WHOLE BRAIN FOUR QUADRANT MODEL
The Whole Brain/Four Quadrant Model
Ned Herrmann showed that by incorporating the research of Paul McLean of the Triune Brain and Roger Sperry's Left Brain/Right Brain function, we can build a model of the human brain with two paired structures, the two halves of the cerebral system and the two halves of the limbic system. This allows s to differentiate between not only the more popular notions of left/right brain, but also the more sophisticated notions of cognitive/intellectual which describes the cerebral preference, and visceral, structured and emotional which describes the limbic preference.
One further concept is important to understanding Ned Herrmann's Whole Brain Model, and that is dominance. The evidence of human dominance shows that wherever there are two of anything in the body, one is naturally dominant over the other. Therefore like we are right or left handed, we are also naturally `footed', `eyed'. `kidneyed', etc. We can also be thought of as `brained'. Since dominance can only occur between paired structures, the Herrmann Brain Dominance Model focuses on the Limbic and Cerebral layers of the Triune Brain.
The model is a metaphorical interpretation of how we think and what are our preferred ways of knowing.
The Whole Brain Model shows four distinct thinking styles.
Modes of Thinking
The upper (cerebral) left A analytical, mathematical, technical and problem solving.
The lower (limbic) left B controlled, conservative, planned, organised and administrative in nature.
The lower (limbic) right C interpersonal, emotional, musical, spiritual and the "talker" modes.
Upper (cerebral) right D imaginative, synthesising, artistic, holistic and conceptual modes.
More information is available at another Web site.
The Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI) is a questionnaire used for assessment. Contact the Ned Herrmann group for further information.
More details can be found at Ned Herrmann's Web Site.
FOURTH TRANSCENDENT COMPONENT EPISODIC BUFFER LATER ADDED
In 1974, Baddeley and Hitch introduced the multicomponent model of working memory. The theory proposed a model containing three components: the central executive, the phonological loop, and the visuospatial sketchpad with the central executive functioning as a control center of sorts, directing info between the phonological and visuospatial components. The central executive is responsible inter alia for directing attention to relevant information, suppressing irrelevant information and inappropriate actions, and coordinating cognitive processes when more than one task is simultaneously performed. A "central executive" is responsible for supervising the integration of information and for coordinating "slave systems" that are responsible for the short-term maintenance of information. One slave system, the phonological loop (PL), stores phonological information (that is, the sound of language) and prevents its decay by continuously refreshing it in a rehearsal loop. It can, for example, maintain a seven-digit telephone number for as long as one repeats the number to oneself again and again. The other slave system, the visuospatial sketchpad, stores visual and spatial information. It can be used, for example, for constructing and manipulating visual images and for representing mental maps. The sketchpad can be further broken down into a visual subsystem (dealing with such phenomena as shape, colour, and texture), and a spatial subsystem (dealing with location).
In 2000, Baddeley extended the model by adding a fourth component, the episodic buffer, which holds representations that integrate phonological, visual, and spatial information, and possibly information not covered by the slave systems (e.g., semantic information, musical information). The episodic buffer is also the link between working memory and long-term memory. The component is episodic because it is assumed to bind information into a unitary episodic representation. The episodic buffer resembles Tulving's concept of episodic memory, but it differs in that the episodic buffer is a temporary store.
COWAN SAYS THAT WORKING MEMORY HAS A CAPACITY OF FOUR CHUNKS- SO WHEN YOU MEMORIZE TELEPHONE NUMBERS OR ANYTHING YOU DO IT WITH AT MOST FOUR CHUNKS - COWAN DESCRIBES "THE MAGIC NUMBER FOUR" IN MEMORY
Anders Ericsson and Walter Kintsch have introduced the notion of "long-term working memory", which they define as a set of "retrieval structures" in long-term memory that enable seamless access to the information relevant for everyday tasks. In this way, parts of long-term memory effectively function as working memory. In a similar vein, Cowan does not regard working memory as a separate system from long-term memory. Representations in working memory are a subset of representations in long-term memory. Working memory is organized into two embedded levels. The first consists of long-term memory representations that are activated. There can be many of these—there is theoretically no limit to the activation of representations in long-term memory. The second level is called the focus of attention. The focus is regarded as having a limited capacity and holds up to four of the activated representations.
Oberauer has extended Cowan's model by adding a third component, a more narrow focus of attention that holds only one chunk at a time. The one-element focus is embedded in the four-element focus and serves to select a single chunk for processing. For example, four digits can be held in mind at the same time in Cowan's "focus of attention". When the individual wishes to perform a process on each of these digits—for example, adding the number two to each digit—separate processing is required for each digit, as most individuals can not perform several mathematical processes in parallel. Oberauer's attentional component selects one of the digits for processing, and then shifts the attentional focus to the next digit, continuing until all digits have been processed.
Working memory is generally considered to have limited capacity. An early quantification of the capacity limit associated with short-term memory was the "magical number seven" suggested by Miller in 1956. He claimed that the information-processing capacity of young adults is around seven elements, which he called "chunks", regardless whether the elements are digits, letters, words, or other units. Later research revealed this number depends on the category of chunks used (e.g., span may be around seven for digits, six for letters, and five for words), and even on features of the chunks within a category. For instance, span is lower for long than short words. In general, memory span for verbal contents (digits, letters, words, etc.) depends on the phonological complexity of the content (i.e., the number of phonemes, the number of syllables), and on the lexical status of the contents (whether the contents are words known to the person or not). Several other factors affect a person's measured span, and therefore it is difficult to pin down the capacity of short-term or working memory to a number of chunks. Nonetheless, Cowan proposed that working memory has a capacity of about four chunks in young adults (and fewer in children and old adults).
I DESCRIBED THAT AT UCSD I TOOK A CLASS ON ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY. WHEN MEERKATS DO FALSE ALARM CALLS IN ORDER TO STEEL FOOD FROM OTHER MEERKATS, FOR THE FIRST THREE FALSE ALARM CALLS ALMOST ALL OF HTE MEERKATS RESPOND. AT THE FOURTH FALE ALARM CALL SOME OF THE MEERKATS DO NOT RESPOND. THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT. AT THE FIFTH NONE OF THE MEERKATS RESPOND. THE FIFTH IS ULTRA TRANSCENDENT
The two fire sticks of Agni
note that we could refer to them as x-axis and y-axis
comprising a grid, matrix or ThE NET
THE BAB ON THE TRINITY AND THE QUATERNITY
3 TIMES 4 TWELVE SOLVES DILLEMA OF QUATERNITY JUNG
HILDEGARD AND PATTERNS OF FOUR
As Hildegard elaborates the medical and scientific relationship between the human microcosm and the macrocosm of the universe, she often focuses on interrelated patterns of four: "the four elements (fire, air, water, and earth), the four seasons, the four humors, the four zones of the earth, and the four major winds." Although she inherited the basic framework of humoral theory from ancient medicine, Hildegard's conception of the hierarchical inter-balance of the four humors (blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile) was unique, based on their correspondence to "superior" and "inferior" elements—blood and phlegm corresponding to the "celestial" elements of fire and air, and the two biles corresponding to the "terrestrial" elements of water and earth. Hildegard understood the disease-causing imbalance of these humors to result from the improper dominance of the subordinate humors. This disharmony reflects that introduced by Adam and Eve in the Fall, which for Hildegard marked the indelible entrance of disease and humoral imbalance into humankind. As she writes in Causae et Curae c. 42:
FOUR PREACHING TOURS HILDEGARD ONE OF THE FOUR FEMALE DOCTORS OF THE CHURCH
Because of church limitation on public, discursive rhetoric, the medieval rhetorical arts included preaching, letter writing, poetry, and the encyclopedic tradition. Hildegard's participation in these arts speaks to her significance as a female rhetorician, transcending bans on women's social participation and interpretation of scripture. The acceptance of public preaching by a woman, even a well-connected abbess and acknowledged prophet, does not fit the stereotype of this time. Her preaching was not limited to the monasteries; she preached publicly in 1160 in Germany. (New York: Routledge, 2001, 9). She conducted four preaching tours throughout Germany, speaking to both clergy and laity in chapter houses and in public, mainly denouncing clerical corruption and calling for reform.
Many abbots and abbesses asked her for prayers and opinions on various matters. She traveled widely during her four preaching tours. She had several fanatical followers, including Guibert of Gembloux, who wrote to her frequently and became her secretary after Volmar's death in 1173. Hildegard also influenced several monastic women, exchanging letters with Elisabeth of Schönau, a nearby visionary.
FOUR STAGES IN LANGUAGES
There are four main stages in language.
They are the:
Holophrastic or one-word stage.
FOUR STAGES LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
There are four main stages of normal language acquisition: The babbling stage, the Holophrastic or one-word stage, the two-word stage and the Telegraphic stage. These stages can be broken down even more into these smaller stages: pre-production, early production, speech emergent, beginning fluency intermediate fluency and advanced fluency. On this page I will be providing a summary of the four major stage of language acquisition.
Within a few weeks of being born the baby begins to recognize it’s mothers’ voice. There are two sub-stages within this period. The first occurs between birth – 8 months. Most of this stage involves the baby relating to its surroundings and only during 5/6 – 8 month period does the baby begin using it’s vocals. As has been previously discussed babies learn by imitation and the babbling stage is just that. During these months the baby hears sounds around them and tries to reproduce them, albeit with limited success. The babies attempts at creating and experimenting with sounds is what we call babbling. When the baby has been babbling for a few months it begins to relate the words or sounds it is making to objects or things. This is the second sub-stage. From 8 months to 12 months the baby gains more and more control over not only it’s vocal communication but physical communication as well, for example body language and gesturing. Eventually when the baby uses both verbal and non-verbal means to communicate, only then does it move on to the next stage of language acquisition.
Holophrastic / One-word stage
The second stage of language acquisition is the holophrastic or one word stage. This stage is characterized by one word sentences. In this stage nouns make up around 50% of the infants vocabulary while verbs and modifiers make up around 30% and questions and negatives make up the rest. This one-word stage contains single word utterances such as “play” for “I want to play now”. Infants use these sentence primarily to obtain things they want or need, but sometimes they aren’t that obvious. For example a baby may cry or say “mama” when it purely wants attention. The infant is ready to advance to the next stage when it can speak in successive one word sentences.
The two word stage (as you may have guessed) is made of up primarily two word sentences. These sentences contain 1 word for the predicate and 1 word for the subject. For example “Doggie walk” for the sentence “The dog is being walked.” During this stage we see the appearance of single modifiers e.g. “That dog”, two word questions e.g. “Mummy eat?” and the addition of the suffix –ing onto words to describe something that is currently happening e.g. “Baby Sleeping.”
The final stage of language acquisition is the telegraphic stage. This stage is named as it is because it is similar to what is seen in a telegram; containing just enough information for the sentence to make sense. This stage contains many three and four word sentences. Sometime during this stage the child begins to see the links between words and objects and therefore overgeneralization comes in. Some examples of sentences in the telegraphic stage are “Mummy eat carrot”, “What her name?” and “He is playing ball.” During this stage a child’s vocabulary expands from 50 words to up to 13,000 words. At the end of this stage the child starts to incorporate plurals, joining words and attempts to get a grip on tenses.
As a child’s grasp on language grows it may seem to us as though they just learn each part in a random order, but this is not the case. There is a definite order of speech sounds. Children first start speaking vowels, starting with the rounded mouthed sounds like “oo” and “aa”. After the vowels come the consonants, p, b, m, t, d, n, k and g. The consonants are first because they are easier to pronounce then some of the others, for example ‘s’ and ‘z’ require specific tongue place which children cannot do at that age.
As all human beings do, children will improvise something they cannot yet do. For example when children come across a sound they cannot produce they replace it with a sound they can e.g. ‘Thoap” for “Soap” and “Wun” for “Run.” These are just a few example of resourceful children are, even if in our eyes it is just cute.
THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH YOGA
The Three Yog are three soteriological paths mentioned in Bhagavad Gita for the liberation of human spirit. They are
Karma Yoga or the Path of Action (karma)
Bhakti Yoga or the Path of Devotion (bhakti) to Ishvar (God)
Gyan Yoga or the Path of Knowledge (Gyan)
A "fourth yog" is sometimes added, Raj Yog or "the Path of Meditation". This is the classical Yog presented in the Yog Sutr of Patanjali. Patanjali's system came to be known as Raj Yog or "Royal Yog" retro-actively, in about the 15th century, as the term Yog had become popular for the general concept of a "religious path".
The systematic presentation of Hindu monotheism as divided into these four paths or "Yog" is modern, advocated by Swami Vivekananda from the 1890s. They are presented as four paths to God suitable for four human temperaments, viz. the active, the emotional, the mystic and the philosophical.
FOUR MAIN PATHS OF YOGA
Swami Sivananda's approach to yoga was to combine the four main paths - karma yoga, bhakti yoga, jnana yoga and raja yoga along with various sub-yogas such as kirtan and hatha yoga. This is reflected in the motto of the society that he formed, the Divine Life Society. The motto says, "Serve (Karma Yoga), Love (Bhakti Yoga), Meditate (Jnana Yoga), Realise (Raja Yoga)." In his own words, "One-sided development is not commendable. Religion and Yoga must educate and develop the whole man - his heart, intellect and hand."
Four paths of yoga
Main article: Four Yogas (Hinduism)
Karma yoga is path usually chosen by those of an outgoing nature, Swami Sivananda recognised that every seeker needed to be selfless and see no difference in "all these names and forms". Service purifies the heart by teaching one to act selflessly, without thought of gain or reward. By detaching oneself from the fruits of one's actions and offering them up to God, one learns to sublimate the ego. To achieve this, Swami Sivananda recommends that we serve with Atma Bhav i.e. with an attitude and conviction that everything is yet another aspect of God. "He who works in the world with Atma Bhav will eventually reach Atma.".
Normally appealing to the emotional by nature, Swami Sivananda urged bhakti yoga for all to develop love for God and creation. Through prayer, worship, ritual and ultimately developing a tangible relationship, a seeker surrenders himself or herself to God, channeling and transmuting his or her emotions into unconditional love or devotion. Chanting or singing the praises of God form a substantial part of bhakti.
Taking the philosophy of Vedanta, jnana yoga uses the mind to inquire into self-nature. We perceive the space inside and outside a glass as different, just as we see ourselves as separate from God. Jnana Yoga leads the devotee to experience his unity with God directly by breaking the glass, dissolving the veils of ignorance. In a nutshell, Swami Sivananda said, "To behold the one Self in all beings is Jnana". Before practising jnana yoga, the aspirant needs to have integrated the lessons of the other yogic paths - for without selflessness and love of God, strength of body and mind, the search for self-realisation can become mere idle speculation.
Raja yoga is often called the "royal road". It offers a comprehensive method for controlling the waves of thought by turning our mental and physical energy into spiritual energy. Raja yoga is also called ashtanga yoga referring to the eight limbs leading to absolute mental control. The chief practice of raja yoga is meditation. It also includes all other methods which helps one to control body, energy, senses and mind. The hatha-yogi uses relaxation and other practices such as yamas, niyamas, mudras, and bandhas to gain control of the physical body and the subtle life force called prana. When body and energy are under control meditation comes naturally. Swami Sivananda recommended the various aspects of raja yoga to develop strong will power and a healthy body to all seekers.
I DESCRIBED THAT FREUDS STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT FIT THE QUADRANT PATTERN. THE FIRST ORAL IS THE IDEALIST LEVEL WHERE PEOPLE ARE GUILLABLE. THE SECOND ANAL STAGE IS ABOUT ORDER. ANAL MEANS COMPULSIVE ABOUT ORDER AND STRUCTURE, WHICH IS THE NATURE OF THE SECOND SQUARE. THE THIRD IS PHALLIC AND IS REALTED TO THE OEDIPAL COMPLEX. THE THIRD IS ALWAYS BAD AND ACTION ORIENTED.
THE FIRST THREE ARE RELATED TO BODY PARTS. THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT CALLED THE LATENT STAGE NOT RELATED TO ANY BODY PART THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT. IN THE STAGES OF THE GREEKS THE FIRST THREE STAGES WERE RELATED TO METALS AND THE FOURTH WAS CALLED THE HEROIC STAGE-DIFFERENt
VERY FAMOUS FOUR PARTS
Patañjali divided his Yoga Sutras into four chapters or books (Sanskrit pada), containing in all 196 aphorisms, divided as follows:[page needed]
Samadhi Pada (51 sutras). Samadhi refers to a blissful state where the yogi is absorbed into the One. Samadhi is the main technique the yogin learns by which to dive into the depths of the mind to achieve Kaivalya. The author describes yoga and then the nature and the means to attaining samādhi. This chapter contains the famous definitional verse: "Yogaś citta-vritti-nirodhaḥ" ("Yoga is the restraint of mental modifications").
Sadhana Pada (55 sutras). Sadhana is the Sanskrit word for "practice" or "discipline". Here the author outlines two forms of Yoga: Kriya Yoga (Action Yoga) and Ashtanga Yoga (Eightfold or Eightlimbed Yoga).
Kriya Yoga is closely related to Karma Yoga, which is also expounded in Chapter 3 of the Bhagavad Gita, where Arjuna is encouraged by Krishna to act without attachment to the results or fruit of action and activity. It is the yoga of selfless action and service.
Ashtanga Yoga describes the eight limbs that together constitute Rāja Yoga.
Vibhuti Pada (56 sutras). Vibhuti is the Sanskrit word for "power" or "manifestation". 'Supra-normal powers' (Sanskrit: siddhi) are acquired by the practice of yoga. Combined simultaneous practice of Dhāraṇā, Dhyana and Samādhi is referred to as Samyama, and is considered a tool of achieving various perfections, or Siddhis. The temptation of these powers should be avoided and the attention should be fixed only on liberation. The purpose of using samadhi is not to gain siddhis but to achieve Kaivalya. Siddhis are but distractions from Kaivalaya and are to be discouraged. Siddhis are but maya, or illusion.
Kaivalya Pada (34 sutras). Kaivalya literally means "isolation", but as used in the Sutras stands for emancipation or liberation and is used interchangeably with moksha (liberation), which is the goal of yoga. The Kaivalya Pada describes the process of liberation and the reality of the transcendental ego.
CRUCIFEROUS MEANS CROSS SHAPED- CROSS IS QUADRANT
Cruciferous vegetables are vegetables of the family Brassicaceae (also called Cruciferae) with many genera, species, and cultivars being raised for food production such as cauliflower, cabbage, garden cress, bok choy, broccoli, brussels sprouts and similar green leaf vegetables. The family takes its alternative name (Cruciferae, New Latin for "cross-bearing") from the shape of their flowers, whose four petals resemble a cross.
Ten of the most common cruciferous vegetables eaten by people, known colloquially in North America as cole crops and in Britain and Ireland as "brassicas", are in a single species (Brassica oleracea); they are not distinguished from one another taxonomically, only by horticultural category of cultivar groups. Numerous other genera and species in the family are also edible. Cruciferous vegetables are one of the dominant food crops worldwide. They are high in vitamin C and soluble fiber and contain multiple nutrients and phytochemicals.
Extensive selective breeding has produced a large variety of cultivars, especially within the genus Brassica. One description of genetic factors involved in the breeding of Brassica species is the Triangle of U.
The taxonomy of common cruciferous vegetables
common name genus specific epithet Cultivar group
Horseradish Armoracia rusticana
Land cress Barbarea verna
Ethiopian mustard Brassica carinata
Kale Brassica oleracea Acephala group
Collard greens Brassica oleracea Acephala group
Chinese broccoli (gai-lan) Brassica oleracea Alboglabra group
Cabbage Brassica oleracea Capitata group
Savoy cabbage Brassica oleracea Savoy Cabbage group
Brussels sprouts Brassica oleracea Gemmifera group
Kohlrabi Brassica oleracea Gongylodes group
Broccoli Brassica oleracea Italica group
Broccoflower Brassica oleracea Italica group × Botrytis group
Broccoli romanesco Brassica oleracea Botrytis group / Italica group
Cauliflower Brassica oleracea Botrytis group
Wild broccoli Brassica oleracea Oleracea group
Bok choy Brassica rapa chinensis
Komatsuna Brassica rapa pervidis or komatsuna
Mizuna Brassica rapa nipposinica
Rapini (broccoli rabe) Brassica rapa parachinensis
Choy sum (Flowering cabbage) Brassica rapa parachinensis
Chinese cabbage, napa cabbage Brassica rapa pekinensis
Turnip root; greens Brassica rapa rapifera
Rutabaga (swede) Brassica napus napobrassica
Siberian kale Brassica napus pabularia
Canola/rapeseed Brassica rapa/napus oleifera
Wrapped heart mustard cabbage Brassica juncea rugosa
Mustard seeds, brown; greens Brassica juncea
White mustard seeds Brassica (or Sinapis) hirta
Black mustard seeds Brassica nigra
Tatsoi Brassica rosularis
Wild arugula Diplotaxis tenuifolia
Arugula (rocket) Eruca vesicaria
Field pepperweed Lepidium campestre
Maca Lepidium meyenii
Garden cress Lepidium sativum
Watercress Nasturtium officinale
Radish Raphanus sativus
Daikon Raphanus sativus longipinnatus
Wasabi Wasabia japonica
CRUFCIFEROUS VEGETABLES HEALTHY
B. oleracea has become established as an important human food crop plant, used because of its large food reserves, which are stored over the winter in its leaves. It is rich in essential nutrients including vitamin C. A diet rich in cruciferous vegetables (e.g., cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower) is linked to a reduced risk of several human cancers.
Researchers believe it has been cultivated for several thousand years—but its history as a domesticated plant is not clear before Greek and Roman times, when it was a well-established garden vegetable. Theophrastus mentions three kinds of rhaphanos (ῤάφανος): a curly-leaved, a smooth-leaved, and a wild-type. He reports the antipathy of the cabbage and the grape vine, for the ancients believed cabbages grown near grapes would impart their flavour to the wine. It has been bred into a wide range of cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, collards, and kale, some of which are hardly recognisable as being members of the same genus, let alone species. The historical genus of Crucifera, meaning "cross-bearing," may be the only unifying feature beyond taste.
X SHAPED GALAXY
X-shaped (or "winged") radio galaxies are a class of extragalactic radio source that exhibit two, low-surface-brightness radio lobes (the "wings") oriented at an angle to the active, or high-surface-brightness, lobes. Both sets of lobes pass symmetrically through the center of the elliptical galaxy that is the source of the lobes, giving the radio galaxy an X-shaped morphology as seen on radio maps (see figure).
X-shaped sources were first described by J. P. Leahy and P. Parma in 1992, who presented a list of 11 such objects. The X-shaped galaxies have received much attention following the suggestion in 2002 that they might be the sites of spin-flips associated with the recent coalescence of two supermassive black holes.
X-shaped galaxies are a sub-class of Fanaroff-Riley Type II (FRII) radio galaxies. FRII objects exhibit a pair of large (kiloparsec) scale radio lobes that straddle the parent elliptical galaxy; the lobes are believed to consist of plasma ejected from the center of the galaxy by jets associated with the accretion disk around the supermassive black hole. Unlike the classical FRII sources, the X-shaped galaxies exhibit two, misaligned pairs of radio lobes of comparable extent. One pair of lobes, the "active" lobes, have a relatively high surface brightness and appear to be generated by ongoing emission from the center of the galaxy. The second set, the "wings", have a lower surface brightness, and appear to consist of plasma that was ejected along a different axis than that associated with the active lobes. The wings are also observed to have a higher spectral index than the active lobes and are highly polarized. With one exception, none of the X-shaped sources shows the broad, optical emission lines associated with quasar activity. The host galaxies mostly exhibit high ellipticities and a number have nearby companion galaxies.
In their original catalog of 11 X-shaped galaxies, Leahy and Parma proposed that the "wings were created in an earlier outburst, some tens of Myrs previous to the current renewal of nuclear activity, during which time the ejection axis has precessed." They noted that their proposal was consistent with the low surface brightness, steep radio spectrum, and high polarization of the wings, all of which are features associated with old (inactive) radio sources.
A widely discussed model for the origin of the X-shaped sources invokes a spin-flip of the supermassive black hole. In this model, a galaxy merger causes a second, smaller supermassive black hole to be deposited near the center of the original radio galaxy. The smaller black hole forms a binary system with the larger black hole before the two coalesce via the emission of gravitational waves. During the coalescence, the spin axis of the larger hole undergoes a sudden reorientation due to absorption of the smaller hole's orbital angular momentum—a "spin-flip." Since the lobes are produced by jets that are launched perpendicularly to the inner accretion disk, and since the accretion disk is constrained by the Bardeen-Petterson effect to lie perpendicular to the black hole's spin axis, a change in the spin orientation implies a change in the direction of the lobes. Even a rather small infalling black hole, with a mass approximately one-fifth that of the larger hole, could cause the spin of the latter to change by ninety degrees.
Alternative models to explain the X-shaped sources include a warping instability of the accretion disk; backflow of gas along the active lobes and binary-disk interactions before coalescence. It is likely that all of these mechanisms are active at some level and that the time scale for realignment influences the radio source morphology, with the most rapid realignments producing the X-shaped sources, while slower realignment would cause the jet to deposit its energy into a larger volume, leading to an S-shaped FRI radio source.
ACE OF BASE THE SIGN IS THE ANKH/CROSS- THE ANKH IS THE THREE PLUS ONE CROSS WITH ONE BRANCH AS A CIRCLE
ALSO ACE OF BASE IS A FOUR MEMBER BAND
The music video of the song features the pop group singing amidst romantic and joyful images; "The Sign" was depicted as a computer generated ankh (also known as key of life) and a djed (ancient Egyptian symbol representing stability). The music video is directed by Mathias Julien.
16 SQUARE ANKH QUADRANT MODEL
ALTHOUGH SIMPLE MINDS HAS DIFFERENT NUMBERS OF MEMBERS THIS ALBUM HAD FOUR MEMBERS AND THE COVER WAS A CROSS
New Gold Dream (81–82–83–84) is the fifth studio album by Scottish rock band Simple Minds. The album was released in September 1982 by record label Virgin, and was a turning point for the band as they gained critical and commercial success in the UK and Europe.
TALKING HEADS 3 + 1 band three men one woman
Talking Heads were an American rock band formed in 1975 in New York City and active until 1991. The band comprised David Byrne (lead vocals, guitar), Chris Frantz (drums), Tina Weymouth (bass), and Jerry Harrison(keyboards, guitar). Described by critic Stephen Thomas Erlewine as "one of the most critically acclaimed bands of the '80s," the group helped to pioneer new wave music by integrating elements of punk, art rock, funk, and world music with avant-garde sensibilities and an anxious, clean-cut image.
TETRAHEDRONS IN THE VIDEO M83 WAIT
The last video of Fleur & Manu’s staggering Trilogy for M83 immerses us into an adventurous journey of the downfall of humanity and rebirth of a new world. Throughout the video, Fleur & Manu visually quote Kubrik’s cinematic classic “Space Odyssey: 2001” and draw inspiration from Terrence Malick’s stunning “Tree of Life.”
We are propelled far away from the Earth into a vivid universe, where we discover our protagonists dormant in a fetal position, floating in black, extraterrestrial tetrahedrons. The light-reflecting tetrahedrons remind of the monolith in “A Space Odyssey: 2001”, which equally serves to indicate the conception and resurrection of life and enables time travel to another dimension.
Upon awakening to a bright light force streaming in from outer space, our protagonists’ tetrahedrons are magnetically drawn into a new dimension as they travel at the speed of light. The frames in this scene are directly borrowed from Stanley Kubrik’s epic portrayal of time travel in “A Space Odyssey: 2001.” It is worthy to note that the animator who created the famous sequence in Kubrik’s film is the same one, who developed the sequence for Fleur & Manu.
FOREIGNER HAD FOUR MEMBERS ON THE ALBUM FOUR AND THE ALBUM HAD A LOT OF HIT SONGS
4, also known as Foreigner 4, is the fourth studio album by the British-American rock band Foreigner, released on July 2, 1981 on Atlantic Records. Several singles from the album were hits, including "Urgent", "Waiting for a Girl Like You" and "Juke Box Hero".
The album was originally titled Silent Partners and later was changed to 4, reflecting both the fact that it was Foreigner's fourth album and that the band was now down to four members. In 1981, art studio Hipgnosis was asked to design a cover based on the original title, and they developed a black and white image of a young man in bed with a pair of binoculars looming overhead. The resulting design was rejected by the band as they felt it was "too homosexual".The replacement cover for 4 was designed by Bob Defrin and modelled after an old fashioned film leader. Hipgnosis is still credited with designing the record labels.
Mr. Mister was an American pop rock band most popular in the 1980s. The band's name came from an inside joke about a Weather Report album called Mr. Gone where they referred to each other as "Mister This" or "Mister That", and eventually selected "Mr. Mister". The band consisted of Richard Page on lead vocals and bass guitar, Steve George on keyboards/backing vocals, Pat Mastelotto on acoustic and electronic drums/percussion and Steve Farris on guitars/backing vocals. Mr. Mister was the successor to the band Pages, fronted by Page and George from 1978 to 1981.
TUPAC SAMPLED THE SONG BROKEN WINGS BY MR. MISTER
DURAN DURAN HAD A MULTIPLE NUMBER OF MEMBERS FOR THEIR BAND, BUT THE WEDDING ALBUM HAD FOUR MEMBERS.
THE WEDDING ALBUM OF DURAN DURAN HAD A PERSONNEL OF FOUR MEMBERS- THE COVER HAD THE FOUR MEMBERS PARENTS AT THEIR WEDDINGS IN QUADRANT FORMATION
Duran Duran (commonly known as The Wedding Album) is the seventh studio album and the second self-titled album by Duran Duran, released on 11 February 1993.
FAMOUS SONG BY THE CRANBERRIES ZOMBIE. THE CRANBERRIES ARE A FOUR MEMBER BAND. IN ZOMBIE THERE IS A CRUCIFIXION SCENE
"Zombie" was released with a music video in October 1994. The video was directed by Samuel Bayer, and produced by Doug Friedman and H.S.I. Productions.
In the video, Dolores O'Riordan is covered in gold makeup and appears in front of a cross. The video also includes clips of children playing war games, and of British soldiers from the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders (as evident from their thin red line tactical recognition flashes) on patrol in Northern Ireland during The Troubles.
JET FOUR MEMBER BAND
Jet is an Australian rock band formed in 2001. The band consists of lead guitarist Cameron Muncey, bassist Mark Wilson, and brothers Nic and Chris Cester on vocals/rhythm guitar and drums respectively.
FRANZ FERDINAND IS A FOUR MAN BAND- IN THE FAMOUS SONG "TAKE ME OUT" THERE IS REFERENCE TO A "CROSSHAIR" WHICH IS A CROSS
"So if you're lonely
You know I'm here waiting for you
I'm just a crosshair
I'm just a shot away from you
And if you leave here
You leave me broken, shattered, I lie
I'm just a crosshair
I'm just a shot, then we can die"
Franz Ferdinand are a Scottish rock band, formed in 2002 and based in Glasgow. The band's original lineup was composed of Alex Kapranos (lead vocals and guitar, keyboard), Nick McCarthy (rhythm guitar, keyboards and backing vocals), Bob Hardy (bass guitar), and Paul Thomson (drums, percussion and backing vocals).
X is a quadrant- THE XX ORIGINALLY WAS FOUR MEMBERS BUT THE FOURTH LEFT- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT/TRANSCENDENT
The xx are an English indie pop band formed in 2005 in Wandsworth, London and currently consists of Jamie xx (beats, MPC, record production), Romy Madley Croft (guitar, vocals) and Oliver Sim (bass, vocals). They are best known for their distinct and unique minimalistic sound that blends the likes of indie pop, indie electronic, dream pop and electronic rock and the dual vocalist setup of both Croft and Sim. Their music employs very soft, echoed guitar, prominent bass, light electronic beats and ambient soundscape backgrounds.
The band was formed when Croft and Sim met during their time at Elliott School, with Baria Qureshi joining the same year and Smith a year after.
After Qureshi's departure, the xx toured as a trio (pictured in December 2009).
-- JIHADI JOHN SAMPLED THE INTRO SONG OF THE XX ALBUM IN HIS RAP
THE ALBUM COVER FOR XX WAS A QUADRANT/X
Several of the songs from xx were licensed by XL to television programs in the UK and North America. "Intro" became widely used as theme music in television, including sports highlights, episodes of series such as Law & Order and Cold Case, an advertisement for AT&T, and BBC's coverage of the 2010 British general election.
LIL JINNY SUSPECT JIHADI JOHN USES THE XX INTRO AND HE SAYS FOUR
"1 bag 2 bag 3 bag 4, find out who you trust to be knockin' at your door
To my brudders I'll meet you at the top of the four"
THE FOUR CHEMICAL BUNKERS THAT COLIN POWELL SAW THAT LEAD TO THE IRAQ WAR- KIND OF A THREE PLUS ONE
Most of the launchers and warheads had been hidden in large groves of palm trees and were to be moved every one to four weeks to escape detection.
We also have satellite photos that indicate that banned materials have recently been moved from a number of Iraqi weapons of mass destruction facilities.
Let me say a word about satellite images before I show a couple. The photos that I am about to show you are sometimes hard for the average person to interpret, hard for me. The painstaking work of photo analysis takes experts with years and years of experience, poring for hours and hours over light tables. But as I show you these images, I will try to capture and explain what they mean, what they indicate, to our imagery specialists.
slide 12 aerial photo of chemical munitions storage sites at Taji
Let's look at one. This one is about a weapons munition facility, a facility that holds ammunition at a place called Taji. This is one of about 65 such facilities in Iraq. We know that this one has housed chemical munitions. In fact, this is where the Iraqis recently came up with the additional four chemical weapons shells.
Here you see 15 munitions bunkers in yellow and red outlines. The four that are in red squares represent active chemical munitions bunkers.
slide 13 aerial photos of decontamination vehicle at chemical munitions bunker, sanitized bunkers and UN vehicles
How do I know that? How can I say that? Let me give you a closer look. Look at the image on the left. On the left is a close-up of one of the four chemical bunkers. The two arrows indicate the presence of sure signs that the bunkers are storing chemical munitions. The arrow at the top that says "security" points to a facility that is a signature item for this kind of bunker. Inside that facility are special guards and special equipment to monitor any leakage that might come out of the bunker. The truck you also see is a signature item. It's a decontamination vehicle in case something goes wrong. This is characteristic of those four bunkers. The special security facility and the decontamination vehicle will be in the area, if not at any one of them or one of the other, it is moving around those four and it moves as needed to move as people are working in the different bunkers.
Iraq admitted to producing four spray tanks, but to this day, it has provided no credible evidence that they were destroyed, evidence that was required by the international community.