Theodore Millon claimed there were four subtypes of sadism, which he termed Enforcing sadism, Explosive sadism, Spineless sadism, and Tyrannical sadism.[6][7][8]

Theodore Millon has proposed four subtypes of masochist. Any individual masochist may fit into none, one or more of the following subtypes:[2][5]

SubtypeDescriptionPersonality Traits

Virtuous masochistIncluding histrionicnarcissistic featuresProudly unselfish, self-denying, and self-sacrificial; self-ascetic; weighty burdens are judged noble, righteous, and saintly; others must recognize loyalty and faithfulness; gratitude and appreciation expected for altruism and forbearance.

Possessive masochistIncluding negativisticcompulsive featuresBewitches and ensnares by becoming jealous, overprotective, and indispensable; entraps, takes control, conquers, enslaves, and dominates others by being sacrificial to a fault; control by obligatory dependence.

Self-undoing masochistIncluding avoidantfeaturesIs “wrecked by success”; experiences “victory through defeat”; gratified by personal misfortunes, failures, humiliations, and ordeals; eschews best interests; chooses to be victimized, ruined, disgraced.

Oppressed masochistIncluding depressivefeaturesExperiences genuine misery, despair, hardship, anguish, torment, illness; grievances used to create guilt in others; resentments vented by exempting from responsibilities and burdening “oppressors.”

Theodore Millon restricted the term "schizoid" to those personalities with an intrinsic defect in the capacity to form social relationships.[27] :p. 136 For Millon, SPD is distinguished from other personality disorders in that it is "the personality disorder that lacks a personality." He criticizes that this may be due to the current diagnostic criteria: They describe SPD only by an absence of certain traits which results in a "deficit syndrome" or "vacuum". Instead of delineating the presence of something, they mention solely what is lacking. Therefore, it is hard to describe and research such a concept.[32]:p. 374

He identified four subtypes of SPD. Any individual schizoid may exhibit none or one of the following:[32][47]


Languid schizoid (including depressivefeatures)Marked inertia; deficient activation level; intrinsically phlegmatic, lethargic, weary, leaden, lackadaisical, exhausted, enfeebled.

Remote schizoid (including avoidantschizotypal features)Distant and removed; inaccessible, solitary, isolated, homeless, disconnected, secluded, aimlessly drifting; peripherally occupied.

Depersonalized schizoid (including schizotypal features)Disengaged from others and self; self is disembodied or distant object; body and mind sundered, cleaved, dissociated, disjoined, eliminated.

Affectless schizoid (including compulsivefeatures)Passionless, unresponsive, unaffectionate, chilly, uncaring, unstirred, spiritless, lackluster, unexcitable, unperturbed, cold; all emotions diminished.


Theodore Millon has proposed four subtypes of BPD. He suggests that an individual diagnosed with BPD may exhibit none, one, or more of the following:[83]


Subtype Features

Discouraged borderline (including avoidant or dependent personality features) Pliant, submissive, loyal, humble; feels vulnerable and in constant jeopardy; feels hopeless, depressed, helpless, and powerless.

Petulant borderline (including negativistic features) Negativistic, impatient, restless, as well as stubborn, defiant, sullen, pessimistic, and resentful; easily feels "slighted" and quickly disillusioned.

Impulsive borderline (including histrionic or antisocial features) Capricious, superficial, flighty, distractible, frenetic, and seductive; fearing loss, the individual becomes agitated; gloomy and irritable; and potentially suicidal.

Self-destructive borderline (including depressive or masochistic and self-defeating features) Inward-turning, intropunitively (self-punishing) angry; conforming, deferential, and ingratiating behaviors have deteriorated; increasingly high-strung and moody; possible suicide.


Empirical evidence for a four factor framework of personality disorder organization: multigroup confirmatory factor analysis of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III personality disorder scales across Belgian and Danish data samples.


Rossi G1, Elklit A, Simonsen E.

Author information


The factor structure of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (Millon, Millon, Davis, & Grossman, 2006) personality disorder scales was analyzed using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis on data obtained from a Danish (N = 2030) and a Belgian (N = 1210) sample. Two-, three-, and four factor models, a priori specified using structures found by Dyce, O'Connor, Parkins, and Janzen (1997), were fitted to the data. The best fitting model was a four factor structure (RMSEA = .066, GFI = .98, CFI = .93) with partially invariant factor loadings. The robustness of this four-factor model clearly supports the efforts to organize future personality disorder description in a four-factor framework by corroborating four domains that were predominant in dimensional models (Widiger & Simonsen, 2005): Factor 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively corresponded to emotional dysregulation versus stability, antagonism versus compliance, extraversion versus introversion, and constraint versus impulsivity.


The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), is a self-report personality test developed over several decades of empirical research by Raymond B. Cattell, Maurice Tatsuoka and Herbert Eber. The 16PF provides a measure of normal personality and can also be used by psychologists, and other mental health professionals, as a clinical instrument to help diagnose psychiatric disorders, as well as help with prognosis and therapy planning. The 16PF instrument provides clinicians with a normal-range measurement of anxiety, adjustment, emotional stability and behavioral problems.[1][2] It can also be used within other areas of psychology, such as career and occupational selection.[3]

Pinel based his nosology on ideas of William Cullen, employing the same biologically-inspired terminology of 'genera' and 'species' of disorder. Pinel's classification of mental disorder simplified Cullen's 'neuroses' down to four basic types of mental disorder: melancholia, mania (insanity), dementia, and idiotism. Later editions added forms of 'partial insanity' where only that of feelings which seem to be affected rather than reasoning ability.[citation needed]

William Cullen advanced an influential medical nosology which included four classes of neuroses: coma, adynamias, spasms, and vesanias. The vesanias included amentia, melancholia, mania, and oneirodynia.

Towards the end of the 18th century and into the 19th, Pinel, influenced by Cullen's scheme, developed his own, again employing the terminology of genera and species. His simplified revision of this reduced all mental illnesses to four basic types. He argued that mental disorders are not separate entities but stem from a single disease that he called "mental alienation".


Before diagnosing a psychological disorder, clinicians must study the themes, also known as abnormalities, within psychological disorders. The most prominent themes consist of: deviance, distress, dysfunction and danger. These themes are known as the four Ds, which define abnormality.


The four Ds[edit]

A description of the four Ds when defining abnormality:


Deviance: this term describes the idea that specific thoughts, behaviours and emotions are considered deviant when they are unacceptable or not common in society. Clinicians must, however, remember that minority groups are not always deemed deviant just because they may not have anything in common with other groups. Therefore, we define an individual's actions as deviant or abnormal when their behaviour is deemed unacceptable by the culture they belong to.

Distress: this term accounts for negative feelings by the individual with the disorder. They may feel deeply troubled and affected by their illness. Behaviors and feelings that cause distress to the individual or to others around him or her are considered abnormal, if the condition is upsetting to the person experiencing it.

Dysfunction: this term involves maladaptive behaviour that impairs the individual's ability to perform normal daily functions, such as getting ready for work in the morning, or driving a car. Such maladaptive behaviours prevent the individual from living a normal, healthy lifestyle. However, dysfunctional behaviour is not always caused by a disorder; it may be voluntary, such as engaging in a hunger strike.

Danger: this term involves dangerous or violent behaviour directed at the individual, or others in the environment. An example of dangerous behaviour that may suggest a psychological disorder is engaging in suicidal activity. Behaviors and feelings that are potentially harmful to an individual or the individuals around them are seen as abnormal.


Like many prominent medical figures in the 18th century, William Cullen took a great interest in the nervous system. He defined the nervous system as an "animated machine" whose main function is to "perform a variety of motions," communicate and interact with "external bodies."[19] Cullen believed that the nervous system was composed of four elements: the medullary substance, consisting of the brain and the spinal cord, the membranous nerves, the sensory nerves, and the muscular fibers.[19]

Cullen's understanding of the nervous system was also influenced by his contemporaries, one of whom was Albrecht von Haller (1708–1777).[21] Haller proposed that tissues, including muscles, were characterized by "irritability" (or contractility), while nerves were characterized by "sensibility" (or feeling).[19] Using Haller's characterization, Cullen defined disease "as an excess or deficiency of sensibility."[19] However, Cullen interpreted sensibility as "muscle mobility and vigour" and diseases were caused by the imbalance of irritability and sensibility.[19] Based on this definition of disease, his therapeutics "either stimulated or sedated the nervous system."[19] He categorized diseases into four main classes: pyrexiae, neuroses, cachexiae, and locales. Within the classes were nineteen orders and 132 genera.[19] The four orders of neuroses were comata, adynamiae, spasmi and vesaniae.[19] Comata was defined as "a diminution of voluntary motion, with sleep, or a deprivation of the senses." Adynamiae is defined as "a diminution of the involuntary motions, whether vital or natural." Spasmi was defined as "irregular motions of the muscles or muscular fibers." Vesaniae was defined as "disorders of the judgement without any pyrexia or coma."[19]


According to its rostrocaudal location the spinal cord can be divided into four parts: cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral, two of these are marked by an upper (cervical) and a lower (lumbar) enlargement.


Psychologist Theodore Millon notes that because most patients present a mixed picture of symptoms, their personality disorder tends to be a blend of a major personality disorder type with one or more secondary personality disorder types. He identified four adult subtypes of avoidant personality disorder.[20][21]


Subtype and Description Personality Traits

Phobic avoidant (including dependent features) General apprehensiveness displaced with avoidable tangible precipitant; qualms and disquietude symbolized by repugnant and specific dreadful object or circumstances.

Conflicted avoidant (including negativistic features) Internal discord and dissension; fears dependence; unsettled; unreconciled within self; hesitating, confused, tormented, paroxysmic, embittered; unresolvable angst.

Hypersensitive avoidant (including paranoid features) Intensely wary and suspicious; alternately panicky, terrified, edgy, and timorous, then thin-skinned, high-strung, petulant, and prickly.

Self-deserting avoidant (including depressive features) Blocks or fragments self awareness; discards painful images and memories; casts away untenable thoughts and impulses; ultimately jettisons self (suicidal).[21]



Millon's subtypes[edit]

The psychologist Theodore Millon has proposed four subtypes of 'negativist' ('passive-aggressive').[10] Any individual negativist may exhibit none or one of the following:


Subtype Description Personality traits

Vacillating negativist Including borderline personality disorder features Emotions fluctuate in bewildering, perplexing, and enigmatic ways; difficult to fathom or comprehend own capricious and mystifying moods; wavers, in flux, and irresolute both subjectively and intrapsychically.

Discontented negativist Including depressive personality disorder and avoidant personality disorder features Grumbling, petty, testy, cranky, embittered, complaining, fretful, vexed, and moody; gripes behind pretense; avoids confrontation; uses legitimate but trivial complaints.

Circuitous negativist Including dependent personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder features Opposition displayed in a roundabout, labyrinthine, and ambiguous manner, e.g., procrastination, dawdling, forgetfulness, inefficiency, neglect, stubbornness, indirect and devious in venting resentment and resistant behaviors.

Abrasive negativist Including sadistic personality disorder features Contentious, intransigent, fractious, and quarrelsome; irritable, caustic, debasing, corrosive, and acrimonious, contradicts and derogates; few qualms and little conscience or remorse. (no longer a valid diagnosis in DSM)


The supposed "story" behind Iron Chef is recounted at the beginning of every episode. A title card, with a quote from famed French food author Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin first appears: "Tell me what you eat, and I'll tell you what you are." Then, it is said that Kaga "realized his dream in a form never seen before" and specially constructed a cooking arena called "Kitchen Stadium" in his castle. There, visiting chefs from "around the world" would compete against his Gourmet Academy, led by his three (later four) Iron Chefs. Chairman Kaga himself is a showpiece, dressed in outlandish examples of men's formal attire. The English name Iron Chef comes from the show itself: Kaga would use this translation of the Japanese title when summoning his chefs at the beginning of the battle.[3]

Throughout the cook-off, running commentary is made in a booth near the cooking area by an announcer, Kenji Fukui; a commentator, Yukio Hattori, and one or two of the guest judges, with one floor reporter (sometimes two; normally Shinichiro Ohta) providing details of the action on each side. The commentators and judges discuss the style of cooking, culinary traditions and unusual food preparation. At the end of the hour, after end-of-battle interviews with both competitors, each dish is presented to the camera, with a description of its properties (written by the show's screenwriters based on the chef's explanation) read by the announcer. Then, a panel of three (later expanded to four and, later still, five) judges, of which typically one is a professional critic, tastes the dishes and judges them based on taste, presentation, and originality. Each chef may be awarded up to 20 points by each judge, with ten given for taste and five each for presentation and originality. The chef with the greatest score wins the competition. (In earlier four-judge episodes, the win went to the chef who won three of the four judges, or, failing that, the chef that makes the highest points total.)

Chairman Kaga tastes the dishes along with the judges. While he occasionally makes comments and seeks input from judges during tasting, he generally does not participate in scoring; he did, however, during the 2000th Dish Battle. During this episode, a team of French cuisine chefs—captain Hiroyuki Sakai, the original Iron Chef French Yutaka Ishinabe, and former challenger and Etsuo Joh—battled a team of Chinese cuisine chefs composed of captain Chen Kenichi, former challenger Sozo Myamoto, and former challenger Yuji Wakiya (who would later be Iron Chef Chinese on the 2012 revival). To break the tie, Chairman Kaga asked them to allow him this one instance of selfishness, and he cast his vote for the French team.


In the case of a deadlock (as was possible during the era of the four-judge panel), first place is awarded to the chef with the greater number of points. On the rare occasions that the scores were also tied, an immediate "overtime battle" was held to determine the winner. In overtime the chefs are given 30 minutes to prepare dishes with a different key ingredient, having to make do with what remains of their pantry or with items that were previously prepared for the main battle. The overtime battles are aired as a separate episode. On one occasion, the overtime battle itself resulted in a tie, prompting Chairman Kaga to declare both the Iron Chef and challenger winners.[5]


Iron Chef UK was a British competition-based cooking show based on Fuji Television's Iron Chef and Food Network's Iron Chef America. It was produced by IWC Media and broadcast on Channel 4.

The show aired during daytime, five days a week at 5pm in 2010, and was hosted by Olly Smith and Nick Nairn.[1] The four Iron Chefs were Tom Aikens, Martin Blunos, Sanjay Dwivedi and Judy Joo.


Story of Whirling Log in Navajo Tribe

The Whirling Logs, or Tsil’ol-ni, story occurs in both the Night Way and Feather Way, as well as another version that occurs in the Chiricahua Wind Way. The hero of the story, named Self Teacher, decides to leave home because his family is angry at him for his gambling losses. So he sets out on a long journey.

At first the gods try to persuade him not to go. But seeing his determination, they help him hollow out a log in which he travels down the river with his pet turkey (which followed him to the river bank, as do the gods). He and his craft are captured by Water Monster, who carries him down beneath the waters of the river to the home of the Water People. The gods have difficulty rescuing him until Black God threatens to set fire to Water Monster’s home, forcing him to release the hero. Before the hero is released, Frog teaches Self Teacher how to cure the illnesses caused by the Water People. When Self Teacher’s whirling log finally arrives at the lake (or in some versions, a whirlpool) that was his destination, Talking God, Hastye Hogan, and two Biighaa’ask’idii rescue him.

The final surprise comes when the hero is reunited with his pet turkey, which shakes its wings, releasing the seeds put there by the gods. Self Teacher then plants a field of crops that quickly ripen for harvest. He returns home to share the knowledge of farming that he has gained and the cures that he has learned.

Chartres maze

Chartres Cathedral was built in France in 1235 AD. In the nave is the "Chemin de Jerusalem" (Road of Jerusalem), a pavement maze with a completely different pattern to the Cretan maze or the Roman mosaics. The Christian symbolism is obvious, with the four arms of the cross replacing the perhaps more dubious symbolism of the Cretan maze. Either you were supposed to walk the maze as a substitute for a pilgrimage to Jerusalem (see myths), or you had to shuffle along on your knees as a penance.


The Chartres maze is an improvement on the Cretan and Roman mazes. The Cretan maze involves walking round nearly the whole circle each time before doubling back. The Roman maze has shorter paths, yet you have to walk entirely round one quarter before starting on the next. The Chartres maze is more fun to walk, since you move from one quarter to the next, and then back to a previous quarter, while also getting closer and further from the centre. Perhaps the Chartres pattern was developed by combining the best of the other two designs. It took the two different levels and the roundness from the Cretan, and the four sections from the Roman, and added a twist or two of its own, and came up with what I think is the best form of unicursal maze (without choice or branches). When you walk it for the first time, you genuinely don't know which section you're going to do next.


The Chartres maze is not the oldest church maze. The Reparatus maze, a Roman mosaic maze, is in a fourth century basilica in Algeria. There are also other designs in churches which may pre-date the Chartres maze (see below). However, the Chartres design is so good that it has been widely copied, both in churches and in most English turf mazes. On the right is a roof boss from St. Mary's Redcliffe in Bristol. The Chartres maze is the design that everyone now uses as the traditional Christian maze, so I am going to analyse it first.


The Roman mazes are mosaics, on the floor. The paths were too narrow to walk, so they must have been a pattern to look at. Sometimes the mazes were a picture of a fortified city, sometimes Theseus was dragged in again (see right). They were mostly square because, well, you try to lay mosaic tiles in circular patterns! Also, with the four paths almost meeting in the centre, the maze looks a little like the standard Roman city layout (see the street plans of many smaller English cities.) The Roman maze is unicursal (without choice or branches). It is usually divided into four, and one quarter is finished entirely before moving onto the next. This makes an attractive pattern to look at, but rather boring to walk. As usual, the blue diagram above shows the walls of the maze and the red, the path you walk.


Examples of Roman mazes

Small circular mazes

Meander mosaic, Avenches, Switzerland

Meander mosaic, House of Theseus, in Nea Paphos, Cyprus

Serpentine mosaic, House of Dionysius, in Nea Paphos, Cyprus

Medium mazes

Meander mosaic, House of Fountains, in Conimbriga near Coimbra, Portugal

Meander mosaic, Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England

Meander mosaic, Gonzaga ceiling maze

Serpentine mosaic, from Fribourg, Switzerland (circular, with 8 sections rather than 4)

Large mazes

Meander mosaic, Caerleon, Gwent, Wales

Meander mosaic, Harpham, East Yorkshire, England

Meander mosaic, Oldcotes, Nottinghamshire, England (re-buried)

Meander mosaic, Villa at Orbe-Bosceaz, Switzerland

Meander mosaic, from Thurburbo Majus, now in the Barbo Museum, Tunis

Spiral mosaic, Church of Reparatus, El Asnam, Algeria

Maze in Etymologiae

This maze is in a copy of Etymologiae, by Isidore of Seville. Etymologiae (Latin for "The Etymologies"), also known as the Origines ("Origins") and usually abbreviated Orig., is an etymological encyclopedia compiled by Isidore of Seville (c. 560–636) towards the end of his life. The copy with this maze is dated 2nd quarter of the 12th century. The text is as follows (from here):


36. A labyrinth (labyrinthus) is a structure with intricate walls, of the kind made at Crete by Daedalus where the Minotaur was shut in. If anyone should enter into it without a ball of twine he would not be able to find the way out. This building is so situated that, for those who open its doors, a terrifying thunder is heard within. It slopes down more than a hundred steps. Inside are images and monstrous effigies, innumerable passages heading every which way in the darkness, and other things done to confuse the way of those who have entered, so that it seems impossible to pass from its darkness to the light. There are four labyrinths: first the Egyptian, second the Cretan, the third in Lemnos, the fourth in Italy. All were so constructed that not even the ages can destroy them.


Click here for online version - the maze is on page 142v.


This maze is interesting because because it is made of 4 very similar quarters, like Roman mazes, but alternate quarters go from edge to centre, or centre to edge. That means part of the path travels through two quarters without a turn. This is more like the Chartres patterns, although they are far more complicated.

Gonzaga maze

This is one of the Gonzaga mazes. The Gonzaga were an Italian family who ruled Mantua from 1328 to 1707. The labyrinth was a Gonzaga symbol.

You may be able to see that it is not a mosaic. In fact it is painted on a ceiling. It's also well after the Roman period. It is roughly a serpentine pattern (see above), but not quite the same as the Roman patterns. This is because each quarter is reflected instead of being rotated. The path zigzags outwards, then inwards, then out and finally in to the centre.


There are other Gonzaga mazes here and here.


The Cretan maze is the oldest known maze design. It is a unicursal maze, a single path without choices or branches. There is a square form and a round form (see above). It has been known over a long period of time, and in many cultures, and it's still popular today. Here are some examples throughout history.


The usual modern name for this design is Classical, but it predates Classical Greece and Rome. I prefer the name Cretan. The design occurs on Cretan coins. Crete was the location of the Labyrinth, the maze where the Minotaur lived. This was during the time of the Minoan rule in Crete. These coins actually date from after the time the Greeks conquered Crete (about 1250BC), so they are not Minoan, but they are still Cretan. Mazes of this type throughout Europe show the Minotaur in the centre (see myths), so it was obviously thought to be the original Cretan labyrinth. However, it couldn't be! This maze is unicursal, and you can't get lost in it.

Coins from Crete

Photos of church Chartres mazes

Lucca Maze

I originally assumed that the maze in the Chartres cathedral was the original of this design, since it names the pattern. However, there is an ancient wall maze in the cathedral at Lucca in Italy, where people use their finger to trace the pattern into the centre and back again. The pattern is identical to Chartres. It can be difficult to date a maze. The cathedral at Lucca was built in 1060, and the maze is widely described on the web as being ninth century. This would make it far older than the Chartres maze, and perhaps the original. However, the maze is on a wall in the porch (which was made in 1204), and may have been done much later. Did someone copy the Chartres maze, or was this the original pattern?

The inscription says "HIC QUEM CRETICUS EDIT DAEDALUS EST LABERINTHUS, DE QUO NULLUS VADERE QUIVIT QUI FUIT INTUS, NI THESEUS GRATIS ADRIANE STAMINE JUTUS", translation: "This is the labyrinth built by Dedalus of Crete; All who entered therein were lost, save Theseus, thanks to Ariadne's thread."

This photo was taken by Keith Salvesen, who has kindly allowed me to reproduce it.

Norwich Maze

This maze is in the cloisters of Norwich Cathedral. It was built to celebrate the Golden Jubilee of the reign of Queen Elizabeth II (in 2002). As you can see, it is greatly enjoyed by these school children. The entrance is on the left. By the way, these cloisters have some of the best examples of Green Men as roof bosses anywhere, and they have been beautifully re-painted. Nothing to do with mazes, but equally intriguing.