Woodward and Buchholz [1] offer a concern structure model based on the work of William Bridges that addresses an earlier phase in the change acceptance process, namely the denial or disavowal and resistance to change that people experience when large scale, dramatic changes radically restructure their socio-economic environment. The cycle begins when some relationship, condition, organization or community a person identifies with falls apart. People need to grieve, to experience the ending, accept it, and release old expectations, prior to embracing the new. A common mistake when announcing disruptive change is to immediately emphasize the new beginnings without allowing people to complete the ending/grieving/releasing process.


A period of confusion follows the ending, as the person struggles to reposition themselves in a strange new reality. This confusion must also be accounted for and given time to play itself out. Eventually, as the confusion resolves itself, the person is able to settle into a new reality to enjoy the new beginnings, releasing the past to focus on how to get their needs met in a new reality.


The middle period of confusion is typified by four basic reactions to change: anger, sadness/worry, confusion and withdrawal. The model-specific terms for these four reactions are Disenchantment, Disidentification, Disorientation and Disengagement. (The’4 Dis-es’). These are explained below as they are defined by Woodward and Buchholz in the context of organizational counseling.


P – Disenchantment (Anger): Illusions of security have been shattered, and there is no trust in the new status quo. Disenchanted people do not cling to the past, but they seethe with continual negativity and anger over the whole disruption and change. They feel betrayed and taken advantage of. They view the changes as an obstacle or threat, and they need an opportunity to vent and rage about this, with permission and acknowledgement that occasionally it is good and normal to let loose all of one’s negative thoughts. After they have expressed all of their negative attitudes about the change, they then need their core concerns validated and mirrored back to them. With this recognition, they will typically then be ready to start working to resolve those valid core concerns, and to make the necessary adjustments in their conduct and surroundings. Very often Disenchantment hides one of the other three ‘Dis-es’. The need for active expression puts this in the P domain.


A – Disidentification (Sadness/Worry): This person’s identity was comprehensively grounded in the old roles and procedures. Now the rules and roles have all changed, and the person doesn’t know who they are anymore. They do not accept ownership or responsibility for anything that may or may not happen under the new system, they use passive aggression to remain ‘incompetent’ with new work methods, and they are very nostalgic for the old ways of doing things. They need to be encouraged to explore precisely what it was they liked so much about the old system, and then asked to methodically explore how those same values might be found in the new system. The joys of past work must be separated from the form of past activities, and new opportunities for those joys pointed out. This will help the person construct a new organizational identity grounded in the newly changed ways of doing things. The procedural focus puts this in the A domain.


E – Disorientation (Confusion): Disoriented employees have lost their sense of the organization’s purpose and direction. They keep trying to get more clarity on what precisely they are supposed to be doing, but they lack an overall frame for making sense of the specifics. They no longer understand their role nor how they fit in to the larger picture. They understand neither their input nor their output requirements fully, because they lack any sense of the rationale for new processes. They busy themselves with tasks with no sense of organizational priorities, and spend a lot of time commandeering all the information they can get, in a piecemeal and un-integrated fashion, to try to build up their personal comfort levels at work. Explanation is necessary, to help these people connect higher-level organizational goals with unit and team goals as well as individual project goals. They need to have their roles and responsibilities placed into such a framework, and then they need support in devising a plan to attain those goals, using the resources of the larger organization. Orientation is in the E domain.


I – Disengagement (Withdrawal): Disengaged people go through the motions. Their performance may be adequate, and they may respond to requests, but they minimize their interactions otherwise, and exhibit no initiative, interest, creativity or enthusiasm. They are compliant, but not committed. They have “quit and stayed”. Disengagement can be a chronic problem that is hard to detect, but when a once enthusiastic and committed employee becomes disengaged, the problem is easier to see. Disengaged employees need to be gently confronted with their obvious change in behavior, in a safe environment, and asked what the problem is. The intervener needs to use non-threatening “I” language to discuss the behavioral changes (“I’ve noticed you don’t speak up at meetings much these days”) instead of “you” language (“You used to speak up at meetings, now you don’t. What’s the matter?”). This begins to build intimacy through mutual self-disclosure, which slowly re-engages the employee with the team and the work. The purpose of these interviews is less to uncover information, and more to build a connection with the employee that will result in their bringing more of themselves into workplace activities. Connection is in the I domain.


Committing to new beginnings is the inverse of the endings process. New realities are engaged, new identifications made, new purposes undertaken and trust is newly invested in the changed organization. In their new roles, they set meaningful goals and make plans that are consistent with a clear sense of direction. Their confusion and nostalgia subside, and they face the future together with the rest of their organizational team.


The Aftershock Dis-es are described specifically for corporate transitions in Woodward and Buchholz. It might be interesting to try to generalize these four problems to other domains, such a spatial orientation or set switching.

Castillo offers a fourfold typology of tacit knowledge to help bring clarity to the contentious field of knowledge management (Castillo, 2002[1]). Debate rages in this field over whether or not tacit knowledge can be measured or even observed, or shared or taught, or whether it is social or individual. With all of this controversy, Castillo suggests that perhaps people are using this term in different ways. The fourfold typology of tacit knowledge is offered as a way out of this quagmire. It is given in PAEI order below:


P – Nonepistle Tacit Knowledge: Truly inarticulate knowing, the result of practical experience leading to implicit learning. Procedural as opposed to declarative knowledge. Skill, instinct or gut feelings. The kind of knowledge that expresses itself in bricolage and improvisatory problem solving. This practical, procedural emphasis makes it a P function.


A – Sociocultural Tacit Knowledge: Socially implicit knowledge of norms, sanctions and expectations. Subconscious inference of how things are done or how one should behave. Unspoken assumptions that allow for smooth interaction among members of a society. Not survey knowledge over whole social system. One need only know one’s own role, not the whole picture. One need not question the scheme to understand it. This is the collective, implicit counterpart of explicit social and procedural coordination. Unquestioned norms and procedures that define what normally happens make this an A function.


E – Semantic Tacit Knowledge: An assumption base of previously shared knowledge, which makes summary statements and allusiveness possible, increasing the efficiency of communications. Specialized discourse communities build this knowledge into their membership, speaking in ways unintelligible to outsiders but transparent to insiders. This permits high-level thought and conversation, suppressing detail and focusing on key elements of meaning. However, the detail is recoverable, so high-level communication among experts implicitly reorganizes vast amounts of related lower-level material. Cultivated expertise and the capacity to use few words to imply huge leaps make this an E function.


I – Sagacious Tacit Knowledge: This is wisdom as it is commonly understood. It involves the capacity to look at a situation and immediately see what it ‘truly is’, rather than what it looks like. This involves a certain immunity to the obvious or surface meaning of an event, and a sensitivity to links, resonance and hidden analogies. It involve a certain cognitive independence from the crowd, but only to better accomplish what the crowd ‘really’ desires due to what is ‘really’ going on. Castillo discusses sagacity in the context of scientific reasoning, but it is exactly the kind of reasoning required for interpersonal counseling, conflict mediation and successful negotiations. Alternate frames of meaning are in play that lead to better outcomes than the more obvious frames that dominate most interpretations of the events. Sagacious tacit knowledge is a type of good judgment in choosing these more appropriate but less obvious interpretive frames. It is a crucial skill for interpersonal conflict resolution or conflict mediation, and is very important for the I function in this connection.

In a study of informal organizational information networks, Cross et al. (2001[1]) investigated workplace social networks to see how they interacted with five known benefits of information-seeking behavior. Four of these benefits fall directly into structure of concern quadrants. The fifth benefit of information seeking is a second-order benefit which would be applicable to all four concern styles, but in different ways for each style.


The four concern-structured benefits are given below in PAEI order:


P – Solutions: One can gain solutions to problems, “know-what” and “know-how”, specific information that enables action.


A – Validation of Plans or Solutions: Reassurance that things are being done properly, that they are accurate or appropriate and ‘officially’ presentable as solutions to others.


E – Problem Reformulation: Soliciting a different perspective on a problem in order to have another way of thinking about it, highlighting different problems, dimensions or possible consequences of plans.


I – Legitimization from Contact with a Respected Person: Associating one’s ideas with important others makes them more credible. One gains the ability to tell others that the respected person was consulted and expressed support, which lends authority to the ideas.


The fifth benefit Cross et al. discuss is meta-knowledge or “know-where”: increased knowledge about local people, databases and other resources useful for answering, clarifying or validating questions. This is something that would accrue under any PAEI strategy, but in a manner consistent for that style. P-style benefits would be meta-knowledge about who to turn to for quick and useful results, A-style benefits would including knowing who has knowledge and position to speak authoritatively about valid or invalid solutions, etc.


Needless to say, these styles of information benefits are not exclusive to their respective PAEI personality styles. All personalities would enjoy all the benefits of information seeking. However, different people are likely to want, seek, offer, value or depend on certain benefits more than others. Over time one would expect to see those preferences line up with other personality-derived characteristics.

Knowledge management is often based upon the strategic aims or functional goals of an organization. Given these goals, knowledge management is used to help reach them. As an alternative to this approach, Peter H. Gray offers an account of knowledge management based on problem solving instead. Knowledge management practices are understood in terms of their contribution to the problem solving process. Then, wherever problem solving processes arise in the organization, tools for knowledge management can be allocated to them. This basis for categorizing knowledge management practices is more flexible and better addresses the practical concerns of working managers.


Gray and Chan (1999[1]) review several decision making and problem solving frameworks to support a general distinction between two activity clusters: problem recognition and problem solving. They cross this axis with a second axis opposing new or unique problems with previously solved problems – another dichotomy their review showed to be widely supported (e.g. as non-routine vs. routine, productive vs. reproductive and custom vs. ready-made solution processes).


This framework groups knowledge management practices as follows (in PAEI order):


P – (2) Knowledge Creation (New or Unique Problem Solving)

Workers engage or encounter new situations, drawing upon knowledge management practices that help them generate new solutions. They are fully aware of these problems or opportunities, and work actively to resolve them. The organization challenges them to seek creative and innovative solutions, supporting their efforts with knowledge resources.


A – (3) Knowledge Acquisition (Previously Solved Problem Solving)

Knowledge access and sharing processes are activated in order to propagate preexisting knowledge about how so solve problems. Workers are fully aware of the problems or opportunities, and actively preparing to resolve them. Information storage and retrieval technology is often a key element in these practices.


E – (1) Encouraging Serendipity (New or Unique Problem Recognition)

Workers are discovering or resolving new patterns and potentials, and attracting the interest of others towards the same potentials. This requires knowledge management practices that encourage exploration by exposing employees to new experiences, information and ideas, creating conditions conducive to serendipitous discovery.


I – (4) Raising Awareness (Previously Solved Problem Recognition)

This is an alerting function, propagating information across the organization that a recognizable problem or opportunity has emerged. The information might be from the organization’s own learning history, or it may have been garnered from consultants, competitors, allies or best practices from businesses within or even beyond their industry.


In empirical studies to validate this model, knowledge management practices were not evenly scattered across all four quadrants. Rather, a strong diagonal trend appeared, stretching from serendipitous Quadrant 1 (E) activities to structured Quadrant 3 (A) activities. Managers seemed to assimilate new or unique problems to problem recognition, and pre-existing problems to problem solving. These two clusters were thus named Recognizing New Problems and Solving Recurring Problems, and related to March’s formulation of the exploration/exploitation distinction, accompanied by the following quotation:


Exploration includes things captured by terms such as search, variation, risk taking, experimentation, play, flexibility, discovery, innovation. Exploitation includes such things as refinement, choice, production, efficiency, selection, implementation, execution. Adaptive systems that engage in exploration to the exclusion of exploitation are likely to find that they suffer the costs of experimentation without gaining many of its benefits. They exhibit too many undeveloped new ideas and too little distinctive competence. Conversely, systems that engage in exploitation to the exclusion of exploration are likely to find themselves trapped in suboptimal stable equilibria. (March, 1991[2])


The two higher order constructs – exploration of new possibilities and exploitation of existing resources – help illuminate the role of knowledge management practices in organizations. Periods of change and indeterminacy call for more exploration, supported by creative knowledge management practices that enhance organizational differentiation. However, increased competitive pressures also force firms to become more focused and efficient at exploiting their existing knowledge, giving them advantages of speed and cost.


The exploration/exploitation tradeoff is a commonplace of search and optimization thinking, so there is a point of contact between this model of knowledge management and a particular branch of mathematics.


The SECI model of knowledge management developed in the mid-1990’s by Nonaka and Takeuchi is one of the seminal works in the field, famous for drawing attention very sharply towards tacit knowledge in the workplace, and how tacit knowledge informs and becomes explicit knowledge by various processes (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995; De Geytere, 2005). Their knowledge management framework features three separate models whose lineaments fall into the patterns also defined by the structure of concern. These models include:


Phases of SECI;

Styles of Ba (‘shared space of engagement’), and;

Categories of knowledge assets.




The acronym SECI stands for a four-phase knowledge development cycle, which begins in the I quadrant of the structure of concern. Cultural contrast between this model and the P-initiated Western models is extremely illuminating. It represents the spiral of emergence of explicit knowledge from tacit knowledge in the workplace:


I – Socialization: Tacit knowledge is shared among people through modeling and mentoring, conversation, workplace culture, shared experiences and the like. Key skill: empathizing.


E – Externalization: People begin developing metaphors and analogies to explain the rationality or sense of their tacitly-informed behavior. Tacit knowledge becomes more explicit as concepts undergo refinement. Key skill: articulating.


A – Combination: Explicit ideas get combined with other explicit ideas, seeking out dependencies and eliminating redundancies, culminating in complete descriptions of processes and procedures for accomplishing tasks. Key skill: connecting.


P – Internalization: Explicit ideas get over-learned into implicit knowledge again as people internalize the newly-explicit procedures. Knowledge is now once more in the zone of socialization, and a spiral of knowledge cultivation may ensue (implicit to implicit). Key skill: embodying.





Ba means something like the Adizes concept of a learning environment, or the Cynefin concept (reviewed below in this catalog). It is a group context where knowledge is shared, generated and put into practice through collaboration. Giving it a temporal rather than a spatial construction, it could be considered a “mode”, so that a work group might be in the “Originating mode”. The spatial overtones are considered important to the concept, however. There are four categories of Ba, again ending, rather than beginning, with P, unlike most Western concern structure models:


E – Originating Ba (Face-to-face individual): Face-to-face and front-line interactions, where problems and solutions/insights both emerge spontaneously in individual situations. The creative context of daily work where tacit knowledge of the job develops.


I – Dialoguing (Face-to-face collective): The collective interactions, sharing of anecdotes and stories, recounting daily experiences, and other informal transactions that allow tacit knowledge to spread and influence organizational work.


A – Systematizing (Virtual collective): The context of evaluation and review, discovery that certain kinds of practices produced better outcomes, reflecting that information back to the front line and decision makers, indicating successful approaches to tasks.


P – Exercising (Virtual individual): Using information about the better practices and comparing it to their own performance, people bring their behavior in line with more successful approach.


Knowledge Assets



Nonaka and Tekeuchi identify four categories of knowledge assets, in PAEI order as follows:


P - Routine Knowledge Assets: Tacit procedural knowledge routinized and embedded in organizational cultures, actions and daily practices.


A - Systemic Knowledge Assets: Explicit, codified and systematic knowledge stores in documents, databases, manuals, specifications and patents.


E – Conceptual Knowledge Assets: Explicit knowledge in symbolic form, including product concepts, brand equity, design styles, symbols and language.


I – Experiential Knowledge Assets: Tacit knowledge emergent in collective experience, including the growing skills and judgment of individuals, prosocial feelings like trust and care, and motivational resources fueling participations, passions and tensions.


Compiling all three of Nonaka and Takeuchi’s models gives us four fairly clear PAEI factors:


P - Routine Knowledge Assets, Internalization, Exercising (Virtual individual): Procedural knowledge, routinized, embedded, over-learned, embodied, behavioral, applied.


A - Systemic Knowledge Assets, Combination, Systematizing (Virtual collective): Explicit, codified, systematic, descriptive, complete, comparative, evaluative.


E – Conceptual Knowledge Assets, Externalization, Originating (Face-to-face individual): Symbols, concepts, brands, styles, metaphors, analogies, emergent, developmental.


I – Experiential Knowledge Assets, Socialization, Dialoguing (Face-to-face collective): Collective, shared, enhancing social cohesion, participatory, grassroots, sharing.

Cinematic Representation of the Four Temperaments in Singin’ in the Rain
Singin’ in the Rain provides a clear example of four characters who align with Galen’s temperaments: Don Lockwood (Gene Kelly) represents melancholy, Cosmo Brown (Donald O’Connor) signifies sanguine, Kathy Selden (Debbie

Reynolds) is phlegmatic, and Lina Lamont (Jean Hagen) symbolises the choleric disposition (Fig. 2).[3] I aim to highlight how humoural theory further permeates the film semiotically, and how such investigations may be applied to the study of other films.


One play really stands out when it comes to the subject of humours. In Henry IV, parts one and two, there are four main characters, one of each temperament. And they all have roughly the same number of lines.


So the play itself is very close to the ideal humoral balance. King Henry IV himself is melancholic, Prince Hal sanguine, Sir Harry Hotspur choleric and the knight Sir John Falstaff is phlegmatic. Jack Falstaff is fat, lazy, cowardly, dishonest and sentimental, but the audience loved him despite all his faults. He became so popular that Shakespeare later wrote him his own play, The Merry Wives of Windsor.


"The Four Ages of Man" is one of Bradstreet's four Quaternions. It is closely related to the other three in terms of structure and themes. This poem is perhaps her most personal, though, as Bradstreet refers to incidents from her own life like childbirth and her children's sicknesses.


The poem begins with an introduction of four characters on the stage: Childhood, Youth, Middle Age, and Old Age. Bradstreet immediately identifies them with their parallel seasons, humors, and elements. She associates childhood with winter, phlegm, and water; Youth is aligned with spring, blood, and air; Middle Age is associated with summer, choler, and fire; and Old Age evokes autumn, melancholy, and earth.


Jane Donahue Eberwein writes that in the Quaternions, Bradstreet has "the chance to experiment with varied logical and rhetorical structures...[and] closer review indicates a subtle variation in rhetorical patterns." She creates the divisions between these four phases of life, and "tensions, therefore, are rhetorically asserted but not logically resolved; yet, Bradstreet regularly acknowledges a higher level of conception where the differences simply do not matter – either because it is all vanity, as the ages conclude, or because all is unity, as Phlegm asserts."


Overall, the four ages present, as Anne Hildebrand explains, "a picture of earthly futility." Childhood and Youth express how difficult it can be for them to survive the many diseases that threaten them. All four of the ages understand that their social struggles are based on vanity, which is one of the most common themes in Bradstreet's work. Old Age understands the futility of earthly vanity, and makes it clear that only Heaven can offer redemption.


"The Four Seasons" is another one of Bradstreet's four Quaternions. It is the shortest and the most amiable, for the seasons do not war with each other and barely even debate at all; they mostly present their individual characteristics and by the end of the poem, assert their unity.


While many critics have labeled these poems as immature or conventional, Jane Donahue Eberwein lauds the structure that Bradstreet uses, explaining that "the four debates allowed her to divide the world into multiple categories, assert the worth of each part, observe its limitations, recognize dichotomies among values, and look for a source of unity." Eberwein understands that all of the humors, all of the elements, all of the seasons, and all of the four ages of man – and then all of [those] four categories – are closely aligned with one another. Bradstreet uses the word "Cyclical" to describe the relationship between the seasons at the end of "The Four Seasons." She writes in Winter's lines, "And thus the year in Circle runneth round: / Where it first did begin, in th' end its found."


The poems in this series are quite secular in comparison to some of Bradstreet's other material because of how little she references God. She makes indirect references to God as the Creator of all things, but unlike "Contemplations," Bradstreet refrains from making extended ruminations about God's majesty as evinced in nature. She is content to look at Earth and its bounty without needing to indicate that there is a Creator. Rather, she implies that the Earth is enough. In this poem in particular, the reader can sense the poet's great fascination with the sublunary world.


"The Four Seasons" starts with Spring, which Bradstreet identifies with Youth, Blood, and Air. Spring is gorgeous, bringing light and fairness back to the world. People get back to work in the fields and the flowers bloom. The rains fall, the honey bee starts buzzing, and the strawberries grow. Winter is not quite gone, but the world has been revived and is warmer now. Bradstreet clearly identifies spring with Youth, who, in "The Four Ages of Man," brags of his aesthetically pleasing appearance and the way he makes people feel energized and alive. Summer, hot and vibrant, comes next. The roses are bursting, the shepherd boy is basking in the hot sun, and cherries and gooseberries are growing. The heat can be difficult, but is also rewarding for crops. This season is akin to Middle Age in that it is difficult but also vital.


Autumn is next, and Bradstreet writes about wine, harvests, ripe figs, and almonds. It is the time when coldness returns to Earth, and is thus parallel to Old Age. People remember that "time first of all began" in autumn. The autumn can bring warmth, fires, and food, but also "pinched flesh and hungry mawes." Bradstreet offers a warning here – one must be careful about how he or she lives out the other seasons in order to be prepared for Autumn. Finally, there is Winter, the Child. Winter is a time of youth, which is, as Bradstreet explains, when the sun's path in the sky is "like an Infant, still it taller grows." The winter months are chilly and wet, but they bring Christmas and festivities. The months are short and Spring is right around the corner. By ending her poem with infancy and showing how the winter months melt into Spring allows Bradstreet to demonstrate the interconnectedness and cyclical nature of the seasons.


In "The Four Elements," Bradstreet creates a much more contentious relationship between the components. The elements debate, argue, and criticize each other. There is also a much clearer demarcation between the positive and negative aspects of each element, as opposed to the more pleasant depiction of each of the four seasons and the four ages of man. The elements' interaction is not as acrimonious as the discussion between the four humors, however.


Jane Donahue Eberwein is one of the foremost critics on the Quaternions. She writes that in the four poems, Bradstreet "gained intellectual benefits which were to help shape the less academic poems she composed. In writing the Quaternions, the poet refreshed her girlhood education in the Earl of Lincoln's library and systematized her knowledge." In "The Four Elements," Bradstreet discusses geography, history, astronomy, and theology; in the poems on the ages of man and humors she ably covers medicine and psychology, and in the poem about the four seasons, she is conversant in climate and agriculture. While most critics do not consider the Quaternions to be Bradstreet's best work, these poems are certainly important to her oeuvre. In these poems, Bradstreet is able to express her knowledge as well as experiment with different poetic forms.


Fire speaks first, echoing Middle Age, Summer, and Choler. She is bold, boastful, and dynamic, and recognizes her impact on weapons, war, and science. She mentions her more common uses as well, such as fueling stoves and warming people's bodies in the winter. Fire smugly explains that the Sun, a flaming ball of her essence, is noble and celestial. She is somewhat condescending towards Earth, claiming that she has to warm it. She concedes that she can also cause dangerous occurrences like volcanoes, lightning, and the incineration of towns, cities, and temples. Fire knows that she can be brutally destructive, explaining that she is not inclined to "[spare] Life when I can take the same; / And in a word, the world I shall consume / And all therein."


Earth describes men, beasts, countries, and regions. She waxes poetic about her hills and dales and the substances that yield material goods and wealth. The vessels that require water for transit and entire cities are made of Earth. Earth is not completely benevolent, however, because there are dangerous aspects of her existence, like earthquakes, cold seasons, and poison. Ominously, Earth mentions that she is the place where men are entombed after "death whether interr'd or buried."


Water is next, claiming boldly that all the other elements are bound to her because she is their "drink, .. blood, [and] sap." If she withholds herself, they will all die. The fiery sun would burn everyone if water ceased to provide nourishment. Her seas hold amazing creatures and her rivers and lakes spread throughout the land; she gives man the ability to travel far distances and also eases his existence. Of course, she also claims to have a "flegmy Constitution" and susceptive to "all humors, tumors which are bred of cold." Her floods, tsunamis, and tumultuous oceans can swallow cities, like the fabled Atlantis. And, of course, Noah's flood is notorious for sweeping away of almost all of mankind and the animal world.


Air is last, and she too makes the claim that without her, every other element is insignificant. Without the ability to breathe, man cannot live. Interestingly enough, Air also makes the claim that she is the best because she can turn into all of the other elements (like fire and water) or penetrate them (like Earth). She can cause fevers and poxes, as well as hurricanes and gales. At the end of her speech, she does not offer any conciliatory words or charming expostulations on how all the elements are united, as Winter does in "The Four Seasons" and Old Age offers in "The Four Ages of Man." However, the reader can discern that all four of these elements coexist and provide life and sustenance. They cannot be parted, and God created them to complement each other.


Bradstreet wrote four quaternions, 'Seasons', 'Elements', 'Humours', 'Ages' and it is considered they made possible her 'development as a poet in terms of technical craftsmanship as she learned to fashion the form artistically'.

Anne Bradstreet, America's first significant female poet, wrote four quaternions:


"Four Seasons"

"Four Elements" (Fire, Earth, Water and Air)

"Of the Four Humours of Man's Constitution" (sanguine, pragmatic, choleric and melancholic)

"Of the Four Ages of Man" (Childhood, Youth, Manhood and Old Age)

Elizabeth Daryush known for her Syllabic verse used the quaternion form in her poem 'Accentedal' [3]


The Golden Notebook is the story of writer Anna Wulf, the four notebooks in which she records her life, and her attempt to tie them together in a fifth, gold-coloured, notebook. The book intersperses segments of an ostensibly realistic narrative of the lives of Anna and her friend, Molly Jacobs, as well as their children, ex-husbands and lovers—entitled Free Women—with excerpts from Anna's four notebooks, coloured black (of Anna's experience in Southern Rhodesia, before and during World War II, which inspired her own best-selling novel), red (of her experience as a member of the Communist Party), yellow (an ongoing novel that is being written based on the painful ending of Anna's own love affair), and blue (Anna's personal journal where she records her memories, dreams, and emotional life). Each notebook is returned to four times, interspersed with episodes from Free Women, creating non-chronological, overlapping sections that interact with one another. This post-modern styling, with its space for "play" engaging the characters and readers, is among the most famous features of the book, although Lessing insisted that readers and reviewers pay attention to the serious themes in the novel.[citation needed]


All four notebooks and the frame narrative testify to the above themes of Stalinism, the Cold War and the threat of nuclear conflagration, and women's struggles with the conflicts of work, sex, love, maternity, and politics.[citation needed] However, Lessing herself in the preface claimed that the most important theme in the novel is fragmentation; the mental breakdown that Anna suffers, perhaps from the compartmentalization of her life reflected in the division of the four notebooks, but also reflecting the fragmentation of society. Her relationship and attempt to draw everything together in the golden notebook at the end of the novel are both the final stage of Anna's intolerable mental breakdown, and her attempt to overcome the fragmentation and madness.



The term Stoic categories refers to Stoic ideas regarding categories of being: the most fundamental classes of being for all things. The Stoics believed there were four categories (substance, quality, disposition, relative disposition) which were the ultimate divisions. Since we do not now possess even a single complete work by Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes or Chrysippus what we do know must be pieced together from a number of sources: doxographies and the works of other philosophers who discuss the Stoics for their own purposes.[1]

The present information comes from Plotinus and Simplicius, with additional evidence from Plutarch of Chaeronea and Sextus Empiricus. According to both Plotinus and Simplicius there were four Stoic categories, to wit:


substance (ὑποκείμενον [ypokeímenon {"underlying"}])

The primary matter, formless substance (ousia) which makes up things.

quality (ποιόν [poión {"whom"}])

The way in which matter is organized to form an individual object. In Stoic physics, a physical ingredient (pneuma: air or breath) which informs the matter.

somehow disposed (πὼς ἔχον [pós échon {"how haves"]})

Particular characteristics, not present within the object, such as size, shape, action, and posture.

somehow disposed in relation to something (πρός τί πως ἔχον [prós tí pos échon {"why that having"}])

Characteristics which are related to other phenomena, such as the position of an object within time and space relative to other objects.


In Conway's Game of Life, the interaction of just four simple rules creates patterns that seem somehow "alive".


Based on Karl Bühler's theory on the functions of language, Karl Popper added an additional function that is fundamental to understand how language creates the world three. Please, note that each superior function includes the inferior ones (the reason why the superior are often confused with the inferior ones).


The first and most inferior of the Bühler's function is simple expression: Even inferior animals and probably plants and microorganism share this function with humans. It is the function that reflects the interior state of the individual, like distress, uneasiness, pain, joy, etc.


The second of the Bühler's function is communication: Communication here means capable of creating an impact on other individuals of the same or other species. Dog barking and other automated behaviors of animals are examples.


The third function of language is description: Description is typical of the human language, although we now know that some bees, probably ants, dolphins and other animals primitively share this function with humans. By being able to describe things, humans advanced communication to another, more precise and potentially diverse level.


Realizing that descriptions could be false or true, Karl Popper added to description the fourth function of critical argumentation: Arguments are, as long as we currently know, exclusive of humans. With arguments (that are themselves descriptions of other things logically and empirically related -compatible, incompatible, etc.- to the assessed description) we can investigate whether a description is true or false, enumerate reasons for such judgement and accept, reject or improve descriptions based on its truthlikeness or falsehood. To sum up, argumentation is a function that improves our set of descriptions, shortening their distance to the truth.


W.H.Harvey (1811—1866) and Lamouroux (1813)[26] were the first to divide macroscopic algae into four divisions based on their pigmentation. This is the first use of a biochemical criterion in plant systematics. Harvey's four divisions are: red algae (Rhodospermae), brown algae (Melanospermae), green algae (Chlorospermae), and Diatomaceae.[27][28]