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Deula style four components


Known as the Garden House of Jagannath, the Gundicha temple stands in the centre of a beautiful garden, surrounded by compound walls on all sides. It lies at a distance of about 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from the Shrimandira, the main temple of Jagannath. The two temples are located at the two ends of the Bada Danda(Grand Avenue) which is the pathway for the Rath Yatra.

The temple is built using light-grey sandstone and architecturally, it exemplifies typical Kalinga temple architecture[1] in the Deula style. The complex comprises four components: vimana (tower structure containing the sanctum), jagamohana (assembly hall), nata-mandapa (festival hall) and bhoga-mandapa (hall of offerings). There is also a kitchen connected by a small passage.[2] The temple is set within a garden,[1] and is known as "God's Summer Garden Retreat" or garden house of Jagannath.[3] The entire complex, including garden, is surrounded by a wall.

The Vimala Temple or Bimala Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to goddess Vimala (Bimala), located within the Jagannath Temple complex in Puri in the Indian state of Orissa.  

The temple faces east and is built of sandstone and laterite. It is built in the Deula style that has four components namely, vimana (structure containing the sanctum), jagamohana (assembly hall), nata-mandapa (festival hall) and bhoga-mandapa (hall of offerings). 

In the Kalika Purana, four Pithas (centres of Tantrism) are mentioned, corresponding to the four cardinal directions.


I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

16 squares in the quadrant model

The 15-puzzle (also called Gem Puzzle, Boss Puzzle, Game of Fifteen, Mystic Square and many others) is a sliding puzzle that consists of a frame of numbered square tiles in random order with one tile missing. The puzzle also exists in other sizes, particularly the smaller 8-puzzle. If the size is 3×3 tiles, the puzzle is called the 8-puzzle or 9-puzzle, and if 4×4 tiles, the puzzle is called the 15-puzzle or 16-puzzle named, respectively, for the number of tiles and the number of spaces. The object of the puzzle is to place the tiles in order by making sliding moves that use the empty space.

Four chord progression


"Smells Like Teen Spirit" follows a F–B♭–A♭–D♭ chord progression,[17] with the main guitar riff constructed from four power chords played in a syncopated sixteenth note strum by Cobain.[18] The guitar chords were double tracked because the band "wanted to make it sound more powerful," according to Vig.[19]The chords occasionally lapse into suspended chord voicings as a result of Cobain playing the bottom four strings of the guitar for the thickness of sound.[18] Listeners made many comments that the song bore a passing resemblance to Boston's 1976 hit "More Than a Feeling".[6] Cobain himself held similar opinions, saying that it "was such a clichéd riff. It was so close to a Boston riff or The Kingsmen's 'Louie Louie.'"[4] However, Rikky Rooksby points out that "Smells Like Teen Spirit" and "More Than a Feeling" follow different chord progressions.[17]

Four note piano figure


Rolling Stone described "Imagine" as Lennon's "greatest musical gift to the world", praising "the serene melody; the pillowy chord progression; [and] that beckoning, four-note [piano] figure".

The 16 Puzzle



Most multiple star systems are triple stars. Systems with four or more components are less likely to occur.[5] Multiple-star systems are called triple, trinary or ternary if they contain three stars; quadruple or quaternary if they contain four stars

  • The Kepler-64 system has the planet PH1 (discovered in 2012 by the Planet Hunters group, a part of the Zooniverse) orbiting two of the four stars, making it to be the first known planet to be in a quadruple star system.[50]



  • Xi Tauri (ξ Tau, ξ Tauri), located about 222 light years away, is a spectroscopic and eclipsing quadruple star consisting of three blue-white B-type main-sequence stars, along with an F-type star. Two of the stars are in a close orbit and revolve around each other once every 7.15 days. These in turn orbit the third star once every 145 days. The fourth star orbits the other three stars roughly every fifty years.[52]


Vala, or The Four Zoas refers to one of the uncompleted prophetic books by the English poet William Blake, begun in 1797. The titular main characters of the book are the Four Zoas (Urthona, Urizen, Luvah and Tharmas), who were created by the fall of Albion in Blake's mythology.

Blakes poems are oftne written in quatrains, or four stanzas. The poem above is three quatrains.

Blakes poems is quatrains in tetrameter. tetra is four https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Tyger

The Book of Urizen is one of the major prophetic books of the English writer William Blake.


In form the book is a parody of the Book of Genesis. Urizen's first four sons are ThirielUthaGrodna and Fuzon(respectively elemental Air, Water, Earth, Fire, according to Chapter VIII).

There are 16 squares in the quadrant model.


The Adventures of Tom Bombadil (full title The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Other Verses from the Red Book) is a collection of poetry written by J. R. R. Tolkien and published in 1962. The book contains 16 poems, two of which feature Tom Bombadil, a character encountered by Frodo Baggins in The Fellowship of the Ring (the first volume in The Lord of the Rings). 

Ovid's Four Ages


​The Roman poet Ovid (1st century BC – 1st century AD) tells a similar myth of Four Ages in Book 1.89–150 of the Metamorphoses. His account is similar to Hesiod's with the exception that he omits the Heroic Age. Ovid emphasizes the justice and peace that defined the Golden Age. He adds that in this age, men did not yet know the art of navigation and therefore did not explore the larger world, no man had knowledge of any arts but pre agriculture. In the Silver Age, Jupiter introduces the seasons and men consequentially learn the art of agriculture and architecture. In the Bronze Age, Ovid writes, men were prone to warfare, but not impiety. Finally, in the Iron Age, men demarcate nations with boundaries; they learn the arts of navigation and mining; they are warlike, greedy and impious. Truth, modesty and loyalty are nowhere to be found.



For those who are not familiar with Admah and Zeboiim, they were two of the four cities that were destroyed by God for their wickedness, along with their vastly more famous neighboring cities of Sodom and Gomorrah



The book of Malachi is divided into three chapters in the Hebrew Bible and the Greek Septuagint and four chapters in the Latin Vulgate. The fourth chapter in the Vulgate consists of the remainder of the third chapter starting at verse 3:19.

Aurobindo is extremely famous. He is seen as an avatar, and an Aurobindo center is in Los Angeles. He discusses four Creator Gods


Savitri, the creator of the Truth and the things of Truth, who loosens forth from the Infinite its floods, is manifested through four great and ACTIVE deities Mitra, Varuna, Bhaga and Aryaman:



Savitri, again, manifests himself, especially in the formation of the Truth in man, through four great and active deities Mitra, Varuna, Bhaga and Aryaman, the Lords of pure Wideness, luminous Harmony, divine Enjoyment, exalted Power.



There are four main types of attractors : point attractor , limit cycle attractor , torus attractor and strange attractor




The Four Attractors


We have seen the fourfold nature of consciousness; the laws concerning the four functions and four brain waves.   An equivalent fourfold law applies in the material world.  This was recently discovered by scientists working in the new field of Chaos.  They found that seemingly-chaotic, lawless actions in the outer world actually followed a hidden order. The order they discovered was fourfold.  They found that all outer phenomena are governed by what they call the four "attractors".  The attractors are forces which bring order out of disorder. They are called the point attractor, the cycle or circuit attractor, the torus attractor and the strange attractor. The attractors are in accord with the four functions: torus-sensing; cycle-thinking; point-feeling and strange-willing. They form a basic Constitutional Law of the outer world of nature.


There are four categories of these brainwaves, ranging from the most activity to the least activity. When the brain is aroused and actively engaged in mental activities, it generates beta waves. These beta waves are of relatively low amplitude, and are the fastest of the four different brainwaves. The frequency of beta waves ranges from 15 to 40 cycles a second. Beta waves are characteristics of a strongly engaged mind. A person in active conversation would be in beta. A debater would be in high beta. A person making a speech, or a teacher, or a talk show host would all be in beta when they are engaged in their work. 

In summary, there are four brainwave states that range from the high amplitude, low frequency delta to the low amplitude, high frequency beta. These brainwave states range from deep dreamless sleep to high arousal. The same four brainwave states are common to the human species. Men, women and children of all ages experience the same characteristic brainwaves. They are consistent across cultures and country boundaries. 


The EEG captures the four types of brain waves that occur during wakefulness and sleep, which are measured in cycles per second (cps):25

·         Beta waves occur during daily wakefulness. They have the highest frequency and the lowest amplitude, compared to other waves. These patterns also show a lot of variability.

·         Alpha waves occur during wakefulness and periods of relaxation (i.e., during meditation). These waves are slower, and have less amplitude and variability than beta waves. 

·         Theta waves occur during stages 1 and 2 and are slower in frequency and greater in amplitude than alpha waves. As a person moves from N1 to N2 sleep, theta wave activity continues; every few minutes, sleep spindles(sudden increase in wave frequency) and K-complexes (sudden increase in wave amplitude) occur.

·         Delta waves occur during N3 sleep and are the slowest waves with the highest amplitude. Delta sleep is the deepest sleep.


Scientists have assigned names to four frequency ranges of waves that can be distinguished in an EEG trace. From the highest to the lowest frequency, these waves are as follows.

  • Beta waves: have a frequency range from 13-15 to 60 Hz and an amplitude of about 30 µV. Beta waves are the ones registered on an EEG when the subject is awake, alert, and actively processing information. Some scientists distinguish the range above 30-35 Hz as gamma waves, which may be related to consciousness–that is, the making of connections among various parts of the brain in order to form coherent concepts.

  • Alpha waves: have a frequency range from eight to twelve Hz and an amplitude of 30 to 50 µV. Alpha waves are typically found in people who are awake but have their eyes closed and are relaxing or meditating.

  • Theta waves: have a frequency range from three to eight Hz and an amplitude of 50 to 100 µV. Theta waves are associated with memory, emotions, and activity in the limbic system. 

  • Delta waves: range from 0.5 to three or four Hz in frequency and 100 to 200 µV in amplitude. Delta waves are observed when individuals are in deep sleep or in a coma.

  • Lastly, when there are no brain waves present, the EEG shows a flat-line trace, which is a clinical sign of brain death. 

These four types of brain waves, and others discussed below, are important criteria that have been used to define four distinct stages of non-REM sleep. Obviously, falling into a deeper and deeper sleep as the night progresses is actually a gradual, continuous process, but these four stages still provide a convenient means of describing the relative depth of non-REM sleep.



Chausathi Jogini Mandir (64 Joginis Temple)(Odiaଚଉଷଠି ଯୋଗିନୀ ମନ୍ଦିର, ହୀରାପୁର) is situated in a hamlet called Hirapur,[1] 20 km outside Bhubaneswar, the capital of Odisha state of Eastern India.[2]

64 Joginis Temple is a tantric temple,[4] with hypaethral architecture as tantric prayer rituals involve worshiping the bhumandala (environment consisting all the 5 elements of nature - fire, water, earth, sky and ether).

The legend behind the temple according to local priests is of the Goddess Durga taking the form of 64 demi-goddesses in order to defeat a demon. After the fight the 64 goddesses (Joginis) asked Durga to commemorate them in the form of a temple structure.

The number 64 finds its reference in Hindu mythology in various forms viz Kālá for time, Kalā for performing arts etc. The temple complex is maintained by Archaeological Survey of India.



There are four major extant shrines of the Sixty-four Yogini (Chausathi Yogini, among other spellings) in India (named for 64 legendary yogini), two in Odisha and two in Madhya Pradesh. One of the most impressive yogini temples in Odisha is the ninth century CE hypaethral Chausathi Jogini Temple located at Hirapur in Khurda district, 15 km south of Bhubaneshwar. Another hypaethral sixty-four yogini temple in Odisha is the Chausathi Yogini Pitha in Ranipur-Jharial, near Titilagarh in Balangir district. Two images of the Sixty-four Yogini are missing from this temple.[26]

Two notable yogini temples in Madhya Pradesh are the ninth-century Chaunsath Yogini Temple to the southwest of the western group of temples in Khajuraho, near Chhatarpur in Chhatarpur District, and the 10th century CE Chaunsath Yogini Mandir in Bhedaghat, near Jabalpur in Jabalpur district.[27][28]

The iconographies of the yogini images in four yogini temples are not uniform. In the Hirapur temple, all yogini images are with their vahanas (vehicles) and in standing posture. In Ranipur-Jharial temple the yogini images are in dancing posture. In Bhedaghat temple, yogini images are seated in Lalitasana.[29]


The Vishnu Purana also states that Time (kala) is one of the four primary forms of Vishnu, the others being matter (Pradhana), visible substance (vyakta), and Spirit (Purusha).[9][10]



Chausath Yogini Temple is one of the oldest heritage sites in India. It was built in the 10th Century AD by the Kalachuri kingdom and has a distinct resemblance to the temples of Khajuraho in structure.[1] The temple is the abode of Goddess Durga along with 64 yoginis. A Yogini is a female attendant of the mother goddess, who slays illusion with fiery passion through insight and liberation.[2] It is located near the river Narmada and the famous Marble Rocks in Bhedaghat, some 5 km from JabalpurMadhya pradesh.[3] Though the temple has been partially damaged, it speaks greatly of the ancient dynasties that ruled in Jabalpur.

The complex of the temple consists of 64 shrines in circular motion, one for each yoginis and a main shrine where Lord Shiva and his consort Goddess Parvati are seen riding on Nandi, the sacred bull. The design of the temple has been kept simple but the idols of yoginis are exquisitely carved, each one depicting a unique posture



Because of imperial expansion and trading, ingredients and cooking techniques from other cultures are integrated into Chinese cuisines over time.

The most praised "Four Major Cuisines" are ChuanLuYue and Huaiyang, representing West, North, South and East China cuisine correspondingly




I’ve discovered that some films follow a chiasmus formula in the way their stories are set up. What is a chiasmus? It’s an ancient writing structure in which ideas are listed in one order and then repeated in the opposite order to form a complete idea.


The nursery rhyme “Hickory Dickory Dock” is a perfect example of a chiasmus. Every verse follows the same pattern:


A. Hickory dickory dock


B. The mouse ran up the clock


C. The clock struck one


B. The mouse ran down


A. Hickory dickory dock


Up ‘til now I’ve limited my focus to individual films to find their cinematic chiasmus. But I am happy to report that the entire Back to the Future Trilogy is almost perfectly symmetrical. This took some incredible planning to pull off, and I’ll discuss its implications at the end.


Cinematic Chiasmus


Chiasmus is a literary term that means a series of ideas that are listed in one order and then repeated in the opposite order, creating one giant symmetrical thought. It’s most common in written form, but did you know that some movies follow this same pattern, too? Prepare to be amazed as we discover examples of Cinematic Chiasmus!


February 14, 2017 – What About Bob? (Not a chiasmus)


December 20, 2016 – Star Trek III: The Search for Spock


September 20, 2016 – Netflix Dedicated a Video to My Back to the Future Chiasmus!


August 12, 2015 – WarGames


May 20, 2015 – How to Train Your Dragon


April 14, 2015 – Braveheart


March 3, 2015 – The Matrix


February 10, 2015 – Patriot Games


January 27, 2015 – Spider-Man (Almost)


January 7, 2015 – The Dark Knight Trilogy (The Chiasmus)


December 9, 2014 – The Last Starfighter


October 21, 2014 – Terminator 2: Judgment Day


October 7, 2014 – Aliens (Special Edition)


September 2, 2014 – Bill and Ted’s Excellent Adventure


August 5, 2014 – Back to the Future Trilogy


June 24, 2014 – Superman: The Movie


May 20, 2014 – The Empire Strikes Back


April 29, 2014 – RoboCop (1987)



Cinematic Chiasmus

Chiasmus is a literary term that means a series of ideas that are listed in one order and then repeated in the opposite order, creating one giant symmetrical thought. It’s most common in written form, but did you know that some movies follow this same pattern, too? Prepare to be amazed as we discover examples of Cinematic Chiasmus!


February 14, 2017 – What About Bob? (Not a chiasmus)


December 20, 2016 – Star Trek III: The Search for Spock


September 20, 2016 – Netflix Dedicated a Video to My Back to the Future Chiasmus!


August 12, 2015 – WarGames


May 20, 2015 – How to Train Your Dragon


April 14, 2015 – Braveheart


March 3, 2015 – The Matrix


February 10, 2015 – Patriot Games


January 27, 2015 – Spider-Man (Almost)


January 7, 2015 – The Dark Knight Trilogy (The Chiasmus)


December 9, 2014 – The Last Starfighter


October 21, 2014 – Terminator 2: Judgment Day


October 7, 2014 – Aliens (Special Edition)


September 2, 2014 – Bill and Ted’s Excellent Adventure


August 5, 2014 – Back to the Future Trilogy


June 24, 2014 – Superman: The Movie


May 20, 2014 – The Empire Strikes Back


April 29, 2014 – RoboCop (1987)



3. Ring Composition


While these terms are not always used with precise consistency, the word “chiasmus” is often used on a small scale, such as the sentence clause-level. However a much larger piece of writing, even a whole narrative or an entire book, may also constitute a chiastic structure.


The most interesting kind of chiastic structure is a ring composition. A ring composition (or ring structure) is a chiastic structure in which “a center connects the opposite sides of an inverted parallelism,” to quote one scholar. It therefore has the structure ABCAB. (Another definition of a ring composition is simply any chiastic structure beyond the clause-scale, so under this definition it could also have the pattern of, e.g., ABCCBA.) The most important parts of a ring composition are the beginning and end, which frame the ring, and the center, which draws the successive rings to a central statement or idea. Ring composition can occur on the scale of a single passage or an entire book.


Recent Qur’anic scholarship in French and English has observed that entire sūras of the Qur’an are ring compositions. An example of this is Sūra Yūsuf (Joseph):


A. Joseph’s dream (vv. 4-6)

B. The brothers’ plot against Joseph (vv. 7-22)

C. Potiphar’s wife’s attempt to seduce Joseph (vv. 23-29)

D . A similar attempt by Egyptian ladies (vv. 30-34)

E. Joseph’s imprisonment (vv. 35-42)

F. The king’s dream (vv. 43-44)

F’. The king’s dream interpreted (vv. 45-49)

E’. Joseph’s release from prison (v. 50)

D’. Confession of the Egyptian ladies (v. 51a)

C’. Confession of Potiphar’s wife (vv. 51b-57)

B’. The brothers learn their lesson (vv. 58-99)

A’. Fulfillment of Joseph’s dream (vv. 100-101)


In the next several posts, I will provide further examples of chiastic structures in the Qur’an and explain why are important (in shā’a ‘llāh).



Ring structure[edit]

Another valid reading of the text utilizes ring structure (see Chiastic structure). Favored in prominent modern scholar of Qur'anic studies Carl Ernst's interpretations of certain middle to late Meccan period suras, it can be applied to Sura 27 as well.[28] In ring structure, the focal point of the piece is found in the center, surrounded front and back by parallel statements. (Such parallel statements could elaborate on one another, contrast each other, or affirm one another. Multiple interpretations exist.) One could interpret Sura 27 as follows:


1. Declaration of Qur'an[29]

10. Reiteration of Qur'an's purpose as a Warning.[30]

2. Moses's Signs are Ignored by Pharaoh[31]

9. Foretelling of Judgement and Indication of Signs.[32]

3. Solomon realizes God's blessings and dedicates himself as a Believer.[33]

4. The Queen of Sheba deals well with Solomon and acts generously with him.[34]

5. The Queen of Sheba, one from disbelievers, converts and devotes herself to tawhid.[35]

Note: Combining the story of Solomon as a whole reveals allows one to view the story holistically as a motif for tawhid and the believers.

6. The people of Thamud and of Lot reject their prophets and are destroyed.[36]

8. Declaration of Abandonment of Disbelievers[37]

Note: These themes can be combined and contrasted with 3, 4, and 5 as well, depending on interpretation.

7. Declaration of God's universality, omniscience, and omnipotence[38]

According to this example of ring structure interpretation, the focal point of Sura 27 can be viewed as a declaration of God's omnipotence and condemnation for disbelief, also in keeping with Qur'anic message.



Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays (Princeton University Press, 1957) is a book by Canadian literary critic and theorist, Northrop Frye, which attempts to formulate an overall view of the scope, theory, principles, and techniques of literary criticism derived exclusively from literature.

Frye's four essays are sandwiched between a "Polemical Introduction" and a "Tentative Conclusion." The four essays are titled "Historical Criticism: A Theory of Modes", "Ethical Criticism: a Theory of Symbols", "Archetypal Criticism: A Theory of myths", and "Rhetorical Criticism: A Theory of Genres."

The third essay is the culmination of Frye's theory in that it unites the elements of characterization and each of the five symbolic phases presented in the first two essays into an organic whole. This whole is organized around a metaphor of human desire and frustration as manifested in the Great Chain of Being (divine, human, animal, vegetable, mineral and water) by analogy to the four seasons.

Seasons and their analogies to genres, life and myths by Frye [5]

SeasonGenresLife CycleAssociated Myth

SpringComedyBirth (life)Myth of birth

SummerRomanceYouth, GrowthMyth of triumph, harmony

Autumn / FallTragedyOld, MaturityMyth of fall, decay, separation

WinterIronyDeathMyth of chaos, death, darkness.


Frye then identifies the mythical mode with the apocalyptic, the ironic with the demonic, and the romantic and low mimetic with their respective analogies. The high mimetic, then, occupies the center of all four. This ordering allows Frye to place the modes in a circular structure and point to the cyclical nature of myth and archetypes. In this setting, literature represents the natural cycle of birth, growth, maturity, decline, death, resurrection, rebirth, and the repetition of the cycle. The remainder of the chapter deals with the cycle of the four seasons as embodied by four mythoi: comedyromancetragedy, and irony or satire.

Classical lyrical poetry often presents a shepherd speaking of his love; he is overheard by his audience. However, the distinctiveness of lyric comes more from its peculiar rhythm than from this radical of representation. Frye describes this rhythm as associative rather than logical and is the stuff of dreams and the subconscious. It is closely related to the chant, and though it is found in all literature, it is more apparent in certain kinds of literature than others. At this point Frye suggests a connection between the four historical modes and the four genres. In this sense, the lyrical is typical of the ironic age—just as the ironic protagonist has turned away from society, the lyrical poet makes utterances without regard to the audience. The lyrical rhythm is very clearly seen in Joyce's Finnegans Wake, a work based almost entirely on associative babbles and dream utterance.



Frye argues that in addition to this overarching monomyth that works of literature tend to fall along the following two sets of  continuums:

1) High-Low Mimesis (how human nature is portrayed) & Realism -Symbolism (meaning is attached to action)

2) Personal-Social & Experiential-Intellectual


Figure 10. Cyclical and dialectical pattern of the four mythoi. {p. 68}

Figure 10, showing the quadrantal and cyclic pattern of the four mythoi and the dialectical arrangement of the mythical and realistic worlds, provides only the skeletal outline for Frye’s taxonomy. The mythos of archetypes is a complex theory, the fullest and most elaborately conceived section of the Anatomy. While it accounts for but one-half of Frye’s theory of archetypes, it comprises practically one-fourth {69} of the entire book. The elaborateness of its design results chiefly from the theory of phases, the word referring in this context to the variety of literary structures which can be isolated in any one mythos.4 Frye is able to discover six phases for each of the pregeneric mythoi; this yields, of course, twenty-four separate structures.

The argument is made more complex, however, by the fact that adjacent mythoi tend to merge. “If we think of our experience of these mythoi,” Frye says, “we shall realize that they form two opposed pairs. Tragedy and comedy contrast rather than blend, and so do romance and irony, the champions respectively of the ideal and actual. On the other hand, comedy blends insensibly into satire at one extreme and into romance at the other; romance may be comic or tragic; tragic extends from high romance to bitter and ironic realism” (AC, 162). To this should be added the fourth possible relation, namely, that irony merges insensibly into tragedy and comedy. We shall examine these correspondences in more detail below.

A SWOT analysis, with its four elements in a 2×2 matrix.



To use the chart, analysts plot a scatter graph to rank the business units (or products) on the basis of their relative market shares and growth rates.

  • Cash cows is where a company has high market share in a slow-growing industry. These units typically generate cash in excess of the amount of cash needed to maintain the business. They are regarded as staid and boring, in a "mature" market, yet corporations value owning them due to their cash-generating qualities. They are to be "milked" continuously with as little investment as possible, since such investment would be wasted in an industry with low growth.

  • Dogs, more charitably called pets, are units with low market share in a mature, slow-growing industry. These units typically "break even", generating barely enough cash to maintain the business's market share. Though owning a break-even unit provides the social benefit of providing jobs and possible synergies that assist other business units, from an accounting point of view such a unit is worthless, not generating cash for the company. They depress a profitable company's return on assets ratio, used by many investors to judge how well a company is being managed. Dogs, it is thought, should be sold off.

  • Question marks (also known as problem children) are businesses operating with a low market share in a high-growth market. They are a starting point for most businesses. Question marks have a potential to gain market share and become stars, and eventually cash cows when market growth slows. If question marks do not succeed in becoming a market leader, then after perhaps years of cash consumption, they will degenerate into dogs when market growth declines. Question marks must be analyzed carefully in order to determine whether they are worth the investment required to grow market share.

  • Stars are units with a high market share in a fast-growing industry. They are graduated question marks with a market- or niche-leading trajectory, for example: amongst market share front-runners in a high-growth sector, and/or having a monopolistic or increasingly dominant unique selling proposition with burgeoning/fortuitous proposition drive(s) from: novelty (e.g. Last.FM upon CBS Interactive's due diligence), fashion/promotion (e.g. newly prestigious celebrity-branded fragrances), customer loyalty (e.g. greenfield or military/gang enforcementbacked, and/or innovative, grey-market/illicit retail of addictive drugs, for instance the British East India Company's, late-1700s opium-based Qianlong Emperor embargo-busting, Canton System), goodwill (e.g. monopsonies) and/or gearing (e.g. oligopolies, for instance Portland cement producers near boomtowns),[citation needed] etc. The hope is that stars become next cash cows.

Stars require high funding to fight competitors and maintain their growth rate. When industry growth slows, if they remain a niche leader or are amongst the market leaders, stars become cash cows; otherwise, they become dogs due to low relative market share.



The V.I. Lenin Nuclear Power Station (Russian: Чернобыльская АЭС им. В.И.Ленина) as it was known during the Soviet times, consisted of four reactors of type RBMK-1000, each capable of producing 1,000 megawatts (MW) of electric power (3.2 GW of thermal power), and the four together produced about 10% of Ukraine's electricity at the time of the accident.

Four RBMK reactors were at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, Nos. 1–4. 



Image on 16 March 2011 of the four damaged reactor buildings. From left to right: Unit 4, 3, 2, and 1. Hydrogen-air explosions occurred in Unit 1, 3, and 4, causing structural damage. A vent in Unit 2's wall, with water vapor/"steam" clearly visible, prevented a similar large explosion. Drone overflights on 20 March captured clearer images.[1]



The Blue Collar Comedy Tour was a comedy troupe, featuring Jeff Foxworthy with three of his comedian friends, Bill EngvallRon White, and Daniel Whitney, who had replaced fellow comedian Craig Hawksley, who performed in the first twenty-six shows on the tour. The troupe toured together for six years beginning in January 2000 at Omaha, Nebraska before finishing in 2006 at the Warner Theatre in Washington D.C.

The tour that featured these four "good ole boys" proved to be such a hit that they recorded a live album in November 2001 and the first DVD called Blue Collar Comedy Tour: The Movie in the spring of 2003.



The Comedians of Comedy is a stand-up comedy tour featuring alternative comedians Patton OswaltZach GalifianakisBrian Posehn and Maria Bamford that was documented in a 2005 film and 2005 Comedy Central television series of the same name, both directed by Michael Blieden. After Zach Galifianakis left the tour, he was replaced by comedian Eugene Mirman.



The Original Kings of Comedy is a 2000 American stand-up comedy film directed by Spike Lee and featuring the comedy routines of Steve HarveyD.L. HughleyCedric the Entertainer, and Bernie Mac



Apostles of Comedy is an inventive mix of four comedians and the exploration into their lives as men of faith and how they express their faith through their comedy. The film is a weave of live performances and documentary footage following the comedians on stage, in their homes, churches and in a "no-holds-barred" conversation. Apostles of Comedy gives viewers a deep appreciation for the way these men have gone against the grain of the mainstream comedy industry. When the comedians are in front of an audience, there are no cheap or crude jokes. These men make their living with carefully and cleverly crafted comedy that brings honest and hearty laughter without shame or guilt. While their humor may be squeaky clean and imbued with faith and inspiration, it never loses its edge, which makes it relevant to today's audience.



Although the poem has four stanzas, only the first is commonly sung today.

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Our_Lady_of_Fátima

  2.  Socci, Antonio (2006). Il Quarto Segreto di Fátima ("The Fourth Secret of Fátima" – (in Italian). Italy.

  3. Jump up ^

I listened to a teaching company course where they discussed the miracle of Midway in World War II where planes went through the clouds and accidentally went over four Japanese ships and sunk the four main Japanese ships. The fourth ship sunk differently and later.



The Wright Flyer (often retrospectively referred to as Flyer I or 1903 Flyer) was the first successful heavier-than-air powered aircraft. It was designed and built by the Wright brothers. They flew it four times on December 17, 1903, near Kill Devil Hills, about four miles south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, US. Today, the airplane is exhibited in the National Air and Space Museum in Washington DC.

Taking turns, the Wrights made four brief, low-altitude flights that day. The flight paths were all essentially straight; turns were not attempted. Each flight ended in a bumpy and unintended "landing". The last flight, by Wilbur, was 852 feet (260 m) in 59 seconds, much longer than each of the three previous flights of 120, 175 and 200 feet. The landing broke the front elevator supports, which the Wrights hoped to repair for a possible four-mile (6 km) flight to Kitty Hawk village. Soon after, a heavy gust picked up the Flyer and tumbled it end over end, damaging it beyond any hope of quick repair. It was never flown again.

Distant view of the Wright airplane just after landing, taken from the starting point, with wing-rest in center of picture and launching rail at right. This flight, the fourth and final of December 17, 1903, was the longest: 852 feet (260 m) covered in 59 seconds.[8][9] Photo first published 1908



In 1844, William II of the Netherlands urged Japan to open, but was rejected. On July 8, 1853, the U.S. Navy steamed four warships into the bay at Edo and threatened to attack if Japan did not begin trade with the West. Their arrival marked the reopening of the country to political dialogue after more than two hundred years of self-imposed isolation. Trade with Western nations would not come until the Treaty of Amity and Commerce more than five years later.

This poem is a complex set of puns (in Japanese, kakekotoba or "pivot words"). Taihei (泰平) means "tranquil"; Jōkisen (上喜撰) is the name of a costly brand of green tea containing large amounts of caffeine; and shihai (四杯) means "four cups", so a literal translation of the poem is:

Awoken from sleep
of a peaceful quiet world
by Jokisen tea;
with only four cups of it
one can't sleep even at night.

There is an alternative translation, based on the pivot words. Taihei can refer to the "Pacific Ocean" (太平); jōkisen also means "steam-powered ships" (蒸気船); and shihai also means "four vessels". The poem, therefore, has a hidden meaning:

The steam-powered ships
break the halcyon slumber
of the Pacific;
a mere four boats are enough
to make us lose sleep at night.



The São Gabriel was the flagship of Vasco da Gama's armada on his first voyage to India in 1497-1499.

Velho indicated that the sources agreed that the armada contained four ships, but there was disagreement about the names. These were the other three ships according to him:[1]

  • The São Rafael: The sister ship of the São Gabriel, built by the same builder at the same time for the same purpose. It was of similar dimensions as the São Gabriel. Paulo da Gama, Vasco's brother, was the captain, other people include João de Coimbra, pilot, and João de Sá, clerk.

  • The Bérrio, also known as the São Miguel: This caravel was named after its former owner. Only carrying lateen sails, it was the smallest and swiftest of the convoy with a tonnage of 50t-90t. Key people were: Nicolau Coelho, captain, Pedro Escobar pilot, and Álvaro de Braga, clerk.

  • A supply ship, name São Miguel: The ship was a carrack of about 110 or 200 tons with Gonçalo Nunes as captain.


The Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo) is a 1632 Italian-language book by Galileo Galilei comparing the Copernican system with the traditional Ptolemaic system.


Columbus was an Italian-born navigator sailing for the Crown of Castile in search of a westward route to Asia, to access the sources of spices and other oriental goods. This led to the discovery of a New World between Europe and Asia. Columbus made a total of four voyages to the Americas between 1492 and 1502, setting the stage for the European exploration and colonization of the Americas, ultimately leading to the Columbian Exchange.





Two letters attributed to Vespucci were published during his lifetime. Mundus Novus (New World) was a Latin translation of a lost Italian letter sent from Lisbon to Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici. It describes a voyage to South America in 1501–1502. Mundus Novus was published in late 1502 or early 1503 and soon reprinted and distributed in numerous European countries.[6] Lettera di Amerigo Vespucci delle isole nuovamente trovate in quattro suoi viaggi (Letter of Amerigo Vespucci concerning the isles newly discovered on his four voyages), known as Lettera al Soderini or just Lettera, was a letter in Italian addressed to Piero Soderini. Printed in 1504 or 1505, it claimed to be an account of four voyages to the Americas made by Vespucci between 1497 and 1504. A Latin translation was published by the German Martin Waldseemüller in 1507 in Cosmographiae Introductio, a book on cosmography and geography, as Quattuor Americi Vespucij navigationes (Four Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci).[6]

On March 22, 1508, King Ferdinand made Vespucci chief navigator of Spain at a huge salary[7] and commissioned him to found a school of navigation, in order to standardize and modernize navigation techniques used by Iberian sea captains then exploring the world. Vespucci even developed a rudimentary, but fairly accurate method of determining longitude (which only more accurate chronometers would later improve upon).


The first known depiction of cannibalism in the New World. Engraving by Johann Froschauer for an edition of Amerigo Vespucci's Mundus Novus, published in Augsburg in 1505

In the 18th century, three unpublished familiar letters from Vespucci to Lorenzo de' Medici were rediscovered. One describes a voyage made in 1499–1500 which corresponds with the second of the "four voyages". Another was written from Cape Verde in 1501 in the early part of the third of the four voyages, before crossing the Atlantic. The third letter was sent from Lisbon after the completion of that voyage.[6]



Europeans had long conceptualized the Afro-Eurasian landmass as divided into the same three continents known today: EuropeAsia, and Africa. Once cosmographers realized that the New World was not connected to the Old (but before its true geography was fully mapped), they considered the Americas to be a single, fourth continent.




"Old maps lead you to strange and unexpected places, and none does so more ineluctably than the subject of this book: the giant, beguiling Waldseemüller world map of 1507." So begins this remarkable story of the map that gave America its name.


For millennia Europeans believed that the world consisted of three parts: Europe, Africa, and Asia. They drew the three continents in countless shapes and sizes on their maps, but occasionally they hinted at the existence of a "fourth part of the world," a mysterious, inaccessible place, separated from the rest by a vast expanse of ocean. It was a land of myth—until 1507, that is, when Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann, two obscure scholars working in the mountains of eastern France, made it real. Columbus had died the year before convinced that he had sailed to Asia, but Waldseemüller and Ringmann, after reading about the Atlantic discoveries of Columbus’s contemporary Amerigo Vespucci, came to a startling conclusion: Vespucci had reached the fourth part of the world. To celebrate his achievement, Waldseemüller and Ringmann printed a huge map, for the first time showing the New World surrounded by water and distinct from Asia, and in Vespucci’s honor they gave this New World a name: America. 



The Fourth Part of the World is the story behind that map, a thrilling saga of geographical and intellectual exploration, full of outsize thinkers and voyages. Taking a kaleidoscopic approach, Toby Lester traces the origins of our modern worldview. His narrative sweeps across continents and centuries, zeroing in on different portions of the map to reveal strands of ancient legend, Biblical prophecy, classical learning, medieval exploration, imperial ambitions, and more. In Lester’s telling the map comes alive: Marco Polo and the early Christian missionaries trek across Central Asia and China; Europe’s early humanists travel to monastic libraries to recover ancient texts; Portuguese merchants round up the first West African slaves; Christopher Columbus and Amerigo Vespucci make their epic voyages of discovery; and finally, vitally, Nicholas Copernicus makes an appearance, deducing from the new geography shown on the Waldseemüller map that the earth could not lie at the center of the cosmos. The map literally altered humanity’s worldview. 


One thousand copies of the map were printed, yet only one remains. Discovered accidentally in 1901 in the library of a German castle it was bought in 2003 for the unprecedented sum of $10 million by the Library of Congress, where it is now on permanent public display. Lavishly illustrated with rare maps and diagrams, The Fourth Part of the World is the story of that map: the dazzling story of the geographical and intellectual journeys that have helped us decipher our world.


Sociopolitical typology refers to four types, or levels, of a political organization: "band", "tribe", "chiefdom", and "state"created by the anthropologist Elman Service.



The ancient Hawaiian chiefdoms had as many as four social classes

The four biggest islands, the island of HawaiʻiMauiKauaʻi and Oʻahu were generally ruled by their own aliʻi nui (supreme ruler) with lower ranking subordinate chiefs called aliʻi ʻaimoku, ruling individual districts with land agents called konohiki.


The four class groupings on the island were the Ali’i, Kahuna, Maka’āinana, and the Kauā, and in each there class there were several subclasses


Ancient Hawaiʻi was a caste society developed from Polynesians. The main classes were:

  • Aliʻi. This class consisted of the high and lesser chiefs of the realms. They governed with divine power called mana.

  • Kahuna. Priests conducted religious ceremonies, at the heiau and elsewhere. Professionals included master carpenters and boatbuilders, chanters, dancers, genealogists, physicians and healers.

  • Makaʻāinana. Commoners farmed, fished, and exercised the simpler crafts. They labored not only for themselves and their families, but to support the chiefs and kahuna.

  • Kauwā. They are believed to have been war captives or the descendants of war captives. Marriage between higher castes and the kauwā was strictly forbidden. The kauwā worked for the chiefs and were often used as human sacrifices at the luakiniheiau. (They were not the only sacrifices; law-breakers of all castes or defeated political opponents were also acceptable as victims.).


The kahuna(priest/priestess, experts, craftsmen and canoe maker) as part of four professions practiced by the nobility



4×4=12 is the fifth studio album by Canadian record producer and DJ deadmau5, released internationally on 6 December 2010 by Virgin Records and a day later in the United States by Ultra Records and mau5trap Recordings. The album's title refers to a miscalculation made by deadmau5 on his Ustream channel, where he mistakenly said that his live setup of four banks of four "equals twelve".

The philosopher Charles Handy calls this concept the Johari House with four rooms. Room 1 is the part of ourselves that we see and others see. Room 2 is the aspects that others see but we are not aware of. Room 4 is the most mysterious room in that the unconscious or subconscious part of us is seen by neither ourselves nor others. Room 3 is our private space, which we know but keep hiding from others.

Open or Arena: Adjectives that are selected by both the participant and his or her peers are placed into the Open or Arena quadrant. This quadrant represents traits of the subjects that both they themselves and their peers perceive.

Hidden or Façade: Adjectives selected only by subjects, but not by any of their peers, are placed into the Hidden or Façade quadrant, representing information about them their peers are either unaware of or that is not true but that they self-claim. It is then up to the subject to disclose this information or not, or it may be a delusion.

Blind: Adjectives that are not selected by subjects but only by their peers are placed into the Blind Spot quadrant. These represent information that the subject is not aware of, but others perceive, and they can decide whether and how to inform the individual about these "blind spots".

Unknown: Adjectives that were not selected by either subjects or their peers remain in the Unknown quadrant, representing the participant's behaviors or motives that were not recognized by anyone participating. This may be because they do not apply or because there is collective ignorance of the existence of these traits.


Daniel Denison's model (1990) asserts that organizational culture can be described by four general dimensions – Mission, Adaptability, Involvement and Consistency. Each of these general dimensions is further described by the following three sub-dimensions:

  • Mission – Strategic Direction and Intent, Goals and Objectives and Vision

  • Adaptability – Creating Change, Customer Focus and Organizational Learning

  • Involvement – Empowerment, Team Orientation and Capability Development

  • Consistency – Core Values, Agreement, Coordination/Integration

Kim Cameron and Robert Quinn (1999) conducted research on organizational effectiveness and success. Based on the Competing Values Framework, they developed the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument that distinguishes four culture types.

Competing values produce polarities like flexibility vs. stability and internal vs. external focus – these two polarities were found to be most important in defining organizational success. The polarities construct a quadrant with four types of culture:

  • Clan culture (internal focus and flexible) – A friendly workplace where leaders act like father figures.

  • Adhocracy culture (external focus and flexible) – A dynamic workplace with leaders that stimulate innovation.

  • Market culture (external focus and controlled) – A competitive workplace with leaders like hard drivers

  • Hierarchy culture (internal focus and controlled) – A structured and formalized workplace where leaders act like coordinators.


  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_culture

Organisational Culture is a set of shared values, often seen as the unwritten rules that guide employees towards acceptable and rewardable behavior. 


Roger Harrison’s four-culture typology theory describes four types of organsiational culture and are as follows:

A Power Culture is when an organisation concentrates managerial power among a few. Power Cultures have few rules and little bureaucracy, decisions are centralized around one key individual.

In a Role Culture, people have clearly delegated authorities within a highly defined structure. Typically, these organizations form hierarchical bureaucracies. Power derives from a person's position and little scope exists for expert power. 


A Task Culture, teams are formed to solve particular problems. Power derives from expertise as long as a team requires expertise. These cultures often feature the multiple reporting lines of a matrix structure. 


And Atomistic (Power) Culture exists where all individuals believe themselves superior to the organization. This is not a favorable approach and could hinder a firm, because the concept of an organization suggests that a group of like-minded individuals pursue the organizational goals.


Charles Handy


Charles Handy (1976), popularized Roger Harrison (1972) with linking organizational structure to organizational culture. The described four types of culture are:[42]

  1. Power culture: concentrates power among a small group or a central figure and its control is radiating from its center like a web. Power cultures need only a few rules and little bureaucracy but swift in decisions can ensue.

  2. Role culture: authorities are delegated as such within a highly defined structure. These organizations form hierarchical bureaucracies, where power derives from the personal position and rarely from an expert power. Control is made by procedures (which are highly valued), strict roles descriptions and authority definitions. These organizations have consistent systems and are very predictable. This culture is often represented by a "Roman Building" having pillars. These pillars represent the functional departments.

  3. Task culture: teams are formed to solve particular problems. Power is derived from the team with the expertise to execute against a task. This culture uses a small team approach, where people are highly skilled and specialized in their own area of expertise. Additionally, these cultures often feature the multiple reporting lines seen in a matrix structure.

  4. Person culture: formed where all individuals believe themselves superior to the organization. It can become difficult for such organizations to continue to operate, since the concept of an organization suggests that a group of like-minded individuals pursue organizational goals. However some professional partnerships operate well as person cultures, because each partner brings a particular expertise and clientele to the firm.

Deal and Kennedy (1982) suggested 4 classifications of organisational culture, determined by a combination of two parameters: feedback (monetary, praise, reward) and risk (uncertainty).


In the Tough-Guy Macho culture, feedback is quick and the rewards are high.  This is typified in fast moving financial activities and in competitive team sports such as professional football.  It can be a very stressful culture in which to operate.


In the Work Hard/Play Hard culture, few risks are taken and feedback is rapid.  This is typified in large organizations which strive for high quality customer service. In the short term it can be an exciting culture in which to operate but the sense of excitement may be difficult to maintain.


In the Bet Your Company culture, big stakes decisions are taken but it may be years before the results are known. Typically, these might involve research and development projects which take years to come to fruition, such as oil prospecting.


In the Process culture, people become bogged down with how things are done and may lose focus on the bigger picture of what is to be achieved.  They may exhibit overly cautious bureaucratic tendencies but are nevertheless likely to produce consistent results, which is ideal in public services, etc.

The true meaning of David Ricardo’s four magic numbers

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The four numbers in David Ricardo’s example of comparative advantage have been traditionally interpreted as unit labor coefficients in the production of wine and cloth in UK and Portugal. A recent interpretation suggests that they represent instead the labor needed to produce the amounts of wine and cloth actually traded. Ricardo’s four numbers are shown to yield each country’s gains from trade by simply subtracting two of the numbers from the other two. Since the numbers also indicate each country’s comparative advantage, Ricardo established a close connection between comparative advantage and the gains from trade.




The four-leaf clover is a rare variation of the common three-leaf clover. According to tradition, such clovers bring good luck[citation needed]. In addition, each leaf is believed to represent something: the first is for faith, the second is for hope, the third is for love, and the fourth is for luck.[1]



The tetralemma is a figure that features prominently in the logic of India. It states that with reference to any a logical proposition X, there are four possibilities:

X (affirmation)

¬X (negation)

X∨¬X (both)

¬(X∨¬X)⟺X∧¬X⟺∅ (neither)

The history of fourfold negation, the Catuskoti (Sanskrit), is evident in the logico-epistemological tradition of India, given the categorical nomenclature Indian logic in Western discourse. Subsumed within the auspice of Indian logic, 'Buddhist logic' has been particularly focused in its employment of the fourfold negation, as evidenced by the traditions of Nagarjuna and the Madhyamaka, particularly the school of Madhyamaka given the retroactive nomenclature of Prasangika by the Tibetan Buddhist logico-epistemological tradition.

A variant of the tetralemma is used in the Ancient Greek philosophical school of PyrrhonismPyrrho includes it in his summary of his teachings, and Sextus Empiricus includes it among the Pyrrhonist Maxims.[1]



In logic, a four-valued logic is any logic with four truth values. Multiple such logics were invented to deal with various practical problems


Four-valued logic taught in technical schools is used to model signal values in digital circuits: the four values are 1, 0, Z and X. 1 and 0 stand for boolean true and false, Z stands for high impedance or open circuit and X stands for don't care (e.g., the value has no effect). This logic is itself a subset of the 9-valued logic standard of the IEEE called IEEE 1164 and implemented, e.g., in VHDL's std_logic.

Another four-valued logic is Belnap's relevance logic. Its possible values are true, false, both (true and false), and neither (true nor false). Belnap's logic is designed to cope with multiple information sources such that if only true is found then true is assigned, if only false is found then false is assigned, if some sources say true and others say false then both is assigned, and if no information is given by any information source then neither is assigned.

There is also a SAE J1939 standard, used for CAN data transmission in heavy road vehicles, which has four logical (boolean) values: False, True, Error Condition, and Not installed (represented by values 0–3). Error Condition means there is a technical problem obstacling data acquisition. The logics for that is for example True and Error Condition=Error Condition. Not installed is used for a feature that does not exist in this vehicle, and should be disregarded for logical calculation. On CAN, usually fixed data messages are sent containing many signal values each, so a signal representing a not-installed feature will be sent anyway.



Chatuṣkoṭi (SanskritDevanagari: चतुष्कोटि, Tibetan: མུ་བཞི, Wylie: mu bzhi) is a logical argument(s) of a 'suite of four discrete functions' or 'an indivisible quaternity' that has multiple applications and has been important in the Dharmic traditions of Indian logic, the Buddhist logico-epistemological traditions, particularly those of the Madhyamaka school, and in the skeptical Greek philosophy of Pyrrhonism.

Robinson (1957: pp. 302–303) states (negativism is employed in amplification of the Greek tradition of Philosophical skepticism):

A typical piece of Buddhist dialectical apparatus is the ...(catuskoti). It consists of four members in a relation of exclusive disjunction ("one of, but not more than one of, 'a,' 'b,' 'c,' 'd,' is true"). Buddhist dialecticians, from Gautama onward, have negated each of the alternatives, and thus have negated the entire proposition. As these alternatives were supposedly exhaustive, their exhaustive negation has been termed "pure negation" and has been taken as evidence for the claim that Madhyamika is negativism.[1]

In particular, the catuṣkoṭi is a "four-cornered" system of argumentation that involves the systematic examination and rejection of each of the 4 possibilities of a proposition, P:

  1. P; that is, being.

  2. not P; that is, not being.

  3. P and not P; that is, being and not being.

  4. not (P or not P); that is, neither being nor not being.​

McEvilley (2002: p. 495) maps an interesting case for mutual iteration and pervasion between Pyrrhonism and Madhyamika:

An extraordinary similarity, that has long been noticed, between Pyrrhonism and Mādhyamika is the formula known in connection with Buddhism as the fourfold negation (catuṣkoṭi) and which in Pyrrhonic form might be called the fourfold indeterminacy.[12]

In Pyrrhonism the fourfold indeterminacy is used as a maxim for practice. This maxim is also related to the shorter, "nothing more" (ou mallon) maxim used by Democritus

Four Extremes[edit]

The 'Four Extremes' (Tibetan: མཐའ་བཞི, Wylie: mtha' bzhi; Sanskrit: caturanta; Devanagari: चतुरन्त) [26] is a particular application of the Catuṣkoṭi:

  • Being (Wylie: yod)

  • Non-being (Wylie: med)

  • Both being and non-being (Wylie: yod-med)

  • Neither being and non-being (Wylie: yod-med min)[26]

Dumoulin et al. (1988, 2005: pp. 43–44), in the initially groundbreaking work on Zen which is now for the most part dated due to progress in scholarship (though still useful as the premier English work of comprehensive overview), model a particular formulation of the Catuṣkoṭi that approaches the Caturanta engaging the Buddhist technical term 'dharmas' and attribute the model to Nagarjuna:

If we focus on the doctrinal agreement that exists between the Wisdom Sūtras[27] and the tracts of the Mādhyamika we note that both schools characteristically practice a didactic negation. By setting up a series of self-contradictory oppositions, Nāgārjuna disproves all conceivable statements, which can be reduced to these four:

All things (dharmas) exist: affirmation of being, negation of nonbeing

All things (dharmas) do not exist: affirmation of nonbeing, negation of being

All things (dharmas) both exist and do not exist: both affirmation and negation

All things (dharmas) neither exist nor do not exist: neither affirmation nor negation

With the aid of these four alternatives (catuṣkoṭika: affirmation, negation, double affirmation, double negation), Nāgārjuna rejects all firm standpoints and traces a middle path between being and nonbeing. Most likely the eight negations, arranged in couplets in Chinese, can be traced back to Nāgārjuna: neither destruction nor production, neither annihilation nor permanence, neither unity nor difference, neither coming nor going.[28]

Alternate Four Limits/Four Extremes[edit]

A Mantrayana enumeration of the Four Limits or the Four Extremes within the Buddhadharma is also common. These four 'limits' are evident in the earliest sutras of the Theravadin of the First Turning, through the Second Turning philosophy of Nagarjuna and his disciples and commentators and also evident in the Third Turning as evidenced in the presentation of Padmasambhava. Padmasambhava in his 'Secret Instruction in a Garland of Vision' Tibetan: མན་ངག་ལྟ་བའི་ཕྲེང་བ, Wylie: man ngag lta ba'i phreng ba lists them as follows with the English rendering following Dowman (2003)[29] and Wylie following Norbu et al. (2001):[30]

  • the Hedonist' or 'Chalpas' Tibetan: ཕྱལ་པ, Wylie: phyal pa: does not perceive, ascribe to the view or realize that all events, dharmas, etc. have a cause and an effect;

  • the 'Atheist' or 'Gyangphenpas' Tibetan: རྒྱང་འཕེན་པ, Wylie: rgyang 'phen pa: unable to see or perceive past and future lives, the atheist toils for wealth and power in this lifetime alone. They engage in intrigue;

  • the 'Nihilist' or 'Murthugpas' Tibetan: མུར་ཐུག་པ, Wylie: mur thug pa: holds that there is no causality or causal relationship between events and dharmas. They are of the view that everything is adventitiously arisen due to chance and events and that dharmas dissipate and vanish into the void. Death is the ultimate cessation and there is no continuity between lives; and

  • the Eternalist' or 'Mutegpas' Tibetan: མུ་སྟེགས་པ, Wylie: mu stegs pa: holds to the view of an eternal, unchanging 'atman', where atman is often rendered as 'soul' in English. There is considerable diversity of the mechanics of causality with proponents of this view. Some perceive the atman as having a cause but not effect, an effect but no cause, or indeed a complex causality or causal relationship.

Each one of these extreme views, limits and binds the open, unbounded spaciousness of the natural mind.

4X is a genre of strategy-based video and board games in which players control an empire and "eXplore, eXpand, eXploit, and eXterminate". The term was coined by Alan Emrich in his September 1993 preview of Master of Orion for Computer Gaming World.[1] Since then, others have adopted the term to describe games of similar scope and design.


The term "4X" originates from a 1993 preview of Master of Orion in Computer Gaming World by Alan Emrich, in which he rated the game "XXXX" as a pun on the XXX rating for pornography. The four Xs were an abbreviation for "EXplore, EXpand, EXploit and EXterminate".[1] Other game commentators adopted the "4X" label to describe a game genre with specific gameplay conventions:[2][3][4]

  • Explore means players send scouts across a map to reveal surrounding territories.

  • Expand means players claim new territory by creating new settlements, or sometimes by extending the influence of existing settlements.

  • Exploit means players gather and use resources in areas they control, and improve the efficiency of that usage.

  • Exterminate means attacking and eliminating rival players. Since in some games all territory is eventually claimed, eliminating a rival's presence may be the only way to achieve further expansion.

These four elements of gameplay have been described as the four phases of a 4X computer game session.[5] These phases often overlap with each other and vary in length depending on the game design. For example, the Space Empiresseries and Galactic Civilizations II: Dark Avatar have a long expansion phase, because players must make large investments in research to explore and expand into every area.[6][7][8]



The division cycle of most cells consists of four coordinated processes: cell growth, DNA replication, distribution of the duplicated chromosomes to daughter cells, and cell division. In bacteria, cell growth and DNA replication take place throughout most of the cell cycle, and duplicated chromosomes are distributed to daughter cells in association with the plasma membrane. In eukaryotes, however, the cell cycle is more complex and consists of four discrete phases. Although cell growth is usually a continuous process, DNA is synthesized during only one phase of the cell cycle, and the replicated chromosomes are then distributed to daughter nuclei by a complex series of events preceding cell division. Progression between these stages of the cell cycle is controlled by a conserved regulatory apparatus, which not only coordinates the different events of the cell cycle but also links the cell cycle with extracellular signals that control cell proliferation.



In the absence of a large concentration of yolk, four major cleavage types can be observed in isolecithal cells (cells with a small even distribution of yolk) or in mesolecithal cells (moderate amount of yolk in a gradient) – bilateral holoblastic, radial holoblastic, rotational holoblastic, and spiral holoblastic, cleavage.[2]These holoblastic cleavage planes pass all the way through isolecithal zygotes during the process of cytokinesis. Coeloblastula is the next stage of development for eggs that undergo these radial cleavaging. In holoblastic eggs, the first cleavage always occurs along the vegetal-animal axis of the egg, the second cleavage is perpendicular to the first. From here, the spatial arrangement of blastomeres can follow various patterns, due to different planes of cleavage, in various organisms.

  • Bilateral

The first cleavage results in bisection of the zygote into left and right halves. The following cleavage planes are centered on this axis and result in the two halves being mirror images of one another. In bilateral holoblastic cleavage, the divisions of the blastomeres are complete and separate; compared with bilateral meroblastic cleavage, in which the blastomeres stay partially connected.

  • Radial

Radial cleavage is characteristic of the deuterostomes, which include some vertebrates and echinoderms, in which the spindle axes are parallel or at right angles to the polar axis of the oocyte.

  • Rotational

Mammals display rotational cleavage, and an isolecithal distribution of yolk (sparsely and evenly distributed). Because the cells have only a small amount of yolk, they require immediate implantation onto the uterine wall in order to receive nutrients.

Rotational cleavage involves a normal first division along the meridional axis, giving rise to two daughter cells. The way in which this cleavage differs is that one of the daughter cells divides meridionally, whilst the other divides equatorially.

  • Spiral

Spiral cleavage is conserved between many members of the lophotrochozoan taxa, referred to as Spiralia.[3] Most spiralians undergo equal spiral cleavage, although some undergo unequal cleavage (see below).[4] This group includes annelidsmolluscs, and sipuncula. Spiral cleavage can vary between species, but generally the first two cell divisions result in four macromeres, also called blastomeres, (A, B, C, D) each representing one quadrant of the embryo. These first two cleavages are oriented in planes that occur at right angles parallel to the animal-vegetal axis of the zygote.[3] At the 4-cell stage, the A and C macromeres meet at the animal pole, creating the animal cross-furrow, while the B and D macromeres meet at the vegetal pole, creating the vegetal cross-furrow.[5] With each successive cleavage cycle, the macromeres give rise to quartets of smaller micromeres at the animal pole.[6][7] The divisions that produce these quartets occur at an oblique angle, an angle that is not a multiple of 90°, to the animal-vegetal axis.[7] Each quartet of micromeres is rotated relative to their parent macromere, and the chirality of this rotation differs between odd and even numbered quartets, meaning that there is alternating symmetry between the odd and even quartets.[3] In other words, the orientation of divisions that produces each quartet alternates between being clockwise and counterclockwise with respect to the animal pole.[7] The alternating cleavage pattern that occurs as the quartets are generated produces quartets of micromeres that reside in the cleavage furrows of the four macromeres.[5] When viewed from the animal pole, this arrangement of cells displays a spiral pattern.


D quadrant specification through equal and unequal cleavage mechanisms. At the 4-cell stage of equal cleavage, the D macromere has not been specified yet. It will be specified after the formation of the third quartet of micromeres. Unequal cleavage occurs in two ways: asymmetric positioning of the mitotic spindle, or through the formation of a polar lobe (PL).

Specification of the D macromere and is an important aspect of spiralian development. Although the primary axis, animal-vegetal, is determined during oogenesis, the secondary axis, dorsal-ventral, is determined by the specification of the D quadrant.[7] The D macromere facilitates cell divisions that differ from those produced by the other three macromeres. Cells of the D quadrant give rise to dorsal and posterior structures of the spiralian.[7] Two known mechanisms exist to specify the D quadrant. These mechanisms include equal cleavage and unequal cleavage.

In equal cleavage, the first two cell divisions produce four macromeres that are indistinguishable from one another. Each macromere has the potential of becoming the D macromere.[6] After the formation of the third quartet, one of the macromeres initiates maximum contact with the overlying micromeres in the animal pole of the embryo.[6][7] This contact is required to distinguish one macromere as the official D quadrant blastomere. In equally cleaving spiral embryos, the D quadrant is not specified until after the formation of the third quartet, when contact with the micromeres dictates one cell to become the future D blastomere. Once specified, the D blastomere signals to surrounding micromeres to lay out their cell fates.[7]

In unequal cleavage, the first two cell divisions are unequal producing four cells in which one cell is bigger than the other three. This larger cell is specified as the D macromere.[6][7] Unlike equally cleaving spiralians, the D macromere is specified at the four-cell stage during unequal cleavage. Unequal cleavage can occur in two ways. One method involves asymmetric positioning of the cleavage spindle.[7] This occurs when the aster at one pole attaches to the cell membrane, causing it to be much smaller than the aster at the other pole.[6] This results in an unequal cytokinesis, in which both macromeres inherit part of the animal region of the egg, but only the bigger macromere inherits the vegetal region.[6] The second mechanism of unequal cleavage involves the production of an enucleate, membrane bound, cytoplasmic protrusion, called a polar lobe.[6]This polar lobe forms at the vegetal pole during cleavage, and then gets shunted to the D blastomere.[5][6] The polar lobe contains vegetal cytoplasm, which becomes inherited by the future D macromere.[7]

D quadrant specification through equal and unequal cleavage mechanisms. At the 4-cell stage of equal cleavage, the D macromere has not been specified yet. It will be specified after the formation of the third quartet of micromeres. Unequal cleavage occurs in two ways: asymmetric positioning of the mitotic spindle, or through the formation of a polar lobe (PL).





The identity of the organs present in the four floral verticils is a consequence of the interaction of at least three types of gene products, each with distinct functions

The ABC model of flower development was first formulated by George Haughn and Chris Somerville in 1988.[9] It was first used as a model to describe the collection of genetic mechanisms that establish floral organ identity in the Rosids, as exemplified by Arabidopsis thaliana, and the Asterids, as demonstrated by Antirrhinum majus. Both species have four verticils (sepals, petals, stamens and carpels), which are defined by the differential expression of a number of homeotic genes present in each verticil. 

A diagram illustrating the ABC model. Class A genes affect sepals and petals, class B genes affect petals and stamens, class C genes affect stamens and carpels. In two specific whorls of the floral meristem, each class of organ identity genes is switched on.


The morphology of most Angiosperm flowers is based on four whorls:

  1. the calyx, a whorl of sepals at the base, above which are

  2. the corolla, a whorl of petals,

  3. the androecium, a whorl of stamens (each comprising a filament and an anther), and

  4. the gynoecium, a whorl of the female parts of a flower: the stigmastyle and ovary.



A tree is a tall plant with a trunk and branches made of wood. Trees can live for many years. The oldest tree ever discovered is approximately 5,000 years old. The four main parts of a tree are the roots, the trunk, the branches, and the leaves.



The two intersecting continuums create quadrants. The quadrants are the four combinations of perceptual qualities and ordering abilities based on dominance.

By combining four types of preferences the following categories of styles are formed:

  1. Concrete Sequential (CS)

  2. Concrete Random (CR)

  3. Abstract Random (AR)

  4. Abstract Sequential (AS)

On the sacred swastika sight, the guy talks about the 16 rays of the Mandelbrot Set.



The Fourth World is an extension of the Three-World Model, used variably to refer to

  1. Sub-populations socially excluded from global society;

  2. Hunter-gatherer, nomadic, pastoral, and some subsistence farming peoples living beyond the modern industrial norm.[1]

  3. Sub-populations existing in a First World country, but with the living standards of those of a Third World, or developing country.

The term is not commonly accepted and "Fourth World" has also been used to refer to other parts of the world in relation to the Three-World Model.


"Fourth World" is a storyline told through a metaseries of interconnecting comic book titles written and drawn by Jack Kirby, and published by DC Comics from 1970 to 1973. Although they were not marketed under this title until the August–September 1971 issues of New Gods and Forever People, the term Fourth World or Jack Kirby's Fourth World has gained usage in the years since.


The shift from the "war on terror" to "World War IV" may seem semantic, but in subtle ways it fundamentally recasts not only the conflict we're in today but the one we fought for almost 50 years against the Soviet Union. To believe the United States is fighting World War IV, after all, you have to believe that during the second half of the last century, we fought World War III. 

In 2004 neoconservative commentator Norman Podhoretz proposed that the Cold War might rightly be called World War III.[50] In 2011 on CNBC's Kudlow and Company, host Lawrence Kudlow, discussing a book by former deputy Under-Secretary of Defense Jed Babbin, agreed with Podhoretz, adding, "World War IV is the terror war, and war with China would be World War V."

The so-called "War on Terror" that began with the September 11 attacks has been claimed by some to be World War III[55][56] or sometimes as World War IV.[57]Others have disparaged such claims as "distorting American history." While there is general agreement amongst historians regarding the definitions and extent of the first two World Wars, namely due to the unmistakable global scale of aggression and self-destruction of these two wars, a few have claimed that a "World War" might now no longer require such worldwide and large scale aggression and carnage. Still such claims of a new "lower threshold of aggression," that might now be sufficient to qualify a war as a "World War" have not gained such widespread acceptance and support as the definitions of the first two World Wars have received amongst historians.

In 1949, after the unleashing of nuclear weaponry at the end of WWII, physicist Albert Einstein suggested that any outcome of a possible WWIII would be so dire as to revert mankind back to the Stone Age. When asked by journalist Alfred Werner, what types of weapons Einstein believed World War III might be fought with, Einstein warned, "I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones". By inference, it must be deduced here that Einstein assumed that World War III would either exterminate, or else nearly exterminate the human race (presumably due to nuclear warfare).


Various former government officials, politicians, authors, and military leaders (including the following people: James Woolsey[8] Alexandre de Marenches,[9] Eliot Cohen,[10] and Subcomandante Marcos[11]) have attempted to apply the labels of the “Third World War” and “Fourth World War” to various past and present global wars since the closing of the Second World War, for example, the Cold War and the War on Terror, respectively. Among these are former American, French, and Mexican government officials, military leaders, politicians, and authors: Despite their efforts, none of these wars are commonly deemed world wars.




In 1953, the second part appeared. Here Gebser looked back into our human past, identifying and clarifying for us other similar fundamental mutations of consciousness. He distinguished four in all: the archaic structure, the magical structure, the mythical structure, and the mental structure (out of which emerged, as its deficient form, the rational consciousness during the Renaissance).



Mode of consciousness means perception. When we have a social or collectivised mode of consciousness or perception, we have a distinct and definable civilisation or society. Gebser has identified four such civilisational types which he calls Archaic, Magical, Mythical, and Mental-Rational. These are described as being “structures of consciousness” which are, in effect, modes of perception.



The term Great Awakening can refer to several periods of religious revival in American religious history. Historians and theologians identify three or four waves of increased religious enthusiasm occurring between the early 18th century and the late 19th century. Each of these "Great Awakenings" was characterized by widespread revivals led by evangelical Protestantministers, a sharp increase of interest in religion, a profound sense of conviction and redemption on the part of those affected, an increase in evangelical church membership, and the formation of new religious movements and denominations


The Fourth Great Awakening is a debated concept that has not received the acceptance of the first three. Advocates such as economist Robert Fogel say it happened in the late 1960s and early 1970s.[17]

Mainline Protestant denominations weakened sharply in both membership and influence while the most conservative religious denominations (such as the Southern Baptists and Missouri Synod Lutherans) grew rapidly in numbers, spread across the United States, had grave internal theological battles and schisms, and became politically powerful.[18]



In 1922, Aimee Semple McPherson (1890-1944), an evangelist known as "Sister Aimee", explains for the first time its definition of the term Foursquare Gospel (theological concept "Full Gospel"). [1] According to chapter 1 of Book of Ezekiel, Ezekiel had a vision of God as revealed to be four different aspects: a man, a lion, an ox and an eagle. It also represents the four aspects of the Department of Christ; Savior, Baptizer with the Holy Spirit, Healer and Soon-coming King. This will be the vision and the name that she will give at Foursquare Church, founded in 1923 to Los Angeles.[2] Los Angeles was her center of operations, and Angelus Temple, seating 5,300 people, was opened in Echo Park in 1923.[3] The attendance has become a megachurch with 10 000 people. [4] McPherson was a flamboyant celebrity in her day, participating in publicity events, such as weekly Sunday parades through the streets of Los Angeles, along with the mayor and movie stars, directly to Angelus Temple. She built the temple, as well as what is now known as Life Pacific College adjacent to it, on the northwest corner of land that she owned in the middle of the city.


The Jesuit paleontologist and philosopher Teilhard de Chardin distinguished the following four stages of planetary evolution.: 

  • geosphere - the inanimate Earth

  • biosphere - life on Earth

  • noosphere - human consciousness

  • Omega - collective divinisation


Wilber is constructing a developmental stage model in order to rationally reconstruct the higher stages of transpersonal or contemplative development - stages that continue naturally or normally beyond the ego. He points out four stages:

(1) The psychic stage is associated with Nature Mysticism and the Worldsoul and Worldprocess. Nature is an expression of the spirit, e.g. Ralph Waldo Emerson.
(2) The subtle stage with deity mysticism, nature mysticism gives way to Deity Mysticism – the union of the whole soul with God, e.g. St. Teresa of Avila.
(3) The causal stage with Formless Mysticism or Emptiness, e.g. Meister Eckhard. In the subtle level, the Soul and God unite. In the causal level, the Soul and God are both transcended in the prior identity of Godhead. Or pure formless awareness, pure consciousness as such, the pure Self as pure Spirit (Atman = Brahman). This pure formless Spirit is said to be the Goal and Summit and Source of all manifestations. And that is the causal. Wilber cites also Ramana Maharishi as example. He explains the Advaita position rather succinctly. He suggests that Sankara makes three major statements: 1. Brahman is real. 2. The universe is unreal. 3. The universe is brahman. The third statement is meant to explain the significance of the first two. This world is unreal as such, that is, as the world, but is real in so far as it is seen as non-different from brahman – the ground of existence.
(4) The nondual presence with Nondual Mysticism, which is impossible to describe, therefore Wilber reflects upon and repeats the essential wisdom of the nondual traditions: Form is Emptiness and Emptiness is Form. Prior to the split between inside and outside, prior to seer and seen, prior to the rise of the worlds, everpresent as pure Presence, the simple feeling of being: emty awareness in which all worlds arise, ceaselessly. The All is Emptiness. Emptiness is freely manifesting. Freely manifesting is self-liberating. Abide as Emptiness, emprace all Form. The liberation is in the Emptiness, never finally in the Form. Nagarjuna thinks every possible conceivable category to its ultimate end. And always reaches the same conclusion. They contradict each other. And when you insist further, they fall apart. What remains is Emptiness, formless Infinite. When Wilber is asked if there is an absolute omega point, towards which history and cosmogenesis are leading, Wilber’s answers become paradoxical. And that is god so. Ultimately we can enter only a tiny little bit into the realm of paradoxical logic. Wilber’s try to fusion Advaita Vedanta non-dualism with Buddhist Emptiness in this way is an innovative way. But it is also typically Indian: the dialectic of atman and anatman. Or is this insight not so new? – “Only, the positive and synthetic teaching of the Upanishads beheld Sat [being] and Asat [not-being] not as opposites destructive of each other, but as the last antinomy through which we look up to the Unowable.” (Aurobindo, 1920/1990: 41). (But this is of course strictly against classical European thought, like for instance Leibniz: Something can not be and be-not at the same time!) N.B. In Buddhism there is no first cause - just emptiness. All is constantly changing. In Advaita Vedanta Hinduism there is a first cause – Brahman. And nothing is really changing. Both speak of maya-illusion. The question is only what is behind the veil of maya? – Eternal emptiness or eternal Brahman?



The fourth wave of feminism refers to various, conflicting assessments of recent developments within the feminist movement. The definition and boundaries of the term are currently much contested. In 2005, Pythia Peay first argued for the existence of a fourth wave of feminism, combining justice with religious spirituality.[1] However, this spiritual component is not present in most other definitions for the term, which tend instead to focus on technological components. Jennifer Baumgardner identifies fourth-wave feminism as starting in 2008 and continuing into the present day.[2] In her view fourth-wave feminism was inspired partly by Take Our Daughters to Work Days, incorporates online resources such as social media, in turn inspired the Doula Project for children's services and inspired after-abortion talk lines, pursuit of reproductive justiceplus-size fashion support, transgender support, and sex work acceptance; and led to developing media including Feministing, Racialicious, blogs, and Twittercampaigns.[3] Researcher Diana Diamond defines fourth-wave feminism as a movement that "combines politicspsychology, and spirituality in an overarching vision of change." [4] Kira Cochrane, author of All the Rebel Women: The Rise of the Fourth Wave of Feminism,[5] defines fourth-wave feminism as a movement that is connected through technology.[6][7] In a 2009 interview with The New York Times, feminist author Jessica Valenti was asked whether or not she considered herself a third wave feminist, where she responded, "I don’t much like the terminology, because it never seems very accurate to me. I know people who are considered third-wave feminists who are 20 years older than me." After the interviewer's suggestion that perhaps feminism had moved forward into a fourth wave, Valenti stated that maybe the fourth wave was online.

In 2012–2013, in the U.K. and some other nations, according to Kira Cochrane, a fourth wave was active. In an article she wrote, Kira describes that the fourth wave focuses on inequality manifesting in "street harassment, sexual harassment, workplace discrimination[,] ... body-shaming",[23] media images, "online misogyny",[23] "assault[s] on public transport",[23]and intersectionality, relying on social media technology for communication and online petitioning for organizing, and sharing with prior waves a perception that individual experiences are shared and thus can have political solutions.[23] According to Cochrane, organizations and websites included the Everyday Sexism Project and UK Feminista, events included Reclaim the NightOne Billion Rising, and "a Lose the Lads' mags protest",[23]and "many of [the leaders] ... are in their teens and 20s".[23]




The 16th Street Baptist Church bombing was an act of white supremacist terrorism[1][2] which occurred at the African-American 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama on Sunday, September 15, 1963, when four members of the Ku Klux Klan planted at least 15 sticks of dynamite attached to a timing device beneath the steps located on the east side[3] of the church.[4]


Described by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. as "one of the most vicious and tragic crimes ever perpetrated against humanity",[5] the explosion at the church killed four girls and injured 22 others.

Teilhard de Chardin divides human evolution into four stages. The first he calls geosphere, the second, biosphere, the third, noosphere, and the fourth, christosphere. These four stages are immensely significant. They have to be understood. Understanding them will help you to understand the climax of the Heart Sutra.


In yoga we divide consciousness into four stages. They are very, very relevant to de Chardin’s division. The first is sushupti, deep sleep. The geosphere corresponds to that. The geosphere is more like death than like life. That’s why matter appears to be dead. It is not. It is waiting for its life to grow, it is like a seed. It appears dead: it is waiting for its right moment to explode into life. But right now it is dead. There is no mind. Remember, in the last stage also there will be no mind again. A Buddha is in a state of no-mind, and the rock is also in the state of no-mind. Hence the significance of a stone statue: the meeting of two polarities. The rock being in a state of no-mind means the rock is still below mind. Buddha is in a state of no-mind: that means Buddha has gone beyond mind. There is a similarity, just as there is a similarity between a child and a saint. The child is below mind, the saint is beyond mind. The rock will have to go through all the turmoil of life the Buddha has passed through. He has gone and gone and gone, and gone beyond, utterly beyond. But there is a similarity: he again exists in a state of no-mind. He has become so fully conscious that the mind is not needed. The rock is so unconscious that the mind cannot exist. In the rock the unconscious is absolute; hence the mind is not possible. In the Buddha the consciousness is absolute and the mind is not needed. Let me explain it to you; it is one of the most important things to learn, to understand.

De Chardin calls it ‘the omega point’, Buddha calls it nirvana, Jainas call it moksha, Christ calls it ‘God the Father’. These are different names. This whole sutra is concerned with the movement from the third to the fourth, from the noosphere to the christosphere, from intellect to intelligence, from self-consciousness to no self-consciousness. The third is like waking, ordinary waking, and the fourth is what Patanjali calls turiya, ‘the fourth’. He has not given it any name, and that seems to be very beautiful. Call it ‘christosphere’, and it looks Christian; call it ‘Krishnasphere’, and it looks Hindu; call it Buddhasphere, and it looks Buddhist. Patanjali is very, very pure; he simply calls it ‘the fourth’. That contains everything. He has not given it a particular name. For three he gives names because they have forms, and wherever form is, name is relevant. The formless cannot have any name—turiya, ‘the fourth’.

This whole Prajnaparamita Sutra is about the movement from the third to the fourth. Sariputra is at the peak of the third: the noosphere—reflection, thinking, self-consciousness. He has traveled to the uttermost into the third; he has reached the maximum of it. There is no more to it. He’s standing on the boundary line.



Teilhard de Chardin sees this evolution proceeding through a series of four stages that correspond with the four 'books' contained in The Phenomenon of Man. We can describe these stages as: matter, life, humanity, and Christ; or perhaps, the cosmic,

If evolution progresses (which, as we saw above, is not guaranteed) it must progress along the lines of this increased personalization, that is, it must culminate in Omega Point.  Even as a cell is more than the sum of its molecules, or a plant more than the sum of its cells, so too Omega is more than the sum of its persons.  Teilhard catalogues four necessary and novel attributes of this Omega Point:[91]

1.     Actuality:  Omega is not an ideal nor a potential, but is rather, ‘present’ and ‘real’.  Though it arises out the noosphere, it has its own ontological reality like consciousness which arose out of the biosphere but has its own reality.

2.     Irreversibility:  Each of the thresholds we have encountered has proven to be irreversible, a once for all event that may be destroyed but cannotbe undone (e.g. thought can be destroyed if humanity destroys itself, but will not be undone apart from such a cataclysm).  Omega however, escapes from even the potential of destruction by escaping totally from the forces of decay.  Because of this it inspires hope and action and leads us to deduce a third attribute: 

3.     Autonomy:  Omega is the terminus of evolution, the point on the top of the pyramid of space and time.  As such, it transcends both space and time.  We saw radial energy progressively gaining increased liberation from tangential decay.  At Omega Point, tangential energy is shed completely.  Though the earth will, in keeping with entropy, one day perish, the Omega Point will not.  “Omega must,” says Teilhard, “be independent of the collapse of the forces with which evolution is woven.”[92]

4.     Transcendence:  Looked at from the historical process, Omega “only reveals half of itself,” says Teilhard.  “While being the last term of its series it is also outside all series.  Not only does it crown, but it closes.”[93]  Escaping time and space, Omega is able to be simultaneously present at all times and at all spaces.  Here is the great secret of evolution, long hidden but now revealed: Omega is the Prime Mover ahead.[94]  The radial energy of evolution (what we have learned is really love) has been all along the attraction of Point Omega. 



By the 1960s, Farmer was known as "one of the Big Four civil rights leaders in the 1960s, together with King, NAACP chief Roy Wilkins and Urban League head Whitney Young."


As one of the founders of the Congress of Racial Equality in 1942, Farmer was called one of the Big Four civil rights leaders in the 1960s, with King, NAACP chief Roy Wilkins and Urban League head Whitney Young. Farmer was the last surviving member of the group.



Rodney Glen King (April 2, 1965 – June 17, 2012) was a taxi driver who became internationally known after a tape was released of him being beaten on March 3, 1991, by Los Angeles Police Department officers following a high-speed car chase. A witness, George Holliday, videotaped much of the beating from his balcony, and sent the footage to local news station KTLA. The footage shows four officers surrounding King, several of them striking him repeatedly, while other officers stood by. Parts of the footage were aired around the world, and raised public concern about police treatment of minorities in the United States.

Four officers were charged with assault with a deadly weapon and use of excessive force. Three were acquitted of all charges. The jury acquitted the fourth officer of assault with a deadly weapon but failed to reach a verdict on the use of excessive force. The jury deadlocked at 8–4 in favor of acquittal at the state level. Within hours of the acquittals, the 1992 Los Angeles riots started, based on outrage about the verdicts by African Americans. It lasted six days and during which 55 people were killed and more than 2,000 were injured; it ended only after the governor ordered in the California national guard to re-establish control.



The Congress of Racial Equality or CORE is a U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role for African-Americans in the Civil Rights Movement. Founded in 1942, CORE was one of the "Big Four" civil rights organizations, along with the SCLC, the SNCC, and the NAACP. Though still extant, CORE has been much less influential since the end of the 1955-1968 civil rights movement.


The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded in 1942 as a civil rights organization in Chicago, Illinois. At some time CORE moved its office to New York, New York. CORE was one of the "Big Four" civil rights organizations, along with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)




On February 1, 1960, four African American college students sat down at a lunch counter at Woolworth's in Greensboro, North Carolina, and politely asked for service. Their request was refused. When asked to leave, they remained in their seats.



The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was founded in April 1960, by young people who had emerged as leaders of the sit-in protest movement initiated on February 1 of that year by four black college students in Greensboro, North Carolina



The project was organized by the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), a coalition of the Mississippi branches of the four major civil rights organizations (SNCCCORENAACP and SCLC). Most of the impetus, leadership, and financing for the Summer Project came from the SNCC. Robert Parris Moses (Bob Moses), SNCC field secretary and co-director of COFO, directed the summer project.[1]


The "Fifth Circuit Four" (or simply "The Four") were four judges of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit who, during the late 1950s, became known for a series of decisions (which continued into the late 1960s) crucial in advancing the civil and political rights of African Americans; in this they were opposed by fellow Fifth Circuit judge Ben Cameron, a strong advocate of states' rights. At that time, the Fifth Circuit included not only LouisianaMississippi, and Texas (the limits of its jurisdiction since October 1, 1981), but also AlabamaGeorgiaFlorida, and the Panama Canal Zone.

"The Four" were Chief Judge Elbert Tuttle and his three colleagues John Minor WisdomJohn Robert Brown, and Richard Rives. All but Rives were liberalRepublicans; Rives was a Democrat and, according to Jack Bass, an intimate of Supreme Court justice Hugo Black.



Four layers of the tabernacle (goats hair curtains were likely black instead of white).

There were two sets of coverings and two sets of curtains.

First covering, the badger skins. The badger skins used in the roofing of the tabernacle were likely not from a badger as we know them today, but some other animal such as a dolphin or sea cow. This formed the outer skin or roof of the tabernacle that would be visible. It would suffer abuse of hot sun, rain, hail, and other forces of nature continually forcing themselves upon the tabernacle, yet it protected the contents from exposure to any of these forces. It was therefore worn and ragged, probably not pleasant looking, but more utilitarian. Likewise, Christ, the protector and covering of those who trust in Him, He stretches himself from one end of the universe to the other in an effort of save His children. "He hath no form nor comeliness; and when we shall see him there is no beauty that we should desire him" (Isaiah 53:2, Mosiah 14:2).

Second covering, ram skin dyed red. These were placed under the badger skins as an additional layer. The ram is the animal of substitution or proxy, taking the place of another, as in the story of Abraham and Isaac and in the offerings made under the Mosaic Law. It is also the animal used in the consecration of the priesthood (see Exodus 29 and Leviticus 8). Christ is symbolized in the ram as he was consecrated from the foundations of the earth to be our great High Priest and foreordained to suffer and die for our sins. The red of the rams skins represented His blood. It is thought that Christ may have been born in early April, and under the Greek zodiacal system, His sign would have been Aires, the ram, which spans the 1st 30 degrees of celestial longitude. We are not told what type of skins were used to substitute for the fig leaves worn by Adam and Eve after they were driven from the Garden of Eden, but perhaps they were ram skins.

First curtain, goat hair. Curtains of stitched goat hair formed the walls of the (tent) Tabernacle. They were likely black as most all goats in the Middle East had black hair. Many depict these walls as white, representing purity. Black is more likely because it is the color of sin and death, and the absence of light. Goats were the sacrificial animal used in the sin offerings (Leviticus 9:3). Two goats were sacrificed on the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16:5-28). Sheep and goats represented saved and unsaved people (Matthew 25:32). Christ, although perfect, came in the likeness of (sinful) man (Romans 8:3). There were 11 such curtains. 11 is the number of disorganization (11 apostles after Judah's betrayal, 9/11, 11 stars in Joseph's dream). Christ disorganized the work of satan, the god of this world, and brought the possibility of salvation to all who would follow Him. In the structure of the tabernacle, all but one (1/11th) of these curtains was exposed to sight, the others (10/11ths) were hidden underneath the two layers of covering/roofing materials. So to is only 1/11th of Christ's mortal life visible to us; the short time around his birth and as a boy in the temple, and then between the his 30th and 33rd years. At age 30, John revealed Christ saying "Behold, the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world" (John 1:29). Truly, He is a pure and perfect offering for our sins.

Second curtain, fine cloth linen. This layer constituted what was seen from the interior of the Tabernacle's Holy Place, forming its walls and ceiling. They were made from finely twisted linens of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and had the designs of cherubim woven into them. These same colors are included in other fabric used in the Tabernacle: the gate, the door, the veil, and the High Priest's ephod. The colors are always listed in the same order, with the blended or harmonizing color of purple in the middle. Blue represents heaven, divinity, and grace. The sky is always blue, although we do not always see it that way because of clouds, pollution, or other obstructions, but Christ is always there, eternal, unchangeable. Blue represents Christ as the Son of God or Heaven. Skipping purple for a moment and focusing on scarlet. The name Adam comes from a root word meaning "red earth". Adam was made from the dust of the earth. We go from the blue heavens to the red earth. Christ was also born as a man on the earth, as a human, although with divine characteristics, thus scarlet can represent Christ as the Son among men or the Son of Man. Purple is made by mixing blue and scarlet. If we have both the divine and human in our Savior Christ, we have a Mediator. The colors were woven into fine linen, to create tapestries of cherubim. Cherubim serve as protection. They serve at the throne of God and protect both the gate to the Garden of Eden and the Tree of Life. They sit above the mercy seat, guarding the sprinkled blood. Inside the Tabernacle they become the ceilings and the walls. One looking up would see that they protected the sanctuary of the Tabernacle. There were 10 such curtains, sewn together (at their ends) in pairs of five. The number 10 is a divisible number, like the 10 commandments can be divided into five requiring our duty towards God and five our duty towards man or the 10 virgins with five being wise and five foolish. Christ is a divider of people: 1) He divides those who believe in Him from those who do not and 2) He divides us from the world and our old way of life and unites us unto Him. Holding the linen curtains together were 50 golden clasps. Those on the goat hair curtains were made of bronze, showing progression, as the metal increases in value as we move from outside in. These 50 clasps are along the ceiling of the Tabernacle and forms the border separating the Holy Place from the Holy of Holies. Fifty is the number of Pentecost. The Day of Pentecost came 50 days after Christ's crucifixion, the day after the seventh Sabbath. On this day, the Holy Ghost descended upon each disciple of Christ, who was strengthened and empowered by its presence. Entering into the Tabernacle's Holy Place contained much symbolism of the Holy Ghost, which will be covered in later posts.

So, in summary, the skin of the badger represented Christ's covering and protection for those who follow Him, the red dyed ram skin covering represented His atoning sacrifice for us where He is our substitute, and the goat hair covering represented Christ's offering for sin. Lastly, the cloth linen curtains represented Christ Himself, as the Mediator of the covenant between God and His People. The imagery of the Tabernacle is truly something we should contemplate to see the great love and order of our Father in Heaven.


North, South, and East Capitol Streets and The National Mall divide Washington, DC, into four sections or quadrants: Northwest, Northeast, Southwest, and Southeast. The nexus of the four quadrants is the US Capitol Building. See map below showing the quadrants:

The streets in DC run three ways: east-west, north-south, and diagonally. Lettered streets run east-west, numbered streets run north-south, and diagonal streets have state names.

The National Mall and East Capitol ST run west and east, respectively, away from the US Capitol so all the east-west lettered streets therefore run parallel to them.

Starting at the US Capitol, the first east-west streets north and south of the Capitol are named A ST, the second east-west streets north and south of the Capitol are named B ST, the third C ST, and so on. The street names run through to Y with the letters J, X, and Z skipped. J is skipped because the architect of the DC street system, Pierre L'enfant, thought that the letters I and J looked almost the same typed and when written were indistinguishable from each other. It would have been too confusing to have two street names that looked the same right next to each other. I ST is also referred to as Eye ST.

Once the alphabet to Y is exhausted, the street names are double syllable words from A to Y followed by triple syllable words A to Y followed by the names of trees and flowers. Sometimes, this system is referred to as the first, second, third, and fourth alphabets. See map below showing an example of lettered streets:

Le Quattro Volte (English: The Four Times) is an Italian film, made in 2010, about life in the remote mountain town of Caulonia, in southern Italy.


The film comprises four phases, or 'turns', following Pythagoras.[4] The turning of the phases occurs in Calabriawhere Pythagoras had his sect in Crotone. Pythagoras claimed he had lived four lives and this with his notion of metempsychosis is the structure of the film showing one phase and then turning into another phase. A famous anecdote is that Pythagoras heard the cry of his dead friend in the bark of a dog.[5]

  • The first turn is the human realm and is about an old goatherd who is quite sick and who takes medicine made from the dust from the church floor in water at night. This phase includes a long 8-minute shot of the procession of the villagers culminating in the dog and truck episode so the goats occupy the village.

  • The second turn is the animal realm and is a study of a young goat, from its birth onwards.

  • The third turn is the plant realm and is a study of a fir tree. Eventually the tree is chopped down to be displayed in the town square and an evocation of cultural memory.

  • The fourth turn shows the mineral realm as the tree is made into charcoal for the townspeople's fires.



Chua also argued that the memristor is the oldest known circuit element, with its effects predating the resistorcapacitor and inductor

According to the original 1971 definition, the memristor was the fourth fundamental circuit element, forming a non-linear relationship between electric charge and magnetic flux linkage.

Leon Chua postulated a new two-terminal circuit element characterized by a relationship between charge and flux linkage as a fourth fundamental circuit element.

The memristor definition is based solely on the fundamental circuit variables of current and voltage and their time-integrals, just like the resistorcapacitor and inductor. Unlike those three elements however, which are allowed in linear time-invariant or LTI system theory, memristors of interest have a dynamic function with memory and may be described as some function of net charge. There is no such thing as a standard memristor. Instead, each device implements a particular function, wherein the integral of voltage determines the integral of current, and vice versa. A linear time-invariant memristor, with a constant value for M, is simply a conventional resistor.[1] Manufactured devices are never purely memristors (ideal memristor), but also exhibit some capacitance and resistance.

Surya Mandir - 16 Steps of Puja



There are numerous forms of worship among Hindus, of which Puja is one of the more popular. The most widely accepted and followed system of Puja is the Shodasa – Upachara Puja, or 16 – Service worship.

The main purpose of this type of Puja is two-fold. Primarily it is to uplift the five senses of the worshiper, and by doing so elevate him to a higher level of consciousness that will promote good thoughts and actions. Secondarily it draws upon the Indian traditions of honoring a guest, wherein each upachara is a service to the deity who takes presence in the sculpture for the duration of the Puja.

  1. Dhyaana – Meditating on the deity that is being invoked.

  2. Aavaahana – Inviting the deity into the altar.

  3. Aasana – Giving the deity a seat.

  4. Paadya – Washing the deity’s feet with clean water.

  5. Arghya – Offering the deity water to rinse hands and mouth.

  6. Aachamana – Offering the deity water to drink.

  7. Snaana – Bathing the deity with various auspicious items.

  8. Vasthra – Dressing the deity with clean clothes.

  9. Yagnopaveetha – Offering the deity a clean sacred thread.

  10. Gandha – Spreading fresh sandalwood paste on the deity.

  11. Pushpa – Offering fresh flowers while chanting the deity’s names.

  12. Dhoopa – Spreading incense smoke throughout the altar.

  13. Deepa – Waving a lamp to illuminate the freshly decorated deity.

  14. Naivedya – Offering the deity food.

  15. Taambula ­– Offering the deity a refreshing mix of betel nut and leaves.

  16. Pradakshina & Namaskara – Circumambulating the altar and bidding farewell to the deity.



There are diverse number of Sanskaras in Hinduism, varying by texts between 12 and 18 in the Grhyasutras (Kalpa sastras). Of these, 16 are referred to as "Shodasha Samskaras" (Ṣoḍaśa Saṃskāra).

They range from the list of 40 sanskaras in the Gautama Dharmasutra from about the middle of 1st millennium BCE,[8] to 16 sanskaras in the Grhyasutra texts from centuries later


The 16 samskaras that Rishi Veda Vyas propounded are considered the most important rites of passage in a Hindu's life.

  1. Garbhadhana is the conception ritual for having healthy children. Lord Brahma or Prajapati is appeased by this ritual.

  1. Punswana is the fertilization ritual performed on the third month of pregnancy asking for life and safety of the fetus. Once again Lord Brahma is prayed to in this ceremony.

  2. Seemantonnayana ritual is observed in the penultimate month of pregnancy for safe and assured delivery of the baby. This is a prayer to the Hindu God Dhata.

  1. Jatkarma is ​a birth ceremony of the new-born baby. On this occasion, a prayer is observed for goddess Savita.

  2. Namkarana is the naming ceremony of the baby, which is observed 11 days after its birth. This gives the new-born an identity with which he or she will be associated all his life.

  3. Niskramana is the act of taking the four-month-old child out for the first time into the open to sunbathe. The Sun God Surya is worshiped.

  4. Annaprashana is the elaborate ceremony conducted when the child is fed cereal for the first time at the age of six months.

  5. Chudakarma or Keshanta karma is the ceremonious tonsuring of the head and Lord Brahma or Prajapati is prayed and offerings made to him. The baby's head is shaved off and the hair is ceremonially immersed in the river.

  6. Karnavedha is the ritual of having the ear pierced. These days it is mostly girls who have their ears pierced.

  7. Upanayana aka thread ceremony is the investiture ceremony of the sacred thread where Brahmin boys are adorned with a sacred thread hung from one shoulder and passed around their front and back. This day, Lord Indra is invoked and offerings are made to him.

  8. Vedarambha or Vidyarambha is observed when the child is initiated into study. In ancient times, boys were sent to live with their gurus in a 'gurugriha' or hermitage to study. Devotees pray to the Hindu God Apawaka on this occasion.

  1. Samavartana is the convocation or the commencement to the study of the Vedas.

  2. Vivaha is the lavish nuptial ceremony. After marriage, the individual enters the life of a 'grihastha' or conjugal life - the life of a householder. Lord Brahma is the deity of the day in the wedding ceremony.

  3. Awasthyadhana or Vivahagni Parigraha is a ceremony where the marrying couple encircles the sacred fire seven times. It is also known as 'Saptapadi.'

  4. Tretagnisangraha is the auspicious ritual that starts the couple on their domestic life.

  5. Antyeshti is the final rite of passage or Hindu funeral rite that is performed after death.


The Upanishads mention samskaras as a means to grow and prosper in all four aspects of human pursuit - Dharma (righteousness), Artha (wealth), Karma and Kama (work and pleasure), and Moksha (salvation).



Although the number of samskaras prescribed by various scriptures vary, we shall consider the sixteen that are a consensus among scholars:

Pre-natal Samskaras
(1) Garbhadan (Conception)
(2) Pumsavana (Engendering a male issue)
(3) Simantonayana (Hair-parting)

Childhood Samskaras
(4) Jatakarma (Birth rituals)
(5) Namakarana (Name-giving)
(6) Nishkrama (First outing)
(7) Annaprashana (First feeding)
(8) Chudakarma (or Chaul) (Shaving of head)
(9) Karnavedh (Piercing the earlobes)

Educational Samskaras
(10) Vidyarambha (Learning the alphabet)
(11) Upanayana (Sacred thread initiation)
(12) Vedarambha (Beginning Vedic study)
(13) Keshant (Godaan) (Shaving the beard)
(14) Samavartan (End of studentship)

Marriage Samskara
(15) Vivaha (Marriage Ceremony)

Death Samskara
(16) Antyeshti (Death rites).

The most traditionally accepted number is 16 and they are mentioned below





The first part of the book, the Critique of Aesthetic Judgment, discusses the four possible "reflective judgments": the agreeable, the beautiful, the sublime, and the good. Kant makes it clear that these are the only four possible reflective judgments, as he relates them to the Table of Judgments from the Critique of Pure Reason.


The genus Rattus proper contains 64 extant species.



The cruciform tail is an aircraft empennage configuration which, when viewed from the aircraft's front or rear, looks much like a cross


BAe Jetstream 31 with cruciform tail



Christian churches are commonly described as having a cruciform architecture. In Early ChristianByzantine and other Eastern Orthodox forms of church architecture this is likely to mean a tetraconch plan, a Greek cross, with arms of equal length or, later, a cross-in-square plan.

In the Western churches, a cruciform architecture usually, though not exclusively, means a church built with the layout developed in Gothic architecture. This layout comprises the following:

  • An east end, containing an altar and often with an elaborate, decorated window, through which light will shine in the early part of the day.

  • A west end, which sometimes contains a baptismal font, being a large decorated bowl, in which water can be firstly, blessed (dedicated to the use and purposes of God) and then used for baptism.

  • North and south transepts, being "arms" of the cross and often containing rooms for gathering, small side chapels, or in many cases other necessities such as an organ and toilets.

  • The crossing, which in later designs often was under a tower or dome.

In churches that are not oriented with the altar at the geographical east end, it is usual to refer to the altar end as "liturgical east" and so forth.

Another example of ancient cruciform architecture[1] can be found in Herod's temple, the second Jewish temple.


DNA can undergo transitions to form a cruciform shape, otherwise known as a Holliday junction. This structure is important for the critical biological processes of DNA recombination and repair mutations that occur in the cell.


The plain sword used by knights, distinctive due to the flat bar used as a guard. The overall shape of the sword when held point down is that of a cross.

It is believed this shape was encouraged by the church to remind Knights of their religion.[citation needed] It was however very popular due to the protection it offered to the hand and certain attacks that rely on the cross to trap the blade of the enemy. See Sword.

Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century



To this class belong the four great ancient churches of Rome:

  • Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, also called the Lateran Archbasilica, is the cathedral of the Bishop of Rome, the Pope. It is the only one called an "archbasilica". Its full official name is "Papal Archbasilica of the Most Holy Saviour and of Saints John the Baptist and the Evangelist at the Lateran, Cathedral of Rome".[8]

  • St. Peter's Basilica, also called the Vatican Basilica, is a major pilgrimage site, built over the burial place of Saint Peter. Perhaps the largest church in the world, it is used for most of the chief religious ceremonies in which the Pope participates. Its official name is the "Papal Basilica of Saint Peter in the Vatican".[9]

  • Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, also known as the Ostian Basilica because it is situated on the road that led to Ostia, is built over the burial place of Paul the Apostle. Its official name is the "Papal Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls".[10]

  • Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, also called the Liberian Basilica because the original building (not the present one) was attributed to Pope Liberius, is the largest church in Rome dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, hence its name of Saint Mary Major, i.e. the Greater. Its official name is the "Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major".[11]



Shankaracharya (IAST: Śaṅkarācārya, Shankara acharya) is a commonly used title of heads of monasteries called mathasin the Advaita Vedanta tradition. The title derives from Adi Shankara, an 8th-century CE reformer of Hinduism.[1] He is honored as Jagadguru, a title that was used earlier only to Krishna.

The popular view among historians[who?] is that there were four mathas (religious orders):



In the listings below:

  • "Shakti" refers to the Goddess worshipped at each location, all being manifestations of Dakshayani (Sati), Parvati or Durga;

  • "Body Part or Ornament" refers to the body part or piece of jewellery that fell to earth, at the location on which the respective temple is built.



Except for major ceremonial figures, most katcina figures originated in the late 19th century. The oldest known surviving figure dates back from the 18th century—it was a flat object with an almost indistinguishable shape that suggested a head and contained minimal body paint.[6]Kachina figures are generally separated into four stylistic periods: the Early Traditional, Late Traditional, Early Action, and Late Action periods.[7]

Early Traditional era (1850–1910)[edit]


Two Hopi Indian kachina dolls (male and female), ca.1900

The early forms of the katcina figure belonged to the Early Traditional Period. Only one piece of cottonwood root was used to carve the body, although facial features made from varying sources were occasionally glued on. The figures were no longer than 8–10 inches and only somewhat resembled human proportions. Sandpaper and wood finishing tools were generally unavailable to the Hopi in this era. In order to smooth out the rough carved surfaces, the figures were rubbed smooth with sandstone and the flaws in the cottonwood root were coated with kaolin clay.[8] Their surfaces were not as smooth as in later periods, and the paint was made of non water-resistant mineral and vegetable pigments. The figures in this period were stiff and only meant to be hung on the wall after ceremonies.[9] Starting around 1900, the figures began to have a more naturalistic look to them as a result of the white man’s interest and trade. The price of dolls in this period was on average about $0.25 (adjusted for today’s currency).[10]

Late Traditional era (1910–1930)[edit]

During the Late Traditional Period subtle changes began to take place towards the creation of more realistic–looking figures. They were more proportional and the carving and painting was much more detailed. Eastern tourist attraction to the Hopi reservation increased in popularity from 1910-1920 due to the increased interest in Native American culture.[11] The elders restricted the tourists from seeing the religious Kachina ceremonies, and consequently there was a notable decline in figures carving for commercial purposes.[12]

Early Action era (1930–1945)[edit]

In the beginning of the 20th century, oppressive agents such as Charles Burton tried to restrict the Hopis' religious and cultural rights.[13] However, in 1934, due to the Indian Reorganization Act, the Hopi people got back their religious freedom, and this thus renewed their interest in kachina figures carving.[14] The dolls began to have a slightly different look than that of the stiff figures from earlier periods. The arms were starting to become separated from the body and the heads became slightly overturned, putting the dolls in more of an action pose. Commercial and poster paints were used and the regalia became more organic, as some of the dolls were dressed in real clothing instead of clothing that was merely painted on.[15] The average price of a katcina figure during this period was about $1 an inch.[16]

Late Action era (1945—present)[edit]

The Late Action period of kachina figures contains the most variations of carvings than any other period. Most figures of this period display realistic body proportions and show movement, which are distinguishing features of this period.[17] The regalia in this period are more detailed and in the 1960s, carvers began to attach bases to the dolls in order to appeal to the tourists who didn’t want to hang the dolls on their walls.[18] In the 1970s the Endangered Species Act and Migratory Bird Treaty banned the selling of kachina figures that carried any migratory, wild bird feathers from birds such as eagles.[19] As a result, the feathers of the dolls would be carved into the wood, which led to a new brand of Hopi art—the katsina sculpture.[20] As the dolls became more extravagant and the consumer demand went up, the prices of dolls also rose significantly. Prices today range on average from $500 to $1,000, and it is not unusual to see a carved figure up to $10,000.[10]



There are four generally accepted forms of the kachina figures; each form is meant to represent a different stage of postnatal development.

  1. Putsqatihu – these figures are made specifically for infants; these are simply flat figures that contain enough characteristics of the kachina so it is identifiable.

  2. Putstihu taywa’yla – these figures have flat bodies and three-dimensional faces that are generally meant for toddlers.

  3. Muringputihu – these figures have cylindrical bodies, fully carved heads, and are meant specifically for infant girls.

  4. Tithu – the traditional, full bodied kachina figures that is given to Hopi girls aged two and up at Hopi ceremonies. These figures represent the final stage of postnatal development.[24]


There are four major categories of rice worldwide: indicajaponicaaromatic and glutinous.



All three dark triad traits are conceptually distinct although empirical evidence shows them to be overlapping. They are associated with a callous-manipulative interpersonal style.[9]

  • Narcissism is characterized by grandiosityprideegotism, and a lack of empathy.[10]

  • Machiavellianism is characterized by manipulation and exploitation of others, a cynical disregard for morality, and a focus on self-interest and deception.[11]

  • Psychopathy is characterized by continuing antisocial behaviorimpulsivityselfishness, callousness, and remorselessness.[12]

  • Several researchers have suggested expanding the dark triad to contain a fourth dark trait. Everyday sadism, defined as the enjoyment of cruelty, is the most common addition. While sadism is highly correlated with the dark triad, researchers have shown that sadism predicts anti-social behavior beyond the dark triad.[113][114] Borderline personality disorder and status-driven risk-taking have also been proposed as additions.[108]



Over several decades of factor-analytic study, Cattell and his colleagues gradually refined and validated their list of underlying source traits. The search resulted in the sixteen unitary traits of the 16PF Questionnaire. These traits have remained the same over the last 50 years of research. In addition, the 16PF Questionnaire traits are part of a multi-variate personality model that provides a broader framework including developmental, environmental, and hereditary patterns of the traits and how they change across the life span (Cattell, 1973, 1979, 1980).

At the primary level, the 16PF measures 16 primary trait constructs, with a version of the Big Five secondary traits at the secondary level.[6][7][8] These higher-level factors emerged from factor-analyzing the 16 x 16 intercorrelation matrix for the sixteen primary factors themselves. The 16PF yields scores on primary and second-order "global" traits, thereby allowing a multilevel description of each individual's unique personality profile. A listing of these trait dimensions and their description can be found below. Cattell also found a third-stratum of personality organization that comprised just two overarching factors.[9][10]


Galen also had intermediate scales for "balance" between the hot/cold and wet/dry poles, yielding a total of nine temperaments. Four were the original humors, and five were balanced in one or both scales.[6][7][8]

Another addition to the two factor models was the creation of a 10 by 10 square grid developed by Robert R. Blake and Jane Mouton in their Managerial Grid Modelintroduced in 1964. This matrix graded, from 0-9, the factors of "Concern for Production" (X-axis) and "Concern for People" (Y-axis), allowing a moderate range of scores, which yielded five "leadership styles":

  • Impoverished (low X, Y)

  • Produce or Perish (high X low Y)

  • Country Club (low X high Y)

  • Team (high X and Y)

  • Middle of the Road (moderate X, Y)

The Thomas Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI) used a version of this with "Assertiveness" and "Cooperativeness" as the two factors, also leading to a fifth mode:

  • Competing, (assertive, uncooperative)

  • Avoiding (unassertive, uncooperative)

  • Accommodating (unassertive, cooperative)

  • Collaborating (assertive, cooperative)

  • Compromising (intermediate assertiveness and cooperativeness).

FIRO-B would call the two dimensions Expressed Behavior and Wanted Behavior, and use three separate matrices for the respective areas of Inclusion (social skills) Control (leadership and responsibility-taking) and Affection (deep personal relationships). In 1977, "locator charts" were produced for each area by Dr. Leo Ryan, providing a map of the various scores, following the Managerial Grid model, with unofficial names assigned to different score ranges. They were generally grouped into five main types for each area, in the vein of the Managerial Grid and TKI, except that moderate scores (generally 4, 5) in only one dimension (with the other dimension being high or low) were given separate names, creating nine basic groups for each area (low e/w, low e/high w, low e/moderate w, etc.). In the control area, there is a tenth group created by a further division of the low e/high w range.

This would form the basis of the Five Temperaments theory by Dr. Richard G. and Phyllis Arno, in which the ancient temperaments were mapped to the FIRO-B scales (in all three areas), with Phlegmatic becoming the moderate e/w instead of low e/high w, which was now taken to constitute a fifth temperament called "Supine", which has many of the "introverted and relationship oriented" traits of the other types defined as such, above. (The "Wanted behavior" scale is generally renamed "Responsive behavior"). The moderate scores mixed with high or low are designated "Phlegmatic blends" and divided with 4 being a blend of Phlegmatic with the lower adjacent temperament, and 5 being a blend with the higher adjacent temperament. This results in 13 separate ranges in each area.



Other factors devised along the way measured other aspects of personality, mostly cognitive aspects. This would form a second strain of temperament theory, one which enjoys the most popularity today.

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) defined his typology by a duality of the beautiful and sublime, and concluded it was possible to represent the four temperaments with a square of opposition using the presence or absence of the two attributes. He determined that the phlegmatic type has no interest in either the beautiful or the sublime, so there was an absence of both (sb). The melancholic had a feeling for both (SB), and the sanguine had a predominating feeling for the beautiful (sB), while the choleric, he determined after comparing with the melancholic, lacked a sense of beauty and had only a sense of the sublime (Sb).[9]

Hans Eysenck (1916–1997) was one of the first psychologists to analyze personality differences using a psycho-statistical method (factor analysis), and his research led him to believe that temperament is biologically based. In his book Dimensions of Personality (1947) he paired Extraversion (E), which was "the tendency to enjoy positive events", especially social ones, with Neuroticism (N), which was the tendency to experience negative emotions. By pairing the two dimensions, Eysenck noted how the results were similar to the four ancient temperaments.

  • High N, High E = Choleric

  • High N, Low E = Melancholy (also called "Melancholic")

  • Low N, High E = Sanguine

  • Low N, Low E = Phlegmatic

Ernst Kretschmer (1888–1964) divided personality into two "constitutional groups": Schizothymic, which contain a "Psychaesthetic proportion" between sensitive and cold poles, and Cyclothymic which contain a "Diathetic" proportion between gay and sad. The Schizoids consist of the Hyperesthetic (sensitive) and Anesthetic (Cold) characters, and the Cycloids consist of the Depressive (or "melancholic") and Hypomanic characters.

David W. Keirsey would make the connection of the two groups with Myers' Sensors and iNtuitors, providing the two factors for his four temperaments.[10] He would rename Sensing to "Observant" or "Concrete", and Intuiting to "Introspection" or "Abstract", and pair it with "Cooperative" versus "Pragmatic" (or "Utilitarian") which would be the "Conscientiousness" scale; to form:

  • SP Artisan (Concrete, Pragmatic)

  • SJ Guardian (Concrete, Cooperative)

  • NT Rational (Abstract, Pragmatic)

  • NF Idealist (Abstract, Cooperative)



Several teams of Super Sentai and Power Rangers have used the classical elements thematically, with each Ranger having powers related to one element.

Normally, the Red Ranger represents fire, and the Blue Ranger water. For example, the Red Turbo Ranger and the Red Lightspeed Ranger have had Zords based on fire trucks, while the Blue Aquitian Ranger had a water-based attack. Gosei Sentai Dairanger drew heavily from Chinese mythology, and five of the Mythical Qi Beasts correspond to the Wu Xing. In Seijuu Sentai Gingaman and Power Rangers Lost Galaxy, the five Rangers represented fire (Red), water (Blue), wind (Green), lightning (Yellow) and flora (Pink), with earth (the Black Knight/the Magna Defender) added later.

The elements in Ninpuu Sentai Hurricanger are air (Red), earth (Yellow), water (Blue), with Kuwaga and Kabuto both wielding the power of lightning. The last two became the Thunder Rangers in Power Rangers Ninja Storm, sharing the element thunder, with the Green Samurai Ranger being a non-elemental (his power was dubbed "Green Samurai Power"). The elemental theme was here used more extensively than in previous series, and the Rangers’ attacks and fighting styles often reflect it. In Mahou Sentai Magiranger and Power Rangers Mystic Force, MagiRed (the Red Ranger) and Wolzard (the Wolf Warrior) share the element fire. The other Rangers have powers based on thunder (Yellow), water (Blue), air (Pink), earth (Green), ice (White), and light/the sun (MagiShine/the Solaris Knight). In Power Rangers: Samurai and its follow up season Super Samurai, the five rangers each represent the classical elements, albeit with forest in place of aether: fire (red), water (blue), sky (pink), earth (yellow) and forest (green). The Red Ranger has also shown use of lightning. Later on when the gold ranger is added, he harnesses the element of light.

The use of elements is not restricted to the protagonists. In Kyuukyuu Sentai GoGo-V, the demons Zylpheeza, Drop, Cobolda and Venus (Diabolico, Impus, Loki and Vypra in Power Rangers Lightspeed Rescue) each represent one of the four elements. In both versions, all monsters are affiliated with one of them, and relate to the same element.



The Kohs Block test, also known as the Kohs Block Design Test,[1] is a performance test designed to be an IQ test. The test taker must, using 16 colored cubes, replicate the patterns displayed on a series of test cards. The design of the test was motivated by a belief that the test could easily be administered to persons with language or hearing disabilities.[1]


In the Restoration Church of Jesus Christ, a liberal Mormon faith, the Heavenly Mother is accepted as a full member of the Godhead. Thus, the RCJC believes in a quadriune Godhead; the Godhead is referred to as the Holy Quaternity. Prayers are addressed to the Heavenly Parents in the name of Jesus Christ.


Daniel Dennett identifies four properties that are commonly ascribed to qualia. According to these, qualia are:

  1. ineffable; that is, they cannot be communicated, or apprehended by any other means than direct experience.

  2. intrinsic; that is, they are non-relational properties, which do not change depending on the experience's relation to other things.

  3. private; that is, all interpersonal comparisons of qualia are systematically impossible.

  4. directly or immediately apprehensible in consciousness; that is, to experience a quale is to know one experiences a quale, and to know all there is to know about that quale.

Vilayanur S. Ramachandran and William Hirstein[33] proposed three laws of qualia (with a fourth later added), which are "functional criteria that need to be fulfilled in order for certain neural events to be associated with qualia" by philosophers of the mind:

  1. Qualia are irrevocable and indubitable. You don't say 'maybe it is red but I can visualize it as green if I want to'. An explicit neural representation of red is created that invariably and automatically 'reports' this to higher brain centres.

  2. Once the representation is created, what can be done with it is open-ended. You have the luxury of choice, e.g., if you have the percept of an apple you can use it to tempt Adam, to keep the doctor away, bake a pie, or just to eat. Even though the representation at the input level is immutable and automatic, the output is potentially infinite. This isn't true for, say, a spinal reflex arc where the output is also inevitable and automatic. Indeed, a paraplegic can even have an erection and ejaculate without an orgasm.

  3. Short-term memory. The input invariably creates a representation that persists in short-term memory—long enough to allow time for choice of output. Without this component, again, you get just a reflex arc.

  4. Attention. Qualia and attention are closely linked. You need attention to fulfill criterion number two; to choose. A study of circuits involved in attention, therefore, will shed much light on the riddle of qualia.[34]




So why is the riff so impossible to forget? Its melodic structure certainly jumps right out at you. The first three phrases are descending lines spelling out chords using similar rhythms. The fourth phrase is an ascending line running up a scale, using a very different rhythm.

First let’s take a closer look at those rhythms. The first three phrases are heavily syncopated. After the downbeats, every single note in each pattern falls on a weak beat. The fourth phrase is less syncopated; it’s a predictable pattern of eighth notes. But because your ear has become used to the pattern of the first three phrases, the straighter rhythm in the fourth one feels more “syncopated” because it defies your expectation.

Three of the four phrases in the “Careless Whisper” riff are arpeggios, the notes from a chord played one at a time. Here’s how you make the chords.

  • Take the D natural minor scale. Start on the root (D). Skip the second (E) and land on the third (F). Skip the fourth (G) and land on the fifth (A). Skip the sixth (B-flat) and land on the seventh (C). Finally, skip the root (D) and land on the ninth (E). These pitches – D, F, A, C, and E – make a D minor 9 (Dm9) chord. Now look at the first bar of the sax riff. All the pitches in D minor 9 are there except for C.

  • If you do the same process, but starting on G, you get the pitches G, B-flat, D, F, A, C, which make up a G minor 11 chord. The second phrase has most of those pitches.

  • Do the same process starting on B-flat, and you get B-flat, D, F, and A, making a B-flat major 7 (B♭maj7) chord. The third phrase has all of these pitches.


The fourth phrase is different from the others. Rather than outlining an arpeggio, it runs up the D natural minor scale from A to A. This sequence of pitches (A, B-flat, C, D, E, F, G, A) is also known as the A Phrygian mode. The half-step interval between A and B-flat gives Phrygian its exotic quality.

This riff certainly is catchy. It’s also notoriously corny, and to many people’s ears, quite annoying. Why? Some of it is the timbre. The use of unrestrainedly passionate alto sax through heavy reverb was briefly in vogue in the 1980s, and then fell permanently out of style. To my ears, though, the real problem is the chord progression. In D minor, both Gm11 and B♭maj7 are subdominants, and functionally they’re interchangeable. Jazz musicians like me hear them as being essentially the same chord. It would be hipper to replace the Gm with G7, or the B♭maj7 with B♭7. The A minor in the last bar is weak too; it would be more satisfying to replace the C with C-sharp, to make D harmonic minor. But your mileage may vary.

Enjoy my mashup of this track with “Calabria 2007” by Enur featuring Natasja.


Kishōtenketsu (起承転結) describes the structure and development of classic ChineseKorean and Japanese narratives. It was originally used in Chinese poetry as a four-line composition, such as Qijue, and is also referred to as kishōtengō (起承転合). The first Chinese character refers to the introduction or kiku (起句), the next: development, shōku (承句), the third: twist, tenku (転句), and the last character indicates conclusion or kekku (結句). 句 is the phrase (句 ku), and gō (合)means "meeting point of introduction 起 and twist 転" for conclusion.

The following is an example of how this might be applied to a fairytale.

  • Introduction (ki): introducing characters, era, and other important information for understanding the setting of the story.

  • Development (shō): follows leads towards the twist in the story. Major changes do not occur.

  • Twist (ten): the story turns toward an unexpected development. This is the crux of the story, the yama (ヤマ) or climax. In case of several turns in the narrative, this is the biggest one.

  • Conclusion (ketsu), also called ochi (落ち) or ending, wraps up the story.

The concept has also been used in game design, particularly in Nintendo's video games, most notably Super Mario games such as Super Mario Galaxy (2007) and Super Mario 3D World (2013); their designers Shigeru Miyamoto and Koichi Hayashida are known to utilize this concept for their game designs.[2]


The Servant songs (also called the Servant poems or the Songs of the Suffering Servant) are songs in the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible. They were first identified by Bernhard Duhm in his 1892 commentary on Isaiah. The songs are four poems written about a certain "servant of YHWH." God calls the servant to lead the nations, but the servant is horribly abused among them. In the end, he is rewarded.


In competitive or competition savate, which includes Assaut, Pre-Combat, and Combat types, there are only four kinds of kicks allowed along with four kinds of punches allowed:


  1. fouetté (literally "whip", roundhouse kick making contact with the toe—hard rubber-toed shoes are worn in practice and bouts), high (figure), medium (médian) or low (bas)

  2. chassé (side ("chassé lateral") or front ("chassé frontal") piston-action kick, high (figure), medium (médian) or low (bas)

  3. revers, frontal or lateral ("reverse" or hooking kick) making contact with the sole of the shoe, high (figure), medium (médian), or low (bas)

  4. coup de pied bas ("low kick", a front or sweep kick to the shin making contact with the inner edge of the shoe, performed with a characteristic backwards lean) low only[15][16]


  1. direct bras avant (jab, lead hand)

  2. direct bras arrière (cross, rear hand)

  3. crochet (hook, bent arm with either hand)

  4. uppercut (either hand)


In boxing, punches are classified according to the motion and direction of the strike; contact is always made with the knuckles. There are four primary punches in boxing: the jab, cross, hook, and uppercut.



The four arts (, siyi), or the four arts of the Chinese scholar, were the four main academic and artistic accomplishments required of the aristocratic ancient Chinese scholar-gentleman caste. They are qin (the guqin, a stringed instrument. ), qi (the strategy game of Go), shu (Chinese calligraphy ) and hua(Chinese painting ).


The four liberties (adjacent empty points) of a single black stone (A), as White reduces those liberties by one (B, C, and D). When Black has only one liberty left (D), that stone is "in atari".[15]White may capture that stone (remove from board) with a play on its last liberty (at D-1).



In the history of go in Japan, the four go houses were four major schools of go instituted, supported, and controlled by the state, at the beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate. (There were also many minor houses.) At roughly the same time shogi was organised into three houses. Here "house" implies institution run on the recognised lines of the iemotosystem common in all Japanese traditional arts. In particular the house head had, in three of the four cases, a name handed down: Inoue InsekiYasui SenkakuHayashi Monnyu. References to these names therefore mean to the contemporary head of house.

The four houses were the HoninboHayashiInoue and Yasui. They were originally designed to be on a par with each other, and competed in the official castle games called oshirogo.



Cross and circle is a board game design used for race games played throughout the world.

Strictly, the design comprises a circle divided into four equal portions by a cross inscribed inside it; the classic example of this design is Yut. However, the term "cross and circle" is typically taken to include boards that replace the circle with a square, and cruciform boards that collapse the circle onto the cross; all three types are topologically equivalent. Ludo and Parcheesi (both descendants of Pachisi) are frequently played cruciform games.

The category may also be expanded to include circular or square boards without a cross which are nevertheless quartered (Zohn Ahl), and boards that have more than four "spokes" (AggravationTrivial Pursuit). The Aztec game board for Patolli consists of a collapsed circle without an interior cross and thus has the distinction of being a cross that is a circle (topologically), without being a cross plus circle.

Tokens are moved around spaces drawn on the circle and on the cross, with the goal of being the first player to move all tokens all the way around the board. Generally the circle of the cross and circle forms the primary circuit followed by the players' pieces. The function of the cross is more variable; for example, in Yut the cross forms shortcuts to the finish, whereas in Pachisi the four "spokes" are used as player-specific exits and entrances to the pieces' home. In non-race games (like Coppit and Trivial Pursuit) all paths may be undifferentiated in function.

Although these board game designs may be of considerable antiquity, firm evidence is sparse. The most ancient board games were dated back to BC 3500 in the time of Ruler King Bharata of ancient India and are corroborated in details in University of California, Davis and extensive research by BORI, Pune. Noted writer and historian Gilles. Schaufelberger and Aaron Rester notes most of the board and dice games back to ancient India. For cruciform boards, the monumental Pachisi or Chaupat boards of the Moghul ruler Akbar (1542–1605), designed to accommodate humans as playing pieces, "still represent the earliest secure evidence for the existence of the game in India."[1] Culin found evidence for a Nyout-like game existing in China in the 3rd century AD,[2] though this does not seem to be accepted by H. J. R. Murray.[3] Mayan cross and circle boards have been found on stones from the 7th century AD.[4] Although frequently encountered among the native tribes of North America (particularly as a "quartered circle" design) these boards were not made of durable materials, so generally the writings and collections of European-Americans constitute their earliest attestations.

Cross and circle boards may suggest a variety of mystical, symbolic, or esoteric designs such as mandalassun and earth symbols; swastikas; or CelticCoptic, and Greek crosses. However, mere visual similarities do not prove a deeper connection; and demonstrating any historical connection has proven to be a slippery matter. Many modern discussions of the religious, magical, or divinatory genesis of board games stem from the work of Stewart Culin who postulated a single source: the "classification of all things according to the Four Directions" by means of divinatory arrows, and that "[s]urvivals of these magical processes constitute our present games" (including all dice, board, card, and domino games).[5] He quotes, for example, an "account of the Zuñi War Gods" which explicitly links divination, the 4 quarters of the earth, and games.[6] Nyout (Yut) and Native American games like Zohn Ahl are integral to his argument. However, later scholars have called into question our ability to assign historical precedence among randomizing activities such as divination, impartial decision-making, gambling, and game-playing,[7] and elements of his monolithic genealogy of games have been called "absurd".[3]

Nevertheless, if origins confound us, some historical connections are in evidence. In the 19th century, Yut stick dice were used for divination, their results being looked up in a book not unlike the I Ching.[8]

The classic Korean Nyout (Yut) cross and circle is collapsed, creating a cruciform board, similar to the Indian Pachisi.

A game of Pachisi on a cloth board




Cleansing the mirror in the form of my mind with the pollen of the lotus-feet of the Guru, I describe the unblemished glory of Rama, which bestows the four fruits.[28][40]

Gita Press translation interprets the four fruits as the four Puruṣārthas – DharmaArthaKāma, and Mokṣa.[40] Rambhadracharya comments that the four fruits refer to any of the following

  1. The four Puruṣārthas – Dharma, Artha, Kāma, Mokṣa

  2. The four types of Mukti – Sālokya, Sāmīpya, Sāyujya, Sārūpya

  3. Dharma, JñānaYogaJapa

The birth of the four sons of Dasharatha.





A chaupai (चौपाई) is a quatrain verse of Indian poetry, especially medieval Hindi poetry, that uses a metre of four syllables.

Famous chaupais include those of poet-saint Tulsidas (used in his classical text Ramcharitamanas and poem Hanuman Chalisa) and the Sikh prayer Chaupai.

Chaupai is identified by a syllable count 16/16, counted with a value of 1 in case of Hrasva (short sounding letter) and 2 in case of Dhirga (long sounding letter).


Some of the famous 40 chaupais (known as "chalisa");



Hinduism has no central doctrinal authority and many practising Hindus do not claim to belong to any particular denomination or tradition.[3] Four major traditions are, however, used in scholarly studies: Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism and Smartism.



Lévi-Strauss distinguished four kinds of relationship between nature and culture within totemism: (1) a species of animal or plant identified with a particular group, (2) a species of animal or plant identified with an individual, (3) a particular animal or plant identified with an individual, and (4) a particular animal or plant identified with a group.

According to Lévi-Strauss, each of these four combinations corresponds to the phenomena that are to be observed in one people or another. The first holds good, for example, for the Australians, for whom natural things are associated with cultural groups (moieties, sections, subsections, phratries, clans, or the association of persons from the same sex). As an example of the second combination, there is the individual totemism of North American Indians, in which a person is correlated with a species of nature. For the third type of combination, the Mota people of the Banks Islands of Melanesia are cited: the individual child is thought of as the incarnation of a particular animal, plant, or natural creature that was found and consumed by the mother at the time that she was conscious of her pregnancy. For the fourth type of correlation, Lévi-Strauss cited examples from Polynesia and Africa where definite individual animals formed the object of group patronage and veneration.

Lévi-Strauss also critiqued the findings of A.P. Elkin, a specialist on Australia, where totemism had already played a special role in the formation of anthropological and sociological theories and where it exhibits an abundance of forms. Elkin had also differentiated four forms: individual totemism; social totemism—i.e., totemism that is in a family, moiety, section, subsection, patrilineal clan, or matrilineal clan; cultic totemism, with a religious content that is patrilineal and “conceptional” in form; and dream totemism—totemistic content in dreams—found in social or individual totemism. Elkin denied the unity of totemism, but (according to Lévi-Strauss) wanted to preserve its reality on the condition that he might trace it back to a multiplicity of types. For Elkin, there is no longer “one” totemism but many totemisms, each in itself a single irreducible whole.



Buddhists often recite the mantra OM MANI PADME HUM. You may do the same, but before you start, I am pretty sure about how you would like to know what is the significance of these words. Though this mantra comprises of only four words, it has got a very deep and meaningful significance.

The word OM is a mystic word which signifies the sinful mind, soul, body and speech of individuals in comparison to the pure glorified mind, soul, body and speech of Lord Buddha.

The term MANI can be interpreted as a jewel which indicates the method or way of life which includes being altruistic, compassionate and to love which is the pathway to enlightenment.

PADME, which may be defined as the lotus, is symbolic of wisdom.

Tibetan Buddhists believe that there is one way of achieving purity which is the by invisible combining the forces of method and wisdom. The word Hum is symbolic of this invisible energy which combines method and wisdom

Reading these four words together OM MANI PADME HUM highlights the fact that by using the invisible force which combines wisdom and techniques one can transform from being a person with an impure mind, speech and body to reaching a stage where your body, mind and speech is as pure as that of Lord Buddha.



Our body is made up of four elements: earth, air, fire, and water. Everything we eat or use is also made of these four elements. So these four elements are us and we are these four elements. This means we are the universe and the universe is us. But how do you show your gratitude to the universe? If you understand that, you understand your correct job as a human being. A human being’s correct job is to make harmony with everything in the universe – with the sky, with the tree, with the dog, with the cat, with everything. If you have this harmony mind, you cannot kill an animal or kill a tree. That’s the correct idea. This correct idea appears when you put down your opinion, condition, situation and moment to moment keep correct function, correct situation, correct relationship. Then you and the four elements become one.

After the talk, we tried the Om Mani Padme Hum chanting. In the middle of the Thousand Eyes and Hands Sutra, we have this mantra: Om Mani Padme Hum. These four words mean the four elements of earth, air, fire, and water. If you try this chanting, then taking away your opinion, your condition, your situation is very easy. You become one mind; you and the universe are never separate. You return to your original nature.

In Korea, there is a school of Buddhism called Jing Gak Jong. Their mantra is Om Mani Padme Hum and they chant it all day long. It’s the same style as the Kwan Seum Bosal chanting that we do in our school. Om Mani Padme Hum means Kwan Seum Bosal. They both mean original mind. Also, Om Mani Padme Hum means eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body, mind.

In India, Om is a sacred sound, sacred mantra. The whole universe begins with Om. In our Thousand Eyes and Hands Sutra, we have another mantra: Om Nam. Om Nam means cleaning our minds, cleaning this world. If you use something, it becomes dirty and then you need to clean it, like your clothes or your body. When you use earth, air, fire, and water – the four elements and the universe – without giving anything back, your mind becomes dirty. So we use Om Nam to clean our minds.



  1.  7  To know more about how rational knowledge evolves, according to Popper, see: Luis Alberto Peluso, A filosofia de Karl Popper, Campinas, Papirus-PUCCamp, 995, pp. 93- 3. My doubt concerning Popper’s fourfold scheme regarded the error elimination leading to new problems, that is: P . A listener of his lectures given in 969 at the University of Emory on the body-mind problem raised this doubt. Popper’s answer was not satisfactory ([POPPER, Karl. O conhecimento e o problema corpo-mente. Lisboa, Edições 70, 999. p. 8 . [Knowledge and the body-mind problem. London, Routledge, 995.]) I believe new problems may arise from our attempts to solve problem situations, but not infinitely. I do believe this process repeats itself a few times, when the problem is of practical nature. 

In Popper's view, the advance of scientific knowledge is an evolutionaryprocess characterised by his formula[citation needed]:


In response to a given problem situation (PS1), a number of competing conjectures, or tentative theories (TT), are systematically subjected to the most rigorous attempts at falsification possible. This process, error elimination (EE), performs a similar function for science that natural selection performs for biological evolution. Theories that better survive the process of refutation are not more true, but rather, more "fit"—in other words, more applicable to the problem situation at hand (PS1). Consequently, just as a species' biological fitness does not ensure continued survival, neither does rigorous testing protect a scientific theory from refutation in the future. Yet, as it appears that the engine of biological evolution has, over many generations, produced adaptive traits equipped to deal with more and more complex problems of survival, likewise, the evolution of theories through the scientific method may, in Popper's view, reflect a certain type of progress: toward more and more interesting problems (PS2). For Popper, it is in the interplay between the tentative theories (conjectures) and error elimination (refutation) that scientific knowledge advances toward greater and greater problems; in a process very much akin to the interplay between


The Fourth Hamstring "ADDUCTOR MAGNUS"

Like the hamstring muscles, the adductor magnus attaches to the ischial tuberosity and can extend the thigh at the hip joint. For this reason, the adductor magnus (or more specifically the posterior head of the adductor magnus) is sometimes referred to as the fourth hamstring. 

The Muscular System Manual - 

Due to its common embryonic origin, innervation, and action the ischiocondylar portion (or hamstring portion) is often considered part of the hamstring group of muscles

The three muscles of the posterior thigh (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris long & short head) flex(bend) the knee, while all but the short head of biceps femoris extend (straighten) the hip. The three 'true' hamstrings cross both the hip and the knee joint and are therefore involved in knee flexion and hip extension. The short head of the biceps femoris crosses only one joint (knee) and is therefore not involved in hip extension. With its divergent origin and innervation it is sometimes excluded from the 'hamstring' characterization. 


A portion of the adductor magnus is sometimes considered a part of the hamstrings.[4]



Four quantum numbers can describe an electron in an atom completely. As per the following model, these nearly-compatible quantum numbers are:

The spin-orbital interaction, however, relates these numbers. Thus, a complete description of the system can be given with fewer quantum numbers, if orthogonal choices are made for these basis vectors.

Results from spectroscopy indicated that up to two electrons can occupy a single orbital. However two electrons can never have the same exact quantum state nor the same set of quantum numbers according to Hund's rules, which addresses the Pauli exclusion principle. A fourth quantum number with two possible values was added as an ad hoc assumption to resolve the conflict; this supposition could later be explained in detail by relativistic quantum mechanics and from the results of the renowned Stern–Gerlach experiment.



Lactantius states that, in the night before the battle, Constantine was commanded in a dream to "delineate the heavenly sign on the shields of his soldiers" (On the Deaths of the Persecutors 44.5). He followed the commands of his dream and marked the shields with a sign "denoting Christ". Lactantius describes that sign as a "staurogram", or a Latin cross with its upper end rounded in a P-like fashion. There is no certain evidence that Constantine ever used that sign, opposed to the better known Chi-Rho sign described by Eusebius.[6]


A coin struck in 313, depicting Constantine as the companion of a solar deity

From Eusebius, two accounts of the battle survive. The first, shorter one in the Ecclesiastical History promotes the belief that God helped Constantine but does not mention any vision. In his later Life of Constantine, Eusebius gives a detailed account of a vision and stresses that he had heard the story from the Emperor himself. According to this version, Constantine with his army was marching (Eusebius does not specify the actual location of the event, but it clearly is not in the camp at Rome), when he looked up to the sun and saw a cross of light above it, and with it the Greek words "Εν Τούτῳ Νίκα", En toutō níka, usually translated into Latin as "in hoc signo vinces". Both phrases have the literal meaning "In this sign, [you shall] conquer"; a more free translation would be "Through this sign [you shall] conquer". At first he was unsure of the meaning of the apparition, but in the following night he had a dream in which Christ explained to him that he should use the sign against his enemies. Eusebius then continues to describe the labarum, the military standard used by Constantine in his later wars against Licinius, showing the Chi-Rho sign.[7]

The description from 28th October 312, "A cross centered on the Sun" fits with modern-day photographs of Sun dogs.



After the master's death, Giulio Romano worked together with other members of Raphael's workshop to finish the commission to decorate with frescoes the rooms that are now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican. The Battle of the Milvian Bridge shows the battle that took place on 28 October 312 between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius. Legend says that Constantine had a dream where a cross appeared in the heavens; a voice told him he would win the battle of Ponte Milvio if he used the cross as his standard. The cross became his standard and he won the battle, and attributed his victory to the god of Christianity.


HIV-1 origins. The phylogenetic relationships of representative SIVcpz, HIV-1, and SIVgor strains are shown for a region of the viral pol gene (HIV-1/HXB2 coordinates 3887–4778). SIVcpz and SIVgor sequences are shown in black and green, respectively. The four groups of HIV-1, each of which represents an independent cross-species transmission, are shown in different colors. Black circles indicate the four branches where cross-species transmission-to-humans has occurred. White circles indicate two possible alternative branches on which chimpanzee-to-gorilla transmission occurred. Brackets at the right denote SIVcpz from P. t. troglodytes (SIVcpzPtt) and P. t. schweinfurthii (SIVcpzPts), respectively. The phylogenetic tree was estimated using maximum likelihood methods (Guindon and Gascuel 2003). The scale bar represents 0.05 nucleotide substitutions per site.

HIV-1 is not just one virus, but comprises four distinct lineages, termed groups M, N, O, and P, each of which resulted from an independent cross-species transmission event. Group M was the first to be discovered and represents the pandemic form of HIV-1; it has infected millions of people worldwide and has been found in virtually every country on the globe. Group O was discovered in 1990 and is much less prevalent than group M (De Leys et al. 1990Gurtler et al. 1994). It represents less than 1% of global HIV-1 infections, and is largely restricted to Cameroon, Gabon, and neighboring countries (Mauclere et al. 1997Peeters et al. 1997). Group N was identified in 1998 (Simon et al. 1998), and is even less prevalent than group O; so far, only 13 cases of group N infection have been documented, all in individuals from Cameroon (Vallari et al. 2010). Finally, group P was discovered in 2009 in a Cameroonian woman living in France (Plantier et al. 2009). Despite extensive screening, group P has thus far only been identified in one other person, also from Cameroon (Vallari et al. 2011). Although members of all of these groups are capable of causing CD4+ T-cell depletion and AIDS, they obviously differ vastly in their distribution within the human population.

Figure 4 depicts a phylogenetic tree of representative HIV-1, SIVcpz, and SIVgor strains. It shows that all four HIV-1 groups, as well as SIVgor, cluster with SIVcpzPtt from central chimpanzees, identifying this subspecies as the original reservoir of both human and gorilla infections. HIV-1 groups N and M are very closely related to SIVcpzPtt strains from southern Cameroon, indicating that they are of chimpanzee origin. It has even been possible to trace their ape precursors to particular P. t. troglodytes communities. HIV-1 group N appears to have emerged in the vicinity of the Dja Forest in south-central Cameroon, whereas the pandemic form, group M, likely originated in an area flanked by the Boumba, Ngoko, and Sangha rivers in the southeastern corner of Cameroon (Keele et al. 2006Van Heuverswyn et al. 2007). Existing phylogenetic data support a gorilla origin of HIV-1 group P, but too few SIVgor strains have been characterized to identify the region where this transmission might have occurred. In contrast, the immediate source of HIV-1 group O remains unknown, because there are no ape viruses that are particularly closely related to this group (Fig. 4). Thus, HIV-1 group O could either be of chimpanzee or gorilla origin. Nonetheless, the fact that group O and P viruses are more closely related to SIVcpzPtt than to SIVcpzPts suggests that both groups originated in west central Africa, which is consistent with their current distributions.

How humans acquired the ape precursors of HIV-1 groups M, N, O, and P is not known; however, based on the biology of these viruses, transmission must have occurred through cutaneous or mucous membrane exposure to infected ape blood and/or body fluids. Such exposures occur most commonly in the context of bushmeat hunting (Peeters et al. 2002). Whatever the circumstances, it seems clear that human–ape encounters in west central Africa have resulted in four independent cross-species transmission events. Molecular clock analyses have dated the onset of the group M and O epidemics to the beginning of the twentieth century (Korber et al. 2000Lemey et al. 2004Worobey et al. 2008). In contrast, groups N and P appear to have emerged more recently, although the sequence data for these rare groups are still too limited to draw definitive conclusions.


Syphilis can present in one of four different stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary,[5] and may also occur congenitally.[14] It was referred to as "the great imitator" by Sir William Osler due to its varied presentations.[5][15]


Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium. Human malaria is caused by four different species of Plasmodium: P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale and P. vivax.



Three groups of HIV-1 have been identified on the basis of differences in the envelope (env) region: M, N, and O.[91] Group M is the most prevalent and is subdivided into eight subtypes (or clades), based on the whole genome, which are geographically distinct.[92] The most prevalent are subtypes B (found mainly in North America and Europe), A and D (found mainly in Africa), and C (found mainly in Africa and Asia); these subtypes form branches in the phylogenetic tree representing the lineage of the M group of HIV-1. Coinfection with distinct subtypes gives rise to circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). In 2000, the last year in which an analysis of global subtype prevalence was made, 47.2% of infections worldwide were of subtype C, 26.7% were of subtype A/CRF02_AG, 12.3% were of subtype B, 5.3% were of subtype D, 3.2% were of CRF_AE, and the remaining 5.3% were composed of other subtypes and CRFs.[93] Most HIV-1 research is focused on subtype B; few laboratories focus on the other subtypes.[94] The existence of a fourth group, "P", has been hypothesised based on a virus isolated in 2009.[95] The strain is apparently derived from gorilla SIV (SIVgor), first isolated from western lowland gorillas in 2006.[95]



Chlamydia trachomatis (/kləˌmɪdiə/ /trəˈkoʊmətɪs/), commonly known as chlamydia,[2] is one of four bacterial species in the genus Chlamydia


Sometimes known as the Hubble Cross or Cross of Hubble


This image of the core of the nearby spiral galaxy M51, taken with the Wide Field Planetary camera (in PC mode) on NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, shows a striking , dark "X" silhouetted across the galaxy's nucleus. The "X" is due to absorption by dust and marks the exact position of a black hole which may have a mass equivalent to one-million stars like the sun. The darkest bar may be an edge-on dust ring which is 100 light-years in diameter. The edge-on torus not only hides the black hole and accretion disk from being viewed directly from earth, but also determines the axis of a jet of high-speed plasma and confines radiation from the accretion disk to a pair of oppositely directed cones of light, which ionize gas caught in their beam. The second bar of the "X" could be a second disk seen edge on, or possibly rotating gas and dust in MS1 intersecting with the jets and ionization cones.



Hundreds of deities were recognized in the Sumerian pantheon. Many were wives, children, and servants of the more powerful deities. The gods were organized into a caste system. At the head of the system was the king or supreme ruler. The four most important deities were An, Enlil, Enki, and Ninhursag. These were the four creator deities who created all of the other gods. An was initially the head of the pantheon, though he was eventually seceded by Enlil. Enlil is seen as the most important god. He is known as "the king of heaven and earth," "the father of the gods," and "the king of all the gods." Enlil developed the broad designs for the universe. However, it was Enki who further developed and carried out his plans. Ninhursag was regarded as the mother of all living beings. 

Under the four creator deities were the seven gods who "decree the fates." These were An, Enlil, Enki, Ninhursag, Nanna, Utu, and Inanna. These were followed by the 50 "great gods" or Annunaki, the children of An. 



The Great Gods, Creating Gods

The 4 Primary Deities (the chief Gods)

Red = SUMERIAN name
Blue = ACADIAN name
Green = BABYLONIAN name


The were named "The Great Gods of the younger generation", headed by Enlil.

These gods were : 

  • Anu, the god of heaven

  • Ki (Kiki), the goddess of earth

  • Enlil, the god of air 

  • Enki (who later became Ea by the Babylonians), the god of water

It is notable that the Sumerians themselves may not have grouped these four as a set and that the grouping has been made because of the observations of Scholars.

Three of the four Great Gods were part of the, so called "Triad" of Gods, they were the leaders of ALL Gods and were the most powerful of all.

They Were:




Since its creation, Michael Edwards' Fragrance Wheel and the developed fragrance classification scheme has been modified several times through the addition of different groups to encompass different fragrance types.[5]

The four standard families are Floral, Oriental, Woody and Fresh. These are in turn divided into three sub-groups (e.g. in the Floral Family: Floral, Soft Floral, Floral Oriental) and arranged in a circle, each group being related to the next. Each of the subclasses were in turn divided into Fresh, Crisp, Classical, and Richcompositions. Prior to 2010 Fougère family was placed at the center of this wheel since they are a large family of scents that usually contain fragrance elements from each of the other four families; citrus from the fresh family, oak moss and woods from the woody family, coumarin and incense from the Oriental family, and lavender from the floral family.[6]

The Fragrance Wheel, ver. 1983



There are a wide variety of approaches to analyzing personal coloring. The most well-known is "seasonal" color analysis, which places individual coloring into four general categories: Winter, Spring, Summer and Autumn. More recent systems subdivide the seasons into 12 or 16 categories. Many different versions of seasonal analysis have been developed and promoted by image and color consultants worldwide. Some color analysis systems classify an individual's personal combination of hair color, eye color and skin tone using labels that refer to a color's "temperature" (cool blue vs. warm yellow) and the degree to which the hair, skin and eye colors contrast. Color analysis demonstrates how colors are capable of being flattering or, conversely, unflattering. Colors that are unsuitable for the individual can make a person look pale, for instance, or draw attention to such flaws as wrinkles or uneven skin tone.



THE FOUR ANCIENT CULTS (Stellar, Lunar, Solar, Saturnian) The falsification of history has done more to mislead humans than any single thing known to mankind - Jean Jacques Rousseau The scholars, academes and mass of the world’s populace seem completely unaware of the fact that there were at least four great cults in the ancient world, with one following and supplanting another as the centuries advanced. Each Cult, until the point when they joined together, absorbed the mythologies and beliefs of those antecedent. All used astrology but each Cult made changes to the lexicon of the past, to the canon of the Gnosis regarding this subject of subjects. We are inheritors of all these contentions and alterations. And from our pedestal, looking back through the generations, we have anything but a true perspective. The lives and beliefs of our earliest predecessors are especially obscured by time and obsolescence. Moreover, our perspective has been consciously distorted by malign influences within the post-industrial cabals of learning, by those at the helm of the faculties of history, anthropology, mythology, and religion, etc,.

I learned about the Hermann Grid illusion in my psychology class at UCSD. I also took a class on perception at UCSD by Stuart Anstis, and he himself invented illusions involving quadrants including one with two chopstikcks forming a quadrant cross. It was interesting that the most famous illusions and the ones demonstrated the most involved quadrants


A grid illusion is any kind of grid that deceives a person's vision. The two most common types of grid illusions are the Hermann grid illusion and the scintillating grid illusion.

An example of the Hermann grid illusion. Dark blobs appear at the intersections



Gerald and Phoebe's relationship is common knowledge, as seen in "Dinner for Four".


  • The four main kids on Hey Arnold!: Arnold (melancholic), Helga (choleric), Gerald (sanguine), and Phoebe (phlegmatic).




The Gospel of John can be divided into four sections: a prologue (1:1–18), a Book of Signs (1:19–12:50), a Book of Glory (13:1–20:31), and an epilogue (21).[10] The structure is highly schematic: there are seven "signs" culminating in the raising of Lazarus (foreshadowing the resurrection of Jesus), and seven "I am" sayings and discourses, culminating in Thomas's proclamation of Jesus as "my lord and my God"—the same title (dominus et deus) claimed by Roman Emperor Domitian.[11]


Main article: Prologue to John

Jesus is placed in his cosmic setting as the Logos made flesh who reveals God and gives salvation to believers; John the BaptistAndrew, and Nathanael bear witness to him as the Lamb of God, the Son of God, and the Christ.[12]

Book of Signs[edit]

Main article: Book of Signs

The narrative of Jesus' public ministry, beginning with the introduction of the first disciples of Jesus. It consists of seven miracles, or "signs", interspersed with long dialogues, discourses, "Amen, amen" sayings, and "I Am" sayings, culminating with the raising of Lazarus from the dead. In John it is this, and not the cleansing of the Temple, that prompts the authorities to have Jesus executed. The seven signs consist of Jesus' miracle at the wedding at Cana, his healing the royal official's son, his healing the paralytic at Bethesda, his feeding the 5,000, his walking on water, his healing the man born blind, and his raising Lazarus from the dead. Other incidents recounted in this segment of the gospel include the cleansing of the Temple; Jesus' conversation with the Pharisee Nicodemus, wherein he explains the importance of spiritual rebirth; his conversation with the Samaritan woman at the well, wherein he gives the Water of Life Discourse; the Bread of Life Discourse, which prompted many of his disciples to leave; the Woman Taken in Adultery; Jesus' claims to be the Light of the WorldJesus' answer to Pilate; the Good Shepherd pericope; Jesus' rejection by the Jews; the Jesus wept; the plot to kill Jesus; the anointing of Jesus; Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem; the prediction of the glorification of the Son of Man; and the prediction of the Last Judgment.

Book of Glory[edit]


Jesus giving the Farewell Discourseto his 11 remaining disciples, from the Maestà of Duccio, 1308–1311.

The narrative of Jesus' PassionResurrection, and post-Resurrection appearances. The Passion narrative opens with an account of the Last Supper that differs significantly from that found in the synoptics, with Jesus washing the disciples' feetinstead of ushering in a new covenant of his body and blood.[13] This is followed by Jesus' Farewell Discourse, an account of his betrayalarresttrialdeathburialpost-Resurrection appearances,[Notes 4] and final commission for his followers. It also includes Peter's denial, the institution of the New Commandment and the New Covenant, the promise of the Paraclete, the allegory of the True Vine, the High Priestly Prayer, the ut omnes unum sint, the What is truth?, Jesus' mocking and crowning with thorns, the Ecce homo, the discovery of the empty tomb, the noli me tangere, the Great Commission, and the incredulity of Thomas. The section ends with a conclusion on the purpose of the gospel: "that [the reader] may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name."[12]


Main article: John 21

The narrative of Jesus' post-Resurrection appearance to his disciples by the lake, the miraculous catch of fish, the prophecy of the crucifixion of Peter, the restoration of Peter, and the fate of the Beloved Disciple.[12] A majority of scholars believes this chapter to be an addition to the gospel.[14]






Latin Formation Team TSC Blau-Silber Aachen


Formation dance is another style of competitive dance recognised by the IDSF. In this style, multiple dancers (usually in couples and typically up to 16 dancers at one time) compete on the same team, moving in and out of various formations while dancing.




A figure-four is a Catch wrestling term for a joint-lock that resembles the number "4". A keylock or toe hold can be referred to as a figure-four hold, when it involves a figure-four formation with the legs or arms. If the figure-four involves grabbing the wrists with both hands, it is called a double wrist lock; known as kimura in MMA circles . A figure-four hold done with the legs around the neck and (usually) arm of an opponent is called figure-four (leg-)choke, better known as a triangle choke these days, and is a common submission in modern mixed martial arts, Submission wrestling and Brazilian jiu jitsu, and of course Catch wrestling from where it originates. The leg figure-four choke is also part of Japanese martial arts, where it is known as Sankaku-Jime.

Figure-four formation in a toe hold



Image showing the birth of the four divine sons of King Dasaratha. Dasaratha ruled a land called Koshada in northern India and his capital was Ayodha. He was unhappy however because he had no heirs. The Gods decided to grant him four sons, so that Vishnu could be reborn as a human being. A messenger of the Gods visited Dasaratha with magical food which he should feed to his wives. He gave half the food to his first wife Kausalya, one sixth to his youngest wife Kaikeyi and the rest to Sumitra, his middle wife. Eventually they all gave birth: Kausalya to Rama, who was one half of Vishnu, Kaikeyi to Bharata who was one sixth of Vishnu and Sumitra to twins, Lakshmana and Satrughna, who were both one sixth of Vishnu.

In this image, Dasaratha is seated under a white canopy. Inside the palace, on the top floor to the left is Queen Sumitra with her twins. On the top floor to the right is Queen Kausalya with Rama. On the bottom floor is Queen Kaikeyi with Bharata. Meanwhile in the street, the people of Ayodhya dance and sing in the streets in celebration at the royal births.



John Ayto wrote in the Dictionary of Word Origins (1990) that study of the trivium (grammar, logic, and rhetoric) was requisite preparation for study of the quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy). For the medieval student, the trivium was the curricular beginning of the acquisition of the seven liberal arts; as such, it was the principal undergraduate course of study. The word trivial arose from the contrast between the simpler trivium and the more difficult quadrivium.[5]

Gurdjieff taught that traditional paths to spiritual enlightenment followed one of three ways:


The Way of the Fakir

The Fakir works to obtain mastery of the attention (self-mastery) through struggles with [controlling] the physical body involving difficult physical exercises and postures.

The Way of the Monk

The Monk works to obtain the same mastery of the attention (self-mastery) through struggle with [controlling] the affections, in the domain, as we say, of the heart, which has been emphasized in the west, and come to be known as the way of faith due to its practice particularly in Catholicism.

The Way of the Yogi

The Yogi works to obtain the same mastery of the attention (as before: 'self mastery') through struggle with [controlling] mental habits and capabilities.

Gurdjieff insisted that these paths - although they may intend to seek to produce a fully developed human being - tend to cultivate certain faculties at the expense of others. The goal of religion or spirituality was, in fact, to produce a well-balanced, responsive and sane human being capable of dealing with all eventualities that life may present. Gurdjieff therefore made it clear that it was necessary to cultivate a way that integrated and combined the traditional three ways.


Fourth Way[edit]

Gurdjieff said that his Fourth Way was a quicker means than the first three ways because it simultaneously combined work on all three centers rather than focusing on one. It could be followed by ordinary people in everyday life, requiring no retirement into the desert. The Fourth Way does involve certain conditions imposed by a teacher, but blind acceptance of them is discouraged. Each student is advised to do only what they understand and to verify for themselves the teaching's ideas.


Ouspensky documented Gurdjieff as saying that "two or three thousand years ago there were yet other ways which no longer exist and the ways now in existence were not so divided, they stood much closer to one another. The fourth way differs from the old and the new ways by the fact that it is never a permanent way. It has no definite forms and there are no institutions connected with it."[10]


Ouspensky quotes Gurdjieff that there are fake schools and that "It is impossible to recognize a wrong way without knowing the right way. This means that it is no use troubling oneself how to recognize a wrong way. One must think of how to find the right way."[11]



"What has he in the bag?" I inquired, not knowing

p. 24

why I asked. And after a long silence the voice replied: "The four magic symbols, the sceptre, the cup, the sword and the pentacle. The fool always carries them, although he has long since forgotten what they mean. Nevertheless they belong to him, even though he does not know their use. The symbols have not lost their power, they retain it in themselves.



After I learned the first three numbers I was given to understand the Great Law of Four--the alpha and omega of all.

I saw the Emperor on a lofty stone throne, ornamented by four rams' heads. On his forehead shone a golden helmet. His white beard fell over a purple mantle. In one hand he held a sphere, the symbol of his possession, and in the other, a sceptre in the form of an Egyptian cross--the sign of his power over birth.

"I am The Great Law," the Emperor said. "I am the name of God. The four letters of his name are in me and I am in all.

"I am in the four principles. I am in the four elements. I am in the four seasons. I am in the four cardinal points. I am in the four signs of the Tarot.

"I am the beginning; I am action; I am completion; I am the result.

"For him who knows how to see me there are no mysteries on earth.

"I am the great Pentacle.

p. 33

"As the earth encloses in itself fire, water and air; as the fourth letter of the Name encloses in itself the first three and becomes itself the first, so my sceptre encloses the complete triangle and bears in itself the seed of a new triangle.

"I am the Logos in the full aspect and the beginning of a new Logos."

And while the Emperor spoke, his helmet shone brighter and brighter, and his golden armour gleamed beneath his mantle. I could not bear his glory and I lowered my eyes.

When I tried to lift them again a vivid light of radiant fire was before me, and I prostrated myself and made obeisance to the Fiery Word.