The Structure of Concern Project compares many theoretical models from many disciplines to the Adizes PAEI model, arguing that they must all be reflecting the same underlying phenomenon. One concern structure model is described below.


Ari Ginsberg and Ann Buchholtz presented a study in the late 1980’s that reviewed 10 earlier studies of the personality characteristics and traits of entrepreneurs, looking for common factors (Ginsberg & Buchholtz, 1989[1]). In their review, they found that entrepreneurs were typically characterized by their behaviors more than by their personalities. People were considered entrepreneurs when they were founders of a distinct new venture who then took on the roles of owner and manager of the resulting business.


Ginsberg and Buchholtz used these behavioral qualities to propose a two-dimensional framework for defining entrepreneurial styles. The first dimension combined risk-taking propensity with decision-making autonomy (independence), and the second one singled out innovation propensity (creativity). Crossing these dimensions and differentiating high and low values for each one resulted in the following four-style categorization:


P – Owner Managers (High Independence, Low Innovation)

A – Corporate Manager (Low Independence, Low Innovation)

E – Independent Entrepreneur (High Independence, High Innovation)

I – Corporate Entrepreneur (Low Independence, High Innovation)


Ann Buchholtz has participated in some more recent research assessing entrepreneurial success with Big Five personality inventories (Ciavarella et al., 2004[2]). The researchers found that openness to experience, a Big Five quality which most people might attribute to entrepreneurs, was actually negatively related to long-term new venture survival. Some of the qualities that make an entrepreneur interested in new projects can divert them from carrying plans through. Conscientious focus and the ability to ignore opportunities are the key to long-term new venture survival, once those new ventures have been launched. This finding corresponds to the shift from courtship/conceptualization to infancy in the Adizes organizational lifecycle and other lifecycle models. The power of E to introduce change and build excitement helps drive the launch of a new venture, but P and the A make it viable, and P takes the lead during the childhood of the organization.

The Structure of Concern Project compares many theoretical models from many disciplines to the Adizes PAEI model, arguing that they must all be reflecting the same underlying phenomenon. One concern structure model is described below.



Ned Herrmann was the head of management education at General Electric in the 1970's and 80's. His background was in physics, and he was also active in artistic and cultural circles, which gave him an appreciation of different styles of creativity. During the late 1970's he undertook a reform of GE's management training programs to make them more reflective of individual differences in learning and thinking style preferences (Herrmann, 1989).


Herrmann's initial categories emerged out of a factor analysis of 500 survey forms filled out by subjects participating in his thinking-styles research. The survey forms were revised and administered to a second group of 300 participants, and correlated with the original data. Based on those results, an initial thinking style assessment instrument was created. The research and assessment instruments underwent 19 cycles of revision and refinement over the course of their development, but the revision was never wholesale, and items persist in the contemporary instrument that were composed during the initial revision (Herrmann, 1989[1]).


Herrmann's research was energized by his understanding of the different processing specialties of the left and right hemispheres of the human isocortex, in the wake of Sperry's studies with split brain patients in the 50's and 60's. He was also influenced by Paul MacLean's triune brain theory, and by a general appreciation of the limbic system's role in emotion, cognition and memory. (Herrmann, 1989[1]) These high-level biological subdivisions served as the framework for his theorizing; resulting in a model with four quadrants, one for each major system of the brain as he then understood it:


A: Upper-left (cerebral) hemisphere - Person favors activities involving analysis, logic and fact-finding - left isocortical dominance.


B: Lower-left (limbic) hemisphere - Like type A but more action-oriented, impatient and distrustful of abstract considerations, intensely focused and persistent - left limbic dominance.


C: Lower-right (limbic) hemisphere - A sensitive and receptive people-reader and mood-minder, evaluates issues in terms of their emotional significance - right limbic dominance.


D: Upper-right (cerebral) hemisphere - Wild and original, motivated only by novelty, possibility, variety, oddities and incongruities, can be impersonal and fears structure - right isocortical dominance. ((Herrmann, 1989[1]) p. 79-85)


Rearranging these categories into PAEI order gives us:


P: [B] Lower-left (limbic) hemisphere - Like type A but more action-oriented, impatient and distrustful of abstract considerations.


A: [A] Upper-left (cerebral) hemisphere - Favoring activities involving analysis, logic and fact-finding.


E: [D] Upper-right (cerebral) hemisphere - Wild and original, motivated only by novelty, possibility, variety, oddities and incongruities.


I: [C] Lower-right (limbic) hemisphere - A sensitive and receptive people-reader and mood-minder.


In the early stages of his research, Herrmann took the hemispherical assignations in this model very seriously, trying to tie survey results very closely to anatomical brain regions. He later abandoned this approach, using the anatomical designators as metaphors for the four thinking styles he was measuring. While the instrument is still called the Herrmann Brain Dominance Indicator, the quadrants are now referred to by the letters A, B, C, D, rather than by anatomical regions of the brain.


Scores on the HBDI are presented on a radar diagram. A circle is divided into quadrants A-D, and two diagonal axes are drawn like an "X" through the circle as well. The diagonal axes are graduated to indicate scores from the indicator, and a profile can be drawn on the diagram by connecting the scores together with lines. This will lead to an uneven polygon that "points" in the direction of one's dominant style or styles. If someone was equally dominant in all four quadrants, the polygon would be a perfect square. Interestingly, Herrmann does admit "Quadruple Dominance" as a possible cognitive profile, but one that carries costs of greater internal conflict and longer decision-making processes. A sample radar diagram is reproduced below. Note that the placement of the quadrants around the circle matches the position of the metaphorically associated brain region.



Profiles are also rendered as ranked quadrants, so that the Adizes profile paEI would be rendered "ABCD" = 3-3-1-1


Substantial effort was made to validate the constructs underlying this model and the instrument for assessing it, internally and externally, including six different factor analysis studies. These studies found that four stable and discreet clusters of preferences did exist, that scores from the instrument were valid indicators of these clusters, and that scores permitted valid inferences about a person's preferences and avoidances for each cluster, among other findings.

four tines forks


You https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.popsugar.com/food/Why-Do-Forks-Have-Four-Tines-11185765/amp may have noticed that a fork nearly always has four tines, or prongs, on it. In the several times a day you use this eating utensil, have you ever wondered how it came to look the way it does today?


This wasn't always the case. The fork actually started out in Western Europe as an agricultural tool, eventually evolving to become a kitchenware in the 1500s. Back then, early versions only contained two tines. But according to Bill Bryson, author of the book At Home, two-tined forks caused a lot of pain to diners who accidentally jarred themselves, perhaps after one too many tipples.


To rectify this problem, fork makers experimented with a greater number of tines, but ultimately settled on four as the most comfortable for diners.

salt shaker is double tetractys star of david

four rows of dots extremely common salt shaker hole configuration




Steno, in his Dissertationis prodromus of 1669 is credited with four of the defining principles of the science of stratigraphy:


the law of superposition: "... at the time when any given stratum was being formed, all the matter resting upon it was fluid, and, therefore, at the time when the lower stratum was being formed, none of the upper strata existed";

the principle of original horizontality: "Strata either perpendicular to the horizon or inclined to the horizon were at one time parallel to the horizon";

the principle of lateral continuity: "Material forming any stratum were continuous over the surface of the Earth unless some other solid bodies stood in the way"; and

the principle of cross-cutting relationships: "If a body or discontinuity cuts across a stratum, it must have formed after that stratum."[32]





As a group, minerals are one of the four groups of essential nutrients, the others of which are vitamins, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids.[4]


Xerneas (Japanese: ゼルネアス Xerneas) is a Fairy-type Legendary Pokémon introduced in Generation VI.

It is not known to evolve into or from any other Pokémon.

Along with ChespinFennekinFroakie, and Yveltal, it was the first Generation VI Pokémon to be revealed to the public on January 8, 2013 as part of the Pokémon Direct broadcast.

Xerneas is the game mascot of Pokémon X, appearing on the boxart. It is a member of the aura trio with Yveltaland Zygarde.

Xerneas is a blue and black, quadrupedal, stag-like cervine Pokémon with an eight-horned set of antlers extending out from its head, four on each side. Xerneas's coloration changes slightly depending on what mode it is in: Active Mode or Neutral Mode. In Active Mode, each horn is pale gold and adorned with a colorful, three-part glowing protrusion twining through the horn (orange, red, purple, and teal-blue), one side mirroring the other. The colors gradually turn lighter to darker when moving from base to tip. In Neutral Mode, the horns are pale blue and the protrusions the same blue as its upper body. Xerneas's head is blue with two horns on either side of its head, and the root of its horns mark its face, just below the eye and over the nose. Its eyes are the same color as its fur, and its pupils are X-shaped. The blue portion of its body ends at the chest area where the "fur" juts outward to the side, similar to the blue horns on its face. On its breast is an inverted V-shape that is also pale gold in Active Mode and pale blue in Neutral Mode. The inside of the V-shape is black and extends into its lower body.

The rest of its body is black with a blue stripe running along its spine; when it is in Active Mode, the shine from its horns decorate its back in small, multicolored spots. It has a slim, fluffy black tail where the blue stripe ends. Its legs are fashioned like blades with forward-pointing "hooks" at the tips, creating a cross shape, with the main "edges" trimmed with the same color as the horns (pale gold in Active Mode, pale blue in Neutral Mode); the trim on its forelegs further map a crude sword-like pattern: a long blade, a cross-guard, and a hilt.



The Big Four, also known as G4 or EU4, refers to France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][excessive citations] These countries are considered major European powers[10][11] and they are the Western European countries individually represented as full members of the G7, the G8, G10 and the G20. France, Britain, Italy and Germany have been referred to as the big four of Europe since the Interwar period[12]. The term G4 was used for the first time when French president Nicolas Sarkozy called for a meeting in Paris[13] with Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Gordon Brown and Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel to consider the response to the financial crisis during the Great Recession. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development describes them as the "Four Big European Countries".[14]



The Four-Power Pact also known as a Quadripartite Agreement was an international treaty initialed on June 7, 1933, and signed on July 15, 1933, in the Palazzo Venezia, Rome. The pact was not ratified by France's Parliament.[1]


Purpose of the Four-Power Pact[edit]

March 19, 1933 Benito Mussolini called for the creation of the Four-Power Pact as a better means of insuring international security. Under this plan, smaller nations would have less of a voice in Great Power politics. Representatives of Britain, France, Germany, and Italy signed a diluted version of Premier Benito Mussolini's Four-Power Pact proposal. Mussolini’s chief motive in suggesting the pact was the wish for closer Franco-Italian relations. If Mussolini’s purpose of the pact was to calm Europe’s nerves, he achieved the opposite result. The treaty reaffirmed each country's adherence to the Covenant of the League of Nations, the Locarno Treaties, and the Kellogg-Briand Pact. The Pact was intended to be the solution to the issue of how sovereign powers could come together and operate in an orderly way. Premier Mussolini's goal was to reduce the power of the small states in the League of Nations with a block of major powers.


The Four-Power Pact had little significance but is not completely devoid of merit.[2] Mussolini’s Four-Power Pact was supposed to be a solution. The exploitation of the balance of power was at interest to Italy and also appealed to the British. However, the pact did face speculation among the French and Germans; London and Rome were close enough to mediate between Paris and Berlin. France was justifiably alarmed.


Outcome of the Four-Power Pact[edit]

The document that was signed bore little resemblance to the initial proposal. In practice, the Four-Power Pact proved of little significance in international affairs, although it was one of the factors contributing to the German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact of 1934.[3]


It has been argued that the Four-Power Pact could have safeguarded the European balance of power with the hope of balancing peace and security in Europe. They use human fear, guilt, and aggression as energy in a similar way, part of the reason they organize human conflict.[44] However at that time, in Europe, depression was abundant and the rise of Hitler to power makes this claim unlikely. At this time Polish reliance on France had been weakened and differing attitudes emerged of the pact between Poland and Czechoslovakia. Opposition to revise the Four-Power Pact was expressed by Poland and Little Entente States, as apparent in the French dilution of the pact in this final form. It is apparent that the Four-Power pact had a negative impact of France’s allies in Central and Eastern Europe.[3] [48]


The Four-Power Pact and Hitler[edit]

The rise of Adolf Hitler to power was an adequate reason to propose alternative power arrangements. However, what had started as an alternative to the League of Nations ended as a reassertion of devotion to that failing institution and a pleasurable ceremony. Hitler was willing to accept the gratuitous triumph of the League of Nation’s death.[4] The pact soon failed, but Britain in particular did not easily throw away the Four-Power idea. German withdrawal from the League put the Pact on hold. The pact has had major impact on modern law. Throughout the next six years Britain made vain attempts to make it work at nearly any cost, but the failure of the Four-Power Pact served as a warning of Germany's continued withdrawal from diplomatic relations with France and Britain in the buildup to the Second World War.[citation needed]




A more condensed version of this painting with four figures, long thought to be the second version of The Card Players, is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. At 65.4 x 81.9 cm (25 3/4 x 32 1/4 in), it is less than half the size of the Barnes painting. Here the composition remains virtually the same, minus the boy, with viewers' perspective slightly closer to the game, but with less space between the figures. In the previous painting, the center player as well as the boy were hatless, whereas this version has all the men hatted. Also gone are the shelf to the left with vase and lower half of a picture frame in the center of the wall, leaving only the four pipes and hanging cloth to join the smoking man behind the card players. The painting is brighter, with less focus on blue tones, than the larger version. X-ray and infrared studies of this version of The Card Players have shown layers of "speculative" graphite underdrawing, as well as heavy layers of worked oil paint, possibly suggesting it was the preliminary of Cézanne's two largest versions of the series, rather than the second version as historically believed.[12] The underdrawing has also led analysts to believe Cézanne had difficulty transferring the men, previously painted individually in studies, onto one canvas.[2][12]



The Ghost of Vermeer of Delft Which Can Be Used As a Table is a small Surrealist oil painting by Salvador Dalí. Its full title is The Ghost of Vermeer of Delft Which Can Be Used as a Table (Phenomenologic Theory of Furniture-Nutrition).[1] It makes reference to The Art of Painting by Johannes Vermeer, a famous seventeenth-century work in which a painter, thought to be a self-portrait of Vermeer, is depicted with his back to us, in distinctive costume.[2] It is one of a number of paintings expressive of Dalí's enormous admiration for Vermeer.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.



King Vajra then had 16 idols of Krishna and other gods carved from a rare, imperishable stone called Braja and built temples to house these idols in and around Mathura so as to feel the presence of Lord Krishna. The four presiding idols of Braja Mandala are Sri Harideva of Govardhan, Sri Keshava Deva of Mathura, Sri Baladeva of Baladeo, and Govindaji of Vrindavan. There are two Naths—Sri Nathji, who were originally at Govardhan and are now in Nathdwara, Rajasthan and Sri Gopinath, who is now in Jaipur. The two Gopals are Sri Madana Mohan, who is now housed at Karoli Rajasthan, and Sakshi Gopal, who is now moved to town of Sakshi Gopal, Orissa, near Puri.



Probably the oldest, and most famous, list of axioms are the 4 + 1 Euclid's postulates of plane geometry. The axioms are referred to as "4 + 1" because for nearly two millennia the fifth (parallel) postulate ("through a point outside a line there is exactly one parallel") was suspected of being derivable from the first four. Ultimately, the fifth postulate was found to be independent of the first four. Indeed, one can assume that exactly one parallel through a point outside a line exists, or that infinitely many exist. This choice gives us two alternative forms of geometry in which the interior angles of a triangle add up to exactly 180 degrees or less, respectively, and are known as Euclidean and hyperbolic geometries. If one also removes the second postulate ("a line can be extended indefinitely") then elliptic geometry arises, where there is no parallel through a point outside a line, and in which the interior angles of a triangle add up to more than 180 degrees.


In particular, Table 4.1 on page 14, pictured above, shows the relationships between the continuous-time Fourier series (CTFS), discrete-time Fourier series (DTFS), continuous-time Fourier transform (CTFT), and discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT). Note the similarities and differences among the four operations:

  • “Series”: periodic in time, discrete in frequency

  • “Transform”: aperiodic in time, continuous in frequency

  • “Continuous Time”: continuous in time, aperiodic in frequency

  • “Discrete Time”: discrete in time, periodic in frequency




During the period of Yuan Dynasty, ruler Kublai Khan enforced a Four Class System, which was a legal caste system. The order of four classes of people was maintained by the information of the descending order were:-



Semu people

Han people (in the northern areas of China)

Southerners (people of the former Southern Song dynasty)

Some scholars notes that it was a kind of psychological indication that the earlier they submitted to Mongolian people, the higher social status they would have. The 'Four Class System' and its people received different treatment in political, legal, and military affairs.[25][26]



In Japan's history, social strata based on inherited position rather than personal merit, was rigid and highly formalized in a system called mibunsei (身分制). At the top were the Emperor and Court nobles (kuge), together with the Shogun and daimyo. Below them, the population was divided into four classes: samurai, peasants, craftsmen and merchants. Only samurai were allowed to bear arms. A samurai had a right to kill any peasants, craftsman or merchant who he felt were disrespectful. Merchants were the lowest caste because they did not produce any products. The castes were further sub-divided; for example, peasants were labelled as furiuri, tanagari, mizunomi-byakusho among others. As in Europe, the castes and sub-classes were of the same race, religion and culture.


Howell, in his review of Japanese society notes that if a Western power had colonized Japan in the 19th century, they would have discovered and imposed a rigid four-caste hierarchy in Japan.[30]



Pre-Islamic Sassanid society was immensely complex, with separate systems of social organization governing numerous different groups within the empire.[44] Historians believe society comprised four[45][46][47] social classes:


Priests (Persian: Asravan‎‎)

Warriors (Persian: Arteshtaran‎‎)

Secretaries (Persian: Dabiran‎‎)

Commoners (Persian: Vastryoshan‎‎)



The four castes of Bali are:


Shudras – peasants making up more than 90% of Bali's population. They constitute close to 93% of the population.[1]

Wesias (Vaishyas) – the caste of merchants and administrative officials

Ksatrias (Kshatriyas) – the warrior caste, it also included some nobility and kings

Brahmins – holy men and priests

Note the similarity of the castes to the four varnas (shudra, vaishya, kshatriya, brahmin) of India.


The members of the four castes use different levels of the Balinese language to address members of a different caste. Middle Balinese is generally used to speak to people whose caste is unknown in an encounter. Once the caste status of the participants are established, the proper language is used to address each other.



The Oromo people are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia, also found in northern Kenya and Somalia, with an estimated total population of over 35 million.[15][16][17]


Like other ethnic groups in the Horn of Africa and East Africa, Oromo people regionally developed social stratification consisting of four hierarchical strata. The highest strata were the nobles called the Borana, below them were the Gabbaro (some 17th to 19th century Ethiopian texts refer them as the dhalatta). Below these two upper castes were the despised castes of artisans, and at the lowest level were the slaves.[18][19]



According to Mohamed Eno and Abdi Kusow, the Somali caste communities are ethnically indistinguishable from each other, but upper castes have stigmatized the lower ones with mythical narratives such as they being of unholy origins or being engaged in dirty occupations.[35] The four strata social system – high lineage, low lineage, caste groups and slaves – found among the Somalis has been common in the Horn of Africa region, states Donald Levine, and is also found among ethnic groups such as Afar, Amhara, Borana, Leqa, Sidamo, Kefa, Janjero and other peoples.[36]



The Fula caste system has been fairly rigid and has medieval roots.[4] It was well established by the 15th-century, and it has survived into modern age.[80] The four major castes,states Martin Kich, in their order of status are "nobility, traders, tradesmen (such as blacksmith) and descendants of slaves".[80] According to the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, the Fulani people have held on to "a strict caste system".[83]



“The lineages of the pastoral Somalis are united by a common, mythological perception of direct lineal descent from the forefather Samaal and the household of the prophet Mohammed, notably the Qurayshi clan, and specifically his cousin, Aqiil Bin Abi-Talib. Today, this segmentary clan system is represented by three to four main clan families descending from Darood, Hawiye, Dir and depending on who you ask, Isaaq”


Certain clans are traditionally classed as noble clans, referring to their nomadic lifestyle in contrast to the sedentary Sab who are either agropastoralists or artisinal castes.[4] The four noble clans are DarodDirHawiye and Isaaq. Of these, the Dir and Hawiye are regarded as descended from Irir Samaale, the likely source of the ethnonym Somali.[5] The Isaaq and Darod have separate agnatic (paternal) traditions of descent through Ishaak ibn Ahmed (Sheikh Ishak) and Abdirahman bin Isma'il al-Jabarti (Sheikh Darod) respectively.[6][7] Both Sheikh Ishak and Sheikh Darod are asserted to have married women from the Dir clan, thus establishing matrilateral ties with the Samaale main stem.[5] "Sab" is the term used to refer to minor Somali clans in contrast to "Samaale".[8] Both Samaale and Sab are the children of their father "Hiil" whose is the common ancestor all Somali clans



The movie was a PC version of the original books, all the white people except Tarzan and Jane were murdering crooks and slave traders. The most evil villain (Waltz) carries his evil Christian cross all through the movie, even using it against Tarzan. All the black people were benevolent but oppressed characterizations, similar to the modern TV shows.



Within traditional Amharic society and that of other local Afro-Asiatic-speaking populations, there were four basic strata. According to the Ethiopianist Donald Levine, these consisted of high-ranking clans, low-ranking clans, caste groups (artisans), and slaves.[48][49] Slaves were at the bottom of the hierarchy, and were primarily drawn from the pagan Nilotic Shanqella groups. Also known as the barya (meaning "slave" in Amharic), they were captured during slave raids in Ethiopia's southern hinterland. War captives were another source of slaves, but the perception, treatment and duties of these prisoners was markedly different.[50] According to Donald Levine, the widespread slavery in Greater Ethiopia formally ended in the 1930s, but former slaves, their offspring, and de facto slaves continued to hold similar positions in the social hierarchy.[33]



Like other ethnic groups in the Horn of Africa and East Africa, Borana Oromo people regionally developed social stratification consisting of four hierarchical strata. The highest strata were the nobles called the Borana, below them were the Gabbaro (some 17th to 19th century Ethiopian texts refer them as the dhalatta). Below these two upper castes were the despised castes of artisans, and at the lowest level were the slaves.[11][12]




Because of the necessity to have a standing army, the military orders were founded, being adopted as the fourth monastic religious vows.


The "clerks regular" of the 16th century and after, such as the Jesuits and Redemptorists, followed this same general format, though some added a "fourth vow", indicating some special apostolate or attitude within the order. Fully professed Jesuits (known as "the professed of the fourth vow" within the order), take a vow of particular obedience to the Pope to undertake any mission laid out in their Formula of the Institute. The Missionaries of Charity, founded by Mother Teresa centuries later (1940s), are another example of this, in that her sisters take a fourth vow of special service to "the poorest of the poor".



The Rule of Saint Benedict (Latin: Regula Benedicti) is a book of precepts written by Benedict of Nursia (c. AD 480–550) for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot.



Chapter 1 defines four kinds of monks:

Cenobites, those "in a monastery, where they serve under a rule and an abbot".

Anchorites, or hermits, who, after long successful training in a monastery, are now coping single-handedly, with only God for their help.


Regula, 1495

Sarabaites, living by twos and threes together or even alone, with no experience, rule and superior, and thus a law unto themselves.[4]

Gyrovagues, wandering from one monastery to another, slaves to their own wills and appetites.[4]



The history of Latin canon law can be divided into four periods: the jus antiquum, the jus novum, the jus novissimum and the Codex Iuris Canonici



Colossal Heads

While Olmec figurines are found abundantly in sites throughout the Formative Period, it is the stone monuments such as the colossal heads that are the most recognizable feature of Olmec culture. These monuments can be divided into four classes:


Colossal heads

Rectangular "altars" (more likely thrones)

Free-standing in-the-round sculpture, such as the twins from El Azuzul or San Martin Pajapan Monument 1.

Stelae, such as La Venta Monument 19 above. The stelae form was generally introduced later than the colossal heads, altars, or free-standing sculptures. Over time stelae moved from simple representation of figures, such as Monument 19 or La Venta Stela 1, toward representations of historical events, particularly acts legitimizing rulers. This trend would culminate in post-Olmec monuments such as La Mojarra Stela 1, which combines images of rulers with script and calendar dates.



There have been 17 colossal heads unearthed to date.

Site Count Designations

San Lorenzo 10 Colossal Heads 1 through 10

La Venta 4 Monuments 1 through 4

Tres Zapotes 2 Monuments A & Q

Rancho la Cobata 1 Monument 1



Some bigfooters believe sasquatch make tree and limb markers to communicate with one another. Of the various type of formations, one of the most commonly found is known as the "x" formation, where two limbs or small trees are broken and laid across one another to form an "x". Is one of these formations sitting at the edge of the treeline on Animal Planet's Live bigfoot cam?


Marotiri is a group of four uninhabited volcanic rocks protruding from the sea (and several submerged rocks), forming the southeastern end of the Austral Islands of French Polynesia



The Pitcairn Islands (/ˈpɪtkɛərn/;[7] Pitkern: Pitkern Ailen), officially Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands,[8][9][10][11] are a group of four volcanic islands in the southern Pacific Ocean that form the last British Overseas Territory in the Pacific. The four islands – Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie, and Oeno – are spread over several hundred miles of ocean and have a total land area of about 47 square kilometres (18 sq mi). Only Pitcairn, the second-largest island that measures about 3.6 kilometres (2.2 mi) from east to west, is inhabited.


The islands are inhabited mostly by descendants of nine Bounty mutineers and the Tahitians (or Polynesians) who accompanied them, an event that has been retold in many books and films. This history is still apparent in the surnames of many of the islanders. With only about 50 permanent inhabitants, originating from four main families,[3] Pitcairn is the least populous national jurisdiction in the world.[12]



The Pitcairn Islands form the southeasternmost extension of the geological archipelago of the Tuamotus of French Polynesia, and consist of four islands: Pitcairn Island, Oeno Island (atoll with five islets, one of which is Sandy Island), Henderson Island and Ducie Island (atoll with four islets).



Offering 4 consists of sixteen male figurines positioned in a semicircle in front of six jade celts, perhaps representing stelae or basalt columns. Two of the figurines were made from jade, thirteen from serpentine, and one of reddish granite. This granite figurine one was positioned with its back to the celts, facing the others. All of the figurines had similar classic Olmec features including bald elongated heads. They had small holes for earrings, their legs were slightly bent, and they were undecorated – unusual if the figurines were gods or deities – but instead covered with cinnabar.[15]



The four fasting periods:

Nativity Fast Great Lent Apostles' Fast Dormition Fast

The forty days of Great Lent last from Clean Monday until the Friday of the Sixth Week. Each of the Sundays of Great Lent has its own special commemoration, though these are not necessarily repeated during the preceding week. An exception is the Week of the Cross (the Fourth Week), during which the theme of the preceding Sunday—the Veneration of the Cross—is repeated throughout the week. The themes introduced in the Pre-Lenten period continue to be developed throughout the forty days.



In the Christian liturgical calendar, there are several different Feasts of the Cross, all of which commemorate the cross used in the crucifixion of Jesus. While Good Friday is dedicated to the Passion of Christ and the Crucifixion, these days celebrate the cross itself, as the instrument of salvation.


In English, it is called The Exaltation of the Holy Cross in the official translation of the Roman Missal, while the 1973 translation called it The Triumph of the Cross. In some parts of the Anglican Communion the feast is called Holy Cross Day, a name also used by Lutherans. The celebration is also sometimes called Holy Rood Day.


As per some Christian tradition the True Cross was discovered in 326 by Saint Helena, the mother of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, during a pilgrimage she made to Jerusalem. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was then built at the site of the discovery, by order of Helena and Constantine. The church was dedicated nine years later, with a portion of the cross. One-third remained in Jerusalem, one-third was brought to Rome and deposited in the Sessorian basilica Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (Holy Cross in Jerusalem), and one-third was taken to Constantinople to make the city impregnable.[1]


The date of the feast marks the dedication of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in 335.[2] This was a two-day festival: although the actual consecration of the church was on September 13, the cross itself was brought outside the church on September 14 so that the clergy and faithful could pray before the True Cross, and all could come forward to venerate it.


Red is the usual liturgical color in churches that follow such traditions. In Western Christianity, red vestments are worn at church services conducted on this day as well as Pentecost and other times of celebration. In the Roman Catholic liturgical observance, the red is worn only on this day, and if the day falls on a Sunday, its Mass readings[note 1] are used instead of those for the occurring Sunday in Ordinary Time. The lectionaries of the Church of England (and other Anglican churches) and Western Rite Orthodoxy also stipulate red as the liturgical color for 'Holy Cross Day.'



Orthodox Cross set for special veneration on the feast of The Universal Exaltation of the Precious and Life Giving Cross.



According to archaeological finds, archaeologists have divided the Olmec history into four stages: Formation stage (1700–1300 BC), Integration stage (1300–900 BC) Expansion stage (900–300 BC) and Disintegration stage (300 BC – 200AD)

The major heartland sites are:

San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán
La Venta
Tres Zapotes
Laguna de los Cerros - the least researched and least important of the major sites.



With Tres Zapotes, San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán, and La Venta, Laguna de los Cerros is considered one of the four major Olmec centers.[1]

Four regulative principles[edit]


Bhaktivedanta Swami prescribed four regulative principles, in relation to the four legs of dharma,[18] as the basis of the spiritual life:


No meat-eating, including fish or eggs;

No illicit sex (including that which, even within marriage, is not for the procreation of children);

No gambling;

No intoxicants.

The four legs of Dharma are:[18]


Daya: Mercy

Tapas: Self-Control or Austerity

Satyam: Truthfulness

Śaucam: Cleanliness of body and mind