Dramatica is the name of a theory and software suite created as part of a project by Chris Huntley and Melanie Anne Phillips
The software is based upon Huntley and Phillips's quad theory, which is described as "[dividing] a story unit into four pieces and [creating] relationships between those parts". The four quads, which makes up the Dramatic Table of Story Elements, are the Universe (representing situations), Mind (attitudes), Physics (activities) and Psychology (manners of thinking).
TRANSCNEDNET FOURTH CASTE
India: The three Hindu castes, the Brahmans or priests; the Kshatriya, the warriors and military; and the Vaishya, the agriculturalists, cattle rearers and traders. The Shudra, a fourth Indian caste, is an "outer" or serf caste serving the other three. A 2001 study found that the genetic affinity of Indians to Europeans is proportionate to caste rank, the upper castes being most similar to Europeans whereas lower castes are more like Asians. The researchers believe that the Indo-European speakers entered India from the Northwest, mixing with or displacing proto-Dravidian speakers, and may have established a caste system with themselves primarily in higher castes.
THE ADDITION OF A FOURTH FUNCITON TO DUMEZILS THREE FUNCITONS- TRANSCENDENT FOURTH
The Indo-European scholar Georges Dumezil explored the tripartite ideology among our ancestors, with the three functions of Sovereignty, War/Force, and Fertility/Life. It might be the case that there was a fourth function as well, a function of disorder, an F4. It is discussed in this text:
Dumézil himself toyed with the idea of a Fourth Function on many occasions following the publication of his initial theory, but he never published any of his thoughts on the idea because he felt there was simply not enough evidence to support it. However, this did not stop one his disciples, N. J. Allen from musing on the idea as well. Less than a year after Dumézil’s death he published Dumézil and the Idea of the Fourth Function in the Journal of Moral and Social Studies, which offered two breakthrough ideas that were quickly absorbed into what is, currently, considered the Dumézilian canon. The first of Allen’s ideas was the now fashionable system of referring to Dumézil’s three functions and Allen’s extra function as F1, F2, F3, and F4 respectively. The second of these ideas was Allen’s take on the idea of a Fourth Function. Rather than trying to limit the scope of F4 to something similar to concepts of F1, F2, and F3, Allen stated that F4 encompassed everything in Indo-European mythology that did not fit the order of the tripartite structure. He defined anything that was paradoxical, outside the normal order of the first three functions, or distinctly alien as part of the Fourth Function. In Allen’s mind, the Fourth Function could only involve itself with the other functions by disrupting them, throwing them out of balance, and then reordering of the tripartite system would be the only thing capable of eliminating its influence.
While at first one might think that Allen’s use of such a large scope in his definition of F4 might lead to generalizations, cumbersome interpretations of narratives, and the passing off of indefinable material onto F4, it had the exact opposite effect. Suddenly, characters such as Loki and Thesius, recently the central figure in the paper Thesius and the Fourth Function presented by Dean A. Miller at the annual UCLA Indo-European Studies Conference of 2001, have been defined in ways that fit all their given attributes and activities with little or no confusion. A vast gallery of Indo-European trickster characters now have a firm place in the tripartite model as being outsiders that disrupt its very foundations. At the same time, F4 also leads to better understanding of the “otherworlds” of Indo-European mythology such as those found in the Red Branch Cycle and other myths. It is because of this level of completion it brings to Dumézil’s original model that Allen’s Fourth Function is so widely accepted by Dumézil’s followers and their students and it is taught by many as thought its simply one more part of the original model and an excellent addition to the scholar’s own academic legacy.
During the flight of the dive, one of four positions is assumed:
straight – with no bend at the knees or hips (the hardest of the four)
pike – with knees straight but a tight bend at the hips (the median in difficulty of the four.) The open pike is a variant where the arms are reached to the side, and the legs are brought straight out with a bend in the hips.
tuck – body folded up in a tight ball, hands holding the shins and toes pointed (the easiest of the four.)
free – indicates a twisting dive, and a combination of other positions. In the transition between two positions the diver may for example bend their legs or curve at the waist, and points will not be deducted for doing so.
JAZZ THREE FOUR DYNAMIC
In jazz, there are several types of trios. One type of jazz trio is formed with a piano player, a bass player and a drummer. Another type of jazz trio that became popular in the 1950s and 1960s is the organ trio, which is composed of a Hammond organ player, a drummer, and a third instrumentalist (either a saxophone player or an electric jazz guitarist). In organ trios, the Hammond organ player performs the bass line on the organ bass pedals while simultaneously playing chords or lead lines on the keyboard manuals. Other types of trios include the "drummer-less" trio, which consists of a piano player, a double bassist, and a horn (saxophone or trumpet) or guitar player; and the jazz trio with a horn player (saxophone or trumpet), double bass player, and a drummer. In the latter type of trio, the lack of a chordal instrument means that the horn player and the bassist have to imply the changing harmonies with their improvised lines.
Jazz quartets typically add a horn (the generic jazz name for saxophones, trombones, trumpets, or any other wind or brass instrument commonly associated with jazz) to one of the jazz trios described above. Slightly larger jazz ensembles, such as quintets (five instruments) or sextets (six instruments) typically add other soloing instruments to the basic quartet formation, such as different types of saxophones (e.g., alto saxophone, tenor saxophone, etc.) or an additional chordal instrument.
4 star tetrahedrons
viewed from 45 degree latitude
In the liturgical calendar of the Western Christian churches, Ember days are four separate sets of three days within the same week — specifically, the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday — roughly equidistant in the circuit of the year, that are set aside for fasting and prayer. These days set apart for special prayer and fasting were considered especially suitable for the ordination of clergy. The Ember Days are known in Latin as the quattuor anni tempora (the "four seasons of the year"), or formerly as the jejunia quattuor temporum ("fasts of the four seasons").
The four quarterly periods during which the ember days fall are called the embertides.
ACCORDING TO SEFER YETZIRAH THE FIRST FOUR SEPHIROT ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT, PRODUCING THE OTHER SIX
The Clementine writings present another form of gnosis which agrees in many points with the Sefer Yetzirah. As in the latter, God is not only the beginning but also the end of all things, so in the former He is the ἀρχή (= ראשית) and τέλος (= תכלית) of all that exists; and the Clementine writings furthermore teach that the spirit of God is transformed into πνεῦμα (= רוח), and this into water, which becomes fire and rocks, thus agreeing with the Sefer Yetzirah, where the spirit of God, רוח (= πνεῦμα), air, water, and fire are the first four Sefirot.
The remaining six Sefirot, or the limitations of space by the three dimensions in a twofold direction, are also found in the Clementina, where God is described as the boundary of the universe and as the source of the six infinite dimensions.
FOUR WAY CLASSIFICAITON
In 1838, the four-way division of Christianity, Judaism, Mahommedanism (archaic terminology for Islam) and Paganism was multiplied considerably by Josiah Conder's Analytical and Comparative View of All Religions Now Extant among Mankind. Conder's work still adhered to the four-way classification, but in his eye for detail he puts together much historical work to create something resembling our modern Western image: he includes Druze, Yezidis, Mandeans, and Elamites[clarification needed]  under a list of possibly monotheistic groups, and under the final category, of "polytheism and pantheism," he listed Zoroastrianism, "Vedas, Puranas, Tantras, Reformed sects" of India as well as "Brahminical idolatry," Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Lamaism, "religion of China and Japan," and "illiterate superstitions" as others.
THE ELEMENTS AND THE POWER RANGERS
Several teams of Super Sentai and Power Rangers have used the classical elements thematically, with each Ranger having powers related to one element.
Normally, the Red Ranger represents fire, and the Blue Ranger water. For example, the Red Turbo Ranger and the Red Lightspeed Ranger have had Zords based on fire trucks, while the Blue Aquitian Ranger had a water-based attack. Gosei Sentai Dairanger drew heavily from Chinese mythology, and five of the Mythical Qi Beasts correspond to the Wu Xing. In Seijuu Sentai Gingaman and Power Rangers Lost Galaxy, the five Rangers represented fire (Red), water (Blue), wind (Green), lightning (Yellow) and flora (Pink), with earth (the Black Knight/the Magna Defender) added later.
The elements in Ninpuu Sentai Hurricanger are air (Red), earth (Yellow), water (Blue), with Kuwaga and Kabuto both wielding the power of lightning. The last two became the Thunder Rangers in Power Rangers Ninja Storm, sharing the element thunder, with the Green Samurai Ranger being a non-elemental (his power was dubbed "Green Samurai Power"). The elemental theme was here used more extensively than in previous series, and the Rangers’ attacks and fighting styles often reflect it. In Mahou Sentai Magiranger and Power Rangers Mystic Force, MagiRed (the Red Ranger) and Wolzard (the Wolf Warrior) share the element fire. The other Rangers have powers based on thunder (Yellow), water (Blue), air (Pink), earth (Green), ice (White), and light/the sun (MagiShine/the Solaris Knight). In Power Rangers: Samurai and its follow up season Super Samurai, the five rangers each represent the classical elements, albeit with forest in place of aether: fire (red), water (blue), sky (pink), earth (yellow) and forest (green). The Red Ranger has also shown use of lightning. Later on when the gold ranger is added, he harnesses the element of light.
The use of elements is not restricted to the protagonists. In Kyuukyuu Sentai GoGo-V, the demons Zylpheeza, Drop, Cobolda and Venus (Diabolico, Impus, Loki and Vypra in Power Rangers Lightspeed Rescue) each represent one of the four elements. In both versions, all monsters are affiliated with one of them, and relate to the same element.
I POSTED THESE PAINTINGS A LONG TIME AGO- JESUS ARMS CRUCIFORM
Jesus Found in the Temple (Jesus retrouvé dans le temple) - James Tissot, Brooklyn Museum
THE CHINESE PICTOGRAPH FOR SHAMAN (MAN WHO HAS CONNECTION WITH GOD) IS A QUADRANT
Chinese Bronzeware script for wu 巫 "shaman"
I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.
MAIR CONNECTED THE CHINESE WORD FOR SHAMAN WITH THE CHRISTIAN CROSS PENDANT
Mair connects the nearly identical Chinese Bronze script for wu 巫 (above) and Western heraldic cross potent ☩, an ancient symbol of a magi or magician, for which both words were ultimately borrowed from the same Iranian word.
FOUR COLORS OF THE PAN ARAB FLAG
The Pan-Arab colours are black, white, green, and red. Individually, each of the four Pan-Arab colours were intended to represent a certain Arab dynasty, or era. The black was the colour of the banner of Muhammad and the Rashidun Caliphate and was later adopted by the Abbasid Caliphate; white was used by the Umayyad Caliphate; green was used by the Fatimid Caliphate; and red was both the flag held by the Khawarij and also represented the Hashemites, as well as the Ottoman Empire. The four colours derived their potency from a verse by 14th century Iraqi poet Safi Al-Din Al-Hilli: "White are our acts, black our battles, green our fields, and red our swords".
Pan-Arab colours were first combined in 1916 in the flag of the Arab Revolt. Many current flags are based on Arab Revolt colours, such as the flags of Jordan, Kuwait, Palestine, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, and the United Arab Emirates, and formerly in the flag of the brief six month union of the Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan.
It may be noted that while Libya is an Arab country and has a flag with the same four colours, the colours have a different origin in this flag and are therefore not considered pan-Arab colours.
ISRAELITE FOUR ROOM HOUSE
A four room house, also known as an "Israelite house" or a "pillared house" is the name given to the mud and stone houses characteristic of the Iron Age of Levant. Although sometimes considered particularly Israelite, they are also found in non-Israelite sites.(A. Mazar, 1985a: 67-8; Finkclstein, 1988: 237-59)." Their origins are uncertain. The house's inhabitants lived on the second floor, the ground floor being used as a stable for livestock, and for storage. The four room house is so named because its floor plan, divided into four sections; it is also sometimes called a pillared house because three ground-level "rooms" are separated by two rows of wood pillars holding up the second floor. The pillars, however, are not the defining feature of the four roomed house, and this error of terminology leads to the confusion of four roomed houses with other buildings such as storehouses and stables, where pillars were widely used, but which were not constructed under the four room house layout.
There were multiple variations on the basic four room house, such as where the rooms were divided into smaller areas, as well as five, three, and two room models. Acknowledging these sub-types of the four room house, the popularity of the structure started at the beginning of Iron Age I (end of the eleventh century BC) and dominated the architecture of Israel through Iron Age II until the Babylonian Exile. After the destruction of Judah (of the seventh and sixth centuries BC) the architecture type was no longer utilized.
FOUR QUADRANTS IN ASTROLOGY
In astrology, a cadent house is the last house of each quadrant of the zodiac. A quadrant begins with a Cardinal house, (the house in which a chart angle lies) proceeds to a Succedent house and ends with a Cadent house. There are four quadrants in an astrological chart, providing four Cardinal, four Succedent, and four Cadent houses.
AMERICAN FOURSQUARE HOUSES
The American Foursquare or American Four Square is an American house style popular from the mid-1890s to the late 1930s. A reaction to the ornate and mass-produced elements of the Victorian and other Revival styles popular throughout the last half of the 19th century, the American Foursquare was plain, often incorporating handcrafted "honest" woodwork (unless purchased from a mail-order catalog). This style incorporates elements of the Prairie School and the Craftsman styles. It is also sometimes called Transitional Period.
The hallmarks of the style include a basically square, boxy design, two-and-one-half stories high, usually with four large, boxy rooms to a floor, a center dormer, and a large front porch with wide stairs. The boxy shape provides a maximum amount of interior room space, to use a small city lot to best advantage. Other common features included a hipped roof, arched entries between common rooms, built-in cabinetry, and Craftsman-style woodwork.
A typical design would be as follows: first floor, from front to back, on one side, the living room and dining room; while on the other side, the entry room or foyer, stairway and kitchen. Sometimes a bathroom was also included. Second floor, front to back, on one side, bedroom, bathroom and bedroom; while on the other side, bedroom, stairway and bedroom. The bedrooms had a slightly longer dimension along the front and back of the house with side-by-side closets between the bedrooms. This gave a very efficient layout, with a bedroom in each corner and a centralized bathroom and stairway. The top floor was generally just a big open space with one to four dormers. The basement generally contained a large natural convection furnace or boiler.
QUANTUM FOUR GROUP
HATRMANN FOUR LAWS
In Hartmann's ontological theory, the levels of reality are: (1) the inorganic level (German: anorganische Schicht), (2) the organic level (organische Schicht), (3) the psychical/emotional level (seelische Schicht) and (4) the intellectual/cultural level (geistige Schicht). In the Structure of the Real World (Der Aufbau der realen Welt), Hartmann postulates four laws that apply to the levels of reality.
The law of recurrence: Lower categories recur in the higher levels as a subaspect of higher categories, but never vice versa.
The law of modification: The categorial elements modify in their recurrence in the higher levels (they are shaped by the characteristics of the higher levels).
The law of the novum: The higher category is composed of a diversity of lower elements, but it is a specific novum that is not included in the lower levels.
The law of distance between levels: Since the different levels do not develop continuously but in leaps, they can be clearly distinguished.
MATISSE BECAME RELIGIOUS BY THE END OF HIS LIFE AND MADE A CHAPEL WHERE HE MADE THE STATIONS OF THE CROSS AND HE HAD A BIG CROSS AT HIS CHAPEL- I SAW A BBC DOCUMENTARY ON MATISSE WHERE THEY DISCUSSED HOW MATISSE BECAME RELIGIOUS AND MADE HIS CHAPEL
On the back wall of the chapel are the traditional 14 stations of the cross. Although the 14 stations are usually depicted individually, Matisse incorporated all of them on one wall in one cohesive composition. The series begins at the bottom left as Jesus is brought before Pilate and condemned. The stations follow Jesus' progress carrying the cross. At the top in the center are the three most powerful images - The Raising of the Cross with Jesus' body nailed to it, the actual Crucifixion, and then Taking the Body of Jesus Down. The center panel has a straight vertical and horizontal composition, while the two surrounding stations have strong diagonal lines leading to the head of Jesus on the cross. The French artist Jean Vincent de Crozals served Matisse as model for the Christ.
The outside of the chapel is white. The top of the roof is decorated with a blue-and-white zigzag pattern and carries an elaborate metal cross with a bell.
THE THREE V FOUR DYNAMIC IN RACE
The Major Divisions of the Human Race
Most anthropologists recognize 3 or 4 basic races of man in existence today. These races can be further subdivided into as many as 30 subgroups.
Ethnographic division into races from Meyers Konversationslexikon of 1885-90 is listing:
Caucasian races (Aryans, Hamites, Semites)
Mongolian races (northern Mongolian, Chinese and Indo-Chinese, Japanese and Korean, Tibetan, Malayan, Polynesian, Maori, Micronesian, Eskimo, American Indian),
Negroid races (African, Hottentots, Melanesians/Papua, “Negrito”, Australian Aborigine, Dravidians, Sinhalese)
Skull: Dolicephalic(Long-Head),High forehead,Little supraobital development.
Face: Mainly Leptoproscopic( Narrow)Sometimes Meso- or even Euryproscopic, Neither Facial nor alveolar prognathism occurs except among some archaic peoples.
Nose:Long,narrow,high in both root and bridge.
Skull: High incidence of Brachycephaly(Short Round Head)
American Indians while Mongoloid are often Dolicephalic.
Foreheads slightly lower than that of the Caucasoid.
No Supraobital development.
Face: Wide and short, projecting cheek bones, Prognathism rare. Shovel shaped incisors common especialy in Asia.
Nose: Mesorine(Low and Broad in both root and bridge.
Skull: usually Dolicephalic, a small minority are Brachycephalic.
Forehead most often high, little supraobital development.
Face: Leproscopic (to a much lesser degree than the Caucasion), Prognathism common in most Negro populations.
Nose: Low & broad in root and bridge with characteristic depression at root.
Another popular division recognizes 4 major races
The world population can be divided into 4 major races, namely white/Caucasian, Mongoloid/Asian, Negroid/Black, and Australoid. This is based on a racial classification made by Carleton S. Coon in 1962. There is no universally accepted classification for “race”, however, and its use has been under fire over the last few decades. The United Nations, in a 1950 statement, opted to “drop the term ‘race’ altogether and speak of “ethnic groups”.In this case, there are more than 5,000 ethnic groups in the world, according to a 1998 study published in the Scientific American.
ARMENOID FOURTH ADDED EUROPEAN RACE- THREE PLUS ONE
Ripley's book, written to help finance his children's education, became very well respected in anthropology, renowned for its careful writing and careful compilation (and criticism) of the data of many other anthropologists in Europe and the United States. Ripley based his conclusions about race by correlating anthropometric data with geographical data, paying special attention to the use of the cephalic index, which at the time was considered a well-established measure. From this and other socio-geographical factors, Ripley classified Europeans into three distinct races:
Teutonic – members of the northern race were long-skulled (or dolichocephalic), tall in stature, and possessed pale hair, eyes and skin.
Mediterranean – members of the southern race were long-skulled (or dolichocephalic), short/medium in stature, and possessed dark hair, eyes and skin.
Alpine – members of the central race were round-skulled (or brachycephalic), stocky in stature, and possessed intermediate hair, eye and skin color.
Ripley's tripartite system of race put him at odds both with others on the topic of human difference, including those who insisted that there was only one European race, and those who insisted that there were at least ten European races (such as Joseph Deniker, whom Ripley saw as his chief rival). The conflict between Ripley and Deniker was criticized by Jan Czekanowski, who states that "the great discrepancies between their claims decrease the authority of anthropology", and what is more, he points out that both Deniker and Ripley had one common feature, as they both omitted the existence of an Armenoid race, which Czekanowski claimed to be one of the four main races of Europe, met especially among the Eastern and Southern Europeans. Ripley was the first American recipient of the Huxley Medal of the Royal Anthropological Institute in 1908 on account of his contributions to anthropology.
The Armenoid is divided into four types: Armenid, Anatolid, Assyrid, and Caucasid.
Caucasid - Tall slender type prevalent among the people of the Caucasus.
FOUR PURE RACES EUROPE
Czekanowski classified Europe into four pure races. The four pure races were the Nordic, Mediterranean (Ibero-Insular), Lapponoid and Armenoid. The Lapponoid included the central and eastern Europeans[which?] along Europe longitudely as well as the Sami people of Northern Europe.
This map shows the updated racial classification scheme of the anthropologist Jan Czekanowski in his book Człowiek w czasie i przestrzeni(1967).
THE CRUCIFIXION CROSS AND ROBOCOP AND RESURRECTION AS ROBOCOP
The killing of the officer follows in a Christ like fashion. His hand is nailed by a bullet. As he stands in crucified fashion his body is pierced with many bullets. The last bullet is delivered to his brow.
LIKE I SAID PRETTY MUCH EVERY BOOK THAT MY CLASS HAD TO READ IN HIGH SCHOOL WAS RELATED TO THE QUADRANT MODEL- MY TEACHER DID NOT HAVE US READ THIS BUT HE MENTIONED GODOT A LOT ON THE SIDE- GODOT AND THE QUATERNITY IS TALKED ABOUT HERE
"The four archetypal personalities or the four aspects of the soul are grouped in two pairs: the ego and the shadow, the persona and the soul's image (animus or anima). The shadow is the container of all our despised emotions repressed by the ego. Lucky, the shadow, serves as the polar opposite of the egocentric Pozzo, prototype of prosperous mediocrity, who incessantly controls and persecutes his subordinate, thus symbolising the oppression of the unconscious shadow by the despotic ego. Lucky's monologue in Act I appears as a manifestation of a stream of repressed unconsciousness, as he is allowed to "think" for his master. Estragon's name has another connotation, besides that of the aromatic herb, tarragon: "estragon" is a cognate of oestrogen, the female hormone (Carter, 130). This prompts us to identify him with the anima, the feminine image of Vladimir's soul. It explains Estragon's propensity for poetry, his sensitivity and dreams, his irrational moods. Vladimir appears as the complementary masculine principle, or perhaps the rational persona of the contemplative type."
Beckett directed the play for the Schiller-Theatre in 1975. Although he had overseen many productions, this was the first time that he had taken complete control. Walter Asmus was his conscientious young assistant director. The production was not naturalistic. Beckett explained,
It is a game, everything is a game. When all four of them are lying on the ground, that cannot be handled naturalistically. That has got to be done artificially, balletically. Otherwise everything becomes an imitation, an imitation of reality [...]. It should become clear and transparent, not dry. It is a game in order to survive."
An unauthorised sequel was written by Miodrag Bulatović in 1966: Godo je došao (Godot Arrived). It was translated from the Serbian into German (Godot ist gekommen) and French. The playwright presents Godot as a baker who ends up being condemned to death by the four main characters. Since it turns out he is indestructible, Lucky declares him non-existent. Although Beckett was noted for disallowing productions that took even slight liberties with his plays, he let this pass without incident but not without comment. Ruby Cohn writes: "On the flyleaf of my edition of the Bulatović play, Beckett is quoted: 'I think that all that has nothing to do with me.'"
In the late 1990s an unauthorised sequel was written by Daniel Curzon entitled Godot Arrives.
A radical transformation was written by Bernard Pautrat, performed at Théâtre National de Strasbourg in 1979–1980: Ils allaient obscurs sous la nuit solitaire (d'après 'En attendant Godot' de Samuel Beckett). The piece was performed in a disused hangar. "This space, marked by diffusion, and therefore quite unlike traditional concentration of dramatic space, was animated, not by four actors and the brief appearance of a fifth one (as in Beckett's play), but by ten actors. Four of them bore the names of Gogo, Didi, Lucky and Pozzo. The others were: the owner of the Citroën, the barman, the bridegroom, the bride, the man with the Ricard [and] the man with the club foot. The dialogue, consisting of extensive quotations from the original, was distributed in segments among the ten actors, not necessarily following the order of the original."
PROPOSING THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH D BLOCK OF THE PERIODIC TABLE WAS SEEN AS VERY RISKY BUT THE FOURTH TRANSCENDENT BLOCK WAS PROVEN TO BE TRUE
In 1945, Glenn Seaborg, an American scientist, made the suggestion that the actinide elements, like the lanthanides, were filling an f sub-level. Before this time the actinides were thought to be forming a fourth d-block row. Seaborg's colleagues advised him not to publish such a radical suggestion as it would most likely ruin his career. As Seaborg considered he did not then have a career to bring into disrepute, he published anyway. Seaborg's suggestion was found to be correct and he subsequently went on to win the 1951 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work in synthesizing actinide elements.[n 8]
THE JUPITER TALISMAN IS A 16 SQUARE FOUR BY FOUR QUADRANT MODEL- JOSEPH SMITH WAS CARRYING THE TALISMAN WHEN HE WAS KILLED
Joseph Smith's Magic Talisman
In 1974 Dr. Reed Durham, who was director of the LDS Institute of Religion at the University of Utah and president of the Mormon History Association, made a discovery that was so startling that it caused great consternation among Mormon scholars and officials. Dr. Durham found that what had previously
been identified as the "Masonic jewel of the Prophet Joseph Smith" was in reality a "Jupiter talisman." This is a medallion which contains material relating to astrology and magic. Dr. Durham, apparently not realizing the devastating implications of his discovery, announced this important find in his presidential address before the Mormon History Association on April 20, 1974:
... I should like to initiate all of you into what is perhaps the strangest, the most mysterious, occult-like esoteric, and yet Masonically oriented practice ever adopted by Joseph Smith.... All available evidence suggests that Joseph Smith the Prophet possessed a magical Masonic medallion, or talisman, which he worked during his lifetime and which was evidently on his person when he was martyred. His talisman is in the shape of a silver dollar and is probably made of silver or tin. It is exactly one and nine-sixteenths in diameter,... the talisman,... originally purchased from the Emma Smith Bidamon family, fully notarized by that family to be authentic and to have belonged to Joseph Smith, can now be identified as a Jupiter talisman. It carries the sign and image of Jupiter and should more appropriately be referred to as the Table of Jupiter. And in some very real and quite mysterious sense, this particular Table of Jupiter was the most appropriate talisman for Joseph Smith to possess. Indeed, it seemed meant for him, because on all levels of interpretation: planetary, mythological, numerological, astrological, mystical cabalism, and talismatic magic, the Prophet was, in every case, appropriately described.
The characters on the talisman are primarily in Hebrew, but there is one inscription in Latin. Every letter in the Hebrew alphabet has a numerical equivalent and those numerical equivalents make up a magic square. By adding the numbers in this Jupiter Table in any direction ... the total will be the same. In this case, on the Jupiter Table, 34....
There is the one side of the talisman belonging to the Prophet Joseph Smith. You can see the Hebrew characters ... you see on the margins, at the bottom is the Jupiter sign.... The cross at the top represents the spirit of Jupiter, and you will see the path of Jupiter in the orbit of the heavens, and then again the Jupiter sign.
I wasn't able to find what this was, for—as I said—two months; and finally, in a magic book printed in England in 1801, published in America in 1804, and I traced it to Manchester, and to New York. It was a magic book by Francis Barrett and, lo and behold, how thrilled I was when I saw in his list of magic seals the very talisman which Joseph Smith had in his possession at the time of his martyrdom.... To the Egyptians, Jupiter was
known as Ammon, but to the Greeks he was Zeus: the ancient sky Father, or Father of the Gods....
In astrology, Jupiter is always associated with high positions, getting one's own way, and all forms of status. And I quote: "Typically a person born under Jupiter will have the dignity of a natural ruler. . . . He will probably have an impressive manner. . . . In physical appearance, the highly developed Jupiterian is strong, personable, and often handsome. . . . the Jupiterian influence produces a cheerful winning personality, capable of great development." . . .
So closely is magic bound up with the stars and astrology that the term astrologer and magician were in ancient times almost synonymous. The purpose of the Table of Jupiter in talismanic magis [magic?] was to be able to call upon the celestial intelligences, assigned to the particular talisman, to assist one in all endeavors. The names of the deities which we gave to you, who could be invoked by the Table were always written on the talisman or represented by various numbers. Three such names were written on Joseph Smith's talisman: Abbah, Father; El Ob, Father is God or God the Father; and Josiphiel, Jehovah speaks for God, the Intelligence of Jupiter.
When properly invoked, with Jupiter being very powerful and ruling in the heavens, these intelligences—by the power of ancient magic—guaranteed to the possessor of this talisman the gain of riches, and favor, and power, and love and peace; and to confirm honors, and dignities, and councils. Talismatic magic further declared that any one who worked skillfully with this Jupiter Table would obtain the power of stimulating anyone to offer his love to the possessor of the talisman, whether from a friend, brother, relative, or even any female (Mormon Miscellaneous, published by David C. Martin, vol. 1, no. 1, October 1975, pp. 14-15).
Reed Durham was severely criticized by Mormon scholars and officials for giving this speech. He was even called in by Mormon President Spencer W. Kimball, and finally found it necessary to issue a letter in which he reaffirmed his faith in Joseph Smith and said that he was sorry for the "concerns, and misunderstandings" that the speech had caused. We feel that Dr. Durham's identification of Joseph Smith's talisman is one of the most significant discoveries in Mormon history and that he should be commended for his research.
That Joseph Smith would own such a magic talisman fits very well with the evidence from his 1826 trial. W. D. Purple, who was an eye-witness to the trial, claimed it was reported that Smith said certain talismanic influences were needed to recover a box of treasure:
Mr. Thompson, an employee of Mr. Stowell, was the next witness.... Smith had told the Deacon that very many years before a band of robbers had buried on his flat a box of treasure, and as it was very valuable they had by a sacrifice placed a charm over it to protect it, so that it could not be obtained except by faith, accompanied by certain talismanic influences.... the box of treasure was struck by the shovel, on which they redoubled their energies, but it gradually receded from their grasp. One of the men placed his hand upon the box, but it gradually sunk from his reach.... Mr. Stowell went to his flock and selected a fine vigorous lamb, and resolved to sacrifice it to the demon spirit who guarded the coveted treasure ... but the treasure still receded from their grasp, and it was never obtained (The Chenango Union, Norwich, N.Y., May 3, 1877, as cited in A New Witness For Christ In America, vol. 2, pp. 366-67).
Dr. Durham was unable to determine just when Joseph Smith obtained his talisman, but the fact that he was recommending "certain talismanic influences" around the time of the 1826 trial is certainly interesting. The Jupiter talisman is probably the type of talisman a money digger would be interested in because it was supposed to bring its possessor "the gain of riches, and favor, and power." Regardless of when Joseph Smith obtained his talisman, we do know that he possessed it up to the time of his death. He must have felt that it was very important because the Mormon scholar LaMar C. Berrett reveals that "This piece was in Joseph Smith's pocket when he was martyred at Carthage Jail" (The Wilford C. Wood Collection, 1972, vol. 1, p. 173). Wesley P. Walters says that "Charles E. Bidamon, who sold the talisman to the Wood collection, stated in his accompanying affidavit: 'Emma Smith Bidamon the prophet's widow was my foster mother. She prized this piece very highly on account of its being one of the prophet's intimate possessions (Charles E. Bidamon Affidavit. Wood Coll. #7-J-b-21)."
The discovery of evidence to prove Joseph Smith's 1826 trial was certainly a devastating blow to Mormonism, for it proved that Joseph Smith was a believer in magical practices. Reed Durham's new find that Joseph Smith possessed a magic talisman is also very significant because it shows that Smith continued to hold these ideas until the time of his death.
COCA COLA AND THE CROSS/DANISH FLAG
Coke Dispenses Danish Flags Hidden in Its Logo
Airport stunt welcomes visitors to world's 'happiest country'
When Coca-Cola discovered that part of its classic logo looks like the Danish flag, the brand (or at least agency McCann Copenhagen) decided to make an interactive airport ad that dispenses flags. Why? Apparently it's a Danish tradition to greet arriving travelers by waving flags, and Coke wanted to help make a bigger show of the fact that passengers were arriving in Denmark, ranked as "the happiest country in the world." You can watch the results in the case study below. I personally doubt this hidden flag was a real "discovery" on Coke's part so much as a forced connection, but it's a nice gesture.
Jung has shown us that Gods often form quaternities with a 3+1 structure, such as we see here. Zeus's three wives are the Maiden, Mother and Crone. He is the fourth, who differs from the three.
THE NIKE QUATERNITY
FOUR GROUPINGS OF THE QURAN AS A THREE PLUS ONE
According to the Nöldeke Chronology, the 114 Suras of the Qur'an are divided into four groupings:
48 Suras under the First Meccan Period
21 Suras under the Second Meccan Period
21 Suras under the Third Meccan Period
24 Suras under the Medinan Period
CASTOR AND POLLUX QUATERNITY
Mercury is the trickster who often outwits even himself, and mythological examples of Gemini often involve the interaction of two opposing forces. The duality of Gemini also has to do with the fact that this is a double sign, i.e., the twins. The constellation of Gemini consists of two stars, side by side, seemingly of equal magnitude, but if one looks more closely, it becomes apparent that one star is a little bit brighter than the other. Similarly, the mythological twins called the Gemini consisted of a son of Zeus, Castor, and a pure mortal, Pollux. They were, in fact, part of a quaternity, for when Zeus seduced Leda, wife of King Tyndareus of Sparta, disguised as a swan, she gave birth to two sets of twins, one male and one female. Castor and Pollux were the male set of twins, while Helen and Clytaemnestra were the female. Castor and Clytemnaestra were the children of King Tyndareus, while Pollux and Helen were demigods, children of Zeus. The Gemini Twins, therefore, are more properly part of quaternity, a fourfold symbol of wholeness which includes male and female, human and divine elements. Castor, the mortal brother, was slain during a war, and Pollux, mourning, begged Zeus that he not be allowed to outlive his brother. As a son of Zeus, however, Pollux was immortal, and could not die. Hence he ascended into heaven, where he was placed among the constellations along with his brother Castor. Because of Castor's mortality, it was ordained that the Twins must spend half their time in the underworld as well as in heaven, corresponding to the periods when the constellation of Gemini was visible (heaven) or hidden (the underworld).
FOUR DIVISIONS NARRATIVE
The Metamorphoses is comprehensive in its chronology, recounting the creation of the world to the death of Julius Caesar, which had occurred only a year before Ovid's birth; it has been compared to works of universal history, which became important in the 1st century BC. In spite of its apparently unbroken chronology, scholar Brooks Otis has identified four divisions in the narrative:
Book I–Book II (end, line 875): The Divine Comedy
Book III–Book VI, 400: The Avenging Gods
Book VI, 401–Book XI (end, line 795): The Pathos of Love
Book XII–Book XV (end, line 879): Rome and the Deified Ruler
In rhetoric, chiasmus, or less commonly chiasm, (Latin term from Greek χίασμα, "crossing", from the Greek χιάζω, chiázō, "to shape like the letter Χ") is the figure of speech in which two or more clauses are presented to the reader or hearer, then presented again in reverse order, in order to make a larger point. To diagram a simple chiasmus, the clauses are often labelled in the form A B B A. For example, John F. Kennedy said, "ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country". The initial clauses 'your country':'you' are reversed in the second half of the sentence to 'you':'your country'. This is often used to invite the reader or hearer to reconsider the relationship between the repeated clauses.
In chiasmus, the clauses display inverted parallelism. Chiasmus was particularly popular in the literature of the ancient world, including Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, where it was used to articulate the balance of order within the text. As a popular example, many long and complex chiasmi have been found in Shakespeare and the Greek and Hebrew texts of the Bible. It is also found throughout the Quran.
Today, chiasmus is applied fairly broadly to any "criss-cross" structure, although in classical rhetoric it was distinguished from other similar devices, such as the antimetabole. In its classical application, chiasmus would have been used for structures that do not repeat the same words and phrases, but invert a sentence's grammatical structure or ideas. The concept of chiasmus on a higher level, applied to motifs, turns of phrase, or whole passages, is called chiastic structure.
But O, what damned minutes tells he o'er
Who dotes, yet doubts; suspects, yet strongly loves.
—Shakespeare, Othello 3.3
"Dotes" and "strongly loves" share the same meaning and bracket "doubts" and "suspects".
A B B A
dotes doubts suspects strongly loves
"Fair is foul, and foul is fair"
—Shakespeare, Macbeth 1.1
A B B A
fair foul foul fair
Chiasmus can be used in the structure of entire passages to parallel concepts or ideas. This process, termed "conceptual chiasmus", uses a criss-crossing rhetorical structure to cause an overlapping of "intellectual space". Conceptual chiasmus utilizes specific linguistic choices, often metaphors, to create a connection between two differing disciplines. By employing a chiastic structure to a single presented concept, rhetors encourage one area of thought to consider an opposing area's perspective.
Effectiveness of chiasmus
Chiasmus derives its effectiveness from its symmetrical structure. The structural symmetry of the chiasmus imposes the impression upon the reader or listener that the entire argument has been accounted for. In other words, chiasmus creates only two sides of an argument or idea for the listener to consider, and then leads the listener to favor one side of the argument. In former President John F. Kennedy's famous quote, "ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country", the only two questions that the chiastic statement allows for are whether the listener should ask what the country can do for him, or ask what he can do for his country. The statement also proposes that the latter statement is more favorable. Thus, chiasmus gains its rhetorical efficacy through symmetrical structure causing the belief that all tenets of an argument have been evaluated.
The Wilhelmus, the national anthem of the Netherlands, has a structure composed around a thematic chiasmus: the 15 stanzas of the text are symmetrical, in that verses one and 15 resemble one another in meaning, as do verses two and 14, three and 13, etc., until they converge in the eighth verse, the heart of the song. Written in the 16th century, the Wilhelmus originated in the nation's struggle to achieve independence. It tells of the Father of the Nation William of Orange who was stadholder in the Netherlands under the king of Spain. In the first person, as if quoting himself, William speaks to the Dutch people and tells about both the outer conflict – the Dutch Revolt – as well as his own, inner struggle: on one hand, he tries to be faithful to the king of Spain, on the other hand he is above all faithful to his conscience: to serve God and the Dutch people. This is made apparent in the central 8th stanza: "Oh David, thou soughtest shelter from King Saul's tyranny. Even so I fled this welter". Here the comparison is made between the biblical David and William of Orange as merciful and just leaders who both serve under tyrannic kings. As the merciful David defeats the unjust Saul and is rewarded by God with the kingdom of Israel, so too, with the help of God, will William be rewarded a kingdom; being either or both the Netherlands, and the kingdom of God.
Chiastic structure, or chiastic pattern, is a literary technique in narrative motifs and other textual passages. An example of chiastic structure would be two ideas, A and B, together with variants A' and B', being presented as A,B,B',A'. Alternative names include ring structure, because the opening and closing 'A' can be viewed as completing a circle, palistrophe, or symmetric structure. It may be regarded as chiasmus scaled up from clauses to larger units of text.
These often symmetrical patterns are commonly found in ancient literature such as the epic poetry of the Iliad and the Odyssey. Various chiastic structures are also seen in the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament, where biblical writers used it to illustrate or highlight details of particular importance. Chiastic structures are also seen in the Book of Mormon.
Chiastic structures also appear in Ancient Greek sculpture. The contrapposto technique of sculpture in Ancient Greek sculpture often lead to this Chiastic structure, such as in the Diadumenos of Polykleitos.
The term chiastic derives from the mid-17th century term chiasmus, which refers to a crosswise arrangement of concepts or words that are repeated in reverse order. Chiasmus derives from the Greek word khiasmos, a word that is khiazein, marked with the letter khi. From khi comes chi.
Chi is made up of two lines crossing each other as in the shape of an X. The line that starts leftmost on top, comes down, and is rightmost on the bottom, and vice versa. If one thinks of the lines as concepts, one sees that concept A, which comes first, is also last, and concept B, which comes after A, comes before A. If one adds in more lines representing other concepts, one gets a chiastic structure with more concepts. See Proverbs 1:20-33; vs 20-21=A, v 22=B, v 23=C, vs 24-25=D, vs 26-28=E, vs 29-30=D', v 31=C', v 32=B', v 33=A' 
Oral literature is especially rich in chiastic structure, possibly as an aid to memorization. In his study of the Iliad and the Odyssey, Cedric Whitman, for instance, finds a chiastic structure "of the most amazing virtuosity" that simultaneously performed both aesthetic and mnemonic functions, permitting the oral poet to easily recall the basic formulae of the composition during performances.
Use in Hebrew Bible
Main article: Book of Daniel § Chiasm in the Aramaic section
In 1986, William H. Shea proposed that the Book of Daniel is composed of a double-chiasm. He argued that the chiastic structure is emphasized by the two languages that the book is written in: Aramaic and Hebrew. The first chiasm is written in Aramaic from chapters 2-7 following an ABC...CBA pattern. The second chiasm is in Hebrew from chapters 8-12, also using the ABC...CBA pattern. However, Shea represents Daniel 9:26 as "D", a break in the center of the pattern.
Gordon Wenham has analyzed the Genesis Flood narrative and has shown that it is essentially an elaborate chiasm. Based on the earlier study of grammatical structure by F. I. Andersen, Wenham illustrated a chiastic structure as displayed in the following two tables.
Chiastic structure of the Genesis Flood Narrative
A: Noah and his sons (Gen 6:10)
B: All life on earth (6:13:a)
C: Curse on earth (6:13:b)
D: Flood announced (6:7)
E: Ark (6:14-16)
F: All living creatures (6:17–20 )
G: Food (6:21)
H: Animals in man’s hands (7:2–3)
I: Entering the Ark (7:13–16)
J: Waters increase (7:17–20)
X: God remembers Noah (8:1)
J: Waters decrease (8:13–14)
I': Exiting the Ark (8:15–19)
H': Animals (9:2,3)
G': Food (9:3,4)
F': All living creatures (9:10a)
E': Ark (9:10b)
D’:No flood in future (9:11)
C': Blessing on earth (9:12–17)
B': All life on earth (9:16)
A: Noah and his sons (9:18,19a)
Within this overall structure, there is a numerical mini-chiasm of 7s, 40s, and 150s:
Chiasm of the numbers 7, 40, and 150
α: Seven days waiting to enter Ark (7:4)
β: Second mention of seven days waiting (7:10)
γ: 40 days (7:17)
δ: 150 days (7:24)
χ: God remembers Noah (8:1)
δ': 150 days (8:3)
γ': 40 days (8:6)
β': Seven days waiting for dove (8:10)
α': Second seven days waiting for dove (8:12)
The two mentions of the 150 days refer to the same period, and the first 40 days (7:13,17) are part of the 150 days. All this is consistent with the date in 8:4. There was no compelling reason to repeat the first 7-day figure of waiting to enter the Ark except for the corresponding two 7-day figures for the dove. The second mention of the 150 days was also because of the chiasmus. The chiastic structure explains the repetition of these figures. Before these ancient literary conventions were recognized, followers of the Documentary Hypothesis explained the repetition by hypothesizing two different authors or redactors (J or Jahwist and P or Priestly sources). The repetition may also show the literary artistry of a single author or editor, either working from one tradition or weaving together the J and P sources in chiastic fashion.
Use in the Qurʾān
The themes in the Pedestal Verse and the story of Joseph are presented in a chiastic structure. Several other passages exist in a type of ring symmetry, or symmetrical structure.
Use in Book of Mormon
Chaism in 3 Nephi 5 - Covenant Promises of Jacob
A: as surely as the Lord liveth (3 Nephi 5:24)
B: gather in from the four quarters of the earth (3 Nephi 5:24)
C: restoring all the house of Jacob unto the knowledge of the covenant (3 Nephi 5:25)
C': then shall they know their Redeemer, who is Jesus Christ (3 Nephi 5:26)
B': gathered in from the four quarters of the earth unto their own land (3 Nephi 5:26)
A': as the Lord liveth (3 Nephi 5:26)
Chaism in Alma 36 - The Conversion of Alma
A: inasmuch as ye shall keep the commandments of God ye shall prosper in the land (Alma 36:1)
B: remembering the captivity of our fathers (Alma 36:2)
C: whosoever shall put their trust in God shall be supported in their trials (Alma 36:3)
I racked, even with the pains of a damned soul (Alma 36:12)
I remembered...the coming of one Jesus Christ, a Son of God, to atone for the sins of the world (Alma 36:17)
O Jesus, thou Son of God, have mercy on me (Alma 36:19)
I could remember my pains no more (Alma 36:19)
C': I have been supported under trials (Alma 36:27)
B': delivered them out of bondage and captivity (Alma 36:29)
A': inasmuch as ye shall keep the commandments of God ye shall prosper in the land (Alma 36:30)
In literary texts with a possible oral origin, such as Beowulf, chiastic or ring structures are often found on an intermediate level, that is, between the (verbal and/or grammatical) level of chiasmus and the higher level of chiastic structure such as noted in the Torah. John D. Niles provides examples of chiastic figures on all three levels. He notes that for the instances of ll. 12–19, the announcement of the birth of (Danish) Beowulf, are chiastic, more or less on the verbal level, that of chiasmus. Then, each of the three main fights are organized chiastically, a chiastic structure on the level of verse paragraphs and shorter passages. For instance, the simplest of these three, the fight with Grendel, is schematized as follows:
Grendel devouring Handscioh
B: Grendel's wish to flee ("fingers cracked")
C: Uproar in hall; Danes stricken with terror
HEOROT IN DANGER OF FALLING
C': Uproar in hall; Danes stricken with terror
B': "Joints burst"; Grendel forced to flee
Grendel slinking back toward fens
Beowulf left with Grendel's arm
Finally, Niles provides a diagram of the highest level of chiastic structure, the organization of the poem as a whole, in an introduction, three major fights with interludes before and after the second fight (with Grendel's mother), and an epilogue. To illustrate, he analyzes Prologue and Epilogue as follows:
A: Panegyric for Scyld
B: Scyld's funeral
C: History of Danes before Hrothgar
D: Hrothgar's order to build Heorot
D': Beowulf's order to build his barrow
C': History of Geats after Beowulf ("messenger's prophecy")
B': Beowulf's funeral
A': Eulogy for Beowulf
The overall chiastic structure of John Milton's Paradise Lost is also of the ABC…CBA type:
A: Satan's sinful actions (Books 1–3)
B: Entry into Paradise (Book 4)
C: War in heaven (destruction) (Books 5–6)
C': Creation of the world (Books 7–8)
B': Loss of paradise (Book 9)
A': Humankind's sinful actions (Books 10–12):141
CHIASTIC STRUCTURE IN DANIEL
The Book of Daniel is divided between the court tales of chapters 1–6 and the apocalyptic visions of 7–12, and between the Hebrew of chapters 1 and 8–12, and the Aramaic of chapters 2–7. This language division is reinforced by the chiastic arrangement of the Aramaic chapters (see below). Various suggestions have been made by scholars to explain the fact that the genre division does not coincide with the other two. However, the most reasonable proposal is that put forward by John J. Collins: the language division and concentric structure of chapters 2-6 are artificial literary devices designed to bind the two halves of the book together. It should also be noted that the time settings of chapters 1–6 show a progression from Babylonian to Median times, which is repeated (Babylonian to Persian) in chapters 7–12. The following outline is provided by Collins in his commentary on Daniel:
PART I: Tales (chapters 1:1–6:29)
1: Introduction (1:1–21 – set in the Babylonian era, written in Hebrew)
2: Nebuchadnezzar's dream of four kingdoms (2:1–49 – Babylonian era; Aramaic)
3: The fiery furnace (3:1–30 – Babylonian era; Aramaic)
4: Nebuchadnezzar's madness (3:31–4:34 – Babylonian era; Aramaic)
5: Belshazzar's feast (5:1–6:1 – Babylonian era; Aramaic)
6: Daniel in the lions' den (6:2–29 – Median era with mention of Persia; Aramaic)
PART II: Visions (chapters 7:1–12:13)
7: The beasts from the sea and the Son of Man (7:1–28 – Babylonian era: Aramaic)
8: The ram and the he-goat (8:1–27 – Babylonian era; Hebrew)
9: Interpretation of Jeremiah's prophecy of the seventy weeks (9:1–27 – Median era; Hebrew)
10: The angel's revelation: kings of the north and south (10:1–12:13 – Persian era, mention of Greek era; Hebrew)
Chiastic structure in the Aramaic section
There is a clear chiasm (a concentric literary structure in which the main point of a passage is often placed in the centre and framed by parallel elements on either side in "ABBA" fashion) in the chapter arrangement of the Aramaic section. The following is taken from Paul Redditt's "Introduction to the Prophets":
A1 (2:4b-49) – A dream of four kingdoms replaced by a fifth
B1 (3:1–30) – Daniel's three friends in the fiery furnace
C1 (4:1–37) – Daniel interprets a dream for Nebuchadnezzar
C2 (5:1–31) – Daniel interprets the handwriting on the wall for Belshazzar
B2 (6:1–28) – Daniel in the lions' den
A2 (7:1–28) – A vision of four world kingdoms replaced by a fifth
Ayat al-Kursi displays an internal symmetry comprising concentric looping verses surrounding a pivotal chiasm 'x' of the type A B C D X D' C' B' A'. The reciter imagines him or herself walking through Ayat al-Kursi until reaching the centre, seeing what is in front and what is behind, and finds they represent a perfect reflection of each other. The central chiasm is represented by "yaʿlamu mā bayna ʾaydīhim wa-mā ḫalfahum meaning "He knows what is before them and what is behind them". This is flanked symmetrically outwards so that A corresponds to A', B corresponds to B', and so forth. For example, line 3 "he is the lord of the heavens and the earth" corresponds to line 7 "his throne extends over heavens and earth".
There is a slight difference of opinion as to whether to follow Ayat al-Kursi with verses 256 and 257 though this is not usually performed.
Surat al-Baqara itself provides a broader internal concentricity which approximates Ayat al-Kursi to verses of 29-31 relating the glorification of the angels and God's eternal will to bestow his names upon Adam.
Ayat al-Kursi displays an internal symmetry comprising concentric looping verses surrounding a pivotal chiasm 'x' of the type A B C D X D' C' B' A'. The reciter imagines him or herself walking through Ayat al-Kursi until reaching the centre, seeing what is in front and what is behind, and finds they represent a perfect reflection of each other. The central chiasm is represented by "yaʿlamu mā bayna ʾaydīhim wa-mā ḫalfahum meaning "He knows what is before them and what is behind them". This is flanked symmetrically outwards so that A corresponds to A', B corresponds to B', and so forth. For example, line 3 "he is the lord of the heavens and the earth" corresponds to line 7 "his throne extends over heavens and earth".
In 1922, Aimee Semple McPherson (1890–1944), an evangelist known as "Sister Aimee", explains for the first time its definition of the term Foursquare Gospel (theological concept "Full Gospel").  According to chapter 1 of Book of Ezekiel, Ezekiel had a vision of God as revealed to be four different aspects: a man, a lion, an ox and an eagle. It also represents the four aspects of the Department of Christ; Savior, Baptizer with the Holy Spirit, Healer and Soon-coming King. This will be the vision and the name that she will give at Foursquare Church, founded in 1923 to Los Angeles. Los Angeles was her center of operations, and Angelus Temple, seating 5,300 people, was opened in Echo Park in 1923. The attendance has become a megachurch with 10 000 people.  McPherson was a flamboyant celebrity in her day, participating in publicity events, such as weekly Sunday parades through the streets of Los Angeles, along with the mayor and movie stars, directly to Angelus Temple. She built the temple, as well as what is now known as Life Pacific College adjacent to it, on the northwest corner of land that she owned in the middle of the city.
Now maybe you think I’m weird, and that I am. Maybe you know what the back of a tow truck looks like, and think I’m pretty slow to just be noticing it. But when I was sitting there watching TV and I saw a tow truck pull up with what looked like a cross on the back, I had a God Moment. My brain started spinning... I was thinking "that cross-shaped object is reaching down to pick up a broken down car, and then it’s going to take that broken car to the shop to be fixed." As the saying goes, “that’ll preach!”
Hersey and Blanchard characterized leadership style in terms of the amount of Task Behavior and Relationship Behavior that the leader provides to their followers. They categorized all leadership styles into four behavior types, which they named S1 to S4:
S1: Directing – is characterized by one-way communication in which the leader defines the roles of the individual or group and provides the what, how, why, when and where to do the task;
S2: Coaching – while the leader is still providing the direction, he or she is now using two-way communication and providing the socio-emotional support that will allow the individual or group being influenced to buy into the process;
S3: Supporting – this is how shared decision-making about aspects of how the task is accomplished and the leader is providing fewer task behaviours while maintaining high relationship behavior;
S4: Delegating – the leader is still involved in decisions; however, the process and responsibility has been passed to the individual or group. The leader stays involved to monitor progress.
FOUR LEVELS MATURITY
The right leadership style will depend on the person or group being led. The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory identified four levels of maturity M1 through M4:
M1 – They lack the specific skills required for the job in hand and are unable and unwilling to take responsibility for this job or task.
M2 – They are unable to take on responsibility for the task being done; however, they are willing to work at the task. They are novice but enthusiastic.
M3 – They are experienced and able to do the task but lack the confidence or the willingness to take on responsibility.
M4 – They are experienced at the task, and comfortable with their own ability to do it well. They are able and willing to not only do the task, but to take responsibility for the task.
A good leader develops "the competence and commitment of their people so they’re self-motivated rather than dependent on others for direction and guidance." According to Hersey's book, a leader’s high, realistic expectation causes high performance of followers; a leader’s low expectations lead to low performance of followers. According to Ken Blanchard, "Four combinations of competence and commitment make up what we call 'development level.'"
D1 - Low competence and high commitment
D2 - Low competence and low commitment
D3 - High competence and low/variable commitment
D4 - High competence and high commitment
In order to make an effective cycle, a leader needs to motivate followers properly.
TUCKMAN FOUR STAGES
Bruce Tuckman’s research in the field of group development, which compiled the results of 50 studies on group development and identified four stages of development: Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing.
The forming–storming–norming–performing model of group development was first proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965, who said that these phases are all necessary and inevitable in order for the team to grow, face up to challenges, tackle problems, find solutions, plan work, and deliver results.
The team meets and learns about the opportunities and challenges, and then agrees on goals and begins to tackle the tasks. Team members tend to behave quite independently. They may be motivated but are usually relatively uninformed of the issues and objectives of the team. Team members are usually on their best behavior but very focused on themselves. Mature team members begin to model appropriate behavior even at this early phase. The meeting environment also plays an important role to model the initial behaviors of each individual. The major task functions also concern orientation. Members attempt to become oriented to the tasks as well as to one another. Discussion centers around defining the scope of the task, how to approach it, and similar concerns. To grow from this stage to the next, each member must relinquish the comfort of non-threatening topics and risk the possibility of conflict.
In this stage "...participants form opinions about the character and integrity of the other participants and feel compelled to voice these opinions if they find someone shirking responsibility or attempting to dominate. Sometimes participants question the actions or decision of the leader as the expedition grows harder...". Disagreements and personality clashes must be resolved before the team can progress out of this stage, and so some teams may never emerge from "storming" or re-enter that phase if new challenges or disputes arise. In Tuckman's 1965 paper, only 50% of the studies identified a stage of intragroup conflict, and some of the remaining studies jumped directly from stage 1 to stage 3. Some groups may avoid the phase altogether, but for those who don't, the duration, intensity and destructiveness of the "storms" can be varied. Tolerance of each team member and their differences should be emphasized; without tolerance and patience the team will fail. This phase can become destructive to the team and will lower motivation if allowed to get out of control. Some teams will never develop past this stage; however, disagreements within the team can make members stronger, more versatile, and able to work more effectively as a team. Supervisors of the team during this phase may be more accessible, but tend to remain directive in their guidance of decision-making and professional behaviour. The team members will therefore resolve their differences and members will be able to participate with one another more comfortably. The ideal is that they will not feel that they are being judged, and will therefore share their opinions and views. Normally tension, struggle and sometimes arguments occur. This stage can also be upsetting.
"Resolved disagreements and personality clashes result in greater intimacy, and a spirit of co-operation emerges."  This happens when the team is aware of competition and they share a common goal. In this stage, all team members take the responsibility and have the ambition to work for the success of the team's goals. They start tolerating the whims and fancies of the other team members. They accept others as they are and make an effort to move on. The danger here is that members may be so focused on preventing conflict that they are reluctant to share controversial ideas.
"With group norms and roles established, group members focus on achieving common goals, often reaching an unexpectedly high level of success." By this time, they are motivated and knowledgeable. The team members are now competent, autonomous and able to handle the decision-making process without supervision. Dissent is expected and allowed as long as it is channelled through means acceptable to the team.
Supervisors of the team during this phase are almost always participating. The team will make most of the necessary decisions. Even the most high-performing teams will revert to earlier stages in certain circumstances. Many long-standing teams go through these cycles many times as they react to changing circumstances. For example, a change in leadership may cause the team to revert to storming as the new people challenge the existing norms and dynamics of the team.
Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership® model="situational>
Four Leadership Styles
The four leadership styles that are presented in this theory are Telling, Selling, Participating, and Delegating. Starting with Telling, this is the most direct form of leadership. The leader of the group simply tells each member what to do, and how they would like them to do it. This approach is less collaborative, and more directive in nature. There is very little working together between the leader and the team members, instead the leader simply provides specific instructions for the team members to follow through with.
The second leadership style, Selling, is one with a little more room for collaboration. While the team members are still directed by the leader, the leader is more likely to engage with the team members along the way. The 'Selling' title comes from the idea that the leader may need to convince some of the team members to follow his or her lead and do things in a specific way.
Moving on to the third option, Participating is a process where the leader tries to build relationships with those on the team - really becoming part of the team. This is quite a departure from the Telling style, as the leader will blend in more fully with those who are working as part of the team. In fact, the leader might not even make all of the decisions in this style, perhaps deferring at certain points to members of the team with more experience or knowledge in a given area.
Finally, Delegating represents the leader passing on most of the responsibilities for a given project or task to various members of the team. This style is something that leaders of experienced teams will often use, since the employees that are being led may not need much in the way of direction at this point in their careers.
Four Corresponding Maturity Levels
To go along with those four leadership styles, the Hersey Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory also provides four maturity levels that describe those who are making up the team. To identify these levels, the abbreviations M1, M2, M3, and M4 are used. Below is a quick description of each of these four levels.
• M1. These are the least experienced of workers. At this point, they will need to be instructed on how to do just about everything that makes up the task they are responsible for. While this usually means a leader is dealing with younger and less experienced employees, it could also be that the employees simply don't have much knowledge or background in the task at hand for a specific project. This maturity level matches up with the Telling leadership style, as the employees at this point will require complete direction for almost every task.
• M2. Moving up a step, these are still inexperienced people who possess only slightly more knowledge and skill than those at the M1 level. Maturity is not only a measure of the ability than an individual has to deal with a task, but their willingness to take on the task in the first place. M2 team members are those who are more eager to work on a job, even if they aren't yet ready to do it correctly without the help of the leader of the group. The Selling leadership style is the proper match when dealing with M2 level team members.
• M3. Getting close to the top of the scale, this group would include employees who are excited to work on a job and have most of the skill they need to get it done right. While they might not be able to quite get all of the job done without some help, they can get most of the way their on their own. The Participating style is the one that matches with M3 individuals, because they don't need full direction and are more able to engage with the leader for positive collaboration.
• M4. At the top of the scale, those that are rated as M4 are completely capable of handling a task - and they know that they can get the job done without the help of the leader. Delegating is the leadership style of choice at this point simply because there is no need to be more involved than that. The team members have confidence, and expect to work independently.
The Hersey Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory promotes flexible leaders that are able to match their style to the experience and ability of those they are leading. Most people would agree that a good leader is a flexible one, and this theory falls right in line with that manner of thinking.
Pricing Strategy Matrix
Pricing Strategy Matrix
The pricing strategy matrix shows four pricing strategies based on the relationship between price and perceived quality.
1. Economy pricing
Costs are kept to a minimum and price is set as low as possible because there is no difference in the products in the market.
2. Penetration pricing
A low price is used to capture market share. The price is often raised once market share is gained.
3. Price skimming
When a product is introduced to the market a high price is set that limits the volume of sales but still produces a high return. Often used to recover investment costs by targeting ‘early adopters’ who are less price sensitive. The price is then reduced as competitors enter the market.
4. Premium pricing
A high price is used to encourage the perception of quality. Usually where there is a dominant brand and competitive advantage.
Food 4 Less is a national warehouse store grocery chain, currently owned by Kroger. It is a no-frills grocery store where the customers bag their own groceries at the checkout. Kroger operates Food 4 Less stores in California, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. In markets that Kroger does not have the rights to the Food 4 Less name, it operates as Foods Co.
When introduced, this cereal was described as "a delicious blend of grains, fruits and nuts - with milk provides the goodness of 4 food groups."
Later boxes called Basic 4 "a delicious blend of sweet and tangy fruits, crunchy nuts and a wholesome variety of grains."
A 1993 TV commercial showed a group of tough construction workers playing with their cereal like kids with the following voice-over narration:
"Only one adult cereal could be this much fun to eat... Basic 4... a colorful mix of lightly toasted flakes, sweet and tangy fruits, and crunchy nuts. Splash on cold milk and you get something tasty from each of the four food groups. Basic 4... tastes so good you'll forget it's for adults."
Company Description: Officially created in 1928, General Mills traces it's history back to the 1860's and the ownership of two flour mills. Since then, the company has become the world's 6th largest food company - marketing to over 100 countries... Read on and see all cereals from General Mills
FOUR OAT MILLS
Quaker Oats was founded in 1901 by the merger of four oat mills:
The Quaker Mill Company of Ravenna, Ohio (founded 1877), which held the trademark on the Quaker name and was acquired in 1901 by Henry Parsons Crowell, who also bought the bankrupt Quaker Oat Mill Company, also in Ravenna. He held the key positions of general manager, president and chairman of the company from 1888 until late 1943. He was called the cereal tycoon. He donated more than 70% of his wealth to the Crowell Trust.
A cereal mill in Cedar Rapids, Iowa owned by John Stuart, his son Robert Stuart, and their partner George Douglas;
The German Mills American Oatmeal Company, owned by "The Oatmeal King", Ferdinand Schumacher of Akron, Ohio;
The Rob Lewis & Co. American Oats and Barley Oatmeal Corporation. Formally known as "Good For Breakfast" instant oatmeal mix.
BIG FOUR CEREAL
The U.S. breakfast cereal industry’s four largest firms (Kellogg, General Mills, Post, and Quaker Oats) collectively hold about 80% of total market share. Assume the Federal Trade Commission initiates an investigation to support its claim that these firms constitute a “shared monopoly,” and it seeks to either regulate pricing policy or break-up the two largest firms (Kellogg and General Mills). Using economic reasoning developed in the course thus far, draft a set of arguments to support nonintervention (maintain the status quo) in this industry.
In the 1920s, national advertising in magazines and radio broadcasts played a key role in the emergence of the fourth big cereal manufacturer, General Mills.
In 1928, four milling companies consolidated as the General Mills Company in Minneapolis
An industry consists of all firms making similar or identical products. An industry’s market structure depends on the number of firms in the industry and how they compete. Here are the four basic market structures:
Perfect competition: Perfect competition happens when numerous small firms compete against each other. Firms in a competitive industry produce the socially optimal output level at the minimum possible cost per unit.
Monopoly: A monopoly is a firm that has no competitors in its industry. It reduces output to drive up prices and increase profits. By doing so, it produces less than the socially optimal output level and produces at higher costs than competitive firms.
Oligopoly: An oligopoly is an industry with only a few firms. If they collude, they reduce output and drive up profits the way a monopoly does. However, because of strong incentives to cheat on collusive agreements, oligopoly firms often end up competing against each other.
Monopolistic competition: In monopolistic competition, an industry contains many competing firms, each of which has a similar but at least slightly different product. Restaurants, for example, all serve food but of different types and in different locations. Production costs are above what could be achieved if all the firms sold identical products, but consumers benefit from the variety.
HERACLIT FOUR COLORS- NERDRUM USES THE FOUR COLORS
In recent years, Odd Nerdrum has been using a two-colored palette after Appelles’ technique, which consists of red, yellow, black and white.
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A half century before this great ancient painter, between 500 and 400BC, Greek thought was influenced by the melancholic philosopher Heraclit. Not only a great pre-Socratic thinker, he was also an alchemist, and should be considered one of the most important sources to its origin.
One of the ideas he originated was the stage of four colors – the exact same colors Apelles would later use in his paintings; black, white, red and yellow.
To briefly summarize Heraclit’s color-stages: black symbolizes the darkness, white – the illumination, red – the turning point, and yellow – gold, achievement or redemption.
Heraclit’s stages actually describe our existence, and form the basis of today’s most known and practiced religions. It represents human life, but also an alchemical examination of the sun’s appearance on earth, which we experience every nychthemeron – every single day. Heraclit rightly pointed out that there are few human beings who will ever experience the red phase, the peripetia – in their spiritual life.
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ZORN FOUR COLOR PALLETTE
Swedish painter Anders Zorn (1860-1920) has long been associated with a limited palette of four colors. Rosemary Hoffman, in the book Northern Light: Nordic Art at the Turn of the Century wrote, “Zorn was noted for executing paintings using a sober color scale limited to white, ochre, vermilion, and ivory black.”
What evidence is there that Zorn used the famous four-color palette? First, many of his paintings appear to be painted within a narrow gamut that could have been painted from those colors.
Theoretically, one could paint such a picture from either a full palette or a limited palette. A chemical analysis would prove it for sure.
Many of Zorn’s heroes, such as Frans Hals, Diego Velasquez, and James M Whistler, used limited palettes. Talk about limited palettes among artists of Zorn’s day was commonplace.
There’s also the testimony of fellow painters writing about Zorn’s palette during Zorn’s lifetime. For example, European-trained Birge Harrison (1854-1929), in his book “Landscape Painting” in 1909, says: “The expert cannot be bothered with useless pigments. He selects the few that are really essential and throws aside the rest as useless lumber. The distinguished Swedish artist, Zorn, uses but two colors—vermilion and yellow ochre; his two other pigments black and white, being the negation of color. With this palette, simple to the point of poverty, he nevertheless finds it possible to paint an immense variety of landscape and figure subjects.”
Then there are the actual palettes that survive in the Zorn museums. This one may have a touch of cadmium yellow, or perhaps a dab of blue or green, but it’s a small palette and a small box, and it seems to emphasize the main four colors.
Finally, there is the self portrait, which clearly shows the palette with the four colors: white, ochre, red, and black. Zorn was conscious of his own image. He was aware that he was an artist’s artist even in his own day. He proudly showed off the four-color palette.
What the doubters need to understand is that a limited palette is not a sign of impoverishment, but rather of resourcefulness. As Brummer says, “limitation could, in fact, be an asset.” Zorn’s experiments with limited palettes were a part of his virtuosity, a token of his strength as a painter.
ARISTOTLE VELASQUEZ REMBRANDT AND THE FOUR COLOR TECHNIQUE
Aristotle gives a report of the antique painter, who mingled colors of white, black, yellow and red, in order to achieve harmony in his work.15 We know that the ancient Greek painter Apelles used this palette,16 and the four color technique has been inherited by painters such as Velasquez, Rembrandt, Titian and Zorn.
THE FOUR PARABLES SHOWN IN MEDEIVAL ART
Of the thirty or so parables of Jesus in the canonical Gospels, four were shown in medieval art almost to the exclusion of the others, but not normally mixed in with the narrative scenes of the Life, though the page from the Eadwine Psalter (Canterbury, mid 12th century) illustrated here provides an exception to this. These were: the Wise and Foolish Virgins, Dives and Lazarus, the Prodigal Son and the Good Samaritan. The Labourers in the Vineyard also appear in Early Medieval works.
JAMES TISSOT JESUS FOUND IN THE TEMPLE CRUCIFORM
Jesus Found in the Temple
TISSOT JESUS IN CRUCIFORM STANCE AND THE BIBLE PASSAGE OF JESUS BEING LOST FOR THREE DAYS AS A CHILD PREFIGURING THE CRUCIFIXION
And when he was twelve years old, they went up as usual for the festival. When the festival was ended and they started to return, the boy Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem, but his parents did not know it. Assuming that he was in the group of travelers, they went a day’s journey. Then they started to look for him among their relatives and friends. When they did not find him, they returned to Jerusalem to search for him. After three days they found him in the temple, sitting among the teachers, listening to them and asking them questions. And all who heard him were amazed at his understanding and his answers. When his parents saw him they were astonished; and his mother said to him, “Child, why have you treated us like this? Look, your father and I have been searching for you in great anxiety.” He said to them, “Why were you searching for me? Did you not know that I must be in my Father’s house?” But they did not understand what he said to them. Then he went down with them and came to Nazareth, and was obedient to them. His mother treasured all these things in her heart.
Luke 2: 42-51
Of course this is every parent’s nightmare: to lose your child. But for Mary it’s also a sign of what is to come, Jesus’ first revelation of who he is and what his mission will be. He leaves her temporarily now, only for three days, but there will come a day when he will leave again.
Three days. He was lost for three days. The prefigurement of the crucifixion couldn’t be more clear. And there’s something that gives me shivers. He was lost, but at the same time, he wasn’t wandering aimlessly, he was teaching in the Temple. He was in the Temple, which is a representation of heaven on earth.
The translation here (NRSV) is interesting: “His mother treasured all these things in her heart.” Treasured. She saves up her sorrows like treasures, hordes them in her heart like precious jewels. Who does that? Usually we want to push our sorrows away, hide them, forget the, overcome them. But Mary treasures them. These seven sorrows are her gift to us, to the poor banished children of Eve who cry to her for help. We cry to our mother who understands our pains and our griefs, who can journey with us and comfort us because she has suffered too. She consoles us with the same consolation she has received, the consolation of closeness to her beloved Son.
Mary knows how to draw close to Jesus even when he seems to have departed from her. She knows how to be close to him without clinging to him, without holding him back from his mission. She knows how to walk with him, to cherish even her own sufferings as pains which unite her with her Son’s suffering. In the Anima Christi we ask Christ to hide us in his wounds. Mary, surely, is already there, hidden away close to his wounded heart. And it is her very broken heart which allows her to remain near to him. The sword which pierces her heart is the same as the one that pierces his. That is the heart of Simeon’s prophecy. Every pain that Mary suffers is really one and the same, the pain of being the mother of the Savior, the pain of accompanying him to the cross. Her entire life is a journey to the cross, every step draws her closer to the cross and none more so that this moment when Christ has already begun to depart from her.
No painter captures this more clearly than James Tissot. His picture shows the child Jesus being led out from the Temple by Mary and Joseph, each of them holding onto one arm. But they hold him strangely, not holding him by the hands as parents usually do. Rather, they hold up his wrists so that he is positioned in a cruciform stance, palms facing up so that we can see the places where the nails will pierce him. Already, we see, he is preparing for crucifixion. And Mary and Joseph are helping him. It is a stunning moment. It also seems to echo the moment when Aaron and Hur prop up Moses’ hands as he stands on the hill overlooking the battle. Surely Jesus does not need Mary’s support as he goes to the cross, and yet he must have taken comfort from the fact that she was there, supporting him.
Mary is anxious and reproaches Jesus for causing her anxiety and yet she listens as he reproves her in turn and surely takes it to heart. Although she didn’t understand it at the time, I think that by the time of the crucifixion she does understand.
Tissot’s Life of Christ series has three paintings dedicated to this episode. The first shows Mary and Joseph at the end of the first day’s journey realizing that Jesus is not among the crowd of relatives. The second shows Jesus with the teachers in the Temple. The third shows Mary and Joseph leading Jesus out of the Temple, the teachers are in the background watching them depart. But most images show Jesus among the teachers with May and Joseph standing to one side.
CRUCIFIXION SEEN FROM THE CROSS
The Crucifixion, seen from the Cross is a c. 1890 watercolor painting by the French painter James Tissot. The work is unusual for its portrayal of the site, the women witnesses, and bystanders from the perspective of Jesus on the cross, rather than featuring him as the center of the work; his figure is nearly not shown (his feet can be seen at the bottom of the picture).
It is part of the series The Life of Jesus Christ, a series of 350 watercolors of events from the Gospels completed by Tissot. He prepared for these by extensive travels in the Middle East to study details of contemporary life, which he used in the paintings. Prints were also published of the compositions. The whole watercolor series, completed between 1886-1894, was acquired in 1900 by the Brooklyn Museum in New York.
I POSTED ALL OF THIS STUFF BEFORE
CICERO POLYGNOTOS ZEUXIS TIMANTHES FOUR COLORS
Cicero (221) avers that Polygnotos (Early Classical), Zeuxis and Timanthes (fourth century) and other painters used no more than four colors. It is quite understandable that many scholars—working from a Newtonian view of color6—have proposed a contradiction in the inclusion of Polygnotos in this category, especially since Pliny (228) specifically lists Apelles, Aetion, Melanthios and Nichomachos, all much later than Polygnotos, as masters of the four color school. Note, however, that Pliny’s intention is to explain why paintings of the artists in this list fetch high prices—that is, because of the unexcelled quality of their works. He is not concerned with artists who may also have used this technique but failed to produce “immortal” works. Moreover, Pliny, like Quintilian (219), might have regarded Early Classical painters as rather primitive anyway, whereas Cicero had a more catholic taste.
I see no reason to reject the evidence of Cicero.7 In fact, every detail in the literary tradition speaks for the dominance of the traditional four colors in major painting from Polygnotos onward. In the ancient passages (apart from the two just discussed) I have counted six casual references to black, two references to yellow, one to white and one each to purple (perhaps as an enhancement of red) and to a color between blue and black. No others! On this latter combination I shall comment directly; but one sees clearly in these raw data what stood out in the consciousness of the commentators. As to blue (combined with black—a blue-gray being a frequent color on white-ground leythoi) it has mystified astute critics of Greek color that blue was excluded from the canon of colors; I trust that my connecting of the four colors individually with the four elements may dispel that mystification. Of course, blue could be and was used where appropriate, but it could not form part of the point of departure for artistic conceptions in the Protoclassical and Classical periods. The artistic elite of those times, when Pythagorean influence was so strong, could hardly have avoided the task of clarifying the dynamic and chiastic balance of the four colors—just as was being done for the understanding of the
CHAPTER IV: GREEK ARTISTS AND THEIR COLORS 83
four elements—and Cicero has given us the clue that the fame of Polygnotos rested on his ability to make a contribution to this task.
Furthermore, there is another factor to be considered. In my review of the origins of four color painting on ceramics I reported on the opinion of Mertens that Euphronios was the essential innovator. As that innovator has the deserved reputation of being a great artist, he must surely share the credit with Polygnotos for the four color synthesis, whether as follower or leader. It is ironical that Irma Wehgartner, who has given us a careful account of the mechanics of the emergence of this technique in terms of shop practices, found it necessary specifically to deny any connection with four color major painting.8 How can we visualize the colors—if not the whole style—of Polygnotan works as being much different from that of the very best four color cups? A broader, freer technique might have been encouraged by the sheer size of his composition (if they were very large and true frescoes)—perhaps reflected in the ongoing fortunes of white-ground ceramics—and there is no doubt that he tested the expressivity of other colors. Pausanias (101), in a rare departure, mentions specifically that the skin of the demon Eurynomos in the Knidian Lesche was between blue and black like that of flies “which are always hovering over meat” (not necessarily an original observation of that writer). There could be no better example of the use of local color—that of flies—to suggest ethos. This significant variation from the normal color of human flesh in no way disturbs what must have been the general impression of the painting as being of the four color variety, any more than attributes given to a statue would disturb its classification as contrapposto.