The Four Essays of Freuds Totem and Taboo

Totem and Taboo: Resemblances Between the Mental Lives of Savages and Neurotics, or Totem and Taboo: Some Points of Agreement between the Mental Lives of Savages and Neurotics, (German: Totem und Tabu: Einige Übereinstimmungen im Seelenleben der Wilden und der Neurotiker) is a 1913 book by Sigmund Freud, in which the author applies psychoanalysis to the fields of archaeologyanthropology, and the study of religion. It is a collection of four essays inspired by the work of Wilhelm Wundt and Carl Jung and first published in the journal Imago (1912–13): "The Horror of Incest", "Taboo and Emotional Ambivalence", "Animism, Magic and the Omnipotence of Thoughts", and "The Return of Totemism in Childhood".

Hathapradipika is the best known and most widely used Hatha yoga text. It consists of 389 shlokas (verses) in four chapters:[43]


Chapter 1 with 67 verses deals with setting the proper environment for yoga, ethical duties of a yogi, and asanas (postures)

Chapter 2 with 78 verses deals with the pranayama (breathing exercises, control of vital energy within) and the satkarmani (body cleansing)

Chapter 3 with 130 verses discusses the mudras and their benefits.

Chapter 4 with 114 verses deals with meditation and samadhi as a journey of personal spiritual growth.


A group of 84 classic asanas taught by Lord Shiva is mentioned in several classic texts on yoga. Some of these asanas are considered highly important in the yogic canon: texts that do mention the 84 frequently single out the first four as necessary or vital to attain yogic perfection. However, a complete list of Shiva's asanas remains as yet unverified, with only one text attempting a complete corpus.


The Hatha Yoga Pradipika (15th century CE) specifies that of these 84, the first four are important, namely the siddhasana, padmasana, bhadrasana and simhasana.[41]

The concept of original mind was first conceived by Mencius but was further developed by Lu. The original mind means that all human beings are born with innate moral knowledge and virtue. This original mind is fourfold as Mencius called them 'four roots of the heart':

  • Compassion - The root of humaneness (ren).

  • Shame - The root of righteousness (yi).

  • Respect - The root of propriety and ritual observance (li).

  • Knowledge of right and wrong - The root of wisdom (zhi).

Like real roots in nature these four roots must be nurtured first before flowers to bloom. So, in other words, these four roots of the heart are nothing but just tendencies of the mind. These four roots of the heart need proper nurturing and care to grow strong and healthy to manifest their true nature, which is moral virtue.

His translator James Legge finds a close similarity between Mencius's views on human nature and those in Bishop Butler's Sermons on Human Nature.

The Four Beginnings/Sprouts

To show innate goodness, Mencius used the example of a child falling down a well. Witnesses of this event immediately feel

“alarm and distress, not to gain friendship with the child's parents, nor to seek the praise of their neighbors and friends, nor because they dislike the reputation [of lack of humanity if they did not rescue the child]...

The feeling of commiseration is the beginning of humanity; the feeling of shame and dislike is the beginning of righteousness; the feeling of deference and compliance is the beginning of propriety; and the feeling of right or wrong is the beginning of wisdom.

Men have these Four Beginnings just as they have their four limbs. Having these Four Beginnings, but saying that they cannot develop them is to destroy themselves.[34]

The Four Sages, Assessors,[1] or Correlates (Chinesepinyin: Sì Pèi) are four eminent Chinese philosophers in the Confucian tradition. They are traditionally accounted a kind of sainthood and their spirit tablets are prominently placed in Confucian temples, two upon the east and two upon the west side of the Hall of the Great Completion (Dacheng Dian).

The Four Sages are:

Empedocles talked about the four elements and the four stages of the cosmic cycle

Empedocles established four ultimate elements which make all the structures in the world—fireairwaterearth.[31] Empedocles called these four elements "roots", which he also identified with the mythical names of ZeusHeraNestis, and Aidoneus[32] (e.g., "Now hear the fourfold roots of everything: enlivening Hera, Hades, shining Zeus. And Nestis, moistening mortal springs with tears."[33])

The four elements, however, are simple, eternal, and unalterable, and as change is the consequence of their mixture and separation, it was also necessary to suppose the existence of moving powers to bring about mixture and separation. The four elements are both eternally brought into union and parted from one another by two divine powers, Love and Strife. Love (φιλότης) is responsible for the attraction of different forms of matter, and Strife (νεῖκος) is the cause for their separation.[35] If these elements make up of the universe, then Love and Strife explain their variation and harmony. Love and Strife are attractive and repulsive forces, respectively, which is plainly observable in human behavior, but also pervade the universe. The two forces wax and wane their dominance but neither force ever wholly disappears from the imposition of the other.

Empedocles cosmic cycle is based on the conflict between love and strife

The Man Who Mistook His Hat for a Wife is a groundbreaking book in biology. I heard it mentioned at UCSD numerous times by professors and it was almost like it was the only book consistently mentioned. It is divided into four sections

There were 40 Epicurean principals. Notice the repetition of four.

The Tetrapharmakos (τετραφάρμακος) "four-part remedy" is a summary of the first four of the Κύριαι Δόξαι (Kuriai Doxai, the forty Epicurean Principal Doctrines given by Diogenes Laertius in his Life of Epicurus) in Epicureanism, a recipe for leading the happiest possible life. They are recommendations to avoid anxiety or existential dread.[1]

The "tetrapharmakos" was originally a compound of four drugs (waxtallowpitch and resin); the word has been used metaphorically by Roman-era Epicureans.[2] to refer to the four remedies for healing the soul.[3]

The four-part cure[edit]

Part of a series on



Schools of hedonism[show]

Key concepts[show]

Related articles[show]

As expressed by Philodemos, and preserved in a Herculaneum Papyrus (1005, 4.9–14), the tetrapharmakos reads:[4]

Don't fear god,

Don't worry about death;
What is good is easy to get,
What is terrible is easy to endure

Ἄφοβον ὁ θεός,

ἀνύποπτον ὁ θάνατος
καὶ τἀγαθὸν μὲν εὔκτητον,
τὸ δὲ δεινὸν εὐεκκαρτέρητον

The first four kings of Rome represent the quadrant pattern and they were thought to be mythical.

There have been four books in the Langdon Series, by Dan Brown. One of the books was the Davinci Code.

One of his books is Angels and Demons.

The book contains ambigrams of the words EarthAirFire, and Water, which has served to bring the art of ambigrams to public attention by virtue of the popularity of the book.[2] The "Illuminati Diamond" mentioned in the book is an ambigram of the four elements that are arranged in the shape of a diamond.

Langdon and Vittoria make their way to Vatican City, where the Pope has recently died. They are told that the four Preferiti, the cardinals who are most likely to be elected pope, are missing. Langdon and Vittoria search for the preferiti in hopes that they will also find the antimatter canister. Their search is assisted by Camerlengo Carlo Ventresca (the late pope's closest aide) and the Vatican's Swiss Guard.

The Path leads Langdon and Vittoria to four churches in Rome, each one representing works of art by Baroque artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini which are associated with one of the primordial elements: Earth, Air, Fire and Water. Langdon realizes the four preferiti will be murdered in a way thematically related to each location's related element. The first cardinal is branded with an Earth ambigram and has soil forced down his throat, suffocating him; the second is branded with an Air ambigram and has his lungs punctured; the third is branded with a Fire ambigram and is burned alive; and the fourth is branded with a Water ambigram and is wrapped in chains and left to drown at the bottom of a fountain.

Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi (Fountain of the Four Rivers) is a fountain in the Piazza Navona in Rome, Italy

The base of the fountain is a basin from the centre of which travertine rocks rise to support four river gods and above them, an ancient Egyptian obelisk surmounted with the Pamphili family emblem of a dove with an olive twig. Collectively, they represent four major rivers of the four continents through which papal authority had spread: the Nilerepresenting Africa, the Danube representing Europe, the Ganges representing Asia, and the Río de la Platarepresenting the Americas.

The monument of the four moors is a quadrant pattern with the third statue different than the previous three

The Monument of the Four Moors (Italian: Monumento dei Quattro mori) is located in Livorno, Italy. It was completed in 1626 to commemorate the victories of Ferdinand I of Tuscany over the Ottomans.

It features four bronze statues of enslaved prisoners chained at the base of a statue of Ferdinando I which had been commissioned at an earlier date.[1] The physical characteristics of three of the statues represent people of the southern Mediterranean coast while the fourth statue has characteristics of a black African

A three plus one pattern- The fourth transcendent sister

The Three Sisters are the three main agricultural crops of various Native American groups in North Americawinter squashmaize (corn), and climbing beans (typically tepary beans or common beans). The Iroquois, among others, used these "Three Sisters" as trade goods.

The Ancestral Puebloans are known for adopting this garden design in a drier environment. The Tewaand other peoples of the Southwestern United States often included a "fourth Sister", Rocky Mountain bee plant (Cleome serrulata), which attracts bees to help pollinate the beans and squash.[10]

Adi Shankara organized the Hindu monastics of these ten sects or names under four maṭhas or monasteries, with headquarters at Dvārakā in the west, Jagannatha Puri in the east, Sringeri in the south and Badrikashrama in the north.[web 1] Each maṭha was headed by one of his four main disciples, who each continued the Vedanta Sampradaya.

There are four Vaishnava sampradayas, which preserve the fruitfull mantras:[note 4]

All mantras which have been given (to disciples) not in an authorised Sampradāya are fruitless. Therefore, in Kali Yuga, there will be four bona-fide Sampradāyas.[4]

Four Zoroastrain sacred prayers- The fourth prayer is different- 72 is gematria of tetragrammaton tetractys

The Yasna texts constitute 72 chapters altogether, composed at different times and by different authors. The middle chapters include of the (linguistically) oldest texts of the Zoroastrian canon. These very ancient texts, in the very archaic and linguistically difficult Old Avestan language, include the four most sacred Zoroastrian prayers

The inner chapters/sections (excepting chapters 42.1-4,52.5-8) are in the more archaic Old Avestan language, with the four sacred formulae bracketing the innermost core. This innermost core includes the 17 chapters of the Gathas, the oldest and most sacred texts of the Zoroastrian canon.

Yasna 1-27.12

Yasna 27.13-27.15: three of the four of the most sacred Zoroastrian prayersYasna 28-34: Gatha 1

Yasna 35-41: the "seven-chapter Yasna"

Yasna 43-51,53: Gathas 2-5 (chapters 43-46, 47-50, 51 and 53)

Yasna 54.1: fourth of four of the most sacred Zoroastrian prayers

Macedonia four republics

Macedonia was initially divided into four republics subject to Rome before finally being annexed in 146 BC as a Roman province. Around this time, vulgar Latin was introduced in the Balkans by Latin-speaking colonists and military personnel.

The Romans abolished the Macedonian monarchy by installing four separate allied republics in its stead, their capitals located at Amphipolis, Thessalonica, Pella, and Pelagonia.

Philip contented himself with reorganising Thessaly in 344 BC, reinstating the ancient fourfold "Tetrarchic" administration system (wikipeida fourth sacred war)

For a brief period a Macedonian republic called the "Koinon of the Macedonians" was established. It was divided into four administrative districts. That period ended in 148 BC, when Macedonia was fully annexed by the Romans

Gorillaz four members

Gorillaz are an English virtual band created in 1998 by musician Damon Albarn and artist Jamie Hewlett. The band consists of four animated members: 2-D (lead vocals, keyboards), Murdoc Niccals (bass guitar), Noodle(guitar, keyboards) and Russel Hobbs (drums and percussion).

Since its inception, Red Hot Chili Peppers has maintained a four-member lineup, with fourteen official members overall.

The four divisions of the Egyptian army were a three plus one, with the fourth newly added.

Ramesses led an army of four divisions: AmunRe (P're), Seth (Suteh) and the apparently newly formed Ptah division

Paradise Regained is four books. Paradise Lost is 12 Books. That makes sixteen books in a three quadrant plus one quadrant pattern by John Milton

Milton composed Paradise Regained at his cottage in Chalfont St Giles in Buckinghamshire. The poem is four books long, in contrast with Paradise Lost's twelve; 2,065 lines long, while Paradise Lost comprises 10,565. As such, Barbara K. Lewalski has labelled the work a "brief epic."

I studied MacArthur's Warbler experiment in middle school, high school, and college. It is in every text book. The experiment studies nieches. 16 sectors of the tree were distinguished. There are 16 squares in the quadrant model

For the purpose of describing the birds' feeding zone, the number of seconds each observed bird spent in each of 16 zones was recorded. 

Four major priestly orders of the Romans

The College of Pontiffs was one of the four major priestly colleges, the others being of the augurs (who read omens), the quindecimviri sacris faciundis ("fifteen men who carry out the rites"), and the Epulones (who set up feasts at festivals).

A collegium ("joined by law"), plural collegia, was any association with a legal personality. The priestly colleges oversaw religious traditions, and until 300 BC only patricians were eligible for membership. When plebeians began to be admitted, the size of the colleges was expanded. By the Late Republic, three collegia wielded greater authority than the others, with a fourth coming to prominence during the reign of Augustus. The four great religious corporations (quattuor amplissima collegia) were:

There are four kinds of songs in Capoeira. The fourth is even called quadra. Quad is four.

There are four basic kinds of songs in capoeira, the Ladaínha, Chula, Corrido and Quadra. The Ladaínha is a narrative solo sung only at the beginning of a roda, often by a mestre (master) or most respected capoeirista present. The solo is followed by a louvação, a call and response pattern that usually thanks God and one's master, among other things. Each call is usually repeated word-for-word by the responders. The Chula is a song where the singer part is much bigger than the chorus response, usually eight singer verses for one chorus response, but the proportion may vary. The Corrido is a song where the singer part and the chorus response are equal, normally two verses by two responses. Finally, the Quadra is a song where the same verse is repeated four times, either three singer verses followed by one chorus response, or one verse and one response.

The puzzle proposed an intellectual challenge—to connect the dots by drawing four straight, continuous lines that pass through each of the nine dots, and never lifting the pencil from the paper. The conundrum is easily resolved, but only by drawing the lines outside the confines of the square area defined by the nine dots themselves. The phrase "thinking outside the box" is a restatement of the solution strategy. The puzzle only seems difficult because people commonly imagine a boundary around the edge of the dot array.[11] The heart of the matter is the unspecified barrier that people typically perceive.

Four three pegs the tower of Hanoi can be done, for four it is very difficult and transcendent/different. For five it is questionable. Thus the quadrant pattern is fulfilled. I studied many courses in math and they all were based on the quadrant pattern but a lot of it I forgot or don't know how to explain. I wrote down a lot but I'd have to find it hopefully or rewatch lectures.

Although the three-peg version has a simple recursive solution as outlined above which has long been known, the optimal solution for the Tower of Hanoi problem with four pegs (called Reve's puzzle) has not been verified until 2014, and in the case of more than four pegs the optimal solution is still an open problem, even if a proof that the Frame-Stewart algorithm is optimal was proposed by Demontis in 2016.[18]

Rubiks Cubes are quadrants. Three by three is normal. Four by four is transcendent. There are also tetrahedral rubiks cubes.

Nichols assigned his patent to his employer Moleculon Research Corp., which sued Ideal in 1982. In 1984, Ideal lost the patent infringement suit and appealed. In 1986, the appeals court affirmed the judgment that Rubik's 2×2×2 Pocket Cube infringed Nichols's patent, but overturned the judgment on Rubik's 3×3×3 Cube.[35]

Even while Rubik's patent application was being processed, Terutoshi Ishigi, a self-taught engineer and ironworks owner near Tokyo, filed for a Japanese patent for a nearly identical mechanism, which was granted in 1976 (Japanese patent publication JP55-008192). Until 1999, when an amended Japanese patent law was enforced, Japan's patent office granted Japanese patents for non-disclosed technology within Japan without requiring worldwide novelty.[36][37] Hence, Ishigi's patent is generally accepted as an independent reinvention at that time.[38][39][40] Rubik applied for more patents in 1980, including another Hungarian patent on October 28. In the United States, Rubik was granted U.S. Patent 4,378,116 on March 29, 1983, for the Cube. This patent expired in 2000.

Greek inventor Panagiotis Verdes patented[41] a method of creating cubes beyond the 5×5×5, up to 11×11×11, in 2003.[42] As of 2017, the 5×5×56×6×67×7×78×8×8 and 9×9×9 models are in production in his "V-Cube" line. V-Cube also produces a 2×2×2, 3×3×3 and a 4×4×4.

Many 3×3×3 Rubik's Cube enthusiasts use a notation developed by David Singmaster to denote a sequence of moves, referred to as "Singmaster notation".[50] Its relative nature allows algorithms to be written in such a way that they can be applied regardless of which side is designated the top or how the colours are organised on a particular cube.

The 4×4×4 and larger cubes use an extended notation to refer to the additional middle layers. Generally speaking, uppercase letters (F B U D L R) refer to the outermost portions of the cube (called faces). Lowercase letters (f b u d l r) refer to the inner portions of the cube (called slices). An asterisk (L*), a number in front of it (2L), or two layers in parentheses (Ll), means to turn the two layers at the same time (both the inner and the outer left faces) For example: (Rr)' l2 f' means to turn the two rightmost layers anticlockwise, then the left inner layer twice, and then the inner front layer anticlockwise. By extension, for cubes of 6x6 and larger, moves of three layers are notated by the number 3, for example 3L.

The Rubik's Revenge (also known as the Master Cube) is a 4×4×4 version of Rubik's Cube. It was released in 1981. Invented by Péter Sebestény, the Rubik's Revenge was nearly called the Sebestény Cube until a somewhat last-minute decision changed the puzzle's name to attract fans of the original Rubik's Cube.[1] Unlike the original puzzle (and the 5×5×5 cube), it has no fixed facets: the centre facets (four per face) are free to move to different positions.

Methods for solving the 3×3×3 cube work for the edges and corners of the 4×4×4 cube, as long as one has correctly identified the relative positions of the colours — since the centre facets can no longer be used for identification.

There are several methods that can be used to solve a Rubik's Revenge. The most common method is reduction, so called because it effectively reduces the 4×4×4 to a 3×3×3. Cubers first group the centre pieces of common colours together, then pair edges that show the same two colours. Once this is done, turning only the outer layers of the cube allows it to be solved like a 3×3×3 cube. However, certain positions that cannot be solved on a standard 3×3×3 cube may be reached. There are two possible problems not found on the 3×3×3. The first is two edge pieces reversed on one edge, resulting in the colours for that edge not matching the rest of the cubies on either face:

Notice that these two edge pieces are swapped. The second is two edge pairs being swapped with each other:

These situations are known as parity errors. These positions are still solvable; however, special algorithms must be applied to fix the errors.[6]

Some methods are designed to avoid the parity errors described above. For instance, solving the corners and edges first and the centres last would avoid such parity errors. Once the rest of the cube is solved, any permutation of the centre pieces can be solved. Note that it is possible to apparently exchange a pair of face centres by cycling 3 face centres, two of which are visually identical.

Direct solving of a 4×4×4 is uncommon, but possible, with methods such as K4. Doing so mixes a variety of techniques and is heavily reliant on commutators for the final steps.[7]

Rubik's Revenge in solved state

This is an extremely famous book taught in middle school, high school, and college

By far the biggest change was in how the 2nd to 6th editions of the essay were structured, and the most copious and detailed evidence that Malthus presented, more than any previous such book on population. Essentially, for the first time, Malthus examined his own Principle of Population on a region-by-region basis of world population. The essay was organized in four books:

  • Book I – Of the Checks to Population in the Less Civilized Parts of the World and in Past Times.

  • Book II – Of the Checks To Population in the Different States of Modern Europe.

  • Book III – Of the different Systems or Expedients which have been proposed or have prevailed in Society, as They affect the Evils arising from the Principle of Population.

  • Book IV – Of our future Prospects respecting the Removal or Mitigation of the Evils arising from the Principle of Population.

16 squares are in the quadrant model.The 16 principle system seems to have its earliest history in West Africa. Each Niger-Congo ethnic group has its own myths of origin; Yoruba mythology suggests that it was founded by Orunmila in Ile Ife when he initiated himself and then he initiated his students, Akoda and Aseda. Other myths suggest that it was brought to Ile Ife by Setiu, a Nupe man who settled in Ile Ife. Igbo mythology suggests that Dahomey Kings noted that the system of Afá was brought by a diviner known as Gogo from eastern Nigeria.[1]

The teacher in a math class I went to at UCSD drew this on the board. All that was taught at UCSD and other lectures I listened to from all over the place was the quadrant model,_injection_and_surjection

The teacher at UCSD drew the four parts and pointed out how the fourth part was different, not even having a name. 

In particular, Table 4.1 on page 14, pictured above, shows the relationships between the continuous-time Fourier series (CTFS), discrete-time Fourier series (DTFS), continuous-time Fourier transform (CTFT), and discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT). Note the similarities and differences among the four operations:

  • “Series”: periodic in time, discrete in frequency

  • “Transform”: aperiodic in time, continuous in frequency

  • “Continuous Time”: continuous in time, aperiodic in frequency

  • “Discrete Time”: discrete in time, periodic in frequency

The popular song of Lo Fidelity Allstars begins "hallelujah to the sixteen loyal fans". There are 16 squares in the quadrant model.

Four lines connecting all nine dots (it would make a four by four dot matrix). This thought experiment is extremely famous and was taught at UCSD psychology classes I went to. Almost the only thing taught at UCSD was the quadrant model.

Non Phixion had four original members

The Roman Baths themselves are below the modern street level. There are four main features: the Sacred Spring, the Roman Temple, the Roman Bath House and the Museum holding finds from Roman Bath. The buildings above street level date from the 19th century.

This was one of the only things I learend in my astronomy class at UCSD. Other quadrant stuff was taught in relationship to stars in space. A lot of it I forgot

As we can see, stars do not appear randomly on the plot but appear to be grouped in four main regions. This is highly significant as it suggests that there may be some relationship between the luminosity and temperature of a star. Whilst not surprising (indeed we have already seen that a hotter star emits more energy per unit surface area than a cooler star) the relationship is complicated by the presence of these four groups. Let us examine these more closely.

Most stars seem to fall into group A. It shows a general trend from cool, dim stars in the lower right corner up to hot, extremely bright stars in the top left corner which fits in with our expected relationship between temperature and luminosity. This group is called the Main Sequence so stars found on it are main sequence stars. Our Sun is one such example. Others include α Cen, Altair, Sirius, Achernar and Barnard's Star. 

Stars in group B are mostly 6,000 K or cooler yet more luminous than main sequence stars of the same temperature. How can this be? The reason is that these stars are much larger than main sequence stars. Although they emit the same amount of energy per square metre as main sequence stars they have have much greater surface area (area ∝ radius2) the total energy emitted is thus much greater. These stars are referred to as giants. Examples include Aldebaran and Mira.

The stars in group C are even more luminous than the giants. These are the supergiants, the largest of stars with extremely high luminosities. A red supergiant such as Betelgeuse would extend beyond the orbit of Jupiter if it replaced the Sun in our solar system.

The final group of interest are those stars in group D. From their position on the H-R diagram we see that they are very hot yet very dim. Although they emit large amounts of energy per square metre they have low luminosity which implies that they must therefore be very small. Group D stars are in fact known as white dwarfs. Sirius B and Procyon B are examples. White dwarfs are much smaller than main sequence stars and are roughly the size of Earth. The diagram below shows the main groups labelled together with example stars in each group. 

The four groups of stars in a Hertsprung Russel diagram. The D group is different from the previous three. The D group is dead and just made of carbon. Carbon is quadrants.

Four types- very famous experiment

Scheme of a "two-channel" Bell test
The source S produces pairs of "photons", sent in opposite directions. Each photon encounters a two-channel polariser whose orientation (a or b) can be set by the experimenter. Emerging signals from each channel are detected and coincidences of four types (++, −−, +− and −+) counted by the coincidence monitor.

Four correlations

Generalizing Bell's original inequality,[4] John Clauser, Michael Horne, Abner Shimony and R. A. Holt introduced the CHSH inequality,[18] which puts classical limits on the set of four correlations in Alice and Bob's experiment, without any assumption of perfect correlations (or anti-correlations) at equal settings


Making the special choice a′=b+π, denoting b′=c, and assuming perfect anti-correlation at equal settings, perfect correlation at opposite settings, therefore ρ(a,a+π)=1 and ρ(b,a+π)=−ρ(b,a), the CHSH inequality reduces to the original Bell inequality. Nowadays, (1) is also often simply called "the Bell inequality", but sometimes more completely "the Bell-CHSH inequality".

Bell test experiment


The Bell states are four specific maximally entangled quantum states of two qubits.

The degree to which a state in a quantum system consisting of two "particles" is entangled is measured by the Von Neumann entropy of either of the two reduced density operators of the state. The Von Neumann entropy of a pure state is zero—also for the bell states, which are specific pure states. But the 2x2 density matrix ρ^ corresponding to the Bell states can be formed as usual, and the von Neumann entropy of this density operator of the Bell states is positive and maximal, if the matrix does not degenerate to a projector.

Four specific two-qubit states with the maximal value of 22 are designated as "Bell states". They are known as the four maximally entangled two-qubit Bell states, and they form a convenient basis of the two-qubit Hilbert space:





Don Miguel Ruiz's

The Four Agreements

His most famous book, The Four Agreements, was published in 1997 and has sold around 5.2 million copies in the U.S.[6] and has been translated into 38 languages. The book advocates personal freedom from beliefs and agreements that we have made with ourselves and others that are creating limitation and unhappiness in our lives.[7] It was featured on the Oprah television show.[8] The Four Agreements are:

  1. Be impeccable with your word.

  2. Don't take anything personally.

  3. Don't make assumptions.

  4. Always do your best.

Ruiz has received a U.S. Air Force challenge coin engraved with The Four Agreements, and he is referenced as a "National Heirloom of Mexico".[9][unreliable source?]

Four messiahs Jews

Jewish tradition alludes to four messianic figures. Called the Four Craftsmen, each will be involved in ushering in the Messianic age. They are mentioned in the Talmud and the Book of ZechariahRashi in his commentary on the Talmud gives more details. Rashi explains that Messiah ben Joseph is called a craftsman because he will help rebuild the temple.[3] Nahmanides also commented on Messiah ben Joseph's rebuilding of the temple.[4][5] The roles of the Four Craftsmen are as follows. Elijah will be the herald of the eschaton.[6] If necessary, Messiah ben Joseph will wage war against the evil forces and die in combat with the enemies of God and Israel.[7]

  • Pesikta de-Rav Kahana 5.9 here the four craftsmen are listed as Elijah, the King Messiah, Melchizedek and the Anointed for War.[9]: 86

  • Song of Songs Rabbah also lists the four craftsmen. Here they are listed as Elijah, the King Messiah, Melchizedek and the Anointed for War.[9]: 86[31]

  • Pesikta Rabbati 15.14/15 likewise the four craftsmen are listed as Elijah, the King Messiah, Melchizedek and the Anointed for War.[9]: 86 Pesikta Rabbati references an Ephraim Messiah rather than a Messiah ben Ephraim.[9]: 89 It has been argued that this text may not refer to the Messiah ben Joseph but rather to the Messiah ben David.[14]: 95–96

  • ​In Tanna Devei Eliyahu the four craftsmen are listed the same as in the Talmud as Elijah, Messiah ben David, Righteous Priest and Messiah ben Joseph.[9]: 86

  • Numbers Rabbah 14.1 here the Righteous Priest has been replaced. The four craftsmen are listed as Elijah, Redeemer from David, War Messiah from Ephraim, Messiah from Manasseh.[9]: 86

  • Yalkut Shimoni 569 lists the four craftsmen as Elijah, Messiah ben David, Righteous Priest and Messiah ben Joseph.[9]: 86

The Four horns and Four carpenters are a vision found in Book of Zechariah, in Zechariah 1:21 in traditional English texts. In Hebrew texts 1:18-21 is numbered 2:1-4. The vision precedes the vision of A Man With a Measuring Line.

Zechariah 2: 1 Then lifted I up mine eyes, and saw, and behold four horns. 2 And I said unto the angel that talked with me, What be these? And he answered me, These are the horns which have scattered Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem. 3 And the Lord shewed me four carpenters. 4 Then said I, What come these to do? And he spake, saying, These are the horns which have scattered Judah, so that no man did lift up his head: but these are come to fray them, to cast out the horns of the Gentiles, which lifted up their horn over the land of Judah to scatter it. TaNaK.

]The four craftsmen are discussed in Babylonian Talmud Suk. 52b. Rav Hana bar Bizna attributed to Rav Simeon Hasida the identification of these four craftsmen as Messiah ben DavidMessiah ben JosephElijah, and the Righteous Priest.[1] However David Kimchi interpreted the four craftsmen as four kingdoms.

Take a look at the picture of the camp. What do you see? Most Christians will recognize that this camp is made in the image of a cross. As the Israelites moved about the wilderness, they camped in the shape of an ever moving cross! The tribe of Levi camped around the tabernacle area, as they were the priests and ministered to the tabernacle. What is even more interesting is what lies at the “heart” of the camp. This tabernacle/temple carries with it an incredible amount of foreshadowing, it is amazing.

Haggai four messages

Unlike most of the other prophets, Haggai explicitly dated his prophecies, down to the day. He gave four separate messages, the first on August 29, 520 BC (Haggai 1:1); the second on October 17, 520 BC (2:1); and the final two on December 18, 520 BC (2:10, 20). These messages encouraged the people of Judah to finish building the temple and to have hope in God for the promise of blessings in the future.


Ezekiel is a book of visions. The first section of Ezekiel, which is all of chapter one, presents a vision of the appearance of the glory of the Lord. It reveals how God is manifested, how God moves, and how God administrates His government through the four living creatures. Through their coordination, God is able to move and administrate. In the second section, from chapter two through chapter thirty-two, God comes as the consuming fire to judge His people and the heathen nations. After the judgment, God comes in to recover His people by life. The third section, that of recovery, begins in chapter thirty-three and continues through chapter thirty-nine. The fourth section, concerning the holy building of God, comes out of the recovery by life and consummates the whole book. Thus, Ezekiel begins with the appearance of the glory of the Lord and ends with the holy building of God. This indicates that God’s goal and purpose is the building.


Cross-stitch is a form of sewing and a popular form of counted-thread embroidery in which X-shaped stitches in a tiled, raster-like pattern are used to form a picture. The stitcher counts the threads on a piece of evenweave fabric (such as linen) in each direction so that the stitches are of uniform size and appearance. This form of cross-stitch is also called counted cross-stitch in order to distinguish it from other forms of cross-stitch.[1] Sometimes cross-stitch is done on designs printed on the fabric (stamped cross-stitch); the stitcher simply stitches over the printed pattern.[2] Cross-stitch is also executed on easily countable fabric called aida cloth but the threads are not actually counted.[3]

Cross stitches or cross-stitch have come to represent an entire industry of pattern production and material supply for the craft person. The stitch is done by creating a line of diagonal stitches going in one direction, usually using the warp and weft of the fabric as a guide, then on the return journey crossing the diagonal in the other direction, creating an "x". Also included in this class of stitches are:

  • Herringbone stitches, including the hem stitch

  • Breton stitch, here the threads of the "x" are twisted together

  • Sprat's Head stitch

  • Crow's Foot stitch, these last two stitches are often used in tailoring to strengthen a garment at a point of strain such as a pocket corner or the top of a kick pleat.

Many examples of cross stitches can be found


Cross stitches in embroideryneedlepoint, and other forms of needlework include a number of related stitches in which the thread is sewn in an x or + shape. Cross stitch has been called "probably the most widely used stitch of all"[1] and is part of the needlework traditions of the BalkansMiddle EastAfghanistanColonial America and Victorian England.

Cross stitches were typical of 16th century canvas work, falling out of fashion in favor of tent stitch toward the end of the century.[2] Canvas work in cross stitch became popular again in the mid-19th century with the Berlin wool work craze.

Herringbone, fishbone, Van Dyke, and related crossed stitches are used in crewel embroidery, especially to add texture to stems, leaves, and similar objects. Basic cross stitch is used to fill backgrounds in Assisi work.

Cross stitch was widely used to mark household linens in the 18th and 19th centuries, and girls' skills in this essential task were demonstrated with elaborate samplers embroidered with cross-stitched alphabets, numbers, birds and other animals, and the crowns and coronets sewn onto the linens of the nobility. Much of contemporary cross-stitchembroidery derives from this tradition.

Bacons four idols

Before beginning this induction, though, the enquirer must free his or her mind from certain false notions or tendencies that distort the truth. These are called "Idols" (idola),[a] and are of four kinds:

  • "Idols of the Tribe" (idola tribus), which are common to the race;

  • "Idols of the Den" (idola specus), which are peculiar to the individual;

  • "Idols of the Marketplace" (idola fori), coming from the misuse of language; and

  • "Idols of the Theatre" (idola theatri), which stem from philosophical dogmas.

Ancient Greek painters used four colors

Greek philosophers thought in terms not of three, but of four, basic colors: black, red, yellow and white: yet little or no attention has been paid to this conception as a system of thought. Almost ironically, it is again Goethe's experiments in color, made in quite conscious opposition to Newtonian principles, which not only led him to color triads, but which also reveal that the Greek system of four colors is theoretically balanced by a second group of four colors: white, blue, violet and black. The earlier Greek painters were thoroughly absorbed in the first “tesserad” of colors, while later painters increasingly experimented with the second group. 



According to some biblical scholars, the Torah's genealogy for Levi's descendants is actually an aetiological myth reflecting the fact that there were four different groups among the Levites — the Gershonites, the Kohathites, the Merarites, and the Aaronids.

There are four women who are the ashkenazi founder lineages. There was also four women who were the founder lineages for Amerindians as well. I posted the information in the website

Research in Ashkenazi Jews has suggested that, in addition to the male founders, significant female founder ancestry might also derive from the Middle East, with about 40% of the current Ashkenazi population descended matrilineally from just four women, or "founder lineages", that were "likely from a Hebrew/Levantine mtDNA pool" originating in the Near East in the 1st and 2nd centuries CE.

When Ashkenazi mitochondrial DNA was tested in a large sample, it was found that the four main female Ashkenazi founders had descent lines that were established in Europe 10,000 to 20,000 years in the past[24] while most of the remaining minor founders also have a deep European ancestry

My Professor at UCSD described the four attributional factors of Weiners attributin Model

Michael Porter's National Diamond framework resulted from a study of patterns of comparative advantage among industrialized nations

The four different components of the framework are:

  • Factor endowment

  • Related and supporting industries

  • Demand conditions

  • Strategy, structure, and rivalry


The play consists of four interconnecting plots, connected by a celebration of the wedding of Duke Theseus of Athens and the Amazon queen, Hippolyta, which is set simultaneously in the woodland and in the realm of Fairyland, under the light of the moon.

A Midsummer Night's Dream is a comedy written by William Shakespeare in 1595/96. It portrays the events surrounding the marriage of Theseus, the Duke of Athens, to Hippolyta, the former queen of the Amazons. These include the adventures of four young Athenian lovers


Lagrange wrote in his Mécanique analytique (published 1788, based on work done around 1755) that mechanics can be viewed as operating in a four-dimensional space — three dimensions of space, and one of time

An arithmetic of four dimensions called quaternions was defined by William Rowan Hamilton in 1843. This associative algebra was the source of the science of vector analysis in three dimensions as recounted in A History of Vector Analysis. Soon after tessarines and coquaternions were introduced as other four-dimensional algebras over R.

One of the first major expositors of the fourth dimension was Charles Howard Hinton, starting in 1880 with his essay What is the Fourth Dimension?; published in the Dublin University magazine.[3] He coined the terms tesseract, ana and kata in his book A New Era of Thought, and introduced a method for visualising the fourth dimension using cubes in the book Fourth Dimension.[4][5]

In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single 4‑dimensional continuumSpacetime diagrams are useful in visualizing and understanding relativistic effects such as how different observers perceive where and when events occur.

Until the turn of the 20th century, the assumption had been that the three-dimensional geometry of the universe (its description in terms of locations, shapes, distances, and directions) was distinct from time (the measurement of when events occur within the universe).

In 1908, Hermann Minkowski—once one of the math professors of a young Einstein in Zurich—presented a geometric interpretation of special relativity that fused time and the three spatial dimensions of space into a single four-dimensional continuum now known as Minkowski space. A key feature of this interpretation is the definition of a spacetime interval that combines distance and time. Although measurements of distance and time between events differ for measurements made in different reference frames, the spacetime interval is independent of the inertial frame of reference in which they are recorded.

In ordinary space, a position is specified by three numbers, known as dimensions. In the Cartesian coordinate system, these are called x, y, and z. A position in spacetime is called an event, and requires four numbers to be specified: the three-dimensional location in space, plus the position in time (Fig. 1). Spacetime is thus four dimensional. An event is something that happens instantaneously at a single point in spacetime, represented by a set of coordinates x, y, z and t.

While discussing various hypotheses on Lorentz invariant gravitation, Poincare introduced the innovative concept of a 4-dimensional space-time by defining various four vectors, namely four-positionfour-velocity, and four-force.[16][17] He did not pursue the 4-dimensional formalism in subsequent papers, however, stating that this line of research seemed to "entail great pain for limited profit", ultimately concluding "that three-dimensional language seems the best suited to the description of our world".[17] Furthermore, even as late as 1909, Poincaré continued to believe in the dynamical interpretation of the Lorentz transform.[10]:163–174 For these and other reasons, most historians of science argue that Poincaré did not invent what is now called special relativity.


Properties of n+m-dimensional spacetimes

There are two kinds of dimensions, spatial (bidirectional) and temporal (unidirectional). Let the number of spatial dimensions be N and the number of temporal dimensions be T. That N = 3 and T = 1, setting aside the compactified dimensions invoked by string theory and undetectable to date, can be explained by appealing to the physical consequences of letting N differ from 3 and T differ from 1. The argument is often of an anthropic character and possibly the first of its kind, albeit before the complete concept came into vogue. Immanuel Kantargued that 3-dimensional space was a consequence of the inverse square law of universal gravitation. While Kant's argument is historically important, John D. Barrow says that it "[...] gets the punch-line back to front: it is the three-dimensionality of space that explains why we see inverse-square force laws in Nature, not vice-versa" (Barrow 2002: 204). This is because the law of gravitation (or any other inverse-square law) follows from the concept of flux and the proportional relationship of flux density and the strength of field. If N = 3, then 3-dimensional solid objects have surface areas proportional to the square of their size in any selected spatial dimension. In particular, a sphere of radius r has area of 4πr ². More generally, in a space of N dimensions, the strength of the gravitational attraction between two bodies separated by a distance of r would be inversely proportional to rN−1.

In 1920, Paul Ehrenfest showed that if there is only one time dimension and greater than three spatial dimensions, the orbit of a planet about its Sun cannot remain stable. The same is true of a star's orbit around the center of its galaxy.[68] Ehrenfest also showed that if there are an even number of spatial dimensions, then the different parts of a wave impulse will travel at different speeds. If there are 5+2k spatial dimensions, where k is a whole number, then wave impulses become distorted. In 1922, Hermann Weyl showed that Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism works only with three dimensions of space and one of time.[69] Finally, Tangherlini showed in 1963 that when there are more than three spatial dimensions, electron orbitals around nuclei cannot be stable; electrons would either fall into the nucleus or disperse.[70]

Max Tegmark expands on the preceding argument in the following anthropic manner.[71] If T differs from 1, the behavior of physical systems could not be predicted reliably from knowledge of the relevant partial differential equations. In such a universe, intelligent life capable of manipulating technology could not emerge. Moreover, if T > 1, Tegmark maintains that protons and electrons would be unstable and could decay into particles having greater mass than themselves. (This is not a problem if the particles have a sufficiently low temperature.)

  • General relativity requires knowledge of tensors, which are linear maps between objects like the 4-vectors that belong to the spacetime of relativity. Knowledge of 4-vectors is a prerequisite to understanding tensors.

  • A 4-tuple, A = (A0, A1, A2, A3) is a "4-vector" if its component A i transform between frames according the Lorentz transformation. The last three components of a 4-vector must be a standard vector in three-dimensional space. 4-vectors exhibit closure under linear combination, inner-product invariance, and invariance of the magnitude of a vector.

  • Examples of 4-vectors include the displacement 4-vector, the velocity 4-vector, the energy-momentum 4-vector, and the acceleration 4-vector.

  • The use of momentarily comoving reference frames enables special relativity to deal with accelerating particles.

  • Physical laws must be valid in all frames, but the laws of classical mechanics with their time-dependent 3-vectors fail to behave properly under Lorentz transformation. Valid physical laws must be formulated as equations connecting objects from spacetime like scalars and 4-vectors via tensors of suitable rank.


THE GRAPH ABOVE SHOWS THAT SPACE-TIME MUST BE A THREE PLUS ONE PATTERN (A QUATERNITY PATTERN) WITH THREE SPACE DIMENSIONS AND ONE TIME DIMENSION. Physicists showed that variations other than the THREE PLUS ONE do not work. I want to note that a lot of people think that string theory requires more than four dimensions, but physicists have shown that M Theory and String Theory can only require four dimensions.


Estienne du Tertre published suyttes de bransles in 1557, giving the first general use of the term "suite" 'suyttes' in music, although the usual form of the time was as pairs of dances. The first recognizable suite is Peuerl's Newe Padouan, Intrada, Dantz, and Galliarda of 1611, in which the four dances of the title appear repeatedly in ten suites. The Banchetto musicale by Johann Schein (1617) contains 20 sequences of five different dances. The first four-movement suite credited to a named composer, Sandley's Suite, was published in 1663.[4][5]

The "classical" suite consisted of allemandecourantesarabande, and gigue, in that order, and developed during the 17th century in France, the gigue appearing later than the others. Johann Jakob Froberger is usually credited with establishing the classical suite through his compositions in this form, which were widely published and copied, although this was largely due to his publishers standardizing the order; Froberger's original manuscripts have many different orderings of the movements, e.g. the gigue preceding the sarabande. The publisher's standardized order was, however, highly influential especially on the works of Bach.


By the time of JS Bach, suites were composed of four main movements: allemande, courante, sarabande and gigue. Several dance suites by Bach were known as "partitas." Optional movements included air, bourree (lively dance), gavotte (moderately fast dance), minuet, polonaise, and prelude.

Each of the four main movements is based on a dance form from another country. Thus, each movement has a characteristic sound and varies in rhythm and meter.


LaRue, Bonds, Walsh, and Wilson[10] trace the gradual expansion of the symphonic orchestra through the 18th century. At first, symphonies were string symphonies, written in just four parts: first violin, second violin, viola, and bass (the bass line was taken by cello(s), double bass(es) playing the part an octave below, and perhaps also a bassoon). Occasionally the early symphonists even dispensed with the viola part, thus creating three-part symphonies. A basso continuopart including a bassoon together with a harpsichord or other chording instrument was also possible.

The "Italian" style of symphony, often used as overture and entr'acte in opera houses, became a standard three-movement form: a fast movement, a slow movement, and another fast movement. Over the course of the 18th century it became the custom to write four-movement symphonies,[11] along the lines described in the next paragraph. The three-movement symphony died out slowly; about half of Haydn's first thirty symphonies are in three movements;[12] and for the young Mozart, the three-movement symphony was the norm, perhaps under the influence of his friend Johann Christian Bach.[13] An outstanding late example of the three-movement Classical symphony is Mozart's "Prague" Symphony, from 1787.

The four-movement form that emerged from this evolution was as follows:[14][15]

  1. an opening sonata or allegro

  2. a slow movement, such as adagio

  3. minuet or scherzo with trio

  4. an allegro, rondo, or sonata

Variations on this layout, like changing the order of the middle movements or adding a slow introduction to the first movement, were common. Haydn, Mozart and their contemporaries restricted their use of the four-movement form to orchestral or multi-instrument chamber music such as quartets, though since Beethoven solo sonatas are as often written in four as in three movements.[16]


4′33″ (pronounced "Four minutes, thirty-three seconds" or just "Four thirty-three"[1]) is a three-movement composition[2][3] by American experimental composer John Cage (1912–1992). It was composed in 1952, for any instrument or combination of instruments, and the score instructs the performer(s) not to play their instrument(s) during the entire duration of the piece throughout the three movements. The piece purports to consist of the sounds of the environment that the listeners hear while it is performed,[4] although it is commonly perceived as "four minutes thirty-three seconds of silence".[5][6] The title of the piece refers to the total length in minutes and seconds of a given performance, 4′33″ being the total length of the first public performance.[7]


Soon after Cage started writing percussion music and music for modern dance, he started using a technique that placed the rhythmic structure of the piece into the foreground. In Imaginary Landscape No. 1 (1939) there are four large sections of 16, 17, 18, and 19 bars, and each section is divided into four subsections, the first three of which were all 5 bars long. First Construction (in Metal) (1939) expands on the concept: there are five sections of 4, 3, 2, 3, and 4 units respectively. Each unit contains 16 bars, and is divided the same way: 4 bars, 3 bars, 2 bars, etc. Finally, the musical content of the piece is based on sixteen motives.[79] Such "nested proportions", as Cage called them, became a regular feature of his music throughout the 1940s. The technique was elevated to great complexity in later pieces such as Sonatas and Interludes for prepared piano (1946–48), in which many proportions used non-integer numbers (1¼, ¾, 1¼, ¾, 1½, and 1½ for Sonata I, for example),[80] or A Flower, a song for voice and closed piano, in which two sets of proportions are used simultaneously.[81]


In late 1940s, Cage started developing further methods of breaking away with traditional harmony. For instance, in String Quartet in Four Parts (1950) Cage first composed a number of gamuts: chords with fixed instrumentation. The piece progresses from one gamut to another. In each instance the gamut was selected only based on whether it contains the note necessary for the melody, and so the rest of the notes do not form any directional harmony.[28] Concerto for prepared piano (1950–51) used a system of charts of durations, dynamics, melodies, etc., from which Cage would choose using simple geometric patterns.[28] The last movement of the concerto was a step towards using chance procedures, which Cage adopted soon afterwards.[82]

According to Stan Weinstein there are four stages in a major cycle of stocks, stock sectors or the stock market as a whole. These four stages are (1) consolidation or base building (2) upward advancement (3) culmination (4) decline.[8]

In 1860 French economist Clement Juglar first identified economic cycles 7 to 11 years long, although he cautiously did not claim any rigid regularity.[6] Later[when?], economist Joseph Schumpeter (1883–1950) argued that a Juglar Cycle has four stages:

  1. expansion (increase in production and prices, low interest-rates)

  2. crisis (stock exchanges crash and multiple bankruptcies of firms occur)

  3. recession (drops in prices and in output, high interest-rates)

  4. recovery (stocks recover because of the fall in prices and incomes)

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

Business cycle with it specific forces in four stages according to Malcolm C. Rorty, 1922


Kondratiev identified three phases in the cycle: expansion, stagnation, and recession. More common today is the division into four periods with a turning point (collapse) between the first and second phases. Writing in the 1920s, Kondratiev proposed to apply the theory to the 19th century:

  • 1790–1849 with a turning point in 1815.

  • 1850–1896 with a turning point in 1873.

  • Kondratiev supposed that, in 1896, a new cycle had started.

Transition Economics uses TE-Mature Policy to counter LongWave Depressions Sustainably


Central to Mapuche cosmology is the idea of a creator called ngenechen, who is embodied in four components: an older man (fucha/futra/cha chau), an older woman (kude/kuse), a young man and a young woman. They believe in worlds known as the Wenu Mapu and Minche Mapu. Also, Mapuche cosmology is informed by complex notions of spirits that coexist with humans and animals in the natural world, and daily circumstances can dictate spiritual practices.[41]


The Bambara believe in one god, Bemba, or Ngala, who is the creator of all things and has, in a way, created himself as a quaternity. This quaternity consists of Bemba himself, Mousso Koroni Koundyé (or Nyale), Faro, and Ndomadyiri; the last three correspond to the four elements—air, fire, water, and earth. Before the creation Bemba was named Koni and was, in a sense, "thought" (miri ) dwelling in a void; he is also the "void" itself (lankolo ). Accordingly, he cannot be perceived by humans using their usual senses. His existence is manifested as a force: a whirlwind, thought, or vibration that contains the signs of all uncreated things.

Thus the supreme being of the Bambara exists first as a sort of repository of energy and then manifests itself as four "persons" who generate the creation by each performing a different phase of activity. In this way the creation proceeds from confusion to clarity, from the unintelligible to the intelligible.


Native American Creator God

He started by dividing himself into 4 and then back into 1, and then doubled up to produce Sun, Sky, Earth etc. Followed by branching out plus 4 more high ones, plus 4 Companions dividing the many acts of creation. 


The 4 Companions then added 4 Related ones = Whirlwind, Four Winds, Four Legs and Two Legs. Then came another 4 Godlike Ones which equals 16 into God knows what, all of which are divisible by WAKAN-TANKA as they retain a part of him to the value of W squared unless you know how to round it all up. He may even have Square Roots. This was all before Sales Tax, decimalization or the Euro.


One desiring to dance the Sun Dance according to the customs of the Oglala as they were practised before contact with white people should choose an instructor to prepare him for the ceremony, who should teach him, in substance, as follows:--

The Sun Dance of the Oglala is a sacred ceremony which may be undertaken by any one of mankind, provided he or she:--

1. Undertakes it for a proper purpose.
2. Complies with the essentials for the ceremony.
3. Conforms to the customs of the Oglala.
4. Accepts the mythology of the Lakota.

The proper purposes for undertaking the Sun Dance are:--

1. To fulfill a vow.
2. To secure supernatural aid for another.
3. To secure supernatural aid for self.
4. To secure supernatural :powers for self.

The essentials for the ceremony are:--

1. The constituents.
2. The conditions.
3. The stages.
4. The time.

The constituents are:--

1. The dancers.
2. The Mentors.
3. The assistants.
4. The people.

The conditions are:--

1. Provision for the ceremony.
2. Preparation of the dancers.
3. Consecration of the equipment.
4. Establishment of a ceremonial camp

The stages are:--

1. Announcement of the candidacy.
2. Instruction of the Candidate.
3. Occupation of the ceremonial camp.
4. Dancing the Sun Dance.

p. 61

The time is:--

1. When the buffalo are fat.
2. When new sprouts of sage are a span long.
3. When chokecherries are ripening.
4. When the Moon is rising as the Sun is going down.

Before beginning to dance the Sun Dance during the ceremony the Candidate must make an acceptable offering to the Sun and have a wound that will cause his blood to flow while he dances. If he dances the Sun Dance to its completion, he may expect a vision in which he may receive a communication from the Sun.

All the requirements and rites pertaining to this ceremony are based upon the Mythology of the Lakota and they must be supervised by a Shaman. A Shaman must control the ceremonial camp and conduct all the ceremonies pertaining to the Sun Dance that take place there, except the dance, which should be conducted by the leader of the dance. This dance may take either of the four forms, which are:--

1. Gaze-at-Sun.
2. Gaze-at-Sun Buffalo.
3. Gaze-at-Sun Staked.
4. Gaze-at-Sun Suspended.

The first is the simplest form and may be undertaken for either of the first three purposes enumerated above and performed with a scant compliance with the essentials, though the Candidate must comply with them to the best of his ability. It should be danced only when one or more of the other forms are danced. It must begin with the first song of the Sun Dance and continue during four songs, though it may continue during as many more songs as the dancer pleases. For this form, any offering may be made to the Sun, but it should he of as much value as the Candidate can afford. The wound to cause the blood to flow must not be smaller than that made by cutting away a bit of skin as large as a louse and it may be as large and deep as the Candidate wills to have it made. Women and children may dance the first form, because there are no tortures inflicted during the dance. Those who have danced the Sun Dance on a former occasion may again dance this form, provided they first make an offering to the Sun and cause the blood to flow from wounds on their persons. Such dancers may begin the dance at any time during the dance by others and may dance for as many songs as they choose.

The second, third, and fourth forms each differ from the others, only in the manner of the wounds to cause the flow of blood and the torture inflicted during the dance; but the wounds and tortures for each form should be

p. 62

made alike for each dancer of that form. One may undertake either of these three forms for either of the first three purposes; but one who undertakes to dance for the fourth purpose must dance the fourth form. The torture inflicted in the fourth form, may be, either figuratively or actually, suspending the dancer while he dances. If the dancer is dancing for the purpose of securing the supernatural powers that Shamans should have, he must dance the fourth form actually suspended. A dance thus performed is the Sun Dance in its fullest form which includes most of the: Mythology and much of the customs of the Oglala. One who dances the Sun Dance in its fullest form establishes before the Sun, and in the presence of the people, his possession of the four great virtues, which are:--

1. Bravery.
2. Generosity.
3. Fortitude.
4. Integrity.

One who possesses these four virtues should be respected and honored by all the people. Thus, the scars made by the wounds and tortures inflicted during the Sun Dance are honorable insignia.

One who contemplates dancing the Sun Dance should know these things: and carefully consider the compliance with the essentials for the performance of the ceremony, for it is done for the benefit of both the dancer and the people. He should endeavor to know whether the people deem his virtues sufficient to enable him to dance the Sun Dance to its completion or not;. for, if they think he lacks in one or all of the great virtues, they probably will not become constituents, and he cannot have the ceremony performed.

The Sun Dance is a feastal ceremony and provision must The made for feasts that are rites and are to be given by the Candidate, his kindred, and his band, for all these are honored by the performance of the ceremony. Therefore, while it is expected that a Candidate will give all his; possessions in making provision for the feasts, his kindred and his friends should also give liberally; indeed, the entire band should contribute for both feasts and presents. A Candidate must give presents to his Mentor and attendant and should give to all the assistants and those who take an active part in the rites of the ceremony. He must provide the equipment necessary for the occasion, and make acceptable offerings to the Sun. If he cannot comply with these conditions in an abundant manner, he should undertake only the first form of the dance, and then little will be expected of him or his people. If he thinks he can make suitable provision, he may proceed.


When Wakan Tanka wishes one of mankind to do something he makes his wishes known either in a vision or through a shaman.. . . The shaman addresses Wakan Tanka as Tobtob Kin. This is part of the secret language of the shamans.. . . . Tobtob Kin are four times four gods while Tob Kin is only the four winds. The four winds is a god and is the akicita or messenger of all the other gods. The four times four are: Wikan and Hanwikan; Taku Skanskan and Tatekan and Tob Kin and Yumnikan; Makakan and Wohpe; Inyankan and Wakinyan; Tatankakan; Hunonpakan; Wanagi; Waniya; Nagila; and Wasicunpi. These are the names of the good Gods as they are known to the people.

Wakan Tanka is like sixteen different persons; but each person is kan. Therefore, they are all only the same as one . . . . All the God persons have ton. Ton is the power to do supernatural things . . . . Half of the good Gods are ton ton (have physical properties) and half are ton ton sni (have no physical properties). Half of those who are ton ton are ton ton yan (visible), and half of those who are ton ton sni are ton ton yan sni (Invisible). All the other Gods are visible or invisible as they choose to be . . . . All the evil Gods are visible or invisible as they choose to be . . . . The invisible Gods never appear in a vision except to a Shaman . . . . Except for the Sun dance, the ceremonies for the visible and the invisible Gods differ. The Sun dance is a ceremony the same as if Wikan were both visible and invisible. This is because Wi is the chief of the Gods. . . .


Isis and her sister Nephthys went looking for these pieces, but could only find thirteen of the fourteen. Fish had swallowed the last piece, his phallus. With Thoth's help she created a golden phallus, and attached it to Osiris’s body. She then transformed into a kite, and with the aid of Thoth’s magic conceived Horus the Younger. The number of pieces is described on temple walls variously as fourteen and sixteen, one for each nome or district.[17]


In the Osirian temple at Denderah, an inscription (translated by Budge, Chapter XV, Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection) describes in detail the making of wheat paste models of each dismembered piece of Osiris to be sent out to the town where each piece is discovered by Isis. At the temple of Mendes, figures of Osiris were made from wheat and paste placed in a trough on the day of the murder, then water was added for several days, until finally the mixture was kneaded into a mold of Osiris and taken to the temple to be buried (the sacred grain for these cakes were grown only in the temple fields). Molds were made from the wood of a red tree in the forms of the sixteen dismembered parts of Osiris, the cakes of 'divine' bread were made from each mold, placed in a silver chest and set near the head of the god with the inward parts of Osiris as described in the Book of the Dead (XVII).


Arba'ah Turim (Hebrew: אַרְבַּעָה טוּרִים‎‎‎), often called simply the Tur, is an important Halakhic code composed by Jacob ben Asher (Cologne, 1270 – Toledo, Spain c. 1340, also referred to as Ba'al Ha-Turim). The four-part structure of the Tur and its division into chapters (simanim) were adopted by the later code Shulchan Aruch.

The title of the work in Hebrew means "four rows", in allusion to the jewels on the High Priest's breastplate. Each of the four divisions of the work is a "Tur", so a particular passage may be cited as "Tur Orach Chayim, siman 22", meaning "Orach Chayim division, chapter 22". This was later misunderstood as meaning "Tur, Orach Chayim, chapter 22" (to distinguish it from the corresponding passage in the Shulchan Aruch), so that "Tur" came to be used as the title of the whole work.[1]

The Arba'ah Turim, as the name implies, consists of four divisions ("Turim"); these are further organised by topic and section (siman, pl. simanim).[2]

The four Turim are as follows:

  • Joseph Caro's Shulchan Aruch, the fundamental work of Halakha, is a condensation of his Beit Yosef and follows the basic structure of the Arba'ah Turim, including its division into four sections and chapters - Tur's structure down to the siman is retained in the Shulchan Aruch.


We believe that, in order to move forward, you must access your mindset, nourish your body and regenerate your soul. We know what you achieve in here leads to an even better you out there. We empower you to get what you really want and live your best life now. The roadmap to your best self begins with 4 lifestyle pillars: Mindset, Movement, Nourishment and Regeneration.

The axes of a two-dimensional Cartesian system divide the plane into four infinite regions, called quadrants, each bounded by two half-axes .

These are often numbered from 1st to 4th and denoted by Roman numerals: I (where the signs of the (x,y) coordinates are (+,+), II (−,+), III (−,−), and IV (+,−). When the axes are drawn according to the mathematical custom, the numbering goes counter-clockwise starting from the upper right ("northeast") quadrant.

The four quadrants of a Cartesian coordinate system.

In the above graphic, the words in quotation marks are a mnemonic for remembering which three trigonometric functions (sine, cosine and tangent) are positive in each quadrant. The expression reads "All Science Teachers Crazy" and proceeding counterclockwise from the upper right quadrant, we see that "All" functions are positive in quadrant I, "Science" (for sine) is positive in quadrant II, "Teachers" (for tangent) is positive in quadrant III, and "Crazy" (for cosine) is positive in quadrant IV. There are several variants of this mnemonic.

In mathematics, the four color theorem, or the four color map theorem, states that, given any separation of a plane into contiguous regions, producing a figure called a map, no more than four colors are required to color the regions of the map so that no two adjacent regions have the same color. Two regions are called adjacent if they share a common boundary that is not a corner, where corners are the points shared by three or more regions.[1]


The St. Andrews Cross Spider (Argiope keyserlingi) is a common species of orb-web spider found on the east coast of Australia, from central New South Wales to southern Queensland. The St. Andrew’s Cross Spider is very similar in appearance to the closely related north Queensland species, Argiope aetherea (another common, large orb-web spider).

The X shape is called the St. Andrew’s cross because it is believed that the saint was martyred on a cross of this shape rather than the conventional cross shape.

These orb webs are 38 – 50 millimetres wide and contain only 2 stabilimentum (conspicuous silk structures). Argiope versicolor, which is found inland, makes the ‘full’ cross with 4 stabilimentum. The zigzag lines of their webs match their leg positions, which lead some people to suggest that this helps give the appearance of longer legs. Some spiders build a single vertical line, yet others a patch of zigzags in the centre of the web. No matter what the design is, this spider sits right in the middle of the web at all times.



The cross fox is a partially melanistic colour variant of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) which has a long dark stripe running down its back, intersecting another stripe to form a cross over the shoulders. It tends to be more abundant in northern regions,[1] and is rarer than the common red form, but is more common than the even darker silver fox.[2]


A poor farmer near Jerusalem owned a donkey far too small to do much work at all. He felt that he couldn’t afford to feed a worthless animal like this, one that could do him no good whatsoever, so at the supper table he told his family that he was going to kill the donkey.

His children, who loved the little donkey, begged him to sell it rather than harm it. But the farmer said, “It’s wrong to sell an animal that can’t do a good day’s work.”

Then his oldest daughter suggested, “Father, tie the donkey to a tree on the road to town, and say whoever wants it may take it for nothing.” And the next morning, that’s what the farmer did.

Soon, two men approached and asked if they could have the donkey. “It can carry almost nothing,” the farmer warned them.

“Jesus of Nazareth has need of it,” replied one of the men. The farmer couldn’t imagine what a great teacher would want with such a worthless donkey, but he handed it over.


The men took the animal to Jesus, who stroked the grateful donkey’s face and then mounted it and rode away. So it was on the day we call Palm Sunday, Jesus led his followers into the city of Jerusalem riding on the back of a small, common donkey.


The donkey so loved his gentle master that he later followed him to Calvary. Grief-stricken by the sight of Jesus on the cross, the donkey turned away but couldn’t leave. It was then that the shadow of the cross fell upon the shoulders and back of the donkey, and there it stayed. All donkeys have borne the sign of the cross on their backs since that very day.

Excerpted from Sue Weaver, The Donkey Companion (Storey Publishing, 2008).

The crucifix crab continues to inspire a number of Goa’s Catholic population who believe that the cross on the crab’s shell is not a mere accident of nature, but also a divine message. Read more from Asian Scientist Magazine at:


A quad, or quadruple, is a figure skating jump with at least four but less than five revolutions.[1] Most quadruple jumps have exactly four revolutions; the quadruple Axel has 4½ revolutions, although no figure skater to date has completed this jump in competition. The quadruple toe loop and quadruple Salchow are the two most commonly skated in the discipline. Quadruple jumps have become increasingly common among World and Olympic level men's single skaters, to the point that not having one in a program may be considered a handicap.[2]


The Hermai were placed at crossroads all over Greece. A cross roads is a cross, an intersection of four directions. The cross is not merely a Christian symbol; it is universal. So we already can see a very strong connection between Hermes and the Christ of the Christians: the cross, the number four, the ram, the lamb, the rooster, being born from the mother Maia, Maria, Mary.

As a symbol of protection and a divine blessing, the herm were placed at crossroads, temples, borders, boundaries, and many other places.

The sacred number of Hermes is the number four.


Papa Legba is a loa in Haitian Vodou, who serves as the intermediary between the loa and humanity. He stands at a spiritual crossroads and gives (or denies) permission to speak with the spirits of Guinee, and is believed to speak all human languages. In Haiti, he is the great elocutioner. Legba facilitates communication, speech, and understanding.

David A. Kolb's model is based on his experiential learning model, as explained in his book Experiential Learning.[8] Kolb's model outlines two related approaches toward grasping experience: Concrete Experience and Abstract Conceptualization, as well as two related approaches toward transforming experience: Reflective Observation and Active Experimentation.[8]:145 According to Kolb's model, the ideal learning process engages all four of these modes in response to situational demands; they form a learning cycle from experience to observation to conceptualization to experimentation and back to experience. In order for learning to be effective, Kolb postulated, all four of these approaches must be incorporated. As individuals attempt to use all four approaches, they may tend to develop strengths in one experience-grasping approach and one experience-transforming approach, leading them to prefer one of the following four learning styles:[8]:127[9]

  1. Accommodator = Concrete Experience + Active Experiment: strong in "hands-on" practical doing (e.g., physical therapists)

  2. Converger = Abstract Conceptualization + Active Experiment: strong in practical "hands-on" application of theories (e.g., engineers)

  3. Diverger = Concrete Experience + Reflective Observation: strong in imaginative ability and discussion (e.g., social workers)

  4. Assimilator = Abstract Conceptualization + Reflective Observation: strong in inductive reasoning and creation of theories (e.g., philosophers)

Kolb's model gave rise to the Learning Style Inventory, an assessment method used to determine an individual's learning style. According to this model, individuals may exhibit a preference for one of the four styles — Accommodating, Converging, Diverging and Assimilating — depending on their approach to learning in Kolb's experiential learning model.[8]

Peter Honey and Alan Mumford adapted Kolb's experiential learning model. First, they renamed the stages in the learning cycle to accord with managerialexperiences: having an experience, reviewing the experience, concluding from the experience, and planning the next steps.[11]:121–122 Second, they aligned these stages to four learning styles named:[11]:122–124

  1. Activist

  2. Reflector

  3. Theorist

  4. Pragmatist

These four learning styles are assumed to be acquired preferences that are adaptable, either at will or through changed circumstances, rather than being fixed personality characteristics. Honey and Mumford's Learning Styles Questionnaire (LSQ)[12] is a self-development tool and differs from Kolb's Learning Style Inventory by inviting managers to complete a checklist of work-related behaviours without directly asking managers how they learn. Having completed the self-assessment, managers are encouraged to focus on strengthening underutilised styles in order to become better equipped to learn from a wide range of everyday experiences.

Neil Fleming's VARK model[19] expanded upon earlier notions of sensory modalities such as the VAK model of Barbe and colleagues[13] and the representational systems (VAKOG) in neuro-linguistic programming.[20] The four sensory modalities in Fleming's model are:[21]

  1. Visual learning

  2. Auditory learning

  3. Read/write learning

  4. Kinesthetic learning

Fleming claimed that visual learners have a preference for seeing (visual aids that represent ideas using methods other than words, such as graphs, charts, diagrams, symbols, etc.). Subsequent neuroimaging research has suggested that visual learners convert words into images in the brain and vice versa,[22] but some psychologists have argued that this "is not an instance of learning styles, rather, it is an instance of ability appearing as a style".[2]:268 Likewise, Fleming claimed that auditory learners best learn through listening (lectures, discussions, tapes, etc.), and tactile/kinesthetic learners prefer to learn via experience—moving, touching, and doing (active exploration of the world, science projects, experiments, etc.). Students can use the model to identify their preferred learning style and, it is claimed, maximize their learning by focusing on the mode that benefits them the most. Fleming's model also posits two types of multimodality.


Fleming is best known worldwide for the design of the VARK model.[2] which expanded upon earlier Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) models.[3] His VARK model was launched in 1987 through work done at Lincoln University. Prior to Fleming's work, VAK was in common usage. Fleming split the Visual dimension (the V in VAK) into two parts—symbolic as Visual (V) and text as Read/write (R). This created a fourth mode, Read/write and brought about the word VARK for a new concept, a learning-preferences approach, a questionnaire and support materials.

The Zia regard the Sun as a sacred symbol. Their symbol, a red circle with groups of rays pointing in four directions, is painted on ceremonial vases, drawn on the ground around campfires, and used to introduce newborns to the Sun. Four is the sacred number of the Zia and can be found repeated in the four points radiating from the circle. The number four is embodied in:

  • the four points of the compass (north, south, east and west);

  • the four seasons of the year (spring, summer, autumn and winter);

  • the four periods of each day (morning, noon, evening and night);

  • the four seasons of life (childhood, youth, middle years and old age); and

  • the four sacred obligations one must develop (a strong body, a clear mind, a pure spirit, and a devotion to the welfare of others), according to Zia belief.

The symbol is featured on the Flag of New Mexico and in the design of both the New Mexico State Capitol and New Mexico's State Quarter entry, as well as the state highway marker. Given its history, the Pueblo would like people to first request permission before using it.[13][14]

The Zia Sun Symbol is featured on the New Mexico flag.


According to Irenaeus,[6] the followers of the Gnostics Ptolemy and Colorbasus had Aeons that differ from those of Valentinus. Logos is created when Anthroposlearns to speak. The first four are called the Tetrad, and the eight are the Ogdoad deities of the Ancient Egyptian pantheon.

The use of the word Charis enabled Ptolemaeus (quoted by Irenaeus, i. 8) to find in John 1:14 the first tetrad of Aeons, viz., Pater, Monogenes, Charis, Aletheia.


There is an intimate association between the name and that which is named. According to Valentinus all things that truly exist do so in association with their name: "For what does not exist has no name - indeed what would a nonexistent be named? - but what exists, exists along with its name" (Gospel of Truth 39:11-16). The linking together of the name and that which is named is expressed elsewhere in Valentinian theology through the concept of the syzygy (linked pairs). In the syzygy, the "male" corresponding to form is joined with the "female" corresponding to substance. In most forms of Valentinian thought, even the Father is a syzygy. His inexpressible nature is expressed by having him united with his Thought (or Silence). The Son is also generally conceived of as a syzygy. He is Mind united with Truth. Inasmuch as both Father and Son are both syzygies, they are together described as the first Tetrad. (see Irenaeus Against Heresies 1:1:1). The Tetrad is itself linked with the fact that the divine name is expressed by four letters in Hebrew.

In Valentinian theology, the Son emanates a series of divine attributes or 'Aeons'. The Aeons follow the pattern established in the first Tetrad and are arranged into pairs (syzygies). The relationship of the Son to the Aeons is unclear without taking account of the notion of the Name. How the Aeons are related to the Name (Son) is clearly spelled out in the teacher Marcus as follows: "The pronunciation of the Name took place as follows. He spoke the first word of it which was the beginning, and that utterance consisted of four letters. He added the second and this also consisted of four letters. Next he uttered a third and this again embraced ten letters. Finally, he pronounced a fourth which was composed of twelve letters. The enunciation of the whole Name consisted of thirty letters or elements, and of four distinct utterances" (Irenaeus Against Heresies 1:14:1) Using the metaphor developed by Marcus, each of the Aeons correspond to an individual letter of the Name. In addition to the Tetrad, there are twenty-six Aeons. Again we note a connection to Judaism. In Hebrew numerology, the divine name has a numerical value of twenty-six. Four and twenty-six give a total of thirty Aeons.



Concerning this name he gives the following account:—When the first Father, who is above thought and without substance, willed the unspeakable to become spoken, and the invisible to become formed, He opened His mouth and emitted a Word like Himself, which being the form of the invisible, declared to Himself what He was. His name consisted of four syllables successively uttered, of four, four, ten, and twelve letters respectively.

It might appear as if we were to understand as the first of these the word ἀρχή; and this name of four syllables and thirty letters seems to a description of the system of thirty Aeons divided into two Tetrads, a Decad, and a Dodecad. Each letter is one of the Aeons, and contains within itself an infinity of mysteries. Each letter makes its own sound, it knows not the sound of the adjacent letter, nor of the whole, but the restitution of all things will take place when all the letters are brought to make the same sound, and then a harmony will result of which we have an image in that made when we all sound the Amen together.

Marcus pushes into further details his designation of the Aeons as letters of the alphabet. There are twenty-four letters in the alphabet, and twenty-four is the sum of the letters of the names of the first tetrad:

  • The Unspeakable (ἄῤῥητος)

  • Silence (σειγή)

  • Father (πατήρ)

  • Truth (ἀλήθεια)

Followed by those of the second tetrad:

  • Word (λόγος)

  • Life (ζωή)

  • Man (ἄνθρωπος)

  • Church (ἐκκλησία)

These form the Ogdoad. Again, the Greek alphabet consists of nine mutes, eight semivowels, and seven vowels. The mutes belong to Father and Truth (The Unspeakable, and Silence, of course, do not count); these being mute reveal nothing to man. The semivowels belong to Word and Life, but the vowels to Man and Church, since it was a voice coming through Man which gave power to all.

The Pythagorean Tetrad.[1]


Hesiod's Theogony (c. 700 BC) tells the story of the genesis of the gods. After invoking the Muses (II.1-116), he tells of the generation of the first four primordial deities:

"First Chaos came to be, but next... Earth... and dim Tartarus in the depth of the... Earth, and Eros..."[1]

According to Hesiod, the next primordial gods that come to be are:

Mitchell Miller argues that the first four primordial deities arise in a highly significant relationship. He argues that Chaos represents differentiation, since Chaos differentiates (separates, divides) Tartarus and Earth.[9] Even though Chaos is "first of all" for Hesiod, Miller argues that Tartarus represents the primacy of the undifferentiated, or the unlimited. Since undifferentiation is unthinkable, Chaos is the "first of all" in that he is the first thinkable being. In this way, Chaos (the principle of division) is the natural opposite of Eros (the principle of unification). Earth (light, day, waking, life) is the natural opposite of Tartarus (darkness, night, sleep, death). These four are the parents of all the other Titans.


The crusades were the result of the Pope wanting to get back the holy land with Jerusalem and its surrounding biblically historic cities. They had been taken over by the Muslims in their conquest, and now they were wanted back by the Christians. There were four major Crusades, and countless other smaller ones. The first crusade was the only one that could really be called a success, and all the others got slowly worse. The fourth crusade was a complete and total flop of a failure. The crusaders even sacked Christian cities!

There were also things like the Children's crusade, a very sad event. Since their families were off fighting crusades, they decided to join the fun. There were two groups, a French one and a German one. The French one very sadly ran into some slave traders, Hugo Ferreus and William Porcus, and were tricked into getting on their ship. The traders said they would transport across the Mediterranean sea for free for the sake of God, but they had other plans, and the children were sold into slavery. The German group traveled until they had lost thirteen thousand, and were later blocked by the bishop in Brindisi.

Here is some more detailed information on the first four crusades:

The First Crusade

The First Crusade took place from 1095 to 1099 and was the only crusade to capture Jerusalem. Before the Crusades, there were many restless knights with nothing to do but fight each other, so this crusade was a good outlet for their excess energy. This Crusade also made pilgrims safer on their travels and kept the battle farther from home so the land still owned by the Christians wasn't damaged or taken. The main objective was to retake Jerusalem and the Holy Sepulcher. The leaders of this Crusade were Godfrey of Bouillon, Pope Urban II, Walter the Penniless, and Peter the Hermit. The outcome of this Crusade was that they captured Antioch and Jerusalem, and established the Crusader states.

The Second Crusade

This Crusade took place from 1145 to 1148 and the mission was to recapture Edessa, which had been captured by the Muslims while the Crusaders were busy elsewhere. Edessa was one of the Crusader states, and it was important enough to want to get back. The leaders of this Crusade were Emperor Konrad III, Louis VII of France, Bernard of Clairveaux, and Pope Eugenius III. The Crusaders did not actually get Edessa back, and because of this, everyone began to lose hope, since a Holy Crusade had failed.

The Third Crusade

The Third Crusade started in 1187 and ended in 1191. The mission of this Crusade was to regain Jerusalem now that Saladin had taken it back. This Crusade is famous for its leaders. These were Richard the Lion-Hearted, Emperor Fredrick Barbarossa, and Philip Augustus, King of France. Now this Crusade wasn't exactly a failure, like the second, but it wasn't really a success either. Jerusalem wasn't completely taken, it still had Muslim control, but Christians had free access to it. But there were other places taken by the Crusaders too, these were Cyprus and some towns along the coast of the Mediterranean.

The Fourth Crusade

This Crusade from 1198 to 1204 was a disgrace to all Christians and a complete mess of failure. The mission was a very general one: try to attack the Muslim powers holding the Holy land, but they never even got there. The cities they did sack though were Christian! First Zara, then Constantinople itself! The reason was because they had no money or suplies, but it was still inexcusable.

The Watch (previously known as Neighborhood Watch)[3] is a 2012 American science fiction comedy film directed by Akiva Schaffer and written by Jared Stern, Seth Rogen and Evan Goldberg. It stars Ben StillerVince VaughnJonah Hill and Richard Ayoade. The film follows Evan (Stiller), Bob (Vaughn), Franklin (Hill), and Jamarcus (Ayoade), a group of neighbors who form a suburban neighborhood watch group. When they uncover an alien plot threatening the world, they are forced into action.


The film follows three friends who have been in a rut in their lives: Adam Yates (John Cusack) is dumped by his girlfriend; Nick Webber-Agnew (Craig Robinson) is a henpecked husband with a dead-end job at a dog spa; and Lou Dorchen (Rob Corddry) is a party animal in his 40s.[3][4] When Lou is hospitalized for carbon monoxide poisoning, Adam and Nick sympathetically take him and Adam's shut-in nephew Jacob (Clark Duke) to a ski resort at Kodiak Valley, where the three had some good times in the past. During a night of heavy drinking in the hotel room's hot tub, they spill the contents of a drink called Chernobly on the console.


The Great Hypostyle Hall is located within the Karnak temple complex, in the Precinct of Amon-Re. It is one of the most visited monuments of Ancient Egypt. The structure was built around the 19th Egyptian Dynasty (c. 1290–1224 BC).[1] Its design was initially instituted by Hatshepsut, at the North-west chapel to Amun in the upper terrace of Deir el-Bahri. The name refers to hypostyle architectural pattern.

The Great Hypostyle Hall covers an area of 5,000 m2 (54,000 sq ft). The roof, now fallen, was supported by 134 columns in 16 rows; the 2 middle rows are higher than the others (being 10 metres (33 ft) in circumference and 24 metres (79 ft) high).


The complex is a vast open-air museum, and the second[citation needed]largest ancient religious site in the world, after the Angkor Wat Temple of Cambodia. It is believed to be the second[citation needed] most visited historical site in Egypt; only the Giza Pyramids near Cairo receive more visits. It consists of four main parts, of which only the largest is currently open to the general public. The term Karnak often is understood as being the Precinct of Amun-Ra only, because this is the only part most visitors see. The three other parts, the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Montu, and the dismantled Temple of Amenhotep IV, are closed to the public. There also are a few smaller temples and sanctuaries connecting the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Amun-Re, and the Luxor Temple.


The Pyramids of Giza consist of the Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Cheops or Khufu and constructed c. 2560–2540 BC), the somewhat smaller Pyramid of Khafre (or Chephren) a few hundred meters to the south-west, and the relatively modest-sized Pyramid of Menkaure (or Mykerinos) a few hundred meters farther south-west. The Great Sphinx lies on the east side of the complex. Current consensus among Egyptologists is that the head of the Great Sphinx is that of Khafre. Along with these major monuments are a number of smaller satellite edifices, known as "queens" pyramids, causeways and valley pyramids.[3]

Khufu's pyramid complex

Main article: Great Pyramid of Giza

Khufu’s pyramid complex consists of a valley temple, now buried beneath the village of Nazlet el-Samman; basalt paving and nummulitic limestone walls have been found but the site has not been excavated.[4][5] The valley temple was connected to a causeway which was largely destroyed when the village was constructed. The causeway led to the Mortuary Temple of Khufu. From this temple the basalt pavement is the only thing that remains. The mortuary temple was connected to the king’s pyramid. The king’s pyramid has three smaller queen’s pyramids associated with it and five boat pits.[6]:11–19 The boat pits contained a ship, and the 2 pits on the south side of the pyramid still contained intact ships. One of these ships has been restored and is on display. Khufu's pyramid still has a limited collection of casing stones at its base. These casing stones were made of fine white limestone quarried from the nearby range.[3]

Khafre's pyramid complex

Main articles: Pyramid of Khafre and Great Sphinx of Giza

Khafre’s pyramid complex consists of a valley temple, the Sphinx temple, a causeway, a mortuary temple and the king’s pyramid. The valley temple yielded several statues of Khafre. Several were found in a well in the floor of the temple by Mariette in 1860. Others were found during successive excavations by Sieglin (1909–10), Junker, Reisner, and Hassan. Khafre’s complex contained five boat-pits and a subsidiary pyramid with a serdab.[6]:19–26 Khafre's pyramid appears larger than the adjacent Khufu Pyramid by virtue of its more elevated location, and the steeper angle of inclination of its construction—it is, in fact, smaller in both height and volume. Khafre's pyramid retains a prominent display of casing stones at its apex.[3]

Menkaure's pyramid complex

Main article: Pyramid of Menkaure

Menkaure’s pyramid complex consists of a valley temple, a causeway, a mortuary temple, and the king’s pyramid. The valley temple once contained several statues of Menkaure. During the 5th dynasty, a smaller ante-temple was added on to the valley temple. The mortuary temple also yielded several statues of Menkaure. The king’s pyramid has three subsidiary or queen’s pyramids.[6]:26–35 Of the four major monuments, only Menkaure's pyramid is seen today without any of its original polished limestone casing.[3]


Main article: Great Sphinx of Giza

The Sphinx dates from the reign of king Khafre.[7] During the New Kingdom, Amenhotep II dedicated a new temple to Hauron-Haremakhet and this structure was added onto by later rulers.[6]:39–40


Gauntlet is a fantasy-themed hack and slash 1985 arcade game by Atari Games.[1] Released in October 1985, Atari ultimately sold a total of 7,848 Gauntlet video game arcade cabinets.[3] It is noted as being one of the first multi-playerdungeon crawl arcade games.[4][5] The core design of Gauntlet comes from Dandy, a 1983 Atari 8-bit family title, which resulted in a lawsuit.

The players, up to four at once in the arcade version, select among four playable fantasy-based characters: Thor, a Warrior; Merlin, a Wizard; Thyra, a Valkyrie; or Questor, an Elf. Each character has his or her own unique strength and weaknesses. For example, the Warrior is strongest in hand-to-hand combat, the Wizard has the most powerful magic, the Valkyrie has the best armor and the Elf is the fastest in movement.[2]


The temple's glory was short-lived, as it fell into disuse after being pillaged during a barbarian invasion in the 3rd century AD, just about a century after its completion. It was probably never repaired and was reduced to ruins thereafter. In the centuries after the fall of the Roman Empire, it was extensively quarried for building materials to supply building projects elsewhere in the city. Despite this, a substantial part of the temple remains today, notably sixteen of the original gigantic columns, and it continues to be part of a very important archaeological site of Greece.

Fifteen columns remain standing today and a sixteenth column lies on the ground where it fell during a storm in 1852. Nothing remains of the cella or the great statue that it once housed.

View of the Temple of Olympian Zeus in 2016, showing the sixteen surviving columns, one of which is lying on the ground.



Now, before we really dig into this symbol, check out these two passages:


In addition to that, escorted by only these men, he [Franz d'Epinay] was about to land on an island which certainly had a very religious name, but which appeared to offer Franz no greater hospitality than Calvary did to Christ, in view of the smugglers and the bandits. (31.100)


A little corvette was bobbing in a fairly large cove; it had a narrow hull and tall mast with a flag flying from the lateen yard and bearing Monte Cristo's coat of arms: a mountain on a field of azure with a cross gules at the chief, which could have been an allusion to his name (evoking Calvary, which Our Saviour's passion has made a mountain more precious than gold, and the infamous cross which his divine blood made holy) as much as to any personal memory of suffering in the mysterious night of the man's past. (85.124)


Here, Dumas is making a less than subtle analogy between the island of Monte Cristo and Calvary, the hill on which Jesus was crucified. Franz d'Epinay immediately makes the association between Monte Cristo – "Mountain of Christ" – and the place of Christ's execution. Dumas is a little more coy about his comparisons when he describes the Count's coat of arms, "a mountain with a field of azure with a cross gules" at the chief. In this context, "gules" simply means red; the Count's flag has what looks like a mountain with a red cross on top, against a blue background. Dumas goes on to tell us that this "could be" an allusion to the Count's name, a name which "could be," we can infer, an allusion to Calvary and the cross of Christ; or, that it could be some reference to his own personal suffering.


Of course, Dumas wants us to know that it is all those things: Monte Cristo's name – taken from the name of the island – and coat of arms recalls the suffering of Christ on the cross; Edmond Dantès's personal suffering reminds us of the same, and his rebirth as the Count reminds of Christ's resurrection. He, like Jesus, emerges from a cave – although in Edmond's case the cave contains a big chest of gold and jewels.


Now, if Dumas hasn't gotten through to you at this point, he really hammers things home in the last line of the last chapter of the book. "Who knows if we shall ever see them again," says Morrel, tears in his eyes. "My dearest," Valentine responds, "has the count not just told us that all human wisdom was contained these two words—'wait' and 'hope?'" (117.159). Dumas lets us know that the Count will be back again, like the Christian belief in the "second coming" of Christ.


Durkheim's Four Types of suicide  
1. Altruistic Suicide is correlated w/ High Integration into society  
When social integration is too strong, the individual is literally forced into committing suicide. Hero suicide occurs when a parent dies while pushing their child out of the way of a car. Altruistic suicide springs from hope, for it depends on the belief in the beautiful afterlife: death is a deliverance

Non-extreme examples

  • soldier jumping on grenade or charging hill

  • policeman dying in line of duty

  • parent pushing child from path of car

Extreme Examples:

  • Kamikazes

  • Muslim bombers

  • 1996: men emolating (burning) themselves to protest: Miss World pageant in India.

  • The followers of Reverend Jim Jones at the People's Temple in Jonestown, Guyana.

2. Fatalistic Suicide: High Regulation by society  
Persons w/ pitilessly blocked opportunities; passions, violently choked by oppressive discipline  
Fatalistic suicide was little mentioned by Durkheim  

  • slaves

  • prisoners

  • overworked college students

  • American middle class working men

  • American middle class house wives

3. Egoistic suicide: Low Integration into society  
Individual experiences a sense of meaninglessness. Found in societies where individuals are not well integrated into the society. Personal feeling/emotion: Sense of meaninglessness, depression. Stems from the social currents of incurable weariness; sad depression


  • Lone Wolf Suicide: You have nothing: The Stranger

  • School Age killer/suicides: I have no friends; I am left out of everything

  • Star Egoistic Suicide: Many stars die of egoistic suicide (Marilyn Monroe, Janis Joplin, Jim Morrison and Kurt Cobain of Nirvanna)

4. Anomic suicide: Low Regulation by society
Anomie: experience where Culture ( common knowledge, beliefs, values, norms ) does not exist ;/or has become ineffective ( for Durkheim, Culture may be thought of as the collective unconscious )

In comparing Anomie to Alienation, Alienation is the separation or isolation from existing culture whereas Anomie is the condition where there is no culture, i.e., no culture to be separated from

Societal disintegration leads to currents of depression; disillusionment. The moral disintegration of society predisposes the individual to commit suicide, but the currents of depression must be there to produce differences in rates of anomic suicide. But even though social forces may be weak, an individual is never totally free of the collectivity Disruptions in regulative powers of society leaves people dissatisfied because they have little control over their passions

Examples of anomic suicide


  • I am so weak, I have nothing left to lose

  • Suicide from great loss (lay-off)

  • Bum: I can do whatever I want because no one can hurt me

  • Social or natural crises reduce regulation; people feel they have nothing left to lose, no reason to live

The four different types of suicide that he proposed are egoistic, altruistic, anomic, and fatalistic. He began by plotting social regulation on the x-axis of his chart, and social integration on the y-axis. Egoistic suicide corresponds to a low level of social integration. When one is not well integrated into a social group it can lead to a feeling that he or she has not made a difference in anyone’s lives. On the other hand, too much social integration would be altruistic suicide. This occurs when a group dominates the life of an individual to a degree where they feel meaningless to society. Anomic suicide occurs when one has an insufficient amount of social regulation. This stems from the sociological term anomie meaning a sense of aimlessness or despair that arises from the inability to reasonably expect life to be predictable. Lastly, there is fatalistic suicide, which results from too much social regulation. An example of this would be when one follows the same routine day after day. This leads to he or she believing there is nothing good to look forward to. Durkheim suggested this was the most popular form of suicide for prisoners.Émile_Durkheim

These four types of suicide are based on the degrees of imbalance of two social forces: social integration and moral regulation.[3] Durkheim noted the effects of various crises on social aggregates — war, for example, leading to an increase in altruism, economic boom or disaster contributing to anomie.


  • Each pack includes 4 bite-size snack squares made with roasted almonds, toasted rolled oats, tangy cranberries and dark chocolate


Get More For Four: Wendy's 4 for $4 Meal is the Real Deal

DUBLIN, Ohio, Oct. 12, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- Starting today, Wendy's® is changing the game when it comes to lunch.  With the introduction of Wendy's new 4 for $4 Meal featuring a Jr. Bacon Cheeseburger, chicken nuggets, fries, and a drink*, customers can now get a quality meal at an affordable price.** 


While the original commercial is 60 seconds long, an edited 30-second version and 15-second version of this commercial are the ones that have aired innumerable times over the years. The dialogue to the 60-second version is as follows:

Questioning Boy (Buddy Foster): Mr. Cow...

Mr. Cow (Frank Nelson): Yeeeeesss!!?

Questioning Boy: How many licks does it take to get to the Tootsie Roll center of a Tootsie Pop?!

Mr. Cow: I don't know, I always end up biting. Ask Mr. Fox, for he's much cleverer than I.

Questioning Boy: Mr. Fox, how many licks does it take to get to the Tootsie Roll center of a Tootsie Pop?!!

Mr. Fox (Paul Frees): Why don't you ask Mr. Turtle, for he's been around a lot longer than I! Me, heheh, I bite!

Questioning Boy: Mr. Turtle, how many licks does it take to get to the Tootsie Roll center of a Tootsie Pop?

Mr. Turtle (Ralph James): I've never even made it without biting. Ask Mr. Owl, for he is the wisest of us all.

Questioning Boy: Mr. Owl, how many licks does it take to get to the Tootsie Roll center of a Tootsie Pop!?

Mr. Owl (Paul Winchell): A good question. Let's find out. (He takes the Tootsie pop and starts licking) A One... A two-HOO... A tha-three..

(crunch sound effect)

Mr. Owl: A Three!

Questioning Boy: If there's anything I can't stand, it's a smart owl.

Narrator (Herschel Bernardi): How many licks does it take to get to the Tootsie Roll center of a Tootsie Pop?

(crunch sound effect)

Narrator: The world may never know.


In the early 19th century, there were two different uses for the name cup cake or cupcake. In previous centuries, before muffin tins were widely available, the cakes were often baked in individual pottery cups, ramekins, or molds and took their name from the cups they were baked in. This is the use of the name that has remained, and the name of "cupcake" is now given to any small cake that is about the size of a teacup. While English fairy cakes vary in size more than American cupcakes, they are traditionally smaller and are rarely topped with elaborate icing.

The other kind of "cup cake" referred to a cake whose ingredients were measured by volume, using a standard-sized cup, instead of being weighed. Recipes whose ingredients were measured using a standard-sized cup could also be baked in cups; however, they were more commonly baked in tins as layers or loaves. In later years, when the use of volume measurements was firmly established in home kitchens, these recipes became known as 1234 cakes or quarter cakes, so called because they are made up of four ingredients: one cup of butter, two cups of sugar, three cups of flour, and four eggs.[5][6] They are plain yellow cakes, somewhat less rich and less expensive than pound cake, due to using about half as much butter and eggs compared to pound cake. The names of these two major classes of cakes were intended to signal the method to the baker; "cup cake" uses a volume measurement, and "pound cake" uses a weight measurement

A standard cupcake uses the same basic ingredients as standard-sized cakes: buttersugareggs, and flour.


The four recognized stages to wine tasting:


Pound cake refers to a type of cake traditionally made with a pound of each of four ingredients: flourbuttereggs, and sugar. However, any cake made with a 1:1:1:1 ratio, by weight, of flour, butter, eggs, and sugar may also be called a pound cake, as it yields the same results. Pound cakes are generally baked in either a loaf pan or a Bundt mold, and served either dusted with powdered sugar, lightly glazed, or sometimes with a coat of icing.

In France, the pound cake is well known. The name of the pound cake "quatre-quarts", means four quarters. There are equal weights in each of the four quarters. In tradition, the popular cake of the French region of Brittany, as its name implies, uses the same quantity of the four ingredients, but with no added fruit of any kind. However, the Caribbean parts of the world that speak French traditionally add rum to the ingredients for Christmas Eve or even mashed bananas for extra moisture. In some cases the French might have beaten egg whites instead of whole eggs to lighten the batter. Other variants include adding chocolate or lemon juice for flavour.

A pound cake with almonds in an angled profile


Since 15 November 1974, South Korea has discovered four tunnels crossing the DMZ that had been dug by North Korea; the orientation of the blasting lines within each tunnel indicated they were dug by North Korea. North Korea claimed that the tunnels were for coal mining; however no coal was found in the tunnels, which were dug through granite. Some of the tunnel walls were painted black to give the appearance of anthracite.[23]

The tunnels are believed to have been planned as a military invasion route by North Korea. They run in a north-south direction and do not have branches. Following each discovery, engineering within the tunnels has become progressively more advanced. For example, the third tunnel sloped slightly upwards as it progressed southward, to prevent water stagnation. Today, visitors from the south may visit the second, third and fourth tunnels through guided tours.[24]

First tunnel[edit]

The first of the tunnels was discovered on 20 November 1974, by a South Korean Army patrol, noticing steam rising from the ground. The initial discovery was met with automatic fire from North Korean soldiers. Five days later, during a subsequent exploration of this tunnel, US Navy Commander Robert M. Ballinger and ROK Marine Corps Major Kim Hah Chul were killed in the tunnel by a North Korean explosive device. The blast also wounded five Americans and one South Korean from the United Nations Command.

The tunnel, which was about 0.9 by 1.2 m (3 by 4 ft), extended more than 1 km (0.62 mi) beyond the MDL into South Korea. The tunnel was reinforced with concrete slabs and had electric power and lighting. There were weapon storage and sleeping areas. A narrow gauge railway with carts had also been installed. Estimates based on the tunnel's size suggest it would have allowed approximately 20,000 soldiers to pass through it per hour.[25]

Second tunnel[edit]

The second tunnel was discovered on 19 March 1975. It is of similar length to the first tunnel. It is located between 50 and 160 m (160 and 520 ft) below ground, but is larger than the first, approximately 2 by 2 m (7 by 7 feet).

Third tunnel[edit]

Main article: Third Tunnel of Aggression

The third tunnel was discovered on 17 October 1978. Unlike the previous two, the third tunnel was discovered following a tip from a North Korean defector. This tunnel is about 1,600 m (5,200 ft) long and about 73 m (240 ft) below ground.[26] Foreign visitors touring the South Korean DMZ may view inside this tunnel using a sloped access shaft.

Fourth tunnel[edit]

A fourth tunnel was discovered on 3 March 1990, north of Haean town in the former Punchbowl battlefield. The tunnel's dimensions are 2 by 2 m (7 by 7 feet), and it is 145 metres (476 ft) deep. The method of construction is almost identical in structure to the second and the third tunnels.[27]

Cyrus The Great Four Capitals
Cyrus the Great founded the empire as a multi-state empire, governed by four capital states; Pasargadae, Babylon, Susa and Ekbatana. The Achaemenids allowed a certain amount of regional autonomy in the form of the satrapy system.




  • print 4 things on the outside flaps (the standard are blue, red, green and yellow).  Print 8 things on the inside flaps (the standard are the numbers 1 thru 8).  And print 4 things underneath the inside flaps (the standard are "fortunes" like:

    • You'll be rich

    • You'll be famous

    • You'll fall in love

    • You'll be happy 

    You can color in some of the sections if you like or add stickers.




I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.


Al-Jazari described complex programmable humanoid automata amongst other machines he designed and constructed in the Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devicesin 1206.[citation needed] His automaton was a boat with four automatic musicians that floated on a lake to entertain guests at royal drinking parties. His mechanism had a programmable drum machine with pegs (cams) that bump into little levers that operate the percussion. The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and drum patterns if the pegs were moved around.[20] According to Charles B. Fowler, the automata were a "robot band" which performed "more than fifty facial and body actions during each musical selection."[21]


But there are forms of “euthanasia” between these poles. In “euthanasia” broadly understood, there are, in fact four forms, defined by the intersections of two dyads—Active/Passive, and Voluntary/Involuntary—within which different modes of dying land. The mode of dying accompanied by hospice or palliative care, which neither hastens nor impedes death, is in the “passive, voluntary” quadrant (shaded green for legal and ethical) in opposition to “active, involuntary” euthanasia, such as mercy killing (shaded red for illegal and immoral). (Sorry if these graphics are hard to read -- I'm not that great at creating images for Quora!)



In the story of Elisha, the ax head is located, and the offender is therefore exculpated of moral liability. That is, the River Jordan was the agent through which the wood had reversed the moral culpability of the offender, since Elisha had first to throw wood (the stick) into the water. The wood of the tree was therefore the key to making the water effective (Exodus 15:25).


In other words, Elisha used wood to remove moral liability through water -- thus the idea of baptism "emerges" from the water of the River Jordan (which is the entrance to the Promised Land).


In the Christian New Testament, the wood of the tree corresponds to the cross (removal of sins); and the water corresponds to eternal life (exculpatory removal of Adam's original sin, which is spiritual death--that is to say, the "ax head" is Adam's original sin, which eventuated spiritual death per Romans 5:12). Eternal life reverses or removes this spiritual death.


In the 55th chapter of his Apology Justin adds signs from nature and human society to expand his argument for Christianity and the mystery of the cross, A ship can’t sail and arrive at its destination without a sail; a field can’t be plowed without a plow. Both of these are in the form of a cross. Human beings themselves are made in the form of a cross, Justin emphasizes. Figures with arms outstretched, Orants, appear everywhere in the catacombs. They imitate Christ who prayed with arms outstretched on the cross, and his prayer was heard. (Tertullian, On Prayer 14)


The oldest known portrayal of the crucifixion of Jesus, (left), is a mocking graffiti found on the wall of a barracks on the Palatine Hill in Rome, showing a crucified man with the head of a donkey, and before him a man with hand raised to the image. The Greek inscription from about the year 220 AD reads: “Alexander worships his god.” Undoubtedly, an instance of a Christian being mocked for belief in Jesus crucified.


In the 86th chapter of his Dialogue with Trypho, Justin lists other scriptures, beginning with the tree of life planted in paradise, that reveal the saving power of the wood of the cross. That saving wood was prefigured in the wooden rod Moses used to bring water from the rock in the desert and divide the sea for his people to pass over. The cross was prefigured in the ladder Jacob saw mounting to heaven. Abraham saw it in the oak at Mamre and in the wood Isaac carried to his sacrifice. David saw the cross in the tree planted by running waters, mentioned in Psalm 1. The cross was signified in the wood that saved Noah from the flood.





The main sign of the elevation of the cross in the history of the Israelite people was that made by Moses with his rod, when he parted the waters of the Red Sea, at God’s command, so that the Israelites, who were being pursued by the Egyptians, could make their way over and be saved. When this had been achieved, he had the waters return to their original position (Ex. 14, 1-31). This is why the hymns of the Church for the feast of the Elevation of the Cross say: ‘Signing a cross with his rod, Moses immediately parted the Red Sea, for Israel on foot’ (Irmos, Ode 1, of the Mattins Canon).


When the Israelites had reached Rephidim, Moses made the sign of the cross twice. The first was when he struck a rock with his staff to produce water to quench the thirst of the people; and the second when he raised his arms and his rod to the heavens in prayer, in order to fortify the Israelites against the Amalekites, who were fighting them (Ex. 17, 1-16). According to Saint Gregory Palamas (P.G. 133-6), it was the sign of the cross which strengthened the Israelite warriors and encouraged them to victory, while, according to Theodoritos of Kyros, apart from being a sign of the cross, this action was also a prefiguration of the crucified Lord (P.G. 80, 260-1).


Moses prefigured this sacred sign on another occasion, when he led the people of Israel into Edom. The people lost heart and their faith in God, with the result that He sent deadly poisonous snakes to bite them, which resulted in many deaths. When they had repented, the Lord ordered Moses to make a snake of bronze and to raise it on a pole, so that anyone looking at it would immediately be cured (Num. 21, 4-9). The Bible text does not offer a detailed description of the manner of the affixation of the bronze serpent, but Saint Gregory Palamas gives a very clear picture, observing that Moses raised the snake transversely on a vertical pole, thus forming the arms of a cross (P.G. 133-6). Besides, Jesus Christ Himself, according to the narrative of Saint John’s Gospel, is presented as foretelling His death on the Cross, which He likens to this event, saying : ‘Just as Moses elevated the serpent in the desert, so, too, must the Son of Man be elevated’ (3, 14).


The sign of the cross also saved the Old Testament prophets Daniel and the three young men, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah [renamed Shadrach, Meschach and Abednego in captivity in Babylon]. When the three young men were thrown into the fiery furnace they were saved by being raised, thanks to miraculous divine intervention (Dan. 3, 23), just as the prophet Daniel was saved in the same way when he was cast into the lions’ den (Dan. 6, 23).


It is true that, in these instances, the Bible text does not tell us exactly how the three young men and Daniel were actually saved, but Andrew of Crete tells us that this happened because they made the sign of the cross when they raised their arms to the heavens (P.G. 97, 1040-1). The same tradition is preserved in the hymns of the Church, where, on the Sunday of the Veneration of the Cross, we sing: ‘once when Daniel , great among the prophets, stretched out his arms like a cross, having been cast into the lion’s den, he was saved unharmed from being devoured by them’ (Ode 8, Canon for Mattins).


Justin: The mystery, then, of the lamb which God enjoined to be sacrificed as the passover, was a type of Christ; with whose blood, in proportion to their faith in Him, they anoint their houses, i.e., themselves, who believe in Him. For that the creation which God created—to wit, Adam—was a house for the spirit which proceeded from God, you all can understand. And that this injunction was temporary, I prove thus. God does not permit the lamb of the passover to be sacrificed in any other place than where His name was named; knowing that the days will come, after the suffering of Christ, when even the place in Jerusalem shall be given over to your enemies, and all the offerings, in short, shall cease; and that lamb which was commanded to be wholly roasted was a symbol of the suffering of the cross which Christ would undergo. For the lamb, which is roasted, is roasted and dressed up in the form of the cross. For one spit is transfixed right through from the lower parts up to the head, and one across the back, to which are attached the legs of the lamb. And the two goats which were ordered to be offered during the fast, of which one was sent away as the scape [goat], and the other sacrificed, were similarly declarative of the two appearances of Christ: the first, in which the elders of your people, and the priests, having laid hands on Him and put Him to death, sent Him away as the scape [goat]; and His second appearance, because in the same place in Jerusalem you shall recognise Him whom you have dishonoured, and who was an offering for all sinners willing to repent, and keeping the fast which Isaiah speaks of, loosening the terms of the violent contracts, and keeping the other precepts, likewise enumerated by him, and which I have quoted, which those believing in Jesus do. And further, you are aware that the offering of the two goats, which were enjoined to be sacrificed at the fast, was not permitted to take place similarly anywhere else, but only in Jerusalem.


Hippolytus furthermore stated that the ark floated to and fro in the four directions on the waters, making the sign of the cross, before eventually landing on Mount Kardu "in the east, in the land of the sons of Raban, and the Orientals call it Mount Godash; the Armenians call it Ararat".[


Some early fathers also saw the outstretched arms of Jesus on the cross being foretold as an plea to the wicked, as in Isaiah 65:2 where God said, “I have stretched out my hands all the day to a rebellious people, who walk in evil paths and follow their own thoughts…,” and as a sacrificial act, as when Psalm 141:2 says, “Let my prayer be counted as incense before you, and the lifting up of my hands as an evening sacrifice!”


The fathers also saw another cryptic from the prophet Jeremiah. Just as the life of David is in some ways mirrored in the life of Christ, so too the suffering of Jeremiah. During one such passage, where Jeremiah reflects upon those who persecute him, he writes, “Yet I, like a trusting lamb led to slaughter, had not realized that they were hatching plots against me: ‘Let us destroy the tree in its vigor; let us cut him off from the land of the living, so that his name will be spoken no more’” (Jeremiah 10:19). In the ancient Greek translation of the Old Testament, called the Septuagint (or LXX), the line “Let us destroy the tree and its vigor” is translated as “Let us put wood upon his bread…” Since Christ, at the Last Supper took bread and said, “This is my body,” the early fathers understood this passage to mean, “Let us put the wood of the cross upon Christ’s body” therefore alluding to the crucifixion.


The crucifixion was also foreshadowed in the Old Testament as types. For example, Moses mounted a serpent on a pole so that whoever would look upon it would be healed (Numbers 21:9). Christ points to this as a type of his own crucifixion (John 3:13). Noah’s ark was also a type of the cross since it was through the wood of the ark that Noah and his family were saved. Another type of the saving power of the cross is found in Exodus 15:25-26. In this passage, the Israelites encounter the water at Marah, which was too bitter to drink. Moses placed a piece of wood into the water and it was made fresh and sweet so that the Israelites could drink it.


But Israel reached out his right hand and put it on Ephraim's head, though he was the younger, and crossing his arms, he put his left hand on Manasseh's head, even though Manasseh was the firstborn.


In the Scriptures we see the symbol of the cross reoccurring numerous times. For example, when Jacob on his deathbed blessed Joseph’s sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, he crossed his arms (making the cross symbol) as he laid his hands on their heads to bless them (Gen 48:14). He then made mention of the Angel or Messenger of Elohim (the pre-incarnate Yeshua) redeeming him from evil (v. 16). This is an obvious reference to YHVH saving Jacob from Esau and Laban (Gen 31 and 32), but is also a future prophetic allusion to the redemptive work of the Messiah at his crucifixion, since Jacob calls on the Redeemer Messenger of Elohim (or the Messiah) to bless his grandsons and their future offspring (v. 16). We know that in Yeshua, the Seed of Abraham, all the nations of the earth were to be blessed (Gal 3:16 cp. Gen 22:18). Certainly, Jacob must have had at least a vague awareness of the future implications of this promise that YHVH had made to Abraham and the redemptive work of the coming Messiah.


I also believe that the death of Samson prefigures the death of our Lord. If you recall, Samson is the strong man of the Old Testament and killed a bunch of Philistines with the jaw bone of a donkey.


Eventually he is caught by the Philistines, blinded, and then during a party where they bring him out to make sport of him. And then:


Judges 16:27-30 Now the house was full of men and women, and all the lords of the Philistines were there.

And about 3,000 men and women were on the roof looking on while Samson was amusing them. Then Samson called to the LORD and said, "O Lord God, please remember me and please strengthen me just this time,

O God, that I may at once be avenged of the Philistines for my two eyes."

And Samson grasped the two middle pillars on which the house rested, and braced himself against them,

the one with his right hand and the other with his left.

And Samson said, "Let me die with the Philistines!"

And he bent with all his might so that the house fell on the lords and all the people who were in it. So the dead whom he killed at his death were more than those whom he killed in his life.


I think this points to the Cross because it is with outstretched arms that Samson destroys the enemy of his people.


Hebrews 2:14-15 Since therefore the children share in flesh and blood, Jesus himself likewise partook of the same nature, that through death he might destroy him who has the power of death, that is, the devil, and deliver all those who through fear of death were subject to lifelong bondage.


So through the death of Samson and Jesus, they destroy the enemy of their people. Samson with his outstretched arms destroys the Philistines, Jesus destroys death.


Let no man tell you that the cross is pagan. Ancient Rabbis knew the 22nd letter of the Hebrew alphabet, Tav (ת), symbolized a cross. It was the "mark" placed upon Cain to protect him. The Hebrew word for "mark" is "Owt" and is spelled (אות). Notice the letter Tav in the word "Owt" ? In essence, the mark was a cross that protected Cain.


With that "mark" is also another message - it is the Tav or the Messiah joined (Vav - ו) to the Father, the Alef (א) that is the "mark." This is a wonderful illustration of how one comes to the Father through the Messiah. To learn more about the Vav, see the related articles section below.


A renowned Orthodox rabbi in Israel, by the name of Rabbi Yitzchak Ginsburgh, believes that this ancient letter, TAV, was the mark (sign) placed upon the forehead of Cain by the LORD for his protection- as mentioned in Genesis 4:15


Unlike most of the other prophets, Haggai explicitly dated his prophecies, down to the day. He gave four separate messages, the first on August 29, 520 BC (Haggai 1:1); the second on October 17, 520 BC (2:1); and the final two on December 18, 520 BC (2:10, 20). These messages encouraged the people of Judah to finish building the temple and to have hope in God for the promise of blessings in the future.