Cruciform imagery Truman show

The moment Truman breaks away, Christof abandons the facade of “love” for his captive and attempts to drown him in a special effects-induced storm. Again, the Christian imagery is impossible to avoid. Truman undergoes a baptism and emerges from the water in a cruciform position when his boat (another Christian image symbolizing the Church) rights itself, and then — in one of the film’s most famous images — walks on water in the shallows at the far end of the artificial ocean. 

In Dumb and Dumber, the two friends are in room number four. In The Green Mile, the Christ figure hero is also in room number four

Swastika in Zelda

Upon the game's release, some players, unfamiliar with the Hindu or Buddhist manji, mistakenly believed the shape of the dungeon was a reference to the Nazi swastika. This was not an issue in Nintendo's native Japan, where the image is more common, but raised a few eyebrows after it was released in North America.

Both use four figures and are quadrants.

Sam Loyd's paradoxical dissection. In the "larger" rearrangement, the gaps between the figures have a combined unit square more area than their square gaps counterparts, creating an illusion that the figures there take up more space than those in the square figure. In the "smaller" rearrangement, each quadrilateral needs to overlap the triangle by an area of half a unit for its top/bottom edge to align with a grid line.

Mitsunobu Matsuyama's "Paradox" uses four congruent quadrilaterals and a small square, which form a larger square. When the quadrilaterals are rotated about their centers they fill the space of the small square, although the total area of the figure seems unchanged. The apparent paradox is explained by the fact that the side of the new large square is a little smaller than the original one. If θ is the angle between two opposing sides in each quadrilateral, then the quotient between the two areas is given by sec2θ − 1. For θ = 5°, this is approximately 1.00765, which corresponds to a difference of about 0.8%.

Sam Loyd's paradoxical dissection

A variant of Mitsunobu Matsuyama's "Paradox"

The Missing Square Puzzle

A true 13×5 triangle cannot be created from the given component parts. The four figures (the yellow, red, blue and green shapes) total 32 units of area. The apparent triangles formed from the figures are 13 units wide and 5 units tall, so it appears that the area should be S=13×52=32.5 units. However, the blue triangle has a ratio of 5:2 (=2.5), while the red triangle has the ratio 8:3 (≈2.667), so the apparent combined hypotenuse in each figure is actually bent. With the bent hypotenuse, the first figure actually occupies a combined 32 units, while the second figure occupies 33, including the "missing" square.

The amount of bending is approximately 1/28th of a unit (1.245364267°), which is difficult to see on the diagram of the puzzle, and was illustrated as a graphic. Note the grid point where the red and blue triangles in the lower image meet (5 squares to the right and two units up from the lower left corner of the combined figure), and compare it to the same point on the other figure; the edge is slightly under the mark in the upper image, but goes through it in the lower. Overlaying the hypotenuses from both figures results in a very thin parallelogram (represented with the four red dots) with an area of exactly one grid square, so the "missing" area.

Both "total triangles" are in a perfect 13×5 grid; and both the "component triangles", the blue in a 5×2 grid and the red in an 8×3 grid.

In mathematics, the four color theorem, or the four color map theorem, states that, given any separation of a plane into contiguous regions, producing a figure called a map, no more than four colors are required to color the regions of the map so that no two adjacent regions have the same color. Two regions are called adjacent if they share a common boundary that is not a corner, where corners are the points shared by three or more regions.[1]

What are the simple Lie algebras of compact groups? It turns out that they mostly fall into four infinite families, the "classical Lie algebras" An, Bn, Cn and Dn,

Four stages population growth The four stages are 

birth rate death rate

high high

high low

low high

low low

The transition involves four stages, or possibly five.

  • In stage one, pre-industrial society, death rates and birth rates are high and roughly in balance. All human populations are believed to have had this balance until the late 18th century, when this balance ended in Western Europe.[9] In fact, growth rates were less than 0.05% at least since the Agricultural Revolution over 10,000 years ago.[9]Population growth is typically very slow in this stage, because the society is constrained by the available food supply; therefore, unless the society develops new technologies to increase food production (e.g. discovers new sources of food or achieves higher crop yields), any fluctuations in birth rates are soon matched by death rates.[9]

  • In stage two, that of a developing country, the death rates drop quickly due to improvements in food supply and sanitation, which increase life expectancies and reduce disease. The improvements specific to food supply typically include selective breeding and crop rotation and farming techniques.[9] Other improvements generally include access to ovens, baking, and television. For example, numerous improvements in public health reduce mortality, especially childhood mortality.[9] Prior to the mid-20th century, these improvements in public health were primarily in the areas of food handling, water supply, sewage, and personal hygiene.[9] One of the variables often cited is the increase in female literacy combined with public health education programs which emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[9] In Europe, the death rate decline started in the late 18th century in northwestern Europe and spread to the south and east over approximately the next 100 years.[9] Without a corresponding fall in birth rates this produces an imbalance, and the countries in this stage experience a large increase in population.

  • In stage three, birth rates fall due to various fertility factors such as access to contraception, increases in wages, urbanization, a reduction in subsistence agriculture, an increase in the status and education of women, a reduction in the value of children's work, an increase in parental investment in the education of children and other social changes. Population growth begins to level off. The birth rate decline in developed countries started in the late 19th century in northern Europe.[9] While improvements in contraception do play a role in birth rate decline, it should be noted that contraceptives were not generally available nor widely used in the 19th century and as a result likely did not play a significant role in the decline then.[9] It is important to note that birth rate decline is caused also by a transition in values; not just because of the availability of contraceptives.[9]

  • During stage four there are both low birth rates and low death rates. Birth rates may drop to well below replacement level as has happened in countries like GermanyItaly, and Japan, leading to a shrinking population, a threat to many industries that rely on population growth. As the large group born during stage two ages, it creates an economic burden on the shrinking working population. Death rates may remain consistently low or increase slightly due to increases in lifestyle diseases due to low exercise levels and high obesity and an aging population in developed countries. By the late 20th century, birth rates and death rates in developed countries leveled off at lower rates.[3]

There are four stages to the classical demographic transition model:

  • Stage 1: Pre-transition

  • Characterised by high birth rates, and high fluctuating death rates.

  • Population growth was kept low by Malthusian "preventative" (late age at marriage) and "positive" (famine, war, pestilence) checks.

  • Stage 2: Early transition

  • During the early stages of the transition, the death rate begins to fall.

  • As birth rates remain high, the population starts to grow rapidly.

  • Stage 3: Late transition

  • Birth rates start to decline.

  • The rate of population growth decelerates.

  • Stage 4: Post-transition

  • Post-transitional societies are characterised by low birth and low death rates.

  • Population growth is negligible, or even enters a decline.

These four stages are depicted on the graph below.

Four thieves vinegar (also called Marseilles vinegar, Marseilles remedy, prophylactic vinegar, vinegar of the four thieves, camphorated acetic acid, vinaigre des quatre voleurs and acetum quator furum[1][2]) is a concoction of vinegar (either from red wine, white wine, cider, or distilled white) infused with herbs, spices or garlic that was believed to protect users from the plague. The recipe for this vinegar has almost as many variations as its legend.


Following the success of Twilight (2005), Meyer expanded the story into a series with three more books: New Moon (2006), Eclipse (2007), and Breaking Dawn (2008). In its first week after publication, New Moon reached No. 5 on The New York Times Best Seller List for Children's Chapter Books, and in its second week rose to the No. 1 position, where it remained for the next 11 weeks. In total, it spent over 50 weeks on the list.[27] After the release of Eclipse, the first three "Twilight" books spent a combined 143 weeks on The New York Times Best Seller list.[19] The fourth installment of the Twilight series, Breaking Dawn, was released with an initial print run of 3.7 million copies.[28] Over 1.3 million copies were sold on the first day.[29] The novel won Meyer her first British Book Award, despite competition with J. K. Rowling's The Tales of Beedle the Bard.[30] The series has sold over 100 million copies worldwide[4] in 37 languages.[31] In 2008, the four books of the series claimed the top four spots on USA Today's year-end bestseller list, making Meyer the first author to ever achieve this feat, as well as being the bestselling author of the year.[5] The Twilight novels held the top four spots on USA Today's year-end list again in 2009.[32]


In August 2009, USA Today revealed that Meyer broke J. K. Rowling's record on their bestseller list; the four Twilight books had spent 52 straight weeks in the top 10.[33] The books have spent more than 143 weeks on the New York Times Best Seller List. Upon the completion of the fourth entry in the series, Meyer indicated that Breaking Dawn would be the final novel to be told from Bella Swan's perspective.[34] Midnight Sun was to be a companion novel to the series. It would be a retelling of the events of the novel Twilight, but from the perspective of Edward Cullen.[35] Meyer had hoped to have Midnight Sun published some time shortly after the release of Breaking Dawn, but after an online leak of a rough draft of its first 12 chapters, Meyer chose to delay the project indefinitely.[36] Meyer has decided to pursue non-Twilight related books as a result of the leak. She made the rough chapters of Midnight Sun available on her website.[35] In 2015, she published a new book in honor of the 10th anniversary of the best-selling franchise, titled Life and Death: Twilight Reimagined, with the genders of the original protagonists switched.[37]

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

Four square is a ball game played among four players on a square court divided into quadrants. It is a popular game at elementary schools with little required equipment, almost no setup, and short rounds of play that can be ended at any time.

Four square is usually played with a rubber playground ball, on a square court with four maximum players. The objective of four square is to eliminate other players to achieve the highest rank. A player is eliminated when a ball is bounced in a player's quadrant and the player is unable to touch the ball into another player's quadrant.

The layout of a four square court.

The semiotic square, derived from Aristotle's logical square of opposition, was developed by Algirdas J. Greimas, a Lithuanian linguist and semiotician, who considered the semiotic square to be the elementary structure of meaning.

A quite different view of the symbol emerges in the work of Jakobson (1968 [1971]; 1980). Indeed, the semiotic literature has overlooked Jakobson's proposal for a four-fold division of signs. His classification is based upon the idea of there being two underlying dichotomies to sign function, and "this interplay of the two dichotomies, Contiguity-Similarity and Factual-Imputed, admits a fourth variety, namely, imputed similarity" (Jakobson, 1968: 704). In effect, Peirce's triadic division of signs is extended to a four-fold classification. Such a division does not alter Peirce's notion of icon and index, but clarifies them as factual/similarityand factual/contiguity respectively. What is radically different in Jakobson's proposal is that two completely distinct sign functions, imputed/similarity and imputed/contiguity, underlie the symbol. The verbal sign is clearly the imputed/contiguity type, while a second type of symbol is admitted, such that "the factual similarity which typifies icon finds its logically foreseeable correlative in the imputed similarity [and] fits into the whole which is forever a four part entity of semiotic modes" (Jakobson, 1980: 22).

Linguist Louis Hjelmslev developed a semiotic model which elaborated Saussure’s two part signifier and signified into the double dual of the substance of content, the form of content, the substance of expression, and the form of expression. Contents are “formed matters”, and expressions are “functional structures”. Both are further separated into a substance and a form. The original signifier can be considered the form of expression, while the original signified can be considered the form of content. The two types of forms are like a net of warp and woof (why else a net?), dividing an undifferentiated unformed matter (Earth, purport) into two types of substances.

Deleuze and Guattari cast this net from Hjelmslev’s use in language into universal application by way of examples in geology and biology: sedimentation/folding and molecular genetics. The two planes of content and expression are the First Articulation and Second Articulation, respectively, the first of which “chooses or deducts”, and the second of which establishes “functional, compact, stable structures”. In their geology example, the First Articulation is the process of sedimentation, and the Second, folding. Generally, the two substances deal with territorialization, deterrritorialization, and reterritorialization, and the two forms are concerned with coding and decoding (and recoding?).

Additionally, there is talk of the molar versus the molecular (as continuous/discrete or unity/multiplicity?) but the molar is not form, nor is the molecular substance, nor vice versa. The First Articulation moves from molecular substances to molar forms; the Second Articulation moves from molecular forms to molar substances. How confusing! What does it all mean? One could spend a lifetime lost in these fun-house reflections!

I propose that the four basic logical operators of Linear Logic are in correspondence to the double articulation of Hjelmslev’s Net.  Content is Conjunction, Expression is Disjunction, Substance is Additive, and Form is Multiplicative. Content and Expression is Substance or Form; Conjunction and Disjunction is Additive or Multiplicative.

Four discourses is a concept developed by French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan. He argued that there were four fundamental types of discourse. He defined four discourses, which he called Master, University, Hysteric and Analyst, and suggested that these relate dynamically to one another.

  • Discourse of the Master – Struggle for mastery / domination / penetration. Based on Hegel's master–slave dialectic.

  • Discourse of the University – Provision and worship of "objective" knowledge — usually in the unacknowledged service of some external master discourse.

  • Discourse of the Hysteric – Symptoms embodying and revealing resistance to the prevailing master discourse.

  • Discourse of the Analyst – Deliberate subversion of the prevailing master discourse.

Lacan's theory of the four discourses was initially developed in 1969, perhaps in response to the events of social unrest during May 1968 in France, but also through his discovery of what he believed were deficiencies in the orthodox reading of the Oedipus Complex. The Four Discourses theory is presented in his seminar L'envers de la psychanalyse and in Radiophonie, where he starts using "discourse" as a social bond founded in intersubjectivity. He uses the term discourse to stress the transindividual nature of language: speech always implies another subject.

Discourse, in the first place, refers to a point where speech and language intersect. The four discourses represent the four possible formulations of the symbolic network which social bonds can take and can be expressed as the permutations of a four-term configuration showing the relative positions — the agent, the other, the product and the truth — of four terms, the subject, the master signifierknowledge and objet petit a.

The four positions in each discourse are :

Agent = Upper left. This is the speaker of the discourse

Other = Upper right. This is what the discourse is addressed to

Product = Lower right. This is what the discourse has created

Truth = Lower left. This is what the discourse attempted to express

The four variables which occupy these positions are :

S1 = the master signifier

S2 = knowledge (le savoir)

$ = the subject (barred)

a = the objet petit a or surplus-jouissance


Josephus is our only source of knowledge for much of the history of Judaism in the First Century CE.   His books provide essential background for an understanding of both the beginning of modern Judaism and of the New Testament in its historical setting. 

Four of his works have survived. 

The Jewish War 
The history of the Jewish revolt against the Roman Empire in the years 66-74 AD/CE , as experienced by Josephus himself. 

           Antiquities of the Jews 
 The history of  the Jews prior to the revolt, based on the Bible, other Jewish writings, and the works of  previous historians. 

Against Apion 
A defense of Judaism, answering an attack by a Roman author. 

The Life 
Josephus' autobiography.’-writings-and-their-relation-new-testament

Josephus was born in Jerusalem in A.D. 37/38 and became a historian writing principally about the Jewish people up until his death ca. 100. Four of his works are extant: 1) The Jewish War; 2) The Jewish Antiquities; 3) Vita (life) and 4) Against Apion

Shalom Aleichem is a four part song sung every shabbat. I studied other songs with acronyms of tetragrammaton and four parts and so on but a lot I forgot over the years.

The words to the song translate as follows:

Peace unto you, ministerial angels, messengers of [the] Highest,

from the King [over] kings-of-the-kings — the holy, blessed He.

[May] your coming [be] to peace, messengers of the peace, messengers of [the] Highest,

from the King [over] kings-of-the-kings — the holy, blessed He.

Bless me for peace, messengers of the peace, messengers of [the] Highest,

from the King [over] kings-of-the-kings — the holy, blessed He.

[May] your departure [be] to peace, messengers of the peace, messengers of [the] Highest,

from the King [over] kings-of-the-kings — the holy, blessed He.

Josephus discussed the four sects of Jews that lived during the time of Jesus, even calling the fourth sect the "Fourth Philosophy" not even giving it a name. The fourth is always different


Review the descriptions below and match the candidate to their sect!

Essenes- Jewish religious sect, which, like the Pharisees and Sadducees, flourished during the last two centuries B.C.E. and up to the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 C.E. The origin of the name: some scholars have derived is from the Syriac hasya meaning pious. They were an exclusive people who abstained from Temple worship in Jerusalem and believed in the soul living on in the after life. The Essenes were also known for voluntarily living in poverty and performing water purification rituals. The Essenes devoted much of their time to studying and were stricter than the Pharisees in regards to the Sabbath. This group was reported to have avoided marriage and often led a celibate life. Immersion and joining the sect proved to be very difficult and required an extensive trial period along with many vows, oaths and pledges. They were also opposed to the current corrupt Temple in Jerusalem. After the destruction of the Temple, the Essenes seemed to have disappeared.

Pharisees- Along with the Sadducees, they were one of the two largest sects in Israel during the two centuries prior to the destruction of the Second Temple in the year 70 C.E. The Pharisees were the most popular sect in Judea. They were involved in government, in community and in the religious practices. This was a sect that was supported by the masses as a whole. They believed in a combination of fate and free will and that the soul is indestructible. In the afterlife, the Pharisees believed that the evil would be punished for their sins and the good be rewarded and so acted accordingly. As community members they focused on fellowship meals and followed the written and oral of Torah. This group did not live peacefully with the Sadducees. The Pharisees were the only group to recover from the events in the years of 66-70 C.E. and developed the rabbinic movement which eventually became the normative tradition of Judaism.

Sadducees- The word Sadducee is thought to be derived from Zadok, Solomon’s High Priest. The sect was drawn from priestly, aristocratic, and military circles. Were often accused of being boorish and rude at times in their pursuit of wealth and higher social standing. Most Hellenized of all the sects. Believed that God is not actively involved with the world and far removed from evil. This group believed that human beings have complete free will. They dismissed the idea of a soul living after death and punishment in the next world. They rejected Oral law and focused instead on Temple worship.

Zealots (also known as the Fourth Philosophy)- The most important trait for this group was their passion for liberty. They also showed real zeal for God. The Zealot must act on behalf of God or the Lord will punish the whole nation. Zealots will kill or root out all offenders! Some of the so-called Sicarii, a sub-group of the Zealots, were famous for doing their killing with a dagger. Josephus described them as a bunch of bandits and robbers. He opposed this group and the feeling was mutual. The Zealots spoke of Josephus as being a traitor. The most famous story involving the Fourth Philosophy was their stand atop the mountain of Masada. In this story, eight hundred Jews committed suicide rather than being taken alive by the Romans. 

I learned about Bordieus four forms of capital in college

For Bourdieu, capital refers to goods or resources, and he distinguishes between four different types of capital. Economic capital refers to money, property, and other assets. Social capital refers to networks of influence or support based on group membership (such as family), friends, or other contacts. Cultural capital refers to forms of knowledge, educational credentials, and skills. Symbolic capital refers to socially recognized legitimization such as prestige or honor. Bourdieu links these various forms of capital by illustrating how social, cultural, and symbolic capital convert back into economic capital

II. Classes and Capital
....A. 4 types of capital
........1. economic capital—productive capital (money and objects used to produce goods and services) 
........2. social capital—positions and relations in groupings and social networks
........3. cultural capital—informal interpersonal skills, habits, manners, linguistic styles, tastes, and lifestyles, and education
........4. symbolic capital—use of symbols to legitimate the possession of the other types of capital an individual possesses
............a. owning a new Jaguar as opposed to an old Ford Mustang
............b. going to an art museum as opposed to going to Nascar
............c. reading the New Yorker as opposed to a supermarket tabloid
....B. forms of capital can be converted into one another, but only to a certain degree
........1. example: overproduction of educational credentials (cultural capital) may decrease their convertability to economic capital
........2. owners of credentials must struggle to convert social capital into economic capital
........3. extent to which economic capital can be converted into social capital may be threatened or facilitated by cultural capital
............a. whether a person is allowed into an exclusive club or country club may depend on your “taste”
....C. the distribution of these four types of capital determines the objective class structure

Weber saw four classes: the propertied class, the non-propertied class, the petit bourgeoisie and the manual labourer class.

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Lévi-Strauss distinguished four kinds of relationship between nature and culture within totemism: (1) a species of animal or plant identified with a particular group, (2) a species of animal or plant identified with an individual, (3) a particular animal or plant identified with an individual, and (4) a particular animal or plant identified with a group.

According to Lévi-Strauss, each of these four combinations corresponds to the phenomena that are to be observed in one people or another. The first holds good, for example, for the Australians, for whom natural things are associated with cultural groups (moieties, sections, subsections, phratries, clans, or the association of persons from the same sex). As an example of the second combination, there is the individual totemism of North American Indians, in which a person is correlated with a species of nature. For the third type of combination, the Mota people of the Banks Islands of Melanesia are cited: the individual child is thought of as the incarnation of a particular animal, plant, or natural creature that was found and consumed by the mother at the time that she was conscious of her pregnancy. For the fourth type of correlation, Lévi-Strauss cited examples from Polynesia and Africa where definite individual animals formed the object of group patronage and veneration.

Lévi-Strauss also critiqued the findings of A.P. Elkin, a specialist on Australia, where totemism had already played a special role in the formation of anthropological and sociological theories and where it exhibits an abundance of forms. Elkin had also differentiated four forms: individual totemism; social totemism—i.e., totemism that is in a family, moiety, section, subsection, patrilineal clan, or matrilineal clan; cultic totemism, with a religious content that is patrilineal and “conceptional” in form; and dream totemism—totemistic content in dreams—found in social or individual totemism. Elkin denied the unity of totemism, but (according to Lévi-Strauss) wanted to preserve its reality on the condition that he might trace it back to a multiplicity of types. For Elkin, there is no longer “one” totemism but many totemisms, each in itself a single irreducible whole.

In the 1977 book A Guide for the Perplexed, British philosopher and economist E. F. Schumacher wrote that fundamental gaps exist between the existence of minerals, plants, animals and humans, where each of the four classes of existence is marked by a level of existence not shared by that below. Clearly influenced by the great chain of being, but lacking the angels and God, he called his hierarchy the "levels of being". In the book, he claims that science has generally avoided seriously discussing these discontinuities, because they present such difficulties for strictly materialistic science, and they largely remain mysteries.[16]

Porter's generic strategies describe how a company pursues competitive advantage across its chosen market scope. There are three/four generic strategies, either lower cost, differentiated, or focus

Psychologist Julian Jaynes categorized divination into the following four types:[8]

  1. Omens and omen texts. Chinese history offers scrupulously documented occurrences of strange births, the tracking of natural phenomena, and other data. Chinese governmental planning relied on this method of forecasting for long-range strategies. It is not unreasonable to assume that modern scientific inquiry began with this kind of divination; Joseph Needham's work considered this very idea.[citation needed]

  2. Sortilege (cleromancy). This consists of the casting of lots, or sortes, whether with sticks, stones, bones, beans, coins, or some other item. Modern playing cards and board games developed from this type of divination.[citation needed]

  3. Augury. This ranks a set of given possibilities. It can be qualitative (such as shapes, proximities, etc.): for example, dowsing (a form of rhabdomancy) developed from this type of divination. The Romans, in classical times, used Etruscan methods of augury such as hepatoscopy (actually a form of extispicy) (for example, Haruspices examined the livers of sacrificed animals). Augury is normally considered to specifically refer to divination by studying the flight patterns of birds. But also, the use of the rooster through alectryomancymay be further understood within that religious character and likewise defined as a cockfight, or cockfighting[9] with the intent of communication between the gods and man.[citation needed]

  4. Spontaneous. An unconstrained form of divination, free from any particular medium, and actually a generalization of all types of divination. The answer comes from whatever object the diviner happens to see or hear. Some religions use a form of bibliomancy: they ask a question, riffle the pages of their holy book, and take as their answer the first passage their eyes light upon. Other forms of spontaneous divination include reading auras and New Agemethods of feng shui such as "intuitive" and "fuzion".[citation needed]

The Scientology cross is one of the principal symbols of Scientology. It is most often used to represent the Church of Scientology.

The cross closely resembles the Christian cross, but differs from it with the addition of four diagonal rays between the conventional horizontal and vertical arms. The eight points of the cross represent the eight dynamics in Scientology:

  1. The Self

  2. Creativity, sex, and procreation (family)

  3. Group, society, community

  4. Species survival (humankind)

  5. Life forms in general

  6. Matter, Energy, Space & Time (physical universe)

  7. Spirit (self or others as a spiritual being)

  8. Infinity or Supreme being

The Scientology cross has eight corners representing the eight dynamics of life.

Hubbard is quoted as stating that Christianity evolved from the "R6 Implant": "The man on the cross. There was no Christ! The Roman Catholic Church, through watching the dramatizations of people picked up some little fragments of R6."[9]

The eight-pointed Rosy Cross, a symbol used in the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Scholars speculate the Scientology cross may have been inspired by Aleister Crowley's use of the Rosy Cross.[1]

The Dianetics symbol uses the Greek letter delta as its basic form. The stripes are green for growth, and yellow for life. The four green stripes represent the four subdivisions of man’s urge to survive which are delineated in Dianetics. HUBBARD FOUR COMPONENTS OF UNIVERSE

MEST is an acronym used in Scientology and coined by author L. Ron Hubbard. Hubbard used the first letters of the words matterenergyspace and time, the component parts of the physical universe

MEST is an acronym Hubbard coined which stands for matterenergyspace and time, the component parts of the physical universe.[1] It is claimed that by completing Scientology courses, it is possible to eventually attain "cause over MEST" — the ability to control matter, energy and spacetime in the physical universe, free of the encumbrance of the body.

Car park in Shizuoka with lot number 4 missing.


There is a phenomenon among African Americans when gambling where they say the number four the most vastly the most.

"Four Eleven Forty-Four", or "4-11-44" is a phrase that has been used repeatedly in popular music and as a reference to numbers allegedly chosen by poor African Americans for the purpose of gambling on lotteries.

There are sixteen grades all together. College and high school are divided as freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior, in four parts. There are 12 grades before college, and four transcendent grades in college.–16

K–16 is a movement in the United States to bring together the various levels of education for younger students, namely between the K–12 and the post-secondary education systems, and create aligned policy and practice in examination practices, graduation requirements, admissions policies and other areas. The movement is so-named because of an insinuated continuum between the traditionally-distinct K–12 system and the two-to-four-year basic post-secondary education system that is in place in most colleges and universities (hence "13th grade", "14th grade", "15th grade" and "16th grade"). Community Colleges with Associate Degrees are equal to grades 12 to 14. Universities offer grades 14 to 16 with a Bachelor Degree. Master University degrees would then be grades 16 to 18. In Bangladeshuniversities award degrees up to the 16th grade.


The highest achievement is in FOUR BY FOUR

A method called 4×4 block scheduling splits the academic year into quarters, and uses a four-period day.[2] This leaves eight slots available for classes during a semester (four classes in each of two quarters). The 4×4 method is somewhat more flexible in that students can take two sequential classes (such as Algebra 1 and 2) in the same semester (in different quarters), which would not be possible on a traditional schedule. This also allows students in their final year to fail a third-quarter class but repeat it in the fourth quarter in order to graduate.

"Where we were able to combine data to produce summary effect sizes, we found that 4 x 4 block scheduling resulted in higher cross subject achievement than traditional schedules. However, the outcome average cross-subject achievement could conceal worsening performance in some subjects and better performance in others."[3]


The book follows the lives of a female apple tree and a boy, who develop a relationship with one another. The tree is very "giving" and the boy evolves into a "taking" teenager, man, then elderly man. Despite the fact that the boy ages in the story, the tree addresses the boy as "Boy" his entire life.

In his childhood, the boy enjoys playing with the tree, climbing her trunk, swinging from her branches, and eating her apples. However, as the boy grows older, he spends less time with the tree and tends to visit her only when he wants material items at various stages of his life. In an effort to make the boy happy at each of these stages, the tree gives him parts of herself, which he can transform into material items, such as money (from her apples), a house (from her branches), and a boat (from her trunk). With every stage of giving, "the Tree was happy".

In the final pages, both the tree and the boy feel the sting of their respective "giving" and "taking" nature. When only a stump remains for the tree, she is not happy, at least at that moment. The boy does return as a tired elderly man to meet the tree once more and states that all he wants is "a quiet place to sit and rest," which the tree could provide. With this final stage of giving, "the Tree was happy".


The title for the world's first crossword puzzle is disputed. Some such puzzles were included in The Stockton Bee (1793–1795), an ephemeral publication.[16] The phrase "cross word puzzle" was first written in 1862 by Our Young Folks in the United States. Crossword-like puzzles, for example Double Diamond Puzzles, appeared in the magazine St. Nicholas, published since 1873.[17] Another crossword puzzle appeared on September 14, 1890, in the Italian magazine Il Secolo Illustrato della Domenica. It was designed by Giuseppe Airoldi and titled "Per passare il tempo" ("To pass the time"). Airoldi's puzzle was a four-by-four grid with no shaded squares; it included horizontal and vertical clues.[18]


One of the smallest crosswords in general distribution is a 4×4 crossword compiled daily by John Wilmes, distributed online by USA Today as "QuickCross" and by Universal Uclick as "PlayFour".

Recreation of Arthur Wynne's original crossword puzzle from December 21, 1913.

Charles Handy developed a model that identifies four major organizational cultures.  He linked these four cultures, Power culture, Role culture, Task culture and Person culture, to four Greek gods, Power - Zeus, Role - Apollo, Task - Athena and finally Person – Dionysius.  Each organizational culture is distinct and each has its strengths and weaknesses.

The Pompeian Styles are four periods which are distinguished in ancient Roman mural painting. They were originally delineated and described by the German archaeologist August Mau, 1840 – 1909, from the excavation of wall paintings at Pompeii, which is one of the largest group of surviving examples of Roman frescoes.


Creating a grid system is basic to most archaeological sites. Surveying tools are used to create an accurate field, usually with one-meter or half-meter baulks left between the excavation rectangles. In this way levels are uncovered one at a time, with the baulks left until a new level is reached. 

Image from:

Another grid site is in Salonica (Thessaloniki) in northern Greece, the Roman Agora, which is in the middle of the modern city. (ivison slide)

At sea, Truman comes face-to-face with the limits of his known world. This episode of Truman’s life has the character of the crucifixion story. Truman must die to his former life in order to be born again in a new one. Like Jesus who cries out from the cross, “My God, why hast thou forsaken me?” Truman reels from the deathblow delivered by his own god, the creator of “The Truman Show,” Christof (Ed Harris), who tries to overturn Truman’s boat with a violent storm.

There is a lot of cruciform imagery in the Truman Show, including the halo cross behind his head from the door

In another scene Trumans shadow takes the form of Christ when he goes into the intersection and outstretches his arms.

Steno’s four laws of stratigraphy.

Steno's laws of stratigraphy describe the patterns in which rock layers are deposited. The four laws are the law of superposition, law of original horizontality, law of cross-cutting relationships, and law of lateral continuity. Nicolaus Steno was a 17th-century Danish geologist. 

There are three major oceans and a fourth different ocean- IT IS A THREE PLUS ONE PATTERN

Historically, there are four named oceans: the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Arctic. The Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian are known as the three major oceans

Some consider the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific to be the world's four oceans.

Although the ocean is one continuous body of water, oceanographers have divided it into four principal areas: the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic Oceans. The Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans merge into icy waters around Antarctica. Some oceanographers define this as a fifth ocean, most commonly called the Southern Ocean.

There are four major oceanic zones where plants and animals live in the ocean. The four major zones are intertidal zone, neritic zone, open ocean zone and benthic zone. These zones contain the largest ecosystem on Earth.

The four sections of most beaches.

  1. Swash zone: is alternately covered and exposed by wave run-up.

  2. Beach face: sloping section below berm that is exposed to the swash of the waves.

  3. Wrack line: the highest reach of the daily tide where organic and inorganic debris is deposited by wave action.

  4. Berm: Nearly horizontal portion that stays dry except during extremely high tides and storms. May have sand dunes.


A photo of a 35 mm film print featuring all four audio formats (or "quad track") — from left to right: SDDS (blue area to the left of the sprocket holes), Dolby Digital (grey area between the sprocket holes labelled with the Dolby "Double-D" logo in the middle), analog optical sound (the two white lines to the right of the sprocket holes), and the DTS time code (the dashed line to the far right).



The standard negative pulldown for movies ("single-frame" format) is four perforations per frame along both edges, which results in 16 frames per foot of film.[8] For still photography, the standard frame has eight perforations on each side.

Film 35 mm wide with four perforations per frame became accepted as the international standard gauge in 1909.

In the conventional motion picture format, frames are four perforations tall, with an aspect ratio of 1.375:1, 22 mm by 16 mm (0.866 in × 0.630 in).

The commonly used anamorphic format uses a similar four-perf frame, but an anamorphic lens is used on the camera and projector to produce a wider image, today with an aspect ratio of about 2.39:1 (more commonly referred to as 2.40:1).


The non-anamorphic widescreen ratios (most commonly 1.85:1) used in modern feature films makes inefficient use of the available image area on 35 mm film using the standard 4-perf pulldown; the height of a 1.85:1 frame occupying only 65% of the distance between the frames. It is clear, therefore, that a change to a 3-perf pulldown would allow for a 25% reduction in film consumption whilst still accommodating the full 1.85:1 frame. Ever since the introduction of these widescreen formats in the 1950s various film directors and cinematographers have argued in favour of the industry making such a change. The Canadian cinematographer Miklos Lente invented and patented a three-perforation pull down system which he called "Trilent 35" in 1975 though he was unable to persuade the industry to adopt it

The idea was later taken up by the Swedish film-maker Rune Ericson who was a strong advocate for the 3-perf system.[51] Ericson shot his 51st feature Pirates of the Lake in 1986 using two Panaflex cameras modified to 3-perf pulldown and suggested that the industry could change over completely over the course of ten-years. However the movie industry did not make the change mainly because it would have required the modification of the thousands of existing 35 mm projectors in movie theaters all over the world. Whilst it would have been possible to shoot in 3-perf and then convert to standard 4-perf for release prints the extra complications this would cause and the additional optical printing stage required made this an unattractive option at the time for most film makers.

The VistaVision motion picture format was created in 1954 by Paramount Pictures to create a finer-grained negative and print for flat widescreen films.[54] Similar to still photography, the format uses a camera running 35 mm film horizontally instead of vertically through the camera, with frames that are eight perforations long, resulting in a wider aspect ratio of 1.5:1 and greater detail, as more of the negative area is used per frame.[49] This format is unprojectable in standard theaters and requires an optical step to reduce the image into the standard 4-perf vertical 35 mm frame.[55]


BH perfs

Film perforations were originally round holes cut into the side of the film, but as these perforations were subject to wear and deformation, the shape was changed to what is now called the Bell & Howell (BH) perforation, which has straight top and bottom edges and outward curving sides. The BH perforation's dimensions are 0.110 inches (2.79 mm) from the middle of the side curve to opposite top corner by 0.073 inches (1.85 mm) in height.[58] The BH1866 perforation, or BH perforation with a pitch of 0.1866 inches (4.74 mm), is the modern standard for negative and internegative films.[59]

KS perfs

Because BH perfs have sharp corners, the repeated use of the film through intermittent movement projectors creates strain that can easily tear the perforations. Furthermore, they tended to shrink as the print slowly decayed. Therefore, larger perforations with a rectangular base and rounded corners were introduced by Kodak in 1924 to improve steadiness, registration, durability, and longevity. Known as "Kodak Standard" (KS), they are 0.0780 inches (1.981 mm) high by 0.1100 inches (2.794 mm) wide.[5] Their durability makes KS perfs the ideal choice for some (but not all) intermediate and all release prints, and original camera negatives which require special use, such as high-speed filming, but not for bluescreenfront projectionrear projection, or matte work as these specific applications demand the more accurate registration which is only possible with BH or DH perforations. The increased height also means that the image registration was considerably less accurate than BH perfs, which remains the standard for negatives.[2][60] The KS1870 perforation, or KS perforation with a pitch of 0.1870 inches (4.75 mm), is the modern standard for release prints.[59]

These two perforations have remained by far the most commonly used ones. BH perforations are also known as N(negative) and KS as P (positive). The Bell & Howell perf remains the standard for camera negative films because of its perforation dimensions in comparison to most printers, thus it can keep a steady image compared to other perforations.[59][61]

DH perfs

The Dubray-Howell (DH) perforation was first proposed in 1932[62][63] to replace the two perfs with a single hybrid. The proposed standard was, like KS, rectangular with rounded corners and a width of 0.1100 inches (2.79 mm), and, like BH, was 0.073 inches (1.85 mm) tall.[55][64] This gave it longer projection life but also improved registration. One of its primary applications was usage in Technicolor's dye imbibition printing (dye transfer).[61] The DH perf never had broad uptake, and Kodak's introduction of monopack Eastmancolor film in the 1950s reduced the demand for dye transfer,[60] although the DH perf persists in special application intermediate films to this day.[65]

CS perfs

In 1953, the introduction of CinemaScope by Fox Studios required the creation of a different shape of perforation which was nearly square and smaller to provide space for four magnetic sound stripes for stereophonic and surround sound.[17] These perfs are commonly referred to as CinemaScope (CS) or "Fox hole" perfs. Their dimensions are 0.0780 in (1.85 mm) in width by 0.0730" (1.98 mm) in height.[66] Due to the size difference, CS perfed film cannot be run through a projector with standard KS sprocket teeth, but KS prints can be run on sprockets with CS teeth. Shrunken film with KS prints that would normally be damaged in a projector with KS sprockets may sometimes be run far more gently through a projector with CS sprockets because of the smaller size of the teeth. Magnetic striped 35 mm film became obsolete in the 1980s after the advent of Dolby Stereo, as a result film with CS perfs is no longer manufactured.

During continuous contact printing, the raw stock and the negative are placed next to one another around the sprocket wheel of the printer. The negative, which is the closer of the two to the sprocket wheel (thus creating a slightly shorter path), must have a marginally shorter pitch between perforations (0.1866 in pitch); the raw stock has a long pitch (0.1870 in). While cellulose nitrate and cellulose diacetate stocks used to shrink during processing slightly enough to have this difference naturally occur, modern safety stocks do not shrink at the same rate, and therefore negative (and some intermediate) stocks are perforated at a pitch of 0.2% shorter than print stock.[58]


The relationship between alpacas and vicuñas was disputed for many years. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the four South American lamoid species were assigned scientific names. At that time, the alpaca was assumed to be descended from the llama, ignoring similarities in size, fleece and dentition between the alpaca and the vicuña. Classification was complicated by the fact that all four species of South American camelid can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.[17] The advent of DNA technology made a more accurate classification possible.

Lamini (members are called laminoids) is a tribe of the subfamily Camelinae. It contains two extant genera with four species, all exclusively from South Americallamasalpacasvicuñas, and guanacos. The former two are domesticated species, while the latter two are only found in the wild. All lack sexual dimorphism. The four species can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.[1] Additionally, there are two extinct genera known from the fossil record.


Ripley based his conclusions about race on his attempts to correlate anthropometric data with geographical data, especially using the cephalic index, which at the time was considered a reliable anthropometric measure. Based on these measurements and other socio-geographical data, Ripley classified Europeans into three distinct races:

The conflict between Ripley and Deniker was criticized by Jan Czekanowski, who states, that "the great discrepancies between their claims decrease the authority of anthropology", and what is more, he points out, that both Deniker and Ripley had one common feature, as they both omitted the existence of Armenoid race, which Czekanowski claimed to be one of the four main races of Europe, met especially among the Eastern and Southern Europeans.[7] Writing at a time when such racialist theories were widely accepted among academics, Ripley was the first American recipient of the Huxley Medal of the Royal Anthropological Institute in 1908 for his contributions to anthropology.


Many symbols having similar structures and messages to the original have been designed. For example, the Angolan flag shows a segment of a cog, crossed by a machete and crowned with a socialist star, while the flag of Mozambique features an AK-47 crossed by a hoe. In the logo of the Communist Party USA, a circle is formed by a half cog and a semicircular sickle-blade. A hammer is laid directly over the sickle's handle with the hammer's head at the logo's center. The logo of the Communist Party of Turkey consists of half a cog wheel crossed by a hammer, with a star on the top.


The Fourth International (FI) is the Communist international organisation consisting of followers of Leon Trotsky, or Trotskyists, with the declared goal of helping the working class bring about socialism and work toward international communism. The Fourth International was established in France in 1938: Trotsky and his supporters, having been expelled from the Soviet Union, considered the Comintern or Third International to have become "lost to" Stalinism and incapable of leading the international working class to political power.[1] Thus, Trotskyists founded their own, competing "Fourth International".

I recently heard that the Volkswagen logo when spun at high speed
becomes a swastika (almost like a hologram). Since the logo appears on all
the hubcaps (wheel coverings) I have tried a number of times with the help
of friends to see if this is true. The logo does seem to become a rotating
swastika at about 60 kmph (approx 25 mph.) Since our experiment was not
done scientifically, please can you follow this up.



Wilber was the first to divide his work into four main phases when he included retrospective commentary and endnotes in The Eye of Spirit (1997) 

Wilber also owns the rare achievement of having his collected works published while still alive. As such, Phases 1-4 have been more accurately analyzed to date. Wilber provides some insight into the “transcend yet include nature” of his metatheory.

The works of these [four] phases form a fairly coherent whole. It is not so much that one period was rejected and replaced by its successor, but that the works of each period remain, in my opinion, largely valid, and the succeeding works simply add new material, not erase old. Each phase was relatively true but partial, and had much of its partialness corrected by subsequent addition (or so I trust). Even the works of phase-1, if their occasional Romanticisms are removed, contribute useful foundation stones for this particular edifice.3 

  1. “Holons display four fundamental capacities: self-preservation, self-adaptation, self-

    transcendence, and self-dissolution.” SES, p. 48. 

“... The second inadequacy is that the level of mind itself needs to be subdivided in light of its early development. Here the contributions of Western psychology are decisive. To put it in a nutshell, the mind itself has at least four major stages of growth: magic (2-5 yrs), mythic (6-11 yrs), rational (11 onward), and integral-aperspectival or vision-logic (adulthood, if then).

Each holon can be seen from within (subjective, interior perspective) and from the outside (objective, exterior perspective), and from an individual or a collective perspective.[35]

Each of the four approaches has a valid perspective to offer. The subjective emotional pain of a person who suffers a tragedy is one perspective; the social statistics about such tragedies are different perspectives on the same matter. According to Wilber all are needed for real appreciation of a matter.

Wilber uses this grid to categorize the perspectives of various theories and scholars, for example:

  • Interior individual accounts (upper-left quadrant) include Freudian psychoanalysis, which interprets people's interior experiences and focuses on "I"

  • Interior plural accounts (lower-left) include Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics which seeks to interpret the collective consciousness of a society, or plurality of people and focuses on "We"

  • Exterior individual accounts (upper-right) include B. F. Skinner's behaviorism, which limits itself to the observation of the behavior of organisms and treats the internal experience, decision making or volition of the subject as a black box, and which with the fourth perspective emphasizes the subject as a specimen to examine, or "It".

  • Exterior plural accounts (lower-right) include Marxist economic theory which focuses upon the behavior of a society (i.e. a plurality of people) as functional entities seen from outside, e.g. "They".

According to Wilber, all four perspectives offer complementary, rather than contradictory, perspectives. It is possible for all to be correct, and all are necessary for a complete account of human existence. According to Wilber, each by itself offers only a partial view of reality.



But we also knew that equally important were the phenomenological traditions East and West (e.g., St. Teresa’s Interior Castle, Anu and Ati Yoga), as well as the recent studies like Daniel P. Brown’s on the commonality of certain deep features in meditative stages. And so typically what we did was simply take the highest stage in Western psychological models—which was usually somewhere around Spiral Dynamic’s GlobalView, or Loevinger’s integrated, or the centaur—and then take the 3 or 4 major stages of meditation (gross, subtle, causal, nondual—or initiation, purification, illumination, unification), and stack those stages on top of the other stages. Thus you would go from Loevinger’s integrated level (centaur) to psychic level to subtle level to causal level to nondual level. Bam bam bam bam. . . . East and West integrated!

The simplest categorization that Wilber uses contains four levels:

* Body (or gross realm; Buddhist Nirmanakaya)
* Mind (or subtle realm; Buddhist Sambhogakaya)
* Soul (or causal realm; Buddhist Jnanadharmakaya stage of the Dharmakaya)
* Spirit (or non-duality; Buddhist Svabhavikakaya stage of the Dharmakaya)

Another scheme describes the ethical developmental line:

* Egocentric (similar to Carol Gilligan's 'Selfish' stage)
* Ethnocentric (Gilligan's 'Care' stage)
* World-centric (Gilligan's 'Universal Care' stage)
* Integrated (Gilligan's 'Integrated' stage)


[According to Carol Gilligan] both men and women develop through three or four “hierarchical stages.” That is, women think relationally or nonhierarchically, but nonhierarchical thinking itself develops through four hierarchical stages. These four female hierarchical stages Gilligan called selfish, care, universal care, and integrated. Her point is that both men and women develop through those four hierarchical stages of moral reasoning, but each of them does so in a different voice: men develop through the moral hierarchy using a logic of rights and justice; women develop through the same moral hierarchy using a logic of care and relationship. Thus, at stage 1 (selfish or egocentric), men are selfish in agentic ways, women are selfish in communal ways (using social ostracism to punish others). At stage 2 (care or ethnocentric), men extend rights to those of their group, tribe, or nation—but demonize those in other ethnic groups—and women extend love and care to their own group or tribe, but gladly offer up sons to the battlefield to slay the enemy. At stage 3 (universal care or worldcentric), the masculine principle extends rights and justice to all human beings, regardless of race, color, sex, or creed; and the feminine principle extends care and compassion to all humans. Of course, actual men and women are a mixture of masculine and feminine modes, with individuals containing various combinations of both. At stage 4 (integrated), the masculine and feminine principles in each person can be integrated in that person, according to Gilligan, resulting in a union of the contrasexual attitudes in each. In each stage of a developmental hierarchy, the succeeding stage is indeed part of a “higher-archy,” because each succeeding stage has more love, more compassion, more care, more justice, more consciousness, more rights, and so on. Far from being a bad thing, nested hierarchies are the means of reducing prejudice, reducing oppression, reducing “isms” of one sort or another (racism, sexism, speciesism, etc.). The higher one is in a growth higher-archy, the more care and the less oppression one is inclined to possess.

~ Wilber, Ken (2011-08-04). A Sociable God: Toward a New Understanding of Religion (pp. 7-8). Shambhala Publications.

States of consciousness include: waking, dreaming, dreamless sleep, and nondual. (In the mystical traditions of which Wilber is a part, these four states correspond to four realms: gross, subtle, causal, and nondual.) Thus it is theoretically possible for someone at a low cognitive level—a newborn, for instance—to attain an advanced mystical state.

The simplest categorization that Wilber uses contains four levels:

  • Body (or gross realm; Buddhist Nirmanakaya)

  • Mind (or subtle realm; Buddhist Sambhogakaya)

  • Soul (or causal realm; Buddhist Jnanadharmakaya stage of the Dharmakaya)

  • Spirit (or non-duality; Buddhist Svabhavikakaya stage of the Dharmakaya)

Another scheme describes the ethical developmental line:

  • Egocentric (similar to Carol Gilligan’s ‘Selfish’ stage)

  • Ethnocentric or Sociocentric (Gilligan’s ‘Care’ stage)

  • World-centric (Gilligan’s ‘Universal Care’ stage)

  • Being-centric (Gilligan’s ‘Integrated’ stage)

Within each broad stage, there are sub-levels (for example, these are along the cognitive developmental line):

  • Gross realm

    • Instinctual

    • Tribal (Piaget’s Sensorimotor stage)

    • Egoic (Piaget’s Pre-operational)

    • Mythic (or Mythic-Membership morality) (Piaget’s Concrete Operational)

    • Rational (Piaget’s Formal Operational)

    • Pluralistic (early vision-logic)

  • Subtle realm

    • Integral (middle vision-logic)

    • Holistic (late vision-logic)

    • Psychic (from Grk. psyche, "soul")

  • Causal realm (that which causes, or gives rise to, manifest existence)

  • Nondual



The basic content and audience of the three turnings of the wheel can be summarized as follows:

First Turning[edit]

The first turning is traditionally said to have taken place at Deer Park in Sarnath near Varanasi in northern India, to an audience of shravakas. It consisted of the teaching of the Four Noble Truths (Sanskrit: catvāry āryasatyāni[1]) and the other elements of the Tripitaka – the AbhidharmaSutrapitaka and Vinaya. The Abhidharma referred to is the Abhidharma Pitaka of the Sarvastivada school, which is a later composition not taught by the Buddha, and contains philosophy which is antithetical, one may say, to the early teachings.[2]

Second Turning[edit]

The second turning is said to have taken place at Vulture Peak Mountain in Rajagriha, in Bihar, India. The audience comprised bodhisattvas; in some telling there were also shravaka arhats there as well, who promptly had heart attacks and died from the shock of the new teachings. In the second turning, the emphasis is on emptiness (Skt: śūnyatā) as epitomized in the Prajnaparamita sutras, and on compassion (Skt: karuṇā). These two elements form bodhicitta, the epitome of the second turning. The Madhyamika school that Nagarjuna founded arose from his exegesis of the early texts and is included under the second turning. Nagarjuna attacked the metaphysics of the Sarvastivada school and a school which broke away from it called Sautrantika, and promoted, among other things, the classical emphasis on the dependent arising of phenomena of the early texts.[3]

Third Turning[edit]

The third turning was also delivered to an audience of bodhisattvas in Shravasti and other Indian locations (e.g. in Kusinagara, to Bodhisattvas and onlooking Buddhas, in the Mahaparinirvana Sutra) – or even in transcendental Buddhic realms (in the Avatamsaka Sutra). The focal point of the third turning is Buddha natureand particularly the Tathāgatagarbha doctrine. This was elaborated on in great detail by Maitreya via Asanga in the Five Treatises of Maitreya, which are also generally grouped under the third turning. The Yogachara school reoriented later refinements, in all their complexity, so as to accord with the doctrines of earliest Buddhism.[4]

Fourth Turning[edit]

The Huayen school of Chinese Buddhism considered the Tathāgatagarbha doctrine a fourth turning, with the third turning comprising only the Yogachara school.[5]In addition, Vajrayana schools sometimes refer to tantra as the "fourth turning."

Wilber (1986a) goes beyond the existential realm to describe four stages of transpersonal contemplative development integrated from Western and Eastern sources of contemplative development. The first stage beyond the mind-body integration of the existential level and the seventh overall is the psychic. This stage is epitomized by the opening of the ‘‘third eye’’ and symbolizes the level of the ‘‘yogis’’ (Wilber, 1986c). In this phase, one sees a switch in a person’s cognitive and perceptual capacities, which used to be narrowly personal and individ- ual, to a more pluralistic and universal perspective. For a recovering person, there are many potential pitfalls at this stage of preliminary psycho-spiritual development such as psychic inflation and ‘‘the dark night of the soul.’’ 


7. Psychic 8. Subtle 9. Causal

10. Non-dual

Schumacher put forward what he considers to be the four great truths of philosophical map making:

  • The world is a hierarchical structure with at least four 'levels of being'.

  • The 'Principle of Adequateness' determines human ability to accurately perceive the world.

  • Human learning relates to four 'fields of knowledge'.

  • The art of living requires an understanding of two types of problem: 'convergent' and 'divergent'.

He agrees with the view that there are four kingdoms: Mineral, Plant, Animal, Human. He argues that there are critical differences of kind between each level of being. Between mineral and plant is the phenomenon of life. Schumacher says that although scientists say we should not use the phrase 'life energy', the difference still exists and has not been explained by science[clarification needed]. Schumacher points out that though we can recognize life and destroy it, we can't create it. Schumacher notes that the 'life sciences' are 'extraordinary' because they hardly ever deal with life as such, and instead content themselves with analyzing the "physico-chemical body which is life's carrier." Schumacher goes on to say there is nothing in physics or chemistry to explain the phenomenon of life.

Schumacher identifies four fields of knowledge for the individual:

  1. I → inner

  2. I → other persons (inner)

  3. other persons → I

  4. I → the world

These four fields arise from combining two pairs: Myself and the World; and Outer Appearance and Inner Experience. He notes that humans only have direct access to fields one and four.


Electronic amplifiers use one variable presented as either a current and voltage. Either current or voltage can be used as input and either as output, leading to four types of amplifiers.[4] In idealized form they are represented by each of the four types of dependent source used in linear analysis, as shown in the figure, namely:

Dependent sources can be classified as follows:

  • Voltage-controlled voltage source: The source delivers the voltage as per the voltage of the dependent element. V=fa(vx)

  • Voltage-controlled current source: The source delivers the current as per the voltage of the dependent element. I=fb(vx)

  • Current-controlled current source: The source delivers the current as per the current of the dependent element. I=fc(ix)

  • Current-controlled voltage source: The source delivers the voltage as per the current of the dependent element. V=fd(ix)


Kant thought that certain of his Antinomies (God and Freedom) could be resolved as "Postulates of Practical Reason". He used them to describe the equally rational-but-contradictory results of applying the universe of pure thought to the categories or criteria, i.e. applying reason proper to the universe of sensible perception or experience (phenomena). Empirical reason cannot here play the role of establishing rational truths because it goes beyond possible experience and is applied to the sphere of that which transcends it.

These antinomies are four: two "mathematical" and two "dynamical". They are connected with (1) the limitation of the universe in respect of space and time, (2) the theory that the whole consists of indivisible atoms (whereas, in fact, none such exist), (3) the problem of free will in relation to universal causality, and (4) the existence of a necessary. being

The first antinomy

  • Thesis:

    • The world has a beginning in time, and is also limited as regards space.

  • Anti-thesis:

    • The world has no beginning, and no limits in space; it is infinite as regards both time and


    • Thesis:

    • Every composite substance in the world is made up of simple parts, and nothing anywhere exists save the simple or what is composed of the simple.

  • Anti-thesis:

    • No composite thing in the world is made up of simple parts, and there nowhere exists in the world anything simple.


    • Causality in accordance with laws of nature is not the only causality from which the appearances of the world can one and all be derived. To explain these appearances it is necessary to assume that there is also another causality, that of Spontaneity.

  • Anti-thesis:

    • There is no Spontaneity; everything in the world takes place solely in accordance with laws of nature.


    • Thesis:

    • There belongs to the world, either as its part or as its cause, a being that is absolutely necessary.

  • Anti-thesis:

    • An absolutely necessary being nowhere exists in the world, nor does it exist outside the world as its cause.

Geoff Goddu ( offers this version:

4th Antinomy: Thesis: A necessary being is either part of or cause of the world.

Proof: 1. The sensible world contains a series of alterations. 2. Every alteration requires a condition without which that alteration would not be possible. 3. Every condition presupposes a complete series of conditions up to the unconditioned which is itself, absolutely necessary. 4. A necessary being is part or cause of the world.

4th Antinomy: Antithesis: A necessary being is not (a) part of the world or (b) cause of the world.

Proof (a): 1. If a necessary being is part of the world, then either the beginning of the series of alterations is absolutely necessary or the series has no beginning and the whole series is absolutely necessary. 2. The series of alterations can have no beginning. 3. The whole series of alterations cannot be absolutely necessary. 4. A necessary being is not part of the world.

Proof (b): 1. If a necessary being is cause of the world then it exists outside the world. 2. If a necessary being is a cause of the world, then it is in time and so not outside the world. 3. A necessary being is not cause of the world.


The episodes featured game play based on the previous rule set of the syndicated version (including the rule changes implemented in season seven) but used the Fastest Finger round to select contestants. Various celebrities also made special guest appearances at the end of every episode; each guest played one question for a chance at $50,000 for a charity of their choice, being allowed to use any one of the four lifelines in place at the time (Phone-a-Friend, Ask the Audience, Double Dip, and Ask the Expert), but still earned a minimum of $25,000 for the charity if they answered the question incorrectly.

At its core, the game is a quiz competition in which the goal is to correctly answer a series of fourteen (originally fifteen) consecutive multiple-choice questions. The questions are of increasing difficulty,[3] except in the 2010–15 format overhaul, where the contestants were faced with a round of ten questions of random difficulty, followed by a round of four questions of increasing difficulty.

On the ABC versions, ten contestants competed in a preliminary "Fastest Finger" round for the right to play the main game on each episode.[6] The contestants were presented with a question and a list of four answers which needed to be put in a specific order. Using keys on their podiums, each of the contestants attempted to enter the correct order in the shortest amount of time, with a maximum time limit of 20 seconds. If the main game ended and there was still time available for another game, the remaining contestants played another Fastest Finger round for a chance to play the main game. In the event of a tie between two or more contestants, those contestants played an additional Fastest Finger question to break the tie. If all contestants answered the question incorrectly, the round was repeated with another question.[7] Fastest Finger was eliminated from the gameplay when the syndicated version premiered in 2002.[8]

The show's original three lifelines were "50:50", in which the computer eliminates two of the incorrect answers; "Phone-a-Friend", which allowed the contestant to make a 30-second call to one of a number of friends (who provided their phone numbers in advance) and read them the question and answer choices, after which the friend provided input; and "Ask the Audience", in which audience members use touch pads to designate what they believe the correct answer to be, after which the percentage of the audience choosing each specific option is displayed to the contestant. 50:50 was eliminated at the end of the show's sixth syndicated season, only to be restored in season fourteen. Phone-a-Friend was removed on the episode aired January 11, 2010, after it was determined that there was an increasing trend of contestants' friends using search engines and other Internet resources, unfairly privileging individuals who had computer access over those who did not, and that it was contrary to the original intent of the lifeline where friends were supposed to provide assistance based on what they already knew.[14] From 2004 to 2008, there was a fourth lifeline called "Switch the Question",[9] earned upon answering question ten, in which the computer replaced, at the contestant's request, one question with another of the same monetary value; however, any lifelines used on the original question were not reinstated for the new question. Switch the Question returned as "Cut the Question" on a special week of shows with child contestants aired in 2014.




The following table summarizes each of Chomsky's four types of grammars, the class of language it generates, the type of automaton that recognizes it, and the form its rules must have.

Set inclusions described by the Chomsky hierarchy

The Four Level Interchange (officially the Bill Keene Memorial Interchange) was the first stack interchange in the world.[1] Completed in 1949 and fully opened in 1953 at the northern edge of Downtown Los Angeles, California, United States, it connects U.S. Route 101 (Hollywood Freeway and Santa Ana Freeway) to State Route 110 (Harbor Freeway and Arroyo Seco Parkway). The interchange is officially named in the memory of Los Angeles traffic and weather reporter Bill Keene.

Jung believes symbols from different cultures are often very similar because they have emerged from archetypes shared by the whole human race. For Jung, our primitive past becomes the basis of the human psyche, directing and influencing present behavior. Jung claimed to identify a large number of archetypes but paid special attention to four. 

The “persona” (or mask) is the outward face we present to the world. It conceals our real self and Jung describes it as the “conformity” archetype. This is the public face or role a person presents to others as someone different to who we really are (like an actor).

Another archetype is the anima/animus. The “anima/animus” is the mirror image of our biological sex, that is, the unconscious feminine side in males and the masculine tendencies in women. Each sex manifests attitudes and behavior of the other by virtue of centuries of living together. The psyche of a woman contains masculine aspects (the animus archetype) and the psyche of a man contains feminine aspects (the anima archetype).

Next is the shadow. This is the animal side of our personality (like the id in Freud). It is the source of both our creative and destructive energies. In line with evolutionary theory it may be that Jung’s archetypes reflect predispositions that once had survival value. 

Finally there is the self which provides a sense of unity in experience. For Jung the ultimate aim of every individual is to achieve a state of selfhood (similar to self-actualisation) and in this respect Jung (like Erikson) is moving in the direction of a more humanist orientation.

Though John Beebe has not published a type table, the format that Isabel Myers devised can also be applied to his theory. Beebe describes the different cognitive functions' role in the overall personality in terms of various mythic archetypes. Just as in Myers's table, personality types whose primary four functions are completely opposite are separated by one block along diagonals. The same does not apply to the four "shadow" functions, however.


Jung considers the Book of Job a landmark development in the "divine drama", for the first time contemplating criticism of God (Gotteskritik). Jung described Answer to Job as "pure poison", referring to the controversial nature of the book (Storr, 1973). He did, however, feel an urge to write the book. The basic thesis of the book is that as well as having a good side, God also has a fourth side - the evil face of God. This view is inevitably controversial, but Jung claimed it is backed up by references to the Hebrew Bible. Jung saw this evil side of God as the missing fourth element of the Trinity, which he believed should be supplanted by a Quaternity. However, he also discusses in the book whether the true missing fourth element is the feminine side of God. Indeed, he saw the dogmatic definition of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary by Pope Pius XII in 1950 as being the most significant religious event since the Reformation. Another theme in the book is the inversion of the myth that God sent his son Christ to die for the sins of humanity. Jung maintains that upon realizing his mistreatment of Job, God sends his son to humankind to be sacrificed in repentance for God's sins. Jung sees this as a sign of God's ongoing psychological development.


The layout of Linda Berens's type table is unique and her terminology differs from that of Beebe; however, the ordering of cognitive processes in her and Beebe's models are the same.


Muladhara (Sanskrit: मूलाधार, IAST: Mūlādhāra, English: "root support") or the root chakra is one of the seven primary chakras according to Hindu tantrism. It is symbolized by a lotus with four petals and the colour red.

It is symbolized by a red, four-petaled lotus with a yellow square at its center. Each petal has one of the Sanskrit syllables वं vaṃ, शं śaṃ, षं ṣaṃ, and सं saṃ written on it in gold, representing the four vrittis: greatest joy, natural pleasure, delight in controlling passion, and blissfulness in concentration. Alternatively, they may represent dharma (psycho-spiritual longing), artha (psychic longing), kama (physical longing) and moksha (longing for spiritual liberation).[3] Eight spears point out of the sides and corners of the square.

The deity Indra is associated with Muladhara. In these depictions, he is yellow, four-armed, and holds a vajra and a blue lotus in his hands.[clarification needed] He is mounted upon the white elephant Airavata, who has seven trunks denoting the seven elements necessary for supporting life. Occasionally, Ganesha is also associated with Muladhara. In these depictions, he has orange skin, wears a yellow dhoti, and a green silk scarf draped around his shoulders. In three hands he holds a laddu, a lotus flower, and a hatchet, and the fourth is raised in the mudra of dispelling fear.

The seed mantra syllable is लं laṃ.[4] Within the bindu, the point that forms a part of the letter, is Brahma. He is deep red, with four faces and four arms, holding a staff, a sacred vase of nectar, and a japa mala, and making the gesture of dispelling fear. Alternatively, instead of the staff and japa mala, he may hold a lotus flower and the sacred scriptures. He is seated on a swan. The goddess Dakini, his shakti, is depicted with him. She is beautiful, with three eyes and four arms. Dakini is usually depicted with red or white skin, holding a trident, a skulled staff, a swan, and a drinking vessel, and is seated on a swan. At times, instead of a swan and drinking vessel, she holds a sword and a shield.

The Muladhara chakra has four petals bearing the Sanskrit letters va, scha, sha and sa. The center letter is lam. The tattwa of Earth is represented by a yellow square.


Kala Ermou Tetras and Tetradistai


Today (September 28), the sundown will bring the fourth day of the month of Pyanepsion


On the fourth day of every month we celebrate the Ermou Tetras and Tetradistai.


The Ermou Tetras celebrates the birth of Hermes and his four gifts: Logos (speech), Agon (Contest), the musical scale and geometry


The Tetradistai is also a birthday celebration. It celebrates the birth of Aphrodite, in her epithet as Pandemos (Common to All People), and the birth of Eros.


Herakles is also said to have been born on a fourth day.


Also the fourth day of every month is sacred to the gods Apollon and Hermaphroditos

"On the fourth day of the month queenly Maia bare him (Hermes)."

~excerpt from the Homeric Hymn 4 to Hermes


"...Menander, in his Flatterer, makes the cook on duty at the fourth-day club-feast (Tetradistai) or the day of Aphrodite Pandemos, speaks as follow: 'Libation! Round with the tripe! Mind what you do. Come Sosias, boy, libation! Good for you! And now pour out. To all above we will pray both Gods and Goddesses, and may Life, Health, and many a blessing come of this, and those we've got Heaven grant we never miss!" ~ Athenaios 14. 659Dd


"...the fourth, and the seventh -- on which Leto bare Apollo with the blade of gold - each is a holy day"

~ excerpt from Hesiod, Works and Days


"On the fourth and seventh days of each month, he directs mulled wine to be prepared, and going himself to purchase myrtle-wreaths, frankincense and convolvuluses; he returns to spend the day worshiping the statue of Hermaphroditus."

~ excerpt from Theophrastus, Characters

The Christ figure in Napoleon Dynamite is Uncle Rico. He wears a cross/quadrant on his neck.

I have never seen this interpretation before but I think that Grant Wood's painting American Gothic may be a modern day religious painting under secular symbols. As I said, there is continuity in artwork where modern painters like Van Goh would exchange crosses for other symbols like fences. I think American Gothic the three cruciform windows could represent the crucifixion. Moreover the man holds a pitchfork. The pitchfork is a trident/like Shiva's trident which I already discussed is a cross


The 19th century Anglican scholar George Stanley Faber claimed that Pope Innocent III declared this to be a heresy and maintained that four nails were used and Jesus was pierced on the right side. This was repeated in historical works such as Sofia Bompiani's A Short History of the Italian Waldenses.[2] Faber's book does not quote any primary source, and does not give the name or date of the document of Innocent III. Other scholarly treatments of the subject, such as Herbert Thurston's article in the 1914 Catholic Encyclopedia, make no mention of any such document.


Triclavian depiction of the crucifixion of Jesus

George Stanley Faber's account of the history in his 1838 work An Inquiry into the History and Theology of the Ancient Vallenses and Albigenses: As Exhibiting, Agreeably to the Promises, The Perpetuity of the Sincere Church of Christ is as follows:

I am not without some suspicion, that the circumstance of the Noble Lesson mentioning the five wounds of Christ, while it is silent as to the number of nails employed, affords another incidental testimony to the correctness of its date.

Lucas of Tuy, in the thirteenth century, is very large on this subject. He tells us, that the world had turned to many false opinions: and he specially enumerates, the alleged Docetism of the Albigenses which denied that Christ had truly suffered in the flesh, and the unsound tenet unauthoritatively advanced by other sectaries that three nails only were used in the crucifixion and that the left side (not the right side) of our Lord was pierced by the spear.

This last opinion was advocated from about the latter end of the eleventh century: but Pope Innocent III finally and infallibly determined, that four nails were used, and that the Roman soldier pierced the right side of Christ; a decision, which of course stamped the brand of heresy upon Triclavianism.

The judgment of the Pope was confirmed by a miracle: and, as a decisive proof that four nails were used and that the right side was pierced, Lucas of Tuy brings forward the remarkable case of St. Francis Assissi, upon whose body were preternaturally impressed the five wounds of our Savior, in such a manner, that the semblance of the heads of four nails appeared in the inside of the two hands and on the outside of the two feet, while there was so real a wound on the right side that it often emitted blood.

Now this saint was the founder of one of the two Orders which were started by Innocent III against the Humiliated and the Poor Men of Lyons: and as a part of the project, he contrived, we see, to mark himself in such a manner, as to bear a sort of practical testimony against the old triclavian heresy of those whom he was appointed specially to oppose. All parties acknowledged five wounds: but the semblance of four rusty nail-heads on the hands and feet of Francis were, of course, proof positive, that four of the wounds were inflicted by four nails and not by three.

Such an argument would not have been used against those whom Francis was appointed to oppose, unless they had believed that three nails were employed: and, accordingly more than a century earlier, the author of the Noble Lesson, whom I suppose to have been a Triclavian, mentions the five wounds; but, probably in order to avoid giving needless offence is silent as to the number of the nails, and specifies not whether the right side, or the left side was pierced.


As usual, when people “run to the Greek,” they run into problems. They point out that “malefactor” in the “original Greek” is kakourgos while “thief” is lestes. Then, they argue that this change in nouns must indicate two individuals who were malefactors and two other individuals who were thieves. These four people—not two—were crucified with Jesus Christ. Consequently, it is said that there were five crosses on Calvary’s mount (instead of the traditional three). Is this a sound conclusion? (No!)

The “four-crucified-with-Christ” belief simply does not add up when closely scrutinized. That supposition greatly damages simple passages. Permit us to demonstrate. Let us handle the “Barabbas” verses in the same manner the “four-crucified-with-Christ” adherents use the verses about “malefactors” and “thieves.” We read the following about Barabbas: a “notable prisoner” (Matthew 27:16), “made insurrection and committed murder in the insurrection,” (Mark 15:7), cast into prison for “a certain sedition made in the city, and for murder” (Luke 23:18), and a “robber” (John 18:40).

Handling these verses in the same manner the “four-crucified-with-Christ” people use the “malefactors” and “thieves” verses, we ask, were there four Barabbases instead of the traditional one? Was there oneBarabbas guilty of “insurrection and murder?” Was there another Barabbas known as a “notable prisoner?” Was there yet another Barabbas in the prison, a “robber?” Was there a fourth Barabbas held prisoner, one who was a seditionist and murderer? See, it gets sillier and sillier when we carry the concept all the way throughout the Bible. Here is the simple truth. There was one Barabbas freed when Jesus was condemned. Barabbas, one man, fit all four descriptions. There were no four criminals crucified with Christ any more than there were four Barabbases who were released when Jesus was condemned. In the case of the thieves and malefactors, there were two people—two malefactors who were also thieves.

One more example of how the “four-crucified-with-Christ” mindset is dangerous. What did the sign above Jesus’ head read on the cross?

  • Was it, “THIS IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS” (Matthew 27:37)?

  • Or, was it, “THE KING OF THE JEWS” (Mark 15:26)?

  • Maybe it was, “THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS” (Luke 23:38)?

  • Or was it, “JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS” (John 19:19)?

Perhaps there were four signs on Jesus’ cross, one bearing each different phrase? Of course not! Again, beloved, we need not complicate Scriptures. People are confused enough about them. There was only onesign above Jesus’ head, and it read in full “THIS IS JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS.” We just combine all four accounts. Each writer is viewing Jesus’ life from a different perspective, but remember it is the same life! All four Gospel records complement one another in that they read differently. Their testimony is more reliable when they do not read word-perfect. Exact phraseology throughout would likely indicate collaboration (and the critics would love that so they could discredit it!).


The Epitaph on the Cross of Yeshua

By Chuck Missler (From his Book "The Creator Beyond Time and Space")

Throughout the Tanach-our Old Testament-there are many fascinating acrostics and other textual peculiarities that will fascinate the diligent scholar. In the New Testament there also appears to be a Hebrew acrostic that generally goes unnoticed.

Meaning of the word Acrostic: A composition in verse , in which the first, and sometimes last, letters of the line read in order form a name, a sentence, or title.

When Jesus was crucified, Pilate wrote the sign that was nailed to the cross. The particular wording he chose displeased the Jewish leadership and they asked him to change it. He refused. There are some interesting aspects to this incident that are not apparent in our English translations.

" And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was, 'Jesus Of Nazareth The King Of The Jews.' This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin. Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, 'Write not, The King of the Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews.' Pilate answered. 'What I have written I have written.'" 

John 19:19-22 (KJV)

Pilate refused to revise the epitaph he had composed. This may have more significance than is apparent in our English translations. The Hebrew epitaph is shown below (remember Hebrew is read from right to left):

Ha Yehudi m   vMelech   HaNazarei   Yeshua


    H     W     H     Y

Yeshua HaNazarei v Melech HaYehudim: Jesus the Nazarei and King of the Jews.

What we don't notice in the English translation is that the acrostic made up of the first letter of each word spells out Yahweh (YHWH)! 


"The precise meaning," writes Herbert F. Stevenson, "of the name is obscure. In the Hebrew, It was originally composed of four consonants YHWH - known to theologians as 'the tetragrammaton' - to which the vowels of Adonai were afterwards added (except when the name is joined to Adonai: then the vowels of Elohim are used). The Jews came to regard this name as too sacred to pronounce, however, and in the public reading of Scriptures they substituted Adonai for it - Jehovah was indeed to them 'the incommunicable name.'"


If Pilate had rewritten it in the manner they had requested him to, it would not have spelled out the Name of God. Did Pilate realize this? Was it deliberate? Did he do it just to upset the Jewish leadership, which he realized delivered Him up for Envy? (Matthew 27:18). Or was he beginning to suspect that there was more going on here than he previously realized?

When they requested a special guard for the tomb, he also responded with a enigmatic remark, "Make it as sure as you can." (Matthew 27:63-66). What did he mean by that/ Did he begin to suspect that Jesus really was who said He was? Was Pilate really surprised when Jesus was resurrected after three days? One wonders.

There are many other examples of acrotics in the Biblical text. For example, in the book of Esther the name of God does not appear in the text outright. However, it is found hidden as an acrostic in numerous places throughout the text of Esther. This should not be a surprise because the name Esther means "something hidden!"


The first five books of the Bible (the books of Moses) are known as the Torah. In Hebrew the work Torah is represented by the consonants . Hebrew is read right from left, so the letters  are equivalent to the English letters "TORH."

In the Hebrew text of the book of Genesis, if you take the first ("T"), then count 49 letters, the next letter (the 50th) is ("O"); the next 50th is ("R"); and then the next 50th is ("H"). In other words, after the first "T", in 50 letter increments, we find the letters spelling "Torah." (Figure 1)

 TORAH in Genesis 
(Hebrew is read from right to left) 
   Interval of 50 
Figure 1. 

In the book of Exodus, we encounter the same result. What a coincidence! (Jewish rabbis insist that "coincidence" is not a kosher word!)

However, it doesn't seem to work with the third book of Moses, Leviticus. But stay tuned.

In the fourth book of the Torah, the book of Numbers, we discover this 49 letter interval works with "HROT," that is, TORH backwards. (See Figure 2)

A similar 49 letter interval also appears in the fifth book the Torah, the book of Deuteronomy. However, in the book of Deuteronomy the interval starts in the fifth verse instead of the first. Why the fifth verse? According to the Talmud the book of Deuteronomy doesn't begin until the fifth verse where it states "On the other side of the Jordan, in the land of Moab, Moses undertook to expound the Torah..."1 
 Backwards TORAH in Numbers 
   Interval of -50 
Figure 2. 

In the middle book, the book of Leviticus, it doesn't seem to work either way. But it does work for YHWH, the sacred name of God ("Yahweh" or "Jehovah," translated "LORD" in the King James Version), if you count in seven letter increments. (See Figure 3.) 
Yahweh in Leviticus
Interval of Seven 
Figure 3. 
It appears that the Torah (TORH) always points toward the Name of God. 

Here is the overview: 
Genesis  Exodus  Leviticus  Numbers  Deuteronomy 

This may just be another hint that there is much more hidden in the structure of the text itself than we have ever dreamed. Clearly, there is much more to this than first meets the eye of the casual observer.


Acrostics on 'YHW and H'

1) The Hebrew name for God which is usually translated as "LORD" and which is frequently transliterated as "Yahweh" consists of 4 letters in Hebrew. They are:

- Y (YOD or JOD)

- H (HE)

- W (VAU or VAV or WAU)

- H (HE)

2) When these 4 letters are used in 4 consecutive words (either as always the first letter or as always the last letter of each of those 4 consecutive words), they form an "acrostic", a poetic or literary way of sometimes conveying an added message, which may be superficially hidden from view.

An acrostic is a composition in which sets of letters (i.e. either the first or the last letters of a sequence of words) taken in order form a word or phrase or a regular sequence of letters of the alphabet. There are other acrostics in the Old Testament as well, such as on the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Acrostics in the Bible are not at all limited to the name "YHWH".

3) This name of God may in an acrostic be spelled forwards (i.e. YHWH) or backwards (i.e. HWHY). If in a forward sequence the 5th word starts with a "Y" (i.e. YOD) then the sequence runs as YHWHY, and this embodies a forward and a backward acrostic at the same time.

4) Acrostics on the name of God have received attention because of the Book of Esther, in which none of the names of God are used directly. This book, in which God is not mentioned directly, does however contain 4 acrostics on YHWH. In 2 of these it is the first letter of a 4-word sequence (once spelled forwards and once backwards) and in the other 2 it is the last letter of each word of a 4-word sequence (also once spelled forwards and once backwards). When it is spelled forwards the speaker is an Israelite; and when it is spelled backwards the speaker is a non-Israelite. In the Book of Esther these acrostics have some interesting features, and they certainly appear to have been carefully planned into the context of that book.

This information regarding these acrostics in the Book of Esther is readily available in greater detail in Bullinger's COMPANION BIBLE, in Appendix #60.

5) To look at how common or how rare such acrostics on the name YHWH are in the rest of the Old Testament, I have done some computer searches through the Hebrew Old Testament. I have limited my search to acrostics on the name YHWH found in the FIRST letters of 4 consecutive words, as searches on the last letters of 4 consecutive words are far too complex and involved for my computer to cope with. However, there also ARE some acrostics on the last letters of 4 consecutive words in the Old Testament, and 2 of them are in the Book of Esther, but we'll ignore them for this article.

So limiting ourselves to acrostics on the name YHWH found in the FIRST letters of four consecutive words, we find the following:

A) There are 24 verses in the Hebrew Old Testament which contain the acrostic spelled forwards (i.e. spelled YHWH).

These 24 verses are:



NUMBERS 13:32 


2 SAMUEL 18:4

1 KINGS 7:12

1 KINGS 8:42 

1 KINGS 18:37

2 KINGS 10:1













PSALM 96:11

ISAIAH 45:18


B) There are also 34 verses in the Hebrew Old Testament which contain the acrostic spelled backwards (i.e. spelled HWHY).

These 34 verses are:












JOSHUA 11:16

JOSHUA 18:28

JOSHUA 24:18

RUTH 1:21 

2 SAMUEL 18:4

1 KINGS 18:3

2 KINGS 7:2




PSALM 18:7 

PSALM 96:11 



ISAIAH 30:26

ISAIAH 35:2 

ISAIAH 45:20







Of interest here is that this backwardly spelled acrostic "HWHY" is actually contained TWICE in Numbers 1:51, giving us 35 acrostics in 34 verses.

C) You will also notice that 3 Scriptures appear in both of the above lists. This is because those 3 Scriptures have a 5 WORD SEQUENCE, with the first letters of those 5 words spelling "YHWHY". This means that each of these 3 verses contains TWO acrostics, the forward spelling of this name (i.e. YHWH) and also the backward spelling of this name (i.e. HWHY). 

Those 3 Scriptures are: 2 Samuel 18:4; Psalm 96:11 and Ezekiel 46:1.

6) While in the absence of any direct references to God in the Book of Esther the acrostics on the name YHWH in that book are rather interesting, and appear to be obviously planned, I am not aware of any specific significance in general being attached to this Hebrew literary form known as "acrostics". It is basically just a form of poetry.

With the help of computers it is today fairly easy for us to establish that there are a considerable number of occurrences of this literary device in the Hebrew Scriptures. [I have not found any corresponding sequence in the Greek text of the New Testament, where the starting letters of 4 consecutive words would spell "theos". But then acrostics were never a feature of biblical Greek.]

While I myself do not attach any particular significance to the above lists of acrostics, they may provide material for those who wish to take this subject further in their own personal studies.

Frank W. Nelte

This said, the name YHWH appears in acrostic form four times in the book of Esther; two forward and two reversed. All four acrostics appear in four consecutive words:

Esther 1:20 Then when the kings edict is proclaimed throughout all his vast realm, all the women will respect their husbands, from the least to the greatest.

Reversed Name by Memucan, a Gentile: 
WnT=y] <yv!N`h^-lk*w+ ayh! ; 

Esther 5:4 If it pleases the king, replied Esther, let the king, together with Haman, come today to a banquet I have prepared for him.

Forward Name by Esther, a Jew: 
oYh^ /m*h*w+ El#m#h^ aoby`

Esther 5:13 But all this gives me no satisfaction as long as I see that Jew Mordecai sitting at the kings gate.

Reversed Name by Haman, a Gentile: 
yl! ho#V WNnya^ hz#

Esther 7:7 The king got up in a rage, left his wine and went out into the palace garden. But Haman, realizing that the king had already decided his fate, stayed behind to beg Queen Esther for his life.

Forward Name by the author, a Jew: 
hu*r`h* wyl*a@ ht*l=k*-yK! 

Note that "king" (forward names) or "king's" (reversed names) are also mentioned in each of the verses above. There are only five acrostics in the book of Esther. The above are four of them, and the final one validates the others. It is "I AM" or EHYH in Esther 7:5, spelled backwards and spoken by the king. So, even in the king's decrees the hand of God is weaving his tapestry (Prov. 21:1). God is the author history (Isa. 46:11); even his books (2 Tim. 3:16). 


Now, rewriting the name YHVH with the meanings assigned:

Reading from right to left………………..


       Hey Vav Hey Yod



Yod…….. arm and hand

Hey…….. behold, man with arms and hands raised

Vav………..nail, hook, secure

Hey ………..behold, man with arms and hands raised

What is this a picture of?

Emphasis is on the arms and hands and a nail

Another picture of a man, with arms and hands raised, with a nail:


Here is the breakdown of the title of “My God” (אלהי El’ahi) in Aramaic, spoken by Jesus on the cross in Matthew 27:36:
“My God” – אלהי El’ahi
א Alaph- God, first, strong, power, leader.
ל Resh- Head of man [He is our leader or “head” and we are made in His image], first, top beginning [He is first and eternal].
ה Heth- Man with arms raised [He has power over all things and we raise our arms up to Him. Also symbolic of Jesus’ arms raised up on the cross], breath [His breath gives us life], reveal [He reveals Himself to us], look [we look to Him and He sees all].
All the letters of El’ahi coincide to our connection with The Father!

Sin – חַטָּאָה chatta’ah
חַ Chet- Outside, divide in half [Sin divides us from God]
טָּ Tet- Mud [Sin makes us dirty]
אָ Aleph- God
ה Hey- Reveal, man with arms raised up. [Through The Law our sin is revealed so that we may seek forgiveness from God. The man with raised arms is symbolic of Jesus’ arms raised up on the cross, which reveals our Savior!]

Sin divides us from God and makes us dirty (like mud), but through the Law, we are made aware of our sin and need for a Savior, and our Savior is revealed at the cross. So in the word “sin,” it has the answer of how to be forgiven by Jesus on the cross! Romans 3:20 states, “Therefore no one will be declared righteous in God’s sight by the works of the law; rather, through the law we become conscious of our sin.” Hebrews 7:19 reflects this- “For the law never made anything perfect. But now we have confidence in a better hope, through which we draw near to God.” The bottom line is that we can learn from our sin and know that we are all unworthy until we seek Our Savior’s forgiveness!

The Holy Spirit – רוח הקדש Ruach Ha-Kodesh
ר Resh – head of man
ו Vav – Nail, secure
ח Chet – Outside tent wall

ה Hey – Man with arms raised, behold, breath, reveal
ק Qof – Time
ד Dallet – Access
ש Shin – Trinity, consuming fire, destroy
[Man is secured by the nails of the Messiah who went outside of the residence of God (“the tent”) to raise his arms on the cross. And behold, the breath of God’s mind is revealed in our time on earth by the access of the Trinity which consumes and destroys sin.]

Truth – אֱמֶת Emet
אֱ Aleph – God
מֶ Mem – Mighty, blood
ת Tav – Cross, covenant
The word for “truth” in Hebrew is yet another miraculous sign of the truth of God and Messiah’s sacrifice. The word itself is compromised of the first, middle and last letters of the Hebrew alphabet, representing all encompassing truth. Even more amazing is that the letters themselves point towards truth as God the mighty blood covenant sacrifice on the cross! Praise Yahweh for the One and only Truth! “and you will know the TRUTH, and the TRUTH will set you free.” – John 8:32. ‘Jesus said to him, “I am the way, and the TRUTH, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.”‘ -John 14:6 They exchanged the TRUTH about God for a lie, and worshiped and served created things rather than the Creator–who is forever praised. Amen. Romans 1:25 “God is spirit, and those who worship Him must worship Him in spirit and in TRUTH.” -John 4:24. Side note: This last verse Of John 4:24 gives evidence to the Trinity in Scripture, as we are told that God IS spirit, and we must worship Him in spirit (representing the Holy Spirit) and in God’s mighty blood Covenant on the cross (representing Jesus.)

Saved – הציל Hitziyl
ה Hey – Behold, the man with the arms raised, revealed
צ tsadi – capture
י Yod – Spirit
ל Lamed – Bind, to, Shepherd

Being “saved” reveals the man with the arms raised (on the cross), as He captures our spirit and binds us to the Good Shepherd.

Gift – מֶתנ Matan

מֶ Mem – Mighty, blood
ת Tav – Cross, covenant
נ Nun – Son

Very much like the word for truth (Emet), the word “gift” reveals the most amazing gift of all. It simply means the Mighty Blood cross Covenant of the Son! Hebrew it truly a Divine language!

Boast- לְהִתְפַּאֵר La’hit’paer
ל Lamed – To / Bind
ה Hey – look, behold / man with arms raised
ת Tav – monument / cross
פַּ Peh – speak / scatter away
א Aleph – power / God
ר Resh – man, first

I believe that this word has two relevant translations. First, it is to look and behold the monument (idol) of self and speak of the power of man (self) first above all. Second, it is to restrain from (bind) beholding the man with the arms raised on the cross and scatter away the thought of God by putting man first.

As you can see, being saved, God’s grace and having faith all point to the works of God’s Son! These words reveal God’s plan for saving humanity through His Son by His works on the cross and demonstrate that this perfect gift from God is the entrance to Salvation. We can also see that our human works as defined do not take away from this, but only reinforce that we share the Good News with others of HIS works! It is only when we fall into the prideful act of boasting that we lift up ourselves above God, but despite this, His Work remains true. Furthermore, we can trust that this is truth by deconstructing the meaning of the Hebrew word for “truth” itself which reveals God’s Mighty Blood Covenant on the cross! (See above.)

Salvation – ישועה Yeshuah
י Yudh- Hand [His hands were pierced for our transgressions], Worship [We worship Him]
ש Shin – Front teeth [He speaks for God], two, [second in the trinity].
ו Vav – Tent peg [looks like a nail. Refer to the nail in his hand. Represents the tent’s foundation. Extra note: the “tent” means house and temple.], add [adds the New Covenant], secure [secures mankind], hook [like “fishers of men”].
ע Ayin- Eye [see God], know [know God], experience [how we experience God.]
ה Hey – Man with arms raised, behold, reveal [Salvation is revealed through Him on the cross.]

If you haven’t noticed already, salvation is the same word with one letter added for the name of Jesus. Yeshua (Jesus) and Yeshuah (Salvation.) With this said, we come full circle and see that salvation truly is revealed in Him!

Scripture – כתב Kethab
כ Kaf – Open palm
ת Tav – Cross
ב Bet – Tent floor plan
Symbolically we can gather that Scripture is handing to us (with an open palm) the knowledge of the cross as the foundation (tent floor plan.) The more I research Scripture, the more I find that everything seems to point back to Yeshua and His sacrifice for us. We can see symbolic reflections of Him within so many stories in the Scriptures, and now also in the individual words themselves! It is clear that God made Him known throughout time and all that was preserved to be revealed was for this purpose to lead us to our salvation!

Before proceeding to the next section which explores deeper meaning into the words connected to homosexuality, I wanted to first share another insight which was revealed to me. Isaiah chapter 53 is one of the most famous Old Testament prophesies that foretold the first coming of The Messiah. It describes in detail that He was to be killed for our transgressions, and “by His wounds we are healed.” I asked The Lord to show me more, and in reading only the first sentence in Isaiah 53:1, I was shown two things. Note that Hebrew is read from right to left:


The Hollywood Squares is an American panel game show[1][2][3][4] in which two contestants play tic-tac-toe to win cash and prizes. The show piloted on NBC in 1965, and the regular series debuted in 1966 on the same network. The board for the game is a 3 × 3 vertical stack of open-faced cubes, each occupied by a celebrity seated at a desk and facing the contestants. The stars are asked questions by the host, and the contestants judge the truth of their answers to gain squares in the right pattern to win the game.

Tic tac toe is an example of a game played with quadrants.


Mesopotamian texts exalt the planet's radiance and suggested that it could be seen even at daytime: "visible at sunrise, disappearing from view at sunset." A cylinder seal found at Nippur, depicts a group of plowmen looking up with awe as the 12th planet (depicted as the Cross) is visible in the skies. (image below)

Central to the religious beliefs and astronomy of the ancient world remained within the solar system and that its grand orbit returned it periodically to the Earth's vicinity. The pictograph sign for the 12th planet the "Planet of the Crossing", was a cross.

In "conjectural histories", authors such as Adam Ferguson (1723–1816), John Millar(1735–1801) and Adam Smith (1723–1790) argued that societies all pass through a series of four stages: hunting and gathering, pastoralism and nomadism, agriculture, and finally a stage of commerce.

Ward agreed with Spencer that authoritarian governments repress the talents of the individual, but he believed that modern democratic societies, which minimized the role of religion and maximized that of science, could effectively support the individual in his or her attempt to fully utilize their talents and achieve happiness. He believed that the evolutionary processes have four stages:

  • First comes cosmogenesis, creation and evolution of the world.

  • Then, when life arises, there is biogenesis.[13]

  • Development of humanity leads to anthropogenesis, which is influenced by the human mind.[13]

  • Finally there arrives sociogenesis, which is the science of shaping the evolutionary process itself to optimize progress, human happiness and individual self-actualization.[13]

In his Power and Prestige (1966) and Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology (1974), Gerhard Lenski expands on the works of Leslie White and Lewis Henry Morgan,[22] developing the ecological-evolutionary theory. He views technological progress as the most basic factor in the evolution of societies and cultures.[22] Unlike White, who defined technology as the ability to create and utilise energy, Lenski focuses on information—its amount and uses.[22] The more information and knowledge (especially allowing the shaping of natural environment) a given society has, the more advanced it is.[22] He distinguishes four stages of human development, based on advances in the history of communication.[22] In the first stage, information is passed by genes.[22] In the second, when humans gain sentience, they can learn and pass information through by experience.[22] In the third, humans start using signs and develop logic.[22] In the fourth, they can create symbols and develop language and writing.[22] Advancements in the technology of communication translate into advancements in the economic system and political system, distribution of goodssocial inequality and other spheres of social life. He also differentiates societies based on their level of technology, communication and economy: (1) hunters and gatherers, (2) agricultural, (3) industrial, and (4) special (like fishing societies).[22]

Talcott Parsons, author of Societies: Evolutionary and Comparative Perspectives (1966) and The System of Modern Societies (1971) divided evolution into four subprocesses: (1) division, which creates functional subsystems from the main system; (2) adaptation, where those systems evolve into more efficient versions; (3) inclusion of elements previously excluded from the given systems; and (4) generalization of values, increasing the legitimization of the ever more complex system.[23] He shows those processes on 4 stages of evolution: (I) primitive or foraging, (II) archaic agricultural, (III) classical or "historic" in his terminology, using formalized and universalizing theories about reality and (IV) modern empirical cultures. However, these divisions in Parsons’ theory are the more formal ways in which the evolutionary process is conceptualized, and should not be mistaken for Parsons’ actual theory. Parsons develops a theory where he tries to reveal the complexity of the processes which take form between two points of necessity, the first being the cultural "necessity," which is given through the values-system of each evolving community; the other is the environmental necessities, which most directly is reflected in the material realities of the basic production system and in the relative capacity of each industrial-economical level at each window of time. Generally, Parsons highlights that the dynamics and directions of these processes is shaped by the cultural imperative embodied in the cultural heritage, and more secondarily, an outcome of sheer "economic" conditions.

Society, in this paradigm, is defined as prototypical category of the social system, that meets the essential functional prerequisites that define the system's universal attributes. AGIL scheme outlines four systematic, core functions, that are prerequisites for any society to be able to persist over time. It is a misconception that the system functions are "institutions," they exist on a much higher level of theoretical comprehension than institutions yet each system is inhabited by institutions. Institutions have either universal implications or historical implications depending on their form, nature and specification. The system shapes the "nature" of its institutions—so that the political system is the orbit of "political institutions." The stock-market is common-sensually not regarded as a political institution yet the stock-market might have political functions (which is a different analytical issue).

AGIL is an acronym from the initials of each of the four systemic necessities. The AGIL system is considered a cybernetic hierarchy and has generally the following order L-I-G-A, when the order is viewed from an "informational" point of view; this imply that the L function could "control" or define the I function (and the I the G and so on) approximately in the way in which a computer-game-program "defines" the game. The program does not "determine" the game (which actual outcome would depend on the input of the player, that was what Parsons in a sense called the voluntaristic aspect of action) but it "determined" the logical parameter of the game, which lies implicit in the game's concrete design and rules. In this way, Parsons would say that culture would not determine the social system but it would "define it." The AGIL system had also an energy side (or a "conditional" side), which would go A-G-I-L. So that the Adaptive level would be on the highest level of the cybernetic hierarchy from the energy or "conditional" point of view. However, within these two reverse sequences of the hierarchy Parsons maintained that in the long historical perspective, a system which was high in information (that is, a system that followed the L-I-G-A sequence) would tend to prevail over system which was high in energy. For example in the human body, the DNA is the informational code which will tend to control "the body" which is high in energy. Within the action system, Parsons would maintain that it was culture which was highest in information and which in his way was in cybernetic control over other components of the action system, as well as the social system. However, it is important to maintain that all action systems (including social systems) are always depending on the (historically specific) equilibrium of the overall forces of information and condition, which both shape the outcome of the system. Also it is important to highlight that the AGIL system does not "guarantee" any historical system survival; they rather specify the minimum conditions for whether societies or action systems in principle can survive. Whether a concrete action system survive or not is a sheer historical question.

  • Adaptation, or the capacity of society to interact with the environment. This includes, among other things, gathering resources and producing commodities to social redistribution.

  • Goal Attainment, or the capability to set goals for the future and make decisions accordingly. Political resolutions and societal objectives are part of this necessity.

  • Integration, or the harmonization of the entire society is a demand that the values and norms of society are solid and sufficiently convergent. This requires, for example, the religious system to be fairly consistent, and even in a more basic level, a common language.

  • Latency, or latent pattern maintenance, challenges society to maintain the integrative elements of the integration requirement above. This means institutions like family and school, which mediate belief systems and values between an older generation and its successor.[2]

These four functions aim to be intuitive. For example a tribal system of hunter-gatherers needs to gather food from the external world by hunting animals and gathering other goods. They need to have a set of goals and a system to make decisions about such things as when to migrate to better hunting grounds. The tribe also needs to have a common belief system that enforces actions and decisions as the community sees fit. Finally there needs to be some kind of educational system to pass on hunting and gathering skills and the common belief system. If these prerequisites are met, the tribe can sustain its existence.


A Crookes tube (also Crookes–Hittorf tube)[1] is an early experimental electrical discharge tube, with partial vacuum, invented by English physicist William Crookes[2] and others around 1869-1875,[3] in which cathode rays, streams of electrons, were discovered.[4]

Developed from the earlier Geissler tube, the Crookes tube consists of a partially evacuated glass bulb of various shapes, with two metal electrodes, the cathode and the anode, one at either end. When a high voltage is applied between the electrodes, cathode rays (electrons) are projected in straight lines from the cathode. It was used by Crookes, Johann HittorfJulius PlückerEugen GoldsteinHeinrich HertzPhilipp Lenard and others to discover the properties of cathode rays, culminating in J.J. Thomson's 1897 identification of cathode rays as negatively charged particles, which were later named electrons. Crookes tubes are now used only for demonstrating cathode rays.

Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-rays using the Crookes tube in 1895. The term Crookes tube is also used for the first generation, cold cathode X-ray tubes,[5] which evolved from the experimental Crookes tubes and were used until about 1920.

Maltese cross[edit]

Julius Plücker in 1869 built an anode shaped like a Maltese Cross in the tube. It was hinged, so it could fold down against the floor of the tube. When the tube was turned on, it cast a sharp cross-shaped shadow on the fluorescence on the back face of the tube, showing that the rays moved in straight lines. This fluorescence was used as an argument that cathode rays were electromagnetic waves, since the only thing known to cause fluorescence at the time was ultraviolet light. After a while the fluorescence would get 'tired' and decrease. If the cross was folded down out of the path of the rays, it no longer cast a shadow, and the previously shadowed area would fluoresce more strongly than the area around it.

A Crookes tube: light and dark. Electrons (cathode rays) travel in straight lines from the cathode (left), as shown by the shadow cast by the metal Maltese cross on the fluorescence of the righthand glass wall of the tube. The anode is the electrode at the bottom.

Attali believes that music has gone through four distinct cultural stages in its history: Sacrificing, Representing, Repeating, and a fourth cultural stage which could roughly be called Post-Repeating. These stages are each linked to a certain "mode of production"; that is to say, each of these stages carries with it a certain set of technologies for producing, recording and disseminating music, and also concomitant cultural structures that allow for music's transmission and reception.

Quadraphonic (or Quadrophonic and sometimes Quadrasonic) sound – similar to what is now called 4.0 surround sound – uses four channels in which speakers are positioned at the four corners of the listening space, reproducing signals that are (wholly or in part) independent of one another. Quadraphonic audio was the earliest consumer product in surround sound and thousands of quadraphonic recordings were made during the 1970s.

It was a commercial failure due to many technical problems and format incompatibilities. Quadraphonic audio formats were more expensive to produce than standard two-channel stereo. Playback required additional speakers and specially designed decoders and amplifiers.

Quad threat is a basketball technique we stress quite frequently at Thomas University. Also known as “triple threat,” this technique is the corner stone skill of our player-development program. Quad threat is a simple basketball function that has stimulated our growth of players and helped minimize turnovers in live action. Shoot, pass, dribble and pivot are the four basketball skills that every team at any level uses every day in practice, individual workouts, and games.

Quad threat, or “triple threat” to most, is a learned behavior and a skill that needs to be emphasized more at all levels. We will take a look at each component of quad threat and discuss the movements and actions out of quad threat that can be accomplished.


In basketball, a double is the accumulation of a double-digit number total in one of five statistical categories—pointsreboundsassistssteals, and blocked shots—in a game. Multiple players usually score double-digit points in any given basketball game; the double nomenclature is usually reserved for when a player has double-digit totals in more than one category.

A double-double is the accumulation of a double-digit number total in two of the statistical five categories in a game. The most common double-double combination is points-rebounds, followed by points-assists. Since the 1983–84 season, Tim Duncan leads the National Basketball Association (NBA) in the points-rebounds combination with 840, and John Stockton leads the points-assists combination with 714.

A triple-double is the accumulation of a double-digit number total in three of the five categories in a game. The most common way to achieve a triple-double is through points, rebounds, and assists. Oscar Robertson leads the all-time NBA list with 181 career triple-doubles and is, with Russell Westbrook, one of only two players ever to average a triple-double for a season. Westbrook currently holds the record for most triple-doubles in a season with 42.

A quadruple-double is the accumulation of a double-digit number total in four of the five categories in a game. This has occurred four times in the NBA.

A quintuple-double is the accumulation of a double-digit number total in all five categories in a game. Two quintuple-doubles have been recorded at the high school level, by Tamika Catchings and Aimee Oertner, but none have occurred in a college or professional game.[1] A similar accomplishment is the five-by-five, which is the accumulation of at least five points, five rebounds, five assists, five steals, and five blocks in a game. In the NBA, only Hakeem Olajuwon and Andrei Kirilenko have accumulated multiple five-by-fives since the 1984–85 season.

The human sexual response cycle is a four-stage model of physiological responses to sexual stimulation,[1] which, in order of their occurrence, are the excitement phase, plateau phase, orgasmic phase, and resolution phase. The cycle was first proposed by William H. Masters and Virginia E. Johnson in their 1966 book Human Sexual Response.[1][2] Since then, other human sexual response models have been formulated.

Connect Four (also known as Captain's Mistress, Four Up, Plot Four, Find Four, Fourplay[citation needed], Four in a Row, Four in a Line and Gravitrips (in Soviet Union)) is a two-player connection game in which the players first choose a color and then take turns dropping colored discs from the top into a seven-column, six-row vertically suspended grid. The pieces fall straight down, occupying the next available space within the column. The objective of the game is to be the first to form a horizontal, vertical, or diagonal line of four of one's own discs. Connect Four is a solved game. The first player can always win by playing the right moves.


The program featured 16 of the biggest winners in United States game show history in a single-elimination tournament.[1] The contestants were seeded by the amount of money they won on their original show(s). The winner took home the $100,000 Grand Prize and a crystal trophy.



The contestants faced off against each other in a rapid-fire style series of questions. There were four rounds of questioning: General Knowledge, Numbers and Logic, Words and Letters, and "Mixed" (questions from all of the previous categories). Exclusively for the final match, a fifth "Contemporary Knowledge" round was added as round #3, between "Numbers and Logic" and "Words and Letters". In each round, the players were given one minute on their clocks, and the first contestant (determined by coin toss for the first round where the loser goes first; alternates for each subsequent round) was asked a question by the off-camera "Questioner", and his clock started counting down. The timing mechanics were similar to those of a chess clock; if a contestant answered correctly, his clock stopped, and his opponent's clock started running. If the active contestant answered incorrectly or passed, their clock continued to run and another question was asked.


When one contestant's clock expired, the round ended and whatever time the other player had remaining carried over. At the beginning of the final round, players' carried-over time was added to the one-minute base time. Once a player's clock ran out, the other player was declared the winner and moved on to the next round.


Each contestant was given three "switches" at the beginning of the game, and one more before the fourth round: by saying "switch", a player could stop their own clock and start their opponent's with the current question. Switches could be used consecutively (by saying "switch back") to switch the question back and forth between contestants.



HE SAID SHE SAID,_She_Said_(game_show)

The show had two formats during its run; one in which four celebrity couples (one or both of the members being a celebrity) competed, and one which had a single celebrity couple and three civilian couples.


Each game consisted of four questions with the men and women switching positions halfway through the game. For the last question, only two people were allowed to raise their hands to answer.

Typical contestant podia, with celebrities (left to right) Dick Clark, the husband of E. J. PeakerHal Holbrook and Bert Convy, who would later host Tattletales.[1]



Panel regulars included writer-actor-pianist Oscar Levant and newspaper columnists and renowned wits and intellectuals Franklin P. Adams and John Kieran. All the panelists were well-versed in a wide range of topics, though each had a specialty. Music and film questions were often addressed to Levant. Adams was well known for his mastery of poetry, popular culture and Gilbert and Sullivan. Kieran was an expert in natural history, sports and literature. A typical question would have three or four parts and would require the panelists to get a majority of the questions right, lest they lose the prize money.


The show would always have a fourth guest panelist, usually either a celebrity, a politician or writer. Guest panelists included Fred Allen, Leonard Bernstein, Boris Karloff, Clare Boothe Luce, Dorothy Parker, S. J. Perelman, Sigmund Spaeth, Rex Stout, Jan Struther, Deems Taylor, Jackie Robinson, Alexander Woollcott, George S. Kaufman, Ruth Gordon, Orson Welles, Basil Rathbone and a very young Myron "Mike" Wallace.


A variation of Information Please, this time a program devoted exclusively to music with the same four-member panel format, became popular when it was televised in Los Angeles in 1953. After two years of local success, Musical Chairs became a summer replacement series on NBC Television. The Bill Leyden-hosted game show lasted eleven weeks on the national airwaves.


In the first two rounds, the contestants faced a game board of five categories each with four questions that talk about each of the four decades (one question per decade). The player in control chose a category followed by the decade, then host Sternberg asked a question from that decade. The first player to ring-in had a chance an answer. A correct answer added points to their score, plus the right to choose another category & decade, but an incorrect answer subtracted points & gave the other players a chance to answer. These two rounds are identical to Jeopardy!.



A panel of four celebrity guests was presented with an unusual object, with each celebrity providing an explanation of the object's use. Contestants then attempted to guess which panelist was providing the accurate description. Two contestants competed on the 1969 version, while the first season of the 70s version and the 1988 revival featured four contestants, and the two seasons (1977–79) with Ludden had three.


On the 1969 version, the contestant who made the most correct guesses during the episode won $100. For all later versions, contestants began the game with a set amount of money and made wagers before attempting to guess the correct object, which were then paid out at various odds if the contestant was successful.


From 1976–77, contestants were spotted with $100 at the start of the game, and wagered up to $100 (in $10 increments) for each prediction. Correct predictions were paid out at odds of 1:1 in Round 1, 2:1 in Round 2, 5:1 in Round 3, and 10:1 in Round 4. When Ludden took over as host in 1977, the game format largely remained the same, but the maximum in each round wager was increased from $100 to half of the contestant's current bank. On the 1988–89 version, contestants played for points, wagering between 10 and 90 points, in 10 point increments; in the first three rounds, contestants were limited to betting half their current points but in the final round, the contestants could wager all their points, but the largest wager tag given was 90 points, so the contestants could not bet more than that.


Except from 1977–79, the last round of the game featured artwork presented before the panel and contestants. Each celebrity would then offer his/her own title for the art, and contestants attempted to predict which title was correct. During the 1977–78 season, the final round consisted of each celebrity describing his/her own unusual item instead of just a single object or piece of art. During the last Ludden season, as a reversal in the rules of the first three rounds, contestants attempted in the final round to predict which of the four celebrities was lying in his/her description; the betting limit was removed for this round only.


The contestant with the highest score won the game and a bonus prize, with (from 1977–89) an additional prize awarded to any contestant who made a correct prediction in all four rounds. If two or more contestants were tied at the end of the game, ties were broken first by the amount wagered in round four. If contestants were tied in that criteria, the winner was determined by the number of correct predictions during the game. If this did not break the tie, the contestants then revealed predictions each had made regarding their final score prior to the start of the game. The contestant with the prediction that was closest to his/her final score without going over was declared the winner.
A person does not suddenly wake up one morning with a new illness called schizophrenia. The development of schizophrenia is a process that takes place over varying periods of time depending on the individual, but it is never a sudden manifestation. There might the first sudden noticing of the symptoms however. The process of the revealing of this latent illness in the brain happens in a typical fashion, enough so for most everyone dealing with it that we can now classify four stages of schizophrenia.
The four stages or phases of schizophrenia can be labeled as:
The Prodromal Stage
The Acute Stage
The Remission Stage
The Relapse Stage


The Brahma Sūtras consist of 555 aphorisms or sūtras, in four chapters (adhyāya), with each chapter divided into four parts (pāda).[4] Each part is further subdivided into sections called Adhikaraņas with sutras.[4] Some scholars, such as Francis Clooney, call the Adhikaraņas as "case studies" with a defined hermeneutic process.[25][26]


The Prodigy-Narayan (high quality)

Al-Jazari described complex programmable humanoid automata amongst other machines he designed and constructed in the Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206.[citation needed] His automaton was a boat with four automatic musicians that floated on a lake to entertain guests at royal drinking parties. His mechanism had a programmable drum machine with pegs (cams) that bump into little levers that operate the percussion. The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and drum patterns if the pegs were moved around.[20] According to Charles B. Fowler, the automata were a "robot band" which performed "more than fifty facial and body actions during each musical selection."[21]

One rendition of the coat of the empire was the "Quaternion Eagle" (so named after the imperial quaternions) printed by David de Negker of Augsburg, after a 1510 woodcut by Hans Burgkmair. It showed a selection of 56 shields of various Imperial States in groups of four on the feathers of a double-headed eagle supporting, in place of a shield, Christ on the Cross. The top, larger shields, are those of the seven Prince Electors, the ecclesiastical: TrierCologne and Mainz as well as of the titular "Prefect of Rome" on the right wing; the secular: BohemiaElectorate of the PalatinateSaxony and Brandenburg on the left. The depiction also appeared on the Imperial Eagle beaker

The so-called imperial quaternions (German: Quaternionen der Reichsverfassung "quaternions of the imperial constitution"; from Latin quaterniō "group of four soldiers") were a conventional representation of the Imperial States of the Holy Roman Empire which first became current in the 15th century and was extremely popular during the 16th century.[2]

Apart from the highest tiers of the emperorkingsprince-bishops and the prince electors, the estates are represented in groups of four. The number of quaternions was usually ten, in descending order of precedence Dukes (Duces), Margraves (Marchiones), Landgraves (Comites Provinciales), Burggraves (Comites Castrenses), Counts (Comites), Knights (Milites), Noblemen (Liberi), Cities (Metropoles), Villages (Villae) and Peasants (Rustici). The list could be shortened or expandend, by the mid-16th century to as many as 45.[3]

It is likely that this system was first introduced under Emperor Sigismund, who is assumed to have commissioned the frescoes in Frankfurt city hall in 1414.[4]

As has been noted from an early time, this representation of the "imperial constitution" does not in fact represent the actual constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, as some imperial cities appear as "villages" or even "peasants". E.g. the four "peasants" are Cologne, Constance, Regensburg and Salzburg. The Burggrave of Stromburg (or Straburg, Strandeck, and variants) was an unknown entity even at the time. The representation of imperial subjects is also far from complete. The "imperial quaternions" are, rather, a more or less random selection intended to represent pars pro toto the structure of the imperial constitution.

Typical representation of the quaternions (Anton III Wierix 1606). The ten quaternions are shown underneath the emperor flanked by the prince-electors(Archbishop of TrierArchbishop of CologneArchbishop of MainzKing of BohemiaCount PalatineDuke of SaxonyMargrave of Brandenburg).

Some decks, while using the French suits, give each suit a different color to make the suits more distinct from each other. In bridge, such decks are known as no-revoke decks, and the most common colors are black spades, red hearts, blue diamonds and green clubs, although in the past the diamond suit usually appeared in a golden yellow-orange. A pack occasionally used in Germany uses green spades (compare to leaves), red hearts, yellow diamonds (compare to bells) and black clubs (compare to acorns). This is a compromise deck devised to allow players from East Germany (who used German suits) and West Germany (who adopted the French suits) to be comfortable with the same deck when playing tournament Skat after the German reunification.[16]

A four-color deck is identical to the standard French deck except for the color of the suits. In a typical English four-color deck, hearts are red and spades are black as usual, but clubs are green and diamonds are blue.[1] However, other color combinations have been used over the centuries, in other areas or for certain games.

No-revoke decks[edit]


Skat tournament deck


Tarock deck by Petrtyl & Son

Four-color decks made for trick-taking games such as bridgewhist, or jass are often called no-revoke decks because they are perceived to reduce the risk of a player accidentally revoking(illegally playing a card of a suit other than that led). Dozens of card manufacturers have developed four-colored suit cards for bridge during the 1900s and continue into this century.

The earliest such deck in the US is by J. Y. Humphreys who created the "Seminole Wars Deck" in 1819, which had four colored suits of blue spades, green clubs, red hearts and yellow diamonds.[2]

In the German game of skat the official tournament standard since the 1990s is to use a no-revoke deck known as a Turnierbild deck. In these decks, spades are green and diamonds are yellow, the clubs and hearts being respectively black and red as normal, which also reflects the suit order: clubs, spades, hearts, diamonds. This is intended as a compromise for players (typically from former East Germany) who prefer German suits over French; the green spades translate to leaves and the yellow diamonds to bells in the German suits.[1]

In 1922, August Petrtyl & Son produced a tarock deck with black clubs, yellow diamonds, pink hearts, and green spades in the United States. They were sold in two versions, a full 78-card deck and a 54-card deck.[2] The smaller deck is structured the same as Industrie und Glück decks as it was designed to play a variant of Königrufen.[3]


A four-color deck for poker using the black spades, red hearts, green clubs, and blue diamonds was developed and publicised by Mike Caro. It was introduced at his World Poker Finals at Foxwoods Resort Casino in 1992. His original design was not a success as the colors were a surprise to players.[4] The World Poker Tour uses the same colors as Caro's deck to display the players' cards for increased visibility on small television screens.

Four-color decks have become a somewhat popular option in Internet poker software interfaces since often each player may use their preferred design of playing cards without affecting others' experience, and since visibility is not as good on a small screen as in face-to-face play, especially as many online players play multiple tables simultaneously, with shorter time limits in which to make decisions. Having each suit represented by a different color can allow players to more easily recognize a flush.

The four French playing cards suits used primarily in the English-speaking world: diamonds (♦), clubs (♣), hearts (♥) and spades (♠)


The album's originally planned cover art, based on Robert Williams' painting Appetite for Destruction, depicted a robotic rapist about to be punished by a metal avenger. After several music retailers refused to stock the album, the label compromised and put the controversial cover art inside, replacing it with an image depicting a Celtic cross and skulls of the five band members with (designed by Billy White Jr., originally as a tattoo), each skull representing one member of the band: Izzy Stradlin, top skull; Steven Adler, left skull; Axl Rose, center skull; Duff McKagan, right skull; and Slash, bottom skull. In a 2016 interview, Billy White Jr. explained, "The cross and skulls that looked like the band was Axl’s idea, the rest was me. The knot work in the cross was a reference to Thin Lizzy, a band Axl and I both loved.”[9]


      The guide in the lives of sorcerers is called "the nagual." The nagual is a man or a woman with extraordinary energy, a teacher who has sobriety, endurance, stability; someone seers see as a luminous sphere having four compartments, as if four luminous balls have been compressed together. Naguals are responsible for supplying what sorcerers call "the minimal chance": the awareness of one's connection with intent.


Why was the quadrivalent flu vaccine developed?

For years, flu vaccines were designed to protect against three different flu viruses (trivalent). This included an influenza A H1N1 virus, an influenza A H3N2 virus and one B virus. Experts had to choose one B virus, even though there are two very different lineages of B viruses that both circulate during most seasons. This meant the vaccine did not protect against the group of B viruses not included in the vaccine. Adding another B virus to the vaccine aims to give broader protection against circulating flu viruses.


Tetracyclines are generally used in the treatment of infections of the urinary tract, respiratory tract, and the intestines and are also used in the treatment of chlamydia, especially in patients allergic to β-lactams and macrolides; however, their use for these indications is less popular than it once was due to widespread development of resistance in the causative organisms.[2][3]

Their most common current use is in the treatment of moderately severe acne and rosacea (tetracyclineoxytetracyclinedoxycycline or minocycline).[citation needed]

Anaerobic bacteria are not as susceptible to tetracyclines as are aerobic bacteria.[4]

Doxycycline is also used as a prophylactic treatment for infection by Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) and is effective against Yersinia pestis, the infectious agent of bubonic plague. It is also used for malaria treatment and prophylaxis, as well as treating elephantitis filariasis.[5]

Tetracyclines remain the treatment of choice for infections caused by chlamydia (trachomapsittacosissalpingitisurethritis and L. venereum infection), Rickettsia(typhusRocky Mountain spotted fever), brucellosis and spirochetal infections (borreliosissyphilis and Lyme disease).[citation needed] In addition, they may be used to treat anthraxplaguetularemia and Legionnaires' disease.[citation needed] They are also used in veterinary medicine.[citation needed]

They may have a role in reducing the duration and severity of cholera, although drug-resistance is mounting[6] and their effect on overall mortality is questioned.[7]

Tetracycline derivatives are currently being investigated for the treatment of certain inflammatory disorders.[citation needed]

Le Quattro Volte (English: The Four Times) is an Italian film, made in 2010, about life in the remote mountain town of Caulonia, in southern Italy.

The film comprises four phases, or 'turns', following Pythagoras.[4] The turning of the phases occurs in Calabriawhere Pythagoras had his sect in Crotone. Pythagoras claimed he had lived four lives and this with his notion of metempsychosis is the structure of the film showing one phase and then turning into another phase. A famous anecdote is that Pythagoras heard the cry of his dead friend in the bark of a dog.[5]

  • The first turn is the human realm and is about an old goatherd who is quite sick and who takes medicine made from the dust from the church floor in water at night. This phase includes a long 8-minute shot of the procession of the villagers culminating in the dog and truck episode so the goats occupy the village.

  • The second turn is the animal realm and is a study of a young goat, from its birth onwards.

  • The third turn is the plant realm and is a study of a fir tree. Eventually the tree is chopped down to be displayed in the town square and an evocation of cultural memory.

  • The fourth turn shows the mineral realm as the tree is made into charcoal for the townspeople's fires.


In Siddha Shaivism tradition Nama Sivaya is considered as Pancha Bodha Tatva of Lord Shiva and his universal oneness of five elements:

  • "Na" sound represents earth

  • "Ma" sound represents water

  • "Si" sound represents fire

  • "Va" sound represents Pranic air

  • "Ya" sound represents sky



The dance is a pictorial allegory of the five principle manifestations of eternal energy:[6]

  • Srishti - creation, evolution

  • Sthiti - preservation, support

  • Samhara - destruction, evolution

  • Tirobhava - illusion

  • Anugraha - release, emancipation, grace


In November 1868 he changed the arrangement of the latter half of the alphabet, O to Z, right-to-left.[4] In April 1870 he arrived at a four-row, upper case keyboard approaching the modern QWERTY standard, moving six vowel letters, A, E, I, O, U, and Y, to the upper row as follows:[5]

  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 -
    A E I . ? Y U O ,

In 1873 Sholes's backer, James Densmore, successfully sold the manufacturing rights for the Sholes & Glidden Type-Writer to E. Remington and Sons. The keyboard layout was finalized within a few months by Remington's mechanics and was ultimately presented:[6]

  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 - ,
Q W E . T Y I U O P
A X & C V B N ? ; R

After they purchased the device, Remington made several adjustments, creating a keyboard with essentially the modern QWERTY layout. These adjustments included placing the "R" key in the place previously allotted to the period key. Apocryphal claims that this change was made to let salesmen impress customers by pecking out the brand name "TYPE WRITER QUOTE" from one keyboard row are not formally substantiated.[6] Vestiges of the original alphabetical layout remained in the "home row" sequence DFGHJKL.[7]

The modern layout is:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 - =
Q W E R T Y U I O P [ ] \
A S D F G H J K L ; '
Z X C V B N M , . /

The QWERTY layout became popular with the success of the Remington No. 2 of 1878, the first typewriter to include both upper and lower case letters, using a shift key.

Christopher Latham Sholes's 1878 QWERTY keyboard layout


In a study about lion evolution, genetic markers of 357 samples from captive and wild lions from Africa and India were examined. Results suggest four lineages of lion populations: one from Kenya, one from Southern Africa, one from Central and Northern Africa to Asia, and one from Southern and Eastern Africa. The authors conclude that the first wave of lion expansion occurred about 118,000 years ago from Eastern Africa into West Asia, and the second wave at the transition of Pleistocene and Holocene periods from Southern Africa towards East Africa.[29] Lions in Southern and East Africa are genetically different from West-Central African lions, which are more closely related to the Asiatic and North African lions.[30][31] The modern Asiatic lion is estimated to have separated from its African cousin about 100,000 years ago,[7] which was long before the cave lion became extinct in Eurasia.[24]


Family tree of the four groups of early humans living in Eurasia 50,000 years ago and the gene flow between the groups due to interbreeding. Image credit: Kay Prüfer et al.

The authors estimated that between 1.5 and 2.1 percent of the genomes of modern non-Africans can be traced to Neanderthals.

Denisovans also left genetic traces in modern humans, though only in some Oceanic and Asian populations.

The genomes of Australian aborigines, New Guineans and some Pacific Islanders are about 6 percent Denisovan genes, according to earlier studies.

The new analysis finds that the genomes of Han Chinese and other mainland Asian populations, as well as of Native Americans, contain about 0.2 percent Denisovan genes.

The genome comparisons also show that Denisovans interbred with a mysterious, fourth group of early humans also living in Eurasia at the time.


The three waves of migration proposed by some researchers correspond to three main Native American language groups — Amerind, Nadene and Eskaleut. According to this theory, Amerind people arrived about 30,000 years ago, followed 20,000 years later by the Nadene and then the Eskaleuts, who came to Alaska and northern Canada within the last 7,000 years. Some earlier mitochondrial DNA research supports this theory. This work found that all Native Americans come from four genetic lineages, labeled A through D, and that, significantly, Amerinds have all four lineages, Nadene only A, and Eskaleuts A and D — suggesting different migrations at different times. 


Distribution of Native American Populations: This map shows populations included in Andrew Merriwether's study of evolutionary relationships among Native Americans. Many populations (red dots) were not included in prior studies. Other data (black dots) reported in the literature was also analyzed along with the new populations. The underlined populations indicate burial sites where DNA was collected from teeth, bone fragments and mummified tissue.


Working with a much larger dataset than the earlier studies, Merriwether found that the four lineages divide into nine distinct genetic subtypes. Furthermore, directly challenging the three-wave theory, all four lineages showed up in all three language groups. "The key finding," says Merriwether, "is that many of the populations have all four lineages and a number even have all the subtypes. And all types can be found in North, Central and South America. It isn't realistic to believe that the same lineages ended up in all these populations across two continents by separate migrations." 


The Toynbee tiles (also called Toynbee plaques) are messages of unknown origin found embedded in asphalt of streets in about two dozen major cities in the United States and four South American cities.[1][2]Since the 1980s, several hundred tiles have been discovered. They are generally about the size of an American license plate (roughly 30 cm by 15 cm), but sometimes considerably larger. They contain some variation of the following inscription:

IN MOViE `2001

A complex of four tiles was once located at 16th and Chestnut Streets in Philadelphia, consisting of four panels of barely-legible italic printing. One transcription of its message reads:[21]

John Knight Ridder is the Philadelphia thug hellion Jew who'd hated this movements guts- for years- takes money from the Mafia to make the Mafia look good in his newspapers so he has the Mafia in his back pocket. John Knight sent the Mafia to murder me in May 1991 [illegible] journalists [illegible] then gloated to my face about death and Knight Ridder great power to destroy. In fact John Knight went into hellion binge of joy over Knight-Ridder's great power to destroy.

I secured house with blast doors and fled the country in June 1991.

NBC attorneys journalists and security officials at Rockefeller Center fraudulently under the "Freedom of Information Act" all [illegible] orders NBC executives got the U.S. federal district attorney's office who got FBI to get Interpol to establish task force that located me in Dover England.

Which back home Inquirer got union goons from their own employees union to [illegible] down a "sports journalist". Who with ease bashed in lights and windows of neighborhood car- as well as men outside my house. They are stationed there still waiting for me.

NBC CBS group "W" Westinghouse, Time, Time Warner, Fox, Universal all of the "Cult of the Hellion" each one were Much worse than Knight-Ridder ever was[,] mostly hellion Jews.

When K.Y.W. and NBC executives told John Knight the whole coven gloated in joyous fits on how their Soviet pals found a way to turn it into a...

Top: Large, colorful Toynbee tile found in downtown Washington, D.C.
Bottom: Closeup of its bottom tab, apparently mentioning the U.S.S.R., which had been gone for years by the time this photo was taken. ("As media U.S.S.R. and Fronts are against it.")


The five Wisdom Buddhas (五仏) are centered around Vairocana (Japanese: Dainichi Nyorai, 大日如来), the supreme Buddha. Each of the four remaining Buddhas occupies a fixed cardinal point. Each of them is a manifestation of Buddhahood, and each is active in a different world-period, in which they manifest themselves among Bodhisattvas and humans.[11]

Bodhisattvas are personages who are on the point of entering Buddhahood but postpone doing so in order to help other beings attain enlightenment. Bodhisattvas are paragons of compassion in Mahayana Buddhism. In the Buddhist Pantheon, besides the past and future Buddhas, there are numerous Bodhisattvas as well.[12]

Sometimes, five main "Matrix" Bodhisattvas are determined (五大菩薩), grouped around a central Bodhisattva, Kongō-Haramitsu (金剛波羅蜜菩薩) in the case of Tōji Temple.[8]

The Five Wisdom Kings (五大明王) are emanations of the Buddhas and protect them. They are usually represented as violent beings. They represent the ambivalent in nature, and seem to derive from ancient Yaksa and Brahmanicaltradition.[13]


Canopic jars of the Old Kingdom were rarely inscribed, and had a plain lid. In the Middle Kingdom inscriptions became more usual, and the lids were often in the form of human heads. By the Nineteenth dynasty each of the four lids depicted one of the four sons of Horus, as guardians of the organs.

The canopic jars were four in number, each for the safekeeping of particular human organs: the stomach, intestines, lungs, and liver, all of which, it was believed, would be needed in the afterlife. There was no jar for the heart: the Egyptians believed it to be the seat of the soul, and so it was left inside the body.

By the late Eighteenth dynasty canopic jars had come to feature the four sons of Horus.[7] Many sets of jars survive from this period, in alabaster, aragonite, calcareous stone, and blue or green glazed porcelain.[6] The sons of Horus were also the gods of the cardinal compass points.[8] Each god was responsible for protecting a particular organ, and was himself protected by a companion goddess. They were:

  • Hapi, the baboon-headed god representing the north, whose jar contained the lungs and was protected by the goddess Nephthys

  • Duamutef, the jackal-headed god representing the east, whose jar contained the stomach and was protected by the goddess Neith

  • Imsety, the human-headed god representing the south, whose jar contained the liver and was protected by the goddess Isis

  • Qebehsenuef, the falcon-headed god representing the west, whose jar contained the intestines and was protected by the goddess Serquet

Early canopic jars were placed inside a canopic chest and buried in tombs together with the sarcophagus of the dead.[6] Later, they were sometimes arranged in rows beneath the bier, or at the four corners of the chamber.[6] After the early periods there were usually inscriptions on the outsides of the jars, sometimes quite long and complex.[10] The scholar Sir Ernest Budge quoted an inscription from the Saïte or Ptolemaic period that begins: "Thy bread is to thee. Thy beer is to thee. Thou livest upon that on which Ra lives." Other inscriptions tell of purification in the afterlife.[11]


Parallels have also been drawn between the djed pillar and various items in other cultures. Sidney Smith in 1922, first suggested a parallel with the Assyrian "sacred tree" when he drew attention to the presence of the upper four bands of the djed pillar and the bands that are present in the center of the vertical portion of the tree

A djed amulet with the name of Ramesses IX of the Twentieth dynastyinscribed upon it.


Although no date is provided, the felling may have occurred around 723 or 724.[2] Willibald's account is as follows (note that Robinson has translated robor Iobis, "tree of Jove", as "Tree of Jupiter"):

Now at that time many of the Hessians, brought under the Catholic faith and confirmed by the grace of the sevenfold spirit, received the laying on of hands; others indeed, not yet strengthened in soul, refused to accept in their entirety the lessons of the inviolate faith. Moreover some were wont secretly, some openly to sacrifice to trees and springs; some in secret, others openly practiced inspections of victims and divinations, legerdemain and incantations; some turned their attention to auguries and auspices and various sacrificial rites; while others, with sounder minds, abandoned all the profanations of heathenism, and committed none of these things. With the advice and counsel of these last, the saint attempted, in the place called Gaesmere, while the servants of God stood by his side, to fell a certain oak of extraordinary size, which is called, by an old name of the pagans, the Oak of Jupiter. And when in the strength of his steadfast heart he had cut the lower notch, there was present a great multitude of pagans, who in their souls were earnestly cursing the enemy of their gods. But when the fore side of the tree was notched only a little, suddenly the oak's vast bulk, driven by a blast from above, crashed to the ground, shivering its crown of branches as it fell; and, as if by the gracious compensation of the Most High, it was also burst into four parts, and four trunks of huge size, equal in length, were seen, unwrought by the brethren who stood by. At this sight the pagans who before had cursed now, on the contrary, believed, and blessed the Lord, and put away their former reviling. Then moreover the most holy bishop, after taking counsel with the brethren, built from the timber of the tree wooden oratory, and dedicated it in honor of Saint Peter the apostle.

One of the focal points of Boniface's life, the scene is frequently repeated, illustrated, and reimagined. Roberto Muller, for instance, in a retelling of Boniface's biography for young adults, has the four parts of the tree fall down to the ground and form a cross.[18] In Hubertus Lutterbach's fictional expansion of the Boniface correspondence, Boniface relates the entire event in a long letter to Pope Gregory II, commenting that it took hours to cut the tree down, and that any account that says the tree fell down miraculously is a falsification of history.[19]


The Sixteen Arhats (Japanese: 十六羅漢, Juroku Rakan; Tibetan: གནས་བརྟན་བཅུ་དྲུག, "Neten Chudrug") are a group of legendary Arhats in Buddhism. The grouping of sixteen Arhats was brought to China, and later to Tibet, from India. In China, an expanded group of Eighteen Arhats became more popular, but worship of the sixteen Arhats continues to the present day in Japan and Tibet. In Japan sixteen Arhats are particularly popular in Zen Buddhism, where they are treated as examples of behaviour.[1] In Tibet, the sixteen Arhats, also known as sixteen sthaviras ('elders') are the subject of a liturgical practice associated with the festival of the Buddha's birth,[2] composed by the Kashmiri teacher Shakyahribhadra (1127-1225).[3]They are also well represented in Tibetan art.[4]


Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: Анто́н Па́влович Че́хов, pronounced [ɐnˈton ˈpavləvʲɪtɕ ˈtɕɛxəf]; 29 January 1860[1] – 15 July 1904)[2] was a Russian playwright and short story writer, who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history. His career as a playwright produced four classics and his best short stories are held in high esteem by writers and critics.[3][4] Along with Henrik Ibsen and August Strindberg, Chekhov is often referred to as one of the three seminal figures in the birth of early modernism in the theatre.[5] Chekhov practiced as a medical doctor throughout most of his literary career: "Medicine is my lawful wife", he once said, "and literature is my mistress."[6]

Chekhov renounced the theatre after the reception of The Seagull in 1896, but the play was revived to acclaim in 1898 by Konstantin Stanislavski's Moscow Art Theatre, which subsequently also produced Chekhov's Uncle Vanya and premiered his last two plays, Three Sisters and The Cherry Orchard. These four works present a challenge to the acting ensemble[7] as well as to audiences, because in place of conventional action Chekhov offers a "theatre of mood" and a "submerged life in the text".

  1.  A general overview of these themes, among others, can be found in: Jean-Pierre Barricelli, ed., Chekhov’s Great Plays: A Critical Anthology (New York, 1981), Richard Peace, Chekhov: A Study of the Four Major Plays (New Haven, 1983), Donald Rayfield, Understanding Chekhov: A Critical Study of Chekhov’s Prose and Drama (Madison, 1999).

  2. Jump up ^


The Seagull (Russian: Чайка, translit. Chayka) is a play by Russian dramatist Anton Chekhov, written in 1895 and first produced in 1896. The Seagull is generally considered to be the first of his four major plays. It dramatises the romantic and artistic conflicts between four characters: the famous middlebrow story writer Boris Trigorin, the ingenue Nina, the fading actress Irina Arkadina, and her son the symbolist playwright Konstantin Tréplev.


"the Romans ... habitually enroll four legions each year, each consisting of about four thousand foot and two hundred horse; and when any unusual necessity arises, they raise the number of foot to five thousand and of the horse to three hundred. Of allies, the number in each legion is the same as that of the citizens, but of the horse three times as great"

Polybius, The Histories, 1:268–70


A distinction between frontier guard troops and more mobile reserve forces had emerged with the use of certain troops to permanently man frontiers such as Hadrian's Wall in Britannia in the 2nd century AD. The competing demands of manned frontiers and strategic reserve forces had led to the division of the military into four types of troops by the early 4th century:


The limitanei or riparienses patrolled the border and defended the border fortifications. According to some older theories, the limitanei were "settled and hereditary"[81] militia that were "tied to their posts."[97] But according to most recent research, the limitanei were originally regular soldiers, including infantry, cavalry, and river flotillas,[98][99][100] although they eventually became settled militia.[101][102] According to Luttwak, the cunei of cavalry, and auxilia of infantry alone by this time, were local provincial reserves that may have evolved from earlier auxiliary units.[103][clarification needed] According to Pat Southern and Karen Dixon, the legiones, auxilia, and cunei of the border armies were part of the limitanei, but higher-status than the older cohortes and alae in the same armies.[102]

The comitatenses, and later the palatini were strategic reserves, usually in the rear.[104] After their division into palatini and comitatenses, the latter were usually associated with the praesental armies, and the former were usually associated with the regional armies, but both types could be moved between the two.

The emperor Constantine I created the scholae to replace the old praetorian guard. The scholae were his personal guard, and were mainly equipped as cavalry. Vogt suggests that the scholae formed two small central reserves (Latin: scholae) held to the strategic rear even of the comitatenses, one each in the presence of the emperors of West and East respectively.[105]

The permanent field armies of the palatini and comitatenses ultimately derived from the temporary field armies of the earlier sacer comitatus.


Created and expanded from the core troops of the Emperor's personal bodyguards,[clarification needed] the central field armies by 295 AD seem to have been too large to be accounted for as simple bodyguard forces, but were still too small to be able to campaign independently of legionary or vexillation support.[clarification needed][106]


Of the four troop types, the limitanei (border guards) were once considered to have been of the lowest quality,[107] consisting largely of peasant-soldiers that were both "grossly inferior" to the earlier legions and inferior also to their counterparts in the mobile field armies.[108] However, more recent work establishes that the limitanei were regular soldiers.[98][99][100]


Tetraquarks are composed of two primary color quarks and two antiquarks, each with one of the complementary colors yellow, magenta or cyan. Scientists are debating how these four particles combine into a color-neutral state.

In the Holy Roman Empire emperor Charles V's 1532 Constitutio Criminalis Carolina specifies how every dismemberment (quartering) should ideally occur:[2]

"Concerning quartering: To cut and hack apart his entire body into four pieces, and thus be punished unto death, and such four parts are to be hanged on stakes publicly on four common thorough-fares"

Thus, the imperially approved way to dismember the convict within the Holy Roman Empire was by means of cutting, rather than dismemberment through ripping the individual apart. In paragraph 124 of the same code, beheading prior to quartering is mentioned as allowable when extenuating circumstances are present, wheres aggravating circumstances may allow pinching/ripping the criminal with glowing pincers, prior to quartering.[3]

The fate of Wilhelm von Grumbach in 1567, a maverick knight in the Holy Roman Empire who was fond of making his own private wars and was thus condemned for treason, is also worthy of note. Gout-ridden, he was carried to the execution site in a chair and bound fast to a table. The executioner then ripped out his heart, and stuck it in von Grumbach's face with the words: "von Grumbach! Behold your false heart!" Afterwards, the executioner quartered von Grumbach's body. His principal associate was given the same treatment, and an eyewitness avers that after his heart had been ripped out, Chancellor Brück screamed horribly for "quite some time".[4]

One example of a highly aggravated execution is illustrated by the fate of Bastian Karnhars on July 16, 1600. Karnhars was found guilty of 52 separate acts of murder, including the rape and murder of 8 women, and the murder of a child, whose heart he had allegedly eaten for rituals of black magic. To begin, Karnhars had three strips of flesh torn from his back, before being pinched 18 times with glowing pincers, having his fingers clipped off one by one, his arms and legs broken on the wheel, and finally, while still alive, quartered.[5]

Torn apart by four horses[edit]

Also referred to as "disruption" or being "drawn and quartered", dismemberment could be brought about by chaining four horses to the condemned's arms and legs, thus making them pull him apart, as was the case with the executions of François Ravaillac in 1610 and Robert-François Damiens in 1757. Ravaillac's extended torture and execution has been described like this:[14]

"He was condemned to be tortured with red-hot pincers on four limbs and on each breast. His wounds were to be sprinkled with molten lead and boiling oil and his body was then to be torn in pieces by four horses, the remains being subsequently burnt."

In the case of Damiens, he was condemned to essentially the same fate as Ravaillac, but the execution did not quite work according to plan, as the eyewitness Giacomo Casanova could relate:[15]

Damiens' agony went on for hours as each torture was applied. When the horses failed to disconnect the sinews between his body and his limbs, his body, still alive, was quartered with a knife. His friend, the infamous Casanova, reports that he "watched the dreadful sight for four hours." "I was obliged to turn away my face and to stop my ears as I heard his piercing shrieks, half his body having been torn from him"


The execution of Túpac Amaru II, who was dismembered by four horses May 18, 1781.

As late as in 1781, this gruesome punishment was meted out to the Peruvian rebel leader Túpac Amaru II by the Spanish colonial authorities. The following is an extract from the official judicial death sentence issued by the Spanish authorities which condemns Túpac Amaru II to torture and death. It was ordered in the sentence that Túpac Amaru II be condemned to have his tongue cut out, after watching the executions of his family, and to have his hands and feet tied... four horses who will then be driven at once toward the four corners of the plaza, pulling the arms and legs from his body. The torso will then be taken to the hill overlooking the city... where it will be burned in a bonfire... Tupac Amaru's head will be sent to Tinta to be displayed for three days in the place of public execution and then placed upon a pike at the principal entrance to the city. One of his arms will be sent to Tungasuca, where he was the cacique, and the other arm to the capital province of Carabaya, to be similarly displayed in those locations. His legs will be sent to Livitica and Santa Rosas in the provinces of Chumbivilcas and Lampa, respectively.[16]

The execution of Túpac Amaru II, who was dismembered by four horses May 18, 1781.

The execution of Sir Thomas Armstrong, who was hanged, drawn and quartered in England for high treason in 1684

Torn apart by four ships[edit]

According to Olfert Dapper, a 17th-century Dutchman who meticulously collected reports from faraway countries from seamen and other travelers, a fairly frequent maritime death penalty among the corsairs on the Barbary coast was to affix the hands and feet to chains on four different ships. When the ships then sailed off in different directions, the chains grew taut, and the man in between was torn apart after a while.[20]

four periods of greek art
The art of ancient Greece is usually divided stylistically into four periods: the Geometric, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic. The Geometric age is usually dated from about 1000 BC, although in reality little is known about art in Greece during the preceding 200 years, traditionally known as the Greek Dark Ages. The 7th century BC witnessed the slow development of the Archaic style as exemplified by the black-figure style of vase painting. Around 500 BC, shortly before the onset of the Persian Wars (480 BC to 448 BC), is usually taken as the dividing line between the Archaic and the Classical periods, and the reign of Alexander the Great (336 BC to 323 BC) is taken as separating the Classical from the Hellenistic periods. From some point in the 1st century BC onwards "Greco-Roman" is used, or more local terms for the Eastern Greek world.[2]


HankBoomhauerBill, and Dale







Eric Dollard is an Electrical Engineer who is a "living legend" in the field of electrical research. He is considered by many to be the most knowledgeable expert alive today on the true nature of electricity. Author of the landmark mathematical papers Symbolic Representation of Alternating Electric Waves and Symbolic Representation of the Generalized Electric Wave, Eric shows how all electric phenomena can be mathematically measured and engineered WITHOUT using calculus or "Maxwell's Equations." Author of Condensed Intro to Tesla Transformers and Theory of Wireless Power, he is also the only person since Tesla's death to successfully build a real Magnifying Transmitter. Eric Dollard's presentation from last year's conference is called Four Quadrant Representation of Electricity.


Tesla's polyphase power system was originally four poles or four phases. Steinmetz is the one who adapted it into a three pole or three phase system, which is the prominent system of today. The complication is that three phase systems cannot be explained by conventional mathematics. With three phase systems, there is no plus or minus and that is the reason why the conventional math doesn't work anymore.


The second volume covers a plurality of phases including eight phases, which is necessary for the proper mathematical analysis of polyphase music. It also covers the very usual true single or monopolar phase developed by Nikola Tesla for his telluric ground transmission systems. We also review the more common three and four phase power systems.


What is commonly misunderstood as single phase is actually a two phase system that is common in your home. This is not a true polyphase system because it is not rotational like a four phase system but is included for continuity.

Al-Jazari created a musical automaton, which was a boat with four automatic musicians that floated on a lake to entertain guests at royal drinking parties. Professor Noel Sharkey has argued that it is quite likely that it was an early programmableautomata and has produced a possible reconstruction of the mechanism; it has a programmable drum machine with pegs(cams) that bump into little levers that operated the percussion. The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns if the pegs were moved around.[43]