The Four horns and Four carpenters are a vision found in Book of Zechariah, in Zechariah 1:21 in traditional English texts. In Hebrew texts 1:18-21 is numbered 2:1-4. The vision precedes the vision of A Man With a Measuring Line.


Contents [hide]

1 Hebrew Bible text

2 In the Talmud

3 In later interpretation

4 References

Hebrew Bible text[edit]

Zechariah 2: 1 Then lifted I up mine eyes, and saw, and behold four horns. 2 And I said unto the angel that talked with me, What be these? And he answered me, These are the horns which have scattered Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem. 3 And the Lord shewed me four carpenters. 4 Then said I, What come these to do? And he spake, saying, These are the horns which have scattered Judah, so that no man did lift up his head: but these are come to fray them, to cast out the horns of the Gentiles, which lifted up their horn over the land of Judah to scatter it. TaNaK.


In the Talmud[edit]

The four craftsmen are discussed in Babylonian Talmud Suk. 52b. Rav Hana bar Bizna attributed to Rav Simeon Hasida the identification of these four craftsmen as Messiah ben David, Messiah ben Joseph, Elijah, and the Righteous Priest.[1] However David Kimchi interpreted the four craftsmen as four kingdoms.[2]


In later interpretation[edit]

The imagery of craftsmen is generally considered as "smiths", able to master the four iron horns, as symbolizing nations used as instruments of divine power for the destruction of Israel's enemies.[3][4]


there are the four spiritual categories – Still, Vegetative, Animate, and Speaking. In it, man’s soul is regarded as the speaking, the animate is regarded as the angels in that world, the vegetative category is called “dresses” and the still category is called “halls.” And they all robe one another: the speaking category, which is the souls of people, clothes the five Sefirot, KHBTM, which is the Godliness in that world. The animate category, which are the angels clothes over the souls; the vegetative, which are the dresses, clothe the angels; and the still, which are halls, revolve around them all.


The dressing means that they serve one another and evolve from one another, as we have clarified with the corporeal still, vegetative, animate and speaking in this world (Items 35-38): the three categories – still, vegetative, and animate – did not extend for themselves, but only so the fourth category, which is man, might develop and rise by them. Therefore, their role is only to serve man and be useful to him.


So it is in all the spiritual worlds. The three categories – still, vegetative, and animate – appeared there only to serve and be useful to the speaking category there, which is man’s soul. Therefore, it is considered that they all clothe over man’s soul, meaning to serve him.


In 2004, the joint venture of Sony and BMG created the 'Big Four' at a time the global market was estimated at $30–40 billion.[36] Total annual unit sales (CDs, music videos, MP3s) in 2004 were 3 billion. Additionally, according to an IFPI report published in August 2005,[37] the big four accounted for 71.7% of retail music sales:

  • Independent labels—28.3%

  • Universal Music Group—25.5%

  • Sony BMG Music Entertainment—21.5%

  • EMI Group—13.4%

  • Warner Music Group—11.3%

US music market shares, according to Nielsen SoundScan (2011)

  EMI (9.62%)

  WMG (19.13%)

  SME (29.29%)

  UMG (29.85%)

  Independent (12.11%)

Nielsen SoundScan in their 2011 report noted that the "big four" controlled about 88% of the market:[38]

After the absorption of EMI by Sony Music Entertainment and Universal Music Group in December 2011 the "big three" were created and on January 8, 2013 after the merger there were layoffs of forty workers from EMI. European regulators forced Universal Music to spin off EMI assets which became the Parlophone Label Group which was acquired by Warner Music Group.[39] Nielsen SoundScan issued a report in 2012, noting that these labels controlled 88.5% of the market, and further noted:[40]

The Epitaph on the Cross of Yeshua

By Chuck Missler (From his Book "The Creator Beyond Time and Space")

Throughout the Tanach-our Old Testament-there are many fascinating acrostics and other textual peculiarities that will fascinate the diligent scholar. In the New Testament there also appears to be a Hebrew acrostic that generally goes unnoticed.

Meaning of the word Acrostic: A composition in verse , in which the first, and sometimes last, letters of the line read in order form a name, a sentence, or title.

When Jesus was crucified, Pilate wrote the sign that was nailed to the cross. The particular wording he chose displeased the Jewish leadership and they asked him to change it. He refused. There are some interesting aspects to this incident that are not apparent in our English translations.

" And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was, 'Jesus Of Nazareth The King Of The Jews.' This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin. Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, 'Write not, The King of the Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews.' Pilate answered. 'What I have written I have written.'" 

John 19:19-22 (KJV)

Pilate refused to revise the epitaph he had composed. This may have more significance than is apparent in our English translations. The Hebrew epitaph is shown below (remember Hebrew is read from right to left):

Ha Yehudi m   vMelech   HaNazarei   Yeshua


    H     W     H     Y

Yeshua HaNazarei v Melech HaYehudim: Jesus the Nazarei and King of the Jews.

What we don't notice in the English translation is that the acrostic made up of the first letter of each word spells out Yahweh (YHWH)! 


"The precise meaning," writes Herbert F. Stevenson, "of the name is obscure. In the Hebrew, It was originally composed of four consonants YHWH - known to theologians as 'the tetragrammaton' - to which the vowels of Adonai were afterwards added (except when the name is joined to Adonai: then the vowels of Elohim are used). The Jews came to regard this name as too sacred to pronounce, however, and in the public reading of Scriptures they substituted Adonai for it - Jehovah was indeed to them 'the incommunicable name.'"


If Pilate had rewritten it in the manner they had requested him to, it would not have spelled out the Name of God. Did Pilate realize this? Was it deliberate? Did he do it just to upset the Jewish leadership, which he realized delivered Him up for Envy? (Matthew 27:18). Or was he beginning to suspect that there was more going on here than he previously realized?

When they requested a special guard for the tomb, he also responded with a enigmatic remark, "Make it as sure as you can." (Matthew 27:63-66). What did he mean by that/ Did he begin to suspect that Jesus really was who said He was? Was Pilate really surprised when Jesus was resurrected after three days? One wonders.

There are many other examples of acrotics in the Biblical text. For example, in the book of Esther the name of God does not appear in the text outright. However, it is found hidden as an acrostic in numerous places throughout the text of Esther. This should not be a surprise because the name Esther means "something hidden!"

The cosmological process that produced this space-time continuum is presently understood by many to have taken place in four stages — derived from the “string” theorists and the “big bang theory”. First, the mathematical properties and relations governing space-time had to be defined or “created”. Next, in a single quantum leap, “something-ness” emerged spontaneously out of that “abstraction”. At that point, a great “inflation” of the universe occurred. Finally, the “big bang” unleashed the full thrust of its force from within a single point inside that inflated universe.


In Kabbalistic terms, these four stages could be viewed as corresponding to the four-letter sequence of G-d’s ineffable Name — Yud Hei Vav Hei, the model upon which all meditation directed at G-d and Creation is based. Thus, any return to the primordial unity of creation would seem to imply a corresponding return to maximal symmetry.


The Hebrew doctrine of Creation sets forth the idea that the Primordial Man, or Adam was composed of the four lettered name of God stacked in vertical form to appear as sort of stick figure being. In addition, all of creation could be found to have it origin in this sacred name, and it pronunciation was closely guarded, so much so, that it is now lost. The discovery of its proper intonation is said to bring power over everything, so much so, that there are schools of kabbalah that only work with the various manipulations of this Name as their form of meditation.

Magick, Liber ABA, Book 4 is widely considered to be the magnum opus of 20th-century occultist Aleister Crowley, the founder of Thelema. It is a lengthy treatise on Magick, his system of Western occult practice, synthesised from many sources, including Eastern YogaHermeticismmedieval grimoires, contemporary magical theories from writers like Eliphas Levi and Helena Blavatsky, and his own original contributions. It consists of four parts: Mysticism, Magick (Elementary Theory), Magick in Theory and Practice, and ΘΕΛΗΜΑ—the Law (The Equinox of The Gods). It also includes numerous appendices presenting many rituals and explicatory papers.

Liber ABA refers to this work being a part of Crowley's system of magical works known as libri (Latin for 'books'). In most systems such as gematria where letters are given numerical value, ABA adds up to 4, a number which represents the Four Elements, Stability and so on (thus the name Book 4).


The Little League World Series consists of 16 teams–8 from the United States, and 8 from other countries. Prior to 2001 there were eight teams in the LLWS: four U.S. teams (Central, South, East, and West) and four international (Canada, Latin America, Europe, and the Far East). It should be noted that in 1975 there were only four teams in the LLWS, all from the United States.[6] The international teams returned in 1976.[6] Starting in 1976, two brackets were established, with the four U.S. regions competing in the U.S. bracket and the four non-U.S. regions competing in the International bracket. The U.S. national champion and the International champion then compete for the World Series title.[6]


In 2001, the number of regions was doubled to 16, from which the 16 regional champions continued to be divided into the two brackets: 8 in the United States Bracket and 8 in the International Bracket. From 2001 to 2009, however, each team was then randomly assigned to one of two "pools" in their respective bracket. In the opening days of the tournament, the teams competed round-robin within their own pool. The top two teams in each pool advanced to the semifinal of their bracket, where the first place team from one pool competed against the second place team from the other. The respective winners advanced to play in either the United States or International Final. The U.S. champion and the International champion advanced to compete in the Little League World Series Championship Game.


On April 14, 2010, Little League announced that starting in 2010, round robin play would be replaced by a double-elimination bracket in each pool. The winners of each pool would advance to single elimination US and International Championship games, and the winners of those games would advance to the World Championship game. Every team would play a minimum of three games: the four teams that lost their first two games would cross over and play U.S. vs. International games.[7]


On June 16, 2011, it was announced that the double-elimination format had been modified. The pools were eliminated, with the eight U.S. teams continuing to compete in one bracket and the eight International teams in another bracket. The tournament remains double-elimination until the U.S. and International Championship games, where it becomes single-elimination. (That is, if the team that advances through the winner's bracket loses the championship game they are eliminated and the teams do not play a rubber game.) Each team still plays a minimum of three games, playing a "crossover" (U.S. vs. International) consolation game if eliminated after their second game.[8][9]


Plato's Visible God: The Cosmic Soul Reflected in the Heavens - MDPI

by G Latura - ‎2012 - ‎Related articles

Sep 14, 2012 - Martyr argued that the celestial X in Plato's Timaeus was a foreshadowing of the Christian cross, a shape that Plato had somehow pilfered from ...


1. The World Soul: Justin Martyr, Proclus and Plato

In an open letter addressed to the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius, the Christian apologist Justin Martyr argued that the celestial X in Plato‘s Timaeus was a foreshadowing of the Christian cross, a shape that Plato had somehow pilfered from Moses.

And the scientific discussion of the Son of God in his Timaeus—when he says: ―He arranged him as an X in the whole‖—Plato took from Moses, and spoke in similar terms. —Justin Martyr, Apology on Behalf of Christians ([1], p. 235)

Here Justin conflates the Christian Son of God with Plato‘s Cosmic Soul, and he provides evidence that, in the glory days of the Roman Empire, Plato‘s Anima Mundi was seen as composed of intersecting lines in the heavens.

At the twilight of the Empire, the Platonic successor Proclus likewise connected Plato‘s intersecting symbol with the cosmic realm.

The shape X itself that results from the affixing [of the two strips] has the highest degree of appropriateness to the universe and to the soul.—Proclus, Commentary on Plato’s Timaeus ([2], p. 233)


The X in the universe that Proclus is commenting on and the Son of God that Justin Martyr places like an X in the cosmos both refer to the passage in Plato‘s Timaeus that describes the creation of the World Soul.

Next, he sliced this entire compound in two along its length, joined the two halves together center to center like an X, and bent them back in a circle, attaching each half to itself end to end and to the ends of the other half at the point opposite to the one where they had been joined together. He then included them in that motion which revolves in the same place without variation, and began to make one the outer, and the other the inner circle. And he decreed that the outer movement should be the movement of the Same, while the inner one should be that of the Different.—Plato, Timaeus ([3], p. 21)

Here Plato positions two cosmic circles at an angle to each other so that they intersect ―like an X.‖ What might these two circles stand for?


2. Modern and Ancient Mis-Interpretation

One interpretation, put forth by R. G. Bury in 1929 and Francis Cornford in 1937, maintains that Plato‘s celestial X is formed by the intersection of the celestial/sidereal equator and the ecliptic/zodiac.

He now tilts the inner band, so that it makes an oblique angle with the outer, which is set at the horizontal; from which we see that the Revolution of the Same represents the celestial Equator, moving ―horizontally to the right‖ (from East to West), and the Revolution of the Other represents the Ecliptic, which moves in a contrary direction to the Equator (from West to East), and at an angle to it. The Ecliptic He divides into seven, to represent the seven planets. —Bury, Plato: Timaeus ([4], p. 72, n. 1)

Timaeus now speaks as if the Demiurge had made a long band of soul-stuff, marked off by the intervals of his scale. This he proceeds to slit lengthwise into two strips, which he puts together by their middles and bends round into two circles or rings, corresponding to the sidereal equator and the Zodiac.—Cornford, Plato’s Cosmology ([5], p. 72)

Plato makes no mention of the celestial equator, yet influential books on the cult of Mithras in the Roman Empire were released by David Ulansey [6] and Roger Beck [7], with the Bury/Cornford interpretation championed by both Ulansey1 and Beck.2

Where might Bury and Cornford have found this interpretation of Plato‘s X? Perhaps in the works of Proclus, whose Commentary on Plato’s Timaeus [2] already espoused this view.

Now surely two circles come into being, and these have come to be in such a way that one is on the inside and the other is on the outside, and they are at an angle to one another. Now one of these is called the circle of the Same and the other is the circle the Different. The one corresponds to the equator while the other corresponds to the circle of the ecliptic. The entire circle of the Different is carried around the ecliptic, while the circle of the Same is carried around the equator. Because of this it is immediately evident that it is not necessary to assume these circles to be at right angles to one another, but rather like an X, just as Plato said...—Proclus, Commentary on Plato’s Timaeus ([2], p. 222).

1 2

―The celestial equator and the ecliptic intersect at two points...‖ ([6], p. 47)

―The model... is essentially that established by Plato in the Timaeus... It even has its standard iconographic representation: the world globe with the crossed bands of equator and ecliptic/zodiac.‖ ([7], p. 79)

Religions 2012, 3 882

Proclus‘ equator and Cornford‘s sidereal equator refer to the celestial equator, a projection of the Earth‘s equator into the heavens, showing that Proclus and Bury and Cornford (and Ulansey and Beck) all agree that Plato‘s X is composed of the path of the planets (the ecliptic that traces out the zodiac) and the celestial equator.

But Plato‘s own words prove this view to be in error.

At the end of Timaeus, Plato proclaims that the living Cosmos (which he said had the shape of an X) is a visible, discernible god.

And so now we may say that our account of the universe has reached its conclusion. This world of ours has received and teems with living things, mortal and immortal. A visible living thing containing visible ones, perceptible god, image of the intelligible Living Thing...Our one heaven, indeed the only one of its kind, has come to be.—Plato, Timaeus ([3], p. 88)

But since the celestial equator is a mathematical calculation and a geometric projection, it is certainly not visible in the heavens—exposing the fallacy behind the interpretation of Proclus, Bury, Cornford, Ulansey, Beck, etc.

3. Correct Interpretation

Who should we look to for the correct explanation? To Plato himself, whose narrative emphasizes that the Cosmic Soul, which has the shape of an X, will find a visible manifestation in the heavens.

The Demiurge first creates the World Soul, composed of two cosmic circles whose intersections take the form of an X. According to Plato, the Cosmic Soul itself is invisible, but the Creator decides to make the visible body of the universe as similar as possible to the invisible soul.

Now while the body of the universe had come to be as a visible thing, the soul was invisible.—Plato, Timaeus ([3], p. 23)

Now when the Father who had begotten the universe observed it set in motion and alive, a thing that had come to be as a shrine for the everlasting gods, he was well pleased, and in his delight he thought of making it more like its model still. So, as the model was itself an everlasting Living Thing, he set himself to bringing this universe to completion in such a way that it, too, would have that character to the extent that was possible.—Plato, Timaeus ([3], pp. 23–24)

In other words, the visible body of the universe mirrors as closely as possible the form of the invisible Cosmic Soul, whose two intersecting circles give the shape of an X. To give us a clue as to the components of this cosmic scheme, Plato reveals that one of the celestial circles, the circle of the Different, follows the path of the Wanderers, the seven Planets that trace out the zodiac.

When the god had finished making a body for each of them, he placed them into the orbits traced by the period of the Different—seven bodies in seven orbits.—Plato, Timaeus ([3], p. 25)

But does the course of the Planets ever become visible, as Plato stipulates?

And what other visible circle in the sky intersects the planetary path to form an X, the shape of the Cosmic Soul that is mirrored in the heavens?

We can thank our lucky stars that the Roman writer Manilius penned an exposition of the art of astrology around the time of Augustus. At the beginning of his esoteric tome, Manilius emphatically

Religions 2012, 3 883 describes two visible circles that intersect in the heavens. One is the path of the Planets and the other is

the Milky Way.

To these [previous circles] you must add two circles which lie athwart and trace lines that cross each other. One contains the shining signs through which the Sun plies his reins, followed by the wandering Moon in her chariot, and wherein the five planets which struggle against the opposite movement of the sky perform the dances of their orbits that nature‘s law diversifies... Nor does it elude the sight of the eye, as if it were a circle to be comprehended by the mind alone, even as the previous circles are perceived by the mind: nay, throughout its mighty circuit it shines like a baldric studded with stars and gives brilliance to heaven with its broad outline standing out in sharp relief.

The other circle [the Milky Way] is placed crosswise to it. —Manilius, Astronomica ([8], pp. 57, 59)

Certainly the Via Galactica is visible even today at a good distance from light-polluting cities, and since this awesome apparition in the night sky partakes of the revolution of the fixed stars—Plato‘s motion of the Same—it becomes evident that the Milky Way is the component of Plato‘s visible celestial X that intersects the path of the Planets.

What is the other celestial apparition that is as visible as Manilius claims?

4. Zodiacal Light and Milky Way

The Wanderers along the ecliptic map out the constellations of the Zodiac, but neither the planets themselves nor the zodiacal constellations give the ―brilliance to heaven... standing out in sharp relief‖ that Manilius paints before our eyes. What celestial phenomenon might explain Manilius‘ exuberant evocation?

That would be a rare and miraculous-seeming event that occurs only at specific times of the year. In temperate zones, the zodiacal light illuminates the sky along the ecliptic shortly before dawn or soon after dusk, depending on the season.

Enveloping the planets along its path, this broad swath of interplanetary dust reveals the stairway to heaven along which the souls of the just climb to the Milky Way, the celestial abode according to Cicero (Dream of Scipio), Manilius (Astronomica), Ovid (Metamorphoses), Macrobius (Commentary on the Dream of Scipio), Martianus Capella (Marriage of Philology and Mercury), etc.

And when the heavenly intersection reveals itself at rare times of the year, we witness Plato‘s visible, perceptible god—the embodiment of the Cosmic Soul—that, according to Justin Martyr, looks like ―an X‖ (Figure 1).

Plato‘s perceptible god, the visible intersection in the sky, appeared on coins of the Roman Empire for hundreds of years (Figure 2), on coins minted by Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Macrinus, and other emperors.

In his plea to the Roman emperor, Justin Martyr gives us not only Plato‘s visible god placed ―as an X‖ in the heavens, as shown on imperial coins, he also testifies to a most important use of the intersecting symbol in the Roman world.

And you set up the images of your dead emperors on this pattern, and you name them gods through inscriptions. —Justin Martyr, Apology on Behalf of Christians ([1], p. 227)

Religions 2012, 3 884

Figure 1. The zodiacal light rises from the horizon, envelops planets along the ecliptic, and intersects the Milky Way, revealing Plato‘s visible god, the celestial X that mirrors the World Soul. (Photo: Matt BenDaniel).

Figure 2. Plato‘s X on Roman coins. Left: Denarius of Antoninus Pius, with Italia enthroned on celestial sphere with intersecting lines (RIC III [9] #98a). Middle: Coin of Marcus Aurelius, with Providentia pointing to the celestial sphere with intersecting lines (RIC III [9] (Pius) #446). Right: Coin of Macrinus, with Providentia pointing to cosmic orb with intersecting lines (RIC IV Pt 2 [10] #80).

Religions 2012, 3 885

Invoking the sacred intersection struck on imperial coins of his day, Justin points to a crucial ritual in Roman religious life, one that harkened back to the funeral of Augustus himself. When a beloved emperor died, an eagle was released as the pyre consumed the physical body, to portray the soul of the emperor being carried by the bird of Jupiter to the company of the gods.

The Roman Senate deified admired rulers with the title divus, or divine, in the process of consecratio (Figure 3). The cosmic orb, with the intersecting lines that Justin Martyr refers to in his public letter, stood for the World Soul that encompassed the heavens where the emperor would enjoy eternal life among the gods.

Figure 3. A consecratio denarius declares Marcus Aurelius a divine being (divus), while Jupiter‘s eagle sits atop the celestial orb with intersecting lines: Plato‘s X, the visible reflection of the Cosmic Soul in the heavens (RIC III [9] (Commodus) #273).

5. Conclusions

With Justin Martyr‘s testimony, we can connect the consecratio coins of Roman emperors to the celestial intersecting symbol that indicates Plato‘s perceptible god. In this symbolism, we see the soul of the emperor joining the gods in the heavens, with the visible X indicating Plato‘s Cosmic Soul.

More than a hundred years after Justin Martyr‘s revisionist attempt, the Christian bishop Lactantius again sought to recast Plato‘s celestial X into a Christian symbol.3 Following the lead of Lactantius, the bishop Eusebius of Caesaria conjured a masterpiece of propaganda4 that would eclipse the memory of Plato‘s visible cosmic intersection and erase it from the Western mind for more than a millennium and a half.

The tradition of distorting Plato‘s celestial intersection into a Christian symbol endures in Bury‘s translation of Timaeus (1929), where Plato‘s X is mistranslated as ―like a great cross‖ ([4], p. 71).


It is a logical extension of the compound engine (described above) to split the expansion into yet more stages to increase efficiency. The result is the multiple-expansion engine. Such engines use either three or four expansion stages and are known as triple- and quadruple-expansion engines respectively. These engines use a series of double-acting cylinders of progressively increasing diameter and/or stroke and hence volume. These cylinders are designed to divide the work into three or four equal portions, one for each expansion stage. The image to the right shows an animation of a triple-expansion engine. The steam travels through the engine from left to right. The valve chest for each of the cylinders is to the left of the corresponding cylinder.


In the marine environment, the general requirement was for autonomy and increased operating range, as ships had to carry their coal supplies. The old salt-water boiler was thus no longer adequate and had to be replaced by a closed fresh-water circuit with condenser. The result from 1880 onwards was the multiple-expansion engine using three or four expansion stages (triple- and quadruple-expansion engines). These engines used a series of double-acting cylinders of progressively increasing diameter and/or stroke (and hence volume) designed to divide the work into three or four, as appropriate, equal portions for each expansion stage. Where space is at a premium, two smaller cylinders of a large sum volume might be used for the low-pressure stage. Multiple-expansion engines typically had the cylinders arranged in-line, but various other formations were used. In the late 19th century, the Yarrow-Schlick-Tweedy balancing 'system' was used on some marine triple-expansion engines. Y-S-T engines divided the low-pressure expansion stages between two cylinders, one at each end of the engine. This allowed the crankshaft to be better balanced, resulting in a smoother, faster-responding engine which ran with less vibration. This made the 4-cylinder triple-expansion engine popular with large passenger liners (such as the Olympic class), but was ultimately replaced by the virtually vibration-free steam turbine.


The M45 Quadmount (nicknamed the "meat chopper" and "Krautmower"[2] for its high rate of fire) was a weapon mounting consisting of four of the "HB", or "heavy barrel" .50 caliber M2 Browning machine guns (of the M2 Turret Type (TT) variant[2]) mounted in pairs on each side of an open, electrically powered turret. It was developed by the W. L. Maxson Corporation to replace the earlier M33 twin mount (also from Maxson).[2] Although designed as an anti-aircraft weapon, it was also used against ground targets. Introduced in 1943 during World War II, it remained in US service as late as the Vietnam War.


The ZPU (Russian: зенитная пулемётная установка, meaning "anti-aircraft machine gun mount") is a family of towed anti-aircraft gun based on the Soviet 14.5×114mm KPV heavy machine gun. It entered service with the Soviet Union in 1949 and is used by over 50 countries worldwide.


Quadruple (ZPU-4), two double- (ZPU-2 and ZU-2) and single-barreled (ZPU-1) versions of the weapon exist.


The quad-barrel ZPU-4 uses a four-wheel carriage similar to that once used by the obsolete 25 mm automatic anti-aircraft gun M1940. In firing position, the weapon is lowered onto firing jacks. It can be brought in and out of action in about 15 to 20 seconds, and can be fired with the wheels in the traveling position if needed.


Type-56/ZPU-4 14.5mm quad barrel anti aircraft gun Bangladesh Army.

Type-56/ZPU-4 14.5mm quad barrel anti aircraft gun Bangladesh Army.


The Flak 30 (Flugabwehrkanone 30) and improved Flak 38 were 20 mm anti-aircraft guns used by various German forces throughout World War II. It was not only the primary German light anti-aircraft gun, but by far the most numerously produced German artillery piece throughout the war.[1] It was produced in a variety of models, notably the Flakvierling 38 which combined four Flak 38 autocannons onto a single carriage.


The 20 mm weapons had always had weak development perspectives, often being reconfigured or redesigned just enough to allow the weapons to find use. Indeed, it came as a surprise when Rheinmetall introduced the 2 cm Flakvierling 38, which improved the weapon just enough to make it competitive once again. The term Vierling literally translates to "quadruplet" and refers to the four 20 mm gun constituting the design.


The Flakvierling weapon consisted of quad-mounted 2 cm Flak 38 AA guns with collapsing seats, folding handles, and ammunition racks. The mount had a triangular base with a jack at each leg for levelling the gun. The tracker traversed and elevated the mount manually using two handwheels. When raised, the weapon measured 307 cm (10 feet 1 inch) high.


Each of the four mounted guns had a separate magazine that held only 20 rounds. This meant that a maximum combined rate of fire of 1,400 rounds per minute was reduced practically to 800 rounds per minute for combat use – which would still require that a magazine to be replaced every six seconds, on each of the four guns.


Members of the Panzer-Grenadier-Division Großdeutschland train with a 2 cm Flakvierling 38 (1943)


Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch proposed a model of working memory in 1974, in an attempt to present a more accurate model of primary memory (often referred to as short-term memory). Working memory splits primary memory into multiple components, rather than considering it to be a single, unified construct.[1]


Baddeley & Hitch proposed their three part working memory model as an alternative to the short-term store in Atkinson & Shiffrin's 'multi-store' memory model (1968). This model is later expanded upon by Baddeley and other co-workers to add a fourth component, and has become the dominant view in the field of working memory. However, alternative models are developing (see working memory) providing a different perspective on the working memory system.


In 2000 Baddeley added a fourth component to the model, the episodic buffer. This component is a third slave system, dedicated to linking information across domains to form integrated units of visual, spatial, and verbal information with time sequencing (or chronological ordering), such as the memory of a story or a movie scene. The episodic buffer is also assumed to have links to long-term memory and semantic meaning.[23]


The disease course is divided into four stages, with a progressive pattern of cognitive and functional impairment.



The first symptoms are often mistakenly attributed to ageing or stress.[22] Detailed neuropsychological testing can reveal mild cognitive difficulties up to eight years before a person fulfils the clinical criteria for diagnosis of AD.[23] These early symptoms can affect the most complex activities of daily living.[24] The most noticeable deficit is short term memory loss, which shows up as difficulty in remembering recently learned facts and inability to acquire new information.[23][25]


Subtle problems with the executive functions of attentiveness, planning, flexibility, and abstract thinking, or impairments in semantic memory (memory of meanings, and concept relationships) can also be symptomatic of the early stages of AD.[23] Apathy can be observed at this stage, and remains the most persistent neuropsychiatric symptom throughout the course of the disease.[26] Depressive symptoms, irritability and reduced awareness of subtle memory difficulties are also common.[27] The preclinical stage of the disease has also been termed mild cognitive impairment (MCI).[25] This is often found to be a transitional stage between normal ageing and dementia. MCI can present with a variety of symptoms, and when memory loss is the predominant symptom, it is termed "amnestic MCI" and is frequently seen as a prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease.[28]



In people with AD, the increasing impairment of learning and memory eventually leads to a definitive diagnosis. In a small percentage, difficulties with language, executive functions, perception (agnosia), or execution of movements (apraxia) are more prominent than memory problems.[29] AD does not affect all memory capacities equally. Older memories of the person's life (episodic memory), facts learned (semantic memory), and implicit memory (the memory of the body on how to do things, such as using a fork to eat or how to drink from a glass) are affected to a lesser degree than new facts or memories.[30][31]


Language problems are mainly characterised by a shrinking vocabulary and decreased word fluency, leading to a general impoverishment of oral and written language.[29][32] In this stage, the person with Alzheimer's is usually capable of communicating basic ideas adequately.[29][32][33] While performing fine motor tasks such as writing, drawing or dressing, certain movement coordination and planning difficulties (apraxia) may be present, but they are commonly unnoticed.[29] As the disease progresses, people with AD can often continue to perform many tasks independently, but may need assistance or supervision with the most cognitively demanding activities.[29]




A photograph of a patient at West Riding Lunatic Asylum with dementia

Progressive deterioration eventually hinders independence, with subjects being unable to perform most common activities of daily living.[29] Speech difficulties become evident due to an inability to recall vocabulary, which leads to frequent incorrect word substitutions (paraphasias). Reading and writing skills are also progressively lost.[29][33] Complex motor sequences become less coordinated as time passes and AD progresses, so the risk of falling increases.[29] During this phase, memory problems worsen, and the person may fail to recognise close relatives.[29] Long-term memory, which was previously intact, becomes impaired.[29]


Behavioural and neuropsychiatric changes become more prevalent. Common manifestations are wandering, irritability and labile affect, leading to crying, outbursts of unpremeditated aggression, or resistance to caregiving.[29] Sundowning can also appear.[34] Approximately 30% of people with AD develop illusionary misidentifications and other delusional symptoms.[29] Subjects also lose insight of their disease process and limitations (anosognosia).[29] Urinary incontinence can develop.[29] These symptoms create stress for relatives and carers, which can be reduced by moving the person from home care to other long-term care facilities.[29][35]



During the final stages, the patient is completely dependent upon caregivers.[29] Language is reduced to simple phrases or even single words, eventually leading to complete loss of speech.[29][33] Despite the loss of verbal language abilities, people can often understand and return emotional signals. Although aggressiveness can still be present, extreme apathy and exhaustion are much more common symptoms. People with Alzheimer's disease will ultimately not be able to perform even the simplest tasks independently; muscle mass and mobility deteriorates to the point where they are bedridden and unable to feed themselves. The cause of death is usually an external factor, such as infection of pressure ulcers or pneumonia, not the disease itself.[29]


The contestants must first play a preliminary round, called "Fastest Finger First" (or, in the U.S. version, simply "Fastest Finger"), where they are all given a question and four answers from the host and are asked to put those four answers into a particular order; in the first series of the British version and in pre-2003 episodes of the Australian version, the round instead required the contestants to answer one multiple-choice question correctly as quickly as possible. The contestant who does so correctly and in the fastest time goes on to play the main game for the maximum possible prize (often a million units of the local currency). In the event that two or more contestants are tied for the fastest time, those contestants play another question to break the tie. If no one gets the question right, that question is discarded and another question is played in the same manner. If any contestants are visually impaired, the host reads the question and four choices all at once, then repeats the choices after the music begins.


Main game contestants are asked increasingly difficult general knowledge questions by the host. Questions are multiple choice: four possible answers are given (labelled A, B, C and D), and the contestant must choose the correct one. The 'D' answer on the first question (except in the Shuffle format like in the US version) is always incorrect and humorous. Upon answering a question correctly, the contestant wins a certain amount of money. In most versions, there is no time limit to answer a question; a contestant may (and often does) take as long as they need to ponder an answer. After the first few questions, the host will ask the contestant if that is their "final answer". When a contestant says "final" in conjunction with one of the answers, it is official, and cannot be changed. The first five questions usually omit this rule, because the questions are generally so easy that requiring a final answer would significantly slow the game down; thus, there are five chances for the contestant to leave with no money if they were to provide a wrong answer before obtaining the first guaranteed amount; going for 1,000 units of currency after winning 500 units is the last point in the game at which a contestant can still leave empty-handed.



In 2007, the German version modified its format, so that contestants would be allowed to choose the option of playing in a new variant called "Risk Mode". If the contestant chooses to play this variant, they are given access to a fourth lifeline that allows them to discuss a question with a volunteer from the audience, but the tenth-question safe haven is forfeited. This means that if the contestant answers any of questions 11–15 incorrectly, they drop all the way to the guaranteed winnings gained by answering question 5 correctly. If the contestant chooses to the play the classic format, they keep the second safe haven. The risk format was subsequently adopted by such markets as Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, the Philippines, Poland, Russia, Switzerland and Venezuela.


The show's original three lifelines are "50/50", in which the computer eliminates two of the incorrect answers; "Phone a Friend", in which the contestant makes a thirty-second call to one of a number of friends (who provide their phone numbers in advance) and reads them the question and answer choices, after which the friend provides input; and "Ask the Audience", in which audience members use touch pads to designate what they believe the correct answer to be, after which the percentage of the audience choosing each specific option is displayed to the contestant. In countries where the show is broadcast live, friends selected for Phone-a-Friend are alerted when their contestant begins to play the main game, and are told to keep the phone free and to wait for three rings before answering.[10] Phone-a-Friend was removed from the U.S. version beginning with the episode that aired on 11 January 2010, after it was determined that there was an increasing trend of contestants' friends using web search engines and other Internet resources to assist them, which unfairly privileged individuals who had computer access over those who did not, and that it was contrary to the original intent of the lifeline, by which friends were supposed to provide assistance based on what they already knew.[11] From 2004 to 2008, the U.S. version had a fourth lifeline called "Switch the Question",[4] earned upon answering question ten, in which the computer replaced, at the contestant's request, one question with another of the same monetary value; however, any lifelines used on the original question were not reinstated for the new question. Switch the Question returned as Cut the Question for a special week of shows with child contestants aired in 2014 (in the latter case, it could only be used on the first ten questions).


The sixteen contestants were divided into two tribes of eight: Tagi and Pagong. Both tribes fared equally in challenges but differed in organisational structure. Pagong was dominated by the younger, more carefree members, whereas four contestants on Tagi—Kelly, Richard, Rudy, and Susan—formed an alliance, choosing to vote as a voting bloc to ensure their safety. When ten players remained—five from each tribe—the tribes merged into one, named Rattana. The alliance strategy proved to be successful, and the four took advantage of the other contestants' lack of voting strategy to gain dominance. There was dissension in the alliance as Kelly was deemed untrustworthy, but she won four consecutive immunity challenges and was ineligible for elimination.


When only the four alliance members remained, the vote initially ended in a draw; close allies Richard and Rudy voted for Susan, and Susan and Kelly voted for Richard. On the revote, Kelly decided to switch her vote and Susan was eliminated. After winning the final immunity challenge, Kelly decided to eliminate Rudy because she believed she had a better chance against Richard. At the final Tribal Council, Susan lambasted Kelly for switching her vote and proclaimed her support for Richard. Richard's strategic prowess and leadership were valued over Kelly's impressive challenge performances, and the jury awarded him the title of Sole Survivor in a vote of 4-3.


Survivor: The Australian Outback (also referred to simply as Survivor: Australia) is the second season of the American CBS competitive reality television series Survivor. Filming took place at Goshen Station, on the bank of the Herbert River (approximately 3 hours south-west of Cairns) in northern Queensland from October 23, 2000, through December 3, 2000, eventually premiering on January 28, 2001.[1] Hosted by Jeff Probst, it consisted of 42 days of gameplay with 16 competitors.


The sixteen contestants were initially separated into two tribes, named Kucha and Ogakor. When ten players remained, they merged into one tribe, named Barramundi. Tina Wesson won the season and was named the Sole Survivor, defeating Colby Donaldson by a jury vote of 4–3.


The sixteen castaways were divided into two tribes of eight: Ogakor and Kucha, named after the words for "crocodile" and "kangaroo" in an Australian Aboriginal language respectively. Though Ogakor fared worse in challenges, the tribes were merged with five members apiece after Kucha member Michael fell into the campfire and suffered third-degree burns, requiring his evacuation. As a result, the vote at the first Tribal Council after the merge ended in a tie along tribal lines. Per the rules, ties were resolved based on which player had received the most votes in all previous Tribal Councils; former Kucha Jeff was eliminated, putting the remnants of Ogakor in power.


The Benefactor is an American reality television show broadcast on ABC starting on September 13, 2004. The premise involved 16 contestants vying to win US$1 million from billionaire entrepreneur and Dallas Mavericks owner Mark Cuban.

In the first week, Mark Cuban invited the sixteen contestants to a Dallas mansion to begin the game. As the contestants arrive, Cuban watches them and their interactions with the others through closed-circuit cameras. Once everyone has arrived, Cuban joins the group and announces that one of them has already failed the first test: you don't get a second chance to make a first impression. Cuban then proceeded to eliminate Richard, who Cuban believed had called the game "stupid" (In reality, he actually said that he didn't 'think ['The Benefactor'] was 'going to be one of those stupid shows.')


Survivor: Africa is the third season of the American CBS competitive reality television series Survivor. The season was filmed from July 11, 2001 through August 18, 2001 and premiered on October 11, 2001. Hosted by Jeff Probst, it consisted of the usual 39 days of gameplay with 16 competitors. It was set in Kenya's Shaba National Reserve on the African continent.

The sixteen castaways were split into two tribes, Samburu and Boran, and were given camps that included pre-constructed fencing to help protect them from wildlife. Samburu took an early lead, but the tribe internally was divided equally along age lines (Silas, Kim P., Brandon and Lindsey as one, and Frank, Teresa, Carl and Linda as the other). At their first Tribal Council, the age blocs left a stalemate tie between Carl and Lindsey, and with no previous votes to count, a quiz was used, with Lindsay winning and putting the younger members in control; on the next visit to Tribal Council, Linda was eliminated, and both tribes were even at six members. On Day 13, the tribes were given a vague clue about sending three members on quest, unaware this would be the first tribal swap for Survivor. Silas picked himself along with the two remaining older Samburu, Frank and Teresa, while Kelly, Big Tom and Lex were picked for Boran. After informed of the tribal swap, these players joined their new tribe; Frank and Teresa quickly went to work with the original Boran members to eliminate Silas, while the original Boran members on Samburu learned of Lindsay's past votes and were able to eliminate her.


Tribes Divided by Ethnicity is a game-shifting paradigm employed at the start of a competition that divides contestants into ethnic-specific tribes for a pre-determined amount of time. This twist has only been used in the first two episodes of Survivor: Cook Islands.



Twist History

Cook Islands

Tribes were divided up into 4 ethnic groups: Hispanic-Americans (Aitutaki: Billy, Cecilia, Cristina, JP, and Ozzy), Caucasians (Rarotonga: Adam, Candice, Jessica, Jonathan, and Parvati), Asian-Americans (Puka Puka: Becky, Brad, Cao Boi, Jenny, and Yul), and African-Americans (Manihiki: Nate, Rebecca, Sekou, Stephannie, and Sundra). The tribes would stay this way until Day 7 when both tribes were absorbed into Aitutaki and Rarotonga.




Controversial in its execution, division by ethnicity was deemed as racial segregation by many groups and sponsors. This lead to companies withdrawing their products, though some of these sponsors claim that the game format change had nothing to do with their withdrawal.


Survivor: Marquesas is the fourth season of the American CBS competitive reality television series Survivor. The season filmed from November 12, 2001 through December 20, 2001 and premiered on February 28, 2002. Hosted by Jeff Probst, it consisted of the usual 39 days of gameplay with 16 competitors. The Marquesas Islands were initially selected as a backup location for Survivor. The original location, Jordan, was discounted as a result of the September 11 attacks[1] and the political situation in the Middle East.[2]


The sixteen contestants were divided into two preselected tribes of eight, Rotu and Maraamu. The Rotu tribe prospered as a unified, hard-working group, while the Maraamu tribe quickly became divided between those who worked, led by Hunter, and those who didn't, led by Rob. Rob's faction dominated the votes, resulting in Maraamu losing every single challenge. On day 10, a random tribe shuffle sent Rob and his allies Sean and Vecepia to Rotu, while Paschal, Neleh, and Kathy joined Maraamu. While Rob seemed like an easy choice to eliminate, original Rotu member John aligned with fellow original Rotu members Tammy, Robert, and Zoe to eliminate Gabriel, the fifth remaining original Rotu member, for being strategically apathetic.



Survivor: Thailand is the fifth season of the American CBS competitive reality television series Survivor. The season was filmed from June 10, 2002 through July 18, 2002 on the island of Ko Tarutao in Thailand, and premiered on September 19, 2002. Hosted by Jeff Probst, it consisted of the usual 39 days of gameplay with 16 competitors.


The sixteen contestants were split into two tribes of eight by the two eldest contestants, Jake and Jan; this was the first time in series history that the tribes were not preselected. Jake's tribe, Sook Jai, was composed of younger players and took an early lead. Chuay Gahn, despite losing five of the first seven challenges, remained mostly cohesive barring a conflict between Ghandia and Ted, whom Ghandia claimed made unwanted sexual advances toward her. This led to Ghandia being voted off in the next Tribal Council, resulting in Chuay Gahn gaining momentum to win the next two immunity challenges, evening the playing field at five members per tribe.


Survivor: The Amazon is the sixth season of the American CBS competitive reality television series Survivor. The season was filmed from November 11, 2002 through December 15, 2002 in the Amazon and premiered on February 13, 2003. Hosted by Jeff Probst, it consisted of the usual 39 days of gameplay with 16 competitors.


Survivor: Pearl Islands (also broadcast as Survivor: Pearl Islands — Panama) is the seventh season of the American CBS competitive reality television series Survivor. It was filmed from June 23, 2003 through July 31, 2003 and premiered on September 18, 2003. The season was filmed on the Pearl Islands, off the coast of Panama, and had a pirate culture theme. Hosted by Jeff Probst, it consisted of the usual 39 days of gameplay with 16 competitors.


Changes in 2012[edit]

HBO renewed the show on April 24, 2012, for two more seasons through 2013–14.[20] The first episode of Season 11 aired on January 18, 2013,[21] retaining its format of an initial monologue from Maher, a one-on-one interview with a guest, then turning to a discussion panel of three guests, and ending with "New Rules".


A new addition to the format is that of a fourth or "mid-guest", who comes in at approximately the halfway point of the show, bringing their own issue to the table and discussing it with the entire panel.[22]


Survivor: Panama — Exile Island, also known as Survivor: Exile Island and Survivor: Panama, is the twelfth season of the American CBS competitive reality television series Survivor. The season was filmed in the Pearl Islands, off the coast of Panama from October 31, 2005 through December 8, 2005 and premiered on February 2, 2006. Hosted by Jeff Probst, it consisted of the usual 39 days of gameplay with 16 competitors, the first season with 16 competitors since Survivor: Pearl Islands five seasons prior.


The 16 players were initially split into four tribes by sex and age: young men (Viveros), older men (La Mina), young women (Bayoneta) and older women (Casaya).[1] These four tribes were named after four islands located in the Pearl Islands. Shortly after the first Tribal Council, the Viveros and Bayoneta tribes were dissolved and a "schoolyard pick" formed two new integrated tribes using the Casaya and La Mina tribe names and camps. When there were ten contestants left, they merged into one tribe named Gitanos, the Spanish word for "gypsy." Coincidentally, a member from each of the original four tribes was represented in the final four. During the season finale on May 14, 2006, it was revealed that Aras Baskauskas was named the Sole Survivor over Danielle DiLorenzo in a 5-2 vote.


The game began with the 16 competitors split into four tribes by both relative age and gender. They were introduced to the concept of "Exile Island" with the promise of a hidden immunity idol located somewhere on it, while one person from the losing tribe at challenges would be sent to the island and given clues to look for it. After the first four days, the four tribes were merged by schoolyard pick with mixed genders into two tribes, Casaya and La Mina. Casaya generally proved the stronger tribe, and opted to send Terry from La Mina over to Exile Island multiple times, which gave him the opportunity to discover the hidden immunity idol.


The New Celebrity Apprentice is the eighth and final installment of the reality game show, The Celebrity Apprentice. It aired from January 2 to February 13, 2017. The winner of this season was Matt Iseman.[1]


The season marks the debut of Arnold Schwarzenegger—actor and former Governor of California, as host. The show's former host, current United States President Donald Trump, stated he opted to leave "out of respect" while he was focusing on his presidential campaign. NBC had also begun to cut ties with Trump following controversial remarks he made upon the start of his campaign in 2015.[2][3][4] Trump remains as an executive producer through the show's production company, MGM Television.[5]


NBC announced the 16 contestants, as well as advisors Warren Buffett, Tyra Banks, Steve Ballmer, Jessica Alba and Patrick M. Knapp Schwarzenegger on January 28, 2016. On December 1, 2016, six more advisors were announced. Those advisers are former The Apprentice winner Leeza Gibbons, celebrity chef Rocco DiSpirito, Extra co-host Tracey Edmonds, The Biggest Loser host Bob Harper, YouTube star iJustine, and "Moola" CEO Gemma Godfrey. This season was filmed in Los Angeles.[6]


"The Apprentice" is a 15-episode unscripted drama in which 16 candidates from all walks of life, including both Ivy League MBA graduates and street entrepreneurs with no college education, will endure rigorous tasks each week while living together in a hip Manhattan loft apartment. The tasks will test their intelligence, chutzpah and street-smarts. They will face the challenges of living in close quarters and must compete sometimes humorous but always difficult job assignments and will be forced to think outside the box in order to outshine each other to get to the top. Upon their arrival to New York City (some for the very first time), the 16 candidates will be rushed over to Trump Tower to meet with Donald Trump, the centerpiece and driving force of this series. After splitting the group into two teams of 8, Trump then issues the first task. Teams will be given time constraints for each task and they will be observed by either Trump himself or members of his staff at every moment ... Written by NBC


The script for The Apprentice called for the host to play a relatively modest role. The show was about the contestants—and more than 215,000 people had signed up to become one of the first sixteen candidates on the show, living in a faux-apartment set that Burnett had built on the same floor of Trump Tower as the boardroom set (the elevator that contestants would be seen taking “up to the boardroom” was just one more piece of showbiz). Trump was to introduce the challenge that contestants faced at the start of each episode, then appear in a brief boardroom scene at the end, when he would decide which contestant had performed poorly and would not return the next week.