According to the Golden Legend, the narrative episode of Saint George and the Dragon took place somewhere he called "Silene", in Libya; the Golden Legend is the first to place this story in Libya. In the tenth-century Georgian narrative, the place is the city of Lasia, and the idolatrous emperor who rules the city is called Selinus.[7]


The town had a small lake with a plague-bearing dragon living in it and poisoning the countryside. To appease the dragon, the people of Silene fed it two sheep every day. When they ran out of sheep they started feeding it their children, chosen by lottery. One time the lot fell on the king's daughter.[8] The king, in his grief, told the people they could have all his gold and silver and half of his kingdom if his daughter were spared; the people refused. The daughter was sent out to the lake, dressed as a bride, to be fed to the dragon.[7]


Saint George by chance rode past the lake. The princess tried to send him away, but he vowed to remain. The dragon emerged from the lake while they were conversing. Saint George made the Sign of the Cross and charged it on horseback, seriously wounding it with his lance. He then called to the princess to throw him her girdle, and he put it around the dragon's neck. When she did so, the dragon followed the girl like a meek beast on a leash.


The princess and Saint George led the dragon back to the city of Silene, where it terrified the populace. Saint George offered to kill the dragon if they consented to become Christians and be baptised. Fifteen thousand men including the king of Silene converted to Christianity. George then killed the dragon, and the body was carted out of the city on four ox-carts. The king built a church to the Blessed Virgin Mary and Saint George on the site where the dragon died and a spring flowed from its altar with water that cured all disease.[9]


The motif of Saint George as a knight on horseback slaying the dragon first appears in western art in the second half of the 13th century. The tradition of the saint's arms being shown as the red-on-white St. George's Cross develops in the 14th century.


In an interview with Entertainment Weekly on Wednesday, the co-directors of the 1999 classic found footage horror film The Blair Witch Project revealed that they filmed several alternate endings.


“We went back to that house with a skeleton crew and basically just shot all the endings that Ed [Sanchez] and I threw out when we were dreaming up the script,” Dan Myrick told EW, then listed other endings, such as Mike (played by Michael C. Williams) hanging from a noose or crucified with a bloody chest. These had to be done cheaply, as The Blair Witch Project had a budget of $60,000. (It ended up making $249 million at the box office, but nobody could have predicted that.)


In the interview, they demonstrated the latter with a sketch of crucified bodies on fire on top of wood structures resembling the film’s instantly recognizable doll figurines. The lurid image makes it seem as though the ending of the film might once have been more dramatic and gory. However, as dug up by /Film, a short video of this ending has been available on YouTube for years. It is... lame.


Agni is the god of the fire-stick, which is also associated with the swastika, which is believed to represent sacred fire sticks(11). The above image is a depiction of Agni, the Hindu God.


The Confederate Congress debated whether the white field should have a blue stripe and whether it should be bordered in red. William Miles delivered a speech supporting the simple white design that was eventually approved. He argued that the battle flag must be used, but for a national flag it was necessary to emblazon it, but as simply as possible, with a plain white field.[27] When Thompson received word the Congress had adopted the design with a blue stripe, he published an editorial on April 28 in opposition, writing that "the blue bar running up the centre of the white field and joining with the right lower arm of the blue cross, is in bad taste, and utterly destructive of the symmetry and harmony of the design."[1][5]

The third national flag (also called the “Blood Stained Banner”) was adopted March 4, 1865. The red vertical bar was proposed by Major Arthur L. Rogers, who argued that the pure white field of the Second National flag could be mistaken as a flag of truce: when hanging limp in no wind, the flag’s “Southern Cross” canton could accidentally stay hidden, so the flag could mistakenly appear all white.


Composition with Red Cross 1947

74x52cm gouache on paper, cut and pasted

Private collectio







Four discourses is a concept developed by French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan. He argued that there were four fundamental types of discourse. He defined four discourses, which he called Master, University, Hysteric and Analyst, and suggested that these relate dynamically to one another.


Discourse of the Master – Struggle for mastery / domination / penetration. Based on Hegel's master–slave dialectic.

Discourse of the University – Provision and worship of "objective" knowledge — usually in the unacknowledged service of some external master discourse.

Discourse of the Hysteric – Symptoms embodying and revealing resistance to the prevailing master discourse.

Discourse of the Analyst – Deliberate subversion of the prevailing master discourse.

Lacan's theory of the four discourses was initially developed in 1969, perhaps in response to the events of social unrest during May 1968 in France, but also through his discovery of what he believed were deficiencies in the orthodox reading of the Oedipus Complex. The Four Discourses theory is presented in his seminar L'envers de la psychanalyse and in Radiophonie, where he starts using "discourse" as a social bond founded in intersubjectivity. He uses the term discourse to stress the transindividual nature of language: speech always implies another subject.

Discourse, in the first place, refers to a point where speech and language intersect. The four discourses represent the four possible formulations of the symbolic network which social bonds can take and can be expressed as the permutations of a four-term configuration showing the relative positions — the agent, the other, the product and the truth — of four terms, the subject, the master signifierknowledge and objet petit a.

The four positions in each discourse are :

Agent = Upper left. This is the speaker of the discourse

Other = Upper right. This is what the discourse is addressed to

Product = Lower right. This is what the discourse has created

Truth = Lower left. This is what the discourse attempted to express

The four variables which occupy these positions are :

S1 = the master signifier

S2 = knowledge (le savoir)

$ = the subject (barred)

a = the objet petit a or surplus-jouissance

S1 refers to "the marked circle of the field of the Other," it is the Master-Signifier. S2 is the "battery of signifiers, already there" at the place where "one wants to determine the status of a discourse as status of statement," that is knowledge (savoir). S1 comes into play in a signifying battery conforming the network of knowledge. $ is the subject, marked by the unbroken line (trait unaire) which represents it and is different from the living individual who is not the locus of this subject. Add the objet petit a, the object-waste or the loss of the object that occurred when the originary division of the subject took place — the object that is the cause of desire: the plus-de-jouir.

Discourse of the Master:

It is the basic discourse from which the other three derive. The dominant position is occupied by the master signifier, S1, which represents the subject, S, for all other signifiers: S2. In this signifying operation there is a surplus: objet a. All attempts at totalisation are doomed to fail. This discourse masks the division of the subject, it illustrates the structure of the dialectic of the master and the slave. The master, S1, is the agent who puts the slave, S2, to work: the result is a surplus, objet a, that the master struggles to appropriate.

Discourse of the University:

It is caused by an anticlockwise quarter turn of the previous discourse. The dominant position is occupied by knowledge (savoir). An attempt to mastery can be traced behind the endeavors to impart neutral knowledge: domination of the other to whom knowledge is transmitted. This hegemony is visible in modernity with science.

Discourse of the Hysteric:

It is effected by a clockwise quarter turn of the discourse of the master. It is not simply "that which is uttered by the hysteric," but a certain kind of articulation in which any subject may be inscribed. The divided subject, $, the symptom, is in the pole position. This discourse points toward knowledge. "The cure involves the structural introduction of the discourse of the hysteric by way of artificial conditions": the analyst hystericizes the analysand's discourse.

Discourse of the Analyst:

It is produced by a quarter turn of the discourse of the hysteric in the same way as Freud develops psychoanalysis by giving an interpretative turn to the discourse of his hysterical patients. The position of the agent — the analyst — is occupied by objet a: the analyst becomes the cause of the analysand's desire. This discourse being the reverse of the discourse of the master, does it make psychoanalysis an essentially subversive practice which undermines attempts at domination and mastery?

Relevance for cultural studies[edit]

Slavoj Žižek uses the theory to explain various cultural artefacts, including Don Giovanni and Parsifal.

DiscourseDon GiovanniParsifalCharacteristics

MasterDon OttavioAmfortasinauthentic, inconsistent

UniversityLeporelloKlingsorinauthentic, consistent

HystericDonna ElviraKundryauthentic, inconsistent

AnalystDonna AnnaParsifalauthentic, consistent

The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis is the 1978 English-language translation of a seminar held by Jacques Lacan. The original (French: Le séminaire. Livre XI. Les quatre concepts fondamentaux de la psychanalyse) was published in Paris by Le Seuil in 1973. The Seminar was held at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris between January and June 1964 and is the eleventh in the series of The Seminar of Jacques Lacan. The text was published by Jacques-Alain Miller.

Lacan sought in his eleventh Seminar to cover what he called "the major Freudian concepts - I have isolated four that seem to come within this category...the first two, the Unconscious and Repetition. The Transference - I hope to approach it next time -...and lastly, the Drive." Praxis thus, which "places the subject in a position of dealing with the real through the symbolic," produces concepts, of which four are offered here: the Unconscious, Repetition, Transference and the Drive.


The 1973 title, Les quatre concepts fondamentaux de la psychanalyse, has often been contested in favor of the 1964's: Les fondements de la psychanalyse, which implies neither that it is a matter of concepts, nor that there are only four of them. Lacan is suspicious of the rapport between psychoanalysis, religion and science. Did they not have a founding father and quasi-secret texts? Freud was "legitimately the subject presumed to know," at least as to the unconscious: "He was not only the subject who was presumed to know, he knew." "He gave us this knowledge in terms that may be said to be indestructible." "No progress has been made that has not deviated whenever one of the terms has been neglected around which Freud ordered the ways that he traced and the paths of the unconscious." This declaration of allegiance contrasts with the study of Freud's dream about the dead son screaming "Father, can't you see I'm burning?" The main problem remains that of transference: the Name-of-the-Father is a foundation, but the legacy of the Father is sin, and the original sin of psychoanalysis is Freud's desire that was not analyzed. In "The Freudian thing",[3] Lacan presents the Name-of-the-Father as a treasure to be found, provided it implies self-immolation as a sacrificial victim to truth.


Of the four concepts mentioned, three were developed between 1953 and 1963. As to drives, whose importance has increased since the study of objet a in the 1963 Seminar L'angoisse, Lacan considers them as different from biological needs in that they can never be satisfied. The purpose of the drive is not to reach a goal (a final destination) but to follow its aim (the way itself), which is to circle round the object. The real source of jouissance is the repetitive movement of this closed circuit. Freud defined Trieb as a montage of four discontinuous elements: "Drive is not thrust (Drang); in "Instincts and Their Vicissitudes"[4] Freud distinguishes four terms in the drive: Drang, thrust; Quelle, the source; Objekt, the object; Ziel, the aim


Lönnrot is a famous detective in an unnamed city that may or may not be Buenos Aires. When a rabbi is killed in his hotel room on the third of December, Lönnrot is assigned to the case. Based on a cryptic message left on the rabbi's typewriter—"The first letter of the name has been uttered"—the detective determines that the murder was not accidental. He connects this with the Tetragrammaton, the unspeakable four-letter name of God, and with his criminal nemesis Red Scharlach.

Exactly one month later, on the third of January, a second murder takes place with the message "The second letter of the name has been uttered" left at the crime site. Predictably, the same thing happens on the third of February, with the message reading "The last letter of the name has been uttered."

However, Lönnrot isn't convinced that the spree is at an end, as the Tetragrammaton contains four letters—two of them being the same letter repeated. Furthermore, he surmises that the murders may actually have taken place on the fourth of December, January, and February, respectively, since a new day begins at sunset within the Jewish calendar (the murders were all committed at night). He predicts that the next month will see one final killing.

In the meantime, the detective's office receives an anonymous tip to view the locations of the murders on a map, revealing that each coincides to the point of an equilateral triangle. Recognizing that the southern end of the city has yet to be terrorized, Lönnrot extrapolates that the complete pattern will create a rhombus (the south appears frequently in Borges's writings as an allusion to the Argentine frontier, and by extension, as a symbol of solitude, lawlessness, and fate).

Lönnrot arrives at the site a day in advance, prepared to surprise the murderers. He is grabbed in the dark by two henchmen, and Scharlach emerges from the shadows.

Scharlach reveals that Lönnrot arrested his brother—who then died in prison—and that Scharlach swore to avenge his death. Killing the rabbi was accidental, but Scharlach used Lönnrot's tendency to over-intellectualize (a police report in the newspaper clued him in to the fact that Lönnrot was following a kabbalistic pattern to track the criminals) to lure Lönnrot to this place. Lönnrot becomes calm in the face of his death and declares that Scharlach made his maze too complex: Instead of a four sided rhombus it should have been but a single line of murders, with each subsequent murder taking place on the halfway point (A 8 km from B, C 4 km from each, D 2 km from A and C). Lönnrot says that philosophers have been lost on this line, so a simple detective should feel no shame to do the same (a reference to Zeno's Paradox). Scharlach promises that he will trap Lönnrot in this simpler labyrinth in their next "incarnation," and then kills him.


"The alphabet links the inner world of the mind with the outer world of experience, just as our hands do," he says. "And," he continues, "The first letter of the book of Genesis -Bet- means 'house', something that distinguishes inside from outside; this is the most basic distinction you can make at any level of consciousness."

When Tenen broke the first word of Genesis into its 'subatomic particles' (the word is actually comprised of two smaller words, meaning "fire" and "six-edged thorn"), he took the "thorn" to mean a tetrahedron and constructed a model of it, placing the "fire," or torus "vortex" form, inside.


Tenen noticed that the model, which he calls "The Light In the Meeting Tent" also reflected the polarity of perfect symmetry (the tetrahedron) and asymmetry (the vortex form). As he studied it, he discovered it was even more multifaceted than he had realized. "When I looked through the faces of the tetrahedron at the vortex, each view displayed a different letter in the Hebrew alphabet," he says. And," he mentions almost casually," I realized the 27 gestures that accompany the letters correspond to the 27 'preferred' pointing directions used in hyper-dimensional space."


He says the Hebrew Bible is arranged similarly to a hologram: the first letter contains the whole, the first word expands on the first letter, the first sentence upon the first word, etc. "It's very much like what our scientists do," he says. "We include information with messages sent to outer space that explains how to decode the entire message-that's also how compression programs work on computers."

According to Tenen these gestures and the position of 
"The Light in the Meeting Tent" will yield these specific letters.


AVESTA: VENDIDAD (English): Fargard 1.


This digital edition copyright © 1995 by Joseph H. Peterson. All rights reserved.


Translated by James Darmesteter (From Sacred Books of the East, American Edition, 1898.)


Compare this chapter with the ancient description given of it in the Denkard, Book 8, Chapter 44.


For an analysis see Mary Boyce, Zoroastrianism : Its Antiquity and Constant Vigour (Columbia Lectures on Iranian Studies, No 7) (Costa Mesa, Mazda Pub, 1992, pp. 3 ff.) and A. Christensen, Le premier chapitre du Vendidad (Copenhagen, 1943).




This chapter is an enumeration of sixteen perfect lands created by Ahura Mazda, and of as many plagues created in opposition by Angra Mainyu.


Many attempts have been made, not only to identify these sixteen lands, but also to draw historical conclusions from their order of succession, as representing the actual order of the migrations and settlements of the old Iranian tribes. But there is nothing in the text to support such wide inferences We have here nothing more than a geographical description of Iran, seen from the religious point of view.


Of these sixteen lands there are nine, as follows:--



Sughdha (2) Suguda Sogdianh Soghd (Samarkand)

Mouru (3) Margu Margianh Marv

Bakhdhi (4) Bâkhtri Baktra Balkh

Haroyu (6) Haraiva `Areia Harê(rud)

Vehrkana (9) Varkâna 'Urkania Gurgân, Jorgân

Harahvaiti (10) Harauvati `Aracwsia Av-rokhaj, Arghand-(âb)

Haetumant (11) `EtumandoV Helmend

Ragha (12) Ragâ 'Ragai Raî

Hapta hindu (15) Hindava `Indoi Hind (Punjab)

which can be identified with certainty, as we are able to follow their names from the records of the Achaemenian kings or the works of classical writers down to the map of modern Iran.


For the other lands we are confined for information to the Pahlavi Commentary, from which we get:


Vaekereta (7) Kâpûl Kabul

Urva (8) Mêshan Mesene

Varena (14) Patashkhvârgar or Dailam Tabaristân or Gîlân

Rangha (16) Arvastâni Rûm Eastern Mesopotamia



FARGARD 1. Sixteen perfect lands created by Ahura Mazda, and as many plagues created by Angra Mainyu.


1. Ahura Mazda spake unto Spitama1 Zarathushtra, saying:


I have made every land dear (to its people), even though it had no charms whatever in it2: had I not made every land dear (to its people), even though it had no charms whatever in it, then the whole living world would have invaded the Airyana Vaeja3.



1. Or Spitamide. Zarathushtra was descended from Spitama at the fifth generation.


2. 'Everyone fancies that the land where he was born and has been brought up is the best and fairest land that I have created' (Comm.)


3. Greater Bundahish: 'It is said in the Sacred Book: had I not created the Genius of the native place, all mankind would have gone to Eran-Vej, on account of its pleasantness.' — On Airyanem Vaeja or Eran-Vej, see following note.


2.4 The first of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the Airyana Vaeja5, by the Vanguhi Daitya6.

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created the serpent in the river7 and Winter, a work of the Daevas8.


4. Clause 2 in the Vendidad Sada is composed of Zend quotations in the Commentary that illustrate the alternative process of creation: 'First, Ahura Mazda would create a land of such kind that its dwellers might like it, and there could be nothing more delightful. Then he who is all death would bring against it a counter-creation.'

5. Airyanem Vaeja, Iran-Vej, is the holy land of Zoroastrianism: Zarathushtra was born and founded his religion there (Bund. 20.32; 32.3): the first animal couple appeared there (Bund. 14.4; Zadspram, 9.8). From its name, 'the Iranian seed,' it seems to have been considered as the original seat of the Iranian race. It has been generally supposed to belong to Eastern Iran, like the provinces which are enumerated after it, chiefly on account of the name of its river, the Vanguhi Daitya, which was in the Sassanian times (as Veh) the name of the Oxus. But the Bundahish distinctly states that Iran-Vej is 'bordering upon Adarbajan' (29.12); now, Adarbaijan is bordered by the Caspian Sea on the east, by the Rangha provinces on the west, by Media proper on the south, and by Arran on the north. The Rangha provinces are out of question, since they are mentioned at the end of the Fargard (verse 20), and the climatic conditions of Iran-Vej with its long winter likewise exclude Media and suit Arran, where the summer lasts hardly two months (cf. § 4, note 6). The very name agrees, as the country known as Arran seems to have been known to the Greeks as `Ariania (Stephanus Byz.), which brings it close to our Airyanem. On the Vanguhi Daitya, see following note.


6. The Vanguhi Daitya, belonging to Arran, must be the modern Aras (the classic Araxes). The Aras was named Vanguhi, like the Oxus, but distinguished from it by the addition Daitya, which made it 'the Vanguhi of the Law' (the Vanguhi by which Zarathushtra received the Law).


7. 'There are many Khrafstras in the Daitik, as it is said, The Daitik full of Khrafstras' (Bund. 20.13). Snakes abound on the banks of the Araxes (Morier, A Second Journey, p. 250) nowadays as much as in the time of Pompeius, to whom they barred the way from Albania to Hyrcania (Plut.)


8. Arran (Karabagh) is celebrated for its cold winter as well as for its beauty. At the Naoroz (first day of spring) the fields still lie under the snow. The temperature does not become milder before the second fortnight of April; no flower is seen before May. Summer, which is marked by the migration of the nomads from the plain to the mountains, begins about the 20th of June and ends in the middle of August.


3. There are ten winter months there, two summer months9; and those are cold for the waters10, cold for the earth, cold for the trees11. Winter falls there, the worst of all plagues. [Hum 35: "Ten are there the winter months, two the summer months, and even then [in summer] the waters are freezing, the earth is freezing, the plants are freezing; there is the center of winter, there is the heart of winter, there winter rushes around, there (occur) most damages caused by storm."] 9. Vendidad Sada: 'It is known that [in the ordinary course of nature] there are seven months of summer and five of winter' (see Bund. 25).

10. Some say: 'Even those two months of summer are cold for the waters...' (Comm.; see Mainyo-i-khard 44.20).


11. Vend. Sada: 'There reigns the core and heart of winter.'


4. The second of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the plain12 which the Sughdhas inhabit13.

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created the locust14, which brings death unto cattle and plants.


12. Doubtful.

13. Old P. Suguda; Sogdiana.


14. The plague that fell to that country was the bad locust: it devours the plants and death comes to the cattle' (Gr. Bund.)


5. The third of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the strong, holy Mouru15.


Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created plunder and sin16.


15. Margu; Margianh; Marv.

16. Doubtful. The Gr. Bd. has: 'The plague that fell to that country was the coming and going of troops: for there is always there an evil concourse of horsemen, thieves, robbers, and heretics, who speak untruth and oppress the righteous.' — Marv continued to be the resort of Turanian plunderers till the recent Russian annexation.


6. The fourth of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the beautiful Bakhdhi17 with high-lifted banner.

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created the ants and the ant-hills18.


17. Bakhtri; Baktra; Balkh.

18. 'The corn-carrying ants' (Asp.; cf. Farg. 14.5).


7. The fifth of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was Nisaya19, that lies between the Mouru and Bakhdhi.

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created the sin of unbelief20.


19. By contradistinction to other places of the same name. There was a Nisaya, in Media, where Darius put to death the Mage Gaumata (Behishtun I, 58). There was also a Nisâ in Fars, another in Kirman, a third again on the way from Amol to Marv (Tabari, tr. Noeldeke, p.101, 2), which may be the same as Nisaia, the capital of Parthia (Parqaunisa ap. Isid. of Charax 12); cf. Pliny VI, 25 (29). One may therefore he tempted to translate, 'Nisaya between which and Bakhdhi Mouru lies;' but the text hardly admits of that construction, and we must suppose the existence of another Nisaya on the way from Balkh to Marv.

20. There are people there 'who doubt the existence of God (Comm.)


8. The sixth of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the house-deserting Haroyu21.

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created tears and wailing22.


21. Harôyu, Old P. Haraiva (transcribed in Greek and Latin 'Areia Aria instead of `Areia Haria, by a confusion with the name of the Aryans); P. Harê (in Firdausi and in Harê-rûd; Harât is an Arabicised form. — 'The house-deserting Harê: because there, when a man dies in a house, the people of the house leave it and go. We keep the ordinances for nine days or a month: they leave the house and absent themselves from it for nine days or a month' (Gr. Bd.) See Vd5.42.

22. 'The tears and wailing for the dead,' the voceros. The tears shed over a dead man grow to a river that prevents his crossing the Chinwad bridge (Saddar 96; Arda Viraf 16.7, 10).


9. The seventh of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was Vaekereta23, of the evil shadows.

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created the Pairika Knathaiti24, who claves unto Keresaspa.


23. Vaêkereta, an older name of Kabul (Kâpûl: Comm. and Gr. Bd.); perhaps the Ptolemeian Bagarda in Paropanisus (Ptol. VI, 18).

24. The Pairika, in Zoroastrian mythology, symbolises idolatry (uzdes-parastih). The land of Kubul, till the Moslem invasion, belonged to the Indian civilisation and was mostly of Brahmanical and Buddhist religion. The Pairika Khnathaiti will be destroyed at the end of the world by Saoshyant, the unborn son of Zarathushtra (when all false religions vanish before the true one; Vd19.5). — Sama Keresaspa, the Garshasp of later tradition, is the type of impious heroism: he let himself be seduced to the Daeva-worship, and Zarathushtra saw him punished in hell for his contempt of Zoroastrian observances.


10. The eighth of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was Urva of the rich pastures25.

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created the sin of pride26.


25. Urva, according to Gr. Bd. Mêshan, that is to say Mesene (Meshnh) the region of lower Euphrates, famous for its fertility (Herod. I, 193 [?]): it was for four centuries (from about 150 B.C. to 225 A.D.) the seat of a flourishing commercial state.

26. 'The people of Meshan are proud: there are no people worse than they' (Gr. Bd.)


11. The ninth of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was Khnenta which the Vehrkanas27 inhabit.

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created a sin for which there is no atonement, the unnatural sin28.


27. 'Khnenta is a river in Vehrkâna (Hyrcania)' (Comm.); consequently the river Jorjan.

28. See Vd8.31-2. [Hum2 228 (shyaothna yânaô-vaeipya): "pederasty"]


12. The tenth of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the beautiful Harahvaiti29.

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created a sin for which there is no atonement, the burying of the dead30.


29. Harauvati; `Aracwsia; corrupted into Ar-rokhag (name of the country in the Arabic literature) and Arghand (in the modern name of the river Arghand-âb).

30. See Vd3.36 ff.


13. The eleventh of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the bright, glorious Haetumant31.


Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created the evil work of witchcraft.


31. The basin of the EtumandroV or Erymanthus, now Hermend, Helmend, that is to say, the region of Saistân.

14. And this is the sign by which it is known, this is that by which it is seen at once: wheresoever they may go and raise a cry of sorcery, there32 the worst works of witchcraft go forth. From there they come to kill and strike at heart, and they bring locusts as many as they want33.


32. In Haetumant. — 'The plague created against Saistan is abundance of witchcraft: and that character appears from this, that all people from that place practise astrology: those wizards produce ... snow, hail, spiders, and locusts ' (Gr Bd.) Saistan, like Kabul, was half Indian (Maçoudi, II, 79-82), and Brahmans and Buddhists have the credit of being proficient in the darker sciences.

33. This clause seems to be a quotation in the Pahlavi Commentary.


15. The twelfth of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was Ragha34 of the three races35.

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created the sin of utter unbelief36.


34. Ragha, transcribed Râk and identified by the Commentary with Adarbaijan and 'according to some' with Rai (the Greek 'Ragai in Media). There were apparently two Raghas, one in Atropatene, another in Media.

35. 'That means that the three classes, priests, warriors, and husbandmen, were well organised there' (Comm. and Gr. Bd.)


36. 'They doubt themselves and cause other people to doubt' (Comm.)


16. The thirteenth of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the strong, holy Chakhra37.

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created a sin for which there is no atonement, the cooking of corpses38.


37. There were two towns of that name (Charkh), one in Khorasan, and the other in Ghaznin.

38. 'Cooking a corpse and eating it. They cook foxes and weasels and eat them' (Gr. Bd.) See Vd8.73-4.


17. The fourteenth of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the four-cornered Varena39, for which was born Thraetaona, who smote Azi Dahaka [Zohak].

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created abnormal issues in women40, and barbarian oppression41.


39. Varn, identified by the Comm. either with Patashkhvârgar or with Dailam (that is to say Tabaristan or Gilan). The Gr. Bd. identifies it with Mount Damavand (which belongs to Patashkhvargar): this is the mountain where Azi Dahaka [Zohak] was bound with iron bonds by Thraetaona [Faridoon]. — 'Four-cornered:' Tabaristan has rudely the shape of a quadrilateral.

40. Vd16.11 ff.


41. The aborigines of the Caspian littoral were Anarian savages, the so-called 'Demons of Mazana [Mazendaran].'


18. The fifteenth of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the Seven Rivers42.

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created abnormal issues in women, and excessive heat.


42. Hapta hindava, the basin of the affluents of the Indus, the modern Panjab (= the Five Rivers), formerly called Hind, by contradistinction to Sindh, the basin of the lower river. [Hum34: "the PhlT of V1.18 quotes the fragment haca ushastara hinduua auui daosha<s>tarem hindum 'from the eastern river to the western river'.]

19. The sixteenth of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created, was the land by the sources (?) of the Rangha43, where people live who have no chiefs44.

Thereupon came Angra Mainyu, who is all death, and he counter-created Winter45, a work of the Daevas46.


The 16 Great Turkic Empires (Turkish: 16 Büyük Türk Devleti, also translated as "16 Great Turkish Empires") is a concept in Turkish ethnic nationalism, introduced in 1969 by Akib Özbek[1] and widely invoked by Turkish authorities during the 1980s, under the government of Kenan Evren.


The "16 Great Turkic Empires" are the following:


Flag[2] Name Turkish name Leader[3] Dates[4]

Great Hunnic Empire flag.jpg Great Hunnic Empire Büyük Hun İmparatorluğu Teoman 220 BC-46 BC

Western Hunnic Empire flag.jpg Western Hunnic Empire Batı Hun İmparatorluğu Panu 48-216

Hunnic Empire flag.jpg European Hunnic Empire Avrupa Hun İmparatorluğu Attila 375-469

White Hunnic Empire Hepthalite flag.jpg White Hunnic Empire Akhun İmparatorluğu Aksunvar 390-577

Gok1.png Göktürk Empire Göktürk İmparatorluğu Bumin Kağan 552-745

Avar Empire flag.png Avar Khaganate Avar İmparatorluğu Bayan Kağan 565-835

Khazar Empire flag.png Khazar Khaganate Hazar İmparatorluğu Hazar Kağan 651-983

Uyghur Empire flag.jpg Uyghur Khaganate Uygur Devleti Kutluğ Kül Bilge Kağan 745-1369

Qaraxanlı bayrağı.jpg Kara-Khanids Karahanlılar Bilge Külkadir Han 840-1212

GhaznavidFlag attributed.svg Ghaznavids Gazneliler Alp Tekin 962-1186

Flag of Sultanate of Rum.svg Great Seljuq Empire Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu Selçuk Bey 1040–1157

Flag of the Khwarezmian Empire.png Khwarazmids Harzemşahlar Muhammed Harzem Şah 1097–1231

Флаг Золотой Орды.png Golden Horde Altınordu Devleti Batu Han 1236–1502

TimuridFlag attributed.svg Timurid Empire Büyük Timur İmparatorluğu Timur 1368–1501

Gules pile sinister or.svg Mughal Empire Babür İmparatorluğu Babür Şah 1526-1858

Fictitious Ottoman flag 7.svg Ottoman Empire Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Osman Bey 1299-1922



Flags of the Sixteen Great Turkish Empires displayed in the Istanbul Military Museum


Presidential Seal of Turkey

Turkish nationalist writer, novelist, poet and philosopher, Hüseyin Nihâl Atsız, supporter of the pan-Turkist or Turanism ideology, had noted that while some states with questionable Turkic identity were included in the list, some ostensibly Turkic states (such as Akkoyunlu) were left out, and labeled the list a "fabrication."[5]


In spite of Atsız' criticism, the concept has was made a mainstream topos in Turkish national symbolism in the wake of the 1980 Turkish coup d'état, under the presidency of Kenan Evren, when "Turkish-Islamic synthesis" was declared the official nature of Turkish national identity. The Turkish Postal administration issued a series of stamps dedicated to the 16 Empires in 1984, showing portraits of their respective founders as well as attributed flags.[2] In 1985, Özbek's 16 Empires were invoked as a retrospective explanation of the 16 stars in the presidential seal of Turkey (introduced in 1936).[6]


Several municipal buildings and public parks in Turkey have collections of busts or statues of the supposed founders of the "16 Empires" alongside a statue of Kemal Atatürk, including the municipal buildings of Keçiören (Ankara), Mamak, Ankara, Etimesgut, Niğde, Nevşehir, Pınarbaşı, Kayseri, etc.[3]


In 2000, Türk Telekom produced a series of smart cards dedicated to the topic.[7]


In January 2015, Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan received Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas in the Turkish Presidential Palace with a guard of 16 "warriors", actors wearing loosely historical armour and costume, intended to symbolise the 16 empires.[8] The costumes were ridiculed in the Turkish media, and one of the costumes in particular was mocked as a "bathrobe", becoming a trend on social media under the name of Duşakabinoğul (as it were "son of the shower cabin").[9]


These numbers are time signatures. In brief, they tell you how many beats are in a measure. (This answer might not work as well for people not familiar with music that doesn't have a strong rhythmic component.)

To start this off, think of a waltz. You might count it out like this: One two three one two three (and so on). That's 3/4 time; each measure is three quarter-notes long (or the equivalent number of notes of other lengths). 

Most music is in 4/4, also known as common time, where measures are four quarter-notes long. One two three four one two three four (and so on), or perhaps : One two three four (etc), or any other such variation; which beats are stressed doesn't change the time signature, but how many notes you can fit into a measure will.


3/4 time verses 4/4 time


Tintal (or teental, trital; Hindi: तीन ताल) is one of the most famous talas of Hindustani music. It is also the most common tal in North India. The structure of tintal is so symmetrical that it presents a very simple rhythmic structure against which a performance can be laid.[1]


Tintal has sixteen (16) beats[2] in four equal divisions (vibhag). The period between every two beats is equal. The first beat out of 16 beats is called sam and the 9th beat is called khali ('empty'). To count the Teental, the audience claps on the first beat, claps on the 5th beat, then waves on the 9th beat and lastly again claps on the 13th beat; these three claps (Hindi tin 'three' + tāl 'clap') give the rhythm its name.

TinTal (16 beats) for Practice - 140 BPM

Tilwada or Tilwara (Hindi: तिलवाडा, tilvāḍā ?) is a tala of Hindustani music.[1] Like Tintaal, Tilwada tala also has 16 beats.[2][3] Tilwada is often used in Kheyal.


Keharwa or Kaharva is one of the famous talas of Hindustani music. It is also one of the common taals in North India, used in various popular compositions of Indian music. Keherwa has many variations including dhumaali, "bhajani", and qawwali.[1]


Some scholars noted that sangha is frequently (and according to them, mistakenly) used in the West to refer to any sort of Buddhist community.[21] The terms parisa and gaṇa are suggested as being more appropriate references to a community of Buddhists. Pariṣā means "following" and it refers to the four groups of the Buddha's followers: monks, nuns, laymen and laywomen.[22] The Sanskrit term gaṇa has meanings of flock, troop, multitude, number, tribe, series, class, and is usable as well in more mundane senses.[citation needed]


A Mahājanapada (Sanskrit: महाजनपद, lit. 'great realm', from maha, "great", and janapada "foothold of a tribe", "country") was one of the sixteen kingdoms or oligarchic republics that existed in ancient India from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE. Two of them were most probably 'ganas' or republics — and others had forms of monarchy. Ancient Buddhist texts like the Anguttara Nikaya[1] make frequent reference to sixteen great kingdoms and republics which had evolved and flourished in a belt stretching from Gandhara in the northwest to Anga in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent and included parts of the trans-Vindhyan region,[2] prior to the rise of Buddhism in India.[3]


The Sixteen Kingdoms, less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history from 304 to 439 when the political order of northern China fractured into a series of short-lived sovereign states, most of which were founded by the "Five Barbarians" who had settled in northern China during the preceding centuries and participated in the overthrow of the Western Jin dynasty in the early 4th century. The period ended with the unification of northern China by the Northern Wei in the early 5th century.


The term "Sixteen Kingdoms" was first used by the 6th century historian Cui Hong in the Spring and Autumn Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms and refers to the five Liangs (Former, Later, Northern, Southern and Western), four Yans (Former, Later, Northern, and Southern), three Qins (Former, Later and Western), two Zhaos (Former and Later), Cheng Han and Xia. Cui Hong did not count several other kingdoms that appeared at the time including the Ran Wei, Zhai Wei, Chouchi, Duan Qi, Qiao Shu, Huan Chu, Tuyuhun and Western Yan. Nor did he include the Northern Wei and its predecessor Dai, because the Northern Wei eventually became the ruling dynasty of northern China.


Orbiting electrons have precisely four features, which physicists call the four quantum numbers.

The innermost orbit contains one pair of electrons, the next orbit has 4 pairs, the third orbit has 9 pairs, and the fourth orbit has 16 pairs. These numbers -- 1, 4, 9, 16 -- are the squares of the numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4. There are only four types of electrons in the shells.

I began to notice four-fold phenomena in all types of fields

four phases of the Moon

four seasons

four bases in DNA

How can some phenomena be strictly triple whereas others are quadruple?


“The electrons closest to the atomic nucleus behave in an apparently arbitrary way. They are found like pairs of sparrows sitting on a wire. Some secret law tells them that in the innermost orbit one pair may sit, the next orbit can take a total of four pairs, the third orbit has nine, and there are sixteen in the fourth orbit. The mathematical law for this had a quadratic nature since these numbers - 1, 4, 9, 16 - can be described as the squares of the numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4.”

… Dr Peter Plichta


Because further shells then follow, it might be supposed that 25 pairs are located in the fifth orbit. In fact, the law only applies to the first four shells. Furthermore, we know that there are only four types of electrons in the shells.”


This is the way it was seen too by Arnold Somerfeld, who spent many years of his life subjecting problems of theoretical physics to investigations innumber theory. …. Somerfeld knew that two elements attempting to form a bond would try to share their electrons in such a way that they would have eight electrons at their higher energy levels, four electron twins. These four electron pairs are not all the same. Three pairs, referred to as p-electrons, make up one family, whereas the fourth pair is not related to them. Even today, scientists have not the faintest idea why this is so. They accept it as it is and are proud of what they know.“



From element 21 on, each atomic nucleus contains more neutrons than protons. For the uneven-numbered elements 21 to 83, additional neutrons and different quantities in each case are appended on top of the normal neutrons corresponding to the number of protons. This follows in accordance with precise rules: the element 21 has three additional neutrons and thus has an atomic weight of 45 (21 + 21 + 3). The element 83 contains 43 additional neutrons, and for the even-numbered elements similar rules apply.


In all, from element 21 to element 83 (omitting the elements 43 and 61) 61 elements thus hold increasingly high numbers of neutrons.”


Numbers are conventionally categorised into even and uneven numbers. Conventional logic also prohibits a number from being both even and uneven. Every investigation of nuclear laws according to number theory would have to fail. The additional neutrons without which the nuclei could not be stable led to similar difficulties, in the case of the atomic shells, over how equally-charged electrons can come together to form pairs. In the atomic nucleus similarly-charged protons also link up, as in reality should not happen.


A new theory had to be invented - one which could scarcely be more embarrassing: the 'glue theory’. The explanation is given in all seriousness by professors and receivers of the Nobel Prize throughout the world that the additional neutrons prevent the nucleus from falling apart. One should imagine them as a type of glue.


The appalling scandal of such a theory is easily exposed in the case of the final stable element. It is stable with 43 extra neutrons, but with 42 or 44 neutrons it is unstable. Similar cases can be found for many other elements.“


3 times 19 have divisible atomic numbers,


and the remaining 19 have prime atomic numbers.


After I discovered the 3 + 1 law as the foundation of the Prime Number Cross in 1980, and had thus caused the conditions necessary to cast some light into the dark recesses of the electrons shell, I now found the same (3 + 1) plan in the atomic nucleus. The law thus centres on 4 times (1 + 19). This law would not be fulfilled if two prime number elements had not been barred from taking part in natural existence.”


The following table shows the reality of the four groupings that Plichta discerned.




Besides the divisibility of their atomic numbers it is their isotopic characteristics; whether they are pure [single] isotopes, double isotopes, or multiple isotopes, that governs the placement of the chemical elements in the table.

While there are 76, or 4 x 19, elements that fit into one or other of the four columns, there are five others that don’t fit both the divisibility and isptopic criteria of the groups of nineteen. Thus, in the leftmost group, nineteen of the elements all have atomic numbers that are divisible by 4, and they also have multiple isotopes. The element Beryllium, which stands above the leftmost group of 19 elements, fits the criteria for divisibility because it has an atomic number of 4, but it is a pure element with only a single stable isotope.


Similarly, in the next group where all the elements have atomic numbers that are divisible by 2, and are also multiple isotopes, the element Helium stands above the group. Although helium has an atomic number that is divisible by 2, it is a double rather than a multiple isotope.


In the next group, in which 19 elements elements have divisible atomic numbers (other than by 4 or by 2) and either pure or double isotopes. The element Carbon stands above this group of 19 elements. It has an atomic number (6) that is divisible by 2, but fits the isotopic properties of the group by having 2+1 isotopes.


In the rightmost group of 19 elements the atomic numbers are indivisible except by themselves and one - they are prime numbers. All are either pure or double isotopes. Note that hydrogen, which was taken out of consideration by Plichta when he was analysing the elements that arise from this fundamental building block, has been included in this group. This has been done because nuclear, or atomic number, characteristics are now being considered, (the table thus covers all 81 stable elements).


Above the rightmost group is the element Lithium which, to most of us, seems to fit both criteria; it is indivisible and is a double isotope. Plichta sets it above the rest because his work has led him to the realisation that although the numbers 2 and 3 are traditionally included in the sequence of primes, they are essentially different from all following primes, (see God’s Secret Formula for his explanation).


Finally, and very importantly, the element Potassium which has the atomic number 19 is set above all the rest. Unlike all the other unevenly numbered elements potassium has 3 isotopes (rather than being either a pure or double isotope). Although it is odd it behaves as if it is an evenly numbered element. Plichta discovered that, as the 19th element, potassium is the key to the numerical structure that is manifest in the Prime Number Cross and which, literally, governs the formation and structure of the natural world that we experience.


The Prime Number Cross

Over a period of several decades Peter Plichta’s research and original thinking led him to the discovery of a model that he terms The Prime Number Cross (PNC). While it is likely that Dr Plichta is not the first person to uncover and understand the Prime Number Cross, his efforts are by no means diminished by this possibility. The priests of ancient Egypt held the number 8 to be sacred, and indeed its role in obscuring the truth about the number 81 and the infinite sequence of all numbers has been very significant.


Plichta himself notes the striking similarity between the cross of the order of Christian knights, that persists to this day as the emblem of the St John Ambulance brigade, and the structure of the Prime Number Cross that he discovered through his study of chemistry and mathematics. He also makes it clear that he does not claim to have invented the PNC but rather discovered it. In his view the design of such a perfect and elegant model can only be of divine origin.


Here is a diagram that shows the Prime Number Cross.


It is arguably one of the most important images on the Internet.


People who are unaware of the reality of the PNC are seriously uninformed.



In this freesite, I only provide a generalised overview of the nature and absolute


centrality of the Prime Number Cross in ordering the structure of everything we perceive. There is not sufficient space to explain all the details.


However Dr Plichta has written two books about the PNC and it is


in these that you can find the full explanations. The more rigorously mathematical


of the two; The Prime Number Cross, is in the German language.


However the English edition of God’s Secret Formula contains quite adequate explanations. It lacks the proofs of Plichta’s discoveries, but it gives full and easily understood details of the underlying bases of the PNC.


If you refer to the above PNC diagram you will see that it is based on the infinite series of natural numbers;0123456789(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)….∞

There are 24 rays that radiate from the notional centre of the structure, which is really the frontier between the whole numbers and the reciprocal numbers. The latter sequence starts with 1/1, ½. 1/3, ¼, 1/5 …. and never ends. The reciprocal sequence approaches zero, but never reaches it. So, on the outer 'edge’ of the PNC there are increasingly large whole numbers that grow towards infinity, and in the centre of the PNC is a space in which the reciprocal numbers diminish towards zero. The PNC has no outer 'edge’, nor does it have a tangible 'centre’. At the outer boundary is endlessness and at the inner boundary is nothingness. Both are difficult concepts to grasp, but quite real.

There are 24 numbers in each shell of the PNC. In the first shell the sequence begins with 12 and proceeds in a clockwise manner. Plichta uses 12 as the starting point because, mathematically, the number 1 is a squared number.(-1)2 = +1-1, 24, +1

5, 6, 7

11, 12, 13

17, 18, 19

The first shell contains the number pair -1, +1 and three other prime number twins.




The number 24 and zero share the same point on the first number ring; between 23 (also -1) and 1 (12). The next shell starts with the number 25 which is located above 12, 26 is above 2, 27 is above 3, 28 above 4, and the prime number 29 is above the prime number 5. In this fashion all the prime numbers fall on just eight rays of the PNC. These rays begin with the numbers 1, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, and 23 (-1).


By shading the areas between these rays with the colour blue I have highlighted the shape of the cross of the Christian knights of St John. All prime numbers fall on the eight edges of this cross.



Note that the PNC diagram, on which somewhat more than half the numbers have been labelled, shows how eight rays contain prime numbers, another eight rays contain numbers that are divisible by 2, and a third set of eight rays contain numbers divisible by 3.

The above prime number twins are the starting points for the prime number rays of the PNC shown in blue in the diagram.24, 48, 72, 96, 120, …12, 52, 72, 112, 132, 172, 192, 232, …1 x 2 x 3 x 4 = 24 (=4!)

The sum of the numbers 1 through 24, on the first shell of the PNC, totals exactly 300. This set Dr Plichta thinking. He writes:

Plichta’s investigations led him to the following insight:


1 — 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 25, 29, 31, …

2 — 4, 8, 10, 14, 16, 20, 22, 26, 28, 32, …

3 — 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, …


The initial numbers of three number categories of equal size have, logically, to be primes. They are, in the original meaning of the French term nombre primeurs, 'first numbers’.


Moreover, Dr Plichta did not make the mistake of beginning his analysis of the prime numbers from the number 2. Instead he began with the number 5 and uncovered relationships that had been masked by the conventional view of prime numbers in modern mathematics.


He describes the errors of conventional mathematics in this way.


”… Because the root of the number 1 can be easily calculated (-1 x -1 = + 1), it is by definition not considered to be a prime number. The usual sequence of prime numbers is therefore2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, …

“… I had found a triplicate in all disciplines. In the myths and legends of all cultures, the numbers 1, 2 and 3 played a very prominent part (eg three guesses, three wishes). Was it not ironic that mathematics, the subject that deals with numbers, should happen to be the one field in which the numbers 1, 2 and 3 have no special significance?”

“… I started my examination of the prime numbers with the prime number 5:5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, …-1, 0, 1(-1;1) — (5;7) — (11; 13) — (17;19)

No doubts have ever been raised about this definition, and mathematicians have therefore fallen headlong into a trap of enormous proportions.


… After 1 was removed from the sequence of prime numbers, the first prime number was the number 2. Among the infinite number of prime numbers, it is the only one that is even. The fact that this was simply accepted was the second major source of error, and led inevitably with the next prime number, 3, to a trap in which we lost sight of the divine order contained in the numbers 1, 2 and 3.”


5, 6, 7, 8, 9 , 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,

22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37,

38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, …


When I studied this arrangement I discerned a system that was related to multiplies of the number 6. Around the number 6, the prime number twins 5 and 7 are found; around the number 12 there are the twins 11 and 13; and around 18 the twins 17 and 19. When we move a further six places, we should expect to find the twins 23 and 25. However, here the natural sequence of the first three prime number twins is not continued: 25 is not a prime number, it is the square of the original prime number 5. Consequently, the number twins 23 and 25 begin a new section which continues to recur to infinity. Prime numbers or prime number twins will always occur around a number divisible by 6, although these positions - around a multiple of 6 - will for combinational reasons be occupied by products of the previous prime numbers -


25 as the product of 5 x 5, 35 as the product of 5 x 7, 49 as the product of 7 x 7, 55 as the product of 4 x 11, etc.


This pattern based on 6 means that the product of 0 x 6 = 0 must be found at six to the left of the number 6. The number 0 must therefore also be surrounded by a number twin:


The sequence of the first four number twins is therefore


Such a coding exemplified by 1 and 3 had been my quest for half a lifetime.“


The 'zero’ or 24 ray that lies between the first number pair is also significant.The numbers on this ray increase by 24 from shell to shell.


The next ray of the PNC contains the squares of the numbers in which it is coded.


Mathematically, the PNC is a factorial-4 cross:


This is the reason that all the squares of the prime numbers are situated on the ray that begins with 12. If 1 is added to 48 the value 49 is the square of the prime number 7. If 1 is added to 120 the value 121 is the square of the prime number 11, and so on.


"When I added the numbers on the second circle I arrived at the total 876. I immediately realised that exactly 24 was missing to make a round number 900. Should I perhaps therefore begin with 24 and not with 25 when counting the second circle? I played with the idea of counting 25 numbers on each circle. The point of intersection between the two circles is counted twice as a starting and a final number. I obtained the following values:

1st circle: 0 + 1 + 2 … + 24 = 300 = 1 x 300

2nd circle: 24 = 25 + 26 … + 48 = 900 = 3 x 300

3rd circle: 48 + 49 + 50 … + 72 = 1,500 = 5 x 300

4th circle: 72 + 73 + 74 … + 96 = 2,100 = 7 x 300


The basic value 300 clearly increased over the sequence of uneven numbers 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, … This was certainly related to the law of uneven numbers, and had been known even to Pythagoras.


As a schoolboy I had noticed when looking at tiled walls that squares of tiles follow a certain law of multiplication.


If you start with one square tile, the next largest square is achieved by adding three tiles at one corner. The square now consists of four tiles. If a further five tiles are added at one of the corners, the result is an even larger square consisting of nine tiles. The next tiled squares have 16, 25, 36 tiles, and so on. The sum of these uneven numbers of added tiles 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, … always gives a series of squared numbers beginning with 12. This is followed by 1 + 3 = 4 = 22, then 1 = 3 = 5 = 9 = 32, then 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 = 16 = 42, and so on. The first uneven number gives 12. If the first two uneven numbers are added the result is 22. The sum of the first three uneven numbers gives 42, and so on.


The simplicity and elegance of this law is not taught in our schools. If it were, it would be possible to make the most important law of physics, Newton’s reciprocal square law, comprehensible to ten-year olds. This does not involve any complicated material normally taught in universities, but only the presentation of amazing insights into the numerical background of the universe.”


The tiles analogy is also an example of the inherently countable nature of matter, it demonstrates that number is a property of grouped objects. You can use whatever labels you like, one, two, or goo, zoo, to label the steps of quantity, but the steps exist physically. The labels are human inventions but the steps of quantity are not.



Plichta explains that for all operations with numbers arranged on the shells of the PNC the same quadratic law applies:

Dr Plichta went on to show a direct correlation between the PNC’s expansion constant of 3 and the speed of light. He was also able to explain how the numerical structure of the PNC is the basis for the accurate transmission of information via light, sound and radio waves. These aspects are not discussed here because the focus of this edition is on the chemical elements. However, it is clear from God’s Secret Formula that the Prime Number Cross provides the numerical basis for everything that happens in the natural world. It’s a book that will repay its reading many times over.

“If the numbers 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. on the first circle are added, the basic value 300 is achieved. This basic value corresponds to one tile in our example. To be mathematically correct it is 300 x 12. Because the sum of the numbers on the second circle is 900, the total for the first and second circle together is 300 + 900 = 1,200, ie 300 x 22. The sum of the numbers on the first three circles [tiles] measures 300 + 900 + 1,500 = 2,700. This corresponds to 300 x 32.

The enlargement of the number quantities (sums) on the circles [tiles] of the Prime Number Cross thus run through the product of the basic value 300 with the square numbers 12, 22. 32, 42 …


By these square numbers the number of electron twins on the atomic shell also increases.

Everything we know about the atom was discovered by observation and meticulous experiment. The Prime Number Cross corresponds to the atomic model and provides the theoretical background. What better proof for the real existence of numbers could one wish for?”


Newton and Kant did not know that the number of electrons pairs in the atomic 'shell’ is limited. The maximum number of atomic pairs is as we have seen, 1, 4, 9, 16 for the various electron orbits. On the innermost orbit around the atomic nucleus only one pair of electrons has place; a maximum of 4 pairs fit on the second level; 9 on the third; and 16 on the fourth. Because these four numbers are the squares of 1, 2, 3 and 4, the square law is therefore numerically anchored in the atom itself and therefore in the whole of nature.“


Bohr had conducted an ingenious examination of the distance between the electrons and the nucleus with the help of the reciprocal quadrate law. His postulate of the stable paths only found general acceptance when the general notion of the planetary electrons was discarded. The orbits of an electron are now described mathematically as a functional state and concepts such as probability of location have been introduced.


The contradiction inherent in atomic physics from the very beginning was never solved but only suppressed.”


This is why physicists find electrons in atoms sitting “like birds on wires”.


In relation to the function of the PNC in providing the scaffold for the manifestation of matter Plichta writes:


“I formulated the corollary thus: 'If matter did not exist, not one single atom, there would also be no space.’ But if only the two of them can exist at the same time, then one would have to be the other, only reversed. Where there is no movement, there is also no time. Energy can therefore be nothing else than the reverse of time. The only way to connect space and time is to bring them down to their reciprocal dimensions, matter and energy. In order that no nonsense emerges in this procedure, there must be a plan, and this must be the only one that exists - the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, … as ordered by the Prime Number Cross.

"Because our notion of space has so far always been fixed on three-dimensional space, it has not been possible for scientists to imagine four-dimensional (numerical) space. The point is that three-dimensional space can only be appreciated as numerical space of the reciprocal numbers when the space of the whole numbers, four-dimensional space, has been comprehended. ”

Behind this in turn we find the first eight primary numbers: 1, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 17, 19, 23 as the initial elements of the eight prime number rays.


This entirely novel notion of structural infinity around a point can only be established and clarified by the geometry of the twin prime numbers. This allows our world to be registered for the first time: material substance as the means of putting bounds to infinity.“


Finally, there is the important explanation of where the sequence of natural numbers is manifested within the PNC. The numbers are found as countable 'fillers’ (numbers) in the first ray of the cross.


Note in the 5×5 Magic Square of Mars that all of the prime numbers have been accounted for and highlighted in yellow.

Prime numbers are the building blocks of mathematics, the graphic below on the left seems appropriate?


By repositioning the letters around the central letter Ν (en), a Greek cross can be made that reads Pater Noster (Latin for "Our Father", the first two words of the "Lord's Prayer") both vertically and horizontally. The remaining letters – two each of A and O – can be taken to represent the concept of Alpha and Omega, a reference in Christianity to the omnipresence of God. Thus the square might have been used as a covert symbol for early Christians to express their presence to each other.[8]


An example of the Sator Square found in Manchester dating to the 2nd century AD has been interpreted according to this model as one of the earliest pieces of evidence of Christianity in Britain.[9]


The Coptic Prayer of the Virgin in Bartos describes how that Christ was crucified with five nails, which were named Sator, Arepo, Tenet, Opera and Rotas.[10] This reading of the words consequently entered the Ethiopic tradition where they becsme as the names of the wounds of Christ.[11]


In Cappadocia, in the time of Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (913–959), the shepherds of the Nativity story are called SATOR, AREPON, and TENETON, while a Byzantine bible of an earlier period conjures out of the square the baptismal names of the three Magi, ATOR, SATOR, and PERATORAS.[citation needed]


Other authorities believe the Sator Square was Mithraic or Jewish in origin, because it is not likely that Pompeii had a large Christian population in 79 AD and the symbolism inferred as Christian and the use of Latin in Christianity is not attested until later.[12]


The Sator Square is a four-times palindrome, and some people have attributed magical properties to it, considering it one of the broadest magical formulas in the Occident. An article on the square from The Saint Louis Medical and Surgical Journal, vol. 76, reports that palindromes were viewed as being immune to tampering by the devil, who would become confused by the repetition of the letters, and hence their popularity in magical use. The same principle, alongside the above "Paternoster cross", is also present in the Greek magical palindrome: ΑΒΛΑΝΑΘΑΝΑΛΒΑ, which probably derives from the Hebrew or Aramaic אב לן את, meaning "Thou art our father".

A Sator Square on a brick wall in St. Peter ad Oratorium.


As pointed by F. Grosser, it is possible to write a horizontal and a vertical 'Pater Noster' (the Our Father Prayer) with the letters of the sator square, forming a Greek cross. Its composition is amazing complexity: we see that the word tenet forms a cross with four branches that are closed with the letter T (whose form itself refers to the cross) surrounded by the letters A (Greek alpha) and O (Greek omega) that evoke Jesus Christ designated as the Alpha and the Omega, ie the origin and purpose of all things. In addition, one can, with the 25 letters of the square, form a cross writing Pater Noster completed by two A and two O, holders of the above symbolic (see illustration). In Rome, we find these two designs carved on the walls and on the graves of the early Christian shrines.

Though there are many symbols in the story, four symbols of personal power are central to our theme:


The evil ring, and the relationship with the other rings.

The phial of light.

The invisibility cloak, confers the power to change but it also entails the power to deceive.

The sword, stinger, the weapon for the heroic struggle against the Orks.

The number four is very significant in Jung’s analytical psychology.Jung loves the number four. One can compare the three Elven rings plus the One Ring to Jung’s analysis of the Christian age in the light of alchemical symbolism, with the good Trinity and the hidden (evil) or later in live (female) fourth. by Pia Skogemann argues that the Fellowship is not really nine but eight, divided into two quaternities.




A blade runner must pursue and try to terminate four replicants who stole a ship in space and have returned to Earth to find their creator.

  1. The Replicants of Blade Runner
    We don’t really get them all together on screen, and admittedly it’s mainly the duo of Roy and Pris that deserves this placement. But as a foursome, they are the best villain group of all time.

Read more at Film School Rejects:


The 4X4 Color Analysis system

4 x 4 Color Analysis


The new breakthrough is the 4X4 Color Analysis system. This unique system caters to all skin types. The foundation of the four seasons is kept, but each season has four separate categories.


The Categories


As we know, summer tends towards colors that are cool light but soft, representing nature in the prime of life. The categories for summer are Pure Summer, Tinted Summer, Toned Summer, and Shaded Summer. Each category is fine-tuned to represent a range of colors and helps with a variety of skin tones. Pure summer is the cool and brightest colors of summer, representing the growth of life. Tinted summer holds the lightest hues, harkening back to the sky on a cloudless day. Toned summer is in the medium range, representing the soil and the bark of trees. Shaded summer is the deepest colors, representing the earth and the life that lives on it.


These categories are spread through the rest of the four seasons, leading to a new ways to use fashion and make up. Try our new 4X4 color analysis out by booking with ByFERIAL certified 4X4 consultant today. To become an Accredited & Certified Color Consultant in The Universal 4X4 Color System – (16 seasons)™ please feel free to contact us today


ByFERIAL 4X4 Certified Advance Training is offered to all image, style, fashion or beauty consultants who have been trained and would like to use the new 4X4 innovative system. This training is offered for a great introductory price and is conducted once a month online (3 hours) and can be taken at anytime in the comfort of your own home.


The 4X4 Color System is making a BUZZ internationally. Here is what some color consultants are saying.

“Hi Ferial,

I cannot commend you enough on your “breakthrough”


Like you, I saw the “missing” especially in this country. Your stellar work on colour needs to be known around the world. I do my best here, my conversations with clients about colour, goes from Newton, Munsell to Ferial! I guess your book is needed on the shelves right now.

Babies, also known as Baby(ies) and Bébé(s), is a 2010 French documentary film by Thomas Balmès that follows four newborns through their first year after birth. Two of the babies featured in the film are from rural areas: Ponijao from Opuwo, Namibia, and Bayar(jargal) from Bayanchandmani, Mongolia, and two are from urban areas: Mari from Tokyo, Japan, and Hattie from San Francisco, U.S.[1] The film was released in the United States by Focus Features[2] on 14 April 2010.[3]


The documentary shows the contrasts of the four cultures without using any form of narration, leaving it to the viewers to interpret the film.

The Four Citizens of Citizenfour

In one Hong Kong hotel room, a filmmaker, two reporters and a former government contractor blew the whistle on one of the biggest stories of our time, and we have the benefit of watching it all go down in Laura Poitras’s documentary.



Read more at Film School Rejects:

The Marx Brothers

Every comedy troupe should be a foursome, collectively representing a full variety of all levels of comedy. None will ever be as brilliant as these guys, but they’re welcome to try.


Roller skates are shoes, or bindings that fit onto shoes, that are worn to enable the wearer to roll along on wheels. The first roller skate was effectively an ice skate with wheels replacing the blade. Later the "quad" style of roller skate became more popular consisting of four wheels arranged in the same configuration as a typical car.


In 1863, James Plimpton from Massachusetts invented the "rocking" skate and used a four-wheel configuration for stability, and independent axles that turned by pressing to one side of the skate or the other when the skater wants to create an edge. This was a vast improvement on the Merlin design that was easier to use and drove the huge popularity of roller skating, dubbed "rinkomania" in the 1860s and 1870s,[2] which spread to Europe and around the world, and continued through the 1930s. The Plimpton skate is still used today.


Today’s Q & Ale question was brought to me via search engines such as Google.  I’ve actually seen some version of this question several times and thought I’d answer it as the first installment of Q & Ale.


Why are they called a double, triple, quadruple?


The “they” in question are the beers brewed, largely, by the Trappist monasteries of Belgium as well as the abbey affiliated ones.  The styles have also become very popular with secular breweries throughout the world.  Although no one knows for sure how they got their names, the most common answer has to do with the way alcohol products were traditionally marked.  When the majority of people were illiterate  the easiest way to mark the strength of whatever your were making/drinking was with an “X.”  1 was for lighter alcohol strength, with 2, 3, or more for stronger versions.



(Picture from

So, a X indicated a single, XX a double, XXX a Triple, and XXXX a quad.  It’s in this tradition that these beers most likely got their names.


The MBAA (Master Brewers Association of the Americas) provides a more technical theory on how these beers earned their name based on the parti-gyle system of mashing.  In this system, you drain off your first running of wort and keep it separate   This leads to a first running with a fermentable sugar content of about 22.5%.  The second wash (after the first has completely drained) would be less strong at around 15%.  The final wash would end up with a sugar content of about 7.5%.  Now if you work backwards, the double has 2x’s the sugar as the single and the triple has 3x’s the sugar as the single.  Essentially, you’d have 3 beers of 3 different strengths brewed from one mash.  While most people no longer use this system (they blend all the washes together), it might be a good historical explanation on how these styles got their names.


Some of the more common and erroneous theories revolve around the idea that a double has 2x’s the malt of a single and a triple, 3x’s the malt of a single.  Or that they’re double or triple fermented.  If this were the case, the alcohol levels would be significantly higher as “pounds of extract collected is linear,” according to Jamie Emmerson, Executive Brewmaster of Full Sail Brewing.  He believes the most likely reason involves ancient methods of brewing based around the above mentioned “parti-gyles” system.  Jamie also contacted one of his Belgian brewing friends and this is what he said:


“As far as I’m informed, this old designation was in the abbeys for the strength of the beer (and hence the strength of the wort used to make it).  “Double” made with stronger wort and “Triple” with even stronger wort.  The “Petite Bière” (litterally “Small Beer”) was made from the last sparging water and was a light beer for local consumption of the monks themselves.


Today these are only marketing words. It is pretty much referred that the “Double” are rather dark beers somewhere in the 6-8° alcohol and “Triple” are rather pale beers with higher alcohol contents (8° and above). But there is no strict rule for that.


And this is also often confused with “double fermentation” and “triple fermentation” (fermentation/ageing/repitching in bottle) which are even more only marketing fancy words.”


A single, sometimes called a “pater” beer, is usually a lower alcohol table beer reserved for the daily use of the monks.  Witkap is one commerical brewery that makes a version of this style.  To try the actual Trappist singles, you’ll have to go to the monastery’s cafe.  These beers tend to range from 4.5% – 5.5% ABV.


A double, sometimes spelled “dubbel,” is usually a darker amber or brown beer with an ABV of 6%-7.5%  Chimay Red and Rochefort 6 are two great and readily available versions.


A triple, sometimes spelled trippel or tripel, usually is a golden beer ranging from 8% to 9.5% (although there are some that go much higher).  Triple is probably the most famous and commonly copied of the Trappist styles. Westmalle is considered to be the “king” of the triples and is fairly easy to find.  Chimay White is also a great example.


A quadruple, or quad, is the highest alcohol version at 9%+  Although the majority tend to be dark brown, there are a few that fall in the golden/amber color range.  Chimay Blue, Rochefort 10, Achel Extra Brune, and Gulden Draak 9000 are some interesting and varied versions of the quad style.


And that, most likely, is why they are called double, triple, or quad!