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QUADCORE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentium_4

The ultimate successors to Pentium 4 are the Intel Core 2 processors using the "Conroe" core based upon the Core microarchitecture, released on July 27, 2006. Intel Core 2 processors have been released as single, dual and quad core processors. Single core counterparts are present in the Intel Core 2 line, primarily for the OEM market, while dual and quad core processors can be sold to retail and OEM.

Core 2 is a brand encompassing a range of Intel's consumer 64-bit x86-64single-, dual-, and quad-core microprocessors based on the Core microarchitecture. The single- and dual-core models are single-die, whereas the quad-core models comprise two dies, each containing two cores, packaged in a multi-chip module.[1] The introduction of Core 2 relegated the Pentiumbrand to the mid-range market, and reunified laptop and desktop CPU lines for marketing purposes under the same product name, which previously had been divided into the Pentium 4Pentium D, and Pentium M brands.

The Core 2 brand was introduced on 27 July 2006,[2] comprising the Solo(single-core), Duo (dual-core), Quad (quad-core), and in 2007, the Extreme(dual- or quad-core CPUs for enthusiasts) subbrands.[3] Intel Core 2 processors with vPro technology (designed for businesses) include the dual-core and quad-core branches.[4]

16 BIT 16 SQUARES IN THE QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/16-bit

In computer architecture, 16-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 16 bits (2 octets) wide. Also, 16-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. 16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.

 

A 16-bit register can store 216 different values. The signed range of integer values that can be stored in 16 bits is −32,768 (−1 × 215) through 32,767 (215 − 1); the unsigned range is 0 through 65,535 (216 − 1). Since 216 is 65,536, a processor with 16-bit memory addresses can directly access 64 KiB of byte-addressable memory. If a system uses segmentation with 16-bit segment offsets, more can be accessed.

 

16-bit architecture[edit]

The MIT Whirlwind (c. 1951)[1][2] was quite possibly the first-ever 16-bit computer. Other early (c. 1965–70) 16-bit computers include the IBM 1130,[3] the HP 2100,[4] the Data General Nova,[5] and the DEC PDP-11.[6] Early (c. 1973–75) multi-chip 16-bit microprocessors include the National Semiconductor IMP-16 and the Western Digital MCP-1600. Early (c. 1975–76) single-chip 16-bit microprocessors include the Panafacom MN1610,[7][8] National Semiconductor PACE, the HP BPC, and the TI TMS9900. Other notable 16-bit processors include the Intel 8086, the Intel 80286, the WDC 65C816, and the Zilog Z8000. The Intel 8088 was binary compatible with the Intel 8086, and was 16-bit in that its registers were 16 bits wide, and arithmetic instructions could operate on 16-bit quantities, even though its external bus was 8 bits wide.

 

A 16-bit integer can store 216 (or 65,536) distinct values. In an unsigned representation, these values are the integers between 0 and 65,535; using two's complement, possible values range from −32,768 to 32,767. Hence, a processor with 16-bit memory addresses can directly access 64 KB of byte-addressable memory.

 

16-bit processors have been almost entirely supplanted in the personal computer industry, and are used less than 32-bit (or 8-bit) CPUs in embedded applications.

 

16/32-bit Motorola 68000 and Intel 386SX[edit]

The Motorola 68000 is sometimes called 16-bit because its internal and external data buses were 16 bits wide, however it could be considered a 32-bit processor in that the general purpose registers were 32 bits wide and most arithmetic instructions supported 32-bit arithmetic. The 68000 was a microcoded processor with three internal 16-bit ALU units. Only 24-bits of the program counter (PC) were available on original DIP packages, with up to 16 megabytes of addressable RAM. 68000 software is 32-bit in nature and forward-compatible with other 32-bit processors in the same family.[9] The 68008 was a version of the 68000 with 8-bit external data path and 1 megabyte addressing for the 48-pin DIP version and 4 megabyte for the 52-pin PLCC version. Several Apple Inc. Macintosh models; e.g., LC series, used 32-bit 68020 and 68030 processors on a 16-bit data bus to save cost.

 

Similar analysis applies to Intel's 80286 CPU replacement called the 386SX which is a 32-bit processor with 32-bit ALU and internal 32-bit data paths with a 16-bit external bus and 24-bit addressing of the processor it replaced.

 

The 68000 processor of the Sega Genesis was a highly advertised feature of the video game system. Due to the saturation of this advertising, the 1988–95 era (fourth generation) of video game consoles is often called the 16-bit era.

 

Intel 16-bit memory models[edit]

M

 

Just as there are multiple data models for 64-bit architectures, the 16-bit Intel architecture allows for different memory models—ways to access a particular memory location. The reason for using a specific memory model is the size of the assembler instructions or required storage for pointers. Compilers of the 16-bit era generally had the following type-width characteristic:

 

16-bit data model

Data model short int long Pointers

IP16L32 (near) 16 16 32 16

I16LP32 (far) 16 16 32 32

Tiny

Code and data will be in the same segment (especially, the registers CS, DS, ES, SS will point to the same segment); near (16-bit) pointers are always used. Code, data and stack together cannot exceed 64 KB.

Small

Code and data will be in different segments, and near pointers are always used. There will be 64 KB of space for code and 64 KB for data/stack.

Medium

Code pointers will use far pointers (16:16 bit), enabling access to 1 MB. Data pointers remain to be of the near type.

Compact

Data pointers will use far and code will use near pointers.

Large/huge

Code and data pointers will be far.[10]

16-bit application[edit]

In the context of IBM PC compatible and Wintel platforms, a 16-bit application is any software written for MS-DOS, OS/2 1.x or early versions of Microsoft Windows which originally ran on the 16-bit Intel 8088 and Intel 80286 microprocessors. Such applications used a 20-bit or 24-bit segment or selector-offset address representation to extend the range of addressable memory locations beyond what was possible using only 16-bit addresses. Programs containing more than 216 bytes (64 kilobytes) of instructions and data therefore required special instructions to switch between their 64-kilobyte segments, increasing the complexity of programming 16-bit applications.

 

List of 16-bit CPUs[edit]

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Angstrem

1801 series CPU

Data General

Nova

Eclipse

Digital Equipment Corporation

PDP-11 (for LSI-11, see Western Digital, below)

DEC J-11

DEC T-11

EnSilica

eSi-1600

Ferranti

Ferranti F100-L

Ferranti F200-L

Freescale

Freescale 68HC12

Freescale 68HC16

General Instrument

CP1600

Hewlett-Packard

HP 21xx/2000/1000/98xx/BPC

HP 3000

Honeywell

Honeywell Level 6/DPS 6

IBM

1130/1800

System/7

Series/1

System/36

Infineon

XE166 family

C166 family

C167 family

XC2000

Intel

Intel 8086/Intel 8088

Intel 80186/Intel 80188

Intel 80286

Intel MCS-96

Lockheed

MAC-16

Motorola

Motorola 68000 (32-bit registers, 16-bit bus)

Motorola 68010 (32-bit registers, 16-bit bus)

National Semiconductor

IMP-16

PACE/INS8900

NEC

V20/V30

Ricoh

Ricoh 5A22 (WDC 65816 clone used in SNES)

Texas Instruments

Texas Instruments TMS9900

TI MSP430

Western Design Center

WDC 65816/65802

Western Digital

MCP-1600 (used in the DEC LSI-11)

Xerox

Alto

Zilog

Zilog Z8000

16 COLORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_8-bit_computer_hardware_palettes#CGA

The Color Graphics Adapter (CGA) outputs what IBM called "digital RGB"[18] (that is, the R, G, B (and I) signals from the graphics card to the monitor can each only have two states: on or off). CGA supports a maximum of 16 colors. However, its 320×200 graphics mode is restricted to fixed palettes containing only four colors, and the 640×200 graphic mode is only two colors. 16 colours are only available in text mode or the "tweaked text" 160×100 mode. A different set of 16 colours is available in composite mode with composite monitor.

 

The full standard RGBI palette is a variant of the 4-bit RGBI schema. Although the RGBI signals have only two states, the CGA color monitor decodes them as if RGB signals had four levels. Darker colors are the basic RGB 2nd level signals except for brown, which is dark yellow with the level for the green component halved (1st level). Brighter colors are made by adding a uniform intensity one level signal to every RGB signal of the dark ones reaching the 3rd level (except dark gray which reaches only the 1st level), and in this case yellow is produced as if the brown were ordinary dark yellow.

16 COLORS 16 SQUARES QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_color_palettes

Low-resolution "Multicolor" (4 colors per sprite or character cell) and medium resolution (2 color per sprite/cell) graphic modes, choosing from 16 color master palette.

16 COLORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_color_palettes

Mattel Aquarius (1983)

- Similar character block and "pixel" arrangement to Teletext, but resolution is a true 80x72 (2x3 pixels on 40x24 grid) and master palette is expanded to 16 colors.

UP TO 16 CORES 16 SQUARES QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microprocessor#16-bit_designs

As of 2012, dual- and quad-core processors are widely used in home PCs and laptops, while quad-, six-, eight-, ten-, twelve-, and sixteen-core processors are common in the professional and enterprise markets with workstations and servers.

FOUR PHASE CPU

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four-Phase_Systems

The Four-Phase CPU used a 24-bit word size. It fit on a single card and was composed of three AL1 chips, three read-only-memory (ROM) chips, and three random logic chips. A memory card used Four-Phase's 1K RAM chips.[6] The system also included a built-in video controller which could drive up to 32 terminals from a frame buffer in main memory.[7]

 

The AL1 was an 8-bit bit slice which contained eight registers and an arithmetic logic unit (ALU). It was implemented using four-phase logic and used over a thousand gates, with an area of 130 by 120 mils. The chip was described in an April 1970 article in Computer Design magazine.[8][9] Although the AL1 was not called a microprocessor, or used as one, at the time, it was later dubbed one in connection with litigation in the 1990s, when Texas Instruments claimed to have patented the microprocessor. In response, Lee Boysel assembled a system in which a single 8-bit AL1 was used as part of a courtroom demonstration computer system, together with ROM, RAM and an input-output device.[10][11]

Thomson MO5 (1984)
- Fixed 16-color palette, with 2 colors per block on a 8x1 pixel attribute grid.

16 COLOR PALLETTE 16 SQUARES QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_8-bit_computer_hardware_palettes#Thomson_MO5

For Thomson computers, a popular brand in France, the most common display modes are 320×200, with 8×1 attribute cells with 2 colours. The Thomson TO7 can only display the 8 "saturated" colors. The Thomson TO7/70 and Thomson MO5 have the 16 color palette shown below as a fixed palette (just like on C64 or MSX1). On later models, these 16 colours can be chosen from 4096 and other video modes are available, removing the block constraints but reducing either the color count or the horizontal resolution.

256 IS FOUR TO THE FOURTH POWER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZX_Spectrum_graphic_modes

256×192, 256 colors, "256 Colour Mode", no attributes[edit]

The SPEC256 and EmuZWin emulators have a screen mode 256×192 pixels where each pixel can be in one of 256 colors. This is achieved by extending the word size of the emulated Z80 from 8 bits to 64, making eight bits of data available for each pixel; the screen thus takes 48 kB of memory. This mode only exists on the emulator and software graphics must be modified to use it.

 

Details:

Pixels: 256 × 192

Attributes: 256 × 192

Colors: 256

16 COLORS 16 TONE GREEN SCALE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_8-bit_computer_hardware_palettes#Thomson_MO5

The Amstrad CPC 464/664/6128 series of computers generate the available palette with 3 levels (not bits) for every RGB primary. Thus, there are 27 different RGB combinations, from which 16 can be simultaneously displayed in low resolution mode, four in medium resolution mode and two in high resolution mode.[14]

 

AmstradCPC palette sample image.png AmstradCPC palette color test chart.png AmstradCPC palette.png

Simulations of actual images on the Amstrad's color monitor in each of the modes (160×200, 16 colors; 320×200, 4 colors and 640×200, 2 colors) follows. A cheaper green monochrome display was also available from the manufacturer; in this case, the colors are viewed as a 16-tone green scale, as shown in the last simulated image, as it interprets the overall brightness of the full colour signal, instead of only considering the green intensity as might, e.g., the Philips CM8833 line.

 

2 colors 4 colors 16 colors 16-tone green scale

Screen color test AmstradCPC 2colors.png Screen color test AmstradCPC 4colors.png Screen color test AmstradCPC 16colors.png Screen color test AmstradCPC 16colors mono.png

0 – Black (5) 1 – Blue (0,14) 2 – Bright blue (6) 3 – Red 4 – Magenta 5 – Violet 6 – Bright red (3) 7 – Purple 8 – Bright magenta (7)

9 – Green 10 – Cyan (8) 11 – Sky blue (15) 12 – Yellow (9) 13 – Grey 14 – Pale blue (10) 15 – Orange 16 – Pink (11) 17 – Pale magenta

18 – Bright green (12) 19 – Sea green 20 – Bright cyan (2) 21 – Lime green 22 – Pale green (13) 23 – Pale cyan 24 – Bright yellow (1) 25 – Pale yellow 26 – Bright white (4)

The number in parentheses means the primary ink number for the Locomotive BASIC PEN, PAPER and INK statements (that is, "(1)" means ink #1 defaults to this color). Inks can also have a secondary color number, meaning they flash between two colors. By default, ink #14 alternates between colors 1 and 24 (blue and bright yellow) and ink #15 alternates between colors 11 and 16 (sky blue and pink). In addition, the paper defaults to ink #0 and the pen to ink #1, meaning bright yellow text on a blue background.

16 COLOR 16 SQUARES QMR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_color_palettes

Commodore Plus/4 (1984)

Multicolor and High resolution 16 color graphic modes, from 128 color master palette.

64 BIT 16 TIMES 4- AND QUADCORE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel_Core

Unlike the Intel Core, Intel Core 2 is a 64-bit processor, supporting Intel 64. Another difference between the original Core Duo and the new Core 2 Duo is an increase in the amount of Level 2 cache. The new Core 2 Duo has tripled the amount of on-board cache to 6 MB. Core 2 also introduced a quad-core performance variant to the single- and dual-core chips, branded Core 2 Quad, as well as an enthusiast variant, Core 2 Extreme. All three chips are manufactured at a 65 nm lithography, and in 2008, a 45 nm lithography and support Front Side Bus speeds ranging from 533 MHz to 1600 MHz. In addition, the 45 nm die shrink of the Core microarchitecture adds SSE4.1 support to all Core 2 microprocessors manufactured at a 45 nm lithography, therefore increasing the calculation rate of the processors.

256 IS FOUR TO THE FOURTH POWER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X86-64#Intel_64

Current AMD64 processors support a physical address space of up to 248 bytes of RAM, or 256 TB.[17] However, as of June 2010, there were no known x86-64 motherboards that support 256 TB of RAM.[22][23][24][25][not in citation given] The operating system may place additional limits on the amount of RAM that is usable or supported. Details on this point are given in the "Operating system compatibility and characteristics" section of this article.

256 COLORS FOUR TO THE FOURTH POWER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_color_palettes

MSX2 systems (1985)

"Screen 8" 256-color graphic modes

16 COLORS 512 IS 256 TIMES 2 256 IS FOUR TO THE FOURTH POWER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_8-bit_computer_hardware_palettes#MSX2

The MSX2 series features a Yamaha V9938 video chip, which manages a 9-bit RGB palette (512 colors) and has some extended graphic modes. Although its graphical capabilities are similar, or even better than of those of 16-bit personal computers, MSX2 and MSX2+ (see below) are pure 8-bit machines.

 

MSX2 Screen8 palette sample image.png MSX2 Screen8 palette color test chart.png MSX2 Screen8 palette.png

Screen mode 6 is a 512×212-pixel mode with a 4-color palette chosen from the available 512 colors.

 

Screen modes 5 and 7 are high-resolution 256×212-pixel and 512×212-pixel modes, respectively, with a 16-color palette chosen from the available 512 colors. Each pixel can be any of the 16 selected colors.

 

Screen mode 8 is a high-resolution 256×212-pixel mode with an 8-bit color depth, giving a palette of 256 colors.[16] From the MSB to LSB, there are three green bits, three red bits, and two blue bits. This mode uses half of the available colors overall, and can be considered a palette in its own right.

 

4-color screen mode 6 16-color screen mode 5 256-color screen mode 8

Screen color test MSX2 Screen6.png Screen color test MSX2 Screen5.png Screen color test MSX2 Screen8.png

16 COLORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_color_palettes

EGA for IBM-AT (1984)

Medium and high resolution 16-color graphic modes, out of 64.

16 PALLETTES 16 COLORS- 16 SQUARES QMR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_16-bit_computer_hardware_palettes#EGA

Apple IIgs, along with full compatible graphic modes with the Apple II, features a custom Video Graphics Chip (VGC)[1] which supports a 12-bit RGB, 4,096-color palette. It has an extended set of 320×200 and 640×200 graphic modes, (called Super High-Res modes by Apple) with different (and a bit complex) color modes:

 

320×200 with 16 palettes of 16 selected colors out of 4,096 each. Every single scan line can be assigned to one of the sixteen palettes, so it can have up to 16×16=256 different simultaneous colors (although some common colors like black and white are usually shared among the different palettes, giving fewer than 256 total different colors). The most simple way to use this mode is having a unique 16-color selection for the entire screen and assign it to all scan lines. Here are shown the sample image both using a single shared palette and using all the 16 palettes (in this case, by dividing the image into 16 strips):

Screen color test AppleIIgs 16colors.png Screen color test AppleIIgs 16x16colors.png

640×200 with 16 palettes of 8 selected colors out of 4,096 each. Every single scan line can be assigned to one of the sixteen palettes, so it can be have up to 8×16=128 different simultaneous colors (usually less due to shared colors). In a single scan line, even column pixels can have one of the first four colors of the line's assigned palette, and odd column pixels one of the last four colors of the eight. The most simple way to use this mode is having a unique 8-color selection for the entire screen with four duplicate colors (the same to both even and odd pixel columns) and assign it to all scan lines. Here are shown the sample image both with a single shared custom 4-color palette and with a single 8-color palette (black, blue, yellow, white, black again, red, green, white again) to produce 13 dithered-by-hardware colors, ("dark blue" "dark yellow" "gray" "dark red" "magenta" "orange" "light red" "dark green" "cyan" "lime green" "light green" "light blue" and "light yellow") plus pure black and white. The last was the Apple IIgs Finder default mode and palette.

Screen color test Amiga 4colors.png Screen color test AppleIIgs 4x2colors.png

Also, along with the one of 16 palettes, to each scan line the Apple IIgs VGC is able to assign individual 320 or 640 horizontal resolution independently.

I POSTED ALL THIS BEFORE 256 IS FOUR TO THE FOURHT POWER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_16-bit_computer_hardware_palettes#MCGA_and_VGA

The Multicolor Graphics Array (MCGA) and Video Graphics Array (VGA) used a 6-bits per channel, 64 levels Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) to give an 18-bit RGB palette (262,144 colors), from which can be selected any 2, 16, or 256 at a time.[2] They both provided full compatibility with CGA modes, while VGA included all the EGA modes as well as the MCGA modes. When connected to analog monochrome monitors, they offered 64 levels of grey. Some of the first portable PCs featured a flat monochrome plasma display with a VGA in shades of red.

FOUR TO THE FOURTH POWER IS 256- 64 IS FOUR 16s FOUR QUADRANT MODELS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_16-bit_computer_hardware_palettes#MCGA_and_VGA

The Multicolor Graphics Array (MCGA) and Video Graphics Array (VGA) used a 6-bits per channel, 64 levels Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) to give an 18-bit RGB palette (262,144 colors), from which can be selected any 2, 16, or 256 at a time.[2] They both provided full compatibility with CGA modes, while VGA included all the EGA modes as well as the MCGA modes. When connected to analog monochrome monitors, they offered 64 levels of grey. Some of the first portable PCs featured a flat monochrome plasma display with a VGA in shades of red.

I DESCRIBED HOW IN THE TALMUD THERE WERE ORIGINALLY FOUR PEOPLE IN THE POSITION APPOINNTEMD BY MOSES THEN FOUR WERE ADDED MAKING EIGHT- THEN EIGHT WERE ADDED MAKING 16 THEN I THINK LATER FOUR WERE ADDED AGAIN MAKING 24 SIX TIMES FOUR- AND THE TALMUD DESCRIBES THAT THE REASON THERE IS 24 IS BECAUSE IT IS 6 TIMES FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_16-bit_computer_hardware_palettes#MCGA_and_VGA

Super VGA (SVGA)[edit]

Enhanced clones of the IBM VGA, known as Super VGA, (SVGA) support 256 simultaneous colors in 640×480 and higher pixel resolutions (800×600, 1024×768) in both 16 and 256 picked colors from the VGA 18-bit RGB palette, depending on the model and the manufacturer. Also, some SVGA cards support 15- and 16-bit RGB Highcolor modes, with 32,768 or 65,536 simultaneous colors on screen in 640×480 and higher resolutions. Some later models reach the 24-bit RGB True color modes.

 

In the 1990s, most manufacturers adhered to the VESA BIOS Extensions (VBE), used for enabling standard support for advanced video modes (at high resolutions and color depths).

 

They are the direct predecessors, not the IBM 8514/A nor XGA, of actual graphic display PC hardware.

16 COLOR GRAPHIC MODE 16 SQUARES QMR- X IS QUADRANT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_color_palettes

Sharp X68000 (1987)

Medium 65,536-color and high resolution 16-color graphic modes, from 65,536.

16 COLORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_color_palettes

Mattel Aquarius (1983)

- Similar character block and "pixel" arrangement to Teletext, but resolution is a true 80x72 (2x3 pixels on 40x24 grid) and master palette is expanded to 16 colors.

CGA UP TO FOUR TGA UP TO 16 16 SQUARES QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tandy_Graphics_Adapter

Tandy Graphics Adapter (TGA) is a computer display standard for an IBM PC compatible video adapter that improved on IBM's Color Graphics Adapter (CGA) technology. Whereas CGA could display only four colors at a time at a screen resolution of 320×200 pixels, a TGA adapter could display up to 16 colors.

 

The later Tandy 1000 SL and TL models were equipped with an enhanced version of the CGA Plus adapter, capable of displaying 16 colors at an improved resolution of 640×200.[4]

 

Tandy Video I, TGA, TCGA, or ECGA[edit]

Pre-SL systems have this type of video.[5]

 

CGA compatible modes:

 

160×200 16 color mode

320×200 in 4 colors from a 16 color hardware palette. Pixel aspect ratio of 1:1.2.

640×200 in 2 colors. Pixel aspect ratio of 1:2.4

40×25 with 8×8 pixel font text mode(effective resolution of 320×200)

80×25 with 8×8 pixel font text mode(effective resolution of 640×200)

In addition to the CGA modes, it offers:

 

160×200 with 16 colors

320×200 with 16 colors

640×200 with 4 colors

Tandy Video II or ETGA[edit]

The video on the SL's, TL's, and RL's is known as Tandy Video II or ETGA.[5] It offers all the same modes as Tandy Video I, plus one more non-CGA mode:

 

640x200 with 16 colors

Palette[edit]

Full CGA 16-color palette

black

#000000 0 gray

#555555 8

red

#AA0000 4 light red

#FF5555 12

brown

#AA5500 6 yellow

#FFFF55 14

green

#00AA00 2 light green

#55FF55 10

cyan

#00AAAA 3 light cyan

#55FFFF 11

blue

#0000AA 1 light blue

#5555FF 9

magenta

#AA00AA 5 light magenta

#FF55FF 13

light gray

#AAAAAA 7 white (high intensity)

#FFFFFF 15

The full 16 color CGA color palette was available. Some games detected the Tandy hardware and displayed enhanced graphics in Tandy mode while selecting CGA mode, while others specifically offered the option to select "Tandy" graphics.

16 COLORS FOUR COLOR MODE- 16 LEVELS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_16-bit_computer_hardware_palettes#ST_series

ST series[edit]

The Atari ST series has a Digital-to-Analog Converter of 3-bits, eight levels per RGB channel, featuring a 9-bit RGB palette (512 colors). The STE series has a Digital-to-Analog Converter of 4-bits, sixteen levels per RGB channel, featuring a 12-bit RGB palette (4096 colors).

 

Depending on the (proprietary) monitor type attached, it displays one of the 320×200, 16-colors and 640×200, 4-colors modes with the color monitor, or the high resolution 640×400 black and white mode with the monochrome monitor.

16 PRESET PATTERNS- FOUR BUTTONS EACH INSTRUMENT SOUND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drum_machine

Ace Tone commercialized its preset rhythm machine, called the FR-1 Rhythm Ace, in 1967. It offered 16 preset patterns, and four buttons to manually play each instrument sound (cymbal, claves, cowbell and bass drum).

16 STEPS

https://www.roland.com/us/products/tr-09/

Dedicated TR-909 users will recognise the classic TR-REC style of programming found in the TR-09, with a choice of Step or Tap write modes. You can even change modes while the pattern continues playing, something not possible on the original. The TR-09 sequencer has 16 steps, and each has 16 sub-steps so you can fine-tune your performances. And just like the original TR-909, the Shuffle/Flam parameter can be selected using the buttons—but if you need greater control, simply use the display and rotary encoder to perfect your pattern.

In the domain of nursing education, Brigid Reid has described the interaction between levels of challenge and levels of support, to explain the behavioral reactions to change initiatives among working professionals in professional development settings (Reid, 1993; Palmer et al., 1994; McGill & Brockbank, 2004).

http://paei.wikidot.com/local--files/reid-brigid-mutual-dependence-of-challenge-and-support/PAEI_083_Reid_Challenge_Support.gif

http://paei.wikidot.com/reid-brigid-mutual-dependence-of-challenge-and-support

Adult learners are active creators of meaning during educational events. They can be assumed to seek meaning and to construct it, and learning experiences can be constructed so that they enable this engagement. That means that educators should provide them with challenges that stimulate or require changes to their current ways of thinking. But this challenge has to be balanced against the right amount of support. With too little support, learners will retreat from the challenging stimulus, sensing that they do not have the resources to engage it. Skilful teaching or skilful coaching requires balance, which is often acknowledged in the field of sport with the observation that good coaches can demand a lot from their athletes, in part because they give so much to their athletes in return.

 

There are four zones of interaction between challenge and support, listed in PAEI order below. It should be kept in mind that the challenge described in this model is conceptual challenge – the challenging of old ideas, forcing us to think in a new way. Support can likewise be thought of as conceptual in this context, in the sense that professionally produced textbooks provide more conceptual support to students than do journal articles in specialist journals.

 

P – Knowledge Confirmation (Highly Supportive Setting, Low Challenge)

When an information processing or discovery task is well supported (by prior learning, well-designed learning materials, a responsive teacher, multiple available resources, knowledgeable peers, etc.), and when the level of challenge for that task is low, then the task will mainly serve to confirm existing knowledge, rather than generating new knowledge. Many such confirmatory tasks can be completed in a limited time, compared to more complex, less tractable tasks. Conversely, if one is concerned with completing many tasks in a short time period, they must be relatively simple and well-structured (low challenge).

 

The P style can handle very high levels of challenge in terms of throughput (the rate at which results can be produced), but this very strength means that there is no time to spend exploring anomalies or cases that do not fit their set of solutions heuristics. P tactics work best over known event types, rather than complex unknowns. When an agent is well supported, and the pressure to reframe experience is low, existing knowledge and mastery levels are confirmed. This experience of confirmation is one of the major pleasures of P.

 

A – Knowledge Stasis (Low Levels of Support, Low Challenge)

In a situation where there is little support for exploring new ideas, but also little in the way of challenges that force exploration, homeostatic norms emerge, and aberrations are simply assimilated to those norms as much as possible. In this mode, proposals to construct new concepts, procedures or skills seem risky and unnecessary – a costly and painstaking process, with no guarantee of success. A fair bit of support would have to be added to move from this state of stasis into a state where reframing and reformulating ideas seems like a useful and profitable thing to do.

 

E – Knowledge Growth (High Support, High Challenge)

In settings which encourage growth, some developmental “free time” is created wherein ideas can be experimented with, taken apart and criticized, recombined and realigned, all at a very low cost. These conditions are conducive to conceptual growth and refinement.

 

I – Retreat from Learning (Low Support, High Challenge)

High challenge with low support makes for an experience of being aggressed or overwhelmed by the complexity of input. There is no success in continued solo efforts. The person can either default to stasis, or begin to seek out the help of other people or other resources to provide the scaffolding needed in order to engage the challenge from a stronger position. This support-seeking behavior is an I tactic for overcoming excessive challenge.

X ON THE ARMY OF THE PHAROAHS CD COVER https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1x29OOt8-rc&feature=youtu.be