I DISCUSSED ORIGINALLY THERE WAS THOUGHT TO BE THREE TASTES BUT DEMOCRITUS ADDED THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH THE THREE PLUS ONE
THE FOURTH PAPILLAE IS DIFFERNET
Lingual papillae (singular papilla) are the small, nipple-like structures on the upper surface of the tongue that give it its characteristic rough texture. The four types of papillae on the human tongue have different structures and are named accordingly.
These are the: circumvallate papillae (vallate papillae), fungiform papillae, filiform papillae and foliate papillae. All except the filiform papillae are associated with taste buds.
The myth of the tongue map; that 1 tastes bitter, 2 tastes sour, 3 tastes salt, and 4 tastes sweet. Although this is a myth.
The tongue map dates back to research by a German scientist named D.P. Hanig, published in 1901. Not familiar with Japanese cuisine, Hanig set out to measure the relative sensitivity on the tongue for the four known basic tastes. Based on the subjective whims of his volunteers, he concluded that sensitivity to the four tastes varied around the tongue, with sweet sensations peaking in the tip, etc. That's all.
In living subjects, lingual papillae are more readily seen when the tongue is dry. There are four types of papillae present on the tongue:
Circumvallate papilla in vertical section, showing arrangement of the taste-buds and nerves
Filiform papilla, magnified.
Filiform papillae are the most numerous of the lingual papillae. They are fine, small, cone-shaped papillae covering most of the dorsum of the tongue. They are responsible for giving the tongue its texture and are responsible for the sensation of touch. Unlike the other kinds of papillae, filiform papillae do not contain taste buds. They cover most of the front two-thirds of the tongue's surface.
They appear as very small, conical or cylindrical surface projections, and are arranged in rows which lie parallel to the sulcus terminalis. At the tip of the tongue, these rows become more transverse.
Histologically, they are made up of irregular connective tissue cores with a keratin–containing epithelium which has fine secondary processes. Heavy keratinization of filiform papillae, occurring for instance in cats, gives the tongue a roughness that is characteristic of these animals.
These processes have a whitish tint, owing to the thickness and density of their epithelium. This epithelium has undergone a peculiar modification as the cells have become cone–like and elongated into dense, overlapping, brush-like processes. They also contain a number of elastic fibers, which render them firmer and more elastic than the other types of papillae. The larger and longer papillae of this group are sometimes termed papillae conicae.
Fungiform papillae, magnified and sectional diagram.
The fungiform papillae are mushroom shaped projections on the tongue, generally red in color. They are found on the upper surface of the tongue, scattered amongst the filiform papillae but are mostly present on the tip and sides of the tongue. They have taste buds on their upper surface which can distinguish the five tastes: sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami. They have a core of connective tissue. The fungiform papillae are innervated by the seventh cranial nerve, more specifically via the submandibular ganglion, chorda tympani, and geniculate ganglion ascending to the solitary nucleus in the brainstem.
Magnified diagram of a vertical section through some foliate papillae in a rabbit.
Foliate papillae are short vertical folds and are present on each side of the tongue. They are located on the sides at the back of the tongue, just in front of the palatoglossal arch of the fauces, There are four or five vertical folds, and their size and shape is variable. The foliate papillae appear as a series of red colored, leaf–like ridges of mucosa. They are covered with epithelium, lack keratin and so are softer, and bear many taste buds. They are usually bilaterally symmetrical. Sometimes they appear small and inconspicuous, and at other times they are prominent. Because their location is a high risk site for oral cancer, and their tendency to occasionally swell, they may be mistaken as tumors or inflammatory disease. Taste buds, the receptors of the gustatory sense, are scattered over the mucous membrane of their surface. Serous glands drain into the folds and clean the taste buds. Lingual tonsils are found immediately behind the foliate papillae and, when hyperplastic, cause a prominence of the papillae.
The circumvallate papillae (or vallate papillae) are dome-shaped structures on the human tongue that vary in number from 8 to 12. They are situated on the surface of the tongue immediately in front of the foramen cecum and sulcus terminalis, forming a row on either side; the two rows run backward and medially, and meet in the midline. Each papilla consists of a projection of mucous membrane from 1 to 2 mm. wide, attached to the bottom of a circular depression of the mucous membrane; the margin of the depression is elevated to form a wall (vallum), and between this and the papilla is a circular sulcus termed the fossa. The papilla is shaped like a truncated cone, the smaller end being directed downward and attached to the tongue, the broader part or base projecting a little above the surface of the tongue and being studded with numerous small secondary papillæ and covered by stratified squamous epithelium. Ducts of lingual salivary glands, known as Von Ebner's glandsempty a serous secretion into the base of the circular depression, which acts like a moat. The function of the secretion is presumed to flush materials from the base of circular depression to ensure that taste buds can respond to changing stimuli rapidly. The circumvallate papillae get special afferent taste innervation from cranial nerve IX, the glossopharyngeal nerve, even though they are anterior to the sulcus terminalis. The rest of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue gets taste innervation from the chorda tympani of cranial nerve VII, distributed with the lingual nerve of cranial nerve V.
FOUR PRIMARY TASTES
On the basis of physiologic studies, there are generally believed to be at least four primary sensations of taste: sour, salty, sweet, and bitter. Yet we know that a person can perceive literally hundreds of different tastes. These are all supposed to be combinations of the four primary sensations...However, there might be other less conspicuous classes or subclasses of primary sensations",
THREE FOUR DYNAMIC IN SURFOBOARDS ALTHOUGH THERE IS ALSO FIVE FINS WITH ULTRA TRASNCENDENT FIFTH NUBSTER
Thrusters and Tri-fins
The tri-fin's design attempts to incorporate the glide of a longboard and the performance of a shortboard into a single layout. The additional fins ensure that even what riding down the line, two, or at least one, vertical control surface is in black water (not unstable foam) allows riders better turning capabilities. In a Thruster, the symmetric, usually larger, single center fin is flanked by twin asymmetric, cambered fins. The camber is angled front in and top in, directing energy from the incoming wave to lift the board and straighten it, not dissimilar from the force vectoring provided by the geometry of a rocket's nozzle.
A "Quad" four fins, typically arranged as two pairs of thrusters in wing formation, which are quick down the line but tend to lose energy through turns. The energy is lost as the board goes up the wave because the fins are now vectoring energy from the oncoming water toward the back of the board, bleeding speed.
Nubster Fin Seen In Middle
Created by professional surfer Sean Mattison as a rear stabilization fin. Dubbed a "guitar pick" the nubster was designed to be used as a fifth fin. The Nubster helped professional surfer Kelly Slater win contests in New York and Portugal in 2011.[
Quad data rate (QDR, or quad pumping) is a communication signaling technique wherein data are transmitted at four points in the clock cycle: on the rising and falling edges, and at two intermediate points between them. The intermediate points are defined by a second clock that is 90° out of phase from the first. The effect is to deliver four bits of data per signal line per clock cycle.
In a quad data rate system, the data lines operate at twice the frequency of the clock signal. This is in contrast to double data rate systems, in which the clock and data lines operate at the same frequency.
Quad data rate technology was introduced by Intel in its Willamette-core Pentium 4 processor, and was subsequently employed in its Atom, Pentium 4, Celeron, Pentium D and Core 2 processor ranges. This technology has allowed Intel to produce chipsets and processors that can communicate with each other at data rates expected of the traditional front side bus (FSB) technology running from 400 MT/s to 1600 MT/s, while maintaining a lower and thus more stable actual clock frequency of 100 MHz to 400 MHz.
The album was loosely composed to play like a film with Raekwon as the "star," fellow Wu-Tang member Ghostface Killah as the "guest-star," and producer RZA as the "director." It features appearances from every member of the Wu-Tang Clan (except for Ol' Dirty Bastard) and affiliates Cappadonna, and Blue Raspberry. It also features an acclaimed guest appearance from rapper Nas, which marked the first collaboration with a non-affiliated artist on a Wu-Tang related album.
Upon its release, Only Built 4 Cuban Linx... debuted at number four on the Billboard 200 chart, and number two on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart, while selling 130,000 copies in its opening week. The album was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) on October 2, 1995, and according to Nielsen Soundscan, it has sold 1.1 million copies in the United States alone. Although it failed to acquire the same initial sales success as previous Wu-Tang solo albums, Cuban Linx achieved greater critical praise, with many complimenting its cinematic lyricism and production.
Only Built 4 Cuban Linx... has received acclaim from music critics and writers over the years, with many lauding it as one of the greatest hip hop albums of all time. With its emphasis on American Mafia insinuations and organized crime, the album is widely regarded as a pioneer of the mafioso rapsubgenre. It is considered to have been highly influential on hip hop music over the next decade, being heavily referenced and influential on acclaimed albums such as Reasonable Doubt (1996) and Life After Death (1997). Along with GZA's Liquid Swords, Cuban Linx is the most acclaimed solo Wu-Tang work. In 2012, Rolling Stone magazine placed it at number 480 on their 500 Greatest Albums of All Time list.
FOUR IN THE TITLE OF RAEKWON'S FIRST ALBUM
Only Built 4 Cuban Linx... Pt. II is the fourth studio album by American hip hop recording artist and Wu-Tang Clan-member Raekwon, released September 8, 2009, on Ice H2O/EMI Records in the United States. The album experienced numerous delays to its release due to Raekwon's approach of continual re-writing, as well as distribution issues with his record labels. Serving as the sequel to his critically acclaimed debut album Only Built 4 Cuban Linx... (1995), Pt. II maintains many of the themes covered on its predecessor, and features guest appearances from several Wu-Tang members, as well as Busta Rhymes, Jadakiss and Beanie Sigel.
The album debuted at number four on the Billboard 200 and at number two on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart, while selling near 68,000 copies in its first week. Upon its release, Only Built 4 Cuban Linx... Pt. II received widespread acclaim from music critics, based on an aggregate score of 88/100 from Metacritic, indicating "universal acclaim", and was ranked number 45 on the site's list of best-reviewed albums. Only Built 4 Cuban Linx… Pt. II was included on several publications' year-end album lists, including Rolling Stone, which ranked it the twenty-fifth best album of 2009,and Time, which named it seventh-best.
RAEKWON 4 IN THE TITLE BUILT 4 CUBAN LINX
4 HIRE- AND 4 AM SONG
Gun-Mouth 4 Hire: Horns and Halos 2 is the fifteenth album by Andre Nickatina, his third with Equipto and the second part in the Horns and Halos series. It was released on November 15, 2005 for Million Dollar Dream and was produced by Andre Nickatina, Nick Peace, Big D, Sync Knock, Danker-D, Freddy Machete and Laird.
"4am-Bay Bridge Music"- 3:39
MAC DRE IS A LEGENDARY HIP HOP ARTIST FROM OAKLAND- HIS DEBUT ALBUM'S HIT SONG WAS 2 HARD 4 THE FUCKIN' RADIO- WHEN MAC DRE WAS SENT TO JAIL FOR FIVE YEARS THE NEWS STATION TALKED ABOUT MAC DRE AND HIS HIT SONG "2 HARD 4 THE RADIO"
"2 Hard 4 the Fuckin' Radio" (Printed on the back cover as "2 Hard 4 the F--ckin' Radio")
MAC DRE GAME 4 SALE- 4 IN THE TITLE AND 16 SQUARE QUADRANT MODEL ALBUM COVER
AALIYAH I CARE 4 U
I Care 4 U is a posthumous compilation album by American R&B recording artist Aaliyah. Following the release of Aaliyah's self-titled third album in July 2001, she died in a plane crash after shooting the music video for the song "Rock the Boat" in the Bahamas on August 25. Blackground Records and Universal Music decided to release a posthumous record that included songs from her studio albums and previously unreleased tracks and demos, recorded between 1993 and 2001. It also included her hit singles and a number of recordings discarded from sessions for her third album.
When I Care 4 U was released by Blackground and Universal on December 10, 2002, critics were divided in their assessment of the previously unreleased songs and the compilation's breadth in general. Commercially, the album was a success, debuting at number three on the Billboard 200 and being certified platinum. It also reached the top ten of record charts in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Switzerland. The compilation produced four singles—"Miss You", "I Care 4 U", "Don't Know What to Tell Ya", and "Come Over"—and has sold six million copies worldwide.
"I Care 4 U" is a song by American R&B recording artist Aaliyah. It is a romantic R&B ballad written by Missy Elliott and Timbaland. The song was originally recorded for Aaliyah's 1996 album One in a Million, but the recording was withdrawn after its completion and revisited for her 2001 self-titled third album.
"I Care 4 U" charted for 20 weeks on the Billboard Hot 100 in 2002, peaking at number 16. It was released as a radio single in 2003 in promotion of Aaliyah's posthumuous compilation album I Care 4 U (2002).
ONE OF MY FAVORITE RAPPERS IN HIGH SCHOOL WAS JERU THE DAMAJA- ALBUM HEROZ4HIRE
Divine Design is the fourth album by hip hop artist Jeru the Damaja. It is produced by Ed Dantez and Luis "Sabor" Tineo as opposed Jeru's earlier albums which were produced by DJ Premier and Jeru himself.
WU TANG 36 CHAMBERS NINE TIMES 4
According to a Five Percent philosophy, known to adherents as the Supreme Mathematics, the number 9 means "to bring into existence," and the group was made of nine members, each of whom has four chambers of the heart, which results in the "36 Chambers", being the total of the nine hearts of the members.
ICE T'S ROCK BAND
Murder 4 Hire is the fourth studio album by American heavy metal band Body Count. Released on August 1, 2006, this was the first album from Body Count in nine years. Work on the album had come to a pause after rhythm guitarist D-Roc the Executioner was found dead in his apartment due to his lymphoma cancer in 2004. Once the band acquired Bendrix as their new rhythm guitarist, work on the album resumed and the album was released two years later.
JOE BUDDEN FOUR ALBUM CONCEPT FOURTH TRANSCENDENT
Budden has stated that the album is actually the final piece of the four album concept, which includes Halfway House, Padded Room and Escape Route, as he finally finds salvation and freedom from a sense of confinement that had been pervading his life and career.
On August 11, 2009, Amalgam Digital and Budden released a digital-only album entitled Escape Route, the third piece of the four album concept. Budden said that Escape Route will give fans a taste of what to expect from him on his third studio effort. In September 2010, Budden signed to E1 Music, so the album was not released under Amalgam Digital. At the end of 2012 Joe Budden embarked on the Second First Impression Tour. Budden says this album will show his maturity and growth as an artist.
THIS IS A CLASSIC ALTERCATION BETWEEN JOE BUDDEN AND MIGOS THAT WENT VIRAL AND AT 45 SECONDS YOU CAN SEE THE CROSS