The X Factor is the tenth studio album by English heavy metal band Iron Maiden, released on 2 October 1995 through EMI.

The release's title came about at the start of the album's recording. According to producer Nigel Green:

"We all felt that the way things were progressing – the songs, Blaze's new involvement, the sound, the commitment – the new album really would have that extra quality, that bit of magic, that 'X Factor'. This became the working title for the album and we liked it, so we kept it. It is also very apt as this is our tenth studio album and "X" can bring up many images."[5]

The X Factor's cover art depicts Eddie undergoing another lobotomy and was created by Hugh Syme.[6] Due to the cover's "lifelike" style,[4] the band were forced to release the album in a reversible sleeve,[7] including a less graphic alternative, showing Eddie from a distance.[8] The album was also the last one until The Book of Souls in 2015 to use the classic variant of the band's logo, as every single studio release from Virtual XIto The Final Frontier used an alternate variant that removed the extended ends of the "R", "M", and both "N's".

The X Factour was a concert tour by the heavy metal band Iron Maiden which took place from 28 September 1995 to 7 September 1996. It was their first tour with vocalist Blaze Bayley, who debuted on The X Factor album.[1] The opening acts on varying dates of the tour included Psycho Motel,[2] Fear Factory and My Dying Bride.

XXX is the thirteenth studio album by the American blues rock band ZZ Top, released in 1999 (see 1999 in music). 




Despite being an intense heavy metal record, Tormented features a rather soft song, "Four Walls".

The album is known for its graphic cover art. The cover depicts a bloody Barbie doll on a crucifix with nails hanging from a plastic frame, a buried person with a rosary protruding from the person's nose, and a knife impaling a Bible.[24][25] This album cover appalled Limp Bizkit member Fred Durst so much that he attempted to remove Staind from a concert bill shortly before their performance. Durst thought that Staind were Theistic Satanists.[25][26] Despite his attempts to stop the band from performing, Durst eventually changed his mind and allowed Staind to perform.[25] After hearing Staind perform, Durst was so impressed that he signed them to Flip Records[26][27] by February 1998.[15] Durst produced Staind's second album Dysfunction (1999).[28]


"Four Chords" is one of the Axis of Awesome's best-known works. It is a medley of popular songs, set to the I–V–vi–IV progression.[9] Many of the songs selected do not actually follow this four-chord progression, and some of the ones that do only include it briefly. Since these four chords are played as an ostinato, the band also uses a vi-IV-I-V, usually from the song "Save Tonight" to the song "Torn". The band plays the song in the key of D (E in the live performance on YouTube), so the progression they use is D-A-Bm-G (E, B, C#m, A on the live performances). Most of the songs have been transposed from their original keys.

The band continually vary the songs comprising the medley, often incorporating new releases. The Axis' song "Birdplane" (itself a parody of the Five for Fightingsong "Superman") is always included, as well as Australian folk song "Waltzing Matilda" and "Down Under" by the Australian band Men at Work. The medley usually starts with Journey's "Don't Stop Believin'". The song always concludes with the chorus of "Scar" (by Missy Higgins), except with the final line changed from "Could you leave me with a scar?" to "That's all it takes to be a star" (referring to the four chords themselves).

On 20 July 2011, the Axis of Awesome released an official music video for "Four Chords" on their YouTube channel.

Songs in the official music video:[10]

  1. Journey – "Don't Stop Believin'"

  2. James Blunt – "You're Beautiful"

  3. The Black Eyed Peas – "Where Is the Love"

  4. Alphaville – "Forever Young"

  5. Jason Mraz – "I'm Yours"

  6. Train – "Hey, Soul Sister"

  7. The Calling – "Wherever You Will Go"

  8. Elton John – "Can You Feel the Love Tonight" (from The Lion King)

  9. Akon – "Don't Matter"

  10. John Denver – "Take Me Home, Country Roads"

  11. Lady Gaga – "Paparazzi"

  12. U2 – "With Or Without You"

  13. The Last Goodnight – "Pictures of You"

  14. Maroon 5 – "She Will Be Loved"

  15. The Beatles – "Let It Be"

  16. Bob Marley – "No Woman, No Cry"

  17. Marcy Playground – "Sex and Candy"

  18. Men At Work – "Down Under"

  19. Jill Colucci – "The Funny Things You Do" (Theme from America's Funniest Home Videos)

  20. Jack Johnson – "Taylor"

  21. Spice Girls – "2 Become 1"

  22. a-ha – "Take On Me"

  23. Green Day – "When I Come Around"

  24. Eagle Eye Cherry – "Save Tonight"

  25. Toto – "Africa"

  26. Beyoncé – "If I Were A Boy"

  27. Kelly Clarkson – "Behind These Hazel Eyes"

  28. Jason Derulo – "In My Head"

  29. The Smashing Pumpkins – "Bullet With Butterfly Wings"

  30. Joan Osborne – " One of Us"

  31. Avril Lavigne – "Complicated"

  32. The Offspring – "Self Esteem"

  33. The Offspring – "You're Gonna Go Far, Kid"

  34. Akon – "Beautiful"

  35. OneRepublic – "Apologize"

  36. Eminem featuring Rihanna – "Love the Way You Lie"

  37. Bon Jovi – "It's My Life"

  38. Lady Gaga – "Poker Face"

  39. Aqua – "Barbie Girl"

  40. Red Hot Chili Peppers – "Otherside"

  41. The Gregory Brothers – "Double Rainbow Song"

  42. MGMT – "Kids"

  43. Andrea Bocelli – "Time To Say Goodbye"

  44. Robert Burns – "Auld Lang Syne"

  45. Five for Fighting – "Superman"

  46. The Axis of Awesome – "Birdplane"

  47. Missy Higgins – "Scar"

Other songs that have been played in the medley:[11][12][13][14]

  1. Alex Lloyd – "Amazing"

  2. Richard Marx – "Right Here Waiting"

  3. Adele – "Someone Like You"

  4. Christina Perri – "Jar of Hearts"

  5. Crowded House – "Fall At Your Feet"

  6. Red Hot Chili Peppers – "Under the Bridge"

  7. Daryl Braithwaite – "The Horses"

  8. Pink – "U + Ur Hand"

  9. The Fray – "You Found Me"

  10. 3OH!3 – "Don't Trust Me"

  11. Tim Minchin – "Canvas Bags"

  12. Blink-182 – "Dammit"

  13. Kasey Chambers – "Not Pretty Enough"

  14. Alicia Keys – "No One"

  15. Amiel – "Lovesong"

  16. Bush – "Glycerine"

  17. Thirsty Merc – "20 Good Reasons"

  18. Lighthouse Family – "High"

  19. Red Hot Chili Peppers – "Soul to Squeeze"

  20. Banjo Paterson – "Waltzing Matilda"

  21. Bic Runga – "Sway"

  22. Ben Lee – "Cigarettes Will Kill You"

  23. Michael Jackson – "Man in the Mirror"

  24. Mika – "Happy Ending"

  25. The Cranberries – " Zombie"

  26. Natalie Imbruglia – "Torn"

  27. Miley Cyrus – "Wrecking Ball"

  28. Imagine Dragons – "Demons"

  29. Idina Menzel – "Let It Go"[15]

  30. Rihanna feat. Calvin Harris – "We Found Love"[15]

  31. Avicii – "Wake Me Up"[16]

  32. Flo Rida – "Whistle"[17]

  33. The Script feat. – "Hall of Fame"[17]

  34. CarsonChristopher, and James – "Always on My Mind"[15][17]

  35. Die Ärzte – "Manchmal haben Frauen"[16]–V–vi–IV_progression

This is a list of recorded songs containing the I–V–vi–IV progression, containing the IVvi, and IV chords, consecutively. The list does not include songs containing the progression for only very brief sections of the songs, nor does it include remade recordings of songs by other artists.


vi–IV–I–V chord progression in C  Play (help·info).

Song TitleArtistYearProgression

"And We Danced"Macklemore2011vi-IV-I-V

"Say You Won't Let Go"James Arthur2017I–V-vi–IV

"Save as Draft (song)"Katy Perry2017I–V-vi–IV


"No Vacancy"OneRepublic2017vi–IV–I–V

"God Is a Girl"Groove Coverage2002vi–IV–I–V

"Apollo (song)"Timebelle2017vi–IV–I–V

"Be there"Krewella2017vi–IV–I–V

"A New Day Has Come (song)"[1]Celine Dion2002vi–IV–I–V

"Nights With You"2017I–V-vi–IV

"Afterlife"Avenged Sevenfold2007I-V-vi-IV

"Coconut Tree (song)"Mohombi feat. Nicole Scherzinger2011vi–IV–I–V

"20 Good Reasons"[2]Thirsty Merc2007I–V-vi–IV

"21 Guns"[3]Green Day2009vi–IV–I–V


"Aicha"[5]Cheb Khaled1996vi–IV–I–V

"Ain't Your Mama"Jennifer Lopez2016vi–IV–I–V


"All Too Well"[7]Taylor Swift2012I–V–vi–IV

"All You Wanted"Michelle Branch2001vi–IV–I–V

"Always on My Mind"[8]Brenda Lee1972I–V–vi–IV



"Androgynous"The Replacements1984I-V-vi-IV

"Another Girl, Another Planet"[11]The Only Ones1978I–V–vi–IV


"Atemlos"Helene Fischer2013I–V–vi–IV

"Bad Blood"[12]Taylor Swift2014IV–I–V–vi

"Bailando"Enrique Iglesias ft. Descemer BuenoGente De Zona2014vi–IV–I–V

"Beast of Burden"[13]The Rolling Stones1978I–V–vi–IV

"Beautiful"[14]Akon feat. Colby O'Donis and Kardinal Offishall2009vi–IV–I–V

"Born to Make You Happy"Britney Spears1999vi–IV–I–V

"Bridge of Light"[15]P!nk2011I–V–vi–IV; vi–IV–I–V

"Brighter"Against the Current2016I-V-vi-IV

"Brighter Than the Sun"[16]Colbie Caillat2011vi–IV–I–V

"Bullet"[17]Hollywood Undead2011I–V–vi–IV

"California King Bed"[18]Rihanna2011I–V–vi–IV

"Caramelldansen"[19]Caramella Girls2001I–V–vi–IV

"Cheap Thrills"[20]Sia2016vi–IV-I-V

"Ciaccona"[21]Antonio Bertali1662I–V–vi–IV–V

"Come Over"[22]Kenny Chesney2012vi–IV–I–V

"Confusion and Frustration in Modern Times"[23]Sum 412007vi–IV–I–V; I–V–vi–IV

"Con te partirò" (Time to say goodbye)Andrea Bocelli1995I–V–vi–IV

"Cruise"[24]Florida Georgia Line2012I–V–vi–IV


"Cute Without The 'E' (Cut From The Team)[26]"Taking Back Sunday2002I–V–vi–IV


"Demons"[28]Imagine Dragons2012I–V–vi–IV

"De Música Ligera"[29]Soda Stereo1990vi–IV–I–V

"Despacito"[30]Luis Fonsi2017vi–IV–I–V

"Dirty Little Secret"[31]The All-American Rejects2005I–V–vi–IV

"Don't Forget Me"[32]Red Hot Chili Peppers2002vi–IV–I–V

"Don't Stop Believin'"[33]Journey1981I–V–vi–IV

"Don't Stop the Dancing"DJ Manian2012I–V–vi–IV

"Don't Trust Me"[34]3OH!32008vi–IV–I–V

"Don't You Wanna Stay"[35]Jason Aldean and Kelly Clarkson2010I–V–vi–IV; vi–IV–I–V

"Down"[36]Jay Sean feat. Lil Wayne2009IV–I–V–vi

"Down Under"Men at Work1980I–V–vi–IV

"Dream Catch Me"[37]Newton Faulkner2007I–V-vi-IV

"Drive By"[38]Train2012vi–IV–I–V

"Electrical Storm"[39]U22002vi–IV–I–V

"Faded"Alan Walker2015vi-IV-I-V

"Fall At Your Feet"Crowded House1991

"Feeling This"[13][40]Blink-1822003I–V–vi–IV

"Flashlight"[41]Jessie J2015I–V–vi–IV

"For the First Time"[42]The Script2010I–V–vi–IV; vi–IV–I–V

"Four Chords"[43]The Axis of Awesome2011I–V–vi–IV; vi–IV–I–V

"Fuckin' Perfect"[44]P!nk2010I–V–vi–IV

"Give Me Everything"[45]Pitbull feat. Ne-YoAfrojack, and Nayer2011vi–IV–I–V


"Going to Pasalacqua"Green Day1991I–V–vi–IV

"Good Life"[47]OneRepublic2010vi–IV–I–V

"Great Romances Of The 20th Century"[48]Taking Back Sunday2002vi–IV–I–V

"Hair"[49]Lady Gaga2011I–V–vi–IV

"Hall of Fame"[50]The Script feat. will.i.am2012vi–IV–I–V

"Happy Ending"[51]Mika2007I–V–vi–IV

"Heart Attack"[52]Demi Lovato2013IV–I–V–vi


"Here Without You"3 Doors Down2003I–V–vi–IV

"Here (In Your Arms)"Hellogoodbye2006I–V–vi–IV

"Hey Brother"[54]Avicii2013vi–IV–I–V

"Hey, Soul Sister"[55]Train2009I–V–vi–IV

"Hide and Seek"[56]Imogen Heap2005I–V–vi–IV

"Holiday"Green Day2004vi-IV-I-V

"Home"[57]Phillip Phillips2012IV–I–V–vi; vi–IV–I–V

"Hot n Cold"[58]Katy Perry2008vi–IV–I–V

"How Far I'll Go"[59]Auli'i Cravalho2016I-V-vi-IV

"If I Were a Boy"[60]Beyoncé2008vi–IV–I–V

"If We Ever Meet Again"[61]Timbaland feat. Katy Perry2010I–V–vi–IV

"I Just Had Sex"[62]The Lonely Island feat. Akon2011vi–IV–I–V

"I Knew You Were Trouble[63]Taylor Swift2012I–V-vi–IV

"I'm Goin' Down[64]Bruce Springsteen1985I–V–vi–IV

"I'm Yours"[65]Jason Mraz2008I–V–vi–IV

"In My Head"[66]Jason Derülo2009vi–IV–I–V

"In This River"[67]Black Label Society2005vi–IV–I–V

"Innocent"Taylor Swift2010I-V-vi-IV

"International Love"[68]Pitbull feat. Chris Brown2011vi–IV–I–V

"I Wanna Talk About Me"Toby Keith2001I–V–vi–IV

"I Was Here"[69]Beyoncé2011vi–IV–I–V

"Just Ace"[70]Grinspoon1997I–V–vi–IV

"Just a Dream"[71]Nelly2010vi–IV–I–V

"Kaze wa Fuiteiru"[72]AKB482011vi–IV–I–V

"Lemonade"[73]Alexandra Stan2011vi–IV–I–V

"Let It Be"[74]The Beatles1970I–V–vi–IV

"Let It Go"Idina Menzel2013I–V–vi–IV

"Little Talks"[75]Of Monsters and Men2011vi–IV–I–V

"Love"Lana Del Rey2017I-V-vi-IV

"Love Me"[76]Justin Bieber2009vi–IV–I–V

"Love the Way You Lie"[77]Eminem feat. Rihanna2010vi–IV–I–V

"Marilyn Monroe"[78]Nicki Minaj2012vi–IV–I–V

"Million Eyes"Loïc Nottet2016vi–IV–I–V

"Mirrors"Natalia Kills2010vi-IV-I-V

"My Name Is Jonas"[79]Weezer1994I–V–vi–IV

"Não Me Toca"[80]Anselmo Ralph2012vi–IV–I–V

"Nobody's Perfect"[81]Miley Cyrus2007vi–IV–I–V

"Nobody's Perfect"Jessie J2011vi–IV–I–V

"No One"[82]Alicia Keys2007I–V–vi–IV

"No One Else"[83]Weezer1994I–V–vi–IV

"Not Afraid"[84]Eminem2010vi–IV–I–V

"Numb"[85]Linkin Park2003vi–IV–I–V

"One of Us"[86][87]Joan Osborne1995vi–IV–I–V

"On the Floor"[88]Jennifer Lopez feat. Pitbull2011vi–IV–I–V

"On Melancholy Hill"[89]Gorillaz2010I-V-vi-IV

"Otherside"[90]Red Hot Chili Peppers2000vi–IV–I–V

"Out of the Woods"[91]Taylor Swift2014I–V–vi–IV


"Paralyzed"Against the Current2015vi-IV-I-V

"Party in the U.S.A."[93]Miley Cyrus2009I–V–vi–IV

"Peace of Mind"[94]Boston1976vi–IV–I–V

"Pieces"[95]Sum 412005vi–IV–I–V

"Poker Face"[96]Lady Gaga2008vi–IV–I–V

"Pork and Beans"[97]Weezer2008I–V–vi–IV

"Ready or Not"[98]Bridgit Mendler2012vi–IV–I–V


"Right Here Waiting"[100]Richard Marx1989I-V-vi-IV

"Rise"[101]McClain Sisters2012vi–IV–I–V

"Save Tonight"[102]Eagle Eye Cherry1997vi–IV–I–V

"Say Something"[103]A Great Big World2013vi–IV–I–V

"Scar"[104]Missy Higgins2004I–V-vi-IV

"Science & Faith"[105]The Script2011vi–IV–I–V

"Screen"Twenty One Pilots2013I–V–VI–V–IV

"Self Esteem"[106][107]The Offspring1994vi–IV–I–V

"Shake It"[108]Metro Station2008V–vi–IV–I

"Shooting Star"[109]Amy Diamond2005I–V-vi-IV

"Silverflame"[110]Dizzy Mizz Lizzy1994vi–IV–I–V

"Six Degrees of Separation"[111]The Script2012vi–IV–I–V

"Skyscraper"[112]Demi Lovato2011vi–IV–I–V

"Snow (Hey Oh)"[113]Red Hot Chili Peppers2006I–V–vi–IV; vi–IV–I–V

"Someone like You"[114]Adele2011I–V–vi–IV

"So Lonely"The Police1978I–V–vi–IV

"So Small"[115]Carrie Underwood2007vi–IV–I–V

"Soul To Squeeze"[116]Red Hot Chili Peppers1993vi–IV–I–V

"Sparks Fly"[117]Taylor Swift2011vi–IV–I–V

"Stamp on the Ground"ItaloBrothers2009vi–IV–I–V

"Stand"[118]Rascal Flatts2007vi–IV–I–V

"Stereo Madness"ForeverBound2014I–V-vi–IV

"Stronger (What Doesn't Kill You)"[119]Kelly Clarkson2012vi–IV–I–V

"Summer Paradise"Simple Plan2012I–V–vi–IV

"Sun Goes Down"Robin Schulz ft. Jasmine Thompson2014vi–IV–I–V

"Tacata (song)"Tacabro2011vi–IV–I–V

"Take Me Home, Country Roads"[120]John Denver1971I–V–vi–IV

"Tangled Up in Me"[121]Skye Sweetnam2004V–vi–IV–I

"Tears of the Dragon"[122]Bruce Dickinson1994vi–IV–I–V

"The Big Ship"Brian Eno1975vi–IV-I-V; vi-IV-I-IV

"The Edge of Glory"[123]Lady Gaga2011I–V–vi–IV

"The Hell Song"[124]Sum 412002vi–I–V–IV

"The Kids Aren't Alright"[125]The Offspring1999vi–IV–I–V

"The Light Behind Your Eyes"[126]My Chemical Romance2012vi–I–IV–V

"The Passenger"Iggy Pop1977vi–IV-I-V; vi-IV-I-III

"(There's Gotta Be) More to Life"[127]Stacie Orrico2003vi–IV–I–V

"The Rock Show"[128]Blink-1822001I–V–vi–IV; vi–IV–I–V

"Think Twice"[129]Eve 62003vi–IV–I–V

"This Is Me"[130]Demi Lovato and Joe Jonas2008vi–IV–I–V

"Tired"Alan Walker2017vi-IV-I-V

"To Know Him Is to Love Him"[131]The Teddy Bears1958I–V–vi–IV

"Too Cool"[132]Meaghan Jette Martin2008vi–IV–I–V

"Try"Colbie Caillat2014vi–IV–I–V

"Try"[133]P!nk2012IV–I–V–vi; vi–IV–I–V

"Tuesday's Gone"[134]Lynyrd Skynyrd1973I–V–vi–IV

"U + Ur Hand"[135]P!nk2006vi–IV–I–V

"Under The Bridge"Red Hot Chili Peppers1991vi-IV-I-V

"Vamos a la playa (Miranda song)"Miranda (group)1999vi–IV–I–V

"Viva la Vida"[136]Coldplay2008IV-V-I-vi

"Wagon Wheel"[137]Old Crow Medicine Show2004I–V–vi–IV

"Walking Disaster"[138]Sum 412007I–V–vi–IV

"Walks Like Rihanna"[139]The Wanted2013I–V–vi–IV

"We Found Love"[140]Rihanna feat. Calvin Harris2011vi–IV–I–V

"What About Now"[141]Lonestar2000I–V–vi–IV

"What's My Age Again?"[142]Blink-1821999IV–I–V–vi; I–V–vi–IV

"When I Come Around"[13][143]Green Day1993I–V–vi–IV

"Wherever You Will Go"[144]The Calling2001I–V–vi–IV

"Whistle"[145]Flo Rida2012vi–IV–I–V

"Who You Are"[146]Jessie J2011vi–IV–I–V

"Wicked Wonderland"Martin Tungevaag2014vi–IV–I–V

"Wine To Di Top"Vybz Kartel & WizKid2017vi–IV–I–V

"With Me"[147]Sum 412007IV–I–V–vi; vi–IV–I–V

"With or Without You"[148]U21987I–V–vi–IV

"Wonderland"Natalia Kills2011vi-IV-I-V

"You're Not Sorry"[149]Taylor Swift2008vi–IV–I–V

"Heaven"[150]Troye Sivan2015I-V-vi-IV

"Youth"[151]Troye Sivan2015I–V–vi–IV

"Zombie"[152]The Cranberries1994vi–IV–I–V

"Fear of Cancer"[153]Ghost Cassette2010vi–IV–I–V

Classic lineup

  • Mick Tucker - drums backing and lead vocals, percussion (1968–1981, 1985–1991)

  • Steve Priest - bass, backing and lead vocals (1968–1981)

  • Brian Connolly - lead vocals (1968–1979)

  • Andy Scott - guitars, backing and lead vocals, keyboards, synthesisers (1970–1982, 1985–1991)


The first four Crusader states were created in the Levant immediately after the First Crusade:


The first Crusader state, the County of Edessa, was founded in 1098 and lasted until 1150.

The Principality of Antioch, founded in 1098, lasted until 1268.

The Kingdom of Jerusalem, founded in 1099, lasted until 1291, when the city of Acre fell. There were also many vassals of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the four major lordships (seigneuries) being:

The Principality of Galilee

The County of Jaffa and Ascalon

The Lordship of Oultrejordain

The Lordship of Sidon

The County of Tripoli, founded in 1104, with Tripoli itself conquered in 1109, lasted until 1289.

After the First Crusade's capture of Jerusalem and victory at Ascalon the majority of the Crusaders considered their pilgrimage complete and returned to Europe. Godfrey was left with only 300 knights and 2,000 infantry to defend the territory won in the Eastern Mediterranean. Only Tancred of the crusader princes remained with the aim of establishing his own lordship.[4] At this point the Franks held only Jerusalem and two great Syrian cities; Antioch and Edessa but not the surrounding country. Jerusalem remained economically sterile despite the advantages of being the centre of administration of church and state and benefitting from streams of pilgrims.[5]


Consolidation in the first half of the 12th-century established four Crusader states: the County of Edessa (1098–1149), the Principality of Antioch (1098–1268), the Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099–1291), and the County of Tripoli (1104–1289, although the city of Tripoli itself remained in Muslim control until 1109).[6] These states were the first examples of "Europe overseas". They are generally known as outremer, from the French outre-mer ("overseas" in English).[7][8]


Located off the northwest tip of Bird's Head Peninsula on the island of New Guinea, in Indonesia's West Papua province, Raja Ampat, or the Four Kings, is an archipelago comprising over 1,500 small islands, cays, and shoals surrounding the four main islands of MisoolSalawatiBatanta, and Waigeo, and the smaller island of Kofiau. The Raja Ampat archipelago is the part of Coral Triangle which contains the richest marine biodiversity on earth.

The name of Raja Ampat comes from local mythology that tells of a woman who finds seven eggs. Four of the seven hatch and become kings who occupy four of Raja Ampat biggest islands whilst the other three become a ghost, a woman, and a stone.


The Coronado Islands (Islas Coronado or Islas Coronados; English: Islands of the Coronation(s)) are a group of four islands off the northwest coast of the Mexican state of Baja California. Battered by the wind and waves, they are largely barren and uninhabited except for a small military detachment and a few lighthouse keepers. The islands lie between 15 and 19 miles south of the entrance to San Diego bay, but only 8 miles from the Mexican mainland.


In September 1542 Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo described them as islas desiertas (desert islands). In 1602 the priest for Sebastián Vizcaíno called them Los Cuatro Coronados (the four crowned ones) to honour four martyrs. Although they have been called a dozen other names (later fisherman upon seeing floating coffins, ghostly faces and shrouded bodies amid the rocks dubbed them: Old Stone Face, The Sarcophagi, Dead Man's Island, and Corpus Christi) they also have been provocatively called The Sentries of San Diego Bay even though they belong to Mexico.

Greater Antilles, the four largest islands of the Antilles—Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico—lying north of the Lesser Antilles chain. They constitute nearly 90 percent of the total land area of the entire West Indies.


Kiribati consists of 33 atolls and one solitary island (Banaba), extending into the eastern and western hemispheres, as well as the northern and southern hemispheres. It is the only country that is situated within all four hemispheres.[1] The groups of islands are:


Banaba: an isolated island between Nauru and the Gilbert Islands

Gilbert Islands: 16 atolls located some 1,500 kilometres (932 mi) north of Fiji

Phoenix Islands: 8 atolls and coral islands located some 1,800 kilometres (1,118 mi) southeast of the Gilberts

Line Islands: 8 atolls and one reef, located about 3,300 kilometres (2,051 mi) east of the Gilberts


Scotland has over 790 offshore islands, most of which are to be found in four main groups: Shetland, Orkney, and the Hebrides, sub-divided into the Inner Hebrides and Outer Hebrides.[1] There are also clusters of islands in the Firth of Clyde, Firth of Forth, and Solway Firth, and numerous small islands within the many bodies of fresh water in Scotland including Loch Lomond and Loch Maree.

As can be seen within the artwork of the album, one aspect of the story Manson set out to illustrate with the parable of Holy Wood was told by his personification of 'Adam Kadmon' who, in Kabbalistic tradition, is the Adam of the Garden of Eden, the first and iconic man.

The four sections of the album are delineated each with letters which spell out 'ADAM', likewise was seen within the menu design of during this era. The concept of Adam Kadmon has many complex occult, metaphorical, alchemical and Kabbalistic connections which are outlined in very abridged form below. Within the story of Holy Wood however, Manson outlines the semi-autobiographical growth of the character known as Adam Kadmon who sees the hypocrisy of the world, the morbid death worship of religion, the cult of celebrity and sets out to begin a revolution to change the world. The personification of Adam Kadmon was also done so in part to illustrate a degree of naivety and innocence of a boy viewing the world from an objective standpoint, which is often difficult to see when one is wholly immersed in it.

As discussed earlier within the section, the Tree Of Life is a diagram, or microcosm, which symbolically represents the progress of the Kabbalist or Alchemist. This progress however is separated into Four sections, or Four Worlds: The World Of Action, The World Of Formation, The World Of Creation and The World Of Archetypes, each designated as a level of progression . As also shown above, the Tree Of Life corresponds to the human body. The lower worlds as shown on the Tree Of Life are denser, more literal and, just as they are represented lower on the human body, they correspond as such and represent the lower senses and states of being. Conversely, the higher worlds correspond higher on the human body, these are more ethereal, divine and spiritual and just as Kether, the top most Sephirah or state of spiritual attainment, rests just above the head, it represents the closest state of existence with "god". And coinciding with this theme, each world is also assigned a letter of the Tetragrammaton, IHVH, (see below) or corresponding, as in the case at hand, a letter of the name 'ADAM' to represent each stage of progression.

These Four Worlds are merely another way of representing the stages of spiritual evolution and transformation. A certain way in which they can also be represented is on Tree Of Life atop another to further delineate them; as each world, each stage of transformation, requires it's own separate facets to be dealt with as nothing is simple and handed down in life. This diagram within Holy Wood is another representation of the perpetual theme of transformation which is so integral to Manson's art.


According to the Isarim, the secret doctrine of Israel taught the existence of four Adams, each dwelling in one of the four Qabbalistic worlds. The first, or heavenly, Adam dwelt alone in the Atziluthic sphere and within his nature existed all spiritual and material potentialities. The second Adam resided in the sphere of Briah. Like the first Adam, this being was androgynous and the tenth division of its body (its heel, Malchuth) corresponded to the church of Israel that shall bruise the serpent's head. The third Adam--likewise androgynous--was clothed in a body of light and abode in the sphere of Yetzirah. The fourth Adam was merely the third Adam after the fall into the sphere of Assiah, at which time the spiritual man took upon himself the animal shell or coat of skins. The fourth Adam was still considered as a single individual, though division had taken place within his nature and two shells or physical bodies existed, in one of which was incarnated the masculine and in the other the feminine potency. (For further details consult Isaac Myer.)


The universal nature of Adam is revealed in the various accounts concerning the substances of which he was formed. It was originally ordained that the "dirt" to be used in fashioning him was to be derived from the seven worlds. As these planes, however, refused to give of their substances, the Creator wrenched from them by force the elements to be employed in the Adamic constitution. St. Augustine discovered a Notarikon in the name of Adam. He showed that the four letters, A-D-A-M, are the first letters of the four words Anatole Dysis Arktos Mesembria, the Greek names for the four corners of the world. The same author also sees in Adam a prototype of Christ, for he writes: "Adam sleeps that Eve may be formed: Christ dies, that the Church may be formed. While Adam sleeps, Eve is formed from his side. When Christ is dead, His side is smitten with a spear, that there flow forth sacraments to form the church. * * * Adam himself was the figure of Him that was to come."


We see here that the Sun and the Moon are supported upon the right-angled Cross. This Cross may signify very profoundly, and for sufficient reasons in our hieroglyph, either the Ternary or the Quaternary. The Ternary is made by the two straight lines having a copulative centre.

The Quaternary is produced by the four straight lines enclosing four right angles. Either of these elements, the lines or the right angles, repeated twice, therefore, afford us in the most secret manner the Octad, which I do not believe was known to our predecessors, the Magi, and which you should study with great attention. The threefold magic of the first Fathers and the wise men consisted in Body, Soul and Spirit. Therefore, we have here the first manifested Septenary, that is to say, two straight lines with a common point which make three, and the four lines which converge to form the central point in separating the first two. 


The Elements being far from their accustomed places, the homogeneous parts are dislocated, and this a man learns by experiment, for it is along the straight lines that they return naturally and effectively to these same places. Therefore, it will not be absurd to represent the mystery of the four Elements, in which it is possible to resolve each one into elementary form, by four straight lines running in four contrary directions from one common and indivisible point. Here you will notice particularly that the geometricians teach that a line is produced by the displacement of a point: we give notice that it must be the same here, and for a similar reason, because our elementary lines are produced by a continual cascade of droplets as a flux in the mechanism of our magic. 


Besides, the kabbalistic extension of the Quaternary according to the common formula of notation (because we say one, two, three, and four) is an abridged or reduced form of the Decad. This is because Pythagoras was in the habit of saying: 1+2+3+4 make 10. It is not by chance that the right-angled Cross -- that is to say, the twenty-first letter of the Roman alphabet, which was considered as being formed by four straight lines -- was taken by the most ancient of the Roman Philosophers to represent the Decad.

Further, they have defined the place where the Ternary conducts its force into the Septenary. 


We see that all this accords perfectly with the Sun and Moon of our Monad, because, by the magic of the four Elements, an exact separation upon their original lines must be made; following which the circulatory conjunction within the solar complement through the peripheries of these same lines is performed, because however long a given line may be, it is possible to describe a circle passing through its extremes, following the laws of the geometricians. Therefore, we cannot deny how useful the Sun and the Moon are to our Monad, in conjunction with the decadal proportion of the Cross. 


The following figure of the zodiacal sign Aries , in use amongst the astronomers, is the same for all the world (a sort of erection both cutting and pointed), and it is understood that it indicates the origin of the fiery triplicity in that part of the sky.

Therefore, we have added the astronomical sign Aries to signify that in the practice of this Monad the use of fire is required.

We finish the brief hieroglyphic consideration of our Monad, which we would sum up in one only hieroglyphic context:

The Sun and the Moon of this Monad desire that the Elements in which the tenth proportion will flower, shall be separated, and this is done by the application of Fire. 


The mystical sign of the Ram, composed of two semicircles connected by one common point, is very justly attributed to the place of the equinoctial nycthemeron, because the period of twenty-four hours divided by means of the equinox denotes most secret proportions.

This I have said in respect of the Earth. 


The very ancient wise men and Magi have transmitted to us five hieroglyphical signs of the planets, all of which are composed out of the signs used for the Moon and the Sun, together with the sign of the Elements and the hieroglyphical sign of Aries, the Ram, which will become apparent to those who examine these figures:

Each one of these signs will not be difficult to explain according to the hieroglyphical manner in view of our fundamental principles, already posited. To begin with, we will speak in paraphrases of those which possess the characteristics of the Moon: following that, of those which possess a solar character. When our lunar nature, by the science of the Elements, had accomplished the first revolution round our Earth, then it was called, mystically, Saturn.

Afterwards, at the following revolution, it was named Jupiter, and holds a very secret figure. Then the Moon, developed by yet a third journey, was represented very obscurely again by this figure which it was their custom to call Mercury . You see how this is Lunar. That it must be conducted through a fourth revolution will not be contrary to our most secret design, whatever certain sages may say. In this manner the pure magical spirit, by its spiritual virtue, will perform the work of the albification at the place of the Moon; to us alone and as it were in the middle of a natural day he will speak hieroglyphically without words, introducing and imprinting these four geogonic figures in the pure Earth very simply prepared by us: this last figure being in the middle of all the others. 


Now regard the mystical character of Mars! Is it not formed from the hieroglyphs of the Sun and Aries, the magistery of the Elements partly intervening? And that of Venus -- I wish to know is it not produced from that of the Sun and the Elements according to the best exponents? Therefore, the planets look towards the solar periphery and the work of revivification.

In the progression we will notice this other Mercury  will appear who is truly the twin brother of the first: for by the complete Lunar and Solar magic of the Elements, the Hieroglyph of this Messenger speaks to us very distinctly, and we should examine it carefully and listen to what it says. And (by the Will of God) it is the Mercury of the Philosophers, the greatly celebrated microcosm and ADAM. Therefore, some of the most expert were inclined to place him in a position of, and give him a rank equal to, the Sun himself.


This we cannot perform in the present epoch unless we add to this coraline crystal work a certain SOUL separated from the body by the pyrognomic art. It is very difficult to accomplish this and very perilous because of the fire and the sulphur which the breath contains within it. But certainly this Soul can perform marvellous things. For example, join it by indissoluble ties to the disc of the Moon (or at least of Mercury) by Lucifer and Fire. In the third place, it is necessary that we should show (in order to demonstrate our Septenary number) that it is the Sun of Philosophers itself. You will observe the exactitude as well as the clarity with which this anatomy of our Hieroglyphic Monad corresponds to what is signified in the arcana of these two theorems. 

We must now, in view of our subject, philosophise for a short time upon the Cross. Our Cross may be formed of two straight lines (as we have said) which are equal one to the other -- that is to say, we cannot separate the lines except we do it by parting them so that we get equal lengths. But in the mystic distribution of the components of our Cross, we wish to use parts which are both equal and unequal. These parts show that a virtue is hidden under the power of the division of the Equilateral Cross into two parts, because they are of equal grandeur. In general, the Cross must be composed of equal right angles, since the nature of justice demands the perfect equality of the lines used in the decussation. In accordance with this justice, we propose to examine with care that which follows concerning the Equilateral Cross (which is the twenty-first letter of the Latin alphabet).

If, through the common point where the opposite angles meet in our Rectilineal, Rectangular, and Equilateral Cross, we imagine a straight line dividing it into two parts, then on either side of the line thus traversed we find the parts are perfectly equal and similar. And these parts are similar in shape to that letter of the Romans which is regarded as the fifth of the vowels, and which was frequently used by the most ancient Latin philosophers to represent the number five.

This, I conceive, was not done by them without good reason, because it is in fact the exact half of our Decad. Of these parts of the figure thus duplicated by the hypothetical division of the Cross, we must conclude it to be reasonable that each part represents the quinary, although one is upright and the other reversed in imitation of the multiplication of the square root which comes in here in a marvellous way as the circular number, that is to say, the quinary, from which we find the number twenty-five is produced (because this letter is the twentieth of the alphabet and the fifth of the vowels).

We will now consider another aspect of this same Equilateral Cross -- that which follows is based upon the position shown in our Monadic Cross. Let us suppose a similar division of the Cross into two parts be made as in the drawing.

Now we see the germinating shape of another letter of the Latin alphabet -- the one upright, the other reversed and opposite. This letter is used (after the ancient custom of the Latins) to represent the number fifty. From this, it seems to me, we establish our Decad of the Cross, for this is placed at the summit of all the mysteries, and it follows that this Cross is the hieroglyphic sign of perfection. Therefore, enclosed within the quinary force is the power of the Decad, out of which comes the number fifty as its own product.

Oh, my God, how profound are these mysteries! and the name E L is given to this letter! And for this very reason, we see that it responds to the decadal virtue of the Cross, because, starting from the first letter of the alphabet, L is the tenth letter, and counting backwards from the letter X, we find that it falls into the tenth place, and since we show that there are two parts of the Cross, and considering now their numerical virtue, it is quite clear how the number one hundred is produced. And if by the law of squares these two parts be multiplied together, they give a product of 2500. This square compared with the square of the first circular number, and applied to it, gives a difference of one hundred, which is the Cross itself explained by the square of its Decad, and is recognised as one hundred. Therefore, as this is contained within the figure of the Cross, it also represents unity. By the study of these theories of the Cross, the most dignified of all, we are thereby induced to utilise this progression, viz. one -- ten -- one hundred, and this is the decadal proportion of the Cross as it appears to us.


We have shown sufficiently that for very good reasons the Elements are represented in our Hieroglyph by the straight lines, therefore we give a very exact speculation concerning the point which we place in the centre of our Cross. This point cannot by any means be abstracted from our Ternary. Should anyone who is ignorant of this divine learning, say that in this position of our Binary the point can be absent, we reply, he may suppose it to be absent, but that which remains without it will certainly not be our Binary; for the Quaternary is immediately manifested, because by removing the point we discontinue the unity of the lines. Now, our adversary may suppose that by this argument we have reconstructed our Binary; that in fact our Binary and our Quaternary are one and the same thing, according to this consideration, which is manifestly impossible. The point must of necessity be present, because with the Binary it constitutes our Ternary, and there is nothing that can be substituted in its place. Meanwhile he cannot divide the hypostatic property of our Binary without nullifying an integral part of it. Thus it is demonstrated that it must not be divided. All the parts of a line are lines. This is a point, and this confirms our hypothesis. Therefore, the point does not form part of our Binary and yet it forms part of the integral form of the Binary. It follows that we must take notice of all that is hidden within this hypostatic form and understand that there is nothing superfluous in the linear dimension of our Binary. But because we see that these dimensions are common to both lines, they are considered to receive a certain secret image from this Binary. By this we demonstrate here that the Quaternary is concealed within the Ternary. O God! pardon me if I have sinned against Thy Majesty in revealing such a great mystery in my writings which all may read, but I believe that only those who are truly worthy will understand.


We therefore continue to expound the Quaternary of our Cross as we have indicated. Seek diligently to discover whether the point may be removed from the position in which we first find it. The mathematicians teach that it may be displaced quite simply. At the moment when it is separated the Quaternary remains, and it becomes much more clear and distinct to the eyes of all.


This is not a part of its substantial proportions, but only the confused and superfluous point which is rejected and removed.


O Omnipotent Divine Majesty, how we Mortals are constrained to confess what great Wisdom and what ineffable mysteries reside in the Law which Thou hast made! Through all these points and these letters the most sublime secrets, and terrestrial arcane mysteries, as well as the multiple revelations of this unique point, now placed in the Light and examined by me, can be faithfully demonstrated and explained. This point is not superfluous within the Divine Trinity, yet when considered, on the other hand, within the Kingdom of the four Elements it is black, therefore corruptible and watery. O thrice and four times happy, the man who attains this (almost copulative) point in the Ternary, and rejects and removes that sombre and superfluous part of the Quaternary, the source of vague shadows. Thus after some effort we obtain the white vestments brilliant as the snow.


Oh, Maximilian! May God, through this mystagogy, make you or some other scion of the House of Austria the most powerful of all when the time comes for me to remain tranquil in Christ, in order that the honour of His redoubtable name may be restored within the abominable and intolerable shadows hovering above the Earth. And now for fear that I myself should say too much I shall immediately return to the burden of my task, and because I have already terminated my discourse for those whose gaze is centred within the heart, it is now necessary to translate my words for those whose heart is centred within their eyes. Here, therefore, we can represent in some measure in the figure of the Cross that which we have already said. Two equal lines are equally and inequally crossed through the point of necessity which you see in A.



The four straight lines, as in B, produce a sort of vacuum where they are withdrawn from the central point, which was their common condition, in which state they were not prejudical, the one to the other. This is the path by which our Monad, progressing through the Binary and the Ternary into the purified Quaternary, is reconstituted within itself, united in equal proportions, and which now shows that the whole is equal to its combined parts, for during the time that this takes place our Monad will not admit of other units or numbers, because it is self-sufficient, and exactly so, within itself; absolute in all numbers in the amplitude of which it is diffused, not only magically but also by a somewhat vulgar process employed by the artist, which produces great results in dignity and power within this selfsame Monad, which is resolved into its own first matter; whilst that which is foreign to its nature and to its natural hereditary proportions is segregated with the greatest care and diligence and rejected for ever amongst the imputities.


We will now expound methodically certain things which you may find on your way by practising the proportions of our Monad. Then we will show by many examples the existence of four lines corresponding to the four lines of our Cross, and which in this consideration we are not able simply to announce, because of the proportions and the particular and mystical results which are produced in another fashion, from the Quaternary of these same lines. And thirdly, we will show that there exist within Nature certain useful functions determined by God by means of numbers, which we have happily obtained and which are explained either in this theorem, or in others, contained in this little book.


Finally, we will insert other things in an opportune place which, if they are conveniently understood, will produce fruits most abundantly.


We now abruptly conclude.


24 possible permutations.

Of the Pythagorean quaternary

The Pythagorean sum is 10.

A complete addition of the parts yields 30.

Take the same proportion which is shown in numbers when written in the natural order, after the first Monad, then from the first to the last make a continuous multiplication -- that is to say, the first by the second, the product of these two by the third, and this product by the fourth, and so on until the last; the final product determines all the Metatheses possible, in respect of the proportion in space, and for the same reason in proportion to diverse objects as you wish.


I tell thee, O King, this operation will be useful unto thee in many circumstances, whether in the study of Nature or in the affairs of the government of men; for it is that which I am accustomed to use with the greatest of pleasure in the Tziruph or Themura of the Hebrews.


Of the artificial quaternary

a continuous multiplication yields 12.

a simple addition yields 8. (1, 7; 4, 3)

the sum of a complete addition of the parts is -- 24, a number which is the same in any possible transposition of the quaternary, and which designates the physical purity and highest quality of gold, (namely that) of 24 carat when one has it, by itself, above ground.

I know that many other powerful numbers may be produced out of our Quaternary, by virtue of arithmetic and the power of numbers. Yet he who does not understand that a very great obscurity has by this method been illuminated by those numbers which I have drawn out which have nature and distinction amongst such a multitude, will not be able to estimate their meaning, which is obscure and not to the point. How many will find in our numbers the authority which we have promised for the weight of the Elements; for the statements regarding measurements of time; and for the certainty of proportions which may be assigned to the powers and forces of things? All this you should study in the two preceding diagrams.



Many things may be deduced from the diagrams which, it is preferable, should be studied silently rather than divulged openly in words. Meantime, let us inform you of one thing, amongst many others, disclosed now for the first time by us, in respect of this new Art; to wit, we have here established a rational cause by virtue of which the Quaternary with the Decad, in a certain manner, terminate the numerical series. We affirm that this cause is not exactly that which was described by the Masters who have preceded us, but just as we have stated it here. This Monad has been integrally and physically restored to itself -- that is to say, it is truly the Monad Unitissima, the proved unity of the images; and it is not within the power of Nature, neither can we by any art promote in it any movement or any progression whatsoever, unless it be by four super-celestial cycles or revolutions, and from this Monad is engendered that which we wish to note as the manner and course of its eminence; and for this reason, that there is not in the elemental world, nor in the celestial or super-celestial worlds, any created power or influence which cannot be absolutely favoured and enriched by it.


It was because of the true effect of this that four illustrious men, friends of Philosophy, were upon an occasion together in the great work. One day they were astonished by a great miracle in this thing, and forthwith dedicated themselves from that day forward to sing praises to God and to preach the thrice Mighty because He had given them so much wisdom and power and so great an Empire over all other creatures.


The Monas Hieroglyphica (also known as the Hieroglyphic Monad) is a glyph designed by John Dee, an astrologer and consultant to Queen Elizabeth I of England. According to Dee, the glyph represents the mystical unity of all creation. It first appeared in Dee's 1564 book, "Monas Hieroglyphica."



The glyph can be separated into four sections, Luna (moon), Sol (sun), Elementa (elements), and Ignis (fire). All text in this section is quoted directly from Dee's book.[1]



"The central point which we see in the centre of the hieroglyphic Monad produces the Earth, round which the Sun, the Moon, and the other planets follow their respective paths. The Sun has the supreme dignity, and we represent him by a circle having a visible centre."[2]



"Although the semicircle of the Moon is placed above the circle of the Sun and would appear to be superior, nevertheless we know that the Sun is ruler and King. We see that the Moon in her shape and her proximity rivals the Sun with her grandeur, which is apparent to ordinary men, yet the face, or a semi-sphere of the Moon, always reflects the light of the Sun. It desires so much to be impregnated with solar rays and to be transformed into Sun that at times it disappears completely from the skies and some days after reappears, and we have represented her by the figure of the Horns."[3]



"The Sun and the Moon are supported upon the right-angled Cross. This Cross may signify very profoundly...the mystery of the four Elements, in which it is possible to resolve each one into elementary form, by four straight lines running in four contrary directions from one common and indivisible point."[4]



"We have added the astronomical sign Aries to signify that in the practice of this Monad the use of fire is required."[5]


In Uncharted

The Monad appears twice in the official Uncharted 3: Drake's Deception teaser trailer. As with Dee's original text, in the trailer, the symbol has been broken up into its constituent parts, labelled "Ignis," "Sol," "Luna,"and "Elem" (a shortened version of Elementa).


The name "Dee" also appears in the trailer, scrawled next to yet another mysterious symbol, the Pentacle of Solomon. It has been confirmed that some elements of Dee's mysticism ot beliefs will be incorporated into the plot of the game, and that Katherine Marlowe is the head of an organization which has its roots in the court of Queen Elizabeth I.


The development of the modern telephone keypad is attributed to research in the 1950s by Richard Deininger under the directorship of John Karlin at the Human Factors Engineering Department of Bell Labs.[2][3] The contemporary keypad is laid out in a rectangular array of twelve push buttons arranged as four rows and three columns of keys. For military applications, a fourth, right-most column of keys was added for priority signaling in the Autovon system in the 1960s. Initially, between 1963 and 1968, the keypads for civilian subscriber service had keys installed in only ten positions, omitting the lower left and lower right keys that commonly are assigned to the star (✻) and number sign (#) signals, respectively. These keys were added to provide signals for anticipated data entry purposes in business applications, but found use in Custom Calling Services(CLASS) features installed in electronic switching systems.[4]

An Autovon telephone keypad with three of the four precedence levels (excluding Routine), plus Flash Override


AUTOVON included four message precedence levels: Routine, Priority, Immediate and Flash, and had an additional capability called Flash Override.[3] These levels were activated using the buttons in an additional column of the keypad, which produced the dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) signals A, B, C, and D:


A (697/1633): Flash Override (FO)

B (770/1633): Flash (F)

C (852/1633): Immediate (I)

D (941/1633): Priority (P)



The human cornea has five layers (possibly six, if the Dua's layer is included).[7] Corneas of other primates have five known layers. The corneas of cats, dogs, wolves, and other carnivores only have four.[8] From the anterior to posterior the layers of the human cornea are:

  1. Corneal epithelium:  (THE LIGHT) an exceedingly thin multicellular epithelial tissue layer (non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium) of fast-growing and easily regenerated cells, kept moist with tears. Irregularity or edema of the corneal epithelium disrupts the smoothness of the air/tear-film interface, the most significant component of the total refractive power of the eye, thereby reducing visual acuity. It is continuous with the conjunctival epithelium, and is composed of about 6 layers of cells which are shed constantly on the exposed layer and are regenerated by multiplication in the basal layer.

  2. Bowman's layer (THE WORD HOMEOSTASIS)  (also known as the anterior limiting membrane): when discussed in lieu of a subepithelial basement membrane, Bowman's Layer is a tough layer composed of collagen (mainly type I collagen fibrils), lamininnidogenperlecan and other HSPGs that protects the corneal stroma. When discussed as a separate entity from the subepithelial basement membrane, Bowman's Layer can be described as an acellular, condensed region of the apical stroma, composed primarily of randomly organized yet tightly woven collagen fibrils. These fibrils interact with and attach onto each other. This layer is eight to 14 micrometres (μm) thick[9] and is absent or very thin in non-primates.[8][10]

  3. Corneal stroma  (THE FLESH THIS LAYER IS THICK PHSYCIAL)(also substantia propria): a thick, transparent middle layer, consisting of regularly arranged collagen fibers along with sparsely distributed interconnected keratocytes, which are the cells for general repair and maintenance.[9] They are parallel and are superimposed like book pages. The corneal stroma consists of approximately 200 layers of mainly type I collagen fibrils. Each layer is 1.5-2.5 μm. Up to 90% of the corneal thickness is composed of stroma.[9] There are 2 theories of how transparency in the cornea comes about:

    1. The lattice arrangements of the collagen fibrils in the stroma. The light scatter by individual fibrils is cancelled by destructive interference from the scattered light from other individual fibrils.[11]

    2. The spacing of the neighboring collagen fibrils in the stroma must be < 200 nm for there to be transparency. (Goldman and Benedek)

  4. Descemet's membrane (also posterior limiting membrane): (THE TRUE WORD THIS LAYER IS THIN AND DIFFERENT - IT IS THE POSTERIOR LIMITING MEMBRANE OPPOSITE BUT CONNECTED TO THE SECOND SQUARE THE ANTERIOR LIMITING MEMBRANE) )a thin acellular layer that serves as the modified basement membrane of the corneal endothelium, from which the cells are derived. This layer is composed mainly of collagen type IV fibrils, less rigid than collagen type I fibrils, and is around 5-20 μm thick, depending on the subject's age. Just anterior to Descemet's membare, a very thin and strong layer, Dua's layer, 15 microns thick and able to withstand 1.5 to 2 bars of pressure.[12]

  5. Corneal endothelium: (THE TRUE LIGHT) a simple squamous or low cuboidal monolayer, approx 5 μm thick, of mitochondria-rich cells. These cells are responsible for regulating fluid and solute transport between the aqueous and corneal stromal compartments.[13] (The term endothelium is a misnomer here. The corneal endothelium is bathed by aqueous humor, not by blood or lymph, and has a very different origin, function, and appearance from vascular endothelia.) Unlike the corneal epithelium, the cells of the endothelium do not regenerate. Instead, they stretch to compensate for dead cells which reduces the overall cell density of the endothelium, which affects fluid regulation. If the endothelium can no longer maintain a proper fluid balance, stromal swelling due to excess fluids and subsequent loss of transparency will occur and this may cause corneal edema and interference with the transparency of the cornea and thus impairing the image formed.[13] Iris pigment cells deposited on the corneal endothelium can sometimes be washed into a distinct vertical pattern by the aqueous currents - this is known as Krukenberg's Spindle.


The Mass at Bolsena depicts an Eucharistic miracle that is said to have taken place in 1263 at the church of Santa Cristina in Bolsena. A Bohemian priest who doubted the doctrine of transubstantiation, was celebrating mass at Bolsena, when the bread of the eucharist began to bleed. The blood that spouted from the host and fell onto the tablecloth in the shape of a cross and he was reconverted. The following year, in 1264, Pope Urban IV instituted the Feast of Corpus Christi to celebrate this miraculous event.[2] The blood stained Corporal of Bolsena is still venerated as a major relic in the Orvieto Cathedral.