3 Act vs. 4 Act Structure

Posted on February 24, 2010 by Melanie Anne Phillips

The following is a transcript from an online class on the Dramatica theory of story hosted by its co-creator, Melanie Anne Phillips signed on as Dramatica:

William S1 : After working so long in 3-act structure, I’m unclear on Dramatica’s four-act structure.

Dramatica : Okay, let’s address that question… Dramatica sees both a structural and a dynamic view of “acts”… In the dynamic view, we “feel” the progression of a story as falling into three distinct phases. These are the same “movements” that Aristotle saw when he talked about a beginning, a middle, and an end.

An alternative is a structural view. Imagine for a moment, four signposts, along a path. One marks where you start, two in the middle, and one at the end. If you start at the first one, there are three journeys to make.

William S1 : Is act I (set up), act II (confrontation/obstacles) and act III (resolution) applicable?

Dramatica : William, yes, in the traditional understanding of story. There’s a bit more to it in Dramatica. When you move between the four signposts you take three journeys.

William S1 : Why make storytelling more complicated than it is?

Dramatica : Why make it less complicated than it is? When you look at a story as a “done deal”, when you see all the dramatic potentials, rather than concentrating on the events. That is where you see the meaning. Its kind of like scanning out lines on a TV picture. Scene by scene, act by act, you create drama that flows from one point to another. But in the end, you want to be able to connect all the points, and see what kind of picture you have created. By using both a 3 and four act structure and dynamics, Dramatica allows an author to approach a story either through the progression of events or the meaning they want to end up with.

The software has an “engine” that keeps the two compatible, so when you make decisions or changes in one, the effects on the other are shown.

William S1 : What is the 4th act?

Dramatica : The fourth act is the ending, which is the same as the denoument or author’s proof. Any other questions before we continue?

DC Finley : So, the traditional second act is now the second and third acts, right?

Dan Steele : So the event sequence is managed separately from the psychological chain of motivations?

William S1 : Then what is the dramatic purpose of the traditional third act?

Dramatica : Dan, they are managed separately, but intimately tied together. They affect one another.

Dan Steele : Yes.

Dramatica : DC, and William, here’s an answer to you both…If we look at a story as having a beginning, middle and end, then the beginning is static.. it is really the sign post where everything begins. The end is also static, the destination. But the “middle” is seen as the whole development of the story from that starting point to ending point. Now, that is really “blending” half dynamics and half structure. Two points and a string between them.

William S1 : But the beginning is NOT static.. the story usually enters in the middle of a life, event or sequence of events.

Dramatica : Yes, it enters in the middle of a life, but is thought of as the set of potentials that are already wound up that will evolve into the story line.

William S1 : Okay.

Dramatica : Dramatica sees the first act as MUCH more dynamic than that! In fact, we have 7 things to think about!

William S1 : Bring it on.

Dramatica : Let’s label the four structural acts as A,B,C,D. The familiar dynamic acts are 1,2,3. The beginning point is A then we move through 1 to get to B then we move through 2 to get to C. Then we move through 3 to get to D. Now, A,B,C,D and 1,2,3 all have to be there, in order to tell the whole tale.

DC Finley : Je comprende.

Dramatica : Any other questions about this.. oh, just a point. TV often looks at a five act structure. What they are really seeing, is point A followed by 1,2,3 and ending with D. It is not that B, and C are not there, but the commercial breaks emphasize those five and downplay the others. That’s why writing for TV is significantly different than writing for film. And BOTH are a lot different than writing prose. Okay, shall we move on?

DC Finley : Yes.





Dramatica clearly uses a four-act structure. It starts with a setup of plot points and story dynamics and an inciting incident. It has regular turning points in the plot to indicate act breaks driven by the Story Driver, and ends with a crisis, climax, and resolution of plot points and story dynamics. It also explores four throughlines; two more than the other story paradigms. The Overall Story throughline is the rough equivalent of the outer journey found in other paradigms. The Main Character throughline is the counterpart to the inner journey. Dramatica counterpoints the Main Character throughline with the Influence Character throughline. Exploring the relationship between the Main and Influence Characters is done in the RS Relationship throughline.

Dramatica has four throughlines to worry about instead of one or two. It has sixteen Signposts—four for each throughline. The nature of each Signpost is determined by a “storyform.”

When considering Genre from an author's point of view -- rather than the traditional audience point of view -- the most critical aspect will be structural. That is where the foundation is laid, upon which the storytelling will be built. The first step of seeing Genre this way is to look at the four Classes. These four Classes indicate the nature of the subject matter that will be covered in a story's Genre. To recap, the four Classes are:

  • Universe ­p; an external state; commonly seen as a situation.

  • Physics ­p; an external process; commonly seen as an activity.

  • Mind ­p; an internal state; commonly seen as a fixed attitude or bias.

  • Psychology ­p; an internal process; commonly seen as a manner of thinking or manipulation.

Next, we want to consider a new concept: four modes of expression through which the story's structure can be conveyed to an audience. The four modes of expression are:

  • Information ­p; focusing the audience on knowledge.

  • Drama ­p; focusing the audience on thought.

  • Comedy ­p; focusing the audience on ability.

  • Entertainment ­p; focusing the audience on desire.

The Dramatica Classes describe what the audience will see. The modes describe in what light they will see them. When we match the two categories, we begin to control the feel our story will generate within the audience.

This is analogous to the manner in which Domains are created by attaching a point of view to a Class. Domains are part of the Story Mind itself and represent how a mind shifts its perspective to consider all sides of an issue. Genres, while also creating perspectives, do so outside of the Story Mind and represent the four different ways an audience can look at the Story Mind as a finished work they are receiving.

The following "Grid of Dramatica Genres," shows the four Dramatica Classes along one axis, and the four modes of expression along the other.

Taken together, Classes and modes of expression determine the feel of the subject matter in a story. Still, there is one aspect of Genre remaining: positioning the audience in relationship to the subject matter. To do this, we can make use of the four Dramatica Domains. As a brief recap, they are:

  • Main Character Domain ­p; the first person point of view (I) matched with a Class, this Domain provides the audience with a "down in the trenches," personal view of the story.

  • Obstacle Character Domain ­p; the second person point of view (you) matched with a Class, this Domain provides the audience with a "what's impacting me," impersonal view of the story.

  • Subjective Story Domain ­p; the first person plural point of view (we) matched with a Class, this Domain provides the audience with a "what's it like to be in this type of a relationship," passionate view of the story.

  • Objective Story Domain ­p; the third person point of view (they) matched with a Class, this Domain provides the audience with a "big picture," dispassionate view of the story.


A better way to organize these characteristics is to separate the Action Elements from the Decision Elements. Of course, since the Eight Archetypal Character Types describe a specific pairing of Action characteristic to Decision characteristic, when we separate the sets, we cannot keep the Archetypal Character names as their contents are split. Nevertheless, it is much more useful to arrange the Elements by their similar natures rather than by the simple arrangement contained in the Archetypal Characters.


With 16 characteristics, we can create four quads of four characteristics each. This grows from having a Driver Character Quad and a Passenger Character Quad, then splitting each in two (Action Quad and Decision Quad), giving us four Quads: the Action Driver Quad, the Decision Driver Quad, the Action Passenger Quad, and the Decision Passenger Quad.


Motivation Element Quads




Using the Quads to Gain Meaning



In Dramatica, a group of four Quads is called a Set. Note how the set above provides additional meaning. For example, when dealing with a problem of Action in terms of Drivers, one would have the choice to Pursue, Prevent, Help, or Hinder. When a Character represents the Drive to Pursue, it applies itself to achieving the goal. Although it may also want the goal to be achieved, a Help Character focuses its efforts on being useful to the Pursuit of the goal rather than instigating its own effort. This explains the functions of and relationship between the Protagonist's Drive (Pursue) and the Guardian's Drive (Help).


Similarly, when a Protagonist's Drive is Pursue, an Antagonist's Drive is Prevent. And, of course, the Contagonist Hinders the Protagonist's Pursuit. In fact, when we consider all four Quads, we can obtain a very precise understanding of why the Eight Archetypal Characters are created as they are and exactly how they relate.


Complex Arrangements of Character Elements


So far we have only explored sixteen different character Elements. One way to create complex characters is by assigning these sixteen Elements to characters in non-archetypal patterns. However, as great as the number of potential characters that can be created is, this limited set of sixteen Elements is still not sufficient to describe all the rich complexities of the Objective Characters we see in sophisticated stories. This is because these sixteen Elements only represent character Motivations. In fact, we call them the Sixteen Motivation Elements.


Characters Do Not Live By Motivations Alone


Like real people, characters are driven by Motivations, but they also aspire to different Purposes, employ different Methodologies in the effort to achieve those purposes, and use different Means of Evaluation to determine the effectiveness of their efforts. The old adage that one should create three

dimensional characters falls short by one dimension. Fully realized characters are four dimensional possessing an Action and Decision Element in each dimension.


In the following sections we will explore two kinds of character complexity. First we will look at ways to rearrange the Motivation Elements, and second, we will outline how to bring the other three character dimensions into play.

There are four Throughlines in a story: The Main Character, the Influence Character, the Relationship Story, and the Overall Story. These throughlines provide an audience with various points of view from which to explore the story. The four audience points of view can be seen as I, YOU, WE, and THEY. The audience’s point of view shifts from empathizing with the Main Character (I), to feeling the impact of the Influence Character (YOU). The audience’s point of view shifts to experiencing the relationship between the Main and Influence Character (WE), and then finally stepping back to see the big picture that has everyone in it (all of THEM). Each point of view describes an aspect of the story experience to which an audience is privy.


There are four Classes containing all the possible kinds of problems that can be felt in those throughlines (one Class to each throughline): Situation (Universe), Fixed Attitude (Mind), Activity (Physics), and Manipulation (Psychology). These Classes suggest different areas to explore in the story.




In Dramatica, a story will contain all four areas to explore (Classes) and all four points of view (throughlines). Each Class is explored from one of the throughlines. Combining Class and point of view into a Throughline is the broadest way to describe the meaning in a story. For example, exploring a Main Character in terms of his situation is different from exploring a Main Character in terms of his attitude, the activities that occupy his attentions, or how he is being manipulated. Which is right for your story?


Pairing the appropriate Class with the proper throughline for your story can be difficult. An approach you may find useful is to pick a throughline, adopt the audience perspective that throughline provides, and from that point of view examine each of the four Classes to see which feels the best.


Each of the following sections present the four Classes from one specific audience perspective. For best effect, adopt the perspective described in the section and ask the questions as they appear in terms of your own story. One set of questions should seem more important or relevant from that perspective.


NOTE: Selecting a point of view/Class relationship (or Throughline) says a lot about the emphasis you wish to place in your story. No pairing is better or worse than another. One pairing will be, however, most appropriate to what you have in mind for your story than the other three alternatives.


Final Fantasy frequently has four elemental crystals - Fire, Water, Air and Earth. Often there's the Four Fiends to go with them. Both pop up in Final Fantasy I, Final Fantasy IV, and Final Fantasy Mystic Quest. Final Fantasy IX brought the Four Fiends back but not the crystals, and Final Fantasy III has the crystals but not the Fiends.

Final Fantasy IV has the Fire/Ice/Lightning trio of Ifrit, Shiva and Ramuh, with the Earth-elemental Titan as slightly stronger, but remakes and the sequel bump Titan down to their level of power and importance for a four-summon ensemble.

Near the beginning of Final Fantasy V, each of the four protagonists is associated with one of the four elemental crystals along with a personality trait associated with said element. Bartz gets wind and quest, Lenna gets water and kindness, Galuf gets earth and hope, and Faris gets fire and courage.

Like the four main characters of V, the four main characters of Final Fantasy VII's party all correspond far too closely to a cardinal element for it to be coincidental, although unlike V it is never relevant to the plot or highlighted:

Cloud - Wind. Wind-related name, uses a sword (associated with Air in tarot), wind-themed attacks, compelled to wander, introspective and strategic, acts detached and looks down on others.

Aerith - Earth. Earth-related name ("I, Earth"), gardener, grew up in an underground slum, her magic is drawn from the Planet, practical, stubborn, nurturing, sensual. Cloud and Aeris's first meeting even involves him falling down from the sky and landing in her flowerbed.

Tifa - Water. Dolphin-themed hairstyle, uses water-themed attacks (well, Dolphin Kick), bartender who pours drinks for the rest of the cast, giving and kind, fluid and accommodating, likes to act as group peacemaker. Her Journey To The Center Of Cloud's Mind, where she gets him to see things her way, is caused when they both fall into (Lifestream-filled) sea. She is also associated with a Hearts motif (her surname is Lockhart, her ultimate weapon is the Premium Heart), the card suit analogous to the tarotic Cups/Water.

Barret - Fire. Fire-themed tattoo, fire-themed attacks, associated with firearms, terrorist, Hot-Blooded, hot temper, impulsive, passionate, powerful.

Final Fantasy X actually reduces the traditional series of elements down to just four (there had always been about eight or nine in previous games). Lightning and Ice replace Earth and Air. It also mixes up the strengths/weaknesses a little, with lightning and water being opposed to each other, and the same with fire and ice. There's also the fifth Holy element (Which is good against most things, but especially undead), but it's very rare and hardly ever used.


The four Space Pirate leader bosses in Super Metroid are associated with the four elements. They are the following; Draygon (water), Kraid (earth), Phantoon (air), and Ridley (fire). Draygon is fought underwater, Kraid is the only of them who is fighting from the ground, plus he spits rocks at you, and while both Phantoon and Ridley are airborne and attacks with fireballs, Phantoon can turn invisible, and Ridley has his lair inside the fiery Norfair.

In general, passports are only red, green, blue, or black, according to Hrant Boghossian, the vice president of marketing at the interactive passport database Passport Index.

Passports do, however, come in different shades of each of the four main colour groups. "Within each colour hue, we see vast variations," Boghossian told Business Insider via email. "There are in fact many passport colours."


In Sefer ha-Brit, a portion of the text of the manuscript is itself arranged in the form of a cross. The

phrase "and cut a new covenant (v'karat brit hadasha)" make up the cross' lateral axis. Abulafia

observes that the first and last letters of this phrase are VH, the second half of the Tetragrammaton,

following which he records a set of letter transpositions of the complete Tetragrammaton. We may

surmise that he conceived of the vertical axis of this cross in terms of the first half of the

Tetragrammaton, YH, just as, as we have seen, he viewed the Tetragrammaton as cruciform, sheti va-

'erev. Abulafia's critique of the Christian covenant may be apparent in the text itself that comprises

the cross' horizontal axis, "and cut a new covenant," by which he likely sought to imply the

insufficiency of the Christian covenant. The VH of the Tetragrammaton, we have seen, corresponds

for Abulafia with Christendom. That Abulafia conceived of the vertical axis in terms of the YH is

apparent: He derives the words "and it was so" from the four letters that begin and end that axis' first

and last lines (yod, kaf yod and nun), combined with the letters vav and he'. The latter two letters, we

recall, come from the cross' other axis. Together, this phrase, Abulafia reports, is the secret of "the

existence (ha-havayah)," the word havayah being comprised of the same letters as the complete

Tetragrammaton. Sefer ha-Brit, MS Munich-BS 285 fol. 36b; printed edition, pp. 54-55.


There is a further reason apparent for drawing the four hayyot into the

discussion of circumcision, and it is the fact that the latter is sheti va- 'erev. A clue to

this is apparent as the passage continues. "And the blood is for us a sign that is on the






two doorposts and on the lintel," it reads. Blood here refers at once to the blood

placed by the Israelites on their homes to protect them in the Exodus story and to the

blood of circumcision. 67 Abulafia here modifies Exodus 12:23 slightly, so that the

reference to the two doorposts (shtei ha-mezuzot) now appears before that to the

lintel. More than likely this is because he is concerned with the motif sheti va- 'erev,

and he seeks a correspondence between this motif and the u shtei" doorposts and

single lintel. It is not difficult to conceive of the doorposts and lintel, being that they

are at right angles to one another, as conforming to a structure of warp and woof.

Abulafia has in mind a geometrical correspondence between the doorposts and lintel

and the motif of sheti va- 'erev, an approach which, we have seen, as well informs the

theme of sheti va- 'erev when it is conceived of as cruciform. In this, in fact, we may

understand, more than likely, a further significance to the recurrent appearance of the

four hayyot in the context of these discussions. For when we conceive of sheti va-

'erev in terms of two lines intersecting at right angles we may as well be mindful of

the four endpoints of these lines. And indeed, the continuation of the discussion

lends further support to this contention. Immediately following the discussion of the

blood on the doorposts and lintel with respect to circumcision, Abulafia goes on to

make mention of the structure of man's body with regard to the ten sefirot. These

themselves are sheti va- 'erev, he relates, and they parallel

. . .the four winds that are in the world, and they are on one side

East/West, two [that are] a line revealed above, after the fashion of

the sun in the day, and a line hidden below, after the fashion of the

moon at night. And the side [which is] South and North, the two are a

line revealed above, after the fashion of the moon [sun?] in the day

and a line concealed below after the fashion of the moon at night. And

this is reversed according to the movements in summer and


• . 68





Just as the covenant of circumcision, which is sheti va- 'erev, or cruciform,

represents the summation of the sefirot, so too does man's entire body, the

microcosm, conform to the sefirotic macrocosm. The latter Abulafia refers to

specifically in terms of two perpendicular lines, that is, to a sheti va- 'erev or

cruciform structure. One line runs East/West, the other South/North. These

correspond to the "four winds" of the world. These in turn we may now see to

parallel quite well the four hayyot that were linked earlier to circumcision. 69 Thus,

we may understand that these hayyot represent for Abulafia the four endpoints of the

two intersecting lines that comprise the sheti va- 'erev structure of circumcision.



The most common meter in music is 4/4. It’s so common that its other name is common time and the two numbers in the time signature are often replaced by the letter C. In 4/4, the stacked numbers tell you that each measure contains four quarter note beats. So, to count 4/4 meter, each time you tap the beat, you’re tapping the equivalent of one quarter note.



In the second most common meter, 3/4, each measure has three quarter note beats. Of course, this doesn’t mean that only quarter notes exist in this meter. You may have one half note and one quarter note, or you may have six eighth notes, but either way, the combination equals three quarter note beats.


In 3/4 meter, beat 1 of each measure is the downbeat, and beats 2 and 3 are the upbeats. It’s quite common, though, to hear accents on the second or third beats, as in many country music songs.



Chop a 4/4 meter in half and you’re left with only two quarter note beats per measure. Not to worry, though, because two beats per measure is perfectly acceptable. In fact, you find 2/4 meter in most famous marches. The rhythm is similar to the rhythm of your feet when you march: “left-right, left-right, 1-2, 1-2.” You start and stop marching on the downbeat — beat 1.


Lévi-Strauss distinguished four kinds of relationship between nature and culture within totemism: (1) a species of animal or plant identified with a particular group, (2) a species of animal or plant identified with an individual, (3) a particular animal or plant identified with an individual, and (4) a particular animal or plant identified with a group.


According to Lévi-Strauss, each of these four combinations corresponds to the phenomena that are to be observed in one people or another. The first holds good, for example, for the Australians, for whom natural things are associated with cultural groups (moieties, sections, subsections, phratries, clans, or the association of persons from the same sex). As an example of the second combination, there is the individual totemism of North American Indians, in which a person is correlated with a species of nature. For the third type of combination, the Mota people of the Banks Islands of Melanesia are cited: the individual child is thought of as the incarnation of a particular animal, plant, or natural creature that was found and consumed by the mother at the time that she was conscious of her pregnancy. For the fourth type of correlation, Lévi-Strauss cited examples from Polynesia and Africa where definite individual animals formed the object of group patronage and veneration.


Lévi-Strauss also critiqued the findings of A.P. Elkin, a specialist on Australia, where totemism had already played a special role in the formation of anthropological and sociological theories and where it exhibits an abundance of forms. Elkin had also differentiated four forms: individual totemism; social totemism—i.e., totemism that is in a family, moiety, section, subsection, patrilineal clan, or matrilineal clan; cultic totemism, with a religious content that is patrilineal and “conceptional” in form; and dream totemism—totemistic content in dreams—found in social or individual totemism. Elkin denied the unity of totemism, but (according to Lévi-Strauss) wanted to preserve its reality on the condition that he might trace it back to a multiplicity of types. For Elkin, there is no longer “one” totemism but many totemisms, each in itself a single irreducible whole.


In 2013, Mr. Snowden, using encrypted email under the alias “citizen four,” contacted Ms. Poitras and the journalist Glenn Greenwald, inviting them to meet him in Hong Kong, where he would share what he had learned about the N.S.A.’s capacity to intercept data from the phone calls, emails and web wanderings of American citizens


Nicholas D. Wolfwood (Japanese: ニコラス・D・ウルフウッド Hepburn: Nikorasu Dī Urufūddo), also known as Nicholas the Punisher, is a major character in the Trigun manga series created by Yasuhiro Nightow, as well as its anime adaptation. He is a priest who wields a large cross-shaped gun named the Punisher, which he and his former colleagues use either in saving people or for complete destruction.

The Punisher is a large cross-shaped gun wielded by the best members of the Eye of Michael, most commonly seen is Nicholas D. Wolfwood. There are supposedly only ten in existence and Wolfwood's Punisher is the tenth one in creation. His Punisher has two machine guns in front and a rocket launcher in the back. In the anime, the side arms of the cross open up to reveal a storage bin for pistols. After Wolfwood dies, Vash inherits the weapon, and uses it in his battle with Knives. Nightow commented on the Punisher being around a "hunded-and-so" kilograms and Wolfwood having an "incredible sense of balance".[3] It has been noted by many characters that the Punisher is a very heavy weapon. Wolfwood commented on this with "That's because it's full of mercy".

Many other Punishers appeared in the series and other of Nightow's work. The Chapel Gun, used by Mr. C against his fight with Wolfwood in the manga, is a large cross-shaped machine gun with four spiked ends at the base of the cross. Wolfwood's friend Livio wields the Double Fangs, two cross-shaped submachine guns with dual barrels that make them capable of firing forward and backward at once; these guns are typically strapped to his wrists and, later, carried in low-slung shoulder holsters when not in use. Livio's alternate personality, Razlo the Tri-Punisher of Death, wielded, as his name suggests, three punishers. When he was in his Livio state, they were carried by his three henchmen, Agile, Zain, and a third, unnamed henchman. The Punisher's cross design bears a resemblance to the Centerhead weapon from Gungrave: Overdose, another Nightow work. The Centerhead was wielded by Fangoram (a henchman working for the game's antagonist) and was used in the same way as Wolfwood's.

Captain Jack Sparrow gets one on his cheekbone in time for On Stranger Tides, the fourth Pirates of the Caribbean movie, though we never get an explanation as to how he got it.
Mowgli from the live-action The Jungle Book (2016) movie has a thin scar on his chest from living in the wilds, and gains another slash crossing it during the climax.


"X marks the spot." It's a phrase that has been part of pirate lore since Robert Louis Stevenson described the map to buried treasure in his 1883 novel "Treasure Island."


In "Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides," Captain Jack Sparrow finds himself with a mysterious red "X." But it's not on a map; it's a scar on his face. And the question isn't "Where does it lead?" but "How did it get there?"


In the fourth movie, Captain Jack has a new scar on his right cheek. Like the rest of Sparrow's appearance, it came about in collaboration between Johnny Depp and the film's makeup and costume crew. So where did Jack get the mark? According to Depp, no one really knows... and that includes Jack himself.


Find showtimes and tickets for 'On Stranger Tides' >>


In an exclusive interview with Yahoo!, Depp explained that he feels "It's nice to have a little bit of a pre-story to things." He acknowledged that it was intended to raise questions, because "you don't really get that [scar] from a sword fight, do you?" As far as who or what gave Jack the scar, Depp said, "I reckon that he probably just woke up with it and had no idea."


Depp told Entertainment Weekly, "I kept waiting for someone to ask me, 'Where did it come from?' But no one did." Apparently, everyone on the production liked it enough that they didn't need an explanation. It was even incorporated into the movie's poster; the skull has an "X" cut into it in the same place as Jack's scar.


At the start of That Yellow Bastard, Hartigan is "pushing 60." He has a distinguishing cross-shaped scar on his forehead, the cause of which is undisclosed. He is presented as a muscular and imposing man, capable of holding his own in a fight. He also suffers from angina, which consistently affects his work, despite his attempts to ignore and/or fight through it. He is almost always dressed professionally, most commonly wearing an oxford shirt, tie, and dress slacks, along with his signature trenchcoat.

The cruciform ligament of atlas (cruciate may substitute for cruciform) is a cruciate ligament in the neck forming part of the atlanto-axial joint. The ligament is named as such because it is in the shape of a cross.

It consists of the transverse ligament of the atlas, along with additional fibers above and below.[1] These fibers are also known as "longitudinal bands".[2]


Black humor is provided by a number of elements, including: the main character's single-minded and loyal secretary Angelo, and a blonde moll who visibly admires and is turned on by the ape-like, power-mad gangster's violent spells. This film also contains the first instance of George Raft's trademark coin-flipping (reprised in Raft's later film Some Like It Hot (1959)). The film inventively uses a visual "X" motif throughout to signal that a murder is imminent. The X symbol takes such varied, prolific forms as shadows, gown straps, wooden cross-beams, a facial scar, a door number, and a strike symbol on a bowling score sheet. These will be illustrated in the text below.

The Story

The film's opening title credits are presented above a large painted black X, scrawled in the background of the frame. Scarface is prefaced with a critical, written statement to indict gangster hoodlumism and the public's and government's indifference. The audience is blamed (and then challenged) for promoting the role of the gangster with its perverse fascination in the phenomenon of mob activity:

When the others leave, the camera follows Costillo as he enters a telephone booth to make a call. Down a long hallway, a doorway opens and a shadowy, expressionistically-filmed figure appears. The camera tracks closer to Costillo, but then pans to the right - attracted to an enlarged, black silhouette that is approaching and whistling the theme tune of the sextet from the Italian aria Lucia di Lammermoor. This is the introduction of Scarface himself - first only a shadow that materializes from the darkness. [His whistling throughout the film hints that a murder is about to take place.] Behind a glass door, the full-figured shadow greets Costillo: "Hello, Louie," and then pulls out a gun at waist-level. Scarface (Louie's traitorous body-guard) shoots his victim to death with three bullets. At the moment of the shooting, Scarface's shadow overlaps directly with the shadow of a large upright X or cross -- thereby signifying that from now on, all killings will be identified by this X-motif. The camera pans over to the left to where the actual body is lying on the floor. The janitor discovers the corpse, hurriedly removes his apron and cap, puts on his coat and hat, and runs to the left - tracked by the camera as he reaches the front door.

Four stages of enlightenment (see also: Ariya-puggala — Noble Ones)

Sotāpanna — Stream-enterer (first stage of enlightenment) — one who has "opened the eye of the Dhamma", and is guaranteed enlightenment after no more than seven successive rebirths, having eradicated the first three fetters

The four factors leading to stream-entry

Association with superior persons

Hearing the true Dhamma

Careful attention

Practice in accordance with the Dhamma

The four factors of a stream-enterer

Possessing confirmed confidence in the Buddha

Possessing confirmed confidence in the Dhamma

Possessing confirmed confidence in the Sangha

Possessing moral virtues dear to the noble ones

Sakadagami — Once-returner (second stage of enlightenment) — will be reborn into the human world once more, before attaining enlightenment, having eradicated the first three fetters and attenuated greed, hatred, and delusion

Anāgāmi — Non-returner (third stage of enlightenment) — does not come back into human existence, or any lower world, after death, but is reborn in the "Pure Abodes", where he will attain Nirvāṇa, having eradicated the first five fetters

Arahant — "Worthy One", (see also: Arhat), a fully enlightened human being who has abandoned all ten fetters, and who upon decease (Parinibbāna) will not be reborn in any world, having wholly abandoned saṃsāra

Four Foundations of Mindfulness (Cattāro satipaṭṭhānā • Smṛtyupasthāna)[edit]


  • Contemplation of the body (kāyagatāsati • kāyasmṛti)

    • Mindfulness of breathing (ānāpānasati • ānāpānasmṛti)

      • Contemplation of the body (kāyanupassana) — first tetrad

        • Breathing a long breath

        • Breathing a short breath

        • Experiencing the whole (breath-) body (awareness of the beginning, middle, and end of the breath)

        • Tranquilizing the bodily formation

      • Contemplation of feelings (vedanānupassana) — second tetrad

        • Experiencing rapture

        • Experiencing bliss

        • Experiencing the mental formation

        • Tranquilizing the mental formation

      • Contemplation of the mind (cittanupassana) — third tetrad

        • Experiencing the mind

        • Gladdening the mind

        • Concentrating the mind

        • Liberating the mind

      • Contemplation of Dhammas (dhammānupassana) — fourth tetrad

        • Contemplating impermanence (aniccānupassī)

        • Contemplating fading away (virāgānupassī)

        • Contemplating cessation (nirodhānupassī)

        • Contemplating relinquishment (paṭinissaggānupassī)


The natural genesis: or second part of A book of the beginnings, Volume 2

The Syrian tetrapolis consisted of the cities Antioch, Seleucia Pieria, Apamea, and Laodicea in Syria.[1][2]

Tetrapolis of Seleuceia[edit]

The region known as 'Seleucis of Syria' was administered by a Tetrapolis of the four largest cities founded by Seleucus Nicator;[3][4]


Antioch Epidaphne —from the name of his father and the largest city.

Laodiceia —from his mother.

Apameia —from his wife Apama.

Seleuceia in Pieria —eponym of the founder.

Upper Syria[edit]

Further information: Syria (region) and Geography of Syria


Map of the Orontes River. White lines are country borders, river names are italic on a blue background, current cities or major towns have white backgrounds, orange background for other places of significance.

Under the Macedonian kings, Upper Syria (Syria Superior) was divided into four parts (tetrarchies) which were named after their capitals;[5]




Laodicea ad Libanum (now Latakia)

Seleuceia (indeterminate location)[6]

Seleukeia Near Belos

Seleukeia In Pieria/Seleukeia On the Bay of Issos

Seleucia at the Zeugma

Seleucia ad Pyramum

Seleucia ad Calycadnum


According to O'Hart's account, Milesius had four sons, Heber, Ir, Heremon, and Amergin, who were involved, along with their uncle Ithe, in the invasion of ancient Ireland; Milesius, himself, had died during the planning. Because Amergin died during the invasion, he died without issue. It is from the four other invaders--Heber, Ir, Heremon, and Ithe--that the Irish are alleged to descend. These, according to O'Hart, are the four lines from which all true Irish descend. Conn of the Hundred Battles was a descendant of Erimon, and Brian Boru was descended from both Heber and Conn.


Hermes, Hercules, Aphrodite, Apollo, Eros (September 2014)

Kala Ermou Tetras and Tetradistai


Today (September 28), the sundown will bring the fourth day of the month of Pyanepsion


On the fourth day of every month we celebrate the Ermou Tetras and Tetradistai.


The Ermou Tetras celebrates the birth of Hermes and his four gifts: Logos (speech), Agon (Contest), the musical scale and geometry


The Tetradistai is also a birthday celebration. It celebrates the birth of Aphrodite, in her epithet as Pandemos (Common to All People), and the birth of Eros.


Herakles is also said to have been born on a fourth day.


Also the fourth day of every month is sacred to the gods Apollon and Hermaphroditos


“On the fourth day of the month queenly Maia bare him (Hermes).”

~excerpt from the Homeric Hymn 4 to Hermes


“…Menander, in his Flatterer, makes the cook on duty at the fourth-day club-feast (Tetradistai) or the day of Aphrodite Pandemos, speaks as follow: ‘Libation! Round with the tripe! Mind what you do. Come Sosias, boy, libation! Good for you! And now pour out. To all above we will pray both Gods and Goddesses, and may Life, Health, and many a blessing come of this, and those we’ve got Heaven grant we never miss!” ~ Athenaios 14. 659Dd


“…the fourth, and the seventh — on which Leto bare Apollo with the blade of gold – each is a holy day”

~ excerpt from Hesiod, Works and Days


“On the fourth and seventh days of each month, he directs mulled wine to be prepared, and going himself to purchase myrtle-wreaths, frankincense and convolvuluses; he returns to spend the day worshiping the statue of Hermaphroditus.”

~ excerpt from Theophrastus, Characters

The Hermai were placed at crossroads all over Greece. A cross roads is a cross, an intersection of four directions. The cross is not merely a Christian symbol; it is universal. So we already can see a very strong connection between Hermes and the Christ of the Christians: the cross, the number four, the ram, the lamb, the rooster, being born from the mother Maia, Maria, Mary.


The sacred number of Hermes is the number four.


A three-cornered world[edit]


The ancient tripartite world

Before the discovery of the New World a commonplace of classical and medieval geography had been the "three parts" in which, from Mediterranean and European perspectives, the world was divided: Europe, Asia and Africa. As Laurent de Premierfait, the pre-eminent French translator of Latin literature in the early fifteenth century, informed his readers:


Asia is one of the three parts of the world, which the authors divide in Asia, Africa and Europe. Asia extends towards the Orient as far as the rising sun ("devers le souleil levant"), towards the south ("midi") it ends at the great sea, towards the occident it ends at our sea, and towards the north ("septentrion") it ends in the Maeotian marshes and the river named Thanaus.[3]



Europa: woodcut in Ripa's Iconologia 1603

A fourth corner: the enlarged world[edit]

For Laurent's French readers, Asia ended at "our sea", the Mediterranean; Europeans were only dimly aware of the Ural Mountains, which divide Europe from Asia in the eyes of the modern geographer, and which represent the geological suture between two fragmentary continents, or cratons. Instead, the division between these continents in the European-centered picture was the Hellespont, which neatly separated Europe from Asia. From the European perspective, into the Age of Discovery, Asia began beyond the Hellespont with Asia Minor, where the Roman province of Asia had lain, and stretched away to unimaginably exotic and distant places— "the Orient".


In the sixteenth century America too was full of exotic promise: the "New World".[4]


In 1603, Cesare Ripa published a book of emblems for the use of artists and artisans who might be called upon to depict allegorical figures. He covered an astonishingly wide variety of fields, and his work was reprinted many times. It was still being brought up-to-date in the 18th century. The illustrations reveal fixed Eurocentric perceptions of the nature of the "four corners of the world." Ripa's Europe (illustration, left) is the land of abundance (cornucopia) of kings and the pope, whose crowns and the papal tiara lie at her feet, and of cities.



Asia: woodcut in Ripa's Iconologia, 1603

Africa, by contrast (illustration, below right) wears the elephant headdress (worn by rulers depicted on Hellenistic Bactrian coins) and is accompanied by a lion, the scorpion of the desert sands and Cleopatra's asps. Asia (illustration, right), the seat of Religion, carries a smoking censer as a camel takes its ease.



America, woodcut in Ripa's Iconologia 1603

And the iconic image of America (illustration, below left) shows a Native American maiden in a feathered headdress, with bow and arrow. Perhaps she represents a fabled Amazon from the river that already carried the name.


The American millionaire philanthropist James Hazen Hyde, who inherited a majority share in Equitable Life Assurance Society, formed a collection of allegorical prints illustrating the Four Continents that are now at the New-York Historical Society; Hyde's drawings and a supporting collection of sets of porcelain table ornaments and other decorative arts illustrating the Four Continents were shared by various New York City museums.



Africa: woodcut in Ripa's Iconologia 1603

The Renaissance associated one major river to each of the continents. The Four Rivers theme appears for example in the Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi in the Piazza Navona in Rome.


With the confirmed discovery that Australia was an island continent, the theme of the "Four Continents" lost much of its drive, long before a sixth continent, Antarctica, was discovered. The iconography survived as the Four Corners of the World, however, generally in self-consciously classicizing contexts: for instance, in New York, in front of the Beaux-Arts Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House (1907), four sculptural groups by Daniel Chester French symbolize the "Four Corners of the World."

Spongilla was used by John Hogg in the 19th century to attempt to justify a fourth kingdom of life.[3]


John Hogg (1800–1869) was a British naturalist who wrote about amphibians, birds, plants, reptiles, and protists. In 1839 he became a member of the Royal Society.


John Hogg is credited with the creation of a fourth kingdom, accompanying Carl Linnaeus's Lapides, Plantae and Animalia, to classify Life, namely Protoctista.



In 1735, the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus formalized living things into two supergroups, in his monumental Systema Naturae. All organisms were placed into the Kingdoms Plantae and Animalia. Linnaeus added a third kingdom of the natural world in 1766; Lapides (rocks). These were deemed to be similar to plants in that they were, neither living nor sentient, i.e. not having senses. They were further characterised as solid bodied.[1]


Fourth kingdom[edit]

In 1860, Hogg created a fourth kingdom, the Regnum Primigenum or Protoctista.[2] His rationale was simply that a kingdom of 'first beings' was necessary, as these entities were believed to have existed prior to plants and animals.


Hogg attempted to justify his arguments for a fourth kingdom with Spongilla, a freshwater green sponge, that was an animal known to exude oxygen in the light. However, the photosynthesis was later shown to be a result of symbiotic 'algae'.[3]


Such an attempt to apply non-reductionist thought to classification systems during a period of biological debate made Hogg a protagonist within the field of nineteenth century biology along with Ernst Haeckel and Charles Darwin.


The standard author abbreviation J.Hogg is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name.[4]

Europa:woodcut in Ripa's Iconologia 1603


Tripartite or T-O maps[edit]

Main article: T and O map

T-O maps, unlike zonal maps, illustrate only the habitable portion of the world known in Roman and medieval times. The landmass was illustrated as a circle (an "O") divided into three portions by a "T". These three divisions were the continents of Asia, Africa and Europe. The vast majority of T-O maps place east at the top, hence the term "orienting" a map from the Latin word oriens for "east". The assertion that T-O maps depict a "flat earth", while common, is unwarranted. The "circle of the lands" in a T-O can just as easily be fit onto the sphere of the Earth as onto a flat, disk-shaped Earth[original research?]. The popularity of the Macrobian maps and the combination of T-O style continents on some of the larger Macrobian spheres illustrate that Earth's sphericity continued to be understood among scholars during the Middle Ages.


Quadripartite or Beatus maps[edit]

Quadripartite maps represent a sort of amalgam of the Zonal and T-O maps by illustrating the three known continents separated by an equatorial ocean from a fourth unknown land, often called Antipodes. Fourteen large quadripartite maps are found illustrating different manuscripts of Beatus of Liébana's popular Commentary on the Apocalypse of St John. These "Beatus maps" are believed to derive from a single (now lost) original which was used to illustrate the missions of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ.[2]


The surviving Parallel Lives (Greek: Βίοι Παράλληλοι, Bíoi Parállēloi) comprises 23 pairs of biographies, each pair consisting of one Greek and one Roman, as well as four unpaired, single lives

The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, AD 69, in which four emperors ruled in succession: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian.

The history of American cinema is sometimes separated into four main periods: the silent era, Classical Hollywood cinema, New Hollywood, and the contemporary period (after 1980).

Intolerance is a 1916 epic silent film directed by D. W. Griffith. Subtitles include Love's Struggle Throughout the Ages and A Sun-Play of the Ages.[2][3]

Widely regarded as one of the great masterpieces of the silent era, as well as one of the first art films,[3] the three-and-a-half-hour epic intercuts four parallel storylines, each separated by several centuries: (1) a contemporary melodrama of crime and redemption, (2) a Judean story: Christ's mission and death, (3) a French story: the events surrounding the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572, and (4) a Babylonian story: the fall of the Babylonian Empire to Persia in 539 BC. Each story had its own distinctive color tint in the original print.[3] The scenes are linked by shots of a figure representing Eternal Motherhood, rocking a cradle.

This complex film consists of four distinct, but parallel, stories—intercut with increasing frequency as the film builds to a climax—that demonstrate mankind's persistent intolerance throughout the ages. The film sets up moral and psychological connections among the different stories. The timeline covers approximately 2,500 years.

  1. The ancient "Babylonian" story (539 BC) depicts the conflict between Prince Belshazzar of Babylon and Cyrus the Great of Persia. The fall of Babylon is a result of intolerance arising from a conflict between devotees of two rival Babylonian gods—Bel-Marduk and Ishtar.

  2. The Biblical "Judean" story (c. AD 27) recounts how—after the Wedding at Cana and the Woman Taken in Adultery—intolerance led to the Crucifixion of Jesus. This sequence is the shortest of the four.

  3. The Renaissance "French" story (1572) tells of the religious intolerance that led to the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of Protestant Huguenots fomented by Catholic royals.

  4. The American "Modern" story (c. 1914) demonstrates how crime, moral puritanism, and conflicts between ruthless capitalists and striking workers help ruin the lives of marginal Americans. To get more money for his spinster sister's charities, a mill owner orders a 10% pay cut to his workers' wages. An ensuing workers' strike is crushed and The Boy and The Dear One make their way to another city; she lives in poverty and he turns to crime. After they marry, he tries to break free of crime but is framed for theft by his ex-boss. While he is in prison, his wife must endure their child being taken away by the same "moral uplift society" that instigated the strike. Upon his release from prison, he discovers his ex-boss attempting to rape his wife. A struggle begins and in the confusion the girlfriend of the boss shoots and kills the boss. She escapes and The Boy is convicted and sentenced to the gallows. A kindly policeman helps The Dear One find the real killer and together they try to reach the Governor in time so her reformed husband will not be hanged.

Intolerance is now in the public domain. There are currently four major versions of the film in circulation.

  1. The Killiam Shows Version – Taken from a third-generation 16 millimeter print, this version contains an organ score by Gaylord Carter. Running approximately 176 minutes, it is the version that has been the most widely seen in recent years. It has been released on LaserDisc and DVD by Image Entertainment and is the most complete version currently available on home video, if not the longest.

  2. The Official Thames Silents Restoration – In 1989 this film was given a formal restoration by film preservationists Kevin Brownlow and David Gill. This version, also running 177 minutes, was prepared by Thames Television from original 35 millimeter material, and its tones and tints were restored per Griffith's original intent. It also has a digitally recorded orchestral score by Carl Davis. It was released on VHS in the U.S. briefly around 1989–1990 by HBO Video, then went out of print. This version is part of the Rohauer Collection. The Rohauer company worked in association with Thames on the restoration. It was given a further digital restoration by Cohen Media Group (which currently serves as keeper of the Rohauer library, and is the copyright holder on this restored version), and was reissued to select theatres, as well as on DVD and Blu-ray, in 2013. While not as complete as the Killiam Shows Version, this print contains footage not found on that particular print.

  3. The Kino Version – Pieced together in 2002 by Kino International, this version, taken from 35 millimeter material, is transferred at a slower frame rate than the Killiam Shows and Rohauer prints, resulting in a longer running time of 197 minutes. It contains a synthetic orchestral score by Joseph Turrin. An alternative "happy ending" to the "Fall of Babylon" sequence, showing the Mountain Girl surviving and re-united with the Rhapsode, is included on the DVD as a supplement. This version is less complete than the Killiam Shows and Rohauer prints.

  4. The Restored Digital Cinema Version – Restoration conducted by ZZ Productions in collaboration with the Danish Film Institute and Arte France of the version shown on April 7, 1917 at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane in London. This version runs approximately 177 minutes and premiered August 29, 2007 at the Venice Film Festival and on October 4 on arte.[19]


The religious hallucinations narrated in his Confession seem to have been as genuine as the average of such things, and are very well expressed. It reads quite like Jacob Behmen. He saw white spirits and black spirits contending in the skies, the sun was darkened, the thunder rolled. “And the Holy Ghost was with me, and said, ‘Behold me as I stand in the heavens!’ And I looked and saw the forms of men in different attitudes. And there were lights in the sky, to which the children of darkness gave other names than what they really were ; for they were the lights of the Saviour's hands, stretched forth from east to west, even as they were extended on the cross on Calvary, for the redemption of sinners.” He saw drops of blood on the corn: this was Christ's blood, shed for man. He saw on the leaves in the woods letters and numbers and figures of men,—the same symbols which he had seen in the skies. On May 12, 1828, the Holy Spirit appeared to him and proclaimed that the yoke of Jesus must fall on him, and he must fight against the Serpent when the sign appeared. Then came an eclipse of the sun in February, 1831: this was the sign; then he must arise and prepare himself, and slay his enemies with their own weapons; then also the seal was removed from his lips, and then he confided his plans to four associates.


Not only is Nat presented as a religious visionary; he also becomes a latter-day vision of Christ on Earth. In a scene that’s another pivot of the film, another pivot that relentlessly personalizes Nat’s story, Sam orders him to be whipped; Nat is lashed to a post with his arms outstretched like Christ on the cross, and Parker shows Nat’s agony with extreme closeups on Nat’s—on Parker’s own—face. Similarly, when Nat is hanged—after passing through his own Via Dolorosa, assailed by the braying crowd of whites—Parker puts the camera, absurdly and pompously, in extreme closeup on Nat’s face. Though, early in the film, Parker’s intense identification with Nat Turner leads to remarkable moments of psychological complexity, it also leads, later in the film, to a self-aggrandizement that distorts the drama, the image, and, for that matter, the spirit of the film. If Jesus himself were making a film about the life of Jesus, it’s hard to imagine it culminating in an extreme closeup of Jesus.


In Hebrew, each letter possesses a numerical value. Gematria is the calculation of the numerical equivalence of letters, words, or phrases, and, on that basis, gaining, insight into interrelation of different concepts and exploring the interrelationship between words and ideas.


Here is a basic introduction to Gematria that discusses different systems for identifying the numerical equivalence of individual letters, how these letters can be calculated according to the implicit word-value of their names.


The assumption behind this technique is that numerical equivalence is not coincidental. Since the world was created through God’s “speech,” each letter represents a different creative force. Thus, the numerical equivalence of two words reveals an internal connection between the creative potentials of each one. (seeTanya, Sha’ar HaYichud VeHaEmunah, chapters 1 and 12.)


There are four ways to calculate equivalence of individual letters:


Absolute Value

Ordinal Value

Reduced Value

Integral Reduced value

The Tikunei Zohar explains that the concept of reduced value is related to the spiritual world of Yetzirah. On that basis, a relationship can be established between these four forms of calculation, the four spiritual realms, and the four letters of God’s name:


letter of God’s essential Name, Havayah

type of calculation



absolute value

emanation (atzilut)


ordinal value

creation (beri’ah)


reduced value

formation (yetzirah)


integral reduced value

action (asiyah)

On Innerpedia, our online encyclopedia, there are entries for many individual numbers, explaining both the significance of each number in number theory and what words and phrases equal that number. Words and phrases are taken from the gamut of traditional Torah literature and divided into sections: Bible, literature of the sages, Kabbalah, Chassidut, and Harav Ginsburgh’s works. Here is a list of the current numbers with entries:


Four Methods for Doing Gematria


Absolute value, (in Hebrew: mispar hechrachi) also known as Normative value:Each letter is given the value of its accepted numerical equivalent alef (the first letter) equals 1, beit (the second letter) equals 2, and so on. The tenth letter, yud is numerically equivalent to 10, and successive letters equal 20, 30, 40, and so on. The letter kuf near the end of the alphabet, equals 100; and the last letter, tav equals 400.

In this reckoning, the letters chaf sofiet (final chaf), mem sofiet, nun sofiet, pei sofiet, and tzadik sofiet which are the “final forms” of the letters chaf, mem, nun, pei,andtzadik, used when these letters conclude a word, generally are given the same numerical equivalent of the standard form of the letter. However, sometimes the finalchaf is considered equivalent to 500, the final mem to 600, etc. (see chart below).


Following that alternate form of reckoning, the Hebrew alphabet is a complete cycle. The final tzadik equals 900 and thus, the alef equals both one and one thousand. Indeed, in Hebrew the same spelling is used for the name of the letter alef, and elef, meaning “one thousand.”


Noting this phenomenon, Rabbi Avraham Abulafia interprets the verse (Deuteronomy 32:30): “How can one pursue one thousand!” to mean: One, the first number, follows after one thousand in a complete and perfect cycle.


Ordinal value (in Hebrew: mispar siduri):


Each of the 22 letters is given an equivalent from one to twenty-two. For example, alef equals 1, kaf equals 11, taf = 22. The final kaf equals 23, and final tzadik equal 27.


Reduced value (in Hebrew: mispar katan, modulus 9 in mathematical terminology):


Each letter is reduced to a figure of one digit. For example, in this reckoning,alef equals 1, yud equals 10, kuf equals 100) would all have a numerical value of 1;beit equals 2, kaf equals 20, and reish equals 200 would all have a numerical value of 2, and so on. Thus, the letters have only nine equivalents, rather than twenty-two.


In both the Ordinal and Reduced reckonings, the five letters whose form changes when they conclude a word are generally equivalent to their value when they appear within a word. However, they are sometimes given an independent value. For example, the ordinal value of the final nun is at times considered 14, and is at times, 25. Similarly, its reduced value is at times 5, and at other times, 7.


Integral Reduced Value (in Hebrew, mispar katan mispari):


In this fourth method, the total numerical value of a word is reduced to one digit. Should the sum of these numbers exceed 9, the integer values of the total are repeatedly added to each other to produce a single-digit figure. The same value will be arrived at regardless of whether it is the absolute values, the ordinal values, or the reduced values that are being counted.