was forty-eight cubits; and from the highest part of the stern to the water-line was fifty-three cubits; and it had four rudders, each thirty cubits long . . . And the ship had two heads and two sterns, and seven beaks . . . And when it put to sea it held more than four thousand rowers, and four hundred supernumeraries; and on the deck were three thousand marines, or at least two thousand eight hundred and fifty. And besides all these there was another large body of men under the decks, and a vast quantity of provisions and supplies. ”

Plutarch, writing in the late 1st century AD, also mentioned this immense vessel in his Life of Demetrius, part of his Parallel Lives series, disagreeing or misquoting slightly on the height to top of stern, which he reports as forty-eight cubits:[3]


“ Ptolemy Philopator built [a ship] of forty banks of oars, which had a length of two hundred and eighty cubits, and a height, to the top of her stern, of forty-eight; she was manned by four hundred sailors, who did no rowing, and by four thousand rowers, and besides these she had room, on her gangways and decks, for nearly three thousand men-at‑arms. But this ship was merely for show; and since she differed little from a stationary edifice on land, being meant for exhibition and not for use, she was moved only with difficulty and danger. ”

Note that the translation of "forty banks" is overliteral; see below.


Configuration of the oars[edit]

The trireme, a three-banked galley with one man per oar, was the main Hellenistic warship up to and into the 4th century BC. At that time, a requirement for heavier ships led to the development of polyremes (meaning "many oars", applied to "fours" or larger)[4] called "fours" and "fives", and later up to "tens", the largest that seems to have been used in battle.[5][6][7] Larger polyremes were built, with Ptolemy II Philadelphus eventually building a "twenty" and a "thirty", and Ptolemy IV Philopator building the "forty".[5]



Depiction of the position of the rowers in three different levels (from top: thranitai, zygitai and thalamitai) in a Greek trireme.

The maximum practical number of oar banks a ship could have was three.[5][8][9] So the number in the type name did not refer to the banks of oars any more (as for biremes and triremes, respectively two and three banks of oars with one rower per oar), but to the number of rowers per vertical section, with several men on each oar.[5] Indeed, just because a ship was larger, did not mean it necessarily operated all three banks: the "four" may have been a simple evolution of a standard trireme, but with two rowers on the top oar;[10] it may have been a bireme with two men on each oar; or it may just have had a single bank with four men on each oar.[11] Classes of ship could differ in their configuration between regions and over time.[12]

The Forty Foot is a promontory on the southern tip of Dublin Bay at Sandycove, County Dublin, Ireland, from which people have been swimming in the Irish Sea all year round for some 250 years.[1][2]



The February One monument and sculpture stands on North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University's campus and is dedicated to the actions taken by the Greensboro Four that helped spark the Civil Rights Movement in the South.

The "Fifth Circuit Four" (or simply "The Four") were four judges of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit who, during the late 1950s, became known for a series of decisions (which continued into the late 1960s) crucial in advancing the civil and political rights of African Americans; in this they were opposed by fellow Fifth Circuit judge Ben Cameron, a strong advocate of states' rights. At that time, the Fifth Circuit included not only Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas (the limits of its jurisdiction since October 1, 1981), but also Alabama, Georgia, Florida, and the Panama Canal Zone.


"The Four" were Chief Judge Elbert Tuttle and his three colleagues John Minor Wisdom, John Robert Brown, and Richard Rives. All but Rives were liberal Republicans; Rives was a Democrat and, according to Jack Bass, an intimate of Supreme Court justice Hugo Black.

The Four Hills Tournament (German: Vierschanzentournee) or the German-Austrian Ski Jumping Week (German: Deutsch-Österreichische Skisprung-Woche) is a ski jumping event composed of four World Cup events and has taken place in Germany and Austria each year since 1952. With a few exceptions the ski jumping events are held chronologically at Oberstdorf, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Innsbruck and Bischofshofen.


The Four Hills Tournament champion is the one who gets the most points over the four events. Unlike the World Cup ranking, however, the actual points scored during the competitions are the ones that are used to determine the winner. In 2005–06, Janne Ahonen and Jakub Janda shared the overall victory after finishing with exactly the same points total after the four competitions. 2001–02, the anniversary 50th edition, Sven Hannawald became the first to win all the four events in the same edition.


The four individual events themselves are part of the World Cup and award points toward the world cup in exactly the same manner as all other world cup events.


The 'marketing mix' (also known as the four Ps) is a foundation concept in marketing. The marketing mix has been defined as the "set of marketing tools that the firm uses to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market".[1] Thus the marketing mix refers to four broad levels of marketing decision, namely: product, price, promotion, and place.[2] Marketing practice has been occurring for millennia, but marketing theory emerged in the early twentieth century. The contemporary marketing mix, or the 4Ps, which has become the dominant framework for marketing management decisions, was first published in 1960.[3] In services marketing, a modified and expanded marketing mix is used, typically comprising seven Ps made up of the original 4 Ps plus process, people, physical environment.[4] Occasionally service marketers will refer to eight Ps; comprising the 7 Ps plus performance.[5]


In the 1990s, the concept of four Cs was introduced as a more customer-driven replacement of the four Ps.[6] There are two theories based on four Cs: Lauterborn's four Cs (consumer, cost, communication, convenience), and Shimizu's four Cs (commodity, cost, communication, channel).

Heart Four Counties is a local radio station owned and operated by Global Radio as part of the Heart network. It broadcasts to Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire and Northamptonshire. The station launched on Friday 16 July 2010 as a result of a merger between Heart Milton Keynes (formerly Horizon Radio), Heart Northants (formerly Northants 96), Heart Dunstable (formerly 97.6 Chiltern FM) and Heart Bedford (formerly 96.9 Chiltern Radio).


Contents [hide]

1 History

2 Programming

2.1 News

3 References

4 External links


Further information: Heart Milton Keynes, Heart Northants, Heart Dunstable, and Heart Bedford

The regional station originally broadcast as four separate stations - Chiltern Radio began broadcasting to Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire in October 1981 and launched a separate Bedford station in June 1982. Northants 96 began broadcasting to Northamptonshire in November 1986 and Horizon Radio launched in north Buckinghamshire in October 1989.

Merton's strain theory[edit]


Main article: Strain theory (sociology)

Mertons social strain theory.svg

Robert K. Merton discussed deviance in terms of goals and means as part of his strain/anomie theory. Where Durkheim states that anomie is the confounding of social norms, Merton goes further and states that anomie is the state in which social goals and the legitimate means to achieve them do not correspond. He postulated that an individual's response to societal expectations and the means by which the individual pursued those goals were useful in understanding deviance. Specifically, he viewed collective action as motivated by strain, stress, or frustration in a body of individuals that arises from a disconnection between the society's goals and the popularly used means to achieve those goals. Often, non-routine collective behavior (rioting, rebellion, etc.) is said to map onto economic explanations and causes by way of strain. These two dimensions determine the adaptation to society according to the cultural goals, which are the society's perceptions about the ideal life, and to the institutionalized means, which are the legitimate means through which an individual may aspire to the cultural goals.[3]


Merton described 5 types of deviance in terms of the acceptance or rejection of social goals and the institutionalized means of achieving them:


1. Innovation is a response due to the strain generated by our culture's emphasis on wealth and the lack of opportunities to get rich, which causes people to be "innovators" by engaging in stealing and selling drugs. Innovators accept society's goals, but reject socially acceptable means of achieving them. (e.g.: monetary success is gained through crime). Merton claims that innovators are mostly those who have been socialised with similar world views to conformists, but who have been denied the opportunities they need to be able to legitimately achieve society's goals.[1]


2. Conformists accept society's goals and the socially acceptable means of achieving them (e.g.: monetary success is gained through hard work). Merton claims that conformists are mostly middle-class people in middle class jobs who have been able to access the opportunities in society such as a better education to achieve monetary success through hard work.[1]


3. Ritualism refers to the inability to reach a cultural goal thus embracing the rules to the point where the people in question lose sight of their larger goals in order to feel respectable. Ritualists reject society's goals, but accept society's institutionalised means. Ritualists are most commonly found in dead-end, repetitive jobs, where they are unable to achieve society's goals but still adhere to society's means of achievement and social norms.[1]


4. Retreatism is the rejection of both cultural goals and means, letting the person in question "drop out". Retreatists reject the society's goals and the legitimate means to achieve them. Merton sees them as true deviants, as they commit acts of deviance to achieve things that do not always go along with society's values.[1]


5. Rebellion is somewhat similar to retreatism, because the people in question also reject both the cultural goals and means, but they go one step further to a "counterculture" that supports other social orders that already exist (rule breaking). Rebels reject society's goals and legitimate means to achieve them, and instead creates new goals and means to replace those of society, creating not only new goals to achieve but also new ways to achieve these goals that other rebels will find acceptable.[1]

Howard Becker, a labeling theorist, touched basis with different types of deviant behaviors. There are four different types of deviant behaviors falling into different categories.

"Falsely accusing" an individual which falls under others perceiving you to be obtaining obedient or deviant behaviors.

"Pure deviance", which falls under perceiving one to participate in deviant and rule-breaking behavior.

"Conforming", which falls under not being perceived as deviant, but merely participating in the social norms that are distributed within societies, can also be placed into the category with pure deviance and falsely accused.

"Secret deviance" which is when the individual is not perceived as deviant or participating in any rule-breaking behaviors.

Traditional divisions[edit]

Traditionally there were four main areas of research:

The sociopolitical formation of the modern state;

"Who rules?" How social inequality between groups (class, race, gender, etc.) influences politics;[7]

How public opinion, ideologies, personalities, social movements, and trends outside of the formal institutions of political power affect formal politics;

Power relationships within and between social groups (e.g. families, workplaces, bureaucracy, media, etc.).[8]


In more recent times, Burawoy has moved away from observing factories to looking at his own place of work- the university- to consider the way sociology is taught to students and how it is put into the public domain. His work on public sociology is most prominently shown in his presidential address to the American Sociological Association in 2004, where he divides sociology into four separate (yet overlapping) categories: public sociology, policy sociology (which has an extra-academic audience), professional sociology (which addresses an academic audience familiar with theoretical and methodological frameworks common to the discipline of sociology), and lastly critical sociology which, like public sociology, produces reflexive knowledge but which is only available to an academic audience, like professional sociology.

Foursquare is a local search-and-discovery service mobile app which provides search results for its users. The app provides personalized recommendations of places to go to near a user's current location based on users' "previous browsing history, purchases, or check-in history".[5]

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me.


Foursquare acknowledged a grass-roots effort that started in Tampa, Florida [66] in 2010 by declaring April 16 "Foursquare Day",[67][68] April being the 4th month and the 16th being equal to four squared.[69][70] Some cities have made official proclamations of April 16 being Foursquare Day (Istanbul, Turkey; Atlanta, Georgia; Austin, Texas; Cincinnati, Ohio; Corpus Christi, Texas; Gaithersburg, Maryland; Indianapolis, Indiana; Kalamazoo, Michigan; Kennesaw, Georgia; Manchester, New Hampshire; New York City; Portsmouth, New Hampshire; Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic; Seattle, Washington; Miami, Florida; Victoria, British Columbia, Canada; Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Ramat Hasharon, Israel; Singapore).[71][72][73][74]


Foursquare acknowledged a grass-roots effort that started in Tampa, Florida [66] in 2010 by declaring April 16 "Foursquare Day",[67][68] April being the 4th month and the 16th being equal to four squared.[69][70] Some cities have made official proclamations of April 16 being Foursquare Day (Istanbul, Turkey; Atlanta, Georgia; Austin, Texas; Cincinnati, Ohio; Corpus Christi, Texas; Gaithersburg, Maryland; Indianapolis, Indiana; Kalamazoo, Michigan; Kennesaw, Georgia; Manchester, New Hampshire; New York City; Portsmouth, New Hampshire; Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic; Seattle, Washington; Miami, Florida; Victoria, British Columbia, Canada; Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Ramat Hasharon, Israel; Singapore).[71][72][73][74]

It's easy.

Four Square is a chain of supermarkets in New Zealand that was founded by John Heaton Barker.[1] It has 280 stores throughout New Zealand, mostly in small towns.


A Four Square van visited houses in nationalist West Belfast twice a week to collect and deliver laundry.[37] One "employee" (a young man) drove the van while another (a young woman) collected and delivered the laundry. Both were from Northern Ireland.[37] Four Square initially gathered customers by offering "discount vouchers", which were numbered and colour-coded by street.[38] Clothes collected for washing were first forensically checked for traces of explosives, as well as blood or firearms residue. They were also compared to previous laundry loads from the same house—the sudden presence of different-sized clothes could indicate that the house was harbouring an IRA member.[39] Surveillance operatives and equipment were hidden in the back of the van or in a compartment in the roof. Further intelligence was gathered by staff observing and "chatting" to locals whilst collecting their laundry.[39]

The Square Four is a motorcycle produced by Ariel between 1931 and 1959, designed by Edward Turner, who devised the Square Four engine in 1928. At this time he was looking for work, showing drawings of his engine design to motorcycle manufacturers.[5] The early engine with "two transverse crankshafts"[2] was essentially a pair of 'across frame' OHC parallel twins joined by their geared central flywheels, with a four-cylinder block (or Monobloc) and single head.[6] The idea for the engine was rejected by BSA, but adopted by Ariel. Thus it became the Ariel Square Four.

Urban tribes[edit]
These tribes were named for districts of the city and were the largest and had the least political power. In the later Republic, poorer people living in the city of Rome itself typically belonged to the four urban tribes.[3]

The Monument to the Carta Magna and Four Regions of Argentina located in the intersection of Del Libertador and Sarmiento Avenues, a landmark in the Palermo neighbourhood of Buenos Aires, Argentina. They might commonly refer to as the "Monument of the Spanish"

The BASIC countries (also Basic countries or BASIC) are a bloc of four large newly industrialized countries – Brazil, South Africa, India and China – formed by an agreement on 28 November 2009. The four committed to act jointly at the Copenhagen climate summit, including a possible united walk-out if their common minimum position was not met by the developed nations.[1]


The journey resumed. The help of Duarte Barbosa was crucial in facing the riot in Puerto San Julian; Magellan appointed him as captain of the Victoria. The Santiago was sent down the coast on a scouting expedition and was wrecked in a sudden storm. All of its crew survived and made it safely to shore. Two of them returned overland to inform Magellan of what had happened, and to bring rescue to their comrades. After this experience, Magellan decided to wait for a few weeks more before resuming the voyage with the four remaining ships.[citation needed]


At 52°S latitude on 21 October 1520, the fleet reached Cape Virgenes and concluded they had found the passage, because the waters were brine and deep inland. Four ships began an arduous trip through the 373-mile (600 km) long passage that Magellan called the Estrecho (Canal) de Todos los Santos, ("All Saints' Channel"), because the fleet travelled through it on 1 November or All Saints' Day. The strait is now named the Strait of Magellan. He first assigned Concepcion and San Antonio to explore the strait, but the latter, commanded by Gómez, deserted and headed back to Spain on 20 November. On 28 November, the three remaining ships entered the South Pacific. Magellan named the waters the Mar Pacifico (Pacific Ocean) because of its apparent stillness.[26] Magellan and his crew were the first Europeans to reach Tierra del Fuego just east of the Pacific side of the strait.


Columbus made a total of four voyages to the Americas between 1492 and 1502, setting the stage for the European exploration and colonization of the Americas, ultimately leading to the Columbian Exchange.

Merk Diezle commented on his own post.

Nov 21, 2015 10:30pm

⚡Presentation "The Four Types of Market Structure MonopolyOligopolyMonopolistic Competition...

Definition matrix[edit]

Excludable Non-excludable

Rivalrous Private goods

food, clothing, cars, parking spaces Common-pool resources

fish stocks, timber, coal

Non-rivalrous Club goods

cinemas, private parks, satellite television Public goods

free-to-air television, air, national defense

V. Ostrom and E. Ostrom proposed additional modifications to the classification of goods to identify fundamental differences that affect the incentives facing individuals[8] (1) Replacing the term “rivalry of consumption” with “subtractability of use.” (2) Conceptualizing subtractability of use and excludability to vary from low to high rather than characterizing them as either present or absent. (3) Overtly adding a very important fourth type of good—common-pool resources—that shares the attribute of subtractability with private goods and difficulty of exclusion with public goods. Forests, water systems, fisheries, and the global atmosphere are all common-pool resources of immense importance for the survival of humans on this earth. (4) Changing the name of a “club” good to a “toll” good since many goods that share these characteristics are provided by small scale public as well as private associations.


Global commons is a term typically used to describe international, supranational, and global resource domains in which common-pool resources are found. In economics, common goods are rivalrous and non-excludable, constituting one of the four main types of goods.[


In James Farmer's autobiography, Lay Bare the Heart, he identified the term "Big Six" as having originated with the founding of the Council for United Civil Rights Leadership. Farmer did not include A. Philip Randolph in his listing of the "Big Six", instead listing Dorothy Height, president of the National Council of Negro Women as the sixth member of the group. Farmer also noted that the press often referred to the group as the "Big Four", excluding Height and John Lewis. Farmer attributed their omission to sexism and age bias, respectively.[3]



The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) is an African-American civil rights organization in the United States that played a pivotal role for African Americans in the Civil Rights Movement. Founded in 1942, CORE was one of the "Big Four" civil rights organizations, along with the SCLC, the SNCC, and the NAACP.


The project was organized by the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), a coalition of the Mississippi branches of the four major civil rights organizations (SNCC, CORE, NAACP and SCLC).


Chambers v. Florida, 309 U.S. 227 (1940),[1] was an important United States Supreme Court case that dealt with the extent that police pressure resulting in a criminal defendant's confession violates the Due Process clause.


Contents  [hide] 

1 Case

2 Decision

3 See also

4 References

5 External links


The case was argued on January 6, 1940 in front of the court by Thurgood Marshall (who was 32 years old at the time), representing four black men convicted for the murder of a white man in Florida. Marshall would join the court as a justice in 1967.


The defendant Chambers, along with three other co-defendants, were four of up to forty transient black men arrested for the murder of Robert Darcy, an elderly local man, in Pompano Beach, Florida. The murder was greeted with outrage in the community and the Broward County Sheriff's department was apparently under pressure to close the case. Chambers and the other defendants were taken to Miami for questioning, ostensibly to protect them from the mob that had formed, and then to Fort Lauderdale.


It was not contested that the defendants were held without being able to see a lawyer or be arraigned for a period of a week, or that they were subject to questioning on a random basis, often alone in a room with up to ten police officers and other members of the community. In the legal climate before Miranda, they were not informed of their right to remain silent. After a week of questioning, and despite previous denials, the four co-defendants eventually confessed to the crime and were convicted of capital murder and sentenced to death. Their appeals to the Florida Court of Appeals was rejected on the grounds that the jury had ruled the confessions had been given voluntarily.



Rodney Glen King (April 2, 1965 – June 17, 2012) was an African American taxi driver, who became internationally known after being beaten by Los Angeles Police Department officers following a high-speed car chase on March 3, 1991. A witness, George Holliday, videotaped much of the beating from his balcony, and sent the footage to local news station KTLA. The footage shows four officers surrounding King, several of them striking him repeatedly, while other officers stood by. Parts of the footage were aired around the world, and raised public concern about police treatment of minorities in the United States.


Four officers were charged with assault with a deadly weapon and use of excessive force. Three were acquitted of all charges. The jury acquitted the fourth of assault with a deadly weapon but failed to reach a verdict on the use of excessive force. The jury deadlocked at 8–4 in favor of acquittal at the state level. The acquittals are generally considered to have triggered the 1992 Los Angeles riots, in which 55 people were killed and over 2,000 were injured, ending only when the California national guard was called in.


The acquittals also led to the federal government's obtaining grand jury indictments for violations of King's civil rights. The trial of the four in a federal district court ended on April 16, 1993, with two of the officers being found guilty and subsequently imprisoned. The other two were acquitted again.


The attack on Reginald Denny was an incident in the 1992 Los Angeles riots in which Denny, a construction truck driver, was beaten nearly to death by a group of black assailants which came to be known as the "L.A. Four". The attack was captured on video by a news helicopter, and broadcast live on US national television.


On 24 May 2014, a gunman opened fire at the Jewish Museum of Belgium in Brussels, Belgium, killing four people. Three died at the scene; a fourth was taken to the hospital and died on 6 June. The attack is being investigated as terrorism by Belgian authorities.



A second roadside explosion occurred in the largely Shia suburb of Sha'ab in northern Baghdad around midnight, killing at least five people and injuring 16.[9]


A third bombing that targeted members of al-Hashd al-Shaabi killed one person and injured five. The bomb was an IED and took place in Abu Gharib district in Baghdad. A vehicle was also damaged.[19]


A fourth bombing in al-Latifiya in southern Baghdad was a car bombing that killed one person and injured an unknown number of people. The bomb was placed under a civilian vehicle, and went off when the vehicle was being driven.[20]


So far, the casualties from the four bombings during the day in Baghdad include over 341 people killed and over 246 people injured.


Three groups of men[21][50] launched six distinct attacks:[51] three suicide bombings in one attack, a fourth suicide bombing in another attack, and shootings at four locations in four separate attacks


Fourth Bomb in Brussels Attack Failed to Detonate




Gabrielle Bluestone

03/22/16 12:20PM


Image: AP

According to reports, a fourth bomb planted in the attack this morning on Brussels failed to detonate.


Century 16 at Town Center at Aurora, scene of the shooting


The Dublin and Monaghan bombings of 17 May 1974 were a series of co-ordinated bombings in Dublin and Monaghan, Ireland. Three bombs exploded in Dublin during rush hour and a fourth exploded in Monaghan almost ninety minutes later. They killed 33 civilians and a full-term unborn child, and injured almost 300. The bombings were the deadliest attack of the conflict known as the Troubles, and the deadliest attack in the Republic's history.[2] Most of the victims were young women, although the ages of the dead ranged from five months to 80 years.


The Centennial Olympic Park bombing was a domestic terrorist pipe bombing attack on the Centennial Olympic Park in Atlanta, Georgia, on July 27 during the 1996 Summer Olympics. The blast directly killed 1 person and injured 111 others; another person later died of a heart attack. It was the first of four bombings committed by Eric Robert Rudolph.[1] Security guard Richard Jewell discovered the bomb before detonation and cleared most of the spectators out of the park. Rudolph, a carpenter and handyman, had detonated three pipe bombs inside a U.S. military ALICE Pack. Motivated by what he considered to be the government's sanctioning of "abortion on demand," Rudolph wanted to force the cancellation of the Olympics.


The killer originated the name "Zodiac" in a series of taunting letters sent to the local Bay Area press. These letters included four cryptograms (or ciphers). Of the four cryptograms sent, only one has been definitively solved.[1]


Charles Milles Manson (born Charles Milles Maddox, November 12, 1934)[2]:136–7 is an American criminal and former cult leader who led what became known as the Manson Family, a quasi-commune that arose in California in the late 1960s. Manson's followers committed a series of nine murders at four locations over a period of five weeks in the middle of 1969


On January 25, 1971, the jury returned guilty verdicts against the four defendants on each of the 27 separate counts against them.[1]:411–419 Not far into the trial's penalty phase, the jurors saw, at last, the defense that Manson—in the prosecution's view—had planned to present.[1]:455 Atkins, Krenwinkel, and Van Houten testified the murders had been conceived as "copycat" versions of the Hinman murder, for which Atkins now took credit. The killings, they said, were intended to draw suspicion away from Bobby Beausoleil by resembling the crime for which he had been jailed. This plan had supposedly been the work of, and carried out under the guidance of, not Manson, but someone allegedly in love with Beausoleil—Linda Kasabian.[1]:424–433 Among the narrative's weak points was the inability of Atkins to explain why, as she was maintaining, she had written "political piggy" at the Hinman house in the first place.[1]:424–433, 450–457


Midway through the penalty phase, Manson shaved his head and trimmed his beard to a fork; he told the press, "I am the Devil, and the Devil always has a bald head."[1]:439 In what the prosecution regarded as belated recognition on their part that imitation of Manson only proved his domination, the female defendants refrained from shaving their heads until the jurors retired to weigh the state's request for the death penalty.[1]:439, 455


The effort to exonerate Manson via the "copycat" scenario failed. On March 29, 1971, the jury returned verdicts of death against all four defendants on all counts.[1]:450–457 On April 19, 1971, Judge Older sentenced the four to death.[1]:458–459



To Manson, the synthesis of Beatles and Bible was hardly to be questioned:


Look at [the Beatles'] songs: songs sung all over the world by the young love; it ain't nothin' new.... It's written in... Revelation, all about the four angels programming the holocaust…the four angels looking for the fifth angel to lead the people into the pit of fire…right out to Death Valley. ... It's all in black and white, in The White Album—white, so there ain't no mistakin' the color....[18]


Verse 15: And the four angels were loosed, which were prepared for an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year, for to slay the third part of men

the four angels = the Beatles,[45] prophets who are preparing the way for Jesus Christ, Manson, to lead the chosen people away to safety[3]

The 1999 Russian apartment bombings were a series of attacks carried out on four apartment blocks in the Russian cities of Buynaksk, Moscow, and Volgodonsk in September 1999 that killed 293 people and injured more than 1,000. Together with the Dagestan War, the bombings led the country into the Second Chechen War.


The attack was planned by a group of terrorists including Ramzi Yousef, Mahmud Abouhalima, Mohammad Salameh, Nidal A. Ayyad, Abdul Rahman Yasin, and Ahmed Ajaj. They received financing from Khaled Sheikh Mohammed, Yousef's uncle. In March 1994, four men were convicted of carrying out the bombing: Abouhalima, Ajaj, Ayyad, and Salameh. The charges included conspiracy, explosive destruction of property, and interstate transportation of explosives. In November 1997, two more were convicted: Ramzi Yousef, the mastermind behind the bombings, and Eyad Ismoil, who drove the truck carrying the bomb.


During the peak of Madrid rush hour on the morning of Thursday, 11 March 2004, ten explosions occurred aboard four commuter trains (cercanías).[27] The date led to the popular abbreviation of the incident as "11-M". All the affected trains were traveling on the same line and in the same direction between Alcalá de Henares and the Atocha station in Madrid. It was later reported that thirteen improvised explosive devices (IEDs) had been placed on the trains. Bomb disposal teams (TEDAX) arriving at the scenes of the explosions detonated two of the remaining three IEDs in controlled explosions, but the third was not found until later in the evening, having been stored inadvertently with luggage taken from one of the trains. The following time-line of events comes from the judicial investigation.[28]


All four trains had departed the Alcalá de Henares station between 07:01 and 07:14. The explosions took place between 07:37 and 07:40, as described below (all timings given are in local time CET, UTC +1):


Atocha Station (train number 21431) – Three bombs exploded. Based on the video recording from the station security system, the first bomb exploded at 07:37, and two others exploded within 4 seconds of each other at 07:38.

El Pozo del Tío Raimundo Station (train number 21435) – At approximately 07:38, just as the train was starting to leave the station, two bombs exploded in different carriages.

Santa Eugenia Station (train number 21713) – One bomb exploded at approximately 07:38.

Calle Téllez (train number 17305), approximately 800 meters from Atocha Station – Four bombs exploded in different carriages of the train at approximately 07:39.

The Guildford Four[edit]

The bombings were at the height of the Troubles in Northern Ireland. The Metropolitan Police were under enormous pressure to apprehend the IRA bombers responsible for the attacks in England. In December 1974 the police arrested three men and a woman, later known as the Guildford Four. These were:


Gerry Conlon

Paul Hill

Patrick Armstrong

Carole Richardson

Conlon had been in London at the time of the bombings, and had visited his mother's sister, Annie Maguire. A few days after the Guildford Four were arrested, the Metropolitan Police arrested Annie Maguire and her family, including Gerry Conlon's father, Patrick "Giuseppe" Conlon – the "Maguire Seven".


The Guildford Four were falsely convicted of the bombings in October 1975 and sentenced to life in prison. The Maguire Seven were falsely convicted of providing bomb-making material and other support in March 1976 and sentenced to terms varying between four and fourteen years.


The Guildford Four were held in prison for fifteen years, while Giuseppe Conlon died near the end of his third year of imprisonment. All the convictions were overturned years later in the appeal courts after it was proved the Guildford Four's convictions had been based on confessions obtained by torture (as were some Maguire Seven confessions), whilst evidence specifically clearing the Four was not reported by the police.[4]


During the trial of the "Balcombe Street Four" in February 1977, the four IRA members instructed their lawyers to "draw attention to the fact that four totally innocent people were serving massive sentences" for three bombings in Woolwich and Guildford. The Balcombe Street Four were never charged with these offences. The movie In the Name of the Father is based on these events.[5]


The Balcombe Street siege was an incident involving members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and the Metropolitan Police Service of London lasting from 6 to 12 December 1975. The siege ended with the surrender of the four IRA paramilitaries and the release of their two hostages. The events were televised and watched by millions.[1]


April 14, 1865 Assassination, shooting, stabbing 1 4 District of Columbia Abraham Lincoln assassination – Part of a conspiracy by Confederate supporters John Wilkes Booth, Lewis Powell and George Atzerodt to assassinate President Abraham Lincoln, Vice President Andrew Johnson and Secretary of State William Seward in Washington, D.C. to create chaos for the purpose of overthrowing the Federal Government. Booth succeeded in assassinating Lincoln at Ford's Theatre, Seward suffered numerous stab wounds by Powell who stabbed others as he was chased out of Seward's home, and Atzerodt failed to carry out the planned murder of Johnson. Booth was killed by soldiers when he failed to surrender. Eight conspirators were tried and convicted for their role in the conspiracy by a military tribunal, including Powell and Atzerodt. Four defendants were executed for their roles including Powell, Azterodt and Mary Surratt, the first woman ever to be hanged by the U.S. government, whom historians mostly conclude was innocent.


September 17–19, 2016 Bombings 0 34 (+1) New Jersey/New York (state) New Jersey and New York City 2016 New York and New Jersey bombings: Four bombings or bombing attempts occurred in the New York metropolitan area, specifically in Seaside Park, New Jersey; Manhattan, New York; and Elizabeth, New Jersey. Thirty-one civilians were injured in one of the bombings. Ahmad Khan Rahimi was identified as a suspect in all of the incidents and apprehended on September 19 in Linden, New Jersey, after a shootout that injured three police officers.[134] According to authorities, Rahami was not part of a terrorist cell, but was motivated and inspired by the extremist Islamic ideology espoused by al-Qaeda founder Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda chief propagandist Anwar al-Awlaki.[135]

May 20, 2009: 2009 New York City bomb plot Three U.S. citizens and one Haitian from Newburgh, New York were arrested in a plot to bomb a Riverdale Temple and a Riverdale Jewish Center in The Bronx, New York City in an alleged homegrown terrorist plot. It was also alleged that they planned to shoot down military planes operating out of Stewart Air National Guard Base also in Newburgh. One of the suspects whose parents are from Afghanistan was said to be "unhappy that many Muslim people were being killed in Afghanistan and Pakistan by the United States Military forces."[244][245][246] On October 18, 2010, the four were convicted on most of the charges brought against them.[247] On June 29, 2011 three of the men were sentenced to 25 years imprisonment by a judge who criticized the governments handling of the case.[248][249] A 2014 award-winning HBO documentary about the four, The Newburgh Sting, claimed that it was a clear case of entrapment and an egregious miscarriage of justice.[250][251]


The 16th Street Baptist Church bombing was an act of white supremacist terrorism[1][2] which occurred at the African-American 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama on Sunday, September 15, 1963, when four members of the Ku Klux Klan planted at least 15 sticks of dynamite attached to a timing device beneath the front steps of the church.[3]

Described by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. as "one of the most vicious and tragic crimes ever perpetrated against humanity",[4] the explosion at the church killed four girls and injured 22 others.

Although the FBI had concluded in 1965 that the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing had been committed by four known Ku Klux Klansmen and segregationists—Thomas Edwin Blanton, Jr., Herman Frank Cash, Robert Edward Chambliss, and Bobby Frank Cherry[5]—no prosecutions ensued until 1977, when Robert Chambliss was tried and convicted of the first degree murder of one of the victims, 11-year-old Carol Denise McNair. Thomas Blanton and Bobby Cherry were each convicted of four counts of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment in 2001 and 2002 respectively,[6] whereas Herman Cash, who died in 1994, was never charged with his alleged involvement in the bombing.


The U.S. Department of Justice defines "outlaw motorcycle gangs" (OMG) as "organizations whose members use their motorcycle clubs as conduits for criminal enterprises".[60] The U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and Criminal Intelligence Service Canada have designated four MCs as "outlaw motorcycle gangs": the Hells Angels, the Pagans, the Outlaws, and the Bandidos,[61][62] known as the "Big Four".[63] These four have a large enough national impact to be prosecuted under the U.S. Federal Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) statute.[64] The California Attorney General also lists the Mongols and the Vagos Motorcycle Club as outlaw motorcycle gangs.[65][66]


Each crew member's uniform is decorated with insignia which, akin to naval uniforms, represents his or her duties on board the aircraft. The airline captain's insignia corresponds to the naval captain's insignia, such as four stripes on the shoulder epaulets and four stripes on the blazer arms. First officer's insignia corresponds to the naval commander uniform, bearing three stripes on shoulder epaulets and blazer arms. (On some airlines, less experienced first officers will wear two stripes.) ACM insignia is similar to naval lieutenant's uniforms, with two stripes.


Pilots also typically wear a winged badge indicating their qualification to fly and their seniority. The color typically matches the sleeve stripe color, and the badge may be a metal pin or an embroidered patch. They generally follow the pattern of having the corporate logo in the center. For US-based carriers, a captain generally has a star enclosed in a laurel wreath on top, similar to a command pilot in the US Air Force. A first officer has only a star, similar to a senior pilot in the USAF.


Uniform item Captain First Officer Second Officer/

Additional Crew Member Third officer/


Blazer/epaulets 4 stripes 3 stripes 2 stripes 1 stripe

Qualification badge Wings with a star

enclosed in a laurel wreath Wings with a star Wings Wings


Each crew member's uniform is decorated with insignia which, akin to naval uniforms, represents his or her duties on board the aircraft. The airline captain's insignia corresponds to the naval captain's insignia, such as four stripes on the shoulder epaulets and four stripes on the blazer arms. First officer's insignia corresponds to the naval commander uniform, bearing three stripes on shoulder epaulets and blazer arms. (On some airlines, less experienced first officers will wear two stripes.) ACM insignia is similar to naval lieutenant's uniforms, with two stripes.


Pilots also typically wear a winged badge indicating their qualification to fly and their seniority. The color typically matches the sleeve stripe color, and the badge may be a metal pin or an embroidered patch. They generally follow the pattern of having the corporate logo in the center. For US-based carriers, a captain generally has a star enclosed in a laurel wreath on top, similar to a command pilot in the US Air Force. A first officer has only a star, similar to a senior pilot in the USAF.


Uniform item Captain First Officer Second Officer/

Additional Crew Member Third officer/


Blazer/epaulets 4 stripes 3 stripes 2 stripes 1 stripe

Qualification badge Wings with a star

enclosed in a laurel wreath Wings with a star Wings Wings


The early 20th century[change | change source]


Map from Meyers (1885-90) with breakdown of Hungarians, Finns, American Indians (Amerindians) and Turkic peoples to the "Mongoloid race" and Semites by the "White race"

By about the First World War the scientifically inclined Europeans were sub-dividing the 'White race' in to three or four supposed sub-races, which were:


Blond hair, white skinned, blue or grey eyes = Aryans/Nordic (e.g. across northern Europe from Russia to northern Britain)

Dark haired, white skinned, brown eyed = Alpine (e.g. some Russians, English and Welsh).

Dark haired, suntanned/olive skinned, brown eyed, aquiline nose = Mediterranean (e.g. southern Italians and Maltese).

Red hair, suntanned/olive or white skinned, brown eyes = Anglo-Celtic/Gaelic (e.g. Scots, Irish and Dutch).

FOUR STRIPESÁrpád_stripes

Árpád stripes (Hungarian: Árpád-sávok) is the name of a particular heraldic and vexillologic configuration which has been in constant use since the early 13th century in particular in Hungarian heraldry. It can be seen in the dexter of the current coat of arms of Hungary.


They have been associated with the founding dynasty of Hungary, with the House of Árpád, hence the name, but most later rulers and dynasties of Hungary adopted them in one form or another to stress their legitimacy to the Hungarian throne, e.g. by marshalling. The four silver stripes (often depicted as white) are sometimes claimed to symbolise "the four silver rivers" of Hungary—the Danube, Tisza, Sava and Drava.

The Senyera (Eastern Catalan: [səˈɲeɾə], Western Catalan: [seˈɲeɾa]; meaning "pennon", "standard", "banner", "ensign", or, more generically, "flag" in Catalan) is a vexillological symbol based on the coat of arms of the Crown of Aragon, which consists of four red stripes on a golden background. This coat of arms, often called bars of Aragon,[1] or simply "the four bars", historically represented the King of the Crown of Aragon.

The senyera pattern is nowadays in the flag of four Spanish autonomous communities (Catalonia, Aragon, the Balearic Islands, Valencia), and is the flag of the historically Catalan-speaking city of Alghero in Sardinia. It is also used on the coat of arms of Spain, the coat of arms of Pyrénées-Orientales and of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, the flag of Roussillon, Capcir, Vallespir and Provence in France, one quarter of the coat of arms of Andorra, and on the local flags of many municipalities belonging to these territories. The Senyera (sometimes together with the flag of Andorra) is also used more informally to represent the Catalan language.


There are four red six-pointed stars on the center white stripe. Six-pointed stars are used because five-pointed stars represent sovereign states, and because the star as designed was not found on any other known flags as of 1917.[7] From left to right:


The first star represents Fort Dearborn. It was added to the flag in 1939. Its six points symbolize transportation, labor, commerce, finance, populousness, and salubrity.[2]

The second star stands for the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, and is original to the 1917 design of the flag. Its six points represent the virtues of religion, education, aesthetics, justice, beneficence, and civic pride.[2]

The third star symbolizes the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, and is original to the 1917 design. Its six points stand for political entities Chicago has belonged to and the flags that have flown over the area: France, 1693; Great Britain, 1763; Virginia, 1778; the Northwest Territory, 1789; Indiana Territory, 1802; and Illinois (territory, 1809, and state, since 1818).[2]

The fourth star represents the Century of Progress Exposition (1933–1934), and was added in 1933. Its points refer to bragging rights: the United States' second largest city (became third largest in a 1990 census when passed by Los Angeles); Chicago's Latin motto, Urbs in horto ("City in a garden"); Chicago's "I Will" motto; the Great Central Marketplace; Wonder City; and Convention City.[2]


Inspired by the wave of humanitarian and pacifistic enthusiasm following World War II and the outrage towards the war crimes disclosed by the Nuremberg Trials, a series of conferences were held in 1949 reaffirming, expanding and updating the prior Geneva and Hague Conventions. It yielded four distinct conventions:


The First Geneva Convention "for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field" was the fourth update of the original 1864 convention and replaced the 1929 convention on the same subject matter.[14]

The Second Geneva Convention "for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forc