Rober Koch is considered the Father of Germ Theory and Medicine. Robert Koch is known for developing four basic criteria (known as Koch's postulates) for demonstrating, in a scientifically sound manner, that a disease is caused by a particular organism

Von Baer is the "Father of Embryology". He had Four Laws of Embryology" and he defined four archetypes.

von Baer's laws of embryology (or laws of development) is a set of four rules discovered by Karl Ernst von Baer to explain the observed pattern of embryonic development in different species.[1]

von Baer's law is a series of statements generally summarised into four points. As translated by Thomas Henry Huxley in his Scientific Memoirs:[5]

  1. The more general characters of a large group appear earlier in the embryo than the more special characters.

  2. From the most general forms the less general are developed, and so on, until finally the most special arises.

  3. Every embryo of a given animal form, instead of passing through the other forms, rather becomes separated from them.

  4. The embryo of a higher form never resembles any other form, but only its embryo.​

Von Baer embraced the separation of the animal kingdom into four distinct archetypes, or fundamental body plans: the radiate, like the starfish; the mollusca, like clams and octopus; the articulate, like insects and lobsters; and the vertebrata, like fish and humans. He classified organisms into each of the four archetypes according to how those organisms developed from embryos. Von Baer reasoned that because animals could be divided into four archetypes, embryos could not recapitulate all lower forms throughout their development.


"Temple of Portunus, with its tetrastyle portico of four Ionic columns
The tetrastyle has four columns; it was commonly employed by the Greeks and the Etruscans for small structures such as public buildings and amphiprostyles.

The Romans favoured the four columned portico for their pseudoperipteral temples like the Temple of Portunus, and for amphiprostyle temples such as the Temple of Venus and Roma, and for the prostyle entrance porticos of large public buildings like the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine. Roman provincial capitals also manifested tetrastyle construction, such as the Capitoline Temple in Volubilis.

The North Portico of the White House is perhaps the most notable four-columned portico in the United States."

Temple of Portunus, with its tetrastyle portico of four Ioniccolumns

Nike is the logo for a popular sports company. Nike and her three siblings are a quaternity.

NIKE (Nicé) was the winged goddess of victory--victory both in war and in peaceful competition. When Zeus was gathering allies at the start of the Titan War, Styx brought her four children Nike (Victory), Zelos (Rivalry), Kratos (Cratus Strength) and Bia (Force) into the god's service. Nike was appointed his charioteer and together the four became sentinels of Zeus' throne.

The famous Babylonian Clay Tablet is a quadrant

Although Pascal’s Wager can be formulated in a number of ways, one way to understand it is by constructing a pay-off matrix exhibiting the expected benefits of one’s choices relative to the truth of the belief that God exists:

Read more:

Patañjali divided his Yoga Sutras into four chapters or books (Sanskrit pada), containing in all 196 aphorisms, divided as follows:[20][21][page needed

  • Samadhi Pada[20][21] (51 sutras). Samadhi refers to a blissful state where the yogi is absorbed into the One. Samadhi is the main technique the yogin learns by which to dive into the depths of the mind to achieve Kaivalya. The author describes yoga and then the nature and the means to attaining samādhi. This chapter contains the famous definitional verse: "Yogaś citta-vritti-nirodhaḥ" ("Yoga is the restraint of mental modifications").[22]

  • Sadhana Pada[20][21] (55 sutras). Sadhana is the Sanskrit word for "practice" or "discipline". Here the author outlines two forms of Yoga: Kriya Yoga(Action Yoga) and Ashtanga Yoga (Eightfold or Eightlimbed Yoga).

    • Kriya Yoga is closely related to Karma Yoga, which is also expounded in Chapter 3 of the Bhagavad Gita, where Arjuna is encouraged by Krishna to act without attachment to the results or fruit of action and activity. It is the yoga of selfless action and service.

    • Ashtanga Yoga describes the eight limbs that together constitute Rāja Yoga.

  • Vibhuti Pada[20][21] (56 sutras)[23]. Vibhuti is the Sanskrit word for "power" or "manifestation". 'Supra-normal powers' (Sanskrit: siddhi) are acquired by the practice of yoga. Combined simultaneous practice of DhāraṇāDhyana and Samādhi is referred to as Samyama, and is considered a tool of achieving various perfections, or Siddhis. The temptation of these powers should be avoided and the attention should be fixed only on liberation. The purpose of using samadhi is not to gain siddhis but to achieve Kaivalya. Siddhis are but distractions from Kaivalaya and are to be discouraged. Siddhis are but maya, or illusion.

  • Kaivalya Pada[20][21] (34 sutras). Kaivalya literally means "isolation", but as used in the Sutras stands for emancipation or liberation and is used interchangeably with moksha (liberation), which is the goal of yoga. The Kaivalya Pada describes the process of liberation and the reality of the transcendental ego.

There is a swastika pose in yoga. The swastika is the quadrant.

The four messages are a three plus one pattern. The fourth has not been discovered. The fourth is always different.

Kryptos is a sculpture by the American artist Jim Sanborn located on the grounds of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in Langley, Virginia. Since its dedication on November 3, 1990, there has been much speculation about the meaning of the four encrypted messages it bears. Of the four messages, the first three have been solved, while the fourth message remains as one of the most famous unsolved codes in the world. The sculpture continues to be of interest to cryptanalysts, both amateur and professional, who are attempting to decipher the fourth passage. The artist has so far given two clues to this passage.

The complex plane in math, including imaginay numbers.

But as both the real and imaginary parts of a complex number in the rectangular form can be either a positive number or a negative number, then both the real and imaginary axis must also extend in both the positive and negative directions. This then produces a complex plane with four quadrants called an Argand Diagram as shown above.

On the Argand diagram, the horizontal axis represents all positive real numbers to the right of the vertical imaginary axis and all negative real numbers to the left of the vertical imaginary axis. All positive imaginary numbers are represented above the horizontal axis while all the negative imaginary numbers are below the horizontal real axis. This then produces a two dimensional complex plane with four distinct quadrants labelled, QI, QII, QIII, and QIV.

I looked through a book a while ago by a psychiatrist. He was a real psychiatrist and he described a patient that divided everything into fours and multiples of four like 16 and 64 and the patient said that everything in reality was organized in fours. Whenever the doctor talked to the patient, the patinet would cover his penis. The doctor came to the conclusion that obsession with four as opposed to three was related to castration anxiety. I posted the book online, I would have to find it. There are other things that I posted that I want to find hopefully. One was the book that described how Moby Dick was about the oscilation between the numbers three and four. There was a lot that I heard and saw in the past, especially before I started recording almost every example I saw online, that I can't remember or don't know how to explain.

The four main salat postures and associated prayers and recitations.

There are five pilars of Islam the fifth is ultra transcendent, but almost all things in Islam are fours, for instance in prayer there is a maximum of four rakat.

 The number of obligatory (fard) rakaʿāt varies from two to four according to the time of day or other circumstances (such as Friday congregational worship, which has two rakats

Prayers in Islam are classified into four categories based on degrees of obligation: fardwajibsunnah, and nafl.[34]

The basic domains of physics

Macedonian phalynxes were usually 16 men deep

The Macedonian phalanxes were usually 16 men deep, sometimes reported to have been arrayed 32 men deep. There are some notable extremes; at the battles of Leuctra and Mantinea, the Theban general Epameinondas arranged the left wing of the phalanx into a "hammerhead" of 50 ranks of elite hoplites deep (see below) and when depth was less important, phalanxes just 4 deep are recorded, as at the battle of Marathon.

These soldiers fought in close-ranked rectangular or square formations, of which the smallest tactical unit was the 256 men strong syntagma or speira. This formation typically fought eight or sixteen men deep and in a frontage of thirty-two or sixteen men accordingly. Each file of 16 men, a lochos, was commanded by a lochagos who was in the front rank.

Alexander’s core unit in the phalanx was the syntagma, normally 16 men deep

The four core histones

The nucleosome core is formed of two H2A-H2B dimers and a H3-H4 tetramer, forming two nearly symmetrical halves by tertiary structure (C2 symmetry; one macromolecule is the mirror image of the other).[8] The H2A-H2B dimers and H3-H4 tetramer also show pseudodyad symmetry. The 4 'core' histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) are relatively similar in structure and are highly conserved through evolution, all featuring a 'helix turn helix turn helix' motif (which allows the easy dimerisation). They also share the feature of long 'tails' on one end of the amino acid structure - this being the location of post-translational modification (see below).

A histone octamer is the eight protein complex found at the center of a nucleosome core particle. It consists of two copies of each of the four core histoneproteins (H2AH2BH3 and H4). A histone cotamer consists of two tetramers.

The nucleosome assembles when DNA wraps around the histone octamer, two H2A-H2B dimers bound to an H3-H4 tetramer.

The octamer assembles when a tetramer, containing two copies of both H3 and H4, complexes with two H2A/H2B dimers

Notice how the fourth bomb is different from the previous three.

Four Islamic terrorists separately detonated three bombs in quick succession aboard London Undergroundtrains across the city and, later, a fourth on a double-decker bus in Tavistock Square.[1] The train bombings occurred on the Circle line near Aldgate and at Edgware Road, and on the Piccadilly line near Russell Square.

Almost one hour after the attacks on the London Underground, a fourth bomb was detonated on the top deck of a number 30 double-decker bus, a Dennis Trident 2 (fleet number 17758, registration LX03 BUF, two years in service at the time) operated by Stagecoach London and travelling its route from Marble Arch to Hackney Wick.

The four suicide bombers were later identified and named as:

  • Mohammad Sidique Khan: aged 30. Khan detonated his bomb just after leaving Edgware Road tube station on a train travelling toward Paddington, at 8:50 am. He lived in Beeston, Leeds, with his wife and young child, where he worked as a learning mentor at a primary school. The blast killed seven people, including Khan himself.

  • Shehzad Tanweer: aged 22. He detonated a bomb aboard a train travelling between Liverpool Street station and Aldgate tube station, at 8:50 am. He lived in Leeds with his mother and father, working in a fish and chip shop. Eight people, including Tanweer, were killed by the explosion.

  • Germaine Lindsay: aged 19. He detonated his device on a train travelling between King's Cross and Russell Square tube stations, at 8:50 am. He lived in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, with his pregnant wife and young son. His blast killed 27 people, including Lindsay himself.

  • Hasib Hussain: the youngest of the four at 18, Hussain detonated his bomb on the top deck of a double-decker bus at 9:47 am. He lived in Leeds with his brother and sister-in-law. 14 people, including Hussain, died in the explosion in Tavistock Square.

During the peak of Madrid rush hour on the morning of Thursday, 11 March 2004, ten explosions occurred aboard four commuter trains (cercanías)

All four trains had departed the Alcalá de Henares station between 07:01 and 07:14. The explosions took place between 07:37 and 07:40, as described below (all timings given are in local time CETUTC +1):

  • Atocha Station (train number 21431) – Three bombs exploded. Based on the video recording from the station security system, the first bomb exploded at 07:37, and two others exploded within 4 seconds of each other at 07:38.

  • El Pozo del Tío Raimundo Station (train number 21435) – At approximately 07:38, just as the train was starting to leave the station, two bombs exploded in different carriages.

  • Santa Eugenia Station (train number 21713) – One bomb exploded at approximately 07:38.

  • Calle Téllez (train number 17305), approximately 800 meters from Atocha Station – Four bombs exploded in different carriages of the train at approximately 07:39.

On 3 April 2004, in Leganés, south Madrid, four terrorists died in an apparent suicide explosion, killing one Grupo Especial de Operaciones (GEO) (Spanish special police assault unit) police officer and wounding eleven policemen. According to witnesses and media, between five and eight suspects escaped that day.[35]

According to reports, a fourth bomb planted in the attack this morning on Brussels failed to detonate.

Three groups of men[21][50] launched six distinct attacks:[51] three suicide bombings in one attack, a fourth suicide bombing in another attack, and shootings at four locations in four separate attacks.

On 27 June 1976, Air France Flight 139, an Airbus A300B4-203registration F-BVGG (c/n 019), departed from Tel Aviv, Israel, carrying 246 mainly Jewish and Israeli passengers and a crew of 12.[19][20] The plane flew to Athens, Greece, where it picked up an additional 58 passengers, including four hijackers.

After Betzer collected intelligence and planned for several days, four Israeli Air Force C-130 Hercules transport aircraft secretly flew to Entebbe Airport at midnight without being detected by Entebbe air traffic control.

The four chains are a three plus one pattern

The four most common modes of radioactive decay are: alpha decaybeta decayinverse beta decay (considered as both positron emission and electron capture), and isomeric transition. Of these decay processes, only alpha decay changes the atomic mass number (A) of the nucleus, and always decreases it by four. Because of this, almost any decay will result in a nucleus whose atomic mass number has the same residue mod 4, dividing all nuclides into four chains. The members of any possible decay chain must be drawn entirely from one of these classes. All four chains also produce helium-4 (alpha particles are helium-4 nuclei).

Three main decay chains (or families) are observed in nature, commonly called the thoriumseries, the radium or uranium series, and the actinium series, representing three of these four classes, and ending in three different, stable isotopes of lead. The mass number of every isotope in these chains can be represented as A = 4n, A = 4n + 2, and A = 4n + 3, respectively. The long-lived starting isotopes of these three isotopes, respectively thorium-232uranium-238, and uranium-235, have existed since the formation of the earth, ignoring the artificial isotopes and their decays since the 1940s.

Due to the relatively short half-life of its starting isotope neptunium-237 (2.14 million years), the fourth chain, the neptunium series with A = 4n + 1, is already extinct in nature, except for the final rate-limiting step, decay of bismuth-209. The ending isotope of this chain is now known to be thallium-205. Some older sources give the final isotope as bismuth-209, but it was recently discovered that it is very slightly radioactive, with a half-life of 1.9×1019 years.

The Roman Body of Civil Law is a three plus one pattern. The fourth part was added later

The Corpus Juris (or Iuris) Civilis ("Body of Civil Law") is the modern name[1] for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian IEastern Roman Emperor. It is also sometimes referred to as the Code of Justinian, although this name belongs more properly to the part titled Codex Justinianus.

The work as planned had three parts: the Code (Codex) is a compilation, by selection and extraction, of imperial enactments to date; the Digest or Pandects (the Latin title contains both Digesta and Pandectae) is an encyclopedia composed of mostly brief extracts from the writings of Roman jurists; and the Institutes (Institutiones) is a student textbook, mainly introducing the Code, although it has important conceptual elements that are less developed in the Code or the Digest. All three parts, even the textbook, were given force of law. They were intended to be, together, the sole source of law; reference to any other source, including the original texts from which the Code and the Digesthad been taken, was forbidden. Nonetheless, Justinian found himself having to enact further laws and today these are counted as a fourth part of the Corpus, the Novellae Constitutiones (Novels, literally New Laws).

As the Digest neared completion, Tribonian and two professors, Theophilus and Dorotheus, made a student textbook, called the Institutions or Elements. As there were four elements, the manual consists of four books. The Institutiones are largely based on the Institutiones of Gaius. Two thirds of the Institutiones of Justinian consists of literal quotes from Gaius. The new Institutiones were used as a manual for jurists in training from 21 November 533 and were given the authority of law on 30 December 533 along with the Digest.

The Four Doctors of Bologna (Latin: Quatuor Doctores) were Italian jurists and glossators of the 12th century, based in the University of BolognaBulgarusMartinus GosiaJacobus de Boragine and Hugo de Porta Ravennate.[1]

Their teachings in the law school of Bologna were based on glosses and commentaries on the rediscovered Corpus juris civilis of Justinian

The importance of four, 16, and 256 (four to the fourth power) in the divination

The word obi means kola nut in the Yoruba language. Kola nuts were traditionally used in the divination practices of Santeria and are still used in Africa during the divination ritual. Obi divination is most commonly performed with four pieces of kola nut.

In the United States, this system of foretelling events incorporates the reading of cowrie shells in place of the traditional kola nut. The cowrie shell has protective properties and was first used by shaman and sorcerers for magical protection. They quickly became popular for use in divination rituals.

The four shells represent the past and the future and are considered to be male or female. The person conducting the divination will hold four shells in his or her hand as they pray over your question. The Oloricha will blow on the shells and then toss them onto a table or the floor and examine how they fell. The Shaman then interprets the shells. If no clear response is obvious, the consultant may be asked to throw the shells again.

Cowrie shells can fall either up/open or down/closed. It is possible for sixteen different outcomes to occur.


This system of fortune telling is not commonly used among hoodoo practitioners, because one must be initiated in the religion to learn it. The system uses 16 cowrie shells that have been opened, consecrated and empowered (through blood sacrifice) to speak for the Orishas.

Each Orisha has his or her own set of diloggun, however Eleggua’s diloggun are used for general consultations because he has the ability to speak for all of the Orishas. His set of cowries has 21 shells (only 16 of which are used in a reading). Almost all of the other Orishas have 18 cowries in their set.

Odu (odun) refers to one of the many patterns that fall when an Oloricha throws the diloggun when doing a reading. There are 16 basic patterns, known as the "parent" odu, but the first throw of the diloggun is always a composite, made up of two parent odu. This opening pattern is called the entoyale, and it gives the diviner important information about the general themes that need to be addressed during the reading.

Depending on how the shells fall, any of 256 possible composite patterns can turn up, and each one has its own specific characteristics that the diviner must be able to interpret. Each odu is represented by a number, which stands for the number of shells that fall face up on the mat. The possible outcomes of a single throw are:

  • Okana (one mouth up)

  • Eji Oko (two mouths up)

  • Ogunda (three mouths up)

  • Irosun (four mouths up)

  • Oche (five mouths up)

  • Obara (six mouths up)

  • Odi (seven mouths up)

  • Eji Ogbe (eight mouths up)

  • Osa (nine mouths up)

  • Ofun (ten mouths up)

  • Owani (eleven mouths up)

  • Ejila Shebora (twelve mouths up)

  • Metanla (thirteen mouths up)

  • Merinla (fourteen mouths up)

  • Marunla (fifteen mouths up)

  • Merindilogun (sixteen mouths up)​

Obi Divination four cowrie shells

Obi divination is a quick and easy form of fortune-telling comprising a cast or thrown reading determined by four coconut pieces, four cowrie shells that have had their tops cut off, or four coins. Obi readings entered hoodoo through contact between American spiritual practitioners of conjure and initiates of African Diasporic religions such as Santeria (also known as Lukumi, or La Regla de Ocha). Obi will only reply to questions that can be answered "Yes” or “No.” To tell your fortune, the psychic reader will hold the set of four items in his or her hand, pray over your question, then gently toss the items down onto the ground or onto a mat, and look to see how they fell. Cowries can fall "mouth" side up (open) or "mouth" side down (closed). Coconut pieces can fall white meat side up or dark skin side up. Coins can fall heads up or or tails up. Mathematically, the toss will generate one of sixteen possible combinations, which are grouped into five possible answers: Four cowrie shells used to perform an Obi reading Four cowrie shells used to perform an Obi reading

Leftist ideologies, such as American liberalismsocialism, and communism, are arranged by Pournelle in the upper right-hand quadrant of high state control and high rationalism. Conservatismfascism, and Nazism are placed in the lower right hand quadrant of high state control and low rationalism. Classical anarchists are in the lower left hand corner of low state control and low rationalism. Libertarians (including anarcho-capitalists) and Objectivists are placed in the upper left-hand corner of low state control and high rationalism. Each diagonal axis contains natural political allies.

A chart proposed by the Political Compass Organization

In 2006, Brian Patrick Mitchell identified four main political traditions in Anglo-American history based on their regard for kratos (defined as the use of force) and archē or "archy" (defined as the recognition of rank).[30] Mitchell grounded the distinction of archy and kratos in the West's historical experience of church and state, crediting the collapse of the Christian consensus on church and state with the appearance of four main divergent traditions in Western political thought:

Mitchell charts these traditions graphically using a vertical axis as a scale of kratos/akrateia and a horizontal axis as a scale of archy/anarchy. He places democratic progressivism in the lower left, plutocratic nationalism in the lower right, republican constitutionalism in the upper right, and libertarian individualism in the upper left. The political left is therefore distinguished by its rejection of archy, while the political right is distinguished by its acceptance of archy. For Mitchell, anarchy is not the absence of government but the rejection of rank. Thus there can be both anti-government anarchists (Mitchell’s "libertarian individualists") and pro-government anarchists (Mitchell's "democratic progressives", who favor the use of government force against social hierarchies such as patriarchy). Mitchell also distinguishes between left-wing anarchists and right-wing anarchists, whom Mitchell renames "akratists" for their opposition to the government’s use of force.

From the four main political traditions, Mitchell identifies eight distinct political perspectives diverging from a populist center. Four of these perspectives (Progressive, Individualist, Paleoconservative, and Neoconservative) fit squarely within the four traditions; four others (Paleolibertarian, Theoconservative, Communitarian, and Radical) fit between the traditions, being defined by their singular focus on rank or force. Anthony Gregory of the Independent Institute credits Mitchell with "the best explanation of the political spectrum", saying he "makes sense of all the major mysteries".[31]

Krishna has 16,000 wives. Hindus relate the 16 in Krishna's 16,000 wives to the 16 rounds of chants and other 16s.

There was a famous Indian king who made 16 Krishna idols.

There are four sights with Olmec heads. Le Vanta has four heads

Seventeen confirmed examples are known from four sites within the Olmec heartland on the Gulf of Mexico.

There are 16 figurines. There are 16 squares in the quadrant model

At the La Venta archaeological site, archaeologists found what they subsequently named "Offering 4". These figurines had been ritually buried in a deep, narrow hole, and covered over with three layers of colored clay. At some point after the original burial, someone dug a small hole down just to the level of their heads and then refilled it.[14]

Offering 4 consists of sixteen male figurines

There were four Gods in the birdman cult

In the Rapa Nui mythology, the deity Make-make was the chief god of the birdman cult, and the other three deities associated with it were Hawa-tuu-take-take (the Chief of the eggs, a male god), his wife Vie Hoa, and another female deity named Vie Kanatea. Each of these four also had a servant god who was associated with him/ her. The names of all eight would be chanted by contestants during the various rituals preceding the egg hunt.

Four mound groups. Fourth head different from previous three

Over 160 mounds, platforms, and similar structures have been identified at Tres Zapotes, most of these being low residential platforms.[15] The major Epi-Olmec period structures are the prosaically-named Groups 1, 2, and 3, and the similarly structured Nestepe Group (also known as Group 4). Group 2 is more or less in the center of the residential core with the other three spaced almost 1 km (1 mi) away from Group 2 and from each other.

This equidistant spacing likely reflects a decentralized political structure, each mound group the creation of a separate faction within Tres Zapotes society. This is in contrast to La Venta, for example, where the heavily centralized public architecture reflected a centralized rulership.[16]At La Venta three of the four colossal heads were grouped together at the entrance to the ceremonial precinct while the fourth was at the edge of the large central plaza. The two Tres Zapotes heads were not in the central Group 2, but rather Monument A was located in Group 1 and Monument Q in the Nestepe Group.

Tres Zapotes's four mound groups are similar in design to those of Cerro de las Mesas, featuring a large plaza surrounded by several mounds, including a pyramidal or conical mound on the west end and a long mound on the north. The longer mounds likely supported administrative buildings and/or elite residences. The smaller mounds featured the residences of the lesser elites and temples.

The Epi-Olmec period site plan of Tres Zapotes, highlighting the four mound groups

The four locations

There have been 17 colossal heads unearthed to date.



San Lorenzo10Colossal Heads 1 through 10

La Venta4Monuments 1 through 4

Tres Zapotes2Monuments A & Q

Rancho la Cobata1Monument 1

Between the 16th century and the mid-19th century, Britain saw a large increase in agricultural productivity and net output. New agricultural practices like enclosure, mechanization, four-field crop rotation to maintain soil nutrients, and selective breeding enabled an unprecedented population growth to 5.7 million in 1750, freeing up a significant percentage of the workforce, and thereby helped drive the Industrial Revolution. The productivity of wheat went up from about 19 bushels per acre in 1720 to around 30 bushels by 1840, marking a major turning point in history.[110]

Four the terracota army there is four pits. The fourth is different. This sight is extremely famous. I studied a lot of archaeogloyg. The first sight for agriculture had four parts to it there was a lot of examples of hte quadrant model that I saw but I forgot a lot now. But a lo ti sposted in my pages

Four main pits approximately 7 metres (23 ft) deep have been excavated.[24][25] These are located approximately 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) east of the burial mound. The soldiers within were laid out as if to protect the tomb from the east, where all the Qin Emperor's conquered states lay.

Pit one, which is 230 metres (750 ft) long and 62 metres (203 ft) wide,[26] contains the main army of more than 6,000 figures.[27] Pit one has 11 corridors, most of which are more than 3 metres (10 ft) wide and paved with small bricks with a wooden ceiling supported by large beams and posts. This design was also used for the tombs of nobles and would have resembled palace hallways when built. The wooden ceilings were covered with reed mats and layers of clay for waterproofing, and then mounded with more soil raising them about 2 to 3 metres (6 ft 7 in to 9 ft 10 in) above the surrounding ground level when completed.

Pit two has cavalry and infantry units as well as war chariots and is thought to represent a military guard. Pit three is the command post, with high-ranking officers and a war chariot. Pit four is empty, perhaps left unfinished by its builders.

The Fourth Industrial Revolution, or 4IR, is the fourth major industrial era since the initial Industrial Revolution of the 18th century.[citation needed] The Fourth Industrial Revolution can be described[by whom?] as a range of new technologies that are fusing the physical, digital and biological worlds, and impacting all disciplines, economies and industries. Klaus Schwab has associated it with the "second machine age"[1] in terms of the effects of digitization and AI on the economy, but added a broader role for advances in biological technologies.[2][need quotation to verify]

The following table summarizes each of Chomsky's four types of grammars, the class of language it generates, the type of automaton that recognizes it, and the form its rules must have.

Four sets of problems

Euler diagram for PNP, NP-complete, and NP-hardset of problems. The left side is valid under the assumption that P≠NP, while the right side is valid under the assumption that P=NP (except that the empty language and its complement are never NP-complete)


In 2008, Powerade was relaunched as Powerade ION4, a formulation that contains four key electrolytes in the same ratio that is typically lost in sweat.[1] PepsiCo sued The Coca-Cola Company, after ads were released claiming that Gatorade was an incomplete sports drink, since it only contained two of the four key electrolytes. 


Anapestic tetrameter is a rhythm for comic verse, and prominent examples include Clement Clarke Moore's published, "A Visit from St. Nicholas" and the majority of Dr. Seuss books. When used in comic form, anapestic tetrameter is often highly regular, as the regularity emphasizes the breezy, melodic feel of the meter, though the initial unstressed beat of a line may often be ommited.

The verse form is not solely comic. Lord Byron's epic Don Juan contains much anapestic tetrameter. Eminem's hit song "The Way I Am" uses the meter for all parts of the song except the chorus. In non-comic works, it is likely that anapestic tetrameter will be used in a less regular manner, with caesuras and other meters breaking up the driving regularity of the beat such as in the case of Edgar Allan Poe's Annabel Lee. Anapestic tetrameter is generally used in the Parode (entrance ode) of Classical Greek Tragedy.[5] An example of the form is Robert Browning's “How They Brought the Good News from Ghent to Aix”:

Not a word to each other; we kept the great pace

Neck by neck, stride by stride, never changing our place;

I turn’d in my saddle and made its girths tight,

Then shorten’d each stirrup, and set the pique right,

Rebuckled the cheek-strap, chain’d slacker the bit,

Nor gallop’d less steadily Roland a whit.[6]

Robert Frost's most famous poem has four stanzas. It is written in tetrameter. Tetra is four.

"The Road Not Taken" is a narrative poem consisting of four stanzas of 5 lines each in iambic tetrameter(though it is hypermetric by one beat – there are nine syllables per line instead of the strict eight required for tetrameter) and is one of Frost's most popular works. Besides being among the best known poems, some claim that it is one of the most misunderstood.[2][3]



The book is structured in four chapters:[5]

Act 1: Prologue and Problem: Death and Emptiness (1:1–22)

  • Scene 1: Setting the scene (1:1–5)

  • Scene 2: Naomi returns home (1:6–18)

  • Scene 3: Arrival of Naomi and Ruth in Bethlehem (1:19–22)

Act 2: Ruth Meets Boaz, Naomi's Relative, on the Harvest Field (2:1–23)

  • Scene 1: Ruth in the field of Boaz (2:1–17)

  • Scene 2: Ruth reports to Naomi (2:18–23)

Act 3: Naomi Sends Ruth to Boaz on the Threshing Floor (3:1–18)

  • Scene 1: Naomi Reveals Her Plan (3:1–5)

  • Scene 2: Ruth at the threshing-floor of Boaz (3:6–15)

  • Scene 3: Ruth reports to Naomi (3:16–18)

Act 4: Resolution and Epilogue: Life and Fullness (4:1–22)

  • Scene 1: Boaz with the men at the gate (4:1–12)

  • Scene 2: A son is born to Ruth (4:13–17)

Genealogical appendix (4:18–22)


One might wonder why there are four separate prophecies given through Balaam in chapters 23 and 24. Balak seemed to insist on seeking further revelation, with the hope that he could somehow change the purposes and promises of God. But when you compare the four prophecies, you begin to observe some very interesting relationships. (1) Each subsequent prophecy is longer and more specific than the previous one. From Balak’s perspective, every prophecy gets worse. (2) At the beginning, Balaam’s words emphasize the impossibility of cursing the people God has blessed; as these prophecies continue, there is a growing emphasis and specificity regarding the judgment of God on Israel’s enemies. Does Balak want God’s people cursed? Instead, he finds that he and his people are cursed! (3) There is also a growing emphasis and specificity regarding the blessings that God will bring upon His people, Israel.

16 Prophets all together- 16 SQUARES QMR- IT IS 12 PLUS FOUR SO THREE PLUS ONE

The Book of the Twelve follows the writings of the four Major Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel. All together the 16 prophets are called the Latter Prophets, as they began writing after the Division of the United Kingdom of Israel. The Prophets followed the Torah, the five Books of the Law of Moses beginning with Genesis, and preceded the Writings beginning with Psalms and the Wisdom Literature in Hebrew Scripture, our Old Testament of the Bible

The four horses are a three plus one pattern

In his first version Zechariah sees a man is riding a red (אָדֹם [ʾāḏōm] ) horse and behind him were horses: red (אֲרֻמִּים [ʾărummîm] , red ones), sorrel (סְרֻקִּים [seruqqîm] , spotted ones), and white (וּלְבָנִים[wûleḇānîm] , white ones). There are more than four horses in Zechariah’s first vision, for a rider is seated upon one horse and there are said to be several horses of each color, presumably also with riders. The color of the sorrel horse is uncertain, although a variegated pattern seems to be the best understanding.1

If we compare this with Zec. Zec. 6:2, where the chariots are drawn by red (ʿădummīm, πυρροί [pyrroi] ), black (shechōrīm, μέλανες [melanes] ), white (lebhânīm, λευκοί [leukoi] ), and speckled (beruddīm, ψαροί [psaroi] ) horses, and with Rev. Rev. 6:1+, where the first rider has a white horse (λευκός [leukos] ) the second a red one (πυρρός [pyrros] ) the third a black one (μέλας [melas] ) the fourth a pale horse (χλωρός [chlōros] ), there can be no further doubt that three of the colours of the horses mentioned here occur again in the two passages quoted, and that the black horse is simply added as a fourth; so that the seruqqīm correspond to the beruddīm of Zec. Zec. 6:3, and the ἵππος χλωρός [hippos chlōros] of Rev. Rev. 6:8+, and consequently sârōq denotes that starling kind of grey in which the black ground is mixed with white, so that it is not essentially different from bârōd , speckled, or black covered with white spots (Gen. Gen. 31:10Gen. 31:12).2

Theres a Church Father who saw the cross as the horns of the bull in a passage in the Bible that wipes away Israel's enemies (belowI put a quote of Tertulian relating the cross to horns but there were other quotes from others regarding other parts fo the Bible), and in the form of the bird and the face and the sail and so on. Church fathers saw the cross/quadrant in many places in the bible and in the physical world.

Indicative of how the church fathers read the Hebrew Bible is the following comment from John of Damascus (circa AD 650–750):

The tree of life which was planted by God in Paradise pre-figured this precious Cross. For since death was by a tree, it was fitting that life and resurrection should be bestowed by a tree. Jacob, when He worshipped the top of Joseph’s staff, was the first to image the Cross, and when he blessed his sons with crossed hands he made most clearly the sign of the cross. Likewise also did Moses’ rod, when it smote the sea in the figure of the cross and saved Israel, while it overwhelmed Pharaoh in the depths; likewise also the hands stretched out crosswise and routing Amalek; and the bitter water made sweet by a tree, and the rock rent and pouring forth streams of water and the rod that meant for Aaron the dignity of the high priesthood: and the serpent lifted in triumph on a tree as though it were dead, the tree bringing salvation to those who in faith saw their enemy dead, just as Christ was nailed to the tree in the flesh of sin which yet knew no sin. The mighty Moses cried, You will see your life hanging on the tree before your eyes, and Isaiah likewise, I have spread out my hands all the day unto a faithless and rebellious people. But may we who worship this obtain a part in Christ the crucified. 

Of this verse Augustine wrote, “The rock was Christ in sign. . . . The rock was smitten twice with a rod; the double smiting signified the two wooden beams of the cross.”17 Elsewhere Augustine penned this about the miracle recorded in Numbers 20:11: “‘Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after righteousness, for they shall be filled.’ And our thirst is quenched from the rock in the wilderness: for ‘the Rock was Christ,’ and it was smitten with a rod that the water might flow. But that it might flow, the rock was smitten twice: because there are two beams of the cross. All these things, then, which were done in a figure, are made manifest to us.”18

Like Augustine, Caesarius of Arles (circa AD 470–542) also saw a foreshadowing of Jesus’s crucifixion in Moses’s double smiting of the rock. He wrote: “‘Therefore Moses struck the rock twice with his staff.’ What does this mean, brethren? . . . The rock was struck a second time because two trees were lifted up for the gibbet of the cross: the one stretched out Christ’s sacred hands, the other spread out his sinless body from head to foot.”19

Though less specific, John of Damascus (circa AD 650–750) clearly saw the same symbolic message in the Mosaic miracle. He wrote that the “precious Cross” of Christ was symbolized by “the rock [rent] and pouring forth streams of water.”20

Around the same time that Augustine began serving as bishop of Hippo, John Chrysostom (circa AD 347–407) wrote, “Instead of water from a rock, [we have received the] blood from His side; instead of Moses’ or Aaron’s rod, the Cross.”

Tertullian of Carthage saw a clear reference to Jesus’s crucifixion in the blessing Jacob pronounced upon Joseph. Tertullian wrote:

For Joseph is withal blest by his father after this form: “His glory (is that) of a bull; his horns, the horns of an unicorn; on them shall he toss nations alike unto the very extremity of the earth.” Of course no one-horned rhinoceros was there pointed to, nor any two-horned minotaur. But Christ was therein signified: “bull,” by reason of each of His two characters,—to some fierce, as Judge; to others gentle, as Saviour; whose “horns” were to be the extremities of the cross. For even in a ship’s yard—which is part of a cross—this is the name by which the extremities are called; while the central pole of the mast is a “unicorn.” By this power, in fact, of the cross, and in this manner horned, He does now, on the one hand, “toss” universal nations through faith, wafting them away from earth to heaven; and will one day, on the other, “toss” them through judgment, casting them down from heaven to earth

Moses’s outstretched or upraised arms—traditionally implying his communion with God on behalf of Joshua and his soldiers—appears to have given Israel’s army confidence to fight against her enemies. Yet patristic sources see more in this episode than simple manifest faith in the power of prayer or, as Latter-day Saints traditionally read the passage, an obligation on the part of the Saints to uphold and sustain their prophets.[32] For example, Cyprian of Carthage (circa AD 200–258) interpreted this passage as follows: “In Exodus, when Moses, for the overthrow of Amalek, who bore the type of the devil, raised up his open hands in the sign . . . of the cross, and could not conquer his adversary unless when he had stedfastly persevered in the sign with hands continually lifted up.”[33]

Archelaus (flourished circa AD 278), bishop of Carchar in Mesopotamia, drew a typological parallel between Moses and Christ. He wrote: “Moses . . . stretched forth his hands and fought against Amalek; and . . . the Lord Jesus, when we were assailed and were perishing by the violence of that erring spirit who works now in the just, stretched forth His hands upon the cross, and gave us salvation.”[34]

In passing, Augustine noted the Christological typology:

There are, however, some who think themselves capable of being cleansed by their own righteousness, so as to contemplate God, and to dwell in God; whom their very pride itself stains above all others. For there is no sin to which the divine law is more opposed, and over which that proudest of spirits, who is a mediator to things below, but a barrier against things above, receives a greater right of mastery: unless either his secret snares be avoided by going another way, or if he rage openly by means of a sinful people (which Amalek, being interpreted, means), and forbid by fighting the passage to the land of promise, he be overcome by the cross of the Lord, which is prefigured by the holding out of the hands of Moses.[35]

Elsewhere, Augustine was more to the point when he penned, “Amalek’s resistance [was] subdued by the sign of the Cross.”[36]

John Chrysostom wrote the following regarding the symbolic message of this Exodus passage: “See how the type was ‘given by Moses,’ but the ‘Truth came by Jesus Christ’ (Exodus 17:12). Again, when the Amalekites warred in Mount Sinai, the hands of Moses were supported, being stayed up by Aaron and Hur standing on either side of him (Exodus 17:12); but when Christ came, He of Himself stretched forth His Hands upon the Cross. Hast thou observed how the type ‘was given,’ but ‘the Truth came’?”[37]

Finally, one of the Cappadocian fathers—Gregory of Nazianzus (circa AD 329–90)—noted, “Moses is to conquer him by stretching out his hands upon the mount, in order that the cross, thus typified and prefigured, may prevail.”[38]

Though the common message in the episode is traditionally interpreted by Latter-day Saints to be our obligation to sustain the Lord’s prophets as they align themselves with God’s will, for early Christians the message was more Christocentric. They saw this narrative as teaching the importance of faith in the atoning sacrifice of the Lord Jesus Christ. For them, faith centered in that act—and in Christ’s mediating role—made it possible to successfully conquer all of our enemies and overcome all of our trials.


The kinematic equations are a set of four equations that can be utilized to predict unknown information about an object's motion if other information is known. The equations can be utilized for any motion that can be described as being either a constant velocity motion (an acceleration of 0 m/s/s) or a constant acceleration motion. They can never be used over any time period during which the acceleration is changing. Each of the kinematic equations include four variables. If the values of three of the four variables are known, then the value of the fourth variable can be calculated. In this manner, the kinematic equations provide a useful means of predicting information about an object's motion if other information is known. For example, if the acceleration value and the initial and final velocity values of a skidding car is known, then the displacement of the car and the time can be predicted using the kinematic equations. Lesson 6 of this unit will focus upon the use of the kinematic equations to predict the numerical values of unknown quantities for an object's motion.

The four kinematic equations that describe an object's motion are:


State Variables of a Gas

  • Pressure (P) in mmHg, atm, kPa or torr

  • Volume (V) in L

  • Temperature (T) in K

  • Amount Of Substance (n)​

When Avogadro's Law is considered, all four state variables can be combined into one equation. Furthermore, the "constant" that is used in the above gas laws becomes the Universal Gas Constant (R).

The ideal gas law is the most useful law, and it should be memorized. If you know the ideal gas law, you do not need to know any other gas laws, for it is a combination of all the other laws. If you know any three of the four state variables of a gas, the unknown can be found with this law. If you have two gases with different state variables, they can be compared.


Four quantities called "thermodynamic potentials" are useful in the chemical thermodynamics of reactions and non-cyclic processes. They are internal energy, the enthalpy, the Helmholtz free energy and the Gibbs free energy.

The four thermodynamic potentials are related by offsets of the "energy from the environment" term TS and the "expansion work" term PV. A mnemonic diagram suggested by Schroeder can help you keep track of the relationships between the four thermodynamic potentials.

The professor at UCSD drew this fourfold at University. He also drew the four types of chemical bonds and a lot of other fourfolds. all that was taught was the quadrant model. A lot of it I do not remember now or do not know how to explain. There was a lot that I have seen over the years from the brain to literature to a lot of examples of the quadrant model that I do not know how to explain now or forgot. I coupld hopefully find them later though.

A spontaneous reaction is one that releases free energy, and so the sign of ΔG must be negative. Since both ΔH and ΔS can be either positive or negative, depending on the characteristics of the particular reaction, there are four different possible combinations. The outcomes for ΔG based on the signs of ΔH and ΔS are outlined below (Table below).

The Four Loves is a book by C. S. Lewis which explores the nature of love from a Christian and philosophical perspective through thought experiments.[1] The book was based on a set of radio talks from 1958, criticised in the US at the time for their frankness about sex.

Lewis continued his examination by exploring the nature of pleasure, distinguishing Need-pleasures (such as water for the thirsty) from Pleasures of Appreciation, such as the love of nature.[5] From the latter, he developed what he called "a third element in love...Appreciative love",[6] to go along with Need-love and Gift-love.

Throughout the rest of the book, Lewis would go on to counterpart that three-fold, qualitative distinction against the four broad types of loves indicated in his title.[7]

In his remaining four chapters, Lewis treats of love under four categories ("the highest does not stand without the lowest"), based in part on the four Greek words for love: affection, friendship, eros, and charity. Lewis states that just as Lucifer (a former archangel) perverted himself by pride and fell into depravity, so too can love—commonly held to be the arch-emotion—become corrupt by presuming itself to be what it is not.


The Pevensie Siblings

Raised in London, evacuated to the Dorset countryside, and reaching adulthood in Narnia, they are the four main characters. In one chapter, Father Christmasarrives to endow those present (three Pevensies and two beavers) with a feast, weapons, and magical items. After the restoration of Narnia, a Tetrarchy is established with the four siblings as the rulers.

  • Lucy Pevensie is the youngest Pevensie child and, in some respects, the primary protagonist of the story. She is the first to discover the land of Narnia when she finds her way through the magical wardrobe in the Professor's house. When Lucy tells her three siblings, they don't believe her: Peter and Susan think she is just playing a game while Edmund persistently ridicules her about it. She is later crowned Queen Lucy the Valiant.

  • Edmund Pevensie is the second-youngest of the Pevensie children. He has a bad relationship with his siblings. Edmund is known to be a liar, and often harasses children younger than him. He often singles out Lucy as his favourite target. In Narnia he meets the White Witch, who plies him with enchanted Turkish delight, drink, and smooth talk. Lured by the White Witch's promise of power and an unlimited supply of the magical treats, Edmund betrays his siblings. He eventually regrets his actions and repents. After he helps Aslan and the good denizens of Narnia defeat the White Witch, he is crowned and named King Edmund the Just. He has no endowments, because of his betrayal.

  • Susan Pevensie is the second-oldest of Pevensie children. She does not believe in Narnia until she actually goes there. Along with Lucy, she accompanies Aslan on the journey to his apparent self-sacrifice and secretly witnesses the horrific event. Tending to his carcass, she removes a muzzle from him to restore his dignity and oversees a horde of mice who gnaw away his bonds. She then shares the joy of his resurrection and the endeavor to bring reinforcements to a critical battle. She is crowned Queen of Narnia alongside Lucy and pronounced Queen Susan the Gentle.

  • Peter Pevensie is the eldest of the Pevensie siblings. He judiciously settles disputes between his younger brother and sisters, often rebuking Edmund for his attitude. At first, Peter disbelieves Lucy's stories about Narnia, but changes his mind when he sees it for himself. He is hailed as a hero for the slaying of Maugrim and for his command in the battle to overthrow the White Witch. He is eventually crowned High King of Narnia and dubbed King Peter the Magnificent.


The Watch (previously known as Neighborhood Watch)[3] is a 2012 American science fiction comedy film directed by Akiva Schaffer and written by Jared Stern, Seth Rogen and Evan Goldberg. It stars Ben StillerVince VaughnJonah Hill and Richard Ayoade


Little Women is a novel by American author Louisa May Alcott (1832–1888), which was originally published in two volumes in 1868 and 1869. Alcott wrote the books rapidly over several months at the request of her publisher.[1][2]The novel follows the lives of four sisters—Meg, Jo, Beth, and Amy March—detailing their passage from childhood to womanhood, and is loosely based on the author and her three sisters.[3][4]:202


The original set was in the same Atlantic Video complex as the set for Pardon the Interruption. It featured the host's desk with the point triggers and mute buttons, opposite of four screens of the panelists with their score under them and the mute sign above them.

Before the format of the show was changed in early 2003, the format was similar, wherein the first two rounds were largely the same but with different titles. There was a bigger difference after that. The show ran like so:

  • The Opening Round: The two biggest headlines of the day.

  • The Lightning Round: A quick-moving round with four topics where players had to make their points quickly or risk getting muted by Max Kellerman, the former host. Somewhat similar, though not entirely, to the Lightning Round currently on the program.

  • The Bonus Round: One final topic, with the panelists trying to earn some last-second points, followed by a sports trivia question for each panelist, worth five points.

  • The Medal Round: The panelists earned Face Time equal to their scores converted to seconds, in reverse order of their placing. The winner received a gold medal, second place received silver, third place got bronze, and the fourth-place finisher was given a foil ball. More often than not, due to time restrictions, the panelists were given less time than they earned, or at least one panelist would not be given any time at all. During this round, panelists could appeal to the Disembodied Voice for more points.

 A commercial-free transition to the opening moments of the show starts with the host, Reali, introducing the panelists as "four of America's most (themed) sportswriters". For example, if the "theme word" is "indifferent", the four panelists would all do their impressions of an indifferent sportswriter


According to Spengler, the Western world is ending and we are witnessing the last season—"winter time"—of Faustian Civilization

The Four Seasons

Spengler equated the four cycles in human civilizations to the seasons: Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter



  • An average life is 80 years, and consists of four periods of ~20 years

    • Childhood → Young adult → Midlife → Elderhood

  • A generation is an aggregate of people born every ~20 years

    • Baby Boomers → Gen X → Millennials → Post-Millennials ("Homeland Generation")

  • Each generation experiences "four turnings" every ~80y

    • High → Awakening → Unraveling → Crisis

Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America is a 1989 book by David Hackett Fischer that details the folkways of four groups of people who moved from distinct regions of Great Britain (Albion) to the United States. The argument is that the culture of each of the groups persisted, to provide the basis for the modern United States.[1] Fischer explains "the origins and stability of a social system which for two centuries has remained stubbornly democratic in its politics, capitalist in its economy, libertarian in its laws and individualist in its society and pluralistic in its culture."[2]Fischer describes Albion's Seed as a modified Teutonic germ theory within the framework of the Frontier Thesis and the migration model.

Four folkways[edit]

The four migrations are discussed in the four main chapters of the book:

The Exodus of the English Puritans (Pilgrims and Puritans influenced the Northeastern United States' corporate and educational culture)[3]

The Cavaliers and Indentured Servants (Gentry influenced the Southern United States' plantation culture)[4]

The Friends' Migration (Quakers influenced the Middle Atlantic and Midwestern United States' industrial culture)[5]

The Flight from North Britain (Scotch-Irish and border English influenced the Western United States' ranch culture and the Southern United States' common agrarian culture)[6]

Fischer includes satellite peoples such as WelshScotsIrishDutchFrenchGermansItalians and a treatise on black slaves in South Carolina. Fischer covers voting patterns and dialects of speech in four regions that span from their Atlantic colonial base to the Pacific.

Fischer remarks on his own connective feelings between the Chesapeake and Southern England in Albion's Seed but attempts to flesh that out in Bound Away: Virginia and the Westward Movement, a corollary of his work in the book.[7]

Crop rotation is generally held to be the absolute keystone of organic growing. But in one of my recent videos I said that I don’t really follow a strict rotation in my home garden. The truth is that I do in theory but the practice is never quite the same thing.
    Rotation of crops simply means that you don’t grow the same thing in the same bed one year after another. You grow it in another bed and put another crop in that one. Gardening books show neat diagrams of how you divide your plot into four and rotate the crops around over four years, like this.

Legume-roots-leef- fruit

Norfolk four-course system

Farmers in the region of Waasland (in present-day northern Belgium) pioneered a four-field rotation in the early 16th century, and the British agriculturist Charles Townshend (1674-1738) popularised this system in the 18th century. The sequence of four crops (wheatturnipsbarley and clover), included a fodder crop and a grazing crop, allowing livestock to be bred year-round. The four-field crop rotation became a key development in the British Agricultural Revolution. The rotation between arable and ley is sometimes called ley farming.


The Norfolk four-course system is a method of agriculture that involves crop rotation. Unlike other methods such as the three-field system, the Norfolk system is marked by an absence of a fallow year. Instead, four different crops are grown in each year of a four-year cycle: wheatturnipsbarley, and clover or undergrass. It was developed in Norfolk County, England in the 17th century.[1]


There are four possible phases to a migraine, although not all the phases are necessarily experienced:[10]

  • The prodrome, which occurs hours or days before the headache

  • The aura, which immediately precedes the headache

  • The pain phase, also known as headache phase

  • The postdrome, the effects experienced following the end of a migraine attackègne_Animal

For the Règne Animal, using evidence from comparative anatomy and palaeontology—including his own observations[5]—Cuvier divided the animal kingdom into four principal body plans. Taking the central nervous system as an animal's principal organ system which controlled all the other organ systems such as the circulatory and digestive systems, Cuvier distinguished four types of organisation of an animal's body:[6]

  • I. with a brain and a spinal cord (surrounded by parts of the skeleton)

  • II. with organs linked by nerve fibres

  • III. with two longitudinal, ventral nerve cords linked by a band with two ganglia positioned below the oesophagus

  • IV. with a diffuse nervous system which is not clearly discernible

Grouping animals with these body plans resulted in four "embranchements" or branches (vertebrates, molluscs, the articulata that he claimed were natural (arguing that insects and annelid worms were related) and zoophytes (radiata)). This effectively broke with the mediaeval notion of the continuity of the living world in the form of the great chain of being. It also set him in opposition to both Saint-Hilaire and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. Lamarck claimed that species could transform through the influence of the environment, while Saint-Hilaire argued in 1820 that two of Cuvier's branches, the molluscs and radiata, could be united via various features, while the other two, articulata and vertebrates, similarly had parallels with each other. Then in 1830, Saint-Hilaire argued that these two groups could themselves be related, implying a single form of life from which all others could have evolved, and that Cuvier's four body plans were not fundamental.[7]


Fig. 99 – A map of the Rome in Servianian times, when the city was divided in four districts, the ‘Urbs quattuor regionum’. The main topographic features and the boundaries of the areas with the same name are indicated: I: Suburana; II: Esquilina; III. Collina; IV: Palatina. According to Von GERKAN (1959).

The actual character of the four-parted Rome and its precise boundaries are a matter of scientific debate. MÜLLER (1961) gives four types of division of the regions in Rome (fig. 100). After its initial two-part development the unity of Rome was moulded from four districts or sectors of which MÜLLER (1961) said: ‘Vier Sektoren: Der Gedanke an ‘Roma quadrata’ drängt sich auf, was richtigerweise wohl mit ‘viergeteiltes Rom’ anstelle von ‘quadratisches Rom’ übersetzt werden muss’.

Fig. 100 – The four regions in Rome, according to Kiepert (1837), Richter (1901), Hülsen (1901) and von Gerkan (1953).

I discussed how Moses originally had four priests. Thent it was added to eight and then 16. Finally eight more were added for 24, a 6 times four. The Bavili Africans have 24 trees in the sacred grove, which are 6 times 4. The four is dominant.

Originally Marshmellows had four types of lucky charms. It was added to eight. Now there is 16, with duplicates of the eight.

The favored four-leaf clover became Lucky's four-leaf clover hat in '04.


Four eminems and other types of candy there I posted a long time ago how three colors are alwasy steady and the fourth color (and especially collors after) are always different and transcendent and alterred, making the three plus one pattern. Also M represents the number four. I posted stuff on that. That is why MnMs and Mcdonalds and stuff is so popular.

In 2013, 6 new rainbow swirl moons and 2 new rainbow charms were introduced. From the original four marshmallows, the permanent roster as of 2013 includes eight marshmallows.

The original box contained toasted oat cereal puffs with marshmallows in the shape of green clovers, yellow moons, yellow and orange stars, and pink hearts. The cereal is in the shape of bells, fish, crosses, three-leaf clovers, and trees

The film begins and ends with excerpts from a speech by Jiddu Krishnamurti. The remainder of the film is narrated by Peter Joseph and divided into four parts, which are prefaced by on-screen quotations from Krishnamurti, John AdamsBernard Lietaer, and Thomas Paine, respectively.

Zeitgeist: Moving Forward is the third installment in Peter Joseph's Zeitgeist film series. The film premiered at the JACC Theater in Los Angeles on January 15, 2011 at the Artivist Film Festival,[20] was released in theaters and online. As of November 2014, the film had over 23 million views on YouTube. The film is arranged in four parts, each containing interviews, narration and animated sequences.[21]

Zeitgeist: Moving Forward


Directed byPeter Joseph

Produced byPeter Joseph

Music byPeter Joseph, Lili Haydnand Yes

Edited byPeter Joseph

Distributed byGMP LLC

Release date

  • January 15, 2011

Running time

161 minutes

CountryUnited States



The film begins with an animated sequence narrated by Jacque Fresco. He describes his adolescent life and his discontinuation of public education at the age of 14 and describes his early life influences.

Part I: Human Nature

Human behavior and the nature vs. nurture debate is discussed, which Robert Sapolsky refers to as a "false dichotomy." Diseasecriminal activity, and addictions are also discussed. The overall conclusion of Part I is that social environment and cultural conditioning play a large part in shaping human behavior.

Part II: Social Pathology

John Locke and Adam Smith are discussed in regard to modern economics. The film critically questions the economic need for private propertymoney, and the inherent inequality between agents in the system. Also seen critically is the need for cyclical consumption in order to maintain market share, resulting in wasted resources and planned obsolescence. According to the movie, the current monetary system will result in default or hyperinflation at some future time.

Part III: Project Earth

As with Zeitgeist: Addendum, the film presents a "resource-based economy" as advocated by Jacque Fresco discussing how human civilization could start from a new beginning in relation to resource types, locations, quantities, to satisfy human demands; track the consumption and depletion of resources to regulate human demands and maintain the condition of the environment.

Part IV: Rise

The current worldwide situation is described as disastrous. A case is presented that pollutiondeforestationclimate changeoverpopulation, and warfare are all created and perpetuated by the socioeconomic system. Various povertystatistics are shown that suggest a progressive worsening of world culture.

The final scene of the film shows a partial view of earth from space, followed by a sequence of superimposed statements; "This is your world", "This is our world", and "The revolution is now".


According to the Horus accounts, Horus had four semi-gods that were followers and some indications of 16 human followers and an unknown number of blacksmiths that went into battle with him. 


Ramakrishna Paramhansa Deva had sixteen direct disciples (other than Swami Vivekananda) who became monks of the Ramakrishna Order; they are often considered his apostles. In the Ramakrishna-Vivekananda movement, the apostles have played an important role. Apart from Swami Vivekananda the direct disciples or apostles of Ramakrishna were as follows.




The spider species Araneus diadematus is commonly called the European garden spider, diadem spider, cross spider, or crowned orb weaver. It is an orb-weaver spider found in Europe and North America.

Individual spiders' colourings can range from extremely light yellow to very dark grey, but all A. diadematus have mottled white markings across the dorsal abdomen, with four or more segments forming a cross. The markings are formed in cells filled with guanine, which is a byproduct of protein metabolism.[5]


The major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada are the highest professional competitions of team sports in those countries. The four leagues universally included in the definition are Major League Baseball (MLB), the National Basketball Association (NBA), the National Football League (NFL), and the National Hockey League (NHL). Other prominent leagues include Major League Soccer (MLS) and the Canadian Football League (CFL).

The MLB, NBA, NFL and NHL are commonly referred to as the "Big 4". Each of these is the wealthiest professional club competition in its sport worldwide, and along with the English Premier League they make up the top five sports leagues by revenue in the world. In addition, the sports of these four leagues were all developed in their modern forms in North America, and all except American football have become popular internationally. Because the leagues enjoy a significant place in popular culture in the U.S. and Canada, the best players from these leagues often become cultural icons in both countries.

Currently, the NFL has 32 teams, and the others have 30 each (with the NHL expanding to 31 teams in 2017). The vast majority of major league teams are concentrated in the most populous metropolitan areas of the United States and Canada. Unlike the promotion and relegation systems used in sports leagues in various other regions around the world, those teams in the North American sports leagues remain static from season-to-season, unless they are disbanded or relocated. Each Big Four league, as well as Major League Soccer and the Canadian Football League, averages at least 15,000 fans in attendance per game as of 2015.


Survivor: Cook Islands is the thirteenth season of the American CBS competitive reality television series Survivor. The season was filmed from June 26, 2006 through August 3, 2006 and premiered on September 14, 2006.

During this season of Survivor, the contestants were divided into four tribes by ethnicity; African AmericanAsian AmericanHispanic American, and European American, a decision that generated some controversy prior to the premiere. The respective tribes' names were Manihiki ("Hiki"), Puka Puka ("Puka"), Aitutaki ("Aitu"), and Rarotonga ("Raro"). These four tribes were named after islands located in the Cook Islands. The four tribes evenly divided into two new mixed tribes after the second tribal council, taking the Aitutaki and Rarotonga names. A mutiny offer was made to all remaining players during this season before the merge, where two players from the same tribe accepted the mutiny offer. After the nine remaining contestants merged, they decided to name themselves Aitutonga. This season also featured the first time a tribe has voted off two members during a single tribal council. The concept of Exile Island returned, with a hidden immunity idol located somewhere on the island.


Survivor: Borneo is the first season of the American CBS competitive reality television series Survivor. It was originally broadcast under the name Survivor but its official title was changed to Survivor: Pulau Tiga to distinguish it from subsequent installments of the series, and then changed again to Survivor: Borneo. The show filmed from March 13, 2000 through April 20, 2000 and premiered on May 31, 2000. Hosted by Jeff Probst, it consisted of 39 days of gameplay with 16 competitors. It was set in the South China Sea on the remote Malaysianisland of Pulau Tiga in the state of Sabah, about 6 miles (9.7 km) off the north coast of Borneo, Malaysia.[1]

The sixteen contestants were initially separated into two tribes, named Tagi and Pagong, which represented the names of their beaches.[1] When ten players remained, the contestants merged into one tribe, named Rattana. While Tagi and Pagong's names and makeups were picked by the producers, Rattana was named by contestants Sean Kenniff and Jenna Lewis, because of a large amount of Rattan wood on the island. After 39 days of competition, corporate trainer Richard Hatch was named the Sole Survivor, defeating whitewater rafting guide Kelly Wiglesworth in a 4–3 jury vote.


The endless knot has been described as "an ancient symbol representing the interweaving of the Spiritual path, the flowing of Time and Movement within That Which is Eternal. All existence, it says, is bound by time and change, yet ultimately rests serenely within the Divine and the Eternal."[1] Various interpretations of the symbol are:

The Solomon's knot consists of two closed loops, which are doubly interlinked in an interlaced manner. If laid flat, the Solomon's knot is seen to have four crossings where the two loops interweave under and over each other. This contrasts with two crossings in the simpler Hopf link.

In most artistic representations, the parts of the loops that alternately cross over and under each other become the sides of a central square, while four loopings extend outward in four directions. The four extending loopings may have ovalsquare, or triangular endings, or may terminate with free-form shapes such as leaves, lobes, blades, wings etc.


The oldest known scheme of classifying instruments is Chinese and dates from the 3rd millennium BC.[citation needed] It grouped instruments according to the materials they are made of. Instruments made of stone were in one group, those of wood in another, those of silk are in a third, and those of bamboo in a fourth, as recorded in the Yo Chi (record of ritual music and dance), compiled from sources of the Chou period (9th-5th centuries BC) and corresponding to the four seasons and four winds.[1][2]


An ancient system of Indian origin, dating from the 4th or 3rd century BC, in the Natya Shastra, a theoretical treatise on music and dramaturgy, by Bharata Muni, divides instruments into four main classification groups: instruments where the sound is produced by vibrating strings (tata vadya, "stretched instruments"); instruments where the sound is produced by vibrating columns of air (susira vadya, "hollow instruments"); percussion instruments made of wood or metal (Ghana vadya, "solid instruments"); and percussion instruments with skin heads, or drums (avanaddha vadya,"covered instruments").

Victor-Charles Mahillon later adopted a system very similar to this. He was the curator of the musical instrument collection of the conservatoire in Brussels, and for the 1888 catalogue of the collection divided instruments into four groups: strings, winds, drums, and other percussion. This scheme was later taken up by Erich von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs who published an extensive new scheme for classication in Zeitschrift für Ethnologie in 1914. Their scheme is widely used today, and is most often known as the Hornbostel-Sachs system (or the Sachs-Hornbostel system).–Sachs

Hornbostel and Sachs based their ideas on a system devised in the late 19th century by Victor-Charles Mahillon, the curator of musical instruments at Brussels Conservatory. Mahillon divided instruments into four broad categories according to the nature of the sound-producing material: an air column; string; membrane; and body of the instrument.

The original Hornbostel-Sachs system classified instruments into four main categories. The fifth category is a later revision to include the latest technologies in music performance. Within each category are many subgroups with a formal structure based on the Dewey Decimal classification system. The basic categories of the system are listed below, and a more complete version of the system is found in the appendix. (Musical Instrument Classifications).


1 - Idiophones:

Instruments which produce sound by vibrating themselves.

2 - Membranophones:

Instruments which produce sound by a vibrating membrane.

3 - Chordophones:

Instruments which produce sound by vibrating strings.

4 - Aerophones:

Instruments which produce sound by vibrating columns of air.

5 - Electrophones:

Instruments which produce sound electronically.

"Indian musical instruments" can be broadly classified according to the Hornbostel–Sachs system into four categories: chordophones (string instruments), aerophones (wind instruments), membranophones (drums) and idiophones (non-drum percussion instruments). mehr

The Sachs-Hornbostel System was created in 1914 to categorise musical instruments into logical family groupings based on the nature of the initial vibrating body.  This is different from the orchestral system of brass, woodwind etc etc

4 major groupings were arrived at initially and remain, 

  • Idiophones: instruments that are constructed of solid material that vibrates by virtue of their own inherent rigidity such as claves or marimba bars.

  • Membranophones: instruments that rely on a stretched membrane to trigger the sound, includes all drums.

  • Chordophones; instruments that rely on a stretched string, such as a guitar or piano; and

  • Aerophones: instruments that rely on air such as saxophones or didjeridus

The typical symphony orchestra consists of four groups of related musical instruments called the woodwindsbrasspercussion, and strings (violinviolacello and double bass). Other instruments such as the piano and celesta may sometimes be grouped into a fifth section such as a keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert harp and electric and electronic instruments. The orchestra, depending on the size, contains almost all of the standard instruments in each group.


Four stage magicians, J. Daniel "Danny" Atlas (Jesse Eisenberg), Merritt McKinney (Woody Harrelson), Henley Reeves (Isla Fisher), and Jack Wilder (Dave Franco)


Thurgood Jenkins and his friends Brian and Scarface are forced into selling marijuana stolen from the lab where Thurgood works as a "master of the custodial arts". They do this in order to bail their friend Kenny out of jail for $100,000 after he accidentally kills Buttercup, a diabetic police horse, by feeding it junk food. Their business, named Mr. Nice Guy in honor of their good-natured friend, becomes immensely popular, even attracting famous clientele. Thurgood's personal life is ruined once his adamantly anti-drug girlfriend, Mary Jane Potman, discovers that he is Mr. Nice Guy.



The four sights are four things described in the legendary account of Gautama Buddha's life which led to his realization of the impermanence and ultimate dissatisfactoriness of conditioned existence. According to this legend, before these encounters Siddhārtha Gautama had been confined to his palace by his father, who feared that he would become an ascetic if he came into contact with sufferings of life according to a prediction. However, on his first venture out of the palace with his charioteer Channa, he observed four sights: an old man, a sick man, a corpse and an ascetic. These observations affected him deeply and made him realize the sufferings of all beings, and compelled him to begin his spiritual journey as a wandering ascetic, which eventually led to his enlightenment. The spiritual feeling of urgency experienced by Siddhārtha Gautama is referred to as saṃvega.

After leading a sheltered existence surrounded by luxury and pleasure in his younger years, Prince Siddhārtha ventured out of his palace for the first time at the age of 29.[2][3] He set off from the palace to the city in a chariot, accompanied by his charioteer Channa (Sanskrit: Chandaka).[4]

On this journey he first saw an old man, revealing to Siddhārtha the consequences of aging.[5] When the prince asked about this person, Channa replied that aging was something that happened to all beings .[4]

The second sight was of a sick person suffering from a disease. Once again, the prince was surprised at the sight, and Channa explained that all beings are subject to disease and pain. This further troubled the mind of the prince that none can stay healthy and live a pain free life.[4]

The third sight was of a dead body. As before, Channa explained to the prince that death is an inevitable fate that befalls everyone.[4] After seeing these three sights, Siddhārtha was troubled in his mind and sorrowful about the sufferings that have to be endured in life.[6]

After seeing these three negative sights, Siddhārtha came upon the fourth sight; an ascetic who had devoted himself to finding the cause of human suffering.[7] This sight gave him hope that he too might be released from the sufferings arising from being repeatedly reborn,[3] and he resolved to follow the ascetic's example.[4]


The most important section of the book comes in the last chapter, where Steven Johnson analyzes several innovations across two dimensions – (individual vs networked) and (private vs market) – and tries to classify them into four quadrants. In his own words from a NYTimes essay:

I analyzed 300 of the most influential innovations in science, commerce and technology — from the discovery of vacuums to the vacuum tube to the vacuum cleaner — and put the innovators of each breakthrough into one of four quadrants. First, there is the classic solo entrepreneur, protecting innovations in order to benefit from them financially; then the amateur individual, exploring and inventing for the love of it. Then there are the private corporations collaborating on ideas while simultaneously competing with one another. And then there is what I call the “fourth quadrant”: the space of collaborative, nonproprietary innovation, exemplified in recent years by the Internet and the Web, two groundbreaking innovations not owned by anyone.

One way of making this distinction is in the terms introduced in the infrequently read but oft cited 1997 book by Stokes, called Pasteur’s Quadrant – Basic Science and Technological Innovation. Stokes described three categories of research based on two binary dimensions: first, a quest for fundamental understanding, and second, a consideration of use. The work of the theoretical physicist, Niels Bohr, exemplifies the quadrant in which researchers search for fundamental knowledge, with little concern for application. The research of Louis Pasteur, whose studies of bacteriology were carried out at the behest of the French wine industry, characterizes the work of scientists who, like Bohr, search for fundamental knowledge, but unlike Bohr, select their questions and methods based on potential relevance to real world problems. The work of Thomas Edison, whose practical inventions define the 20th century, exemplifies the work of scientists whose stock and trade is problem solution. They cannibalize whatever basic and craft knowledge is available, and conduct fundamental research when necessary, with choices of action and investment driven by the goal of solving the problem at hand as quickly and efficiently as possible.

Merton's structural-functional idea of deviance and anomie.


The essential elements of a scientific method are iterations and recursions of the following four steps:


Characterization (operationalization or quantification, observation and / or measurement)

Hypothesis (a theoretical, hypothetical explanation of the observations and / or measurements)

Prediction (logical deduction from the hypothesis or logical induction from the data)

Testing (informing the validity of the hypothesis by comparing it against carefully gathered, meaningful sensory input)


In the beginning, there were only four flavors.




When Kellogg’s first introduced the toaster pastry in 1964, it was unfrosted and came with four flavors: Apple Currant Jelly, Strawberry, Blueberry and Brown Sugar-Cinnamon. In 1967, the first frosted Pop-Tarts hit the shelves with four flavors, as well: Dutch-Apple, Concord Grape, Raspberry and Brown Sugar-Cinnamon. Today, there are over 30 kinds of Pop-Tarts (and many special edition ones).




Mizar and Alcor are two stars forming a naked eye double star in the handle of the Big Dipper (or Plough) asterism in the constellation of Ursa Major. Mizar is the second star from the end of the Big Dipper's handle, and Alcor its faint companion.

Mizar, also designated Zeta Ursae Majoris (ζ Ursae Majoris, abbreviated Zeta UMa, ζ UMa), is itself a quadruple system and Alcor, also designated 80 Ursae Majoris (80 UMa), is a binary, the pair together forming a sextuple system. The whole system lies about 83 light-years away from the Sun, as measured by the Hipparcos astrometry satellite.[1][5][6]


Mizar is perhaps the Big Dipper’s most famous star, glorified in the annals of astronomy many times over. 

At a later date, Mizar’s dimmer telescopic component also showed itself to be a spectroscopic binary, meaning that Mizar consists of two sets of binaries – making it a quadruple star. 

The four components of Mizar as seen from an orbiting asteroid

Four capitals china
There are traditionally four historical capitals of China, collectively referred to as the "Four Great Ancient Capitals of China" (中国四大古都; 中國四大古都; Zhōngguó Sì Dà Gǔ Dū). The four are Beijing, Nanjing, Luoyang and Xi'an (Chang'an).


Cluster II[2] is a space mission of the European Space Agency, with NASA participation, to study the Earth's magnetosphere over the course of nearly two solar cycles. The mission is composed of four identical spacecraft flying in a tetrahedral formation. As a replacement for the original Cluster spacecraft which were lost in a launch failure in 1996, the four Cluster II spacecraft were successfully launched in pairs in July and August 2000 onboard two Soyuz-Fregat rockets from Baikonur, Kazakhstan. In February 2011, Cluster II celebrated 10 years of successful scientific operations in space. The mission has been extended until December 2018. China National Space Administration/ESA Double Star mission operated alongside Cluster II from 2004 to 2007.


Kepler-223 (KOI-730, KIC #10227020) is a G5V star with an extrasolarplanetary system discovered by the Kepler mission. Studies indicate that the Kepler-223 star system consists of 4 planets orbiting the star.[2][3]

Planetary system[edit]

The confirmed planetary system was first detected by the Kepler mission, and contains four planets.[4] This system was initially believed to contain two co-orbital planets orbiting the star at approximately the same orbital distanceevery 9.8 days, with one permanently locked 60° behind the other in one of the two Trojan Lagrangian points.[5] The two co-orbital planets were thought to be locked in mean motion resonances with the other two planets, creating an overall 6:4:4:3 resonance.[6] This would have been the first known example of co-orbital planets.

However follow-up study of the system revealed that an alternative configuration, with the four planets having orbital periods in the ratio 8:6:4:3 is better supported by the data. This configuration does not contain co-orbital planets,[7] and has been confirmed by further observations.[3] It represents the first confirmed 4-body orbital resonance.[4]


A new study by an international team of astronomers reveals that four Earth-sized planets orbit the nearest sun-like star, tau Ceti, which is about 12 light years away and visible to the naked eye. These planets have masses as low as 1.7 Earth mass, making them among the smallest planets ever detected around nearby sun-like stars. Two of them are super-Earths located in the habitable zone of the star, meaning they could support liquid surface water.

You might have heard of something called Front Quadrant Swimming which has to do with the timing of your freestyle stroke. It's widely recognised as being an efficient way to swim and something that you should use in your own stroke technique but there's a lot of confusion about what it actually means:

If you drew two lines, one through the swimmer's head and one at water level you would create four quadrants:


Front quadrant swimming simply means that there is always one of your hands in one of the front quadrants (1 and 2) at any one point in time. Or, put even more simply, when your hands pass above and below the water, that should happen in front of your head, not behind it.


Camp I - 5900 meters

After the Icefall, the climbers arrive at Camp I, which is located at 19,500 feet.  Depending on the type of expedition, Camp I will either be stocked by the climbers as they ascend and descend the Icefall, or by Sherpas in advance.

The area between Camp I and Camp II is known as the Western Cwm.  As the climbers reach Camp II at 21,000 feet, they may be temporarily out of sight of their support at Base camp.  Nonetheless, modern communication devises permit the parties to stay in contact.

Camp II - 6500 meters

As the climbers leave Camp II, they travel towards the Lhotse face (Lhotse is a 27,920 foot mountain bordering Everest).  The Lhotse face is a steep, shiny icy wall.  Though not technically extremely difficult, one misstep or slip could mean a climber's life.  Indeed, many climbers have lost their lives through such mishaps. 

Camp III - 23,700 feet (7200 meters)

To reach Camp III, climbers must negotiate the Lhotse Face. Climbing a sheer wall of ice demands skill, strength and stamina. It is so steep and treacherous that many  Sherpas move directly from Camp II to Camp IV on the South Col, refusing to stay on the Lhotse Face.

Camp IV - 26,300 feet (8000 meters)

As you’re leaving C4…it’s a little bit of a down slope, with the uphill side to the left. There are typically snow on the ledges to walk down on, interspersed with rock, along with some fixed rope. The problem with the rope is that the anchors are bad, and there’s not much holding the rope and a fall could be serious. Fortunately it’s not too steep, but there is a ton of exposure and people are usually tired when walking down from camp. The rock is a little down sloping to the right as well, and with crampons on, it can be bit tricky with any kind of wind. There’s a little short slope on reliable snow which leads to the top of the Geneva Spur, and the wind pressure gradient across the spur can increase there as you’re getting set up for the rappel. Wearing an oxygen mask here can create some footing issues during the rappel, because it’s impossible to see over the mask and down to the feet. For that reason, some people choose to leave Camp 4 without gas, as it’s easier to keep moving down the Spur when it’s important to see all the small rock steps and where the old feet are going. Navigating down through all of the spaghetti of fixed ropes is a bit of a challenge, especially with mush for brains at that point. One lands on some lower ledges which aren’t so steep, where fixed ropes through here are solid. At this point, it’s just a matter of staying upright, and usually, the wind has died significantly after dropping off the Spur. The route turns hard to the left onto the snowfield that leads to the top of the Yellow Bands.

Camp IV, which is at 26,300 on the Lhotse face, is typically the climbers' first overnight stay in the Death Zone.  The Death Zone is above 26,000 feet.  Though there is nothing magical about that altitude, it is at this altitude that most human bodies lose all ability to acclimate. Accordingly, the body slowly begins to deteriorate and die - thus, the name "Death Zone."  The longer a climber stays at this altitude, the more likely illness (HACE - high altitude cerebral edema - or HAPE - high altitude pulmonary edema) or death will occur.  Most climbers will use oxygen to climb and sleep at this altitude and above.  Generally, Sherpas refuse to sleep on the Lhotse face and will travel to either Camp II or Camp IV.

Camp IV is located at 26,300 feet. This is the final major camp for the summit push.  It is at this point that the climbers make their final preparations.  It is also a haven for worn-out climbers on their exhausting descent from summit attempts (both successful and not).  Sherpas or other climbers will often wait here with supplies and hot tea for returning climbers.

From Camp IV, climbers will push through the Balcony, at 27,500 feet, to the Hillary Step at 28,800 feet.  The Hillary Step, an over 70 foot rock step, is named after Sir. Edmond Hillary, who in 1953, along with Tenzing Norgay, became the first people to summit Everest.  The Hillary Step, which is climbed with fixed ropes, often becomes a bottleneck as only one climber can climb at a time.  Though the Hillary Step would not be difficult at sea level for experienced climbers, at Everest's altitude, it is considered the most technically challenging aspect of the climb.


What is beer exactly? By excruciatingly simple definition, beer is any fermented beverage made with a cereal grain. Specifically, beer is made from these four primary ingredients:


Grain (mostly malted barley but also other grains)


Hops (grown in many different varieties)


Yeast (responsible for fermentation; based on style-specific strains)


Water (accounts for up to 95 percent of beer’s content)


The "Fourth vow" is a religious solemn vow that is taken by members of various religious institutes of the Catholic Church, after the three traditional vows of poverty, chastity and obedience. It usually is an expression of the congregation's charism and particular insertion in the apostolic field of the Church.

Other religious institutes have adopted the practice of taking a fourth vow, for example the Religious Sisters of Mercy of Almatake a fourth vow of service to the poor, sick, and ignorant and the Franciscan Friars of the Immaculate take a fourth vow of devotion to Mary. The Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mercy requires that its members take a fourth vow, a vow to die for another who is in danger of losing their faith.


The sixteen sides of the table may allude to the sixteen main Hebrew prophets; the table is usually seen as an altar, and the archangel Gabriel wears the vestments of a deacon.


The panel shows the moment before the traditional scene, as Mary, absorbed in her book, is still unaware of the presence of Gabriel.[16] Mary is in a red gown rather than the more usual blue. She is in a relaxed pose, reading from a book of hours, her hair unbound. Unusually for a medieval depiction of the Annunciation, the dove of the Holy Spirit is not included. Instead he is represented by the extinguished light of the candle, and the beam of light falling from the window to the left, which carries the Christ Child holding a cross.[18] The tiny figure of the Christ Child flies down towards Mary from the left oculus, signifying her impregnation by God the Father. He gazes directly at her and holds a cross. The folding-table contains a recently extinguished candle,[10] and shows coiling smoke and a still glowing wick. This maybe a reference to the Holy Spirit, who, according to some late medieval writers, descended to the apostles "like a puff of wind".[19]


Joseph is shown as an old man[23] wearing an eggplant coloured coat and blue turban, in a panel characterised by dark and warm colours, and framed by the shadows from the window shutters.[2] He works on a mouse trap, probably intended as a symbol of the cross at the Crucifixion,[24] in that it represents an imagined but literal capture of the Devil, said to have held a man in ransom because of the sin of Adam.[25] In some scripts, Christ's naked flesh was served as bait for the devil; "He rejoiced in Christ's death, like a bailiff of death. What he rejoiced in was then his own undoing. The cross of the Lord was the devil's mousetrap; the bait by which he was caught was the Lord's death."[26]


In the right-hand panel, Saint Joseph, who was a carpenter, has constructed a mouse trap symbolizing Christ's trapping and defeat of the devil, a metaphor used three times by Saint Augustine: "The cross of the Lord was the devil's mousetrap; the bait by which he was caught was the Lord's death"[32] Joseph is making mousetraps. Mousetrap symbolism may also exist outside Joseph's window, and are visible through the shop window, again symbolizing that Jesus is used as a bait to capture Satan.


Newton recognized that color is darker than white or light. He erroneously investigated light instead of the eye, the objective instead of the subjective. In so doing, he asserted that light rays are composed of seven colored rays. These seven were like the seven intervals of the musical scale. Schopenhauer claimed that there are only four prismatic colors: violet, blue, yellow, and orange.

If an observer looks through a prism at a white disk on a black background, two subsidiary images are seen. This is due to double refraction as the light bends twice, when entering and leaving the prism. With this double refraction, the two subsidiary images appear as one above and one below the main image. The distance of the two subsidiary images from the main image corresponds to the Newtonians' dispersion. The wideness or narrowness of the colored bands are, however, nonessential properties that differ according to the type of light-refracting substance that is used. The top of the upper image is violet. Below the violet is blue. The bottom of the lower image is orange. Above the orange is yellow. In this way, along with the white disk and the black background, four prismatic colors appear: violet, blue, yellow, and orange. This is in disagreement with Newton's claim that there are seven prismatic colors. As the upper image overlaps black, it is seen as violet. Where it overlaps white, it is seen as blue. As the lower image overlaps black, it is seen as orange. Where it overlaps white, it is seen as yellow. This shows how colors are produced when the image mixes with either lightness or darkness, in accordance with Goethe's assertions.[13]



Gulliver's Travels, whose full title is Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. In Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of Several Ships, (1726, amended 1735), is a prose satire[1][2] by Irish writer and clergyman Jonathan Swift, that is both a satire on human nature and the "travellers' tales" literary subgenre. It is Swift's best known full-length work, and a classic of English literature. He himself claimed that he wrote Gulliver's Travels "to vex the world rather than divert it".

The book became popular as soon as it was published. John Gay wrote in a 1726 letter to Swift that "It is universally read, from the cabinet council to the nursery."[3] It was once compared in terms of book sales with Love in Excess.[4]


Did the Egyptians Use Crucifixion?


Andrew Vargo


Round One


Ibn Anwar has tried to tackle an embarrassing anachronism in the Qur'an which speaks of the practice of crucifixion in the time of Joseph and in the time of the Exodus. His main argument in this article is that “crucifixion did exist as a form of penalty in the time of Egypt...” therefore what Christians, and other skeptics of the Qur’an, have is nothing more than a “faulty charge of anachronism leveled against [the <sic>] Qur’an.”


Egypt has a very long history spanning many centuries, so the question is not if crucifixion existed as a form of punishment at any point in time, but whether, or not, it was used by Pharaoh during the time of Joseph or during the time of the Exodus. This article cites several sources which do not prove the point, unless the point is to misquote sources.


The first citation is from Steve Bates’ book Bible Crusade which says that Alexander the Great ordered the crucifixion of 2000 Tyrian rebels. The important point here is that the siege of Tyre occurred around 332 BC – long after anyone dates the events of Exodus.


The second citation is from Thomas Hartwell Horne’s, An Introduction to the Critical Study of the Holy Scriptures, Volume 2, page 69 which clearly says that crucifixion was used in Egypt. When we check the footnote, we see that he is making a reference to Thucydides. Thucydides wrote of an Egyptian rebel named Inaros who was captured, and crucified in Susa by the Persians in 454 BC – which was also long after the events of the Exodus.


The third citation is from David W. Chapman’s Ancient Jewish And Christian Perceptions of Crucifixion. The people at “Islamic Awareness”, an Islamic apologetics site, say:


“Chapman's book is not a history of the application of crucifixion in the ancient world rather his focus is on the perceptions of crucifixion [ibid., p. 2]. Nevertheless, Chapman provides an informative detailed study on crucifixion terminology spanning numerous different languages.”


Chapman blurs the distinctions between nailing a living person to a cross (what we would call crucifixion) and impaling or suspending a body, believing crucifixion is a form of suspension.


William Barclay’s The Apostles' Creed (page 77) does not say that crucifixion was practiced in Pharaoh’s Egypt. It gives a brief history of the practice:


“…. The Gospels tell the story of the crucifixion of Jesus with the most astonishing restraint. They simply state the fact, and leave it at that with no description at all.


The reason for this is that the Gospel–writers did not need to describe crucifixion; their readers knew all about it, for crucifixion was too tragically common in the ancient world to need any description. After the siege of Tyre, Alexander the Great crucified two thousand Tyrhians. During the Jewish civil wars Alexander Jannaeus crucified eight hundred men on one single occasion (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 13.14.2). In Sicily Augustus on one occasion crucified six hundred men (Orosius 6.18). Hadrian crucified five hundred in one single day. Varus, in crushing the revolt in Galilee within the actual life–time of Jesus, crucified two thousand people (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 17.10.10). In Titus’ final campaign in which the Jews lost their freedom for ever in which the Temple was destroyed, it was said of Titus that he crucified so many men ‘that there was no space left for crosses, and no crosses for the bodies’ (Josephus, Wars of the Jews 6.18). No one in the ancient world needed to be told what crucifixion was like. They were perfectly familiar with its agonizing details.


The custom of crucifixion was widespread. We find it in Egypt, Phoenicia, Carthage, Persia, Assyria, Scythia and even India; and we find it in Greece and Rome. It was likely that the Romans took it over from the Phoenicians and the Carthaginians.”


In conclusion, none of these four sources so much as imply that crucifixion was a form of punishment during the time of Joseph or of the Exodus and to imply that they do is intellectual dishonesty – pure and simple. Therefore, the claim that crucifixion was used as a punishment during the time period, in which historians believe Joseph lived or the events of the Exodus took place, is in fact anachronistic.


Round Two


But that is not the end of the story. After the dishonest citations were pointed out, the polemic changed but the dishonest tactics did not. The new line of attack is to broaden the definition of “crucifixion” so that something, anything, can fit into its definition. After all, since crucifixion is a form of impalement, any form of impalement can be called crucifixion and, since a cross contains a stake [the vertical beam], all stakes must be a cross. Any student of Philosophy 100 can see the fallacy in this. But then again, sophistry is slightly better than outright dishonesty!


Sadly, the rest of Ibn Anwar’s arguments are not even his, but were lifted from another Islamic website – without attribution, of course, and he didn’t mention that the “Islamic Awareness” article had been rebutted some time ago! This site’s authors deal with the issue of crucifixion in the same way as they deal with many other problematic issues in the Qur’an – they simply broaden, or change, the meaning of the word(s) in question (in spite of what centuries of Islamic commentators and scholars who have written on the subject have to say about the matter) in order to avoid a serious analysis of the issue – continuously changing the argument and moving the goal posts – and then declaring victory after proving nothing.


The final result of this approach is that words have no meaning and therefore nor does the Qur’an. If a passage of the Qur’an proves to be embarrassing in the light of modern knowledge, we can simply change it to say something else until another issue is raised.


To make matters worse, Ibn Anwar, in his response, selectively and dishonestly misquotes his sources. For example, Danker and Bauer’s text says the following for “Stauros”:


σταυρός, οῦ, ὁ (Hom. et al. in the sense ‘upright, pointed stake’ or ‘pale’; s. Iren. 1, 2, 4 cj. [Harv. I, 18, 4]; as name of an aeon Hippol., Ref. 6, 31, 6)

① a pole to be placed in the ground and used for capital punishment, cross (Diod S 2, 18, 1; Plut. et al.; Epict. 2, 2, 20; Diog. L. 6, 45; ApcEsdr 7:1 p. 32, 8 Tdf.; AscIs 3:18; Philo, In Flacc. 84; Jos., Ant. 11, 261; 266f.; Just.; s. also CSchneider, TW III 414, 4 and JCollins, The Archeology of the Crucifixion, CBQ 1, ’39, 154–59; JBlinzler, Der Prozess Jesu3, ’60, 278–81; EDinkler, Signum Crucis ’67; JFitzmyer, CBQ 40, ’78, 493–513), a stake sunk into the earth in an upright position; a cross-piece was oft. attached to its upper part (Artem. 2, 53), so that it was shaped like a T or thus: †—MHengel, Crucifixion ’77. Lit., w. other means of execution (Diogenes, Ep. 28, 3) IRo 5:3; Hv 3, 2, 1. Used in the case of Jesus Mt 27:40, 42; Mk 15:30, 32; J 19:25, 31; Phil 2:8 (Just., D. 134, 5);

William Arndt, Frederick W. Danker and Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 941.


Ibn Anwar selectively, and dishonestly, quotes Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon’s definition of stauros as “an upright stake, esp. a pointed one . . .” The complete entry is:


stauros (stauros) - an upright stake, a cross, the well known instrument of the most cruel and ignominious punishment, borrowed by the Greeks and Romans from the Phoenicians.


Liddel and Scott’s entry for “Stauros” was also dishonestly cited by Ibn Anwar:


σταυρός , ὁ,


A. upright pale or stake, “σταυροὺς ἐκτὸς ἔλασσε διαμπερὲς ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα πυκνοὺς καὶ θαμέας” Od.14.11, cf. Il.24.453, Th.4.90, X. An.5.2.21; of piles driven in to serve as a foundation, Hdt.5.16, Th.7.25.


II. cross, as the instrument of crucifixion, D.S.2.18, Ev.Matt.27.40, Plu.2.554a; “ἐπὶ τὸν ς. ἀπάγεσθαι” Luc.Peregr.34; ς. λαμβάνειν, ἆραι, βαστάζειν, metaph. of voluntary suffering, Ev.Matt.10.38, Ev.Luc.9.23, 14.27: its form was represented by the Greek letter T, Luc.Jud.Voc.12.


b. pale for impaling a corpse, Plu.Art.17.


Henry George Liddell. Robert Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones with the assistance of Roderick McKenzie. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1940.


Ibn Anwar (actually “Islamic Awareness”) is borrowing an old tactic from the Jehovah’s Witnesses, who believe that Jesus was executed on a stake instead of a cross. In spite of that undergraduate degree in “Linguistics”, Ibn Anwar fails to realize that the meanings of words change over time. The word “stauros” is derived from the verb ἵστημι (histēmi) which means to "straighten up, stand". This verb comes from the Indo-European word stao, which is a "stem or a shoot”. (see James Strong (1996). "ἵστημι histēmi". Strong's Complete Dictionary of the Biblical Words. Thomas Nelson Publishers. p. G2476.)


According to Liddel and Scott (who Ibn Anwar dishonestly quotes) in Homeric and Classical Greek, stauros was an upright stake or a pole. The problem here is that Jesus was not crucified during this time period. The meanings of words change over time. In Koine Greek, which was the form of Greek used between about 300 B.C. and A.D. 300, the word “stauros” referred to a cross. For example, Justin Martyr (in Dialogue with Trypho, chapter XL) said the cross (σταυρός) of Jesus Christ was prefigured in the Jewish paschal lamb:


"That lamb which was commanded to be wholly roasted was a symbol of the suffering of the cross (σταυρός) which Christ would undergo. For the lamb, which is roasted, is roasted and dressed up in the form of the cross (σταυρός). For one spit is transfixed right through from the lower parts up to the head, and one across the back, to which are attached the legs of the lamb.”


In the final analysis, the cut–and–paste apologetics concerning the meaning of “cross” and “crucifixion” from Christian commentaries is completely irrelevant to the discussion, but shows the level of dishonesty to which some Muslims will sink to defend the absurd claims of the Qur’an. Christians know the meanings of these terms. For example, the chief baker of Genesis was not nailed to a cross, but was impaled on a pole.


The issue is the meaning of “cross” and “crucify” in the Qur’an and how these terms fit into our knowledge and understanding of Egyptian history. So we must look at the term salaba. Every passage in the Qur'an which mentions crucifixion can be traced back to the same root word salaba – from the S–L–B root. The Qur'an uses the variant Salaba [to crucify] in two passages: Surah 4:157 where it is perfect active, and Surah 12:41 where it is imperfect passive. A second form, Sallaba, is used in four passages. In three of these cases the imperfect active is used (Surah 7:124, Surah 20:71, and Surah 26:49). In the fourth case it is imperfect passive (Surah 5:33).


Keep in mind that this word is not Arabic, but was borrowed from Old Persian and/or Ethiopic via Syriac or Aramaic [see Arthur Jeffrey’s “Foreign Vocabulary of the Koran”]. The Arabic term for a cross is salib and "to crucify" is salaba. This is also the term used for making the sign of the cross [as Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox do] or to cross one's arms or legs. Sulub janubi is the "Southern Cross" constellation of stars. A salbut is a crucifix, a musallab is an intersection of two roads and Hurub al–Salib, or 'Wars of the Cross', is the Arabic term for the Crusades.


Ignoring the clear Arabic meaning of the term in the context of the Qur’an, Ibn Anwar attempts to confuse the issue by cutting and pasting another section from the “Islamic Awareness” article on Crucifixion, in which the word ‘salb’ refers to “the pus that leaks out of the body of the executed.” Both dawagandists cite Lane’s Lexicon, page 1711 (on pages 1758-59). The portion of the entry, that mentions this issue contains a wide range of meanings for the S-L-B trilateral root – especially references to a geometric cross and crucifixion. What is important is the context in which the term is used. Qur’an commentators and translators have historically understood the term to mean cross and crucifixion – not pus.


Muhammad most certainly knew the difference between stakes and crosses (and pus) since we know, from Islamic sources, that he had a fierce hatred for anything that resembled a cross. Even placing ones’ hands on their hips during prayers was considered tasleeb [i.e. making the shape, sign, or image of a cross] by Muhammad and was strictly forbidden by him (see the Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, vol. 10, p. 153).


Clearly, the Arabic word for crucifixion requires the use of more than one stick. The Arabic term used in the Qur'an refers clearly to a geometric cross and not a pole, a stake, or a tree. If Pharaoh were impaling people on poles or stakes, why doesn’t the Qur’an use the term al–awtadi [which is used in Surahs 38:12 and 89:6–12 – in which Pharaoh is called Lord of Stakes]?


There is absolutely no historical or archeological evidence that the ancient Egyptians executed people by crucifixion on a cross. None of the references that Ibn Anwar cited, even suggest that crucifixion existed in the times of Joseph or the Exodus – as he dishonestly attempted to imply. The execution method of crucifixion was invented by the Persians and adopted by the Romans and others and there is no mention of crucifixion in ANY Egyptian texts at all, and trying to dress up an "impaling" (which is mentioned in Egyptian hieroglyphs tp-ht) as a crucifixion simply will not do.


Although crucifixion may be considered as a form of impalement – when nails are used – all forms of impalement do not qualify as crucifixion. Ibn Anwar [actually Islamic Awareness – to be fair, since it is their work] has also failed to make the case from etymology. The Arabic word for crucifixion used in the Qur'an refers to a cross–shaped instrument of execution. It would be very difficult to impale a person on a cross [thrusting the vertical beam through the body] because the horizontal beam would be in the way.


... Al Kalby and Muqatel: he used to torture people by sticks, and whenever he becomes angry and displeased with someone he will lay him down between four sticks on the ground, and send scorpions and snakes to torture him until death.


And it was said that he used to tie people inside an area bordered by four fences and tie them to four metal sticks located at the four corners and then leaves them there until they died.


... And it was said: "Lord of Many Soldiers" ... since the soldiers are like sticks as they strengthen his orders as a stick strengthens a house. (Arabic source; translated by Mutee’a Al-Fadi)


These commentaries raise a number of issues.


First, the classical Islamic commentators and scholars merely speculated about the meaning of the term Lord of Stakes, and the "Islamic Awareness" team is adding another speculation – one that none of the earlier scholars consider to a genuine possibility. Not one of these scholars had the notion that Pharaoh fastened people on those sticks or impaled them with these sticks as punishment. This notion is a product of Saifullah's imagination.


Second, as we can see from these commentaries, the only common element is that there are four stakes. So, it is obvious that more than one stick was used. If Pharaoh tied people to four sticks, or to four corners, the victim would form the shape "X" which is two members crossing each other, or four members opposite of each other. However, this make no sense when we read Surah 7:124: Be sure I will cut off your hands and your feet on apposite sides, and I will cause you all to die on the cross.


After cutting off a victim's hands and feet, it would be very difficult to fasten the victim to four stakes. The ropes would slip off. Also, the Qur'an explicitly says, I will cause you all to die on the cross, not to die in a cross-shaped configuration on the ground. Therefore, the cross in this verse has nothing to do with stakes.


The "Islamic Awareness" team have committed themselves concerning the meaning of crucifixion:


Crucifixion is the act of nailing, binding or impaling a living victim or sometimes a dead person to a cross, stake or tree whether for executing the body or for exposing the corpse.


Therefore, the "Islamic Awareness" team cannot argue that Pharaoh's use of four stakes (according to the Islamic commentators), qualifies as crucifixion tie down and torture a victim in such a manner creates an "X" shaped "cross", but this does not qualify as crucifixion based on the "Islamic Awareness" definition.


Another reference to the cross can found in Exodus 12:7 where YHVH commands the Israelites to kill the Passover lamb and smear the blood therefrom on the side posts and top of their door frames. This is a perfect picture of the cross outlined in blood that flowed from the seven places in Yeshua’s body while he hung on the cross.


We see another outline of the cross in Numbers chapter two in how YHVH instructed the tribes of Israel to be configured around the mishkan (Tabernacle of Moses). If one were to view the encampment from the air as is described in this chapter, we see the outline of a perfect cross. Furthermore, within the tabernacle itself, the furnishings were laid out in the shape of a cross. In essence we see a cross on a cross! Since the tabernacle and all therein was a prophetic shadow-picture of Yeshua himself, we see not so much a cross on a cross, but a picture Yeshua on the cross.


Many more examples could be given, but one will suffice to make the point. In Ezekiel chapter eight, we see YHVH instructing one of his angels to write in ink a mark (literally, a tav or cross) on the heads of his righteous saints in Jerusalem. This tav would preserve them from the destruction that was about to fall on that city (Ezek 9:4). Similarly, in the Book of Revelation in the end times, YHVH will place a seal or mark upon the foreheads of his saints to preserve from his judgments of wrath that will fall upon the earth prior to Yeshua’s second coming (Rev 7:3–4; 14:1). These same end-time saints are those who obey the Torah and who have the testimony or faith of Yeshua who died on a cross to redeem us (Rev 12:17; 14:12). Is this seal a cross? Only time will tell.


We know Isaac was meant to be a sacrificial lamb because of context:

◦ Genesis 22:1,7-8 -- offer him there as a burnt offering… Isaac spoke to Abraham his father and said, “My father!” And he said, “Here I am, my son.” And he said, “Behold, the fire and the wood, but where is the lamb for the burnt offering?” Abraham said, “God will provide for Himself the lamb for the burnt offering, my son.” So the two of them walked on together.

Both carry their own wood up on their back to die on

In their respective accounts, both Jesus 1 and Isaac2 were ironically expected to carry the very wood up the hill that they were to be sacrificed on. This is relevant because no other Biblical figures share this property, and it is one of the few details given on the story of Isaac's being sacrificed. It was also emphasized in the New Testament.


• Genesis 22:6 -- “Abraham took the wood and laid it on Isaac, and he took in his hand the fire and the knife. So the two of them walked on together.

We know this because:

• Victims of crucifixion in general were expected to carry their cross as far as possible.

• It is reported explicitly in John 19:16-17 -- “So he then handed Him over to them to be crucified. They took Jesus, therefore, and He went out, bearing His own cross, to the place called the Place of a Skull

Both voluntarily submitted to their being sacrificed