I read a book that described that the final scene of Scarface, Tony Montana dies in cruciform pose with arms outstretched as a reference to Jesus death on the cross.

I posted the book online.


Celtic Festivals

The Celtic year was divided into two halves, the dark and the light. Samhain was the beginning of the dark half, with its counterpart, Beltane beginning the light half. Between these two 'doors' or portals fell Imbolc, on February 1, and Lughnasadh or Lammas, celebrated on August 1, quartering the Celtic year. These quarters were again divided by the solstices and equinoxes, which were known as the four Albans.

The Albans

Alban Arthuan

The winter solstice, observed on December 21, was the shortest day of the year. The name 'Arthuan' is interesting in relation to Arthurian legend, as King Arthur was believed to have been born on the Winter Solstice in Castle Tintagel in Cornwall. 

Alban Arthuan ("The Light of Arthur"), also was referred to as Yule, Mabon, Jul, Saturnalia, or Christmas. This feast took place on December 21 and marked the longest, darkest night of the year. Alban Arthuan was a festival of peace and a celebration of waxing solar light. Many honored the forthcoming Sun child by burning an oaken Yule log, and honored the Goddess in her many Mother aspects. The Father God was also honored in various forms: as Santa Claus, the Old Sky God, Father Time, and the Holly King.

Alban Eiler

The first day of spring, or the spring (Vernal) equinox was celebrated March 21. Alban Eiler, which means, "Light of the Earth," was the day that night and day stood equal. Crops were typically sown at this time. The equinoxes and solstices were seen, to the Celts, as a time of transition. This rare balance in nature made these days a powerful time for magic to the ancient Druids.

Alban Heruin

The summer solstice, or Alban Heruin, was the longest day of the year. Observed on the 21st of June, it was the time when the Sun reached its zenith and cast three rays to light the world. Alban Heruin, or "The Light of the Shore," is also referred to as Litha or Midsummer's Day. It was traditionally celebrated out in the forest with picnics, games, and a large bonfire.

Alban Elved

Alban Elued, "The Light of the Water," the first day of Autumn, was also called Harvesthome. Observed on September 21, the Autumnal Equinox was the day when the sun again began to wane, as the dark half of the year drew near. 

As with the Vernal Equinox, day and night were of equal length across the planet. This balance in nature presented a powerful time for magic.

To the ancients, this was a sacred time. The Irish saw this time of year as the Waning of the Goddess. From the Summer to the Winter Solstice, they would hold festivals for the God ­ who was seen as a dark, threatening being. To the Goidelic Celts, the spring was the time of joy in the rebirth of the Goddess. To Brythonic Celts, however, this was the time of the death of the God (the Sun or the Grain God).

The Fire Festivals

The four fire festivals marked the turning of the seasons. Two of the fire festivals, Samhain and Beltane, were considered to be male, and Imbolc and Lughnasadh were female. Each was celebrated for three days - before, during and after the official day of observance. 


Our modern celebration of Halloween is a descendent of the ancient Celtic festival called "Samhain;" meaning Summer's End. Samhain was the first day of winter, and the end of one pastoral year. It was the time when the night became longer than the day, the last apples were picked, and the year began again with its dark winter half. Also called Samhiunn or Hallowe'en, this festival is sometimes called Trinoux Samonia or "Three Nights of the End of Summer."

Originally a Druidic festival, it was celebrated on the eve of November 1 (October 31 - technically, either date is appropriate as the Celts measured the day from sunset to sunset.) It is balanced by Beltane (or Bealtaine, Beltaine) which signals the start of summer, 6 months later. The ancient Celts probably held them exactly mid-way between an equinox (when day and night were equal) and the following solstice (when the nighttime was shortest or longest). 

In ancient times all of the fires of Ireland were extinguished and relighted from the one great fire kindled by the King's chief Druid, on the hill of Tlachtga. Members of each family would light torches to carry back and rekindle their own hearth-fires, which were then kept burning the rest of the year. The assemblies of the five Irish provinces at Tara Hill, the seat of the Irish king, took place at Samhain. These gatherings were celebrated with horse races, fairs, markets, assembly rites, political discussions, and ritual mourning for the passage of summer. 

Samhain is a time when the veil between this world and the Otherworld (or the Sídh,) was very thin, and divine beings, the spirits of the dead, and mortals can move freely between one world and the next. In some Celtic traditions, most notably the Scottish Highlands, young men would run the boundaries of their farms after sunset with blazing torches to protect the family from the Faeries and malevolent forces that were free to walk the land at night, causing mischief. Samhain was seen as a time when the future could most easily be predicted, and was a favored time among Druids for ritual fortune-telling. 

As in other major Celtic Festivals, Samhain was a gateway, a celebration of the transition from one season and another. In Celtic mythology, at the heart of every gateway is a paradox. The threshold is literally between two worlds but is, in itself, in neither and in both at the same time. Thus Samhain belonged to both Summer and Winter...and to neither. It was the gateway to the winter, and a magical time of passage between the seasons. 

As in many pastoral societies, winter was regarded with a mixture of anticipation and dread. Samhain was the last gasp of summer... a time of uninhibited feasting, dancing and celebration. It was a time of release; a time to let go of all unwanted baggage, fears and attitudes, just as the trees let go of their leaves. So the lives of men parallel the sacred cycles of nature. 



'Winter Solstice,' by Courtney Davis


Imbolc, which literally means "in milk", traditionally has marked the lactation period of ewes and cows. Ewes are unable to produce milk until after they bear their young, which occurs at this time. Since milk was very important to the basic survival of the tribes, this was a time of great joy. It meant that the end of a long winter was in sight, and green pastures were only a few months away. 

During the Imbolc ritual it was customary to pour milk (or cream) onto the earth. This was done in thanksgiving, as an offering of nurturing, and to assist in the return of fertility and generosity of the earth to its people (the return of Spring). Imbolc was celebrated in honor of Brighid or Brid(pronounced breed), also known as Brigid, Brigit, or Bride, in her maiden aspect. Brighid is the daughter of Dagda

Imbolc was the second of the four great fire festivals, with significance placed upon the Light of fire. At Imbolc, Brighid was pregnant with the seed of the Sun. She was ripe with the promise of new life, as the seeds of the earth deep within its soil begin to awaken at this time, ripe with the promise of Spring, new life for the planet. Thus Inbolc was a time of awakening, promise and hope for the coming spring.


Beltane, the third of the two Celtic fire festivals, was a celebration of the return of life and fertility to the world, and was celebrated on or around April 30. It is sometimes referred to as Cetsamhain which means "opposite Samhain." Beltane was the last of the three spring fertility festivals, and the second major Celtic festival. Beltane, and its counterpart Samhain, divide the year into its two primary seasons, Winter and Summer. 

In ancient Celtic communities, the festival went by many names: Beltaine in Ireland, Bealtunn in Scotland, Shenn do Boaldyn on the Isle of Man and Galan Mae in Wales. The Saxons called this day Walpurgisnacht, the night of Walpurga, goddess of May. As with Brighid, the Church transformed this goddess into St. Walpurga and attached a similar legend to her origin. Also known as May Eve, this festival marked the beginning of Summer and the pastoral growing season.

The word "Beltaine" literally means "bright" or "brilliant fire," and refers to the bonfire lit by a presiding Druid in honor of the proto-Celtic god variously known as Bel, Beli, Balar, Balor or Belenus. It has been suggested that Bel is the Brythonic Celt equivalent to the Goidelic Celt god Cernunnos

At Beltane, the Horned One dies or is taken by the Goddess, only to be reborn as her son. He then reclaims his role as consort and impregnates the Goddess, sparking his own rebirth. Other beliefs tell of the Summer God being released from captivity, or the Summer Maiden wooed away from her Earth-giant father. The Hawthorne (Huathe) tree represents the giant and sometimes this wood is used for the Maypole.

Beltane joyfully heralded the arrival of Summer in its full glory. It was believed that if you bathed in the dew of Beltane morn, your beauty would flourish throughout the year. 

On the eve of Beltane the Celts build two large fires, created from the nine sacred woods, in honor of Summer. The tribal herds were ritually driven between them, so as to purify and protect them in the upcoming year. The fires celebrate the return of life and fruitfulness to the earth. Celebration included frolicking throughout the countryside, dancing the Maypole, leaping over fires, and "going a maying". It was customary for young lovers to spend the night in the forest. 

Beltane was the time of sensuality revitalized, the reawakening of the earth and all of her children. It was the time when tribal people celebrated with joy the vivid colors and vibrant scents of the season, tingling summer breezes, and the rapture of summer after a long dormant winter. It was customary that Handfastings, for a year and a day, take place at this time. 

On May Eve people would tear branches from a Hawthorn tree and decorate the outside of their homes. The Hawthorn, or Whitethorn, is the tree of hope, pleasure, and protection. The strong taboo on breaking Hawthorne branches or bringing them into the home was traditionally lifted on May Eve.

Another custom was to leap over the Beltane bonfire. Young people jumped the fire for luck in finding a spouse, travelers jumped the fire to ensure a safe journey, and pregnant women jumped the fire to assure an easy delivery.

In Irish mythology, the great undertakings of the Tuatha Dé Danann and the Milesians – the original supernatural inhabitants of Eiru and their human conquerors, respectively – began at Beltane. The Milesians were led by Amairgen White Knee, son of Mil, often reputed to be the first Druid.


Lughnasadh was the first in the trilogy of harvest festivals. It marked the beginning of the harvest season, and the decline of Summer into Winter. Traditionally called Lammas from the Saxon word Hlaf-mass, the Feast of Bread, festivities and rituals typically centered around the assurance of a bountiful harvest season and the celebration of the harvest cycle. A bountiful harvest ensured the safe passage of the tribe through the upcoming winter months. The gathering of bilberries was an ancient practice that symbolized the success of the Lughnasadh rituals. If the bilberries were bountiful, it was believed that there would also be a plentiful harvest. 

Lughnasadh was celebrated to honor Lugh, the Irish God. Lugh, God of All Skills, is known as the "Bright or Shining One", He is associated with both the Sun and agricultural fertility. Lleu, Lugh's equivalent in Britain and Wales, is the son of Arianrhod, Goddess of the Stars and Reincarnation. Games of athletic prowess were played in honor of Lugh. They were said to be funeral games for Lugh or, in some traditions, his foster mother Tailtiu who died while preparing the fields for planting. Many grains, seeds, herbs and fruits were harvested and dried at this time.

Death and rebirth were part of the cycle that Lugh journeyed through in his mating with the Goddess, during the waning year. The Goddess oversaw the festival in her Triple guise as Macha. She presided in her warrior aspect, the crow who sits on the battlefields awaiting the dead. She was the Crone, Maiden and Mother, Anu, Banba, and Macha, who conveyed the dead into the realm of the deceased. In Irish myth, Macha was forced, while heavy with child, to race against the King of Ulster's horses. She won the race and gave birth to twins, and cursed the men of Ulster with the pain of labor when they most needed their strength. 


Ford’s use of script allows for a ‘frivolous extension’ which creates a cross with the vertical portion of the “F”.  The cross just happens to be almost completely encircled by the rest of the flamboyant “F”.  The loopy-do on the horizontal portion of the “F” also forms a cross. The lower case “r” makes a nice case for a cross, looking more like a script lower case ‘x’ which of course is form of a cross.  All three crosses lie inside an oval, which represents the sun.

The Maserati logo looks pretty devilish, and yup it’s in the form of a cross (with extra legs coming up) and yup it’s got a circle (oval) around it.

I never heard of some of these, but wtf.  If you’re getting the hang of this by now, you’ll notice the entire word “Lancia” forms the horizontal, and the upper and lower spears form the vertical of guess what… a cross which is encircled (sunned).  The spears line up nicely with the “N”.

Nissan is not so blatant, but the extension of the horizontal bar across the outer ring (sun) forms two crosses (like Audi).  Another common trick is what I call “read between the lines”.  It is where you look at the background rather than the lettering for the symbolism.  It’s used here between the “S”s.   If the “S”s (which are funky looking anyway) are shifted up or down a bit, the gaps between them form the cross…again, our subconscious does this for us all day long.

The Royal Saab is a creature wearing a crown.   What strikes me as odd is his extreme tongue.  Using the tongue as the horizontal and the beak as the upper and lower verticals forms a cross.  That’s also the area that has a glow, all of which lies within a circle/s.  The two capital “A”s intersect and conjoin forming a set of double crosses

Vauxhall uses a griffin for its logo.  Its left arm and wings form the horizontal and the torso forms the vertical pieces of a cross.  It’s is also in a red circle and quite evil looking.  Perhaps he is shitting while flying.







The Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, commonly referred to as the Fourth Geneva Convention and abbreviated as GCIV, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions. It was adopted in August 1949. While the first three conventions dealt with combatants, the Fourth Geneva Convention was the first to deal with humanitarian protections for civilians in a war zone. There are currently 196 countries party to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, including this and the other three treaties.[1]



Out with the old, in with the new. Just like he does his Instagram timeline when getting ready to announce a new "chapter," and in the videos for the Beauty-era, Weeknd destroys his past to introduce us to the new. In this case, the "new" is the Starboy-era version of himself and through the direction of Grant Singer, we see him sporting an iced out Crucifix as breaks into a version of his Beauty Behind the Madness alter-ego's residence and ransacks the place before stealing a pinkly-lit, illuminated cross. Much can be said for this cross and what it symbolizes. In the end, he destroys all evidence and history of his past and drives off with a black panther. 


Paranoid, as he sings on the single, we find the singer in such a crazed state, which could be due to the events of "False Alarm," that it drives him off a cliff. Within this dreamlike state following his death in "Alarm," we find Starboy traveling through a tripped out alternate universe that features the cross as a prominent fixture. Our theory is that the cross represents a double-edged sword that comes with the good and bad. "Starboy" saw him capture the tool, only to later have it return as a constant reminder during his "Party Monster" limbo and this is following the attempt on his life in "M A N I A," which culminates in him actually taking his own life in "False Alarm." Basically, the illuminated symbol represents a gift and curse for Weeknd, which could be love since, as proven by the events in these visuals, every time he falls for someone,his is faced with a life or death scenario. 



After driving off the cliff, our theory is that this state of limbo continues for Weeknd. As he continues to travel through this spiritual journey in "I Feel It Coming," he meets his "Stargirl," once again falling in love. Yes, as we've learned, with love comes a threat. After an eclipse takes place, the woman gets turned into stone and later crumbles. At this point, and as we've followed throughout this Starboy series, it's no coincidence. As if these videos were created in an attempt to emphasize one of his lines from the album ("I know there's been stigma around me / I know you heard things about me" on "All I Know"), the singer can't seem to win when it comes to love. In this case, not only does he eventually lose the girl, he too turns into stone and gets covered by erosion. By the end, Daft Punk steps up out of nowhere to recover the body of the singer and discover the illuminated pink cross, which could very well be the Starboy himself.






The Weeknd follows a big neon cross to where the girls are.

While The Weeknd has lots of girls to chose from, he is, once again, guided by the cross.


The Weeknd is immediately mesmerized by a girl wearing giant cross earrings.

When he falls on his bed, The Weeknd sees the girl above him (inside a cross) instead of the panther.


In the UK, a stone is a unit of weight that equals 14 pounds. Therefore, sixteen stone means 224 pounds or about 102 kilograms. When asked why lead singer Gavin Rossdale chose the name "Sixteen Stone" for the name of their album, he said: "Once upon a time there was a lonely man... my friend, who called a phone number advertising a '21-year old Scandinavian beauty, new in town.' When she arrived, she was forty years old and sixteen stone..." 



The playoffs system was announced on January 21, 2004 as the "Chase for the Championship", and first used during the 2004 Nextel Cup season. The format used from 2004 to 2006 was modified slightly starting with the 2007 season. A major change to the qualifying criteria was instituted in 2011, along with a major change to the points system. Even more radical changes to the qualifying criteria, and to the format of the playoffs itself, were announced for the upcoming 2014 Sprint Cup Series. As of 2014, the 10-race playoff format involves 16 drivers chosen primarily on wins during the "regular season"; if fewer than 16 drivers win races during the regular season, the remaining field is filled on the basis of regular season points. These drivers compete against each other while racing in the standard field of 40 cars. The driver with the most points after the final 10 races is declared the champion.



On January 30, 2014, a new Chase system resembling the playoff systems used in other major league sports was announced at Media Day.[8] On July 15, NASCAR announced various design changes to identify Chase drivers in the field: on these drivers, their cars' roof numbers, front splitters and fascia, and the windshield header are colored yellow, and the Chase logo on the front quarter panel.[9]


Under the new system, the Chase field is expanded to 16 drivers for the 10-race Chase. The 16 drivers are chosen primarily on wins during the "regular season"; if fewer than 16 drivers win races during the regular season, the remaining field is filled on the basis of regular season points. These drivers compete against each other while racing in the standard field of 43 cars. The driver with the most points after the final 10 races is declared the champion.


The new playoff system means that drivers are eliminated from title contention as the Chase progresses. The bottom four of the top-16 drivers are eliminated from title contention after the third race (Dover) in what was called the "Challenger Round", reducing the size of the field by 25%. The bottom four winless drivers have their points reset based on the standard points system, while the remaining 12 Chase drivers' points are reset to 3,000 points. The new bottom four are eliminated after the sixth Chase race (Talladega) in the "Contender Round", reducing the size of the field another 33%. Those who continue have their points all reset to 4,000. Then the "Eliminator Round" involves axing 50% of the Chase grid, cutting the drivers 5th-8th in the points after the penultimate race at Phoenix, and the top four drivers have their point totals reset to 5,000 so that they are tied for the final race at Homestead-Miami for the title run. Of these four drivers, the driver with the best finish at Homestead is then the crowned series champion (these drivers do not earn bonus points for leading a lap or leading the most laps).[10] Any Chase driver who wins a race is automatically guaranteed a spot in the next round. Up to three drivers thus can advance to the next round of the Chase through race wins, regardless of their actual points position when the elimination race in that round happens. The remaining drivers advance on points. The round names were removed starting in 2016, being changed to "Round of 16", "Round of 12", "Round of 8", and "Championship 4".[11]

The previous championship format will be maintained for the 2017 season, but with changes. A revised regular-season points system will be adopted, splitting races into three stages. The top 10 drivers at the end of the first two stages each race will earn additional bonus points towards the championship, 10 points for the first place car down to 1 point for the 10th place car. At the end of the race, the normal championship point scheme will be used to award points to the entire field. Additionally, "playoff points" will be awarded during the regular season for winning stages, winning races, and finishing the regular season in the top 16 on the championship points standings. 1 playoff point for the winner of a stage, 5 playoff points plus an automatic birth into the round of 16 for the race winner. (unless there are more than 16 race winners in the season, then the top 16 in race wins move on). If a driver qualifies for the championship, these playoff points will be carried into their reset points totals until the final round.[12][13][14] This means a driver can have less regular season points than another driver, but be seeded higher due to more wins.




Supernovae 1959–61 is a rectangular, vertically oriented black and white abstract painting by Hungarian-born artist Victor Vasarely. The work is composed of a network of 1,161 small black squares set inside a thin white vertical grid. At the top left of the composition, five rows down and five rows from the left, the black squares shift on their axis, becoming slightly larger and forming a clear black cruciform configuration. On the upper right side of the work the black squares become smaller, forming another internal white cross intersecting the grid on a diagonal axis. Occupying roughly the bottom two-thirds of the painting are two opposing vertical channels of small circles situated within white squares. The circles increase in size from left to right. A little above the mid-point of the work there is a singular horizontal bar that contains a row of floating black rhomboids. The work is inscribed ‘VASARELY | SUPERNOVAE | 152 x 242 | 1959–61’ on the back of the canvas.


The work forms part of a series made by the artist entitled Black and White in which he investigated the principles of geometry, perception and movement. Supernovae are stars which suddenly increase greatly in luminosity, then undergo various changes, including casting off a considerable proportion of their mass. Supernovae is designed to appear to visually alter as the viewer moves in front of it. The work plays optical tricks such as seeming to surge or retreat in areas, flip orientation and change in chromatic density depending on the spectator’s angle of vision. Motion, the artist explained in 1971, is not implied by depicting the object as moving. Rather, it is ‘the aggressiveness with which the structures strike the retina’ (Vasarely in Robert Sandelson Gallery 2005, p.9).


Magic squares were known to Chinese mathematicians as early as 650 BC, and explicitly given since 570 AD,[10] and to Islamic mathematicians possibly as early as the seventh century AD. The first magic squares of order 5 and 6 appear in an encyclopedia from Baghdad circa 983, the Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity (Rasa'il Ihkwan al-Safa); simpler magic squares were known to several earlier Arab mathematicians.[10] Some of these squares were later used in conjunction with magic letters, as in Shams Al-ma'arif, to assist Arab illusionists and magicians.[11]


China (Lo Shu square, 3×3 magic square)

Main article: Lo Shu Square

Ancient references to the pattern of even and odd numbers in the Lo Shu appear in the I Ching; however, the earliest unequivocal appearance of the Lo Shu in the form of a magic square dates to the early 12th century.[12] Legends dating from as early as 650 BC tell the story of the Lo Shu (洛書) or "scroll of the river Lo".[10] According to the legend, there was at one time in ancient China a huge flood. While the great king Yu was trying to channel the water out to sea, a turtle emerged from it with a curious pattern on its shell: a 3×3 grid in which circular dots of numbers were arranged, such that the sum of the numbers in each row, column and diagonal was the same: 15. According to the legend, thereafter people were able to use this pattern in a certain way to control the river and protect themselves from floods.


4 9 2

3 5 7

8 1 6

The Lo Shu Square, as the magic square on the turtle shell is called, is the unique normal magic square of order three in which 1 is at the bottom and 2 is in the upper right corner. Every normal magic square of order three is obtained from the Lo Shu by rotation or reflection.




Original script from the Shams al-Ma'arif.


Printed version of the previous manuscript. Eastern Arabic numerals were used.

Although the early history of magic squares in Persia is not known, it has been suggested that they were known in pre-Islamic times.[13] It is clear, however, that the study of magic squares was common in medieval Islam in Persia, and it was thought to have begun after the introduction of chess into the region.[14] The 10th-century Persian mathematician Buzjani, for example, left a manuscript that on page 33 contains a series of magic squares, filled by numbers in arithmetical progression, in such a way that the sums of each row, column and diagonal are equal.[15]



Magic squares were known to Islamic mathematicians in Arabia as early as the seventh century. They may have learned about them when the Arabs came into contact with Indian culture and learned Indian astronomy and mathematics – including other aspects of combinatorial mathematics. Alternatively, the idea may have come to them from China. The first magic squares of order 5 and 6 known to have been devised by Arab mathematicians appear in an encyclopedia from Baghdad circa 983, the Rasa'il Ikhwan al-Safa (the Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity); simpler magic squares were known to several earlier Arab mathematicians.[10]


The magic square of order three was described as a child-bearing charm[16] since its first literary appearances in the works of Jābir ibn Hayyān (fl. c. 721– c. 815)[17] and al-Ghazālī (1058–1111)[18] and it was preserved in the tradition of the planetary tables, known from H.C.Agrippa's work,[19] too.


The Arab mathematician Ahmad al-Buni, who worked on magic squares around 1250, attributed mystical properties to them, although no details of these supposed properties are known. There are also references to the use of magic squares in astrological calculations, a practice that seems to have originated with the Arabs.[10]




Magic Square at the Parshvanatha temple, in Khajuraho India

The 3×3 magic square has been a part of rituals in India since Vedic times, and still is today. The Ganesh yantra is a 3×3 magic square. There is a well-known 10th-century 4×4 magic square on display in the Parshvanath temple in Khajuraho, India.[20]


7 12 1 14

2 13 8 11

16 3 10 5

9 6 15 4

This is known as the Chautisa Yantra. Each row, column, and diagonal, as well as each 2×2 sub-square, the corners of each 3×3 and 4×4 square, the corners of each 2×4 and 4×2 rectangle, and the offset diagonals (12+8+5+9, 1+11+16+6, 14+2+3+15 and 7+11+10+6, 12+2+5+15, 1+13+16+4) sum to 34.


In this square, every second diagonal number adds to 17 (the same applies to offset diagonals). In addition to squares and rectangles, there are eight trapeziums – two in one direction, and the others at a rotation of 90 degrees, such as (12, 1, 16, 5) and (13, 8, 9, 4).


These characteristics (which identify it as one of the three 4×4 pandiagonal magic squares and as a most-perfect magic square) mean that the rows or columns can be rotated and maintain the same characteristics - for example:


12 1 14 7

13 8 11 2

3 10 5 16

6 15 4 9

The Kubera-Kolam, a magic square of order three, is commonly painted on floors in India. It is essentially the same as the Lo Shu Square, but with 19 added to each number, giving a magic constant of 72.


23 28 21

22 24 26

27 20 25



This page from Athanasius Kircher's Oedipus Aegyptiacus (1653) belongs to a treatise on magic squares and shows the Sigillum Iovis associated with Jupiter

In 1300, building on the work of the Arab Al-Buni, Greek Byzantine scholar Manuel Moschopoulos wrote a mathematical treatise on the subject of magic squares, leaving out the mysticism of his predecessors.[21] Moschopoulos was essentially unknown to the Latin west. He was not, either, the first Westerner to have written on magic squares. They appear in a Spanish manuscript written in the 1280s, presently in the Biblioteca Vaticana (cod. Reg. Lat. 1283a) due to Alfonso X of Castille.[22] In that text, each magic square is assigned to the respective planet, as in the Islamic literature.[23] Magic squares surface again in Italy in the 14th century, and specifically in Florence. In fact, a 6×6 and a 9×9 square are exhibited in a manuscript of the Trattato d'Abbaco (Treatise of the Abacus) by Paolo dell'Abbaco, aka Paolo Dagomari, a mathematician, astronomer and astrologer who was, among other things, in close contact with Jacopo Alighieri, a son of Dante. The squares can be seen on folios 20 and 21 of MS. 2433, at the Biblioteca Universitaria of Bologna. They also appear on folio 69rv of Plimpton 167, a manuscript copy of the Trattato dell'Abbaco from the 15th century in the Library of Columbia University.[24] It is interesting to observe that Paolo Dagomari, like Pacioli after him, refers to the squares as a useful basis for inventing mathematical questions and games, and does not mention any magical use. Incidentally, though, he also refers to them as being respectively the Sun's and the Moon's squares, and mentions that they enter astrological calculations that are not better specified. As said, the same point of view seems to motivate the fellow Florentine Luca Pacioli, who describes 3×3 to 9×9 squares in his work De Viribus Quantitatis.[25] Pacioli states: A lastronomia summamente hanno mostrato li supremi di quella commo Ptolomeo, al bumasar ali, al fragano, Geber et gli altri tutti La forza et virtu de numeri eserli necessaria (Masters of astronomy, such as Ptolemy, Albumasar, Alfraganus, Jabir and all the others, have shown that the force and the virtue of numbers are necessary to that science) and then goes on to describe the seven planetary squares, with no mention of magical applications.


Magic squares of order 3 through 9, assigned to the seven planets, and described as means to attract the influence of planets and their angels (or demons) during magical practices, can be found in several manuscripts all around Europe starting at least since the 15th century. Among the best known, the Liber de Angelis, a magical handbook written around 1440, is included in Cambridge Univ. Lib. MS Dd.xi.45.[26] The text of the Liber de Angelis is very close to that of De septem quadraturis planetarum seu quadrati magici, another handbook of planetary image magic contained in the Codex 793 of the Biblioteka Jagiellońska (Ms BJ 793).[27] The magical operations involve engraving the appropriate square on a plate made with the metal assigned to the corresponding planet,[28] as well as performing a variety of rituals. For instance, the 3×3 square, that belongs to Saturn, has to be inscribed on a lead plate. It will, in particular, help women during a difficult childbirth.


In 1514 Albrecht Dürer immortalized a 4×4 square, of order four, in his famous engraving Melencolia I. It is described in more detail below.


In about 1510 Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa wrote De Occulta Philosophia, drawing on the Hermetic and magical works of Marsilio Ficino and Pico della Mirandola. In its 1531 edition, he expounded on the magical virtues of the seven magical squares of orders 3 to 9, each associated with one of the astrological planets, much in the same way as the older texts did. This book was very influential throughout Europe until the counter-reformation, and Agrippa's magic squares, sometimes called kameas, continue to be used within modern ceremonial magic in much the same way as he first prescribed.[10][29]



4 9 2

3 5 7

8 1 6


4 14 15 1

9 7 6 12

5 11 10 8

16 2 3 13


11 24 7 20 3

4 12 25 8 16

17 5 13 21 9

10 18 1 14 22

23 6 19 2 15


6 32 3 34 35 1

7 11 27 28 8 30

19 14 16 15 23 24

18 20 22 21 17 13

25 29 10 9 26 12

36 5 33 4 2 31


22 47 16 41 10 35 4

5 23 48 17 42 11 29

30 6 24 49 18 36 12

13 31 7 25 43 19 37

38 14 32 1 26 44 20

21 39 8 33 2 27 45

46 15 40 9 34 3 28


8 58 59 5 4 62 63 1

49 15 14 52 53 11 10 56

41 23 22 44 45 19 18 48

32 34 35 29 28 38 39 25

40 26 27 37 36 30 31 33

17 47 46 20 21 43 42 24

9 55 54 12 13 51 50 16

64 2 3 61 60 6 7 57


37 78 29 70 21 62 13 54 5

6 38 79 30 71 22 63 14 46

47 7 39 80 31 72 23 55 15

16 48 8 40 81 32 64 24 56

57 17 49 9 41 73 33 65 25

26 58 18 50 1 42 74 34 66

67 27 59 10 51 2 43 75 35

36 68 19 60 11 52 3 44 76

77 28 69 20 61 12 53 4 45


The derivation of the sigil of Hagiel, the planetary intelligence of Venus, drawn on the magic square of Venus. Each Hebrew letter provides a numerical value, giving the vertices of the sigil.

The most common use for these kameas is to provide a pattern upon which to construct the sigils of spirits, angels or demons; the letters of the entity's name are converted into numbers, and lines are traced through the pattern that these successive numbers make on the kamea. In a magical context, the term magic square is also applied to a variety of word squares or number squares found in magical grimoires, including some that do not follow any obvious pattern, and even those with differing numbers of rows and columns. They are generally intended for use as talismans. For instance the following squares are: The Sator square, one of the most famous magic squares found in a number of grimoires including the Key of Solomon; a square "to overcome envy", from The Book of Power;[30] and two squares from The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage, the first to cause the illusion of a superb palace to appear, and the second to be worn on the head of a child during an angelic invocation:







6 66 848 938

8 11 544 839

1 11 383 839

2 73 774 447










Albrecht Dürer's magic square


Detail of Melencolia I

The order-4 magic square Albrecht Dürer immortalized in his 1514 engraving Melencolia I, referred to above, is believed to be the first seen in European art. It is very similar to Yang Hui's square, which was created in China about 250 years before Dürer's time. The sum 34 can be found in the rows, columns, diagonals, each of the quadrants, the center four squares, and the corner squares (of the 4×4 as well as the four contained 3×3 grids). This sum can also be found in the four outer numbers clockwise from the corners (3+8+14+9) and likewise the four counter-clockwise (the locations of four queens in the two solutions of the 4 queens puzzle[31]), the two sets of four symmetrical numbers (2+8+9+15 and 3+5+12+14), the sum of the middle two entries of the two outer columns and rows (5+9+8+12 and 3+2+15+14), and in four kite or cross shaped quartets (3+5+11+15, 2+10+8+14, 3+9+7+15, and 2+6+12+14). The two numbers in the middle of the bottom row give the date of the engraving: 1514. The numbers 1 and 4 at either side of the date correspond respectively to the letters "A" and "D," which are the initials of the artist.


16 3 2 13

5 10 11 8

9 6 7 12

4 15 14 1

Dürer's magic square can also be extended to a magic cube.[32]


Dürer's magic square and his Melencolia I both also played large roles in Dan Brown's 2009 novel, The Lost Symbol.


Sagrada Família magic square


A magic square on the Sagrada Família church façade

The Passion façade of the Sagrada Família church in Barcelona, conceptualized by Antoni Gaudí and designed by sculptor Josep Subirachs, features a 4×4 magic square:


The magic constant of the square is 33, the age of Jesus at the time of the Passion. Structurally, it is very similar to the Melancholia magic square, but it has had the numbers in four of the cells reduced by 1.


1 14 14 4

11 7 6 9

8 10 10 5

13 2 3 15

While having the same pattern of summation, this is not a normal magic square as above, as two numbers (10 and 14) are duplicated and two (12 and 16) are absent, failing the 1→n2 rule.


Similarly to Dürer's magic square, the Sagrada Familia's magic square can also be extended to a magic cube.[33]



This magic square has 24 groups of four fields with the sum of 139 and in the first row - shown at bottom-right - Ramanujan's date of birth.

Srinivasa Ramanujan's magic square

The Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan created a square where - in addition to several groups of four squares - the first row shows his date of birth, 22nd Dec. 1887.


Original script from the Shams al-Ma'arif.



The Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity (Arabic: رسائل إخوان الصفا‎‎) also variously known as the Epistles of the Brethren of Sincerity, Epistles of the Brethren of Purity and Epistles of the Brethren of Purity and Loyal Friends was a large encyclopedia[1] in 52 treatises (rasā'il) written by the mysterious[2] Brethren of Purity of Basra, Iraq sometime in the second half of the 10th century CE (or possibly later, in the 11th century). It had a great influence on later intellectual leading lights of the Muslim world, such as Ibn Arabi,[3][4] and was transmitted as far abroad within the Muslim world as Al-Andalus.[5][6] The Encyclopedia contributed to the popularization and legitimization of Platonism in the Islamic world.[7]


Organizationally, it is divided into 52 epistles. The 52 rasa'il are subdivided into four sections, sometimes called books (indeed, some complete editions of the Encyclopedia are in four volumes); in order, they are: 14 on the Mathematical Sciences, 17 on the Natural Sciences, 10 on the Psychological and Rational Sciences, 11 on Theological Sciences.[20]


The division into four sections is no accident; the number four held great importance in Neoplatonic numerology, being the first square number and for being even. Reputedly, Pythagoras held that a man's life was divided into four sections, much like a year was divided into four seasons. The Brethren divided mathematics itself into four sections: arithmetic was Pythagoras and Nicomachus' domain; Ptolemy ruled over astronomy with his Almagest; geometry was associated with Euclid, naturally; and the fourth and last division was that of music. The fours did not cease there- the Brethren observed that four was crucial to a decimal system, as 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10; numbers themselves were broken down into four orders of magnitude: the ones, tens, hundreds, and thousands; there were four winds from the four directions (north, south, east, west); medicine concerned itself with the four humours, and natural philosophers with the four elements of Empedocles.


Another possibility, suggested by Netton is that the veneration for four stems instead from the Brethren's great interest in the Corpus Hermeticum of Hermes Trismegistus (identified with the god Hermes, to whom the number four was sacred); that hermetic tradition's magical lore was the main subject of the 51st rasa'il.

Magic Square at the Parshvanatha temple, in Khajuraho India

This page from Athanasius Kircher's Oedipus Aegyptiacus (1653) belongs to a treatise on magic squares and shows the Sigillum Iovis associated with Jupiter

A magic square on the Sagrada Família church façade

This magic square has 24 groups of four fields with the sum of 139 and in the first row - shown at bottom-right - Ramanujan's date of birth.



While still in Madras, Ramanujan recorded the bulk of his results in four notebooks of loose-leaf paper. They were mostly written up without any derivations. This is probably the origin of the misapprehension that Ramanujan was unable to prove his results and simply thought up the final result directly. Mathematician Bruce C. Berndt, in his review of these notebooks and Ramanujan's work, says that Ramanujan most certainly was able to prove most of his results, but chose not to.


This may have been for any number of reasons. Since paper was very expensive, Ramanujan would do most of his work and perhaps his proofs on slate, and then transfer just the results to paper. Using a slate was common for mathematics students in the Madras Presidency at the time. He was also quite likely to have been influenced by the style of G. S. Carr's book, which stated results without proofs. Finally, it is possible that Ramanujan considered his workings to be for his personal interest alone and therefore recorded only the results.[64]


The first notebook has 351 pages with 16 somewhat organised chapters and some unorganised material. The second notebook has 256 pages in 21 chapters and 100 unorganised pages, with the third notebook containing 33 unorganised pages. The results in his notebooks inspired numerous papers by later mathematicians trying to prove what he had found. Hardy himself created papers exploring material from Ramanujan's work, as did G. N. Watson, B. M. Wilson, and Bruce Berndt.[64] A fourth notebook with 87 unorganised pages, the so-called "lost notebook", was rediscovered in 1976 by George Andrews.[52]



The Four Apostles is a panel painting by the German Renaissance master Albrecht Dürer. It was finished in 1526, and is the last of his large works. It depicts the four apostles larger-than-life-size. The Bavarian Elector Maximilian I obtained The Four Apostles in the year 1627 due to pressure on the Nuremberg city fathers. Since then, the painting has been in Munich and, despite all the efforts of Nuremberg since 1806, it has not been returned.


When Dürer moved back to Nuremberg he produced many famous paintings there, including several self-portraits. He gave The Four Apostles to the town council. Saints John and Peter appear in the left panel; the figures in the right panel are Saints Mark and Paul. Mark and Paul both hold Bibles, and John and Peter are shown reading from the opening page of John's own Gospel. At the bottom of each panel, quotations from the Bible are inscribed.[1]


The apostles are recognizable by their symbols:


St. John the Evangelist: open book

St. Peter: keys

St. Mark: scroll

St. Paul: sword and closed book

They are also associated with the four temperaments.


St. John: sanguine

St. Peter: phlegmatic

St. Mark: choleric

St. Paul: melancholy

Historical context


The Four Apostles was created during the Reformation, begun in 1517 and having the largest initial impact on Germany. As it was a Protestant belief that icons were contradictory to the Word of God, which was held in the utmost supremacy over Protestant ideas, the Protestant church was not a patron of any sacred art. Therefore, any Protestant artist, like Dürer became, had to commission their own works. Many aspects of the image depicted prove significant in light of the Reformation itself.[1]


The Four Witches (German: Die Vier Hexen, or Four Naked Women[1] or Four Sorceresses[2]) is a 1497 engraving by the German Renaissance master Albrecht Dürer. The work shows four sensual, exuberant nude women gathered conspiratorially in a circle underneath a hanging ball and before an open stone window. The window, as indicated by bones scattered across from it, is likely a gateway to death. The portal to the right shows a demon's face engulfed in flames, and is likely intended as a gateway to hell.[3] The woman from the second right most likely represents Discordia, the goddess of discord, who threw an apple amongst Juno, Minerva and Venus and thus ignited the Trojan War.


As with many of Dürer's engravings, the intended meaning or source is unclear; possible interpretations range from the four seasons and the four elements, to Aphrodite (represented here by the woman to the right wearing a myrtle wreath)[1] and the Graces, the Three Fates, or more simply four witches or four girls in a brothel. The most accepted meaning is that the work was created as an allegorical warning against discord - that disagreement leads invariable to hell and death. The positioning of the women matches a marble group of the three graces known to the quattrocento, and likely Dürer would have seen it from copies.[3] The ball hanging above the figures bears the letters "OGH" - meaning "Odium generis humani/odium of the human race", or possibly "Oh Gott hüte" (Oh God Forbid). The art historian Marcel Briton suggests that the work may not have any specific meaning, and is merely a portrait of four nudes, "the whim of a young artist annoyed by the puritanical conventionality of his fellow-citizens".[2]


The drawing has been copied and adapted a number of times; the Austrian artist Adolf Frohner (b. 1934) produced a version where the women are shown wearing bras and garter belts.[4]

  • 6. Four angels holding back the winds, and the marking of the elect


  • 9. The four angels of Death

Jean Duvet's major work was an engraved series from the 1550s, influenced by Dürer but very different in style. Frans Masereel called his World War I series of 25 drawings The Apocalypse of Our Time; in 1943, Benton Spruance made a lithograph titled Riders of the Apocalypse. In 1945 Édouard Goerg (fr) published 20 lithographs in a series named The Apocalypse. The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse and another Dürer engraving called The Sea Beast appeared in the 2007 Russian TV series The Sea Devils 2 (Морские дьяволы-2).

Tetrabiblos (Τετράβιβλος) 'four books', also known in Greek as Apotelesmatiká (Ἀποτελεσματικά) "Effects", and in Latin as Quadripartitum "Four Parts", is a text on the philosophy and practice of astrology, written in the 2nd century AD by the Alexandrian scholar Claudius Ptolemy (c. AD 90–c. AD 168).



In traditional astrology, the concept of triplicity embodied several factors concerning the four classical elements and were considered of particular importance. Besides the four classical elements, two other ways triplicity could be organized were by rulership type and by season. However, neither are given much attention by modern astrologers. However, astrology by season, in particular has been adopted by astrologers who practice in modern Neopaganism, Druidism and Wicca.


Classical elements[edit]

Four Classical Elements; this classic diagram has two squares on top of each other, with the corners of one being the classical elements, and the corners of the other being the properties

In traditional Western astrology there are four triplicities based on the classical elements. Beginning with the first sign Aries which is a Fire sign, the next in line Taurus is Earth, then to Gemini which is Air, and finally to Cancer which is Water -- in Western astrology the sequence is always Fire, Earth, Air, & Water in that exact order. This cycle continues on twice more and ends with the twelfth and final astrological sign, Pisces. The elemental rulerships for the twelve astrological signs of the zodiac (according to Marcus Manilius) are summarized as follows:


Fire — Aries, Leo, Sagittarius - hot, dry

Earth — Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn - cold, dry

Air — Gemini, Libra, Aquarius - hot, wet

Water — Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces - cold, wet


In traditional astrology, each triplicity has several planetary rulers, which change with conditions of sect--that is, whether the chart is a day chart or a night chart.


Triplicity rulerships are a very important essential dignity--one of the several factors used by traditional astrologers to weigh the strength, effectiveness and integrity of each planet in a chart. Many Hellenistic astrologers (for example, Dorotheus of Sidon[1]) considered triplicity rulership the most powerful and demonstrable of the several essential dignities of a planet.


Triplicty rulerships (using the "Dorothean system"[2]) are as follows:


Triplicity Day Ruler Night Ruler Participating Ruler

Fire (Aries, Leo, Sagittarius): Sun Jupiter Saturn

Earth (Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn): Venus Moon Mars

Air (Gemini, Libra, Aquarius): Saturn Mercury Jupiter

Water (Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces): Venus Mars Moon

* (Ptolemy[3] later modified the rulerships of Water triplicity, making Mars the ruler of the water triplicity for both day and night charts--and William Lilly concurred.)[4]

One way in which triplicty rulerships were used by earlier astrologers was to divide a person's life into three periods: early, middle, and late. The condition of the triplicity ruler that is in sect in the chart is evaluated when considering the tenor of the early part of life; the ruler out of sect is examined for the middle of life; and the last third of life is evaluated by looking at the condition of the participating triplicity ruler.[5] "Participating" rulers were not used after the Hellenistic period.[6]


In medieval systems of astrology, each essential dignity was given a different weight. Domicile rulers were given 5 points of weight; exaltation rulers were given 4 points; and triplicity rulers were assigned 3 points of weight. This gives some idea of how much power medieval astrologers accorded to each essential dignity.[7]


Actual seasons[edit]

Traditional astrology also organizes triplicities according to the actual season in which the zodiac rose.[citation needed] For example, Aries, Taurus, and Gemini appear during the spring season.


The triplicities of seasonal elements in ancient astrology were the following:


Spring - Aries - Taurus - Gemini (March 20 and June 20)

Summer - Cancer - Leo - Virgo (June 21 and September 21)

Autumn - Libra - Scorpio - Sagittarius (September 22 and December 20)

Winter - Capricorn - Aquarius - Pisces (December 21 and March 19)

In Brazil, Aries, Taurus, and Gemini appear during the autumn season.


Spring - Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius (September 23 and December 21)

Summer - Capricorn - Aquarius - Pisces (December 22 and March 20)

Autumn - Aries - Taurus - Gemini (March 21 and June 21)

Winter - Cancer - Leo - Virgo (June 22 and September 22)



The Eight-Eight Fleet Program (八八艦隊 Hachihachi Kantai) was a Japanese naval strategy formulated for the development of the Imperial Japanese Navy in the first quarter of the 20th century, which stipulated that the navy should include eight first-class battleships and eight armoured cruisers or battlecruisers.


The "Eight-Eight Fleet" concept originated in post-Russo-Japanese War period with the 1907 Imperial Defense Policy, which was a settlement reached by the competing Army and Navy factions of the Japanese government.[1]


The Naval faction, inspired by the Mahanian doctrine of Satō Tetsutarō, argued that Japanese security could only be guaranteed by a strong navy. Satō argued that to ensure security, Japan should be capable of defeating the power which represented the greatest potential threat. In the 1907 Imperial National Defense Policy, Japan’s military focus shifted away from the defeated Imperial Russia and towards the United States as the primary threat to Japan's future security. In Japanese minds, the United States had proven to be an aggressive expansionist power in Asia, with its annexation of the Kingdom of Hawaii and colonization of the newly formed First Philippine Republic. The Open Door Policy towards China was in conflict with Japanese aspirations on the Asian mainland, and its immigration policies were perceived as an indication of American racial enmity towards the Japanese.


Based on a theoretical United States Navy strength of 25 battleships and cruisers, Japanese naval theoreticians postulated that Japan would need a fleet of at least eight first-line battleships and eight cruisers for parity in the Pacific Ocean. When Naval Minister Admiral Yamamoto Gonnohyoe presented the budget request for this fleet to the Diet of Japan, the amount was more than twice that of the entire Japanese national budget at the time.


The Eight-Eight Fleet policy was controversial because of the enormous cost of battleships, and only once was authorization given by the Diet of Japan for a building program which would have reached the "Eight-Eight Fleet" ideal. To complicate matters further, while the "Eight-Eight Fleet" plan lasted over a decade, the ships required for it changed; by 1920 the ships which had been ordered in 1910 to start to fulfill the plan were becoming obsolete.


Various alternative plans were discussed, including a reduction in the plan to "Eight-Four Fleet" program, of later to an "Eight-Six Fleet" program.


So great was the difference in capability between this generation of ships and those of five years previously that the "Eight-Eight Fleet" plan was restarted: Nagato was now regarded as Ship No.1 in the new project, and planners now began to write off the older battleships and battlecruisers. On this revised basis the Navy was back down to a "Four-Four Fleet".


A further impetus to achieve the Eight-Eight Fleet ideal came from an additional expansion of the U.S. Navy under American President Woodrow Wilson's 1919 plan to build another set of 16 capital ships (on top of the 16 already authorized in 1916). In 1920, under Prime Minister Hara Takashi, a reluctant Diet was persuaded to accept a plan to bring the "Four-Four" set of modern ships up to "Eight-Eight" strength by 1927. This would have involved augmenting the Amagi-class battlecruisers with an additional four fast battleships of the new Kii class, which were marginally slower and more powerful. A further four battleships (No. 13-16) would have been built, with 18-inch guns. If completed, this would have been an "Eight-Eight Fleet" in full; if one included the oldest ships of the navy, the Fusō and Kongō classes, then the even higher goal of an "Eight-Eight-Eight Fleet" with not two but three eight-ship battle squadrons could be realized.


The Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 put an end to these construction plans. Under the terms of the treaty all the ships still being built — which meant all ships started after Nagato, the first ship of the 1916 building program — had to be broken up or converted into aircraft carriers. A special exemption was made for the battleship Mutsu, which was nearing completion and which had a special place in many Japanese hearts, with many of the funds for her construction raised by public subscription.


The treaty established a maximum tonnage for the Japanese navy as 60% of the U.S. Navy and the British Royal Navy. For this reason, it was vociferously opposed by many Imperial Japanese Navy officers, including Admiral Satō Tetsutarō. This group formed the influential Fleet Faction which later achieved Japan's withdrawal from the treaty. Ironically, the treaty probably restricted British and especially American ship building much more than Japanese due to the difference in industrial capability.


Although Japanese Navy procurement still proceeded along the lines of initial "Eight-Eight Fleet" plans for several years, changes in naval strategy and the development of naval aviation made the term an anachronism by the 1930s.



The South Dakota class was a group of four fast battleships built by the United States Navy. They were the second class of battleships to be named after the 40th state; the first were designed in the 1920s and canceled under the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty.


The class comprised four ships: South Dakota, Indiana, Massachusetts, and Alabama. They were more compact and better protected than the preceding North Carolina class, but had the same main battery, nine 16"/45 caliber Mark 6 guns in three-gun turrets. The ships can be visually distinguished from the earlier vessels by their single funnel, compared to twin funnels in the North Carolinas. According to authors William Garzke and Robert Dulin, the South Dakota design was the best "treaty battleship" ever built.[1]


Construction began shortly before World War II, with Fiscal Year (FY) 1939 appropriations. Commissioning through the summer of 1942, the four ships served in both the Atlantic, ready to intercept possible German capital ship sorties, and the Pacific, in carrier groups and shore bombardments. All four ships were retired post-war; South Dakota and Indiana were scrapped, Massachusetts and Alabama retained as museum ships.



The Borodino-class battlecruisers (Russian: Линейные крейсера типа «Измаил») were a group of four battlecruisers ordered by the Imperial Russian Navy before World War I. Also referred to as the Izmail class, they were laid down in December 1912[Note 1] at Saint Petersburg for service with the Baltic Fleet. Construction of the ships was delayed as many domestic factories were overloaded with orders and some components had to be ordered from abroad. The start of World War I slowed their construction still further as the imported components were often not delivered and domestic production was diverted into areas more immediately useful for the war effort.


Three of the four ships were launched in 1915 and the fourth in 1916. Work on the gun turrets lagged, and it became evident that Russian industry would not be able to complete the ships during the war. The Russian Revolution of 1917 put a stop to their construction, which was never resumed. Although some consideration was given to finishing the hulls that were nearest to completion, they were all eventually sold for scrap by the Soviet Union. The Soviet Navy proposed in 1925 to convert Izmail, the ship closest to completion, to an aircraft carrier, but the plan was cancelled after political maneuvering by the Red Army led to funding not being available.





Mitch Mitchell playing a classic four-piece kit in the Jimi Hendrix Experience

A four-piece kit extends the three-piece by adding one tom, either a second hanging tom mounted on the bass drum (a notable user is Chris Frantz of Talking Heads) and often displacing the cymbal, or by adding a floor tom. Normally another cymbal is added as well, so there are separate ride and crash cymbals, either on two stands, or the ride cymbal mounted on the bass drum to the player's right and the crash cymbal on a separate stand. The standard cymbal sizes are 16" crash and 18"–20" ride, with the 20" ride most common.


Four piece with floor tom[edit]

When a floor tom is added to make a four-piece kit, the floor tom is usually 14" for jazz, and 16" otherwise. This configuration is usually common in jazz, classic rock and rock and roll. Notable users include Ringo Starr in The Beatles, Mitch Mitchell in the Jimi Hendrix Experience, and John Barbata in the Turtles.


Four piece with two hanging toms[edit]

If a second hanging tom is used, it is 10" diameter and 8" deep for fusion, or 13" diameter and one inch deeper than the 12" diameter tom. Otherwise, a 14" diameter hanging tom is added to the 12", both being 8" deep. In any case, both toms are most often mounted on the bass drum with the smaller of the two next to the hi-hats (on the left for a right-handed drummer). These kits are particularly useful for smaller venues where space is limited, such as coffeehouses and small pubs.

Mitch Mitchell playing a classic four-piece kit in the Jimi Hendrix Experience




Although broadly similar, variations with different numbers of tube banks are produced.

Three-drum or 'V' form[edit]

This simpler form is mainly used for low powers, or for heat-recovery from other furnace gases.

Four-drum or 'B' form[edit]

This is the main form of the boiler and gives efficient results with economical construction.[2]

The marine version of the boiler is also of this form.

Although generally a land-based boiler, the four-drum form was also used as a marine boiler, to power large ships.[4]

The brick-built setting was replaced with a box-like steel housing, lined with firebrick. The water-tube diameter was reduced to between 2 and 2½ inches (51–64 mm). To avoid problems with the water levels shifting as the ship rolls, the water drums were arranged crosswise to the hull and provided with internal baffles.



Breakables, shells, extensions, hardware[edit]


Foreground: Snare drums. Midground: Hi-hat cymbals. Background: Ride/Crash cymbals

The drum kit may be loosely divided into four parts:


Breakables: Sticks, various cymbals, snare drum, throne (stool) and sometimes the bass drum pedal.

Shells: Bass drum and toms

Extensions: Cowbell, tambourine, chimes, any other instrument not part of the standard kit

Hardware: Cymbal stands, drum stands, pedals

One of the conventions of drum kit playing is that the number of "pieces" in a kit only counts the drums, not the cymbals or other percussion instruments.



Toward the end of the 1920s, variations of the hi-hats were introduced. One of the most popular hand held hi-hat cymbal variations used was called the "hand sock cymbals". The reason for the name "hi-hat" was because earlier versions of the hi-hat were referred to as a "low boy". The evolution that became the "hi-hats" allowed drummers to play the two cymbals with drum sticks while simultaneously controlling how open or closed the two cymbals were with their foot. The pedal could also be used to play the cymbals with the foot alone, while the right hand played other drums. By the 1930s, Ben Duncan and others popularized streamlined trap kits leading to a basic four piece drum set standard: bass, snare, tom-tom, and a larger floor tom. In time, legs were fitted to larger floor toms, and "consolettes" were devised to hold smaller tom-toms (ride toms) on the bass drum.

Tom-tom drums, or toms for short, are drums without snares and played with sticks (or whatever tools the music style requires), and are the most numerous drums in most kits. They provide the bulk of most drum fills and solos.

They include:

The smallest and largest drums without snares, such as octobans and gong drums, are sometimes considered toms. The naming of common configurations (four-piece, five-piece, etc.) is largely a reflection of the number of toms, as only the drums are conventionally counted, and these configurations all contain one snare and one or more bass drums, (though not regularly any standardized use of 2 bass/kick drums) the balance usually being in toms.



A cymbal pack is a set of cymbals sold together for use in a drum kit.


Cymbal packs are all to some degree matched, but the level of this matching varies from simply being of compatible models to the individual cymbals having been hand selected to blend well.[1]


There are three common configurations:


The most common pack is a starter pack consisting of four cymbals: A 20" ride, a 16" crash and a pair of 14" hi-hats. A second crash or a 10" splash is sometimes added as a promotional bonus.

Less common is a three cymbal starter pack consisting of an 18" crash/ride or 16" crash plus a pair of 13" or 14" hi-hats. This may be a more suitable starter pack for a three or even four piece kit.[2]

adds transcendent fourth to the three
The Carhart four-factor model is an extension of the Fama–French three-factor model including a momentum factor, also known in the industry as the MOM factor (monthly momentum).[1] Momentum in a stock is described as the tendency for the stock price to continue rising if it is going up and to continue declining if it is going down. The MOM can be calculated by subtracting the equal weighted average of the lowest performing firms from the equal weighed average of the highest performing firms, lagged one month (Carhart, 1997). A stock is showing momentum if its prior 12-month average of returns is positive. Similar to the three factor model, momentum factor is defined by self-financing portfolio of (long positive momentum)+(short negative momentum). Momentum strategies continue to be popular in financial markets such that financial analysts incorporate the 52-week price high/low in their Buy/Sell recommendations.[2]




The “Hunnid On The Drop” rapper’s album title plays off his popular “Issa” phrase, which became a meme last year. During a VladTV interview, 21 was asked about the tattoo on his forehead. When DJ Vlad misidentified it as a cross, 21 responded by saying “issa knife.” The clip went viral and 21 has embraced it ever since, as seen with his new LP.


The slang term “Issa,” popularized by 21 Savage — originated from being asked “What does the cross on your forehead signify?” and replying with “Issa knife” in a VladTV interview in 2016.







As for his cross on his forehead, he reveals, "That's the soldier sign, that's the compass, north, south, east, west. It's a little more to it...But it is a compass."


Savage Mode is a collaborative extended play by Atlanta-based rapper 21 Savage and Atlanta-based record producer Metro Boomin. It was released on July 15, 2016 via the iTunes StoreApple MusicSpotify and SoundCloud. The EP was self-released.[1]



"X" (originally titled "X Bitch") is a song by American rapper 21 Savage and American record producer Metro Boomin. It was released on July 14, 2016, as the lead single from their collaborative extended playSavage Mode (2016).[1][2]The song features guest vocals from American rapper Future. The song was certified 2x Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA).



Lil Wayne had a heart tattooed on the right side of his face. Wayne also has a cross tattooed just under his forehead and a crack at the top of his head.



Odd Future Wolf Gang Kill Them All, normally shortened to Odd Future and abbreviated to OFWGKTA (stylized OFWGK†Δ with an upside down cross), is an American hip hop collective formed in Los Angeles in 2006-07. The collective was originally formed by Tyler, The Creator with Hodgy, Left Brain, Casey Veggies, The Super 3, and Jasper Dolphin. Later members include Earl Sweatshirt, Frank Ocean, Domo Genesis, Mike G, and Syd. Outside music, Odd Future had an Adult Swim skit show called Loiter Squad, a clothing line named Golf Wang, as well as a mobile app called Golf Media which contains exclusive interviews, behind the scenes clips, and cartoons. Every year since 2012, Odd Future has held the annual Camp Flog Gnaw in Los Angeles where members of Odd Future, as well as other supporting acts, perform live and host a carnival.




Upside-down Crosses and the 666


Here are some pictures of the group doing some drawings on a wall and posing in front of them.


As you can see, to represent themselves, they chose to draw a large-sized upside-down cross, the number 666, a cat, a middle finger and the letters O.F. for Odd Future.


Check out the image of Tyler next to a demon possessed women who walked around the whole stage during the entire song, as well as the one of him surrounded by gnomes, while using his famous green mask with the upside-cross in the middle of his forehead.




On the Album Cover, Tyler appears with an upside-cross on his forehead and completely darkened eyes, once again, a sign of possession.




Check out the image of Tyler next to a demon possessed women who walked around the whole stage during the entire song, as well as the one of him surrounded by gnomes, while using his famous green mask with the upside-cross in the middle of his forehead.



Professor Charles Francis Xavier (also known as Professor X) is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics and is the founder and leader of the X-Men. Created by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in The X-Men #1 (September 1963).

X2 (often promoted as X2: X-Men United[2][3] and internationally as X-Men 2[4][5]) is a 2003 American superhero film based on the X-Men superhero team appearing in Marvel Comics