The Big Four[1] were a quartet of 20,000 ton ocean liners built by Harland & Wolff shipyard for the White Star Line in the early 20th century to be the largest and most luxurious ships afloat. The group consisted of the following ships, ordered by the years they were launched:


RMS Celtic (1901)

RMS Cedric (1902)

RMS Baltic (1903)

RMS Adriatic (1906)


When steam enters the opposite side of the cylinder for the next stroke (steam engines are double acting) some of it will condense on the cold cylinder walls and so its potential effect for power generation will be lost. By limiting the degree of expansion this condensing effect is minimise but multiple expansion is only possible when steam pressures are high enough. For triple expansion steam pressures above about 75 psi are needed otherwise compound or double expansion is satisfactory. Although quadruple expansion engines were developed they were not a success as steam pressures were never high enough to justify their adoption; for very high pressures, and temperatures, the turbine is more suitable as problems exist with reciprocating engines with respect to high pressures and temperatures. High pressures on piston rings and glands result in wear and leakage whilst cylinder lubrication difficulties exist when temperatures are very high.

The two-factor model of personality is a widely used psychological factor analysis measurement of personality, behavior and temperament. It most often consists of a matrix measuring the factor of introversion and extroversion with some form of people versus task orientation.

The Roman physician Galen mapped the four temperaments (sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric and melancholic) to a matrix of hot/cold and dry/wet, taken from the four classical elements.[1] Two of these temperaments, sanguine and choleric, shared a common trait: quickness of response (corresponding to "heat"), while the melancholic and phlegmatic shared the opposite, a longer response (coldness). The melancholic and choleric, however, shared a sustained response (dryness), and the sanguine and phlegmatic shared a short-lived response (wetness). This meant that the choleric and melancholic both would tend to hang on to emotions like anger, and thus appear more serious and critical than the fun-loving sanguine, and the peaceful phlegmatic. However, the choleric would be characterized by quick expressions of anger (like the sanguine, with the difference being that the sanguine cools off); while the melancholic would build up anger slowly, silently, before exploding. Also, the melancholic and sanguine would be sort of "opposites", as the choleric and phlegmatic, since they have opposite traits.[2]


These are the basis of the two factors that would define temperament in the modern theory.



In the last few centuries, various psychologists would begin expressing the four temperaments in terms of pairs of behaviors that were held in common by two temperaments each.


Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936), from his work with dogs, came up with the factors of "passivity" (active or passive) and "extremeness" (extreme response or moderate response). His view of the temperaments in dogs was:


The Melancholic type (Weak inhibitory): categorized as "weak" dogs;

Choleric type (Strong excitatory): strong, unbalanced, easily aroused (excitable);

Sanguine type (Lively): strong, balanced, mobile;

Phlegmatic type (Calm imperturbable): strong, balanced, sluggish.

This theory would also be extended to humans.


Alfred Adler (1879–1937) measured "activity" (connected with "energy") against "social interest", yielding the four "styles of life":[3]


Ruling or Dominant type: high activity, low social interest

Getting or Leaning type: low activity, high social interest

Avoiding type: low activity, low social interest

Socially Useful type: high activity, high social interest

These he compared to the choleric, phlegmatic, melancholic and sanguine respectively.[4]


Erich Fromm's (1900–1980) factors were acquiring and assimilating things ("assimilation"), and reacting to people ("socialization"). These two factors form four types of character, which he calls Receptive, Exploitative, Hoarding and Marketing.


Also deserving mention is a single scale invented in the 1940s by Karen Horney (1885–1952). This one dimension measured "movement" towards, against and away from people. This would result in the coping strategies, in which these three "neurotic" patterns would be paired with a fourth, "healthy" one called "movement with people". These would describe behaviors associated with both extroversion and reacting to people, in which people attempt to avoid getting hurt, by either distancing themselves from others or maintaining self-sufficiency and independence on one hand; or approaching others, attempting to control or exploit them, and otherwise gain power and recognition; or "give in" to them to gain acceptance and approval, on the other.


Factors integrated into modern instruments[edit]

As the twentieth century progressed, numerous other instruments were devised measuring not only temperament, but also various individual aspects of personality and behavior, and several began using forms of extroversion and the developing category of people versus task focus as the factors.


In 1928, William Moulton Marston identified four primary emotions, each with an initial feeling tone of either pleasantness or unpleasantness. This led to his viewing people's behavior along two axes, with their attention being either "passive" or "active", depending on the individual's perception of his or her environment as either "favorable" or "antagonistic". By placing the axes at right angles, four quadrants form with each describing a behavioral pattern:


Dominance, which produces activity in an antagonistic environment; with a feeling of unpleasantness until stimulus is acted upon

Compliance, which produces passivity in an antagonistic environment; with a feeling of unpleasantness until stimulus is reconciled

Inducement, which produces activity in a favorable environment; with a feeling of pleasantness increasing as interaction increases

Submission, which produces passivity in a favorable environment; with a feeling of pleasantness increasing as yielding increases

This would be further developed in the 1970s by John G. Geier[5] into the DiSC assessment System, which grades individual scales of "Dominance", "Influence", "Steadiness", and "Conscientiousness". By now, it would be classified in terms of the two factors; consisting of pairs of Extroverted or "Assertive" aspects (D, I), Introverted or "Passive" aspects (S, C), Task-oriented or "Controlled" aspects (D, C) and social or "Open" aspects (I, S).


The California Psychological Inventory's CPI 260 Instrument also has similar scales, of "Initiates action, Confident in social situations" versus "Focuses on inner life, Values own privacy"; and "Rule-favoring, Likes stability, Agrees with others" versus "Rule-questioning, Has personal value system, Often disagrees with others" and the four "lifestyles": Leader, Supporter, Innovator, and Visualizer.


Two-Factors expanded to measure more than four types[edit]

Galen also had intermediate scales for "balance" between the hot/cold and wet/dry poles, yielding a total of nine temperaments. Four were the original humors, and five were balanced in one or both scales.[6][7][8]


Another addition to the two factor models was the creation of a 10 by 10 square grid developed by Robert R. Blake and Jane Mouton in their Managerial Grid Model introduced in 1964. This matrix graded, from 0-9, the factors of "Concern for Production" (X-axis) and "Concern for People" (Y-axis), allowing a moderate range of scores, which yielded five "leadership styles":


Impoverished (low X, Y)

Produce or Perish (high X low Y)

Country Club (low X high Y)

Team (high X and Y)

Middle of the Road (moderate X, Y)

The Thomas Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI) used a version of this with "Assertiveness" and "Cooperativeness" as the two factors, also leading to a fifth mode:


Competing, (assertive, uncooperative)

Avoiding (unassertive, uncooperative)

Accommodating (unassertive, cooperative)

Collaborating (assertive, cooperative)

Compromising (intermediate assertiveness and cooperativeness).

FIRO-B would call the two dimensions Expressed Behavior and Wanted Behavior, and use three separate matrices for the respective areas of Inclusion (social skills) Control (leadership and responsibility-taking) and Affection (deep personal relationships). In 1977, "locator charts" were produced for each area by Dr. Leo Ryan, providing a map of the various scores, following the Managerial Grid model, with unofficial names assigned to different score ranges. They were generally grouped into five main types for each area, in the vein of the Managerial Grid and TKI, except that moderate scores (generally 4, 5) in only one dimension (with the other dimension being high or low) were given separate names, creating nine basic groups for each area (low e/w, low e/high w, low e/moderate w, etc.). In the control area, there is a tenth group created by a further division of the low e/high w range.


This would form the basis of the Five Temperaments theory by Dr. Richard G. and Phyllis Arno, in which the ancient temperaments were mapped to the FIRO-B scales (in all three areas), with Phlegmatic becoming the moderate e/w instead of low e/high w, which was now taken to constitute a fifth temperament called "Supine", which has many of the "introverted and relationship oriented" traits of the other types defined as such, above. (The "Wanted behavior" scale is generally renamed "Responsive behavior"). The moderate scores mixed with high or low are designated "Phlegmatic blends" and divided with 4 being a blend of Phlegmatic with the lower adjacent temperament, and 5 being a blend with the higher adjacent temperament. This results in 13 separate ranges in each area.


Other factor pairs[edit]

Other factors devised along the way measured other aspects of personality, mostly cognitive aspects. This would form a second strain of temperament theory, one which enjoys the most popularity today.


Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) defined his typology by a duality of the beautiful and sublime, and concluded it was possible to represent the four temperaments with a square of opposition using the presence or absence of the two attributes. He determined that the phlegmatic type has no interest in either the beautiful or the sublime, so there was an absence of both (sb). The melancholic had a feeling for both (SB), and the sanguine had a predominating feeling for the beautiful (sB), while the choleric, he determined after comparing with the melancholic, lacked a sense of beauty and had only a sense of the sublime (Sb).[9]


Hans Eysenck (1916–1997) was one of the first psychologists to analyze personality differences using a psycho-statistical method (factor analysis), and his research led him to believe that temperament is biologically based. In his book Dimensions of Personality (1947) he paired Extraversion (E), which was "the tendency to enjoy positive events", especially social ones, with Neuroticism (N), which was the tendency to experience negative emotions. By pairing the two dimensions, Eysenck noted how the results were similar to the four ancient temperaments.


High N, High E = Choleric

High N, Low E = Melancholy (also called "Melancholic")

Low N, High E = Sanguine

Low N, Low E = Phlegmatic

He later added a third dimension, psychoticism, resulting in his "P-E-N" three factor model of personality. This has been correlated with two separate factors developed by the Big Five personality traits (Five Factor Model), called "agreeableness" and "conscientiousness"; the former being similar to the people/task orientation scale elaborated above. Neuroticism in Eysenck's case acted like the people/task-orientation scale (except for being inverted as to which temperaments were "high" or "low"), but was later separated as a distinct factor in the Big Five.


Carl Jung, in the early 20th century, introduced the four factors that would become a part of the later MBTI, and these included extroversion/introversion, sensing and intuition, and thinking/feeling, which would be correlated to Agreeableness, with Judging-Perceiving roughly as Conscientiousness.


Ernst Kretschmer (1888–1964) divided personality into two "constitutional groups": Schizothymic, which contain a "Psychaesthetic proportion" between sensitive and cold poles, and Cyclothymic which contain a "Diathetic" proportion between gay and sad. The Schizoids consist of the Hyperesthetic (sensitive) and Anesthetic (Cold) characters, and the Cycloids consist of the Depressive (or "melancholic") and Hypomanic characters.


David W. Keirsey would make the connection of the two groups with Myers' Sensors and iNtuitors, providing the two factors for his four temperaments.[10] He would rename Sensing to "Observant" or "Concrete", and Intuiting to "Introspection" or "Abstract", and pair it with "Cooperative" versus "Pragmatic" (or "Utilitarian") which would be the "Conscientiousness" scale; to form:


SP Artisan (Concrete, Pragmatic)

SJ Guardian (Concrete, Cooperative)

NT Rational (Abstract, Pragmatic)

NF Idealist (Abstract, Cooperative)

Keirsey also divided his temperaments by "Role-Informative"/"Role Directive" to form eight "intelligence types"; and finally by E/I, to yield the 16 types of the MBTI. It was when his former student, Berens, paired the latter two factors separately that she yielded here Interaction Styles, discussed above. Keirsey also divided the intelligence types by I/E into "roles of interaction".[11]


The Enneagram of Personality would map its nine types to a matrix, whose scales are "Surface Direction" and "Deep Direction". These are similar to Extroversion and people/task-orientation, but instead of the types being plotted on a scale of 0-9, Horney's original three grades of "towards", "away", and "against" were retained, and now used in both dimensions (graded respectively, as "+", "0" and "-"). This changes the criteria, as the "moderate" (0) grade is considered "away", but this does not necessarily correspond to the moderate extroversion or agreeableness scores of the other instruments.


Table of theories and instruments using extroversion and people-task-orientation[edit]

Date Founder Extroversion scales People-task orientation scale Introverted, task-oriented Extroverted, task-oriented Extroverted, relationship-oriented Introverted, relationship-oriented Moderate

c. 450 BC Classical elements Scales not recognized Areas not recognized earth fire air water ether

c. 400 BC Hippocrates' four humours Scales not recognized Areas not recognized black bile yellow bile blood phlegm Not Recognized

c. 190 Galen's four temperaments response-delay

(quick, slow) response-sustain

(short, long) melancholic choleric sanguine phlegmatic Not Recognized

c. 1025 Avicenna's four primary temperaments[12] morbid states, functional power, subjective sensations, physical signs Areas not distinguished rheumatism, insomnia, wakefulness, acquired habit, lack of desire for fluids loss of vigour, deficient energy, insomnia, wakefulness, high pulse rate, lassitude, acquired habit loss of vigour, lassitude, deficient energy, sleepiness, high pulse rate, lassitude rheumatism, lassitude, lack of desire for fluids, sleepiness Not Recognized

c. 1900 Ivan Pavlov's four temperaments Passivity:

(Active or

Passive) Extremeness:

(Extreme response or

Moderate response) melancholic (Weak inhibitory) choleric (Strong excitatory) sanguine (Lively) phlegmatic (Calm imperturbable) Not Recognized

c. 1900 Alfred Adler's four Styles of Life "activity" "social interest" Avoiding Ruling or Dominant Socially Useful Getting or Leaning Not Recognized

c. 1928 William Marston and John G. Geier DiSC assessment Assertive/

Passive Open/

Controlled Conscien-

tiousness Dominance Influence Steadiness Not Recognized

c. 1947 Erich Fromm's four Types of Character assimilation socialization Hoarding Exploitative Marketing Receptive Not Recognized

c. 1948 California Psychological Inventory CPI 260 action,

social confidence/

inner life, privacy Rule-favoring

/questioning, stability/value system, Agreeable/

disagreeable Visualizer Leader Innovator Supporter Not Recognized

1958 MBTI codes E/I, Informative/Directive


c. 1958 William Schutz, FIRO-B Expressed Wanted See FIRO article for score names.

c. 1960s Stuart Atkins LIFO's four Orientations To Life Planning vs.Doing Directing vs. Inspiring Conserving-Holding Controlling-Taking Adapting-Dealing Supporting-Giving Not Recognized

c. 1960s David Merrill, "Social Styles" Assertiveness (Ask-Tell) Responsiveness (Control-Emote) Analytical Driving Expressive Amiable Not Recognized

1964 Blake-Mouton Managerial Grid Model Concern for People, Productivity Areas not distinguished Impoverished Produce or Perish Team Type Country Club Middle of the Road

c. 1966 Temperament by LaHaye Compares other instruments [13] Areas not distinguished Melancholy Choleric Sanguine Phlegmatic "passive sanguine" [14]

1973 Jay Hall Conflict Management[15] Concern for personal goals Concern for relationships Avoid, leave-lose/lose Compete, control-win/lose Collaborate, synergy-win/win Accommodate, yield-lose/win Compromise-win a bit/lose a bit

1974 Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Modes[16] Assertiveness Cooperativeness Avoiding Competing Collaborating Accommodating Compromising

1970's Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument Not Recognized Not Recognized Analytical Thinking Imaginative Thinking Interpersonal Thinking Sequential Thinking Not Recognized

c. 1984 The Arno Profile System (Five Temperaments) Expressive Responsive Melancholy Choleric Sanguine Supine Phlegmatic

c. 1995 Worley Identification Discovery Profile Demonstrated, Desired Social, Leadership, Relationship Melancholy Choleric Sanguine Phlegmatic Introverted Sanguine

c. 1996 Tony Alessandra Personality Styles Indirect/Direct Open/Guarded Thinker Director Socializer Relater Not Recognized

c. 1998 Hartman Personality Profile Not recognized Not recognized Blue Red Yellow White Not recognized

c. 2001 Linda V. Berens' four Interaction Styles Initiating-Responding Informing-

Directing Chart the Course In Charge Get Things Going Behind the Scenes Not Recognized

Systems using other factors[edit]

Founder first factor second factor Low E/Low N High E/High N High E/Low N Low E/High N

Eysenck's four temperaments extroversion, "Neuroticism" Phlegmatic Sanguine Choleric Melancholic

Factors of perception[edit]

Date Founder first factor second factor Low first and second factors high first factor low second factor high first and second factors low first factor, high second factor

c. 1800 Kant's four temperaments recognition of beauty recognition of sublime Phlegmatic Sanguine Melancholic Choleric

c.1920 Kretschmer's four characters Schizothymic (sensitive/cold) Cyclothymic (gay/sad) Anesthetic Hypomanic Depressive Hyperesthetic

c. 1978 Keirsey's four temperaments "Concrete"/Abstract"

(Sensing/Intuitive), "Cooperative"/"Pragmatic" Rational Artisan Guardian Idealist


Deep (long-term) Direction Surface (short-term) Direction -/- -/+ +/+ +/- 0/0 0/- 0/+ -/0 +/0

(- 0 +) (- 0 +) Type 8 "Leader" Type 2 "Helper" Type 6 "Loyalist" Type 3 "Motivator" Type 4 "Individualist" Type 1 "Reformer" Type 7 "Enthusiast" Type 5 "Investigator" Type 9 "Peacemaker"


In distinguishing the various kinds of beings that constitute the hierarchical universe, Dietrich again follows Proclus. First there is God, Proclus' One, followed by the intelligences, then souls and finally bodies. Using material found in Proclus, the Liber de causis, and Avicenna's Metaphysics, Dietrich explains the order of the procession of these four kinds of beings as follows: From God there proceeds that which is called the first intelligence. Here the first stage in the procession has been reached and a kind of rank is established which corresponds to the traditional noûs of classical Neoplatonism. From the first intelligence the second intelligence flows forth along with the soul of the first celestial sphere and the first celestial sphere itself. This is the second stage. Then the process is repeated with the procession of the third intelligence, the soul of the second heaven, the second heaven itself, on down through all the celestial worlds until the intelligence and soul of the lowest heaven and the lowest heaven itself is reached. This intelligence, Dietrich informs us, causes the substance of the sublunary beings that undergo generation and corruption, that is, bodies. Thus all four kinds of beings are accounted for and are ordered according to their place in the celestial procession.


The entire universe of beings is thus in a state of active procession of all creatures from God. Each of the four orders of being is in a dynamic state, even God when viewed as the creator. God exhibits a “certain interior relational overflowing” which of course is his creativity. He establishes the rest of the universe of being out of nothing, Dietrich tells us. And at the lowest rank of the order of beings, at the level of bodies there is also a dynamic at work. For bodies in their natural desire for form are in the process of returning to their source. Consequently there is a hierarchical principle at work that consists in God who is an eternal outpouring who, being the source of all emanation, has no need to return, bodies that are only in the state of return but have nothing further into which they can proceed, and intellects and souls that are both in the state of procession and reversion, since they both receive being and pass it on to those below.


For Schumacher one of science's major mistakes has been rejecting the traditional philosophical and religious view that the universe is a hierarchy of being. Schumacher makes a restatement of the traditional chain of being.


He agrees with the view that there are four kingdoms: Mineral, Plant, Animal, Human. He argues that there are critical differences of kind between each level of being. Between mineral and plant is the phenomenon of life. Schumacher says that although scientists say we should not use the phrase 'life energy', the difference still exists and has not been explained by science[clarification needed]. Schumacher points out that though we can recognize life and destroy it, we can't create it. Schumacher notes that the 'life sciences' are 'extraordinary' because they hardly ever deal with life as such, and instead content themselves with analyzing the "physico-chemical body which is life's carrier." Schumacher goes on to say there is nothing in physics or chemistry to explain the phenomenon of life.


For Schumacher, a similar jump in level of being takes place between plant and animal, which is differentiated by the phenomenon of consciousness. We can recognize consciousness, not least because we can knock an animal unconscious, but also because animals exhibit at minimum primitive thought and intelligence.


The next level, according to Schumacher, is between Animal and Human, which are differentiated by the phenomenon of self-consciousness or self awareness. Self-consciousness is the reflective awareness of one's consciousness and thoughts.


Schumacher realizes that the terms—life, consciousness and self-consciousness—are subject to misinterpretation so he suggests that the differences can best be expressed as an equation which can be written thus:


'Mineral' = m

'Plant' = m + x

'Animal' = m + x + y

'Human' = m + x + y + z

In his theory, these three factors (x, y and z) represent ontological discontinuities. He argues that the differences can be likened to differences in dimension; and from one perspective it could be argued that only humans have 'real' existence insofar as they possess the three dimensions of life, consciousness and self-consciousness. Schumacher uses this perspective to contrast with the materialistic scientism view, which argues that what is 'real' is inanimate matter, denying the realness of life, consciousness and self-consciousness, despite the fact each individual can verify those phenomena from their own experience.


He directs our attention to the fact that science has generally avoided seriously discussing these discontinuities, because they present such difficulties for strictly materialistic science, and they largely remain mysteries.


Next he considers the animal model of humanity which has grown popular in science. Schumacher notes that within the humanities the distinction between consciousness and self consciousness is now seldom drawn. Consequently, people have become increasingly uncertain about whether there is any difference between animals and humans. Schumacher notes that a great deal of research about humans has been conducted by studying animals. Schumacher argues that this is analogous to studying physics in the hope of understanding life. Schumacher goes on to say that much can be learned about humanity by studying minerals, plants and animals because humans have inherited those levels of being: all, that is, 'except that which makes him [sic] human.'


Schumacher goes on to say that nothing is 'more conducive to the brutalisation of the modern world' than calling humans the 'naked ape'. Schumacher argues that once people begin viewing humans as 'animal machines' they soon begin treating them accordingly.[2]


Schumacher argues that what defines humanity are our greatest achievements, not the common run of the mill things. He argues that human beings are open-ended because of self-awareness, which as distinct from life and consciousness has nothing mechanical or automatic about it. For Schumacher "the powers of self awareness are, essentially, a limitless potentiality rather than an actuality. They have to be developed and 'realized' by each human individual if one is to become truly human, that is to say, a person."[3]



Schumacher points out that there are a number of progressions that take place between the levels. The most striking he believes is the movement from passivity to activity, there is a change in the origination of movement between each level:


Cause (Mineral kingdom)

Stimulus (Plant kingdom)

Motive (Animal kingdom)

Will (Humanity)

One consequence of this progression is that each level of being becomes increasingly unpredictable, and it is in this sense that humans can be said to have free will.


He notes increasing integration is a consequence of levels of being. A mineral can be subdivided and it remains of the same composition. Plants are more integrated; but sometimes parts of a plant can survive independently of the original plant. Animals are physically integrated; and so an appendage of an animal does not make another animal. However, while animals are highly integrated physically, they are not integrated in their consciousness. Humans, meanwhile, are not only physically integrated but have an integrated consciousness; however they are poorly integrated in terms of self-consciousness.


Another interesting progression, for him, is the change in the richness of the world at each level of being. A mineral has no world as such. A plant has some limited awareness of its immediate conditions. An animal, however, has a far more rich and complex world. Finally, humans have the most rich and complicated world of all.

Cherubim have four faces: one of a man, an ox, a lion, and an eagle (later adopted as the symbols of the four evangelists). They have four conjoined wings covered with eyes ( although revelations 4:8 appears to describe them with six wings like the seraphim), a lion's body, and the feet of oxen. Cherubim guard the way to the tree of life in the Garden of Eden (Genesis 3:24)[4] and the throne of God (Ezekiel 28:14–16).[5]


The word "archangel" comes from the Greek ἀρχάγγελος (archangelos), meaning chief angel, a translation of the Hebrew רב־מלאך (rav-mal'ákh)[14] It derives from the Greek archein, meaning to be first in rank or power; and angelos which means messenger or envoy. The word is only used twice in the New Testament: 1 Thessalonians 4:16 and Jude 1:9. Only the Archangel Michael is mentioned by name in the New Testament.


In most Christian traditions Gabriel is also considered an archangel, but there is no direct literal support for this assumption. It is also worth noting that the term 'archangel' appears only in the singular, never plural, and only in specific reference to Michael.


The name of the archangel Raphael appears only in the Book of Tobit (Tobias). Tobit is considered Deuterocanonical by Roman Catholics (both Eastern and Western Rites), Eastern Orthodox Christians, and Anglicans. The Book of Tobit is not, however, acknowledged by most Protestant denominations, such as Reformed Christians or Baptists. Raphael said to Tobias that he was "one of the seven who stand before the Lord", and it is generally believed that Michael and Gabriel are two of the other six.


A fourth Archangel is Uriel whose name literally means "Light of God." Uriel's name is the only one not mentioned in the New King James Version Bible, but plays; however, a prominent role in an apocryphon read by Anglican and Russian Orthodox Christians: The second Book of Esdras (fourth Books of Esdras in the Latin Vulgate). In the book he unveils seven prophecies to the prophet Ezra, after whom the book is named. He also plays a role in the apocryphal Book of Enoch, which is considered canonical by both the Ethiopian Orthodox and Eritrean Orthodox Church. The Catholic Church does not regard Uriel as an angel just as the Book of Enoch is not part of the Catholic Bible either.

While individual tribal groups were named in earlier times and continue to be so-named today, there does not appear to be in the language a generic term for ‘tribe’. Among the Amoamo (North Mekeo) who I have studied most closely, the tribal unit consists of four dispersed patrilineal clans (ikupu) organised ideally into exogamous patrilineal moieties (ngopu). [6] Each clan is typically composed of more than one localised branch, and ideally each localised branch of a clan should contain a full complement of politically and ritually specialised lineages, relating to the well-documented fourfold division of Mekeo chiefly labour between ‘peace chief’ (lopia), ‘war chief’ (iso), ‘war sorcerer’ (faika) and ‘peace sorcerer’ (ungaunga) (Figure 3).


The Kako of Gabon are a striking example of such differentiation. In this society divided into exogamous patrilineal clans, where a person was forbidden to marry with a member of the clans of his four grandparents as well as anyone from his kindred within a distance of four generations (Omaha-type prohibitions), the basic social unit was the village under the authority of a chief. Hunting, warfare, agriculture and the production of weapons and iron tools were the main activities of this society for which blood was the prime substance, the basis of the human being.

For the Kako (Copet-Rougier 1998), blood makes everything: flesh, blood, bones, breath. Blood is an ingredient of even the soul, and it goes with it back to the village of the dead. But the soul is introduced into the foetal body only toward the end of the pregnancy, and this is done as a gift from the spirits to humans. The soul leaves the body shortly before death and wanders in the bush in the form of an animal. At this point it can be killed and, in this event, turns into a spirit that wanders among the nature spirits for all eternity. If it is not killed, it reaches the village of the death. Two fluids actually coexist in a human body—male or female—and keep it alive; these are: blood, a male fluid, and water, a female fluid that tempers the blood’s heat and strength. The blood and water descend from the head along parallel paths and meet in the man’s testicles or the woman’s lower back. There they mix with fats, which thicken them and make them into male and female sperm.

In order to make a child, the man and woman unite sexually. The “female sperm” facilitates the entry of the male sperm, which makes its way to a place where it encounters menstrual blood. The foetus is formed from these “pieces of blood.” During the pregnancy, the couple makes love in order to nourish the foetus, the man with his sperm and the woman with what she eats. The child’s sex is determined as soon as the man’s and the woman’s blood-sperm meet. If the man’s blood is stronger than the woman’s, the child will be a boy, if the contrary, the child will be a girl. Sex is thus transmitted in two gendered, parallel and exclusive lines. Men always beget men, and women, women. From the first sexual encounter, too, the blood of the father and that of the mother (who themselves result from the mixing of their own father’s and mother’s blood) combine into a single blood, which will give the child its very own substantial identity. As the child is supposed to be made ‘in equal parts’ from its father’s and its mother’s blood, this blood contains the cognatic relations that link each individual to all of his or her ascendants.1

But the bloods that mingle in the child do not have the same weight. Women’s blood is much lighter. Beyond the fourth generation, all traces of uterine blood have disappeared and only the stronger agnatic blood subsists. These representations correspond to the Kako’s patrilineal descent principle. Men keep their clan’s blood forever, women lose it. At the same time, because each person contains the four grandparents’ bloods and since the uterine bloods disappear after four generations, it becomes possible once more to contract marriages with these clans in the fifth generation. These representations of blood thus also correspond to the Omaha character of their kinship system, to the prohibition on marrying in the four clans of the grandparents and in one’s own kindred.

In the Mekeo society, the political-ritual functions belong to the hereditary chiefs of the four clans and are distributed according to the rule of both opposing and complementary moieties (Mosko 2005).7

Figure 4

There were thus four chiefs: one for war, one for peace, as well as a “war sorcerer” and a “peace sorcerer.” The war chief led the warriors into battle and carried out all the rites that had to do with killing. He was assisted by the “war sorcerer,” who possessed the powers to magically sap the enemy’s strength. in intertribal fights, the death of a Mekeo warrior was repaid by the death of an enemy warrior. There was also a reciprocal “exchange” of male blood between the groups. Men made ready for war by “closing” their body through fasting and sexual abstinence, to make them strong, swift and impenetrable to enemy war magic. War and sex were incompatible.

For the Mekeo, parents and children are thought to share the same blood, and this blood stems in particular from the fact that they have shared the same cooked foods, for they believe that cooked food makes blood and raw food separates bloods. since marriages are repeated from one generation to the next, alternating between the two clans of the other moiety, the Mekeo see themselves, with regard to the other tribes, as having “a single blood.” But when it comes to their representations of themselves within the tribe, they see each other as being of different bloods, and it is on this condition, they say, that they can marry each other. When the men of one clan marry, they receive the blood of other clans, whereas their sisters and daughters give the other clans part of their blood. The Mekeo say that the clans “open themselves” to others by exchanging their women, and the tribe thus reproduces itself through the reciprocal exchange of female blood between the two moieties and the four clans. The women are a clan’s “skin,” the part of its body turned toward the outside. When a couple marries, the representatives of the four clans are present, and the ceremony begins with the de-conception of the bodies of the future spouses, which rids them of two of the four bloods they carry in them.

What had been partially or fictitiously done at the time of the marriage is brought to fulfilment at the time of death. In the end, all clan members are once again connected by a single, “strictly” male blood. The clans that had “opened themselves” to others in order to conceive, “close back upon themselves” by de-conceiving their members. New alliance ties can be created, non-relatives can once again become relatives. The (apparent) contradiction between clan exogamy and tribe exogamy is resolved. All Mekeo are a single blood, which is divided into four different bloods, and so on.


A. “Prashasta” Form of Hindu Marriages


Prashasta form of hindu marriages includes the first four types, namely, Brahma, Daiva, Arsha and Prajapatya.


1. Brahma Vivah ( Marriage)


Brahma marriage is the purest form of hindu marriage. In this form of marriage the father offers his daughter to a man of good character and learning. The daughter who is decked with ornaments and richly dressed is given as a kind of gift [danam] to a man of good character [srutisilavan] and high learning. The smritis regard this as the most honorable type of marriage. This form can be traced back to the Vedic times. It is still in currency and popular in India though often disfigured with the ugly practice of dowry.


2. Daivya Vivah


In the Daiva form of marriage the father gives away his daughter as a dakshina [sacrificial fee] to a young priest who officiates the yajna which is arranged by him. This form of marriage is called daiva because the girl is gifted to a priest as sacrifice to a daiva or god. These girls are maidens who are offered as dakshina. They are called “vadhus”. Though this form of marriage was in practice during the early period, during the later days it was considered improper. Hence daiva form of marriage was considered inferior to Brahma marriage.


3. Arsha Vivah


In this form of hindu marriage, the father gives his daughter in marriage to the bridegroom after receiving a cow and a bull or two pairs of these from the bridegroom in accordance with the requirements of dharma. But this form of marriage should not be confused with the form of the bride-price or with that of the dowry. The gift of cow and bull is to be made as a token of gratitude to the man who offers his daughter to the groom to enable him to fulfill his grihasthashrama obligations. In course of time, with the decline of rituals, this form of marriage became out of date. Manu Smriti states that “some prescribe the acceptance of one pair of cows in the arsha vivah, but it is improper. It is a sale; it matters little whether one accepts a large sum or a small one.”


4. Prajapatya Vivah


In this form of hindu marriage, the father makes a gift of the daughter by addressing the couple with the mantram “may both of you perform together your dharma.” The girl is given as a gift with a clear understanding that the couple will fulfill the religious and civic duties together. This form of marriage is inferior to the first three because the bride is not a free gift but a condition is laid on both the bride and the bridegroom.


In the four forms mentioned above, the important point to be noted is that it is the father [or a person in his place] who makes a gift [dana] of the bride to the bridegroom.


B. “Aprashasta” Form of Marriages


Aprashasta forms of marriages include the last four forms, namely, Asura, Gandharva, Rakshasa and Paisacha. The shastrakaras have approved of Prashasta form of marriages while the Aprashasta marriages are forbidden or disapproved of.


5. Asura Vivah


Unlike the first four types of the marriage mentioned above, the Asura type of marriage is one in which the bridegroom has to give money to the father or kinsman of the bride. The main consideration of this form of marriage is money. The bride, in this form of marriage, is virtually purchased. The Smriti writers consider the asura marriage either a traditional custom or a necessary evil. According to Manu, the learned father of the girl should not accept even the least amount of price. If he accepts it, he comes to be regarded as the seller of children. In the present day Indian society the asura form of marriage mostly does not exist.


6. Gandharva Vivah


The Gandharva type of marriage is the one in which a girl selects her husband by herself. The marriage of Shakuntala and Dushyantha is a classical example of this kind of marriage. Mann gives a comprehensive definition of it in the following manner — “where the bride and the bridegroom meet each other of their own accord and the meeting is consummated in copulation born of passion, that form is called gandharva.”


It can also be considered a kind of marriage wherein the mutual love and consent of the bride and the bridegroom is the only condition required to bring about the union. Neither the father nor the kinsmen need have a hand in bringing about the marriage. This type of marriage is called gandharva, because it was in practice in the Gandharva tribe living on the slopes of the Himalayas.


During the early days it was in practice among the Kshatriyas in which the kings used to arrange swayamvaras inviting princes from different places so that their daughters may get a wide selection to choose their husbands. By swayamvara we mean the selection of the bridegroom by the bride herself. The marriage of Damayanthi with Nala, and Prithviraj Chauhan with Samyukta can be mentioned here as examples. The gandharva vivaha in its original style is not in practice today but it has assumed a new form called “love marriage.”


7. Rakshasa Vivah


The rakshasa form is described in the Hindu scriptures when girls were the forcible were forcible abducted. It is the capture of bride by force. Here the bridegroom does not take the consent of the girl but simply forces her to marry him. It is to be noted that rakshasa form of marriage disappeared in course of time. But in its place the practice of girls eloping with heroes with whom they fall in love started taking place. The examples of Rukmini and Subhadra [in the epic age] eloping with Lord Krishna and Arjuna respectively and Samyukta eloping with Prithviraj Chauhan [in the Medieval age], can be cited here.


8. Paisacha Vivah


Paisacha form of marriage is one in which the man seduces by force a girl who is sleeping or intoxicated or disordered in intellect. Dharmashastra writers like Gauthama and Vishnu define it as “co-habiting with a girl who is unconscious, sleepy or intoxicated.” This form of marriage, however, has disappeared altogether in India.


Of these eight forms of marriages, Brahma vivaha is considered to be the best form of marriage where a girl is given to a boy of merit in the same caste or in a cast of equal status. Both bride and bridegroom in this marriage are supposed to be mutually agreeable for the marriage. In the present day Hindu society also the Brahma vivaha is considered the most preferable one in which the father gifts his daughter to a suitable bridegroom through the ritual of kanyadana.


The often complex patterns of reciprocity inherent in moiety systems can be seen operating in the marriage patterns of the Kariera Aborigines of Western Australia. They follow patrilineal descent but with a peculiar twist that is known by anthropologists as a four class system. They have two moieties and four "marriage classes." An individual's moitey and marriage class identity determines who he or she may marry.


Each Kariera moiety has two generational marriage class "names." Everyone in a moiety who is in the same generation has the same marriage class identity. For simplicity, the moieties are designated below as "A" and "B", while the marriage class "names" are "a", "b", "c", and "d" respectively.


Diagram of Australian 4-class system showing the relationship between generation, class, and moiety identity


An "a" man can only marry a "c" woman from moiety "B". Their children will be "b's" in moiety "A". Conversely, a "c" man can only marry a woman from moiety "A" and their children will be "d's" in moiety "B".


Diagram of Australian 4-class system showing culturally specified marriage partners and class identity of children determined by their father's identity


Ideally, Kariera men from different moieties marry each other's sisters. This results in strong reciprocal bonds between the men and their moieties. There is a generational alternation in class "names" among the Kariera. People have the same class identity as their grandparents and grandchildren but not their parents and children. It is sobering to note that as confusing as the Kariera 4-class system seems, it is not the most complex example of Australian Aboriginal kinship.


Societies with moieties usually consist of a few thousand people or less. In contrast, societies with phratries are often larger. As in the case of clans and phratries, moiety members usually cannot demonstrate all of the descent links back to their supposed common ancestor.


Membership in unilineages, clans, moieties, and phratries is inherited and usually continues throughout life. As a result, these unilineal descent groups often function successfully as long-term joint property owners and economic production teams.


Ahmad ibn Umar ibn Alī, known as Nizamī-i Arūzī-i Samarqandī (Persian: نظامی عروضی‎‎) and also Arudi ("The Prosodist"), was a Persian poet and prose writer who flourished between 1110 and 1161 AD. He is particularly famous for his Chahar Maghaleh ("Four Discourses"), his only work to fully survive. While living in Samarqand, Abu’l-Rajaʾ Ahmad b. ʿAbd-Al-Ṣamad, a dehqan in Transoxiana, told Nezami of how the poet Rudaki was given compensation for his poem extolling the virtues of Samanid Amir Nasr b. Ahmad.[1]


Born in Samarqand, Aruzi spent most of his time in Khorasan and Transoxiana.[2] He served as a court-poet to the Ghaznavids for many years. All that is known of his personal life is gleaned from the Chahar Maqala itself.[3] Nizámí-i'Arúdí’s The Chahár Maqála, or Four Discourses, is a book consisting of four discourses on four different professionals that Nizami believed a king needs to have in his palace; in the preface of the book, Nizami discusses the philosophical or religious ideology of the creation of the world and the order of things. While he was primarily a courtier, he noted in his book that he was an astronomer and physician as well.[4] He reports in the work that he spent time not only in his native Samarqand, but also in Herat, Tus (where he visited Ferdowsi's tomb and gathered material on the great poet), Balkh, and Nishapur, where he lived for perhaps five years.[5] He also claimed to have studied under the astronomer-poet Omar Khayyám, a native of Nishapour.[6]


The Travels is divided into four books. Book One describes the lands of the Middle East and Central Asia that Marco encountered on his way to China. Book Two describes China and the court of Kublai Khan. Book Three describes some of the coastal regions of the East: Japan, India, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, and the east coast of Africa. Book Four describes some of the then-recent wars among the Mongols and some of the regions of the far north, like Russia. Polo's writings included descriptions of cannibals and spice growers.


The minimum allowed diameter of a golf ball is 42.67 mm and its mass may not exceed 45.93 g. Modern golf balls have a two-, three-, or four-layer design constructed from various synthetic materials. The surface usually has a pattern of 300-450 dimples designed to improve the ball's aerodynamics by reducing the ball's drag-inducing wake and allowing spin on the ball to create lift. The method of construction and materials used greatly affect the ball's playing characteristics such as distance, trajectory, spin and feel. Harder materials, such as Surlyn, usually result in the ball's traveling longer distances, while softer covers, such as Urethane, tend to generate higher spin, more "feel" and greater stopping potential. Golf balls are separated into three groups depending on their construction: two-, three-, or four-piece covers. Generally four-piece golf balls tend to be the most expensive, though price is no assurance of quality.

In 1799, Sir George Cayley became the first person to identify the four aerodynamic forces of flight (weight, lift, drag, and thrust), as well as the relationships between them,[10][11] and in doing so outlined the path toward achieving heavier-than-air flight for the next century.

"U.S Centennial of Flight Commission – Sir George Cayley.". Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-10. Sir George Cayley, born in 1773, is sometimes called the Father of Aviation. A pioneer in his field, he was the first to identify the four aerodynamic forces of flight – weight, lift, drag, and thrust and their relationship. He was also the first to build a successful human-carrying glider. Cayley described many of the concepts and elements of the modern airplane and was the first to understand and explain in engineering terms the concepts of lift and thrust.

A Typology of Co-Creation

4 types of co-creation

Club of experts.

The ‘‘Club of Experts” style of co-creation is best suitable for very specific, time-pressured challenges that demand expertise and breakthrough ideas. Contributors meet certain specific participation criteria and are generally found through an active selection process. Quality of input and chemistry between participants are key to success. ‘No-box’ thinkers are the ones you want to have in any project.


Example: Nokia organises ‘lead user’ and ‘expert’ co-creation sessions to develop visionary new products and services. We at Fronteer Strategy are a partner of Nokia in these projects, where bold new steps have been designed.


Crowd of People

Also known as “Crowdsourcing”, this form is all about the Rule of Big Numbers: anyone can join. For any given challenge, there might be a person ‘out there’ with a brilliant idea that deserves considering. Using online platforms, people can rate and respond to each other’s suggestions. There is often a marketing and seeding component/objective attached to the process.


Crowdsourcing ‘unleashes the power of the masses’, but often takes longer - and you’re not sure that the best people will (want to) contribute.


Nokia: Frontrunner when it comes to using lead users, experts and beta testers


Example: Threadless is a successful online t-shirt platform where contributors can send in and rate t-shirt designs. Profits on sold items are shared with the designer in question. Not bad: a full 30% profit margin selling t-shirts with no R&D cost, low investments (no stock or debtors) and hardly any employees.


Coalition of Parties

In certain complex situations, a “Coalition” of parties team up to share ideas and investments (Co-branding is also an example of Coalition-style co-creation). Each of the parties brings a specific asset or skill to the party. Technical breakthroughs and the realisation of standards often happen only when multiple parties collaborate - especially important when capital expenditures are high. Key success factors include sharing knowledge and creating a common competitive advantage.


Example: Heineken has successfully launched a home draft system called the ‘Beertender’ in co-operation with Krups. A development period of 10 years resulted in the first true packaging innovation in beer in a long time. Also, Heineken has worked with outsiders to develop for example its aluminium bottle range.


Community of kindred spirits

The “Community” form is most relevant when developing something for the greater good. Groups of people with similar interests and goals can come together and create. This model - so far - works mostly in software development and leverages the potential force of a large group of people with complementary areas of expertise.


Example: The Linux open source operating system software was developed by users and for users. The software code is free to use and owned by nobody. It started with one simple e-mail with a request for help."

In Mozart's Magic Flute the hero & heroine undergo ordeals of Earth, Fire, and Water; Air seems to be missing, until you realize that the Flute itself is a wind instrument.


Continental Masonry during Mozart’s time also included Lodges of Adoption which admitted both men and women to membership with ceremonies based on Masonic teachings and practices. Pamina joins Tamino’s quest for Masonic enlightenment in the The Magic Flute by seeking admission into a Lodge of Adoption.


What symbols did Mozart and his brother Mason, The Magic Flute’s librettist Emanuel Schikaneder, use to disguise these two initiations? There are many, but here are a few. There is of course a magic flute. It is not an instrument of magic in the sense that its use can solve a problem beyond mortal intervention. It is an instrument to create enchantment, because music brings harmony. The harmony of the universe is hermetically represented in Freemasonry by the science of geometry and is therefore the basis of all of Masonic symbolism. During the opera, when the flute is played, harmony or balance is restored. The libretto tells us that this flute was made of wood but of gold color. It was created in perfection because of the involvement of four elements: it was produced on a rainy night (water), to the noise of thunder (earth) and the flash of lightening (fire) and was designed to work using man’s breath (air).


The study of alchemy revolved around these four elements: Earth, Air, Water and Fire. These elements were said to be symbolic representations of the four fundamental qualities of matter. The alchemists believed that these four elements were not only material but also spiritual forces and therefore components of a human being. An individual’s particular combination of earth, air, water and fire determined his or her personality type. Those who had near equal proportions of the four elements were thought to be more intelligent and to have the most exact perceptions. To demonstrate a balance of these four elements, each of the Masons in Mozart’s audience would have passed symbolically during their Masonic initiation through a test for each of Earth, Air, Water and Fire.


In the opera, Tamino passes through these same four tests on his Masonic journey. The test by Earth happens in the Cabinet of Reflection. The test by Air is represented by the temptations of human life when food is provided by the three boys to Tamino and when Pamina tries to get Tamino to break his vow of silence. The tests of Water and Fire are clear from the libretto. Papageno and Papagena undergo mini-tests to mimic the four elemental tests but they do so only in comedic imitation of Tamino and Pamina. The opera ends with an allusion to the Conjugal Avowal or Masonic marriage, a ceremony conducted in Continental Masonry when a Mason married or a married man became a Mason.



Continental Masonry during Mozart’s time also included Lodges of Adoption which admitted both men and women to membership with ceremonies based on Masonic teachings and practices. Pamina joins Tamino’s quest for Masonic enlightenment in the The Magic Flute by seeking admission into a Lodge of Adoption.


What symbols did Mozart and his brother Mason, The Magic Flute’s librettist Emanuel Schikaneder, use to disguise these two initiations? There are many, but here are a few. There is of course a magic flute. It is not an instrument of magic in the sense that its use can solve a problem beyond mortal intervention. It is an instrument to create enchantment, because music brings harmony. The harmony of the universe is hermetically represented in Freemasonry by the science of geometry and is therefore the basis of all of Masonic symbolism. During the opera, when the flute is played, harmony or balance is restored. The libretto tells us that this flute was made of wood but of gold color. It was created in perfection because of the involvement of four elements: it was produced on a rainy night (water), to the noise of thunder (earth) and the flash of lightening (fire) and was designed to work using man’s breath (air).


The study of alchemy revolved around these four elements: Earth, Air, Water and Fire. These elements were said to be symbolic representations of the four fundamental qualities of matter. The alchemists believed that these four elements were not only material but also spiritual forces and therefore components of a human being. An individual’s particular combination of earth, air, water and fire determined his or her personality type. Those who had near equal proportions of the four elements were thought to be more intelligent and to have the most exact perceptions. To demonstrate a balance of these four elements, each of the Masons in Mozart’s audience would have passed symbolically during their Masonic initiation through a test for each of Earth, Air, Water and Fire.


In the opera, Tamino passes through these same four tests on his Masonic journey. The test by Earth happens in the Cabinet of Reflection. The test by Air is represented by the temptations of human life when food is provided by the three boys to Tamino and when Pamina tries to get Tamino to break his vow of silence. The tests of Water and Fire are clear from the libretto. Papageno and Papagena undergo mini-tests to mimic the four elemental tests but they do so only in comedic imitation of Tamino and Pamina. The opera ends with an allusion to the Conjugal Avowal or Masonic marriage, a ceremony conducted in Continental Masonry when a Mason married or a married man became a Mason.


Elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir (brand name Stribild), also known as the Quad pill, is a fixed dose combination drug for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Elvitegravir, emtricitabine and tenofovir directly suppress viral reproduction. Cobicistat increases the effectiveness of the combination by inhibiting the liver and gut wall enzymes that metabolize elvitegravir.