The four principal Mahavakyas (the four great sayings) in Hinudismāvākyas

Though there are many Mahavakyas, four of them, one from each of the four Vedas, are often mentioned as "the Mahavakyas".[3] According to the Vedanta-tradition, the subject matter and the essence of all Upanishads is the same, and all the Upanishadic Mahavakyas express this one universal message in the form of terse and concise statements.[citation needed] In later Sanskrit usage, the term mahāvākya came to mean "discourse", and specifically, discourse on a philosophically lofty topic.[web 1]

According to the Advaita Vedanta tradition the four Upanishadic statements indicate the ultimate unity of the individual (Atman) with Supreme (Brahman).[citation needed]

The Mahavakyas are:

  1. prajñānam brahma - "Prajñāna[note 1] is Brahman"[note 2], or "Brahman is Prajñāna"[web 3] (Aitareya Upanishad 3.3 of the Rig Veda)

  2. ayam ātmā brahma - "This Self (Atman) is Brahman" (Mandukya Upanishad 1.2 of the Atharva Veda)

  3. tat tvam asi - "Thou art That" (Chandogya Upanishad 6.8.7 of the Sama Veda)

  4. aham brahmāsmi - "I am Brahman", or "I am Divine"[7] (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.10 of the Yajur Veda)

The four Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam verses beginning with aham evāsam evāgre (2.9.33–36) are the gist of the whole Bhāgavatam. These are nicely summarized by Lord Caitanya as follows: "I (Kṛṣṇa) am the supreme center for the relationships of all living entities, and knowledge of Me is the supreme knowledge. The process by which a living entity can attain Me is called abhidheya. By it, one can attain the highest perfection of life, love of Godhead. When one attains love of Godhead, his life becomes perfect."

Teachings of Lord Caitanya, Chapter 22

The four Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam verses beginning with aham evāsam evāgre (2.9.33–36) are the gist of the whole Bhāgavatam. These are nicely summarized by Lord Caitanya as follows: "I (Kṛṣṇa) am the supreme center for the relationships of all living entities, and knowledge of Me is the supreme knowledge. The process by which a living entity can attain Me is called abhidheya. By it, one can attain the highest perfection of life, love of Godhead. When one attains love of Godhead, his life becomes perfect." The explanation of these four verses is given in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, and Lord Caitanya gave a short description of the principles of these verses. He said that by mental speculation or academic education no one can understand the constitutional position of the Supreme Lord—how He is situated, His transcendental qualities, His transcendental activities and His six opulences. These can be understood only by the mercy of the Lord. As stated in the Bhagavad-gītā, one who is fortunate enough to receive the Lord's favor can understand all these explanations by the mercy of the Lord.

The Lord existed before the material creation; therefore the material ingredients, nature and the living entities all emanated from Him, and after dissolution they rest in Him. When the creation is manifest, it is maintained by Him; indeed, whatever manifestation we see is but a transformation of His external energy. When the Supreme Lord withdraws His external energy, everything enters into Him. In the first of the four verses, the word aham is given three times to stress that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is full with all opulences. Aham is stated three times just to chastise one who cannot understand or believe in the transcendental nature and form of the Supreme Lord.

The Lord possesses His internal energy, His external, marginal and relative energies, and the manifestation of the cosmic world and the living entities. The external energy is manifested by the qualitative modes (guṇas) of material nature. One who can understand the nature of the living entity in the spiritual world can actually understand vedyam, or perfect knowledge. One cannot understand the Supreme Lord simply by seeing the material energy and the conditioned soul, but when one is in perfect knowledge, he is freed from the influence of the external energy. The moon reflects the light of the sun, and without the sun the moon cannot illuminate anything. Similarly, this material cosmic manifestation is but the reflection of the spiritual world. When one is actually liberated from the spell of the external energy, he can understand the constitutional nature of the Supreme Lord. Devotional service to the Lord is the only means for attaining Him, and this devotional service can be accepted by everyone and anyone in any country and under any circumstance. Devotional service is above the four principles of religion, culminating in liberation. Actually, even the preliminary processes of devotional service are transcendental to liberation, the highest subject of ordinary religion.

Therefore, irrespective of one's caste, creed, color, country, etc., one should approach a bona fide spiritual master and hear from him everything about devotional service. The real purpose of life is to revive our dormant love of God. Indeed, that is our ultimate necessity. How that love of God can be attained is explained in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. There is theoretical knowledge and specific or realized knowledge, and perfect realized knowledge is attained when one realizes the teachings received from the spiritual master.

The four Pan-Arab colors

The Pan-Arab colours are blackwhitegreen, and red. Individually, each of the four Pan-Arab colours were intended to represent a certain Arab dynasty, or era.[3] The black was the colour of the banner of Muhammad and the RashidunCaliphate and was later adopted by the Abbasid Caliphate; white was used by the Umayyad Caliphate; green was used by the Fatimid Caliphate; and red was both the flag held by the Khawarij and also represented the Hashemites.[4] The four colours derived their potency from a verse by 14th century Iraqi poet Safi Al-Din Al-Hilli: "White are our acts, black our battles, green our fields, and red our swords".

It may be noted that while Libya is an Arab country and has a flag with the same four colours, the colours have a different origin in this flag and are therefore not considered pan-Arab colours.[citation needed]

The four Adi Shakti Peethas

Some of the great religious texts like the Shiva Purana, the Devi Bhagavata, the Kalika Purana and the AstaShakti recognize four major Shakti Peethas (centers), like Bimala (Pada Khanda) (inside the Jagannath temple of PuriOdisha), Tara Tarini (Sthana Khanda, Purnagiri, Breasts) (Near Berhampur, Odisha), Kamakhya Temple (Yoni khanda) (Near Guwahati, Assam) and Dakshina Kalika (Mukha khanda) (Kolkata, West Bengal) originated from the parts of the Corpse of Mata Sati in the Satya Yuga.

The Astashakti and Kalika Purana says (in Sanskrit):

"Bimala Pada khandancha,

Sthana khandancha Tarini (Tara Tarini),

Kamakhya Yoni khandancha,

Mukha khandancha Kalika (Dakshina Kalika)

Anga pratyanga sanghena

Vishnu Chakra Kshyta nacha"

Further explaining the importance of these four Pithas, the "Brihat Samhita" also gives the location of these Pithas as (In Sanskrit)

"Rushikulya* Tatae Devi,

Tarakashya Mahagiri,

Tashya Srunga Stitha Tara

Vasishta Rajitapara" (Rushikulya is a holy river flowing on the foothill of the Tara Tarini Hill Shrine. "Shakti" refers to the Goddess worshipped at each location, all being manifestations of Dakshayani (Sati), Parvati or Durga;

  • "Body Part or Ornament" refers to the body part or piece of jewellery that fell to earth, at the location on which the respective temple is built.

16 ships in total

The Eight-Eight Fleet Program (八八艦隊 Hachihachi Kantai) was a Japanese naval strategy formulated for the development of the Imperial Japanese Navyin the first quarter of the 20th century, which stipulated that the navy should include eight first-class battleships and eight armoured cruisers or battlecruisers.

A further impetus to achieve the Eight-Eight Fleet ideal came from an additional expansion of the U.S. Navy under American President Woodrow Wilson's 1919 plan to build another set of 16 capital ships (on top of the 16 already authorized in 1916). In 1920, under Prime Minister Hara Takashi, a reluctant Diet was persuaded to accept a plan to bring the "Four-Four" set of modern ships up to "Eight-Eight" strength by 1927. 

In Sept. 1918, the Navy Department’s General Board recommended in addition to the sixteen capital ships called for in the initial act, that an additional twelve battleships and sixteen battlecruisers be built.

Substitution and elimination reactions (between Lewis-bases and alkyl-halides) are some of the first reactions taught in organic chemistry. The figure above, organizes the main factors that distinquish: SN1, SN2, E1 or E2 mechanisms into a single, 4-quadrant spectrum. We describe the heirarchy of these factors in more detail below.


This was one of the things I learned in organic chemistry at UCSD everything that was taught at UCSD was solely the quadrant model

Four types of shots were given

Griffith's experiment, reported in 1928 by Frederick Griffith,[1] was the first experiment suggesting that bacteria are capable of transferring genetic information through a process known as transformation

In this experiment, bacteria from the III-S strain were killed by heat, and their remains were added to II-R strain bacteria. While neither alone harmed the mice, the combination was able to kill its host. Griffith was also able to isolate both live II-R and live III-S strains of pneumococcus from the blood of these dead mice. Griffith concluded that the type II-R had been "transformed" into the lethal III-S strain by a "transforming principle" that was somehow part of the dead III-S strain bacteria.

Griffith's experiment discovering the "transforming principle" in pneumococcusbacteria.

Very famous four part book

The Road Less Traveled,[9] published in 1978, is Peck's best-known work, and the one that made his reputation. It is, in short, a description of the attributes that make for a fulfilled human being, based largely on his experiences as a psychiatrist and a person.

The book consists of four parts. 

In The Road Less Traveled,[9] Peck wrote of the importance of discipline. He described four aspects of discipline:

  • Delaying gratification: Sacrificing present comfort for future gains.

  • Acceptance of responsibility: Accepting responsibility for one's own decisions.

  • Dedication to truth: Honesty, both in word and deed.

  • Balancing: Handling conflicting requirements. Scott Peck writes of an important skill to prioritize between different requirements – bracketing. ​

Peck postulates that there are four stages of human spiritual development:[15][16]

  • Stage I is chaotic, disordered, and reckless. Very young children are in Stage I. They tend to defy and disobey, and are unwilling to accept a will greater than their own. They are extremely egoistic and lack empathy for others. Many criminals are people who have never grown out of Stage I.

  • Stage II is the stage at which a person has blind faith in authority figures and sees the world as divided simply into good and evil, right and wrong, us and them. Once children learn to obey their parents and other authority figures, often out of fear or shame, they reach Stage II. Many so-called religious people are essentially Stage II people, in the sense that they have blind faith in God, and do not question His existence. With blind faith comes humilityand a willingness to obey and serve. The majority of good, law-abiding citizens never move out of Stage II.

  • Stage III is the stage of scientific skepticism and questioning. A Stage III person does not accept things on faith but only accepts them if convincedlogically. Many people working in scientific and technological research are in Stage III. They often reject the existence of spiritual or supernatural forces since these are difficult to measure or prove scientifically. Those who do retain their spiritual beliefs, move away from the simple, official doctrines of fundamentalism.

  • Stage IV is the stage where an individual starts enjoying the mystery and beauty of nature and existence. While retaining skepticism, he starts perceiving grand patterns in nature and develops a deeper understanding of good and evil, forgiveness and mercy, compassion and love. His religiousness and spirituality differ significantly from that of a Stage II person, in the sense that he does not accept things through blind faith or out of fear, but does so because of genuine belief, and he does not judge people harshly or seek to inflict punishment on them for their transgressions. This is the stage of loving others as yourself, losing your attachment to your ego, and forgiving your enemies. Stage IV people are labeled as Mystics.


Fascist Manifesto

The Manifesto (published in Il Popolo d'Italia on June 6, 1919) is divided into four sections, describing the movement's objectives in political, social, military and financial fields.[3]

16 idols

King Vajra then had 16 idols of Krishna and other gods carved from a rare, imperishable stone called Braja and built temples to house these idols in and around Mathura so as to feel the presence of Lord Krishna. The four presiding idols of Braja Mandala are Sri Harideva of Govardhan, Sri Keshava Deva of Mathura, Sri Baladeva of Baladeo, and Govindaji of Vrindavan. There are two Naths—Sri Nathji, who were originally at Govardhan and are now in Nathdwara, Rajasthan and Sri Gopinath, who is now in Jaipur. The two Gopals are Sri Madana Mohan, who is now housed at Karoli Rajasthan, and Sakshi Gopal, who is now moved to town of Sakshi Gopal, Orissa, near Puri.

This mall and many of the other famous malls has four levels (the most levels they have is four and is organized into four zones- The fourth level is different

The Mall of America has a gross area of 4,870,000 sq ft (452,000 m2) or 96.4 acres (390,000 m2), enough to fit seven Yankee Stadiums inside,[16] with 2,500,000 sq ft (230,000 m2) available as retail space.[4] The mall is nearly symmetric, with a roughly rectangular floor plan. More than 530 stores are arranged along three levels of pedestrian walkways on the sides of the rectangle, with a fourth level on the east side. Four anchor department stores are located at the corners. The mall is organized into four different zones, each of those zones had its own decorative style until a series of renovations from 2010 to 2015 led to a unified and more luxurious style, as well as to coincide with the mall's first major expansion.[17]

Level One is the location of Nickelodeon Universe amusement park (formerly Camp Snoopy), Sea Life Minnesota (underground), Hard Rock CafeLegoAmerican Girl Doll storeApple Store and Microsoft store, which are directly across from each other, and first level of general retail.[21] Level Two features restaurants, shopping, memory moments, and the first Verizon Destination Store. Level Three has two food courts with more than 20 fast food and full service restaurants, mini-golf, and Crayola Experience. Level Four is the entertainment level with the Hootersrestaurant, Cantina #1 restaurant, Rick Bronson's House of Comedy, Dick's Last Resort, Sky Deck Sports Grille and Lane, and the first U.S. location of SMAAASH, a virtual reality sports entertainment center.

The Theatres at Mall of America (Initially run by General Cinemas, then AMC Theatres, and finally operated by mall management) occupied the south side of the fourth floor through December 2016, when it closed permanently. It is to be replaced by Cinemex subsidiary CMX in fall 2017.[22] For many years the 4th floor was considered a ghost town but has surged in popularity and is 70% occupied. Planet Hollywood, at the height of its success, was once a very popular restaurant on the fourth floor, but closed in 2003. This space is now occupied by Dick's Last Resort.[23]

The mall was in negotiations with Dave and Buster's for several years, which failed to re-open the location. In 2011, new owners were brought back in and relaunched the restaurant and lanes under Sky Deck Grill and Lanes.[23] In order to keep the fourth floor from failing as it did in the early 2000s, the mall has strategically leased to several different corporations, rather than leasing several spaces to one corporation. The bankruptcy of Jillian's in 2004 led to the lowest vacancy rate of the 4th floor, at 41%.[23] The original Level Four had a comedy club, Hooters, bowling alley, arcade, and Planet Hollywood.[citation needed] Due to the structure of the building, Level Four only exists on the East and South side of the mall.

Four note ostinato

"Carol of the Bells" is a popular Christmas carol composed by Ukrainian composer Mykola Leontovych in 1914[1] with lyrics by Peter J. Wilhousky. The song is based on a Ukrainian folk chant called "Shchedryk".[2] Wilhousky's lyrics are copyrighted, although the original musical composition is not.

The song is recognized by a four-note ostinato motif (see image to the right).–Morley_experiment

The Michaelson Morley Experiment is extremely famous and disproved the idea of the aether in physics. It involved a quadrant shown to the right

Figure 5. This figure illustrates the folded light path used in the Michelson–Morley interferometer that enabled a path length of 11 m. a is the light source, an oil lamp. b is a beam splitter. c is a compensating plate so that both the reflected and transmitted beams travel through the same amount of glass (important since experiments were run with white light which has an extremely short coherence length requiring precise matching of optical path lengths for fringes to be visible; monochromatic sodium light was used only for initial alignment[4][note 2]). d, d' and e are mirrors. e' is a fine adjustment mirror. f is a telescope.


The forth gaseous layer of the sun is called the photosphere, the third layer is called the “reversing layer” and the second layer is called the chromospheres.  There three layers of the sun makes up its total atmosphere of the sun. The last layer of the sun is called the corona.


There are four brothers in the Karamazov family: Ivan, the atheist intellectual; Dmitry, the emotional lover of women; Alyosha, the "hero" and Christian; and twistedcunning Smerdyakov, the illegitimate child, who is treated as the family servant.[2] Fyodor Pavlovich Karamazov is a very careless father and woman-lover. Dmitry comes to hate him because his father loves the same woman as he does, Grushenka, and because of this, he often threatens that he will kill his father.[2] When Fyodor Pavlovich is killed by Smerdyakov, he is accused of killing his father.

In the Book of Job there are four comforters for Job. The first three are normal but the fourth is different. The first three are Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the Shuhite and Zophar the Naamathite.

"Elihu is kind of a creeper. Seriously—look at the facts. He isn't mentioned as one of Job's friends, but apparently he was there listening in on their conversation, because he knows all about it when he chimes in. And then he takes it upon himself to spend about five chapters—an eighth of the entire book—spouting off his thoughts."

Amos and the transcendent fourth

“For three transgressions … and for four”

This poetic formula is repeated eight times to preface the announcement of ensuing judgment. Amos employs a common poetic technique used often in Biblical literature called ascending enumeration or x/x+1 parallelism (see Psalm 62:12, Proverbs 6:19, Micah 5:4 for other examples). This is not to be taken mathematically, but idiomatically – that is, the cities indicted by Amos have not merely sinned three or four times, but transgressions have mounted up upon transgression.


God is patient, in fact more so than any man. He does not judge haphazardly based upon emotion; He is very calculated as He distributes wrath upon those He finds guilty. He watches over the career of man’s sinfulness. After the first evil He rebukes; the second time He threatens; the third time He raises His hand to smite; but then upon the proverbial fourth transgression – He smites! Though God may bare long with wickedness, He will not be mocked. In Amos’ day, the nations, as well as Judah and Israel have all crossed the line, exhausting the patience of a longsuffering God, and as a result He judges in His wrath, and chastises in His mercy.


The fourth transgression is the outward sign of the desperately wicked heart of man. When human values get cut loose from a solid foundation upon God and His Word, and become based upon the free choice of each person, it is not hard to predict what will happen. Soon the thoughts and attitudes that motivate people will be based on what is important to them at the moment; the inevitable result being that man will value himself over others, pleasure over work, spending instead of saving, and freedom to do his own thing in place of commitment. The sin that runs like a sinister thread throughout the transgressions of these six nations in Amos 1:3-2:3 is that of living for self. We find the self trampling on others, intent on its own profit, ignoring obligations, indulging in secret pleasure, and callous and indifferent to the need of humanity around them. The outcome of such selfishness today is manifested in famine, disease, immorality, poverty, terrorism and oppression.

In that series of sayings in the book of Proverbs Prov. 30, the fourth is, in each, something greater than the three preceding. "There are three" things that "are never satisfied;" yea, "four" things "say not," it is "enough" Proverbs 30:15-16. The other things cannot be satisfied; the fourth, fire, grows fiercer by being fed. Again, "There be three" things "which go well; yea, four are comely in going" Proverbs 30:29-31.


Like other ethnic groups in the Horn of Africa and East Africa, Oromo people regionally developed social stratification consisting of four hierarchical strata. The highest strata were the nobles called the Borana, below them were the Gabbaro (some 17th to 19th century Ethiopian texts refer them as the dhalatta). Below these two upper castes were the despised castes of artisans, and at the lowest level were the slaves.

According to Mohamed Eno and Abdi Kusow, the Somali caste communities are ethnically indistinguishable from each other, but upper castes have stigmatized the lower ones with mythical narratives such as they being of unholy origins or being engaged in dirty occupations.[35] The four strata social system – high lineage, low lineage, caste groups and slaves – found among the Somalis has been common in the Horn of Africa region, states Donald Levine, and is also found among ethnic groups such as Afar, Amhara, Borana, Leqa, Sidamo, Kefa, Janjero and other peoples.

The Fula caste system has been fairly rigid and has medieval roots.[4] It was well established by the 15th-century, and it has survived into modern age.[80] The four major castes,states Martin Kich, in their order of status are "nobility, traders, tradesmen (such as blacksmith) and descendants of slaves".[80] According to the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, the Fulani people have held on to "a strict caste system".

The Balinese caste system resembles the Indian system with a four-fold division of society. Shudras make up approximately 97 percent of the society.


The best known system is the French Ancien Régime (Old Regime), a three-estate system used until the French Revolution (1789–1799). Monarchy was for the king and the queen and this system was made up of clergy (the First Estate), nobles (the Second Estate), and peasants and bourgeoisie (the Third Estate). In some regions, notably Scandinavia and Russia, burghers (the urban merchant class) and rural commoners were split into separate estates, creating a four-estate system with rural commoners ranking the lowest as the Fourth Estate.

In the late Russian Empire the estates were called sosloviyes. The four major estates were: nobility (dvoryanstvo), clergy, rural dwellers, and urban dwellers, with a more detailed stratification therein. The division in estates was of mixed nature: traditional, occupational, as well as formal: for example, voting in Duma was carried out by estates. Russian Empire Census recorded the reported estate of a person.

The Code of the Law of the Russian Empire of 1832, vol. 9, "Laws about Estates" (Законы о состояниях) defined four major estates: dvoryans (nobility), clergy, urban dwellers and rural dwellers (peasants).


From existing literary evidence, commoner rankings in China were employed for the first time during the Warring States period (403–221 BC).[3] Despite this, Eastern-Han (AD 25–220) historian Ban Gu (AD 32–92) asserted in his Book of Han that the four occupations for commoners had existed in the Western Zhou (c. 1050 – 771 BC) era, which he considered a golden age.[3] However, it is now known that the classification of four occupations as Ban Gu understood it did not exist until the 2nd century BC.[3] Ban explained the social hierarchy of each group in descending order:

Scholars, farmers, artisans, and merchants; each of the four peoples had their respective profession. Those who studied in order to occupy positions of rank were called the shi (scholars). Those who cultivated the soil and propagated grains were called nong (farmers). Those who manifested skill (qiao) and made utensils were called gong (artisans). Those who transported valuable articles and sold commodities were called shang (merchants).[4]

Anthony J. Barbieri-Low, Professor of Early Chinese History at the University of California, Santa Barbara, writes that the classification of "four occupations" can be viewed as a mere rhetorical device that had no effect on government policy.[3] However, he notes that although no statute in the Qin or Han law codes specifically mentions the four occupations, some laws did treat these broadly classified social groups as separate units with different levels of legal privilege.[3]


The Tokugawa government intentionally created a social order called the Four divisions of society (shinōkōshō), that would stabilize the country. This system was based on the ideas of Confucianism that spread to Japan from China. By this system, society was composed of samurai (侍 shi), farming peasants (農 nō), artisans (工 kō) and merchants (商 shō). Samurai were placed at the top of society because they started an order and set a high moral example for others to follow. The system was meant to reinforce their position of power in society by justifying their ruling status. Peasants came second because they produced the most important commodity, food. According to Confucian philosophy, society could not survive without agriculture.[1] Third were artisans because they produced nonessential goods.

Kenneth Burke has called metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche and irony the "four master tropes"


The Big Three television networks are the three major traditional commercial broadcast television networks in the United States: the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), CBS (formerly known as the Columbia Broadcasting System) and the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). Beginning in 1948 until the late 1980s, the Big Three networks dominated U.S. television. These three channels were also the first three channels on Television in America.

A viable fourth television network in the commercial sense would not again become competitive with the Big Three until Fox was founded in October 1986 (from some of the assets/remnants of the DuMont network, which became Metromedia after DuMont folded, and were acquired by News Corporation earlier in 1986[7]). Fox, which began as a distant fourth network, leapfrogged into major network status in 1994 after must-carry rules took effect; the rules allowed Fox affiliates to force their way onto cable lineups, and the network's affiliation deal with New World Communications (which it later purchased in 1996) and the acquisition of National Football League broadcast rights brought a wave of new Fox affiliates.

Since its founding, Fox has surpassed ABC and NBC in the ratings during the early primetime hours in which it competes against the longer established networks, becoming the second most-watched network behind CBS during the 2000s. During the 2007-08 season, Fox was the highest-rated of the major broadcast networks (as well as the first non-Big Three network to reach first place), but lost the spot in the 2008-09 season and dropped to a close second. From 2004 to 2012, Fox also dominated U.S. television in the lucrative and viewer-rich 18-49 demographics, in large part due to the success of its NFL coverage and its top rated prime time program, American Idol. Given the network's success in its prime time and sports offerings, it has been occasionally included with the Big Three, in which case the phrase "Big Four" is used.

Although Fox has firmly established itself as the nation's fourth major network with its ratings success, it is not considered part of the Big Three. Among Fox's differences with the Big Three is its reduced weekday programming. It lacks national morning and evening news programs – Fox has its news division, consists of cable and radio operations, but does not provide content for the broadcast television network other than a weekly news analysis program, limited special breaking news reports and an affiliate news service for its stations called Fox News Edge. Fox does not feaure any daytime programming, a third hour of primetimelate-night talk shows, and Saturday morning children's programming. Fox had an extensive lineup of children's programs throughout the 1990s called Fox Kids, but sold the division to The Walt Disney Company in 2001 as part of its sale of cable network Fox Family Channel, after which 4Kids Entertainment supplied the network's children's lineup until 2009.

Outside prime time, Fox affiliates either produce their own programming or run syndicated shows. Fox is also the only one of the four major networks to include a regular block of infomercials on its lineup, via the Weekend Marketplace Saturday morning block.

In American television terminology, a fourth network is a reference to a fourth broadcast (over-the-air) television network, as opposed to the Big Three television networks that dominated U.S. television from the 1950s to the 1990s: ABCCBS and NBC.

When the U.S. television industry was in its infancy in the 1940s, there were four major full-time television networks that operated across the country: ABC, CBS, NBC and the DuMont Television Network. Never able to find solid financial ground, DuMont ceased broadcasting in August 1956. Many companies later began to operate television networks which aspired to compete against the Big Three. However, between the 1950s and the 1980s, none of these start-ups endured and some never even launched. After decades of these failed "fourth networks", many television industry insiders believed that creating a viable fourth network was impossible. Television critics also grew jaded, with one critic placing this comparison in the struggles of creating a sustaining competitor to the Big Three, "Industry talk about a possible full-time, full-service, commercial network structured like the existing big three, ABC, CBS and NBC, pops up much more often than the fictitious town of Brigadoon".[1]

The October 1986 launch of the Fox Broadcasting Company was met with ridicule. Despite the industry skepticism and initial network instability (due to its early struggles in launching hit programs), the Fox network eventually proved profitable by the early 1990s, becoming the first successful fourth network and eventually surpassing the Big Three networks in the demographics and overall viewership ratings by the early 2000s.


Using DNA for Genetic Genealogy

There are four different kinds of DNA that genealogists use in different ways for obtaining ancestors’ information relevant to genetic genealogy. Thankfully, we have 4 different kinds of DNA available to us because of unique inheritance patterns for each kind of DNA – meaning we inherited different kinds of DNA from different ancestral paths. If one kind of DNA doesn’t work in a particular situation, chances are good that another type will.

Genetic genealogy makes use of 4 different types of DNA.

  • Y DNA – passed from males to male children, only (your father’s paternal line)

  • Mitochondrial DNA – passed from females to both genders of children, but only females pass it on (your mother’s matrilineal line)

Y and mitochondrial DNA inheritance paths are shown on a pedigree chart in the graphic below, with the blue boxes representing Y DNA and the red circles representing mitochondrial DNA inheritance.


In addition to Y and mitochondrial DNA, genetic genealogists also use two kinds of DNA that reflect inheritance from additional ancestral lines, in addition to the red and blue lines shown above – meaning the ancestral lines with no color.

  • Autosomal DNA – the 22 chromosomes that recombine during reproduction.

  • X Chromosome – always contributed by the mother, but only contributed by the father to female children – this is the 23rd chromosome pair which recombines with a unique inheritance pattern.  You can read more about that in the article, X Marks the Spot.

The Einstein Cross (Q2237+030 or QSO 2237+0305) is a gravitational lensed quasar that sits directly behind ZW 2237+030, Huchra's Lens. Four images of the same distant quasar (an additional image is present in the center, but it can't be seen with the naked eye) appear around a foreground galaxy due to strong gravitational lensing.[1][2]

The symbol of microsoft is a quadrant


“There are three things that are never satisfied,
    four that never say, ‘Enough!’:
16 the grave, the barren womb,
    land, which is never satisfied with water,
    and fire, which never says, ‘Enough!’

17 “The eye that mocks a father,
    that scorns an aged mother,
will be pecked out by the ravens of the valley,
    will be eaten by the vultures.

18 “There are three things that are too amazing for me,
    four that I do not understand:
19 the way of an eagle in the sky,
    the way of a snake on a rock,
the way of a ship on the high seas,
    and the way of a man with a young woman.

20 “This is the way of an adulterous woman:
    She eats and wipes her mouth
    and says, ‘I’ve done nothing wrong.’

21 “Under three things the earth trembles,
    under four it cannot bear up:
22 a servant who becomes king,
    a godless fool who gets plenty to eat,
23 a contemptible woman who gets married,
    and a servant who displaces her mistress.

24 “Four things on earth are small,
    yet they are extremely wise:
25 Ants are creatures of little strength,
    yet they store up their food in the summer;
26 hyraxes are creatures of little power,
    yet they make their home in the crags;
27 locusts have no king,
    yet they advance together in ranks;
28 a lizard can be caught with the hand,
    yet it is found in kings’ palaces.

29 “There are three things that are stately in their stride,
    four that move with stately bearing:
30 a lion, mighty among beasts,
    who retreats before nothing;
31 a strutting rooster, a he-goat,
    and a king secure against revolt.[b]

32 “If you play the fool and exalt yourself,
    or if you plan evil,
    clap your hand over your mouth!
33 For as churning cream produces butter,
    and as twisting the nose produces blood,
    so stirring up anger produces strife.”


The ankh (/ˈæŋk/ or /ˈɑːŋk/Egyptian ˁnḫ), also known as crux ansata (the Latin for "cross with a handle") is an ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic ideograph with the meaning "life".

The Egyptian gods are often portrayed carrying it by its loop, or bearing one in each hand, arms crossed over their chest. The ankh appears in hand or in proximity of almost every deity in the Egyptian pantheon (including Pharaohs).

The ankh appears frequently in Egyptian tomb paintings and other art, often at the fingertips of a god or goddess in images that represent the deities of the afterlife conferring the gift of life on the dead person's mummy; this is thought to symbolize the act of conception.[citation needed] Additionally, an ankh was often carried by Egyptians as an amulet, either alone, or in connection with two other hieroglyphs that mean "strength" and "health" (see explication of djedand was, above).[citation neededMirrors of beaten metal were also often made in the shape of an ankh, either for decorative reasons or to symbolize a perceived view into another world.[citation needed]

A symbol similar to the ankh appears frequently in Minoan and Mycenaean sites[where?]. This is a combination of the sacral knot (symbol of holiness) with the double-edged axe (symbol of matriarchy)[9] but it can be better compared with the Egyptian tyet which is similar. This symbol can be recognized on the two famous figurines of the chthonianSnake Goddess discovered in the palace of Knossos. Both snake goddesses have a knot with a projecting loop cord between their breasts.[10] In the Linear B (Mycenean Greek) script, ankh is the phonetic sign za.[11]


Crux ansata in Codex Glazier

The ankh also appeared frequently in coins from ancient Cyprus and Asia Minor (particularly the city of Mallus in Cilicia).[12] In some cases, especially with the early coinage of King Euelthon of Salamis, the letter ku, from the Cypriot syllabary, appeared within the circle ankh, representing Ku(prion) (Cypriots). To this day, the ankh is also used to represent the planet Venus (the namesake of which, the goddess Venus or Aphrodite, was chiefly worshipped on the island) and the metal copper (the heavy mining of which gave Cyprus its name).[13]

Coptic Christians preserved the shape of the ankh by sometimes representing the Christian cross with a circle in place of the upper bar. This is known as the Coptic ankh or crux ansata.[14][15]

The ankh, during the reign of Hatshepsut (1508–1458 BC), from the Royal Ontario Museum


In the Hollywood movie industry, a four-quadrant movie is one which appeals to all four major demographic "quadrants" of the moviegoing audience: both male and female, and both over- and under-25s.[1] Films are generally aimed at at least two such quadrants, and most tent-pole films are four-quadrant movies. A film's budget is often correlated to the number of quadrants the film is expected to reach, and movies are rarely produced which are aimed at fewer than two quadrants.[2]

Although four-quadrant movies are generally family-friendly, this is not a requirement.[3] Some other genres meeting this may be romantic (such as Titanic and Meet the Parents) or horror films (The Exorcist), or be crowd-pleasing in nature.[4][5] Four-quadrant movies often have both adult and child protagonists.[6] They are often built on a "high-concept" premise with well-delineated heroes and villains, with emotion, action and danger present in the story.[7]


Zeus and the Triple Goddess form an Elemental Quaternity, which helps us understand their relation. Zeus the Sky Father, as we’ve seen, governs the Air, and Persephone the Abyssal Maiden governs Water. Demeter the Earth Mother is clearly Earth. This leaves Rhea the Celestial Crone to correspond to Fire. Rhea, Demeter, Persephone, and Zeus define an ascending Rotation of the Elements. She says that the gods, like the goddesses, have their unique characters from their positions in the cycle of Elements.

These Goddesses are part of another Elemental Quaternity, for Hecate (Fire), Demeter (Earth), and Persephone (Water) were associated in worship and magic (Kingsley, pp. 243–5, 270–1). The Hidden Fourth is Dionysos (Air). Hecate, who is also called Phulada (Guardian), Propulaia (Before the Gates), Kleidophoros (Key-bearer) and Kleidoukhos (Key-holder, Priestess), opens the way into an Ascending Rotation of the Elements, which follow her in three generations (Demeter, Persephone, Dionysos).


I asked the Goddess about the Four Rivers of the Underworld enumerated in Plato’s Phaedo according to Orphic doctrine: Pyriphlegethon (Fire), Acheron (Air), Cocytus (Water), and Styx (Earth), according to Damascius’ correspondences (Kern, Orph. Frag. 125); she replied:

There are Four Rivers. 

Behold them coming from the Roots of the Tree. 

They nourish the Four Corners of the Earth, 

each in its own way. 

How is that? By the Elements, 

but they all go everywhere, 

not to particular geographical quarters. 

It is all spiritual. 

This is the realm below matter, 

on the other side of matter. (B9)

I understand this to mean that although each river is associated with an Element, and the rivers flow off to the four quarters, we should not think of each Element going in just one direction. Rather, because this is a spiritual process, the Four Corners of the Earth should be interpreted non-materially; the Rivers and the Elements reach everywhere. There is also the interesting idea here that the Underworld is the “other side of matter.”

In connection with the Rivers the Goddess made a surprising assertion:

Socrates begins by discussing madness. If madness is all bad, then the preceding speeches would have been correct, but in actuality, madness given as a gift of the gods provides us with some of the best things we have.[Note 18] There are, in fact, several kinds of divine madness (theia mania), of which he cites four examples:[3]

  1. From Apollo, the gift of prophecy;

  2. From Dionysus, the mystic rites and relief from present hardship;

  3. From the Muses, poetry;

  4. From Aphrodite, love.

As they must show that the madness of love is, indeed, sent by a god to benefit the lover and beloved in order to disprove the preceding speeches, Socrates embarks on a proof of the divine origin of this fourth sort of madness. It is a proof, he says, that will convince "the wise if not the clever".

The role of divine inspiration in philosophy must also be considered; the philosopher is struck with the fourth kind of madness, that of love, and it is this divine inspiration that leads him and his beloved towards the good—but only when tempered with self-control.

One of the main themes in the Phaedo is the idea that the soul is immortal. Socrates offers four arguments for the soul's immortality:

  • The Cyclical Argument, or Opposites Argument explains that Forms are eternal and unchanging, and as the soul always brings life, then it must not die, and is necessarily "imperishable". As the body is mortal and is subject to physical death, the soul must be its indestructible opposite. Plato then suggests the analogy of fire and cold. If the form of cold is imperishable, and fire, its opposite, was within close proximity, it would have to withdraw intact as does the soul during death. This could be likened to the idea of the opposite charges of magnets.

  • The Theory of Recollection explains that we possess some non-empirical knowledge (e.g. The Form of Equality) at birth, implying the soul existed before birth to carry that knowledge. Another account of the theory is found in Plato's Meno, although in that case Socrates implies anamnesis (previous knowledge of everything) whereas he is not so bold in Phaedo.

  • The Affinity Argument, explains that invisible, immortal, and incorporeal things are different from visible, mortal, and corporeal things. Our soul is of the former, while our body is of the latter, so when our bodies die and decay, our soul will continue to live.

  • The Argument from Form of Life, or The Final Argument explains that the Forms, incorporeal and static entities, are the cause of all things in the world, and all things participate in Forms. For example, beautiful things participate in the Form of Beauty; the number four participates in the Form of the Even, etc. The soul, by its very nature, participates in the Form of Life, which means the soul can never die.


This tradition was gradually kept in the Highlander Regiments with some changing rules. To prepare for the Sword Dance, a soldier should lay two swords on the ground in the form of an X, he would then proceed to dance a complex series of steps and movements between and around the swords to the sound of the bagpipes. The dance itself can be performed with more than one individual. This tradition of exhibition and competitive dancing carried on into the 21st century. It was performed at a Regimental Highland Games C1930s. Four swords are laid on the dance floor in a cross shape. The dancer then performs a number of intricate dance steps across and around the sword blades, keeping their backs straight, arms raised, and hands in a particular shape. Throughout the decades, this style of dance became an integral part of the performance of the pipes and drums band when it went on tour to various countries around the world. Highland country dancing (often a less formal style of dance) was also encouraged within the Regiment.[6]


The Sword Dance, 93rd were camped at Chobham in England, 1853



Lochaber Axe,traditional Scottish battle weapon

Actually, the weapon in the traditional sword dance is not only the basket-hilted broadsword. In the book “Highland and Traditional Scottish Dances”, Mr. MacLellan has mentioned when his father was living on Loch Fyneside in Argyll, designed the Foursome Dance over swords as a counter to the Lochaber Dance, which was initially danced over Lochaber axes. The Broadsword indicated the basket-hilted sword worn by officers of Highland Regiments and sometimes miscalled the Claymore, which is a large two-handed weapon. The original version of the Broadswords Dance is described in Mr. MacLellan’s book, and the steps, four strathspey and one quick–time, and drill for marching on and off a dancing stage are simpler and less elaborate than those seen in some present day forms of the dance. It is not an “Old Thyme” dance and it is not Regimental in origin.[7]

Four Scottish Dances (Op.59) is an orchestral set of light music pieces composed by Malcolm Arnold in 1957 for the BBC Light Music Festival.

Arnold's set, or suite, consists of four dances inspired by, although not based on, Scottish country folk tunes and dances. Although the individual dances are not titled, each is denoted by a separate tempo or style marking.

The composer's notations in the score,[1] including his metronome indications (M.M.), are:

  • I. Pesante (quarter note = 104)

  • II. Vivace (quarter note = 160)

  • III. Allegretto (quarter note = 96)

  • IV. Con brio (quarter note = 144)


English Dances, Opp. 27 and 33, are two sets of light music pieces, composed for orchestra by Malcolm Arnold in 1950 and 1951 (Burton-Page 2001). Each set consists of four dances inspired by, although not based upon, country folk tunes and dances. Each movement is denoted by the tempo marking, as the individual movements are untitled.

English Dances, Set I, Op. 27

I. Andantino
II. Vivace
III. Mesto
IV. Allegro risoluto

English Dances, Set II, Op. 33

I. Allegro non troppo
II. Con brio
III. Grazioso
IV. Giubiloso - lento e maestoso


A performer of the Scottish sword dance, the "Gillie Callum", in Inverness, c. 1900

In movie theater projectors, the intermittent movement is often produced by a Maltese cross mechanism.


Working principle of a Maltese cross or Geneva drive

The name, Geneva drive, is derived from the device's earliest application in mechanical watches, which were popularized in Geneva, being the classical origin of watchmaking industry.

The Geneva drive is also called a "Maltese cross mechanism" due to the visual resemblance when the rotating wheel has four spokes, since they can be made small, and are able to withstand substantial mechanical stress. These mechanisms are frequently used in mechanical watches.

In the most common arrangement of the Geneva drive, the client wheel has four slots and thus advances the drive by one step at a time (each step being 90 degrees) for each full rotation of the master wheel. If the steered wheel has n slots, it advances by 360°/n per full rotation of the propeller wheel.

Because the mechanism needs to be well lubricated, it is often enclosed in an oil capsule.

One application of the Geneva drive is in movie projectors: the film does not run continuously through the projector.

The name, Geneva drive, is derived from the device's earliest application in mechanical watches, which were popularized in Geneva, being the classical origin of watchmaking industry.

An illustration that shows the four stages (motion stop at 90 degrees angle) of one full cycle of Maltese cross.



Amalienborg (Danish pronunciation: [aˈmæːˀljənbɒːˀ]) is the home of the Danish royal family, and is located in CopenhagenDenmark. It consists of four identical classical palace façades with rococo interiors around an octagonal courtyard (Danish: Amalienborg Slotsplads); in the centre of the square is a monumental equestrian statue of Amalienborg's founder, King Frederick V.

Amalienborg was originally built for four noble families; however, when Christiansborg Palace burned on 26 February 1794, the royal family bought the palaces and moved in. Over the years various kings and their families have resided in the four different palaces.


Shakur was struck by four .40 caliber rounds fired from a Glock:[3] two in the chest, one in the arm, and one in the thigh.


The murder of Christopher Wallace, better known by his stage names Biggie Smalls and The Notorious B.I.G., occurred in the early hours of March 9, 1997. The rapper was shot four times in a drive-by shooting in Los AngelesCalifornia, which led to his death minutes later. Despite numerous witnesses and enormous media attention and speculation, no one was ever formally charged for the murder, and the case remains officially unsolved.

By 12:45 a.m. (PST), the streets were crowded with people leaving the event. Wallace's SUV stopped at a red light on the corner of Wilshire Boulevard and South Fairfax Avenue[5] just 50 yards (46 m) from the museum. A dark-colored Chevrolet Impala SS pulled up alongside Wallace's SUV. The driver of the Impala, a black male dressed in a blue suit and bow tie, rolled down his window, drew a 9 mm blue-steel pistol and fired at the Suburban; four bullets hit Wallace.[3] Wallace's entourage rushed him to Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, where doctors performed an emergency thoracotomy, but he was pronounced dead at 1:15 a.m. (PST). He was 24 years old.

His autopsy was released to the public in December 2012, 15 years after his death. According to the report, three of the four shots were not fatal. The first bullet hit his left forearm and traveled down to his wrist; the second hit him in the back, missing all vital organs, and exited through his left shoulder; and the third hit his left thigh and exited through his inner thigh. The report said that the third bullet struck "the left side of the scrotum, causing a very shallow, 3⁄8 inch [10 mm] linear laceration." The fourth bullet was fatal, entering through his right hip and striking several vital organs, including his colon, liver, heart, and the upper lobe of his left lung, before stopping in his left shoulder area.[6]


In the report below (regarding new interpretations of forensic evidence relating to the assassination of Robert Kennedy) we stated that he was hit by four shots. However, only three bullets entered his body; the fourth was lodged in a shoulder pad. One of the pistols referred to was a Harrington & Richardson and not, as we had it, a Harrison & Richardson. This has been corrected. 


Handsome Lake returned to this world and told of meeting three men sent by the Creator. The message from the Creator contained four words that summarized the evil practices of the people: whiskey, witchcraft, love magic, and abortion/sterility medicine. This was the beginning of a new religion.

In this second vision, Handsome was shown two spheres, which he later described as being like color liquid, which were suspended in the eastern sky. One of the spheres was red and one was yellow. The four messengers tell him that if one should fall there would be great calamity throughout the earth. The messengers told him that in 2010 mankind will perish from the earth.

Handsome Lake’s code prescribed four sacred rituals: (1) the Great Feather Dance to honor children and life, (2) the Drum Dance to honor the spirit beings who watch over the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois), (3) the Men’s Chant to honor the Creator, and (4) the Peach Pit Bowl Game and the Sustenance Dance.

Handsome Lake made four predictions about the future: (1) that the Iroquois chiefs would argue among themselves and abandon the Great Council, (2) that the people would cease their ceremonies and return to witchcraft, (3) that a woman well past childbearing age would give birth, and (4) that a child would bear a baby. When these four predictions are fulfilled the end of the world would be near.

Shortly after this, Handsome Lake had a vision in which he was advised by three messengers that it was his duty to go to the Onondaga, but that he would meet four messengers who would lead him on the Sky Trail. 



"Now the messengers spoke to me and said that they would now tell me how things ought to be upon the earth. They said: 'Do not allow any one to say that you have had great fortune in being able to rise again. The favor of the four beings is not alone for you and the Creator is willing to help all mankind.'

"Now on that same day the Great Feather 2 and the Harvest dances were to be celebrated and at this time the beings told me that my relatives would restore me. 'Your feelings and spirits are low,' they said, 'and must be aroused. Then will you obtain power to recover.' Verily the servants of the Creator (Hadionyâ?'geonon) said this. Now moreover they commanded that henceforth dances of this same kind should be held and thanksgiving offered whenever the strawberries were ripe. Furthermore they said that the juice of the berry must be drunk by the children and the aged and all the people. Truly all must drink of the berry juice, for they said that the sweet water of the berries was a medicine and that the early strawberries were a great medicine. So they bade me tell this story to my people when I move upon the earth again. Now they said, 'We shall continually reveal things unto you. We, the servants of him who made us, say that as he employed us to cure unto you to reveal his will, so you must carry it to your people. Now we are they whom he created when he made the world and our duty is to watch over and care for mankind. Now there are four of us but the fourth is not here present. When we called you by name and you heard, he returned to tell the news.


p. 26

This will bring joy into the heaven-world of our Creator. So it is that the fourth is not with us but you shall see him at another time and when that time is at hand you shall know. Now furthermore we must remind you of the evil things that you have done and you must repent of all things that you believe to have been evil. You think that you have done wrong because of O?gi'we:, Ye'ondâ'thâ and Gone'owon 1 and because you partook of strong drink. Verily you must do as you think for whatsoever you think is evil is evil.'"


"'The Creator made man a living creature.'

"'Four words tell a great story of wrong and the Creator is sad because of the trouble they bring, so go and tell your people.'

"'The first word is One'ga?. 1 It seems that you never have known that this word stands for a great and monstrous evil and has reared a high mound of bones. Ga?'nigoêntdon'tha, you lose your minds and one'ga? causes it all. Alas, many are fond of it and are too fond of it. So now all must now say, "I will use it nevermore. As long as I live, as long as the number of my days is I will never use it again. I now stop." So must all say when they hear this message.' Now the beings, the servants of the Great Ruler, the messengers of him who created us, said this. Furthermore they said that the Creator made one'ga? and gave it to our younger brethren, the white man, as a medicine but they use it for evil for they drink it for other purposes than medicine and drink instead of work and idlers drink one'ga?. No, the Creator did not make it for you."


"'Now another message.

"'Now it is the time for our departure. We shall now go on a journey and then you shall see the coming of the fourth messenger, the journey of our friends and the works of the living of earth. More, you will see the house of the punisher and the lands of our Creator.'"

So they said. Eniaiehuk.


In the report below (regarding new interpretations of forensic evidence relating to the assassination of Robert Kennedy) we stated that he was hit by four shots. However, only three bullets entered his body; the fourth was lodged in a shoulder pad. One of the pistols referred to was a Harrington & Richardson and not, as we had it, a Harrison & Richardson. This has been corrected. 


HAVE the Bavili a conception of a divinity or God? You ask me, and I, immediately, am overcome by an almost irresistible wish to evade your question, not because I shall be obliged to answer you in a roundabout and hesitating way but because on the contrary the conception of God formed by the Bavili is so purely spiritual, or shall I say abstract, that you are sure to think that I am mad to suppose that so evidently degenerate a race can have formed so logical an idea of a God we all recognise and try in various ways to comprehend. The name for God is NZAMBI[1] and its literal meaning is the personal essence (IMBI) of the fours (ZIA or ZA = fours). What then are the fours? They are the groups each of four powers called BAKICI BACI, which we have just discussed. The prefix BA the plural of N proving that these powers are personalities or attributes of a person, that is they are not ZINKICI like the mere wooden figures. Each group may be said to be composed of (1) a cause, (2 and 3) male and female parts, and (4) an effect. The group NZAMBI itself may be said to have four parts-(4) NZAMBI the


Of the three divisions of the year, Mawalala is itself both a season and a month; Xicifu falls into two seasons of two months each, and Nvula into four seasons of two months each. Properly speaking, the seasons only ex'ist as factors in six groups of four, the other three being in each case the two months, and the product specially associated with the seasons. These groups of four are related just as our cosmological series, Xi, Ci, Fu, and Vu; they consist of a principle, male and female causes and a product.


As I have noted earlier in this chapter, the figure four holds a great significance in

the mythical imperative of the Igbo people. First, it stands for the four market days

of the Igbo settlement. Four market days: Oye, Afor, Nkwọ and Eke mark the completion of the Igbo market week called Izu. The same forms the Igbo pillar of

existence with empirical concept drawn from the creation myths. It embodies the

concept of life and existence in the Igbo cosmology. Wikipedia has the following

record about this view,


 Igbo cosmology presents a balance between the feminine and masculine, perhaps, with a preponderance of female representation in Igbo lore. In Igbo cosmology, the world was divided into four corners by the high god corresponding to èké órìè àfọ̀ ǹkwọ́ which are the days of the week in the Igbo regarded as market days. The universe is regarded as a composite of bounded spaces in an overlapping hemispherical structure; the total spaces are referred to as élú nà àlà. The community of visible interacting beings and the cosmos is referred to as ụ̀ wà, which includes all living things íhẹ́ ndi dị́ ńdụ̀, including animals and vegetation and their mineral elements which posses a vital force and are regarded as counterparts to invisible forces in the spirit world. These living things and geomorphological features of the world therefore possess a guardian deity. 


From the research conducted around Nkanu area of northern Igbo land, Morton (1956) remarks that Chukwu, after creation, sees that the sun travels across the world in the day time and then cuts into two in order for the moon to pass on a perpendicular route, and so the world is divided into four parts and four days. The quarterly division of the earth and the days makes the number four sacred (ńsọ́) to the Igbo. The élú nà àlà space is defined by two boundaries: élú ígwé, “sky's limit” composed of heavenly bodies under the main forces of the masculine sun and feminine moon, and élú àlà, earth or lands limit consisting of the four material elements of fire and air (masculine), and earth and shallow water (feminine).


From my grandmother symbolic marks, there was a geometry that looked like a quadrangle. From her, though, scrupulous drawing, the shape looked like a square; but it was not a perfect square. At the centre, there was a carefully dotted point. This point held two perpendicular lines together; each line running from one endpoint-angle to another in the opposite direction respectively. To her, the quadrangle represents an overall concept which houses the entirety of creation; the heavens, the land, humanity (or living things) and spirits. The central point indicates this consolidated point of a pillar that binds everything creatable to himself. The point did not refer to the gods, human, the cosmos or the land. These instead formed the connecting relations which she explained as being parallel to one another. This is the idea she buried in the bisector angles: as heaven is connected to the earth, human beings also share a parallel relationship with spirits.


Therefore, the dot represents Chukwuoke (the creator God) for everything began with him and by him gains sustenance. All the benevolence shown to her when she did not make any request from any of the gods mentionable was associated to this creator, God. According to my grandmother, she derived the idea of the quadrangle from four cotyledoneous kolanut. In Nkalaha, the kolanut used for marriage discussions are usually four cotyledoneous kolanut. The same is the kolanut used for various traditional rites, including those used for sacrifices.


The principle of life affirmation as constituting the essence of the kola is also supported by the Igbo myth surrounding the emergence of the four Igbo market days. It is said that four enigmatic people once visited a place. They would neither eat nor talk. But by mere coincidence, someone gave them a piece of kolanut to eat. To the surprise of all assembled, the people suddenly were given to speech in which they revealed their names as Orie (Oye), Eke, Nkwọ and Afọ. By this singular act, the kola is said to have gained significance not only as the food of the spirits, but also something that gives life. This is because somebody who can neither talk nor eat anything is as good as dead. It is only something that can give life that worked the wonder of giving back life even to the spirits. This is the basis of the Igbo saying: Onye wetara ọjị wetara ndụ.


Apart from being an affirmation of life, it is also a symbol of continuity, of the entire life process as a continuum. Kolanut ritual is always a feature of the Igbo society, in social functions and ceremonies, which has resisted westernization and Christianity. According to the documentary of Sidney Davis (2012), the figure four represents four deities in the Igbo cosmology.

Igbo cosmology is rooted in the number four. The universal Afa1 language is rooted in the number FOUR as expressed in the cube or the tetrad. FOUR is the basic number of Afa and of the Igbo cosmos. The number four is said to be the number of the earth and mankind. There are four cardinal points on the earth; North – South – East – West. There are four winds. There are four seasons. There are four phases of the moon. The four elements: earth – air – fire – water. There are four basic blood types in man; O, A, B and A B. There are four basic states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. There are four numbers of basic chemical units in the DNA structure: adenine a solid figure with four faces is a tetrahedron. The regular tetrahedron is the simplest Platonic solid. A tetrahedron, which can also be called a 3-simplex, has four triangular faces and four vertices. It is the only self-dual regular polyhedron. (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G) A solid figure with four faces is a tetrahedron. The regular tetrahedron is the simplest Platonic solid. A tetrahedron, which can also be called a 3-simplex, has four triangular faces and four vertices. It is the only self-dual regular polyhedron. The valence of carbon the most common element is 4. There are four basic rules of mathematics: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division. There are four basic forces in nature: electromagnetic, weak, strong and gravitational and in Quantum Physics there are four dimensions.


Achebe rightly said that “certainly the Igbo have a lot of use for fours…” The bisectors in grandmother’s geometry formed an “X” shape through her view of the connectivity or parallel relationship; man to the spirit and the cosmos verses the land. But for a reason which no one could actually explain to me, not even my grandmother; this shape dominated the costume of the various Ekpe masquerades in Nkalaha. There are always the shapes of quadrangles whose diagonals are bisected to form “X” shapes. Other shapes prominent in Ekpe masquerades are triangles. Example of these is seen in the picture below. 




This Ekpe is significant, in that it is the first of its kind built in Nkalaha. Therefore as the first, Nkalaha called it Ugbor. Ugbor was completed at the decay part of the nineteenth century; in the 1880s. From the observation of Catherine Acholonu, the “X” shaped geometry “demonstrates the complimentary duality in all things, but is always the tetragram; (a square with sides joined by an X- cross), which is the most common Igbo symbol of the goddess.


From Robert Langdon’s observation, the X (the slanting cross) and the lozenge (the slanting square) represent two opposite forms of the same basic symbol created what is called the Chalice (a V-shape with the open mouth looking up, representing the female gender) and the Blade (an inverted V-shape with the tip pointing upwards, representing the male gender). (Robert Langdon, Symbols of the Sacred Feminine) The Chalice and the Blade joined at the mouth create a lozenge, a quadrangle – the quintessential symbol of the Mother Goddess of order in nature – the cubed, molecular universe. When joined at the base the Vs produce an X shaped cross or a double-mouthed chalice; the symbol of the sacrificial Son of God. In Igbo Ukwu bronse, the X shape represents an equal-armed cross inter-spaced with two such chalices crossing each other at the center. Example is on the floor below. 



This monolith and photograph is Courtesy of National Museum, Lagos, all other

items here are courtesy of Odinani Museum, Nri and Igbo Ukwu Museum, Igbo

Ukwu. This is no coincidence for the cross is the basic geometry of ichi, the scarification mark of the god-men who are retained in the present day Igbo society as Nze na Ozo. Traditionally, equal-armed crosses square crosses, and lozenge symbols are etched on all gate-posts and cult symbols in Igbo land and sometimes

it act as talisman. An ozo traditional seat, shows a classical Igbo example of a perfectly shaped Maltese (or equal-armed) cross. In between the four arms of the cross are four chalices looking outwards and forming a cross at their zero centre. The entire image is surrounded by an outer circle. This is a very potent mystical, Christian symbol, yet as we can see here, its origins are African. The ozo is a cult of men (and originally women too) who have dedicated themselves to the service of God.


They live out the divine ideal of holiness and self denial, observing all the virtues

of God, remaining sinless and impeccable in their dealings with their fellow human beings. Various instances of Igbo Ukwu ancient bronze are characterized by this“X” shape to depict the same notion. Igbo cosmology is based on the number four…” Davis also noted thus: 


The Igbo concept of time is rooted in the number four. The Igbo week has four days while the great week has eight days. This basic number also represents the four fish-monger deities of Igbo oral tradition who are said to have inaugurate the four market days Eke, Orie, Afo and Nkwo named after each of them. Thus four is seen as the number of deity among the Igbo. Its basic form is the quadrangle represented by the basic geometrical shapes: the pyramid, the lozenge, the slanting square representing a four-pointed star, the X shaped equal armed cross enshrined in the Igbo Ukwu-type Ichi facial scarifications. These forms, when etched on wooden doorposts and shrine objects represent the deity itself, thus four becomes the number of deity. The ichi markings of the lozenge, a quadrangle is the quintessential symbol of the Mother Goddess, of the order of nature represented by the carbon crystal: the most basic form representing the molecular universe. (PP.4&5).

Ike-Ishi (life oath) which forms one of the highest mysteries of the Igbo metaphysical idea also has deeper thought buried in this shape, “X”. As a matter of concern, anyone who wants to take life oath (Ike-Ishi) in the Igbo communities must have learned the principle of power in the Igbo quadrangle. In the same light, in tracing the progenitor of any child (in a case of Ilo-Uwa) among some Igbo communities, the items required are usually in four. This is believed to be achieved through a ritual divinatory calculus called Igba Agu. A rare combination of ritual identification is the Obi umunna (kindred ancestral origin). Four traditional diviners are usually involved. Igba Agu among the Igbo is also the official second naming ceremony after the initial one made at birth time. In this later ceremony, the returning ancestor is identified so as to name the new born child after him or her, and thereafter the child begins to command effective respect derivable from the returning ancestor. The items required for the proceeding rituals include four medium-sized yams tied up with a rope made from palm fronds are kept aside within the arena.


To invite the spirits, abacha and Ighu, dried fish, four cotyledoneous kolanuts, two cocks, palm wine, among others are made available before the chief priest begins with an exorcism of the sacred place. When this is done, the eldest person in the family takes up the Nzu, which is, the symbolic white chalk presented by the biological father of the child to be named. With these he heralds an invitation to ancestors and men to the milieu. After the sacred invitation, follows the prayer of inquiry. This is done in order to determine the returning ancestor. Immediately following the prayers is a broader repetition called Ikpata Agu. Here a person from the family of the child receives from the eldest of the kindred, the votive offerings of ji Agu, kola nut and omumu. With these he also progresses in supplication. The climax of the ceremony is the ancestral litany called Inafu Agu. This involves the two elements of four-fold exorcism – representative of the four native weeks – and chronicling of the names of the ancestors. After the exorcism the officiating priest

begins to call the names of the ancestors one after another.


As he does this, the diviners will simultaneously be casting lots to know on whose name it will fall. If the ancestor is not identified from the paternal side, attention is shifted to the maternal side. As immediate as the lot falls on any of the ancestors, one of the diviners will cut the four smaller Ji Agu and a celebration is launched. From the above details of customary facts, the determination of who comes back is but a calculus based on functional divination, permutations and combinations. In case the ancestor is identified to be from the maternal family of the child, the titled men will move to the open space immediately before the obu to receive or welcome the infant into their family. It is customary to make a resounding herald of the ancestor that came back four good times to which those inside the obu respond with joy. In this way, children possessing the characteristic features and temperaments of their ancestors bear their names. Feasting (eating and drinking) meant to welcome the new chi ends the occasion. If the child is a male, one of the cocks brought for the ritual is killed by the eldest son of the family and the blood poured into a basket called Nkata Ekwensu. Digging deep into the mystery of the number four is simply digging deep into the mystic foundation of the Igbo race. The mystic foundation of Ndigbo is buried in the Igbo language and cultural activities.



The Sumerian pictograph for the "GARDEN OF EDEN" is the letter X, which is a form of the Cross with sides joined into a square, called the Tetragram or Square Cross. This ancient symbol is important because the square is the Sumerian pictograph/hieroglyph for the word "MA". It designates the square Lake where the Sun sets, which is the Oma-mbala Lake in Anambra State, Nigeria. X is the Sumerian hieroglyph for the word "GAN" (Garden of Eden), and it is the popular symbol of Osiris, and it marks the Oshuru Shrine in Lejja where the Sun rises.

An X inside a square as in the Bosnian example is also the pictograph for the Sumerian word "MA-GAN" MA (X) and GAN (SQUARE) both designate the Rising and the Setting points of the Sun, whose hieroglyph is the crescent moon enveloping the sun disc as eternally represented in the Lejja Table of the Sun in Enugu State. By this eternal symbol, the Sumerians provided the proof that the Garden of Eden is in Nigeria. The symbol of the X within a square is the popular Mbari symbol of the Mother Goddess OMA, found in all Mbari shrines in Igboland. It is the representation of the Sun/Son in the Womb of the Mother Goddess, which the Igbo call "Mgba Nnechuchukwu".


For nsambi the only Iconic figure that would and should represent him is the Yowa cross if we are speaking of sacred Pati-mpemba(sigil) that is drawn in chalk to represent that omnipresence. In many houses of Palo mayombe he is represented by some type of herb. Any other iconic figures like the christian cross is denigrating that ever-living force and though many of our Palo Brothers who were taught to hold a cross do not recognize that this was a symbol of torture and oppression and not a sacred part of Palo Mayombe.

Nsambi represents the 4 polarities of earth and the universe. This is an excerpt taken from the sacred texts section to explain a bit of the 4 and what it represents in the Kongo cosmology taken from the bavili tribe and it states from (At the Back of the Black Man’s Mind, by Richard Edward Dennett, [1906], at

(“The name for God is NZAMBI[1] and its literal meaning is the personal essence (IMBI) of the fours (ZIA or ZA = fours). What then are the fours? They are the groups each of four powers called BAKICI BACI, which we have just discussed. The prefix BA the plural of N proving that these powers are personalities or attributes of a person, that is they are not ZINKICI like the mere wooden figures. Each group may be said to be composed of (1) a cause, (2 and 3) male and female parts, and (4) an effect. The group NZAMBI itself may be said to have four parts-(4) NZAMBI the


The community of visible interacting beings and the cosmos is referred to as ụ̀wà, which includes all living things íhẹ́ ndi dị́ ńdụ̀, including animals and vegetation and their mineral elements which possess a vital force and are regarded as counterparts to invisible forces in the spirit world.[14] These living things and geomorphological features of the world therefore possess a guardian deity. Igbo cosmology presents a balance between the feminine and masculine, perhaps, with a preponderance of female representation in Igbo lore.[14] In Igbo cosmology, the world was divided into four corners by the high god corresponding to èké órìè àfọ̀ǹkwọ́ which are the days of the week in the Igbo calendar regarded as market days.[24][25] The universe is regarded as a composite of bounded spaces in an overlapping hemispherical structure, the total spaces are referred to as élú nà àlà.[14] In one Igbo cosmological theory reported by W.R.G. Morton in the 1950s from an elder in Ibagwa Nike in northern Igboland, Chukwu sees that the sun travels across the world in the day time and then cuts into two in order for the moon to pass on a perpendicular route, and so the world is divided into four parts and four days.[24] The quarterly division of the earth and the days makes the number four sacred (ńsọ́) to the Igbo.[24][26] The élú nà àlà space is defined by two boundaries: élú ígwé, 'sky's limit' composed of heavenly bodies under the main forces of the 'masculine' sun and 'feminine' moon, and élú àlà, 'earth or lands limit' consisting of the four material elements of fire and air (masculine), and earth and water (feminine).[14]


Ogbo Obodo figures for the cult of Nkpetime, near Asaba, 1900s.

The pattern of two and four reoccur in Chukwu's creations.[26] The days correspond to the four cardinal points and are its names in Igbo, èké east, órìè west, àfọ̀ north, ǹkwọ́ south.[27] The Nri-Igbo claim the market days to have been introduced to the Igbo by their divine progenitor and king Eri in the 9th century after encountering the days as deities.[28] These alusi are venerated as the primary or as a major deity under Chineke in parts of Igboland. In terms of hierarchy, some communities recognise èké as the head of these alusi, while others prioritise órìè and ǹkwọ́ first after the high god.[28] Market days may have local deities representing the spirits in some places, in many southern Igbo towns Agwu is the patron of Eke, Ogwugwu the patron of Orie, Amadioha the patron of Afo and Ala for Nkwo.[24]


While today many Igbo people are Christian, the traditional ancient Igbo religion is known as Odinani. In the Igbo mythology, which is part of their ancient religion, the supreme God is called Chukwu ("great spirit"); Chukwu created the world and everything in it and is associated with all things on Earth. Chukwu is also a solar deity. To the ancient Igbo, the Cosmo is divided into four complex parts:[6]

  • Okike (Creation)

  • Alusi (Supernatural Forces or Deities)

  • Mmuo (Spirit)

  • Uwa (World)


  • The English physician Sir Thomas Browne in his philosophical discourse The Garden of Cyrus (1658) elaborates upon evidence of the quincunx pattern in art, nature and mystically as evidence of "the wisdom of God". Although Browne wrote about quincunx in its geometric meaning, he may have been influenced by English astrology, as the astrological meaning of "quincunx" (unrelated to the pattern) was introduced by the astronomer Kepler in 1604.


The Garden of Cyrus, or The Quincuncial Lozenge, or Network Plantations of the Ancients, naturally, artificially, mystically considered, is a discourse written by Sir Thomas Browne. It was first published in 1658, along with its diptych companion, Urn-Burial. In modern times it has been recognised as Browne's major literary contribution to Hermetic wisdom.

Browne's discourse is a Neoplatonic and Neopythagorean vision of the interconnection of art and nature via the inter-related symbols of the number five and the quincunx pattern, along with the figure X and the lattice design.[4] Its fundamental quest was of primary concern to Hermetic philosophy: proof of the wisdom of God, and demonstrable evidence of intelligent design. The Discourse includes early recorded usage of the words 'prototype' and 'archetype' in English.


Within this triplex acies system, contemporary Roman writers talk of the maniples adopting a checkered formation called quincunx when deployed for battle but not yet engaged. In the first line, the hastati left gaps equal in size to their cross-sectional area between each maniple. The second line consisting of principes followed in a similar manner, lining up behind the gaps left by the first line. This was also done by the third line, standing behind the gaps in the second line. The velites were deployed in front of this line in a continuous, loose-formation line.

Hannibal led an army composed of mercenaries, local citizens, and veterans and Numidian cavalry from his Italian campaigns. Scipio led a pre-MarianRoman army quincunx, along with a body of Numidian cavalry.


Ono was also an experimental filmmaker who made 16 short films between 1964 and 1972, gaining particular renown for a 1966 Fluxus film called simply No. 4, often referred to as Bottoms.[76][77] The five-and-a-half-minute film consists of a series of close-ups of human buttocks walking on a treadmill. The screen is divided into four almost equal sections by the elements of the gluteal cleft and the horizontal gluteal crease. The soundtrack consists of interviews with those who are being filmed, as well as those considering joining the project. In 1996, the watch manufacturing company Swatch produced a limited edition watch that commemorated this film.[78]


Mark David Chapman (born May 10, 1955) is an American prison inmate who shot and killed John Lennon in New York City on December 8, 1980 outside the Dakota apartment building in Manhattan. Chapman fired five times at Lennon, hitting him four times in the back

Chapman fired five shots from a .38 special revolver, four of which hit Lennon in the back and left shoulder, puncturing the left lung and left subclavian artery.


After sustaining four major gunshot wounds, Lennon was pronounced dead on arrival at Roosevelt Hospital. At the hospital, it was stated that nobody could have lived longer than a few minutes after sustaining such injuries. Shortly after local news stations reported Lennon's death, crowds gathered at Roosevelt Hospital and in front of the Dakota. Lennon was cremated at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York, two days after his death; the ashes were given to Ono, who chose not to hold a funeral for him. The first media report of Lennon's death to a US national audience was announced by Howard Cosell, on ABC's Monday Night Football.

Three of the four bullets that struck Lennon's back passed completely through his body and out of his chest, one of which hit and became lodged in his upper left arm, while the fourth lodged itself in his aorta beside his heart; nearly all of them would have been fatal by themselves as each bullet hit vital arteries around the heart. As Lennon had been shot four times at close range with hollow-point bullets, Lennon's affected organs (particularly his left lung) and major blood vessels above his heart were virtually destroyed upon impact. Lynn later stated to reporters on the extent of Lennon's injuries: "If he [Lennon] had been shot this way in the middle of the operating room with a whole team of surgeons ready to work on him... he still wouldn't have survived his injuries".[32]


There are four stages in coal formation: peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite. The stage depends upon the conditions to which the plant remains are subjected after they were buried – the greater the pressure and heat, the higher the rank of coal. Higher-ranking coal is denser and contains less moisture and gases and has a higher heat value than lower-ranking coal.

Peat – Stage One
Peat is the first stage in the formation of coal. Normally, vegetable matter is oxidized to water and carbon dioxide. However, if plant material accumulates underwater, oxygen is not present and so only partial decomposition occurs. This incomplete destruction leads to the accumulation of an organic substance called peat.

Peat is a fibrous, soft, spongy substance in which plant remains are easily recognizable. It contains a large amount of water and must be dried before use. Therefore, it is seldom used as a source of heat. Peat burns with a long flame and considerable smoke.

Lignite – Stage Two
Lignite, the second stage, is formed when peat is subjected to increased vertical pressure from accumulating sediments. Lignite is dark brown in colour and, like peat, contains traces of plants. It is found in many places but is used only when more efficient fuel is not available. It crumbles easily and should not be shipped or handled before use.

Bituminous Coal – Stage Three
Bituminous Coal is the third stage. Added pressure has made it compact and virtually all traces of plant life have disappeared. Also known as “soft coal”, bituminous coal is the type found in Cape Breton and is our most abundant fuel. It is greatly used in industry as a source of heat energy.

Anthracite – Stage Four
Anthracite, the fourth stage in coal formation, is also known as “hard coal” because it is hard and has a high lustre. It appears to have been formed as a result of combined pressure and high temperature. Anthracite burns with a short flame and little smoke.


The Egyptian creation myth begins with the emergence of Ra (or Re), the sun god, from the ocean in the form of an egg (or, alternately, a flower.) Ra brought forth four children: Geb, Shu, Nut, and Tefnut. Shu and Nut became manifestations of air and moisture. From Geb, the god of the earth, and Nut, goddess of the sky, were spawned four other gods: Osiris, Isis, Set (or Seth), and Nepthys.


The absence of matter before creation can be expressed as four male and female pairs (the female with the regular ending -et in each case), perhaps male and female to cover both halves of human experience, and four to cover the four cardinal points:


Nun and Nunet - from the word nnw 'watery expanse', the lack of solidity

Heh and Hehet - from the word HH 'unending time', infinite - the lack of time

Kek and Keket - from the word kkw 'darkness', the lack of light

Tenem and Tenemet - from the word tnm 'to wander', lack of direction

Those are the four pairs in the earliest surviving reference to the Eight existing before creation (a funeral ritual excerpt, Coffin Text 76); in later versions Tenem and Tenemet are often replaced by Amun and Amunet, from the word imn 'hidden', encapsulating the lack of sight.

SIXTEEN FOLLOWERS HORUS research in the academic literature does not surface this fact. I can find references to FOUR "disciples"--variously called the semi-divine HERU-SHEMSU ("Followers of Horus") [GOE:1.491]. I can find references to SIXTEEN human followers (GOE:1.196). And I can find reference to an UNNUMBERED group of followers called mesniu/mesnitu ("blacksmiths") who accompanied Horus in some of his battles [GOE:1.475f; although these might be identified with the HERU-SHEMSU in GOE:1.84]. But I cannot find TWELVE anywhere... Horus is NOT the sun-god (that's Re), so we cannot use the 'all solar gods have twelve disciples--in the Zodiac' routine here.]


Timecode is a 2000 American experimental film written and directed by Mike Figgis and featuring a large ensemble cast, including Salma HayekStellan SkarsgårdJeanne TripplehornSuzy NakamuraKyle MacLachlanSaffron BurrowsHolly HunterJulian SandsXander BerkeleyLeslie Mann and Mía Maestro.

The film is constructed from four continuous 93-minute takes that were filmed simultaneously by four cameramen; the screen is divided into quarters, and the four shots are shown simultaneously.[2] The film depicts several groups of people in Los Angeles as they interact and conflict while preparing for the shooting of a movie in a production office. The dialogue was largely improvised, and the sound mix of the film is designed so that the most significant of the four sequences on screen dominates the soundtrack at any given moment.

An allusion to this film can be heard during another of Mike Figgis's films, Hotel. In the first moment the screen is split into four quadrants. The sound of milk being steamed in one quadrant combines with the sound of an actor tapping beats onto a paperback novel in another quadrant to create a very subtle imitation of the sounds and music heard during the first few minutes in Timecode.

The "Interactive Olaf" bonus feature from the DVD release of Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events shows Jim Carrey's makeup tests from the movie in a four-way split-screen. Viewers can split the audio by selecting which one to listen to, then pressing "ENTER" on their DVD remote. The split screen has also been simulated in video games. Most notably Fahrenheit where it is used to allow a player to keep track of multiple simultaneous elements relevant to the gameplay.


There are names that form part of history and dates that represent milestones of our collective story. 110 years ago, between March and September 1905, the mailbox of the German scientific journal Annales der Physik received four papers that would forever change the laws of physics and, ultimately, our conception of reality: of light, of matter, of time, and of space.

On June 9, 1905, Annales der Physik published the dissertations of the patent clerk about the photoelectric effect and the physics of light. “A heuristic point of view of the production and transformation of light” introduced the revolutionary idea that light is composed of both energy and particles: quanta for Einstein, photons for history. This concept that physical systems can behave both as waves (energy) and as particles (matter) would be the seed of one of the two pillars of modern physics: quantum mechanics. Sixteen years later, this theory of the photoelectric effect would take Einstein to the summit of science when, in 1921, he received the Nobel Prize for Physics.

Brownian motion

The second and the least important of the papers, published on July 18, was “On the movement of small particles suspended in a stationary liquid, as required by the molecular-kinetic theory of heat.” Although it did not revolutionize the principles of physics, nor earn him a Nobel Prize, Einstein found in a physical phenomenon (Brownian motion) empirical evidence of what many (but nowhere near all) scientists thought at the time, that matter is composed of atoms. In attempting to explain this curious phenomenon, Einstein not only mathematically confirmed the existence of atoms and molecules but, while doing so, he opened a new field in the study of physics, statistical physics.

Special relativity

The third paper that year was perhaps the most groundbreaking. “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies“ arrived at Annales der Physik on June 30 and was published on September 26, 1905. It presented the condensation of Einstein’s new physics in the well-known theory of special relativity, which preceded general relativity (which in 1915 also included the influence of acceleration and gravity). Einstein postulated in this paper that the speed of light is immutable, constant and independent of the observer’s movement. Therefore, except for the constant speed of light, everything is relative, including time, distance and mass.

Mass-energy equivalence

On November 21, the last of the four papers was published. “Does the inertia of a body depend on its energy content?” is, in effect, an epilogue of all the other papers. The mathematical proof of special relativity and, therefore, the confirmation of the equivalence between matter and energy, were condensed into the most famous equation in history: E = mc2.

Fortunately or unfortunately, from E = mc2 was deduced the existence of a remain of energy in processes such as the nuclear fission of atoms. Terrified by the military applications and the use that the Nazis intended to make of them, in 1939 Einstein wrote a letter to Roosevelt, the President of the United States, so that the US would take the lead. And that letter ended up leading to the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, forty years after Einstein’s annus mirabilis.

“Newton, please forgive me,” Einstein once said, knowing that his advances questioned the foundations that the English scientist had laid in the seventeenth century. In fact, Newtonalso had his miracle year, since between 1665 and 1666, while sealed up in his house seeking refuge from the plague, he formulated his law of gravitation and his theory of color. But science is like this; for a breakthrough to be made, for a new idea to be confirmed, others have to be discarded.

Perhaps a new scientific revolution will arrive that discards some of Einstein’s ideas, but his method will endure forever. The great merit of Einstein was in not trying to explain the results, the experiments themselves, but rather in developing a theory in which the experiment is the result and not the origin of a phenomenon.

By Luis Creo for Ventana al Conocimiento

  • 1

The Satanic Bible is composed of four books: The Book of Satan, The Book of Lucifer, The Book of Belial, and The Book of Leviathan. The Book of Satan challenges the Ten Commandments and the Golden Rule, and promotes Epicureanism.[9] The Book of Lucifer holds most of the philosophy in The Satanic Bible, with twelve chapters discussing topics such as indulgence, love, hate, and sex. LaVey also uses the book to dispel rumors surrounding the religion. In The Book of Belial, LaVey details rituals and magic. He discusses the required mindset and focus for performing a ritual, and provides instructions for three rituals: those for sex, compassion, or destruction.[10] The Book of Leviathan provides four invocations for Satan, lust, compassion, and destruction.[11] It also lists the nineteen Enochian Keys (adapted from John Dee's Enochian keys), provided in both Enochian and translated to English.

The Book of Lucifer also contains a list of "The Four Crown Princes of Hell" (Satan, LuciferBelial, and Leviathan)


Vedic Math essentially rests on the 16 Sutras or mathematical formulas as referred to in the Vedas. Sri Sathya Sai Veda Pratishtan has compiled these 16 Sutras and 13 sub-Sutras:

  1. Ekadhikina Purvena
    (Corollary: Anurupyena)
    Meaning: By one more than the previous one 

  2. Nikhilam Navatashcaramam Dashatah
    (Corollary: Sisyate Sesasamjnah)
    Meaning: All from 9 and the last from 10 

  3. Urdhva-Tiryagbyham
    (Corollary: Adyamadyenantyamantyena)
    Meaning: Vertically and crosswise 

  1. Paraavartya Yojayet
    (Corollary: Kevalaih Saptakam Gunyat)
    Meaning: Transpose and adjust 

  2. Shunyam Saamyasamuccaye
    (Corollary: Vestanam)
    Meaning: When the sum is the same that sum is zero 

  3. (Anurupye) Shunyamanyat
    (Corollary: Yavadunam Tavadunam)
    Meaning: If one is in ratio, the other is zero 

  4. Sankalana-vyavakalanabhyam
    (Corollary: Yavadunam Tavadunikritya Varga Yojayet)
    Meaning: By addition and by subtraction 

  5. Puranapuranabyham
    (Corollary: Antyayordashake'pi)
    Meaning: By the completion or non-completion 

  6. Chalana-Kalanabyham
    (Corollary: Antyayoreva)
    Meaning: Differences and Similarities 

  7. Yaavadunam
    (Corollary: Samuccayagunitah)
    Meaning: Whatever the extent of its deficiency 

  8. Vyashtisamanstih
    (Corollary: Lopanasthapanabhyam)
    Meaning: Part and Whole 

  9. Shesanyankena Charamena
    (Corollary: Vilokanam)
    Meaning: The remainders by the last digit 

  10. Sopaantyadvayamantyam
    (Corollary: Gunitasamuccayah Samuccayagunitah)
    Meaning: The ultimate and twice the penultimate 

  1. Ekanyunena Purvena
    (Corollary: Dhvajanka)
    Meaning: By one less than the previous one 

  2. Gunitasamuchyah
    (Corollary: Dwandwa Yoga)
    Meaning: The product of the sum is equal to the sum of the product 

  3. Gunakasamuchyah
    (Corollary: Adyam Antyam Madhyam)
    Meaning: The factors of the sum is equal to the sum of the factors

16 formulas of Vedic mathematics are as follwos:

1 Ekadhikina Purvena
COROLLARY: Anurupyena
Meaning: By one more than the previous one

2 Nikhilam Navatashcaramam Dashatah
COROLLARY: Sisyate Sesasamjnah
Meaning: All from 9 and the last from 10

3 Urdhva-Tiryagbyham
COROLLARY: Adyamadyenantyamantyena
Meaning: Vertically and crosswise

4 Paraavartya Yojayet
COROLLARY: Kevalaih Saptakam Gunyat 
Meaning: Transpose and adjust

5 Shunyam Saamyasamuccaye
Meaning: When the sum is the same that sum is zero.

6 (Anurupye) Shunyamanyat
COROLLARY: Vestanam 
Meaning: If one is in ratio, the other is zero

7 Sankalana-vyavakalanabhyam
COROLLARY: Yavadunam Tavadunikritya Vargancha Yojayet
Meaning: By addition and by subtraction

8 Puranapuranabyham
COROLLARY: Antyayordashake'pi 
Meaning: By the completion or non-completion

9 Chalana-Kalanabyham
COROLLARY: Antyayoreva
Meaning: Differences and Similarities

10 Yaavadunam
COROLLARY: Samuccayagunitah 
Meaning: Whatever the extent of its deficiency

11 Vyashtisamanstih
COROLLARY: Lopanasthapanabhyam
Meaning: Part and Whole

12 Shesanyankena Charamena
COROLLARY: Vilokanam
Meaning: The remainders by the last digit

13 Sopaantyadvayamantyam
COROLLARY: Gunitasamuccayah Samuccayagunitah
Meaning: The ultimate and twice the penultimate

14 Ekanyunena Purvena
COROLLARY: Dhvajanka
Meaning: By one less than the previous one

15 Gunitasamuchyah
COROLLARY: Dwandwa Yoga
Meaning: The product of the sum is equal to the sum of the product

16 Gunakasamuchyah
COROLLARY: Adyam Antyam Madhyam 
Meaning: The factors of the sum is equal to the sum of the factors


The four basic mathematical operations--addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division--have application even in the most advanced mathematical theories


The lattice method is an alternative to long multiplication for numbers. In this approach, a lattice is first constructed, sized to fit the numbers being multiplied. If we are multiplying an -digit number by an -digit number, the size of the lattice is . The multiplicand is placed along the top of the lattice so that each digit is the header for one column of cells (the most significant digit is put at the left). The multiplier is placed along the right side of the lattice so that each digit is a (trailing) header for one row of cells (the most significant digit is put at the top). Illustrated above is the lattice configuration for computing .

In the first quadrant (0° to 90°), all trigonometric ratios are positive.

In the second quadrant (90° to 180°), sin and csc are positive and other trigonometric ratios are negative.

In the third quadrant (180° to 270°), tan and cot are positive and other trigonometric ratios are negative.

In the fourth quadrant (270° to 360°), cos and sec are positive and other trigonometric ratios are negative.


A dreidel (Yiddish: דרײדל‎ dreydl plural: dreydlekh,[1] Hebrew: סביבון‎‎ sevivon) is a four-sided spinning top, played with during the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah. The dreidel is a Jewish variant on the teetotum, a gambling toy found in many European cultures.

Each side of the dreidel bears a letter of the Hebrew alphabet: נ‎ (Nun), ג‎ (Gimel), ה‎ (He), ש‎ (Shin), which together form the acronym for "נס גדול היה שם‎" (Nes Gadol Hayah Sham – "a great miracle happened there"). These letters were originally a mnemonic for the rules of a gambling game played with a dreidel: Nun stands for the Yiddish word nisht ("nothing"), He stands for halb ("half"), Gimel for gants("all"), and Shin for shtel ayn ("put in"). In Israel, the fourth side of most dreidels is inscribed with the letter פ‎ (Pei) instead, rendering the acronym, נס גדול היה פה‎, Nes Gadol Hayah Poh—"A great miracle happened here", referring to the miracle occurring in the Land of Israel. Some stores in Haredi neighborhoods sell the ש‎ dreidels.

This theory states that when the game spread to Jewish communities unfamiliar with Yiddish, the denotations of the Hebrew letters were not understood. As a result, there arose Jewish traditions to explain their assumed meaning. However, in Judaism there are often multiple explanations developed for words. Some claimed the 4 letters cyphered Babylon, Persia, Greece and the Roman Empire, the four ancient empires that tried to destroy Israel; a gematriya reading yielded the number 358, identical to the value of the 4 letters used for Moshiach (Messiah). A third popular conjecture had it that the letters abbreviated the words nes gadol haya sham (a great miracle happened there), an idea that became attached to dreidels when the game entered into Hanukkah festivities.

Some rabbis ascribe symbolic significance to the markings on the dreidel. One commentary, for example, connects the four letters with the four nations to which the House of Judah was historically subject—BabyloniaPersiaSeleucid Empire and Rome.[8] While not mandated (a mitzvah) for Hanukkah (the only tradition mitzvot are lighting candles and saying the full hallel), spinning the dreidel is a traditional game played during the holiday.

  • At the beginning of each round, every participant puts one game piece into the center "pot". Every player puts one in the pot after every turn.

  • Each player spins the dreidel once during their turn. Depending on which player side is facing up when it stops spinning, they give or take game pieces from the pot:

    • a) If נ‎ (nun) is facing up, the player does nothing.

    • b) If ג‎ (gimel) is facing up, the player gets everything in the pot.

    • c) If ה‎ (he) is facing up, the player gets half of the pieces in the pot. (If there are an odd number of pieces in the pot, the player takes the half the pot rounded up to the nearest whole number)

    • d) If ש‎ (shin) or פ‎ (pe) is facing up, the player adds a game piece to the pot (often accompanied with the chant "Shin, Shin, put one in"[10]). In some game versions a Shin results in adding three game pieces to the pot (one for each stem of the Shin).

  • If the player is out of pieces, they are either "out" or may ask another player for a "loan".[11]

These rules are comparable to the rules for a classic four-sided teetotum, where the letters A, D, N and T form a mnemonic for the rules of the game, aufer (take), depone (put), nihil (nothing), and totum (all). Similarly, the Hebrew letters on a dreidel may be taken as a mnemonic for the game rules in Yiddish. Occasionally, in the United States, the Hebrew letters on the dreidel form an English-language mnemonic about the rules: Hay, or "H" standing for "half;" Gimel, or "G" standing for "get all;" Nun or "N" standing for "nothing;" and Shin or "S" standing for "share".


A teetotum (or T-totum) is a form of gambling spinning top that is known across Europe from Roman times. It has a polygonal body - originally four-sided - marked with letters or numbers, which indicate the result of each spin. The name originates from Latin Totum meaning 'all' which was marked by a T on one of the four sides and indicated that the winning player could take all the played tokens.


In its earliest form the body was square (in some cases via a stick through a regular six-sided die [1]), marked on the four sides by the letters A (Lat. aufer, take) indicating that the player takes one from the pool, D (Lat. depone, put down) when a fine has to be paid, N (Lat. nihil, nothing), and T (Lat. totum, all), when the whole pool is to be taken.


When I was a boy, the tee-totum had only four sides, each of them marked with a letter; a T for take all; an H for half, that is of the stake; an N for nothing; and a P for put down, that is, a stake equal to that you put down at first. Toys of this kind are now made with many sides and letters.[2]


Special figures was an event in the 1908 Summer Olympic GamesNikolai Panin of Russia won the event.



Swimming has featured on the programme of all editions of the Games since 1896. The very first Olympic events were freestyle (crawl) or breaststroke. Backstroke was added in 1904. 

In the 1940s, breaststrokers discovered that they could go faster by bringing both arms forward over their heads. This practice was immediately forbidden in breaststroke, but gave birth to butterfly, whose first official appearance was at the 1956 Games in Melbourne. This style is now one of the four strokes used in competition. 


 It was not until 1968 that synchronised swimming became officially recognized by FINA as the fourth water sport next to swimmingplatform diving and water polo.


The Benefactor is an American reality television show broadcast on ABC starting on September 13, 2004. The premise involved 16 contestants vying to win US$1 million from billionaire entrepreneur and Dallas Mavericks owner Mark Cuban.


The Apprentice is an American game show that judges the business skills of a group of contestants. It has run in various formats across fourteen seasons since January 2004 on NBC.

The Apprentice was created by British-born American television producer Mark Burnett. Billed as "The Ultimate Job Interview", the show features sixteen business people who compete over the course of a season, with usually one contestant eliminated per episode


The New Celebrity Apprentice is the eighth installment of the reality game showThe Celebrity Apprentice. It aired from January 2 to February 13, 2017. The winner of this season was Matt Iseman.

NBC announced the 16 contestants, as well as advisors Warren BuffettTyra BanksSteve BallmerJessica Alba and Patrick M. Knapp Schwarzenegger on January 28, 2016. On December 1, 2016, six more advisors were announced. Those advisers are former The Apprentice winner Leeza Gibbons, celebrity chef Rocco DiSpiritoExtra co-host Tracey EdmondsThe Biggest Loser host Bob HarperYouTube star iJustine, and "Moola" CEO Gemma Godfrey. This season was filmed in Los Angeles.[6]

Hall described the interpersonal distances of man (the relative distances between people) in four zones: intimate space, personal space, social space, and public space.



A chart depicting Edward T. Hall's interpersonal distances of man, showing radius in feet and meters

  • Intimate distance for embracing, touching or whispering

    • Close phase – less than 6 inches (15 cm)

    • Far phase – 6 to 18 inches (15 to 46 cm)

  • Personal distance for interactions among good friends or family

    • Close phase – 1.5 to 2.5 feet (46 to 76 cm)

    • Far phase – 2.5 to 4 feet (76 to 122 cm)

  • Social distance for interactions among acquaintances

    • Close phase – 4 to 7 feet (1.2 to 2.1 m)

    • Far phase – 7 to 12 feet (2.1 to 3.7 m)

  • Public distance used for public speaking

    • Close phase – 12 to 25 feet (3.7 to 7.6 m)

    • Far phase – 25 feet (7.6 m) or more.

A chart depicting Edward T. Hall's interpersonal distances of man, showing radius in feet and meters


While personal space describes the immediate space surrounding a person, territory refers to the area which a person may "lay claim to" and defend against others.[2] There are four forms of human territory in proxemic theory. They are:

  • Public territory: a place where one may freely enter. This type of territory is rarely in the constant control of just one person. However, people might come to temporarily own areas of public territory.

  • Interactional territory: a place where people congregate informally

  • Home territory: a place where people continuously have control over their individual territory

  • Body territory: the space immediately surrounding us


The show had originally planned on having four judges following the Pop Idol format; however, only three judges had been found by the time of the audition round in the first season, namely Randy Jackson, Paula Abdul and Simon Cowell.[12] A fourth judge, radio DJ Stryker, was originally chosen but he dropped out citing "image concerns".[17] In the second season, New York radio personality Angie Martinez had been hired as a fourth judge but withdrew only after a few days of auditions due to not being comfortable with giving out criticism.[18] The show decided to continue with the three judges format until season eight. All three original judges stayed on the judging panel for eight seasons.

In season eight, Latin Grammy Award-nominated singer-songwriter and record producer Kara DioGuardi was added as a fourth judge. She stayed for two seasons and left the show before season ten.[19] Paula Abdul left the show before season nine after failing to agree terms with the show producers.[20] Emmy Award-winning talk show host Ellen DeGeneres replaced Paula Abdul for that season, but left after just one season.[21] On January 11, 2010, Simon Cowell announced that he was leaving the show to pursue introducing the American version of his show The X Factor to the USA for 2011.[22]



Groups of two persons (called by many names: dyads, pairs, couples, etc.) are important either while standing alone or as building blocks of larger groupings. An infant requires a caregiver in order to survive, so life begins in a pair relationship that is apt to influence later ones.

Pair relations can be trivial and fleeting (like that of a clerk and customer at a checkout stand) or multi-purpose and enduring (like a lifelong marriage). Unlike a larger group, though, which can replace lost members and last indefinitely, a dyad exists only as long as both member participate.

Pairing off is very common for several reasons. It is simpler to relate to one other person than to several at once. We are comfortable in dealing with someone who is similar to ourselves, and any two persons can usually find common traits or experiences to serve as "hook up points" between them. On the other hand, we are also fascinated by people who are different from us. Novelty, of course, wears off.

Differences can be the basis for long-term alliances when they are complementary. He can fix the lawn mower and she is a good cook; Gilbert writes the book and Sullivan composes the music. Topping all is that "game that two are playing," sexual mating, with its many and powerful effects on human affairs.


Groups with three members (triadstriostroikas, etc.) are hard to maintain. After all, it is easier to deal with one other person than with two. Besides, two of the people in a triad are apt to find it easier to relate to each other than to the other partner. That can motivate the neglected party to drop out of the group.

Where polygamy is practiced, a husband taking a second wife will often provide her with separate quarters so as to have two pair relationships instead of a contentious household of three adults. In polyamory, at least two types of relationships are observed: a "V" relationship, where one partner has a romantic relationship with both other members, and a triad, where everyone is involved romantically. Either situation may or may not prove to be satisfying and lasting.

In history, three leaders have sometimes attempted to share political power in a triumvirate, with little long-term success.

On the other hand, groups of three can be very stable if there is a leader and two followers, such as a family of a single parent and two children. Likewise, a subordinate may be related to two power-figures, e.g., an only child with two parents.


With the notable exception of vocal and musical quartets, groups of four tend not to last very long. Two persons in the group are apt to find it more satisfying to relate to each other than to either of the others. If the other two feel left out, they have at least that in common. They may feel a need to counteract the advantage a pair has when acting together over an individual operating alone. The relationship becomes one of two pairs rather than an effective group of four members.

In decision-making groups the tendency to split two against two can lead to frustrating stalemates. Differences can be resolved more easily if the group starts out with three or five rather than four members.

On the other hand, a group of four can be stable if it depends upon unique contributions from each of its members. In a musical quartet each participant’s part is different and essential. The more experience the musicians have in playing together the better they can perform. Some such groups stay together for decades.

Stability can also result when there is one leader and three subordinates. A similar but short-lived pattern occurs at cocktail parties: studies of social gatherings find frequent clusters of one person talking and three listening.


Cowan has proposed that working memory has a capacity of about four chunks in young adults (and less in children and older adults).[10]

Tarnow finds that in a classic experiment typically argued as supporting a 4 item buffer by Murdock, there is in fact no evidence for such and thus the "magical number", at least in the Murdock experiment, is 1.[11][12] Other prominent theories of short-term memory capacity argue against measuring capacity in terms of a fixed number of elements.

Cowan also noted a number of other limits of cognition that point to a "magical number four",[10] and different from Miller, he argued that this correspondence is no coincidence. One other process that seems to be limited at about four elements is subitizing, the rapid enumeration of small numbers of objects. When a number of objects are flashed briefly, their number can be determined very quickly, at a glance, when the number does not exceed the subitizing limit, which is about four objects. Larger numbers of objects must be counted, which is a slower process. The film Rain Man portrayed an autistic savant, who was able to rapidly determine the number of toothpicks from an entire box spilled on the floor, apparently subitizing a much larger number than four objects. A similar feat was informally observed by neuropsychologist Oliver Sacks and reported in his book The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. Therefore, one might suppose that this limit is an arbitrary limit imposed by our cognition rather than necessarily being a physical limit. (On the other hand, autism expert Daniel Tammet has suggested that the children Sacks observed may have pre-counted the matches in the box.[15]). There is also evidence that even four chunks is a high estimate: Gobet and Clarkson conducted an experiment and found that over half of the memory recall conditions yielded only about two chunks. Research also shows that the size, rather than the number, of chunks that are stored in short-term memory is what allows for enhanced memory in individuals.[16][original research?]


Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch proposed a model of working memory in 1974, in an attempt to present a more accurate model of primary memory (often referred to as short-term memory). Working memory splits primary memory into multiple components, rather than considering it to be a single, unified construct.[1]

Baddeley & Hitch proposed their three part working memory model as an alternative to the short-term store in Atkinson & Shiffrin's 'multi-store' memory model (1968). This model is later expanded upon by Baddeley and other co-workers to add a fourth component, and has become the dominant view in the field of working memory. However, alternative models are developing (see working memory) providing a different perspective on the working memory system.

In 2000 Baddeley added a fourth component to the model, the episodic buffer. This component is a third slave system, dedicated to linking information across domains to form integrated units of visual, spatial, and verbal information with time sequencing (or chronological ordering), such as the memory of a story or a movie scene. The episodic buffer is also assumed to have links to long-term memory and semantic meaning.[23]


19 Then Nebuchadnezzar was furious with Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego, and his attitude toward them changed. He ordered the furnace heated seven times hotter than usual 20 and commanded some of the strongest soldiers in his army to tie up Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego and throw them into the blazing furnace.21 So these men, wearing their robes, trousers, turbans and other clothes, were bound and thrown into the blazing furnace. 22 The king’s command was so urgent and the furnace so hot that the flames of the fire killed the soldiers who took up Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego, 23 and these three men, firmly tied, fell into the blazing furnace.

24 Then King Nebuchadnezzar leaped to his feet in amazement and asked his advisers, “Weren’t there three men that we tied up and threw into the fire?”

They replied, “Certainly, Your Majesty.”

25 He said, “Look! I see four men walking around in the fire, unbound and unharmed, and the fourth looks like a son of the gods.”

26 Nebuchadnezzar then approached the opening of the blazing furnace and shouted, “Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego, servants of the Most High God,come out! Come here!”


Bandura's social cognitive learning theory states that there are four stages involved in observational learning:[8]

  1. Attention: Observers cannot learn unless they pay attention to what's happening around them. This process is influenced by characteristics of the model, such as how much one likes or identifies with the model, and by characteristics of the observer, such as the observer's expectations or level of emotional arousal.

  2. Retention/Memory: Observers must not only recognize the observed behavior but also remember it at some later time. This process depends on the observer's ability to code or structure the information in an easily remembered form or to mentally or physically rehearse the model's actions.

  3. Initiation/Motor: Observers must be physically and/intellectually capable of producing the act. In many cases the observer possesses the necessary responses. But sometimes, reproducing the model's actions may involve skills the observer has not yet acquired. It is one thing to carefully watch a circus juggler, but it is quite another to go home and repeat those acts.

  4. Motivation: Coaches also give pep talks, recognizing the importance of motivational processes to learning.


In classical rhetoricfigures of speech are classified as one of the four fundamental rhetorical operations or quadripartita ratio: addition (adiectio), omission(detractio), permutation (immutatio) and transposition (transmutatio).


  • Leonardo - Leonardo is the most serious of his brothers and the leader of the group silent and as such, the most balanced turtle. He concerns himself mostly with his training and meditation. While this leads him to be the most disciplined of the Turtles, it can also be a shortcoming, as Leonardo has been shown to be a relative workaholic on more than one occasion. He wears a blue mask and favors twin ninjatō swords as his weapons. He is the only Turtle who has direct conflict with female ninja Karai.

  • Raphael - Raphael is the hothead of the group. He often lets his anger get the best of him and struggles to cope with some of the tougher issues the Turtles face. He would much rather rush into action than contemplate the best move. Throughout the run of the series, he works on his anger to some degree, but still flies into a rage when one of his brothers or friends are harmed or captured. He wears a red mask (the only one of the four to keep the red mask) and his primary weapons are twin sai.

  • Donatello - Donatello is the intellect of the group. He surrounds himself with technological experiments and often endeavors to retain the enemies technology to make enhanced gear for the turtles. He is responsible for creating the shell-cell (a cell-phone like communicator) and Battle Shell (the Turtles' enhanced tactical vehicle) among other devices. Upon occasion he forgets to see the bigger picture by becoming obsessed by something else (usually his latest project). He wears a purple mask and favors a traditional bo staff as his weapon.

  • Michelangelo - Michelangelo is the youngest, and goofy, but lovable brother. He concerns himself with comics, video games, and horror movies, constantly making statements that spoof pop culture. Michelangelo sees the world in terms of good or bad, with no gray areas in between. He often refers to him and his brothers as superheroes, often wishing he could join the ranks of his favorite comic book characters. He wears an orange mask and favors twin nunchaku.


The Fifth Element (French: Le Cinquième Élément) is a 1997 English-language French science-fiction action filmdirected and co-written by Luc Besson. It stars Bruce WillisGary Oldman and Milla Jovovich. Primarily set in the 23rd century, the film's central plot involves the survival of planet Earth, which becomes the responsibility of Korben Dallas (Willis), a taxicab driver and former special forces major, after a young woman (Jovovich) falls into his cab. Dallas joins forces with her to recover four mystical stones essential for the defence of Earth against an impending attack.

In 1914, aliens known as Mondoshawans arrive at an ancient Egyptian temple to collect, for safekeeping concerning World War I, the only weapon capable of defeating a great evil that appears every 5,000 years. The weapon consists of four stones, containing the essences of the four classical elements, and a sarcophagus containing a fifth element in the form of a human, which combines the power of the other four elements into a divine light capable of defeating the evil. The Mondoshawans promise their human contact, a priest from a secret order, that they will come back with the element stones in time to stop the great evil when it returns. recognizes four main kinds of law: the eternal, the natural, the human, and the divine. The last three all depend on the first, but in different ways. Were we to arrange them in a hierarchy, eternal would be at the top, then natural, then human. Divine law is not in conflict with natural law, but it reaches human beings by a different route, revelation.

The following is a list by Maimonides in his Mishneh Torah (Hilchoth Sanhedrin Chapter 15) of which crimes carry a capital punishment.

Punishment by Sekila (stoning)[edit]

See also: Stoning § In Judaism

  • Intercourse between a man and his mother.

  • Intercourse between a man and his father's wife (not necessarily his mother).

  • Intercourse between a man and his daughter in law.

  • Intercourse with another man's wife from the first stage of marriage.

  • Intercourse between two men.

  • Bestiality.

  • Cursing the name of God in God's name.

  • Idol Worship.

  • Giving one's progeny to Molech (child sacrifice).

  • Necromantic Sorcery.

  • Pythonic Sorcery.

  • Attempting to convince another to worship idols.

  • Instigating a community to worship idols.

  • Witchcraft.

  • Violating the Sabbath.

  • Cursing one's own parent.

  • A stubborn and rebellious son.

Punishment by Serefah (burning)[edit]

  • The daughter of a priest who completed the second stage of marriage commits adultery.

  • Intercourse between a man and his daughter.

  • Intercourse between a man and his daughter's daughter.

  • Intercourse between a man and his son's daughter.

  • Intercourse between a man and his wife's daughter (not necessarily his own daughter).

  • Intercourse between a man and his wife's daughter's daughter.

  • Intercourse between a man and his wife's son's daughter.

  • Intercourse between a man and his mother in law.

  • Intercourse between a man and his mother in law's mother.

  • Intercourse between a man and his father in law's mother.

Punishment by Hereg (beheading)[edit]

  • Unlawful premeditated murder.

  • Being a member of a city that has gone astray.

Punishment by Chenek (strangulation)[edit]

  • Committing adultery with another man's wife, when it doesn't fall under the above criteria.

  • Wounding one's own parent.

  • Kidnapping another Israelite.

  • Prophesying falsely.

  • Prophesying in the name of other deities.

  • A sage who is guilty of insubordination in front of the grand court in the Chamber of the Hewn Stone.      

Eysenck's test of personality is a series of questions that you rate yourself on. All of the questions have to do with the four categories that Eysenck discovered. At the end of the test Eysenck would read all the data and determine which traits fit the best.

Recently, integrative, hierarchical models of personality and personality disorder (PD)—such as the Big Three, Big Four and Big Five trait models—have gained support as a unifying dimensional framework for describing PD. However, no measures to date can simultaneously represent each of these potentially interesting levels of the personality hierarchy. To unify these measurement models psychometrically, we sought to develop Big Five trait scales within the Schedule for Adaptive and Nonadaptive Personality–2ndEdition (SNAP-2). Through structural and content analyses, we examined relations between the SNAP-2, Big Five Inventory (BFI), and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) ratings in a large data set (N = 8,690), including clinical, military, college, and community participants. Results yielded scales consistent with the Big Four model of personality (i.e., Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Introversion, and Antagonism) and not the Big Five as there were insufficient items related to Openness. Resulting scale scores demonstrated strong internal consistency and temporal stability. Structural and external validity was supported by strong convergent and discriminant validity patterns between Big Four scale scores and other personality trait scores and expectable patterns of self-peer agreement. Descriptive statistics and community-based norms are provided. The SNAP-2 Big Four Scales enable researchers and clinicians to assess personality at multiple levels of the trait hierarchy and facilitate comparisons among competing “Big Trait” models.


Research suggests that four of the Big Five –namely Extraversion, Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness- reliably describe personality differences in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.[63][65][82][83] However, some evidence suggests that Openness may not be a fundamental, stable part of childhood personality. Although some researchers have found that Openness in children and adolescents relates to attributes such as creativity, curiosity, imagination, and intellect,[84]many researchers have failed to find distinct individual differences in Openness in childhood and early adolescence.[63][65] Potentially, Openness may (a) manifest in unique, currently unknown ways in childhood or (b) may only manifest as children develop socially and cognitively.[63][65] Other studies have found evidence for all of the Big Five traits in childhood and adolescence as well as two other child-specific traits: Irritability and Activity.[85] Despite these specific differences, the majority of findings suggest that personality traits –particularly Extraversion, Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness- are evident in childhood and adolescence and are associated with distinct social-emotional patterns of behavior that are largely consistent with adult manifestations of those same personality traits.[63][65][82][83]


There is a long history of scientists attributing personality to animals. The Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov, categorized dogs in his seminal studies on their behavior as Excitable, Lively, Quiet or Inhibited. He linked these personalities to learning ability. The Excitable type, for example, showed signs of strong excitatory conditioning, but a limited ability for the acquisition of inhibitory connections. The Lively type was the most balanced of the four types and displayed rapid associative learning. Pavlov’s Quiet type exhibited consistent but slow learning.[4]

In a sample of 264 dogs, the four dimensions of personality identified were friendly, active, obedient, and emotional. The dogs' personalities were associated with weight and purebred versus mixed breed.


These review findings, along with the results of a series of comprehensive trait studies (Gosling & John, 1998), suggest that at this point, a four-dimensional model is the most promising for personality traits in dogs. These four dimensions represent canine analogs of four of the five human FFM factors: Energy (analogous to human Extraversion), Affection (analogous to human Agree- ableness), Emotional Reactivity (analogous to human Neuroti- cism), and Intelligence (analogous to human Openness/Intellect). Thus, we focused on these four dimensions, which currently pro- vide the most reasonable, albeit provisional, model for organizing personality judgments of dogs. With no evidence for a separate Conscientiousness dimension in any species other than humans and chimpanzees, it would make little sense to assess this trait in dogs.

Niednagel divides the types into four basic motor skill groupings using his own terminology (originally derived from Jung/Myers) which he believes is more precise: EA, EI, CA, and CI. EA, or 'Empirical-Animate' types (FEAL, FEAR, BEAL, BEAR), are said to excel in the region of the brain responsible for gross motor skills. EI, or 'Empirical-Inanimate' types (FEIL, FEIR, BEIL, BEIR) are thought to possess the best fine motor skills of the four groups. CA, or 'Conceptual-Animate' types (FCAL, FCAR, BCAL, BCAR), excel in the auditory cortex, which is responsible for controlling the mouth and various hearing/language skills. CI, or 'Conceptual-Inanimate' types (FCIL, FCIR, BCIL, BCIR), are believed to excel in the cerebral cortex, where abstract levels of reasoning occur, along with the diaphragm region, responsible for voice production and breathing.

Helen Fisher's Personality Quiz has now been taken by over 14 million people in 40 countries. Helen created it to test the degree to which you express four broad styles of thinking and behaving, each associated with one of four basic brain systems: the dopamine, serotonin, testosterone and estrogen systems. We call these four types the: 

  • Explorer: those who primarily express the traits linked with the dopamine system.

  • Builder: those who primarily express the traits linked with the serotonin system.

  • Director: those who primarily express the traits linked with the testosterone system.

  • Negotiator: those who primarily express the traits linked with the estrogen system.



The Shockley diode (named after physicist William Shockley) is a four-layer semiconductor diode, which was one of the first semiconductor devices invented. It was a "pnpn" diode. It is equivalent to a thyristor with a disconnected gate. Shockley Diodes where manufactured and marketed by Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in the late 1950s.[1]


The IGBT is a semiconductor device with four alternating layers (P-N-P-N) that are controlled by a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) gate structure without regenerative action.

A silicon controlled rectifier or semiconductor-controlled rectifier is a four-layer solid-state current-controlling device. The principle of four layer p-n-p-n switching was developed by Moll, Tanenbaum, Goldey and Holonyak of Bell Laboratories in 1956.[1] The practical demonstration of silicon controlled switching and detailed theoretical behavior of a device in agreement with the experimental results was presented by Dr Ian M. Mackintosh of Bell Laboratories in January 1958.[2][3] The name "silicon controlled rectifier" is General Electric's trade name for a type of thyristor. The SCR was developed by a team of power engineers led by Gordon Hall[4] and commercialized by Frank W. "Bill" Gutzwiller in 1957.

A thyristor is a solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating P and N-type materials. It acts exclusively as a bistableswitch, conducting when the gate receives a current trigger, and continuing to conduct while the voltage across the device is not reversed (forward-biased). A three-lead thyristor is designed to control the larger current of its two leads by combining that current with the smaller current of its other lead, known as its control lead. In contrast, a two-lead thyristor is designed to switch on if the potential difference between its leads is sufficiently large (breakdown voltage).

Some sources define silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) and thyristor as synonymous.[1] Other sources define thyristors as a larger set of devices with at least four layers of alternating N and P-type material.


In The Prophecies Nostradamus compiled his collection of major, long-term predictions. The first installment was published in 1555 and contained 353 quatrains. The third edition, with three hundred new quatrains, was reportedly printed in 1558, but now survives as only part of the omnibus edition that was published after his death in 1568. This version contains one unrhymed and 941 rhymed quatrains, grouped into nine sets of 100 and one of 42, called "Centuries".

Century I, Quatrain 1 in the 1555 Lyon Bonhomme edition


Four main pilgrimage sites[edit]

Gautama Buddha is said to have identified four sites most worthy of pilgrimage for his followers, saying that they would produce a feeling of spiritual urgency. These are:[1]

The Eight Great Places[edit]

Pilgrimage to

Holy Sites


The Four Main Sites

Four Additional Sites

Other Sites

Later Sites

In the later commentarial tradition, four other sites are also raised to a special status because Buddha had performed a certain miracle there. These four places, partly through the inclusion in this list of commentarial origin, became important Buddhist pilgrimage sites in ancient India, as the Attha-mahathanani (Pali for 'The Eight Great Places'). It is important to note, however, that some of these events do not occur in the Tipitaka and are thus purely commentarial.

The first four of the Eight Great Places are identical to the places mentioned by the Buddha:

The last four are places where a certain miraculous event is reported to have occurred:

  • Sravasti: Place of the Twin Miracle, showing his supernatural abilities in performance of miracles. Sravasti is also the place where Buddha spent the largest amount of time, being a major city in ancient India.

  • Rajgir: Place of the subduing of Nalagiri, the angry elephant, through friendliness. Rajgir was another major city of ancient India.

  • Sankassa: Place of the descending to earth from Tusita heaven (after a stay of 3 months teaching his mother the Abhidhamma).

  • Vaishali: Place of receiving an offering of honey from a monkey. Vaishali was the capital of the Vajjian Republic of ancient India.


The Char Dham ("four abodes") are defined by the Pandavas in the Mahabharata as "Badrinath", "Kedarnath", "Gangotri" and "Yamunotri". They were four places which the Pandavas believed could cleanse people of their sins. In the modern day, Char Dham are the names of four pilgrimage sites in India that are widely revered by Hindus. It comprises BadrinathDwarkaPuri and Rameswaram. It is considered highly sacred by Hindus to visit Char Dham during one's lifetime. The Char Dham defined by Adi Shankaracharya consists of four Vaishnavite pilgrimages.[1]


Jimmy Cross

Jimmy Cross’s character represents the profound effects responsibility has on those who are too immature to handle it. As a sophomore in college, he signs up for the Reserve Officers Training Corps because it is worth a few credits and because his friends are doing it. But he doesn’t care about the war and has no desire to be a team leader. As a result, when he is led into battle with several men in his charge, he is unsure in everything he does.






Cross’s guilt is palpable every time one of his men dies, but it is most acute in the case of Ted Lavender. Right before Lavender is killed, Cross allows himself to be distracted and deluded by the thoughts of his coveted classmate, Martha, who sends him photographs and writes flowery letters that never mention the war. His innocent reverie is interrupted by Lavender’s death, and Cross’s only conclusion is that he loves this faraway girl more than he loves his men. Cross’s confession to O’Brien, years later, that he has never forgiven himself for Lavender’s death testifies to his intense feelings of guilt about the incident.


Jimmy Cross can be viewed as a Christ figure. In times of inexplicable atrocity, certain individuals assume the position of a group’s or their own savior. Such men suffer so that others don’t have to bear the brunt of the guilt and confusion. Cross is linked to Christ not only on a superficial level—they share initials and are both connected to the idea of the cross—but also in the nature of his role. Like Christ, who suffers for his fellow men, Cross suffers for the sake of the entire platoon. In “The Things They Carried,” Cross bears the grief of Lavender’s death for the members of his troop, such as Kiowa, who are too dumbfounded to mourn. In the same story, he makes a personal sacrifice, burning the letters from Martha so that her presence will no longer distract him. In each case, Cross makes a Christ-like sacrifice so that his fellow men—Norman Bowker and Kiowa, in this case—can carry on without being crippled by grief and guilt.


One of the first things that Simon does that depicts a Christ-like action, is found in chapter 3 when he helps the littluns get fruit, "Simon found for them the fruit they could not reach" (Golding 56). During his lifetime, Jesus often aided the hungry, one example being when he turned 5 loaves of bread and 2 fish into enough food for thousands of people. Later in the chapter Simon finds himself in the wilderness. While there, Simon was calm and enjoyed the solitude of his surroundings; "He came at …show more content… 

From this, he reaches an epiphany and later leaves to tell the other boys. While returning to tell the boys, Simon is hit in the side by a spear. Jesus was also stabbed in the side before his crucifixion.

The deaths of Simon and Jesus also had many things in common. Both were killed by members of their community, and were persecuted for the sins and evil of others. The events that directly followed the deaths of Simon and Jesus are very much similar also. According to the Bible, when Jesus was being persecuted "there was darkness over the whole land" (Mark 15:33) and once he died the earth shook. When Simon died "the clouds opened and let down the rain like a waterfall" (Golding 153).


In 2013, Hasbro re-invented Simon once again with Simon Swipe. The game was demonstrated at New York Toy Fair 2014 and was released in the Summer as planned.[6] The game is a circular unit that looks like a steering wheel. It has been extended from four buttons to eight touchscreen buttons which are flattened out on the unit.[7] The game features four game modes which are called Levels, Classic, Party and Extreme. Levels is the main game of Simon Swipe. The player has to go through all sixteen levels to beat the game. Classic, Party and Extreme levels focus on one pattern getting longer and longer until the player is out. A smaller version of the game called Simon Micro Series was introduced in the Fall of 2014. This version has only two game modes called Solo and Pass It and features 14 levels and four buttons. There is also a version of Simon created by Basic Fun which is known as the Touch Simon. This version has an LCD screen and plays melodies at specific parts of the game.

The device has four colored buttons, each producing a particular tone when it is pressed or activated by the device. A round in the game consists of the device lighting up one or more buttons in a random order, after which the player must reproduce that order by pressing the buttons. As the game progresses, the number of buttons to be pressed increases.

Simon is named after the simple children's game of Simon Says, but the gameplay is based on Atari's unpopular Touch Me arcade game from 1974. Simon differs from Touch Me in that the Touch Me buttons were all the same color (black) and the sounds it produced were harsh and grating.

Simon's tones, on the other hand, were designed to always be harmonic,[2] no matter what order they were played in, and consisted of an A major triad in second inversion which resembles a Trumpet fanfare:


The cellhouse included the main four blocks of the jail, A-block, B-block, C-block, and D-block, the warden's office, visitation room, the library, and the barber shop. The prison cells typically measured 9 feet (2.7 m) by 5 feet (1.5 m) and 7 feet (2.1 m) high. The cells were primitive and lacked privacy, with a bed, a desk and a washbasin and toilet on the back wall, with few furnishings except a blanket. African-Americans were segregated from the rest in cell designation due to racial abuse being prevalent. D-Block housed the worst inmates and five cells at the end of it were designated as "The Hole", where badly behaving prisoners would be sent for periods of punishment, often brutally so. The dining hall and kitchen lay off the main building in an extended part where both prisoners and staff would eat three meals a day together. The Alcatraz Hospital was above the dining hall.

In 1938, there were four amateur teams, the Bees, Oaks, Oilers, and Seals, named after Minor League clubs, and four league teams named after Major League clubs, the Cardinals, Cubs, Giants, and Tigers.[99] Many of the inmates used weekends in the yards to converse with each other and discuss crime, the only real opportunities they had during the week for a durable conversation

Between 1934 and 1963, the four wardens of Alcatraz resided here, including the first warden, James A. Johnston. A house of luxury, in stark contrast to the jail next to it, the wardens often held lavish cocktail parties here.[103] The signpost at the spot shows a photograph of a trusted inmate doing chores at the house for the warden and that the house had a terraced garden and greenhouse.[101] The mansion had tall windows, providing fine views of San Francisco Bay.[102] Today, the house is a ruin, burned down by Native Americans during the Occupation of Alcatraz on June 1, 1970.[102]



The Book of Haggai consists of four precisely dated messages from the Lord. The first (1:1-15) was on the first day of the sixth month in the second year of Darius (1:1, August 29, 520 B.C.). The second (2:1-9) came on the 21st of the seventh month (2:1, October 17th). The third (2:10-19) and fourth (2:20-23) messages came on the same day, the 24th of the ninth month (2:10, 20; December 18th).

The Book of Haggai, the 10th book of the Twelve (Minor) Prophets, is a brief work of only two chapters. Written about 520 bce by the prophet Haggai, the book contains four oracles. The first oracle calls for Zerubbabel, the governor of Judaea, and Joshua, the high priest, to rebuild the Temple (chapter 1, verses 1–11). A drought and poor harvests, according to Haggai, had been caused because the returnees from the Exile had neglected or failed to rebuild the Temple. The second oracle, addressed to the political and religious leaders and the people, sought to encourage them in their rebuilding efforts (chapter 2, verses 1–9). Apparently they were disappointed that the new Temple was not as splendid as the former one, so Haggai reassured them: “My Spirit abides among you, fear not.” The third oracle was issued against the people for not acting in a holy manner (chapter 2, verses 10–19), and the fourth proclaimed that Zerubbabel would be established as the Davidic ruler (chapter 2, verses 20–23). His promise, however, remained unfulfilled.


The book of Malachi is divided into three chapters in the Hebrew Bible and the Greek Septuagint and four chapters in the Latin Vulgate. The fourth chapter in the Vulgate consists of the remainder of the third chapter starting at verse 3:19.


Throughout the Battle a typical Royal Air Force fighter squadron consisted of twelve aircraft, sometimes less and down on the sixteen normally required to form a squadron, split into four sections (blue, green, yellow and red) with three pilots (one, two and three), with two sections making up one flight of aircraft. Each section was led by a section leader with two wingmen, with a colour and a number identifying each aircraft. So for example, as shown in the squadron structure diagram below, the red section leader would be known as red one.


Despite complaints about the Vic formation no official change was forthcoming so some squadrons adapted a tactic being used by the Luftwaffe called Schwarm. This had been developed after their combat experience in the Spanish Civil War during 1936 – 1939 and would be called Finger-four by the RAF which was a more flexible tactic. This involved four aircraft flying in formation, but operating in pairs. This allowed the attacking aircraft to be covered by his wingman with the overall formation spaced at about 200 meters apart and flying at various altitudes. Allowing the pilots to focus on looking for enemy aircraft and protect each other and if the formation was attacked the two pairs would split up, one going left the other to the right. The Finger-four tactic also meant that when operating as a squadron they would be divided into three sections as opposed to the Vic formations four sections.


In the aftermath of the Battle of Britain Fighter Command modified its tactics in 1941, before, in 1942 the Finger-four formation was officially added to pilots training.

The finger-four formation became less common after World War II. However, it is still used in the "Missing Man Formation" at pilots' funeral ceremonies. The formation performs a fly-by in level flight over the funeral, at which point the second element leader climbs vertically and departs the formation, symbolizing the departure of the person being honored.


When Clovis died, his kingdom was partitioned among his four sons, TheudericChlodomerChildebert, and Clotaire. This partition created the new political units of the Kingdoms of RheimsOrléans, Paris and Soissons, and inaugurated a tradition that would lead to disunity lasting until the end of the Merovingian dynasty in 751. The disunity continued under the Carolingians until, after a brief unity under Charlemagne, the Franks splintered into distinct spheres of cultural influence that coalesced around Eastern and Western centers of royal power. These later political, linguistic, and cultural entities became the Kingdom of France, the myriad German States, and the semi-autonomous kingdoms of Burgundy and Lotharingia.

The partition of the Frankish kingdom among the four sons of Clovis with Clotildepresiding, Grandes Chroniques de Saint-Denis (Bibliothèque municipale de Toulouse).



Marx described the economic conditions of production under capitalism in terms of alienation. Alienation refers to the condition in which the individual is isolated and divorced from his or her society, work, or the sense of self and common humanity. Marx defined four specific types of alienation that arose with the development of wage labour under capitalism.


Alienation from the product of one’s labour. An industrial worker does not have the opportunity to relate to the product he or she is labouring on. The worker produces commodities, but at the end of the day the commodities not only belong to the capitalist, but serve to enrich the capitalist at the worker’s expense. In Marx’s language, the worker relates to the product of his or her labour “as an alien object that has power over him [or her]” (1932/1977). Workers do not care if they are making watches or cars; they care only that their jobs exist. In the same way, workers may not even know or care what products they are contributing to. A worker on a Ford assembly line may spend all day installing windows on car doors without ever seeing the rest of the car. A cannery worker can spend a lifetime cleaning fish without ever knowing what product they are used for.


Alienation from the process of one’s labour. Workers do not control the conditions of their jobs because they do not own the means of production. If someone is hired to work in a fast food restaurant, that person is expected to make the food exactly the way they are taught. All ingredients must be combined in a particular order and in a particular quantity; there is no room for creativity or change. An employee at Burger King cannot decide to change the spices used on the fries in the same way that an employee on a Ford assembly line cannot decide to place a car’s headlights in a different position. Everything is decided by the owners who then dictate orders to the workers. The workers relate to their own labour as an activity that does not belong to them.


Alienation from others. Workers compete, rather than cooperate. Employees vie for time slots, bonuses, and job security. Different industries and different geographical regions compete for investment. Even when a worker clocks out at night and goes home, the competition does not end. As Marx commented in The Communist Manifesto, “No sooner is the exploitation of the labourer by the manufacturer, so far at an end, that he receives his wages in cash, than he is set upon by the other portion of the bourgeoisie, the landlord, the shopkeeper, the pawnbroker” (1848/1977).


Alienation from one’s humanity. A final outcome of industrialization is a loss of connectivity between a worker and what makes them truly human. Humanity is defined for Marx by “conscious life-activity,” but under conditions of wage labour this is taken not as an end in itself — only a means of satisfying the most base, animal-like needs. The “species being” (i.e., conscious activity) is only confirmed when individuals can create and produce freely, not simply when they work to reproduce their existence and satisfy immediate needs like animals.


Now it lets see where the traps are:

First Quadrant: Simple binary decisions, in Mediocristan: Statistics does wonders. These situations are, unfortunately, more common in academia, laboratories, and games than real life—what I call the "ludic fallacy". In other words, these are the situations in casinos, games, dice, and we tend to study them because we are successful in modeling them.

Second Quadrant: Simple decisions, in Extremistan: some well known problem studied in the literature. Except of course that there are not many simple decisions in Extremistan.

Third Quadrant: Complex decisions in Mediocristan: Statistical methods work surprisingly well.

Fourth Quadrant: Complex decisions in Extremistan: Welcome to the Black Swan domain. Here is where your limits are. Do not base your decisions on statistically based claims. Or, alternatively, try to move your exposure type to make it third-quadrant style ("clipping tails").




The four quadrants. The South-East area (in orange) is where statistics and models fail us.

Taleb's four volume philosophical essay on uncertainty, titled the Incerto, covers the following books: Fooled by Randomness (2001), The Black Swan (2007–2010), The Bed of Procrustes (2010), and Antifragile (2012).

His first non-technical book, Fooled by Randomness, about the underestimation of the role of randomness in life, published in 2001, was selected by Fortune as one of the smartest 75 books known.[39]

His second non-technical book, The Black Swan, about unpredictable events, was published in 2007, selling close to 3 million copies (as of February 2011). It spent 36 weeks on the New York Times Bestseller list,[40] 17 as hardcover and 19 weeks as paperback, [10][41] and was translated into 31 languages.[10] The book has been credited with predicting the banking and economic crisis of 2008.[42] A book of aphorisms, The Bed of Procrustes: Philosophical and Practical Aphorisms, was released in December 2010.

The fourth book of his Incerto series—Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder—was published in November 2012.[43] In the introduction of the book, Taleb describes it as follows: "Some things benefit from shocks; they thrive and grow when exposed to volatility, randomness, disorder, and stressors and love adventure, risk, and uncertainty. Yet, in spite of the ubiquity of the phenomenon, there is no word for the exact opposite of fragile. Let us call it antifragile. Antifragility is beyond resilience or robustness. The resilient resists shocks and stays the same; the antifragile gets better."[43]:3 (A mathematical parallel version of the Incerto Quadrilogy is available on Taleb's website.[44])

Durkheims four major works
His Four Major Works
Durkheim, Emile. 1893. The Division of Labor in Society. The Free Press (reprint 1997). ISBN 0684836386
Durkheim, Emile. 1895. Rules of Sociological Method. The Free Press (reprint 1982). ISBN 0029079403
Durkheim, Emile. 1897. Suicide. The Free Press (reprint 1997). ISBN 0684836327
Durkheim, Emile. 1912. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. (English translation by Joseph Swain: 1915) The Free Press, (reprint 1965). ISBN 0-02-908010-X. New translation by Karen E. Fields 1995, ISBN 0029079373

The SCM postulates that all social groups (e.g., older people, the homeless, drug addicts) fit within each of the four combinations of high and low levels of warmth and competence.[1][4] Contradicting earlier theories of stereotype content which assumed that stereotypes reflected unidimensional and uniformly negative attitudes,[5][6] the stereotype content model theorizes that stereotypes are often mixed or ambivalent: groups perceived to be high in one dimension, but low in the other (e.g., old people as rated high on warmth, but low on competence).[1] The groups within each of the four combinations of high and low levels of warmth and competence elicit distinct emotions:[1][4][7]

  1. Noncompetitive, low-status outgroups are perceived as warm but incompetent (e.g., housewivesdisabled and older people) and are usually liked and pitied but disrespected.

  2. Feelings of pride and admiration are aroused by groups considered both competent and warm (e.g., the ingroup, close allies).

  3. Groups regarded as incompetent and not warm (e.g., welfare recipients, poor people) elicit feelings of contempt and pity.

  4. High-status, competitive outgroups are perceived as high on competence but low on warmth (e.g., AsiansJewsfeminists, rich people) and are subject to an envious stereotype which is accompanied by feelings of admiration and resentment.

Stereotype content model, adapted from Fiske et al. (2002): Four types of stereotypes resulting from combinations of perceived warmth and competence.


Most multiple star systems are triple stars. Systems with four or more components are less likely to occur.[5] Multiple-star systems are called triple, trinary or ternary if they contain three stars; quadruple or quaternary if they contain four stars


The Hot Boys (often styled as Hot Boy$) is an American hip hop group active consisting of both past and present Cash Money Records rappers Lil WayneJuvenileB.G. and Turk.


During the Meiji period, no one was permitted to use the Imperial Seal except the Emperor of Japan, who used a 16 petal chrysanthemum with sixteen tips of another row of petals showing behind the first row. Therefore, each member of the Imperial family used a slightly modified version of the seal. Shinto shrines either displayed the imperial seal or incorporated elements of the seal into their own emblems.


Earlier in Japanese history, when Emperor Go-Daigo, who tried to break the power of the shogunate in 1333, was exiled, he adopted the seventeen-petal chrysanthemum to differentiate himself from the Northern Court's Emperor Kōgon, who kept the imperial 16-petal mon.[citation needed]



The symbol is a yellow or orange chrysanthemum with black or red outlines and background. A central disc is surrounded by a front set of 16 petals. A rear set of 16 petals are half staggered in relation to the front set and are visible at the edges of the flower. An example of the chrysanthemum being used is in the badge for the Order of the Chrysanthemum.


Other members of the Imperial Family use a version with 14 single petals, while a form with 16 single petals is used for Diet members' pins, orders, passports, and other items that carry or represent the authority of the Emperor. The Imperial Seal is also used on the standards of the Imperial Family.[1]



The chrysanthemum is one of the "Four Gentlemen" (四君子) of China (the others being the plum blossom, the orchid, and bamboo). The chrysanthemum is said to have been favored by Tao Qian, an influential Chinese poet, and is symbolic of nobility. It is also one of the four symbolic seasonal flowers.







It took Ghiberti 21 years to complete the doors. These gilded bronze doors consist of twenty-eight panels, with twenty panels depicting the life of Christ from the New Testament. The eight lower panels show the four evangelists and the Church Fathers: Saint Ambrose, Saint Jerome, Saint Gregory and Saint Augustine. The panels are surrounded by a framework of foliage in the door case and gilded busts of prophets and sibyls at the intersections of the panels. Originally installed on the east side in place of Pisano's doors, they were later moved to the north side. They are described by the art historian Antonio Paolucci as "the most important event in the history of Florentine art in the first quarter of the 15th century".[5]

In Flagellation, one of the panels on the North Doors.


In ancient Mesoamerica, the quatrefoil is frequently portrayed on Olmec and Mayanmonuments, such as at La BlancaGuatemala where it dates to approximately 850 BC. The quatrefoil depicts the opening of the cosmic central axis at the crossroads of the four cardinal directions, representing the passageway between the celestial and the underworld.[4]

Another early example of a quatrefoil is found at ChalcatzingoMorelos state, Mexico, the city that flourished between 700 BCE and 500 BCE. Both a full quatrefoil, and a partial portrayal of quatrefoil are found on monuments here. In the latter case, one half of a quatrefoil represents the opening of a cave where an important personage is seated. This cave opening represents a water source.

Thus, quatrefoil seems to be associated with water rituals. The associated imagery is related to agricultural fertility and the arrival of rain,[5][6] as evidenced by the rain-bearing clouds above the quatrefoil portal.[7]

The association between rulership and the quatrefoil symbol continued into the ensuing Late Preclassic period. A good example is found at Izapa.

The quatrefoil portrayal continued into the Classic period, as evidenced in the iconography of numerous Classic Maya monuments. A good example is the altar from El Perú (Maya site), which features a quatrefoil on the back of a zoomorphic creature in which sits a ruler. The associated hieroglyphic text refers to the creation narrative of the Maize god's rebirth.[7]

Among the most famous works of art employing the barbed quatrefoil are the bronze panels on the south doors of the Baptistery in Florence (1330–6) by Andrea Pisano, the bronze panels of the north doors of the Baptistery in Florence by Lorenzo Ghiberti, and also Filippo Brunelleschi's competition entry for the same doors, The Sacrifice of Isaac) as well as "Head of an Angel" by Piero della Francesca.

Of the three world-famed bronze doors of the Baptistery in Florence, the earliest one on the south side was Pisano's work; he started it in 1330 and finished in 1336. It consists of a number of small quatrefoil panels, the lower eight containing single figures of the Virtues, and the rest scenes from the life of John the Baptist

Detail of Andrea Pisano's panel for the Florence Baptistery.


Having attended art college, Mercury also designed Queen's logo, called the Queen crest, shortly before the release of the band's first album.[6] The logo combines the zodiac signs of all four members: two lions for Leo (Deacon and Taylor), a crab for Cancer (May), and two fairies for Virgo (Mercury).

The four members of queen in quadrant formation, one with arms in cross X pose across chest


Synchronised swimming did not become an official Olympic sport until the 1984 Summer Olympic Games.[8] It was not until 1968 that synchronised swimming became officially recognized by FINA as the fourth water sport next to swimmingplatform diving and water polo.


The four-piece band is the most common configuration in rock and pop music.


Another common formation was a vocalist, electric guitarist, bass guitarist, and a drummer (e.g. The Who, The Monkees, Led Zeppelin, Queen, Ramones, Sex Pistols, Red Hot Chili Peppers, R.E.M., Blur, The Smiths, Echo and the Bunnymen, The Stone Roses, Creed, Black Sabbath, Van Halen, Rage Against the Machine, Gym Class Heroes, The Stooges, Joy Division, and U2.) Instrumentally, these bands can be considered as trios. This format is popular with new bands, as there are only two instruments that need tuning, the melody and chords formula prevalent with their material is easy to learn, four members are commonplace to work with, the roles are clearly defined and generally are: instrumental melody line, rhythm section which plays the chords or countermelody, and vocals on top.


In some early rock bands, keyboardists were used, performing on piano (e.g. The Seeds and The Doors) with a guitarist, singer, drummer and keyboardist. Some bands will have a guitarist, bassist, drummer, and keyboard player (for example, Talking Heads, Gerry and the Pacemakers, Small Faces, King Crimson, The Guess Who, Pink Floyd, Queen, Coldplay, The Killers and Blind Faith).


Some bands will have the bassist on lead vocals, such as Thin Lizzy, The Chameleons, Skillet, Pink Floyd, Motörhead, NOFX, +44, Slayer, The All-American Rejects or even the lead guitarist, such as Death, Dire Straits, Megadeth and Creedence Clearwater Revival. Some bands, such as The Beatles, have a lead guitarist, a rhythm guitarist and a bassist that all sing lead and backing vocals, that also play keyboards regularly, as well as a drummer.