© 2023 by Name of Site. Proudly created with Wix.com


The development of parsimonious struc- tural models has been pursued, sometimes 1 Special thanks for encouragement and help independently, by theorists from psychiatry and sociology as well as from psychology. At times there has been remarkable overlap in conceptualization suggesting independent convergence on a common underlying struc- ture. Such overlap is illustrated by Chance

with the development of this paper go to Marjorie H. Klein and James Greenley; the editors of Psy- chological Review also made helpful contributions to the final version.

Requests for reprints should be sent to Lorna S. Benjamin, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospitals, Madison, Wisconsin 53706.

(1966, p. 133) and Biermann (1969, p. 339

who separately proposed identical models
for describing social behavior in general and
the process of psychotherapy in particular.
Each of these theorists reduced Leary's in-
terpersonal circle to the four quadrants based
on axes representing the two dimensions:
positive-negative and active-passive. Leary's
(1957) interpersonal circle itself was first
described in a paper by Freedman, Leary,
Ossorio, and Coffey (1951) and was built
on four nodal points: Dominate and sub-
mit were located opposite each other on the
vertical axis, whereas love 

and hate were be accompanied by the attitude "sociable" oppositional nodal points on the horizontal and the feeling "pleasant." Rinn's model axis. Each category in the circle was de- does not comprehensively cover cognition fined in terms of these nodal points so that for example boast was placed on the hate side of dominate, while teach appeared on the love side of dominate.  

An interpersonal circle applying specifi- cally to parental behaviors has been proposed by Schaefer (1965). In his earliest model, the vertical dimension was defined by the points control-autonomy, whereas the hori- zontal dimension was defined by the points love-hate. This model was supported by factor analysis of ratings of interviews with mothers in the home, children's reports of parent behavior, and teacher ratings of class- room behavior.