The Book of the Heavenly Cow is divided in half by the image of the cow and her supporters. There are no visible breaks in the actual text of The Heavenly Cow, aside from the representation of the Heavenly Cow. Due to this there are no clear breaks in the text that allow for a clear structuring of the text. However, Egyptologists who have examined the text closely have suggested a loose division of the text into four sections. The first section describes the "Destruction of Mankind", in which humanity plot against the Sun God Ra. After Ra consulting with the other gods, the goddess Hathor is chosen by Ra, to act as the violent Eye of Ra. She was to deliver divine punishment to humanity and did so by slaughtering the rebels and bringing death into the world. The survivors of Hathor’s wrath were saved when Ra tricks Hathor by putting dyed beer that resembled blood, which Hathor drinks, becoming intoxicated. The final part of the text deal with Ra's ascension into the sky, the creation of the underworld, and with the theology surrounding the ba (soul)


Jade Mirror of the Four Unknowns,[1] Siyuan yujian (四元玉鉴), also referred to as Jade Mirror of the Four Origins,[2] is a 1303 mathematical monograph by Yuan dynasty mathematician Zhu Shijie.[3] With this masterpiece, Zhu brought Chinese algebra to its highest level.

The book consists of an introduction and three books, with a total of 288 problems. The first four problems in the introduction illustrate his method of the four unknowns. He showed how to convert a problem stated verbally into a system of polynomial equations (up to the 14th order), by using up to four unknowns: 天Heaven, 地Earth, 人Man, 物Matter, and then how to reduce the system to a single polynomial equation in one unknown by successive elimination of unknowns. He then solved the high-order equation by Southern Song dynasty mathematician Qin Jiushao's "Ling long kai fang" method published in Shùshū Jiǔzhāng (“Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections”) in 1247 (more than 570 years before English mathematician William Horner's method using synthetic division). To do this, he makes use of the Pascal triangle, which he labels as the diagram of an ancient method first discovered by Jia Xian before 1050.

Zhu also solved square and cube roots problems by solving quadratic and cubic equations, and added to the understanding of series and progressions, classifying them according to the coefficients of the Pascal triangle. He also showed how to solve systems of linear equations by reducing the matrix of their coefficients to diagonal form. His methods predate Blaise Pascal, William Horner, and modern matrix methods by many centuries. The preface of the book describes how Zhu travelled around China for 20 years as a teacher of mathematics.

Jade Mirror of the Four Unknowns consists of four books, with 24 classes and 288 problems, in which 232 problems deal with Tian yuan shu, 36 problems deal with variable of two variables, 13 problems of three variables, and 7 problems of four variables.


Illustrations in Jade Mirror of the Four Unknowns

The Square of the Sum of the Four Quantities of a Right Angle Triangle- A 16 SQUARE QUADRANT MODEL

Equations of four Elements- FOUR UNKNOWNS

1:   −2y+x+z=0;

2:   −y2x+4y+2x−x2+4z+xz=0;

3:   x2+y2−z2=0;

4:   2y−w+2x=0;

Equations of four Elements

The phrase "two plus two equals five" ("2 + 2 = 5") is a slogan used in many different forms of media, most notably in Part One, Chapter Seven of the book 1984 by George Orwell. In the novel, it is used as an example of an obviously false dogma that one may be required to believe, similar to other obviously false slogans promoted by the Party in the novel.

Orwell's protagonistWinston Smith, uses the phrase to wonder if the State might declare "two plus two equals five" as a fact; he ponders whether, if everybody believes it, does that make it true? The Inner Party interrogator of thought-criminalsO'Brien, says of the mathematically false statement that control over physical reality is unimportant; so long as one controls one's own perceptions to what the Party wills, then any corporeal act is possible, in accordance with the principles of doublethink ("Sometimes they are five. Sometimes they are three. Sometimes they are all of them at once").

The equation 2 + 2 = 4 has been proverbial as the type of an obvious truth since the 16th century, and it appears as such in Johann Wigand's 1562 De Neutralibus et Mediis Libellus: "That twice two are four, a man may not lawfully make a doubt of it, because that manner of knowledge is grauen [graven] into mannes [man's] nature."[2]

René Descartes' realm of pure ideas considers that self-evident idea such as two plus two equals four may, in fact, have no reality outside the mind. According to the First Meditation (1641), the standard of truth is self-evidence of clear and distinct ideas. However, Descartes questions the correspondence of these ideas to reality.[3]

In his play Dom Juan (1682), Molière's title character is asked what he believes. He answers that he believes that two plus two equals four.[4]

The mirror-image of this—that 2 + 2 = 5 is the archetypical untruth—is attested at least as early as 1728. Ephraim ChambersCyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, published in that year, follows its definition of the word absurd with this illustrative example: "Thus, a proposition would be absurd, that should affirm, that two and two make five; or that should deny 'em to make four."[5] Similarly Samuel Johnson said in 1779 that "You may have a reason why two and two should make five, but they will still make but four."[2]

The first known sympathetic reference to the equation 2 + 2 = 5 appears in an 1813 letter by Lord Byron to his soon-to-be wife Anabella Milbanke in which he writes, "I know that two and two make four—& should be glad to prove it too if I could—though I must say if by any sort of process I could convert 2 & 2 into five it would give me much greater pleasure."

Although the phrase "2 + 2 = 5" had earlier been used to indicate an absurdity in general, its use within a political setting is first attested at the dawning of the French RevolutionAbbé Sieyès, in his What Is the Third Estate? (1789), mocked the fact that the Estates-General gave disproportionate voting power to the aristocracy and the clergy in with the following analogy: "Consequently if it be claimed that under the French constitution, 200,000 individuals out of 26 million citizens constitute two-thirds of the common will, only one comment is possible: it is a claim that two and two make five."[7]

Honoré de Balzac's novel Séraphîta (1834) contains the following passage:[8]

Thus, you will never find in all nature two identical objects; in the natural order, therefore, two and two can never make four, for, to attain that result, we must combine units that are exactly alike, and you know that it is impossible to find two leaves alike on the same tree, or two identical individuals in the same species of tree.

That axiom of your numeration, false in visible nature, is false likewise in the invisible universe of your abstractions, where the same variety is found in your ideas, which are the objects of the visible world extended by their interrelations; indeed, the differences are more striking there than elsewhere.

Victor Hugo used this phrase in 1852. He objected to the way in which the vast majority of French voters had backed Napoleon III, endorsing the way liberal values had been ignored in Napoleon III's coup.[9] In his 1852 pamphlet, Napoléon le Petit, he writes: "Now, get seven million five hundred thousand votes to declare that two and two make five, that the straight line is the longest road, that the whole is less than its part; get it declared by eight millions, by ten millions, by a hundred millions of votes, you will not have advanced a step."

In Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Notes from Underground (published in 1864), the protagonist implicitly supports the idea of two times two making five, spending several paragraphs considering the implications of rejecting the statement "two times two makes four." His purpose is not ideological, however. Instead, he proposes that it is the free will to choose or reject the logical as well as the illogical that makes mankind human. He adds: "I admit that twice two makes four is an excellent thing, but if we are to give everything its due, twice two makes five is sometimes a very charming thing too."[citation needed]

Dostoyevsky may have been aware of Hugo's use of this phrase.[citation needed] He had been sentenced to death for his participation in a radical intellectual discussion group. The sentence was commuted to imprisonment in Siberia, and he changed his opinions such that they would fit no conventional labels.

The idea seems to have been significant to Russian literature and culture. Ivan Turgenev wrote in Prayer (1881), one of his Poems in Prose "Whatever a man prays for, he prays for a miracle. Every prayer reduces itself to this: Great God, grant that twice two be not four." Also similar sentiments are said to be among Leo Tolstoy's last words when urged to convert back to the Russian Orthodox Church: "Even in the valley of the shadow of death, two and two do not make six." Even turn-of-the-century Russian newspaper columnists used the phrase to suggest the moral confusion of the age.[10] Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin in God and the State (1882), classifies Deism as: "Imagine a philosophical vinegar sauce of the most opposed systems, a mixture of Fathers of the Church, scholastic philosophers, Descartes and PascalKant and Scottish psychologists, all this a superstructure on the divine and innate ideas of Plato, and covered up with a layer of Hegelian immanence accompanied, of course, by an ignorance, as contemptuous as it is complete, of natural science, and proving just as two times two make five; the existence of a personal God."[11] In The Reaction In Germany (1842) Bakunin compares the behavior of Compromising Positivists to the one of Juste-milieuat the beginning of the July Revolution quoting a French journal: "The Left says, 2 times 2 are 4; the Right, 2 times 2 are 6; and the Juste-milieu says, 2 times 2 are 5".[12][13][14]

The four divisions are typically color-coded with red indicating flammability, blue indicating level of healthhazard, yellow for chemical reactivity, and white containing codes for special hazards. Each of health, flammability and reactivity is rated on a scale from 0 (no hazard) to 4 (severe risk)



Women in the Garden (French: Femmes au jardin) is an oil painting begun in 1866 by French artist Claude Monet when he was 26.

It is a large work painted en plein air; the size of the canvas necessitated Monet painting its upper half with the canvas lowered into a trench he had dug, so that he could maintain a single point of view for the entire work. The setting is the garden of a property he was renting. His companion Camilleposed for the figures. Monet finished the work indoors, and used magazine illustrations to render fashionable clothing.

Camille was quite the devoted model. In Monet’s painting, “Women in a Garden” (1866-67), she posed for all four female figures!


The Poplars series paintings were made by Claude Monet in the summer and fall of 1891. The trees were in a marsh along the banks of the Epte River a few kilometers upstream from Monet's home and studio. To reach his floating painting studio that was moored in place he went by small boat up the nearby waterway to where it joined the mainstream. The trees were along the riverside in single file, following along an S-curve. There were three groups of paintings — in one group the paintings have towering Poplars that go off the top edge of the canvas, in another group there are seven trees, and in another group three or four Poplars on the banks of the Epte River near Giverny. The trees, which actually belonged to the commune of Limetz, were put up for auction before Monet had completed all of his paintings. At a certain point Monet was forced into buying the trees because he still wasn't finished with his paintings. After he finished the series he sold the trees back to the lumber merchant who wanted them.[1]


The Four Trees, (Four Poplars on the Banks of the Epte River near Giverny), 1891, Metropolitan Museum of Art



Garden at Sainte-Adresse ("Jardin à Sainte-Adresse"), 1867, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.[32]


The models were probably Monet's father, Adolphe, in the foreground, Monet's cousin Jeanne Marguérite Lecadre at the fence; Dr. Adolphe Lecadre, her father; and perhaps Lecadre's other daughter, Sophie, the woman seated with her back to the viewer.


The Luncheon, 1868, Städel, which features Camille Doncieux and Jean Monet, was rejected by the Paris Salon of 1870 but included in the first Impressionists' exhibition in 1874.[33]


The Back Series is a series of four bas-relief sculptures, by Henri Matisse. It's Matisse's largest and most monumental sculptures. The plaster originals are housed in the Musée Matisse in Le Cateau-Cambrésis, France.


They were modeled between 1909 and 1930. Back (I) appeared in the second PostImpressionist show in London, and the Armory Show in New York City.[1]


All four sculptures were unique plaster casts until 1950, when Back (I), (III), and (IV) were cast in bronze. Back (II) was rediscovered in 1955, a year after the artist’s death, then it was cast. The series have been cast in a bronze edition of twelve, included one for the artist's family. Nine complete sets are housed in nine major museums around the world:[2]


Musée National d'Art Moderne (Paris)[3][4][5][6]

Tate (London)[7][8][9][10]

Kunsthaus Zürich (Zürich)

Staatsgalerie Stuttgart (Stuttgart)

Museum of Modern Art (New York)[11][12][13][14]

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden (Washington D. C.)[15][16][17][18]

Franklin D. Murphy Sculpture Garden (Los Angeles)[19][20][21][22]

Kimbell Art Museum (Fort Worth)

Lillie and Hugh Roy Cullen Sculpture Garden, Museum of Fine Arts (Houston)[23][24][25][26]


The four lowest ranked automatic bid teams and the four lowest ranked at-large teams in the tournament play in special play-in games called the First Four before the tournament.[2] The rest of the field is split into four regions of 16 teams, and those regions are seeded from one to 16. The top team in each region plays the 16th team, the second plays the 15th and so on. The winners of each game goes on to the next round and so on until only one team is standing. A team is knocked out of the tournament and has to go home as soon as they lose once, so the pressure is incredibly intense.


The tournament is divided into four regions and each region has at least sixteen teams, but four additional teams are added per the decision of the Selection Committee. (See: First Four, below.) The committee is charged with making each of the four regions as close as possible in overall quality of teams from wherever they come from.


The names of the regions vary from year to year, and are broadly geographic (such as "West", "South", "East", and "Midwest"). From 1956 to 1984, the "Mideast", roughly corresponding to the Southeastern region of the United States, designation was used. From 1985 to 1998, the Mideast region was known as "Southeast" and again changed to "South" starting from 1999. The selected names roughly correspond to the location of the four cities hosting the regional finals. From 2004 to 2006, the regions were named after their host cities, e.g. the Phoenix Regional in 2004, the Chicago Regional in 2005, and the Minneapolis Regional in 2006, but reverted to the traditional geographic designations beginning in 2007. For example, during 2012, the regions were named South (Atlanta, Georgia), East (Boston, Massachusetts), Midwest (St. Louis, Missouri), and West (Phoenix, Arizona).[5]


First Four[edit]


The University of Dayton Arena, which has hosted all First Four games since the round's inception in 2011, as well as its precursor, the single "play-in" game held from 2001 to 2010. As of 2017, the arena has hosted 115 tournament games, the most of any venue.

The "First Four" refers to the number of games played, not the number of teams. First held during 2011, the First Four are games between the four lowest-ranked at-large teams and the four lowest-ranked automatic-bid (conference-champion) teams. They are not normally the eight lowest-ranked teams in the field; the four lowest-ranked at-large teams usually have higher rankings among the entire field of 68 than several of the automatic-bid teams coming from the smaller conferences. The four games are held to determine which teams will assume a place in the First Round. Unlike other early games in the tournament, the teams are not matched with disparity intended. Rather, equality governs match-ups (e.g., in one game, two teams—usually two of the four lowest-ranked automatic-bid teams—might play for a No. 16 seeding in the first round, while in another game, two teams—usually two of the four lowest-ranked at-large teams—are usually trying to advance as a No. 11 seed).


While other NCAA tournament games are played Thursday through Sunday (and the final game on a Monday), the First Four games are played earlier in the first week, between Selection Sunday and the First Round on Thursday and Friday. As of 2017, two games are played on the Tuesday following Selection Sunday, and the remaining two are played on Wednesday. Once the First Four games are played, the four winning teams assume their places in the bracket of 64 teams, and must play again later that week, with little rest. Typically, the two Tuesday winners are paired with their next opponent on Thursday; and, the Wednesday winners play on Friday. With the Second Round being played on Saturday and Sunday, this scheduling allows for six consecutive days of televised competition during the first week of the tournament.


Every year that the First Four has taken place, at least one of the teams that participated went on to win in the round of 64. In 2011, VCU was part of the First Four and advanced all the way to the Final Four. In 2012, South Florida advanced to the round of 32. In 2013, La Salle advanced to the Sweet 16 by defeating Boise State, Kansas State, and Ole Miss. In 2014, Tennessee advanced to the Sweet 16 by defeating Iowa, Massachusetts, and Mercer. The following year, Dayton won its First Four game on their home court and then defeated Providence to advance to the round of 32. In 2016, Wichita State advanced to the round of 32 by defeating Vanderbilt and Arizona. In 2017, USC won the first round against SMU but lost to Baylor in the round of 32.


Prior to expanding from 65 to 68 teams, the two lowest seeded teams played in the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Opening Round game. All of the previous-format single Opening Round games and current-format First Four games, have been played at the University of Dayton Arena in Dayton, Ohio.


The sixteen characteristics are an extended elaboration of the Four Noble Truths. For each truth, they describe four characteristics.

The Tibetan tradition emphasizes the study of the sixteen characteristics of the Four Noble Truths, as described in the Abhisamayalamkara. The Mahayana text Ornament of Clear Realization (Abhisamayalamkara) identifies four characteristics of each truth, for a total of sixteen characteristics, which are presented as a guide to contemplating and practicing the four noble truths.[1] The Ornament of Clear Realization is a key text in the curriculum of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries and study colleges, and this method of study and practice is emphasized in the Tibetan tradition.



These sixteen characteristics are identified as follows:[2][web 1]


Truth of suffering[edit]

These characteristics refer to the five aggregates[3]


impermanence - the five aggregates are impermanent and change from moment to moment

suffering - the five aggregates have come into being because of avidya (ignorance) and kleshas (disturbing emotions), and they are under the influence of the avidya and kleshas

emptiness - there is no "self" outside of the five aggregates that controls or makes use of the five aggregates

selflessness - there is no "self" to be found within the five aggregates that controls or makes use of the five aggregates

Truth of origin[edit]

These characteristics refer to karma, kleshas, and avidya (ignorance)[4]


causes - karma, kleshas, and avidya are constantly arising within our mental continuum, and because of their nature they have the quality of being the causes of suffering.

origin - kleshas and karma are the actual origin of suffering, not just intermediate links.

strong production - avidya, kleshas, and karma act forcefully as the main causes of suffering (they are not just passive ingredients)

condition - avidya, kleshas, and karma are more than just the main causes of suffering, they are also the contributory causes

Truth of cessation[edit]

These characteristics refer to cessation[5]


cessation - cessation is the ceasing of all kleshas and avidya forever

pacification - cessation pacifies the torment of suffering, brings true peace

being superb - cessation is supreme in bringing about the source of all health and happiness

definite emergence - cessation will definitely bring us out of samsara

Truth of the path[edit]

These characteristics refer to the path[6]


path - the path leads to cessation

awareness - the path leads us to a full and complete understanding of the root of cyclic existence (samsara) and the means to escape it

achievement - through the path, we can definitely achieve the result of liberation and enlightenment

deliverance - the path delivers us from the bondage of our conditioned existence



Axiom of Maria is a precept in alchemy: "One becomes two, two becomes three, and out of the third comes the one as the fourth." It is attributed to 3rd century alchemist Maria Prophetissa, also called the Jewess, sister of Moses, or the Copt.[1] Marie-Louise von Franz gives an alternative version this: "Out of the One comes Two, out of Two comes Three, and from the Third comes the One as the Fourth."[2]


Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung (1875–1961) used the axiom as a metaphor for the process of individuation. One is unconscious wholeness; two is the conflict of opposites; three points to a potential resolution; the third is the transcendent function, described as a "psychic function that arises from the tension between consciousness and the unconscious and supports their union";[3] and the one as the fourth is a transformed state of consciousness, relatively whole and at peace.


Jung speaks of the axiom of Maria as running in various forms through the whole of alchemy like a leitmotiv. In "The Psychology of the Transference" he writes of the fourfold nature of the transforming process using the language of Greek alchemy:


"It begins with the four separate elements, the state of chaos, and ascends by degrees to the three manifestations of Mercurius[4] in the inorganic, organic, and spiritual worlds; and, after attaining the form of Sol and Luna (i.e., the precious metal gold and silver, but also the radiance of the gods who can overcome the strife of the elements by love), it culminates in the one and indivisible (incorruptible, ethereal, eternal) nature of the anima, the quinta essentia, aqua permanens, tincture, or lapis philosophorum. This progression from the number 4 to 3 to 2 to 1 is the 'axiom of Maria'..."[5]

The Axiom of Maria may be interpreted as an alchemical analogy of the process of individuation from the many to the one, from undifferentiated unconsciousness to individual consciousness.

About Emblem XVII

The motto reads: "The fourfold wheel of fire reigns over this work." Emblem XVII allegorizes the purification process of Sublimation, i.e. the vaporization of a solid substance through heat, whose cooling off yields concentrated matter, the sublimate, which sticks to the insides of the vessel.

The image depicts four interlocking spheres (called orbes in the epigram), each of which contains enclosed flames.

The epigram plays off the motto's reference to a “fourfold path" as well as the four spheres delineated in the image. The epigram identifies and describes the four orbs in ascending order: Vulcan (the lowermost, which relates to common wood burning fire), Mercury (air, spirit), Luna (silver, watery), and Apollo (gold, earth)

The image in Emblem XVII depicts four interlocking spheres with enclosed flames hover over a body of water. This corresponds with the epigram's description of the four orbs from the image in ascending order: Vulcan (the lowermost, and relating to common wood burning fire), Mercury (air, spirit), Luna (silver, watery), and Apollo (gold, earth).

This sequence of action, or chain as Maier calls it, follows a set path; its origins exist with the god of Fire and of craftsmen (Vulcan), rising up to culminate in the god of Sun (Apollo); allegorically, these four spheres filled with fire correspond with the early modern Cabbalistic concept of the Four Worlds, which are the spiritual realms/levels that comprise Creation, each world holds a specific function in the process of Creation, and there exists a relationship between each sphere with sephirot of the Cabbalistic Tree of Life.

From this perspective, Emblem XVII is a metaphor for the alchemist’s labors in order to reach the ultimate goal (gold), that is, the philosophers’ stone. Allegorically, the operation of sublimation renders matter into a spiritual state that recombines into a corporeal state.

From an operative standpoint, Emblem XVII’s four interlocking spheres with their enclosed flames depict the sublimating furnace in action, wherein the stacked vessels receive the ascending and escending exhalations of the sublimating matter. With the operation of sublimation, heat changes a solid substance into vapor, whose cooling off yields concentrated matter.


Atalanta Fugiens or Atalanta Fleeing is an emblem book by Michael Maier (1568–1622), published by Johann Theodor de Bry in Oppenheim in 1617 (2nd edition 1618). It consists of 50 discourses with illustrations by Matthias Merian, each of which is accompanied by an epigrammatic verse, prose and a musical fugue. It may therefore be considered an early example of multimedia.


The title page depicts various scenes from Greek mythology related to golden apples:


Top: Garden of the Hesperides.

Left: Hercules stretching out his arm to seize one of the golden apples.

Right: Aphrodite handing the golden apples to Hippomenes.

Bottom: Race between Atalanta and Hippomenes, with Atalanta picking up an apple. Behind them is a temple with lovers embracing each other, while in the background they appear as a lion and lioness.


Out of the 108 extant Upanishads, only 16 are recognized as authentic and authoritative by Shankara


Of the one hundred and eight extant Upanishads, sixteen were recognized by Shankara as authentic and authoritative. In his commentary on the Brahma Sutras he included quotations from six. On the other ten he wrote elaborate commentaries. It is these ten which have come to be generally regarded as the principal Upanishads. Following are their names: Katha, Isha, Kena, Prasna, Mundaka, Man-dukya, Taittiriya, Aitareya, Chandogya, Brihadaranyaka. Together they constitute, and will probably always constitute, the primary object of attention for all who would know the Hindu religion. The Kaivalya and the Sve-tasvatara, both among Shankara's sixteen, and special favorites of Swami Prabhavananda, are also included in the present translation.




During her time at Chawton, Jane Austen published four generally well received novels.


Only four of her novels were printed while she was alive. They were Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814) and Emma (1816).

At the time of his death, Campbell was in the midst of working upon a large-format, lavishly illustrated series entitled Historical Atlas of World Mythology. This series was to build on Campbell's idea, first presented in The Hero with a Thousand Faces, that myth evolves over time through four stages:

The Way of the Animal Powers—the myths of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers which focus on shamanism and animal totems.

The Way of the Seeded Earth—the myths of Neolithic, agrarian cultures which focus upon a mother goddess and associated fertility rites.

The Way of the Celestial Lights—the myths of Bronze Age city-states with pantheons of gods ruling from the heavens, led by a masculine god-king.

The Way of Man—religion and philosophy as it developed after the Axial Age (c. 6th century BC), in which the mythic imagery of previous eras was made consciously metaphorical, reinterpreted as referring to psycho-spiritual, not literal-historical, matters. This transition is evident in the East in Buddhism, Vedanta, and philosophical Taoism; and in the West in the Mystery cults, Platonism, Christianity and Gnosticism.

Published between 1959 and 1968, Campbell's four-volume work The Masks of God covers mythology from around the world, from ancient to modern. Where The Hero with a Thousand Faces focused on the commonality of mythology (the "elementary ideas"), the Masks of God books focus upon historical and cultural variations the monomyth takes on (the "folk ideas"). In other words, where The Hero with a Thousand Faces draws perhaps more from psychology, the Masks of God books draw more from anthropology and history. The four volumes of Masks of God are as follows: Primitive Mythology, Oriental Mythology, Occidental Mythology, and Creative Mythology.

Campbell often described mythology as having a fourfold function within human society. These appear at the end of his work The Masks of God: Creative Mythology, as well as various lectures.[33]

The Metaphysical Function

Awakening a sense of awe before the mystery of being

According to Campbell, the absolute mystery of life, what he called transcendent reality, cannot be captured directly in words or images. Symbols and mythic metaphors on the other hand point outside themselves and into that reality. They are what Campbell called "being statements"[33] and their enactment through ritual can give to the participant a sense of that ultimate mystery as an experience. "Mythological symbols touch and exhilarate centers of life beyond the reach of reason and coercion.... The first function of mythology is to reconcile waking consciousness to the mysterium tremendum et fascinans of this universe as it is."[34]

The Cosmological Function

Explaining the shape of the universe

For pre-modern societies, myth also functioned as a proto-science, offering explanations for the physical phenomena that surrounded and affected their lives, such as the change of seasons and the life cycles of animals and plants.

The Sociological Function

Validate and support the existing social order

Ancient societies had to conform to an existing social order if they were to survive at all. This is because they evolved under "pressure" from necessities much more intense than the ones encountered in our modern world. Mythology confirmed that order and enforced it by reflecting it into the stories themselves, often describing how the order arrived from divine intervention. Campbell often referred to these "conformity" myths as the "Right Hand Path" to reflect the brain's left hemisphere's abilities for logic, order and linearity. Together with these myths however, he observed the existence of the "Left Hand Path", mythic patterns like the "Hero's Journey" which are revolutionary in character in that they demand from the individual a surpassing of social norms and sometimes even of morality.[35]

The Pedagogical Function

Guide the individual through the stages of life

As a person goes through life, many psychological challenges will be encountered. Myth may serve as a guide for successful passage through the stages of one's life.


In 1943, Gebser published his book Abendlandische Wandlung (Transformation of the West), in which he surveyed the most significant changes in the natural and social sciences, suggesting that they point to a new constellation of consciousness and reality-perception. Six years later, he published the first part of his major work, Ursprung und Gegenwart, available in English under the title The Ever-Present Origin (see Resources, this page). In it, he concerned himself with the aperspectival foundations of our modern civilization. In 1953, the second part appeared. Here Gebser looked back into our human past, identifying and clarifying for us other similar fundamental mutations of consciousness. He distinguished four in all: the archaic structure, the magical structure, the mythical structure, and the mental structure (out of which emerged, as its deficient form, the rational consciousness during the Renaissance)


Empirical evidence for a four factor framework of personality disorder organization: multigroup confirmatory factor analysis of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III personality disorder scales across Belgian and Danish data samples.


Rossi G1, Elklit A, Simonsen E.

Author information


The factor structure of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (Millon, Millon, Davis, & Grossman, 2006) personality disorder scales was analyzed using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis on data obtained from a Danish (N = 2030) and a Belgian (N = 1210) sample. Two-, three-, and four factor models, a priori specified using structures found by Dyce, O'Connor, Parkins, and Janzen (1997), were fitted to the data. The best fitting model was a four factor structure (RMSEA = .066, GFI = .98, CFI = .93) with partially invariant factor loadings. The robustness of this four-factor model clearly supports the efforts to organize future personality disorder description in a four-factor framework by corroborating four domains that were predominant in dimensional models (Widiger & Simonsen, 2005): Factor 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively corresponded to emotional dysregulation versus stability, antagonism versus compliance, extraversion versus introversion, and constraint versus impulsivity.

There are four main island groups in Micronesia:

the Caroline Islands (Federated States of Micronesia and Palau)

the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati)

the Mariana Islands (Northern Mariana Islands and Guam)

the Marshall Islands

The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.[1][2]


Quadripoints are exceptional and rare because borders and territories do not normally meet in groups of more than three (viz., at tripoints). Correspondingly and proportionally rarer are points of more than fourfold constituency. Perhaps a dozen quintipoints of various levels of geopolitical subdivisions are scattered around the world; for example five counties of Florida, United States, meet in the middle of Lake Okeechobee. Multipoints of greater than quintuple complexity are exceedingly rare.

MINT is an acronym referring to the economies of Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Turkey.[1][2] The term was originally coined by Fidelity Investments, a Boston-based asset management firm,[2] and was popularized by Jim O'Neill of Goldman Sachs, who had created the term BRIC.[3][4] The term is primarily used in the economic and financial spheres as well as in academia. Its usage has grown specially in the investment sector, where it is used to refer to the bonds issued by these governments. These four countries are also part of the "Next Eleven".


In a column for Bloomberg View a few years after Fidelity coined the term,[3] O'Neill discussed the "MINT" economies:


I spent last week in Indonesia, working on a series for BBC Radio about four of the world's most populous non-BRIC emerging economies. The BRIC countries – Brazil, Russia, India and China, – [5] with the addition of South Africa in 2010, the BRIC was re-coined BRICS], are already closely watched. The group I'm studying for this project – let's call them the MINT economies – deserve no less attention. Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey all have very favorable demographics for at least the next 20 years, and their economic prospects are interesting.


Policy makers and thinkers in the MINT countries have often asked me why I left them out of that first classification. Indonesians made the point with particular force. Over the years I've become accustomed to being told that the BRIC countries should have been the BRIICs all along, or maybe even the BIICs. Wasn't Indonesia's economic potential more compelling than Russia's? Despite the size of its relatively young population (a tremendous asset), I thought it unlikely that Indonesia would do enough on the economic-policy front to quickly realize that potential.


Now, meeting a diverse group of Indonesians – from the leading candidates for the 2014 presidential elections to shoppers in Jakarta's busy malls – I found a healthy preoccupation with the country's economic prospects. "Could Indonesia do what's needed to lift the country's growth rate to 7 percent or more," they were asking, "or would it have to settle for 'just' 5 percent?"

The Four Continents, also known as The Four Rivers of Paradise, is a painting by Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, made in the 1610s. It depicts the female personifications of four continents (Europe, Asia, Africa and America) sitting with the personifications of their respective major rivers – the Danube, the Ganges, the Nile and the Río de la Plata.[1] Europe is shown on the left, Africa in the middle, Asia on the right and America behind it, to the left. The tigress, protecting the cubs from the crocodile, is used as a symbol of Asia.[1] The personification of the Danube holds a rudder. The bottom part of the painting shows several putti. Painted during a period of truce between the Dutch Republic and Spain, the river allegories and their female companions in a lush, bountiful setting reflect the conditions that Rubens hoped would return to Antwerp after military hostilities.[2]


If continents are defined strictly as discrete landmasses, embracing all the contiguous land of a body, then Africa, Asia, and Europe form a single continent which may be referred to as Afro-Eurasia. This produces a four-continent model consisting of Afro-Eurasia, America, Antarctica and Australia.


In 1507 Martin Waldseemüller published a world map, Universalis Cosmographia, which was the first to show North and South America as separate from Asia and surrounded by water. A small inset map above the main map explicitly showed for the first time the Americas being east of Asia and separated from Asia by an ocean, as opposed to just placing the Americas on the left end of the map and Asia on the right end. In the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, Waldseemüller noted that the earth is divided into four parts, Europe, Asia, Africa and the fourth part, which he named "America" after Amerigo Vespucci's first name.[52] On the map, the word "America" was placed on part of South America.


The Waldseemüller map or Universalis Cosmographia ("Universal Cosmography") is a printed wall map of the world by German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller, originally published in April 1507.


The wall map consists of twelve sections printed from woodcuts measuring 18 by 24.5 inches (46 cm × 62 cm). Each section is one of four horizontally and three vertically, when assembled. The map uses a modified Ptolemaic map projection with curved meridians to depict the entire surface of the Earth. In the upper-mid part of the main map there is inset another, miniature world map representing to some extent an alternative view of the world.


An explanatory text, the Cosmographiae Introductio, widely believed to have been written by Waldseemüller's colleague Matthias Ringmann, accompanied the map. It was said in Chapter IX of that text that the earth was now known to be divided into four parts, of which Europe, Asia and Africa, being contiguous with each other, were continents, while the fourth part, America, was “an island, inasmuch as it is found to be surrounded on all sides by the seas”.[7]


The name for the northern land mass, Parias, is derived from a passage in the Four Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci, in which, after several stops, the expedition arrives at a region that was “situated in the torrid zone directly under the parallel which describes the Tropic of Cancer. And this province is called by them [the inhabitants] Parias”.[11][12] Parias was described by Waldseemüller’s follower, Johannes Schöner as: “The island of Parias, which is not a part or portion of the foregoing [America] but a large, special part of the fourth part of the world”, indicating uncertainty as to its situation.[13][14]




Universalis Cosmographia, the Waldseemüller wall map dated 1507, depicts the Americas, Africa, Europe, Asia, and the Pacific Ocean separating Asia from the Americas, by the Italian Amerigo Vespucci.


Another way of classifying volcanoes is by the composition of material erupted (lava), since this affects the shape of the volcano. Lava can be broadly classified into four different compositions (Cas & Wright, 1987):


If the erupted magma contains a high percentage (>63%) of silica, the lava is called felsic.

Felsic lavas (dacites or rhyolites) tend to be highly viscous (not very fluid) and are erupted as domes or short, stubby flows. Viscous lavas tend to form stratovolcanoes or lava domes. Lassen Peak in California is an example of a volcano formed from felsic lava and is actually a large lava dome.

Because siliceous magmas are so viscous, they tend to trap volatiles (gases) that are present, which cause the magma to erupt catastrophically, eventually forming stratovolcanoes. Pyroclastic flows (ignimbrites) are highly hazardous products of such volcanoes, since they are composed of molten volcanic ash too heavy to go up into the atmosphere, so they hug the volcano's slopes and travel far from their vents during large eruptions. Temperatures as high as 1,200 °C are known to occur in pyroclastic flows, which will incinerate everything flammable in their path and thick layers of hot pyroclastic flow deposits can be laid down, often up to many meters thick. Alaska's Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, formed by the eruption of Novarupta near Katmai in 1912, is an example of a thick pyroclastic flow or ignimbrite deposit. Volcanic ash that is light enough to be erupted high into the Earth's atmosphere may travel many kilometres before it falls back to ground as a tuff.

If the erupted magma contains 52–63% silica, the lava is of intermediate composition.

These "andesitic" volcanoes generally only occur above subduction zones (e.g. Mount Merapi in Indonesia).

Andesitic lava is typically formed at convergent boundary margins of tectonic plates, by several processes:

Hydration melting of peridotite and fractional crystallization

File:Sarychev Peak eruption on 12 June 2009, oblique satellite view.ogv

Sarychev Peak eruption, Matua Island, oblique satellite view

Melting of subducted slab containing sediments[citation needed]

Magma mixing between felsic rhyolitic and mafic basaltic magmas in an intermediate reservoir prior to emplacement or lava flow.

If the erupted magma contains <52% and >45% silica, the lava is called mafic (because it contains higher percentages of magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe)) or basaltic. These lavas are usually much less viscous than rhyolitic lavas, depending on their eruption temperature; they also tend to be hotter than felsic lavas. Mafic lavas occur in a wide range of settings:

At mid-ocean ridges, where two oceanic plates are pulling apart, basaltic lava erupts as pillows to fill the gap;

Shield volcanoes (e.g. the Hawaiian Islands, including Mauna Loa and Kilauea), on both oceanic and continental crust;

As continental flood basalts.

Some erupted magmas contain <=45% silica and produce ultramafic lava. Ultramafic flows, also known as komatiites, are very rare; indeed, very few have been erupted at the Earth's surface since the Proterozoic, when the planet's heat flow was higher. They are (or were) the hottest lavas, and probably more fluid than common mafic lavas.


Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina[1]) are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae /haɪˈɛnɪdiː/. With only four extant species, it is the fifth-smallest biological family in the Carnivora, and one of the smallest in the class Mammalia.


The four extant hyaenidae species (Koepfli et al, 2006[19]).






Proteles cristatus (aardwolf) The life of animals (Colored Plate 4) (proteles cristatus).jpg




Crocuta crocuta (spotted hyena) Hyaena maculata - 1818-1842 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(white background).jpg




Parahyaena brunnea (brown hyena) Hyaena fusca (white background).jpg



Hyaena hyaena (striped hyena) Hyaena striata - 1818-1842 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam -(white background).jpg


Genetic testing found four distinct species of giraffe. From left: a southern giraffe, a Masai giraffe, a reticulated giraffe and a northern giraffe. Credit From left to right, Julian Fennessy, Julie Maher/Wildlife Conservation Society, Julian Fennessy, Julian Fennessy

You would think that giraffes, the tallest land animals in the world, would be hard to overlook.


Yet, for centuries scientists may have missed a fundamental fact about these long-necked creatures: They aren’t one species, but rather four distinct ones.


The family Rhinocerotidae consists of only four extant genera: Ceratotherium (White rhinoceros), Dicerorhinus (Sumatran rhinoceros), Diceros (Black rhinoceros) and Rhinoceros (Indian and Javan rhinoceros).


The name "black rhinoceros" (Diceros bicornis) was chosen to distinguish this species from the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). This can be confusing, as the two species are not truly distinguishable by color. There are four subspecies of black rhino: South-central (Diceros bicornis minor), the most numerous, which once ranged from central Tanzania south through Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique to northern and eastern South Africa; South-western (Diceros bicornis occidentalis) which are better adapted to the arid and semi-arid savannas of Namibia, southern Angola, western Botswana and western South Africa; East African (Diceros bicornis michaeli), primarily in Tanzania; and West African (Diceros bicornis longipes) which was declared extinct in November 2011.[12] The native Tswanan name keitloa describes a South African variation of the black rhino in which the posterior horn is equal to or longer than the anterior horn


In the late 1980s, Pablo Escobar kept four hippos in a private menagerie at his residence in Hacienda Nápoles, 100 kilometres (62 mi) east of Medellín, Colombia, after buying them in New Orleans. They were deemed too difficult to seize and move after Escobar's death, and hence left on the untended estate. By 2007, the animals had multiplied to 16 and had taken to roaming the area for food in the nearby Magdalena River.[49][50]


In 2009, two adults and one calf escaped the herd and, after attacking humans and killing cattle, one of the adults (called "Pepe") was killed by hunters under authorization of the local authorities.[50][51] As of early 2014, 40 hippos have been reported to exist in Puerto Triunfo, Antioquia from the original four belonging to Escobar.[52] The National Geographic Channel produced a documentary about them titled Cocaine Hippos.[53] A report published in a Yale student magazine noted that local environmentalists are campaigning to protect the animals, although there is no clear plan for what will happen to them.[54]


Common Chimpanzees or Pan troglodytes, are found almost exclusively in the heavily forested regions of Central and West Africa. With at least four commonly accepted subspecies, their population and distribution is much more extensive that the Bonobos, in the past also called 'Pygmy Chimpanzee

The informal term "big cat" is typically used to refer to any of the four largest (living) members of the entire Panthera genus. In descending order of their maximum potential size, these four species are: tigers, lions, jaguars, and leopards, with the tiger (Panthera tigris) being the largest

Cattle are ruminants, meaning their digestive system is highly specialized to allow the use of poorly digestible plants as food. Cattle have one stomach with four compartments, the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum, with the rumen being the largest compartment

A cow's udder contains two pairs of mammary glands, (commonly referred to as teats) creating four "quarters".[32] The front ones are referred to as fore quarters and the rear ones rear quarters.[33]


Cattle have a well-developed sense of taste and can distinguish the four primary tastes (sweet, salty, bitter and sour)


In the late 19th century, native Japanese cattle were interbred with European breeds, including Brown Swiss, Shorthorn, and Devon.[citation needed] The cattle originally recognized in 1943 as "Kobe beef" were cattle from herds in the Kobe area of Japan, and could be any of four breeds of Wagyu cattle—Akaushi (Japanese Red/Brown), Kuroushi (Japanese Black), Japanese Polled, and Japanese Shorthorn.[5] Tajima is a strain of the Japanese Black, the most populous breed (around 90% of the four breeds).[6][7]

The term "Fourth Reich" has been used in a variety of different ways. Neo-Nazis have used it to describe their envisioned revival of Nazi Germany, while others have used the term derogatorily, such as conspiracy theorists like Dr. Joseph P. Farrell, Peter Levenda, and Jim Marrs who have used it to refer to what they perceive as a covert continuation of Nazi ideals, and by critics who point out that Germany exercises a dominant role in the European Union.

Wagyu (和牛 Wagyū, "Japanese cow") is any of four Japanese breeds of beef cattle, the most desired of which is genetically predisposed to intense marbling and to producing a high percentage of oleaginous unsaturated fat. The meat from such wagyu cattle is known for its quality, and commands a high price.

In several areas of Japan, wagyu beef is shipped carrying area names. Some examples are Matsusaka beef, Kobe beef, Yonezawa beef, Mishima beef,[1] Ōmi beef and Sanda beef.

Aristotle, one of the first physicists, believed that four elements containing four qualities comprised everything. He identified the qualities as hot, cold, wet and dry. Relating these qualities to the personality model, hot corresponds to abstract. Hot things rise, hot things are weird, Abstract people are weird. Cold corresponds to concrete: cold things sink, and are normal, as are concrete people. Wet corresponds with cooperative: wet things fill their containers; cooperative people try to conform, and in a manner fill their containers/environments. Dry corresponds with utilitarian. Dry things are individuals, are solid, and “do their own thing”. Utilitarian people are individuals who do what they want, and are not influenced by others over what they think is best. These four qualities yield four elements.
*Square one: Wind. Wind is hot and wet, and corresponds to the Idealist who is abstract and cooperative. Wind is hot in that it is weird, and rises. Hot corresponds with abstract. It is wet in that it fills all parts of its container, making it cooperative. Cooperative people fill their containers- they don’t do their own thing but mold to their environments.
*Square two: Water. Water is cold and wet, corresponding to the Guardian who is concrete and cooperative. Water is cold in that it is normal, and sinks. Cold corresponds with concrete. It is wet in that it fills its container. The second square is concerned with homeostasis. Water is healing and cleansing. The second square is homeostasis and thus is healing.
*Square three: Earth. Earth is cold and dry, and corresponds to the Artisan who is concrete and utilitarian. Earth is cold in that it is normal and sinks. It is dry in that it is an individual. It does its own thing, and is solid. The third square is always the most solid--Earth is solid and hard.
*Square four: Fire. Fire is hot and dry, corresponding to the Rational who is abstract and utilitarian. Fire is hot in that it is weird, and rises. Fire is utilitarian in that it is an individual, and seems solid, wanting to “do its own thing”, as opposed to filling its container. Square four is separate from the previous three, consistently evidencing differences. The fourth square has a quality of being like pure energy. Fire is like wind, water, and earth because it is ephemeral. Like the wind it rises, it flows like water, yet it seems solid like Earth.
*Square five: Aether. Aristotle postulated a possible fifth element, which he called the aether, relating it to the divine. The fifth is always related to the transcendent and the divine.. The fifth is God. Aristotle said that nothing exists without the aether, and the aether was located in the stars. While the fourth square hints at the transcendent, the fifth is always ultra transcendent.
Aristotle theorized that everything is composed of varying amounts of these five elements. Various cultures throughout the world also had a four/five element system. Some identified the fifth element as life, or the void. Interestingly the word, “one” sounds like wind; the word “two”, sounds somewhat like water, and has the “t” and “w” in it like water; the word “three” sounds like earth, having letters “erth” in it; the word “four” sounds like
fire. Five clearly sounds like life, which is considered in some cultures to be the fifth element.


The primary fields of science include physics (square one), chemistry (square two), biology (square three), and psychology (square four).
*Square one: Physics. Physics fits with the Idealist in square one. Like the Idealist physics inquires into the supernatural and the superrational, even irrational exploring the invisible forces such as gravity, the strong and weak forces, and electromagnetism. While Idealists are into the law and following orders, physics is very lawful. Idealists are very smart, often considered weird. The first square has the quality of being weird. Physics seeks to explain weird phenomena, and is a very difficult discipline to master. These characteristics are found in Wilbur's mind quadrant.
*Square two: Chemistry. Chemistry can be placed in the second square with the Guardian. Chemistry is considered to be less difficult than physics, and thought to be easier to master. Chemistry is about relationships and reactions between particulars. Similarly Guardians are very involved in family and relationships. Both are concerned with orderliness, and closely follow laws. This characteristic corresponds to Wilbur's culture quadrant. The second square is always associated wihth realtionships.
*Square three: Biology. Biology and the Artisan belong in the third square. The third square is always the most physical, and focuses on doing. Biology is about the physical organisms that move and act. Biology is not considered to be as difficult, requiring less intelligence than do the first two fields. This corresponds to Wilbur's body quadrant. The third square is always related to the physical.
*Square four: Psychology. Psychology, the fourth square, does not seem to belong with the other three sciences. But it does encompass them, which is the nature of the fourth square. Psychology is the Rational, and is concerned with contemplation and knowledge. Psychology studies the brain and mind. Like the Rational it is very concerned with the mental, thereby corresponding to Wilbur's social/society quadrant. Psychology studies social interaction. It is important to note that physicists think that the mind actually may manifest physical reality, as do quantum physicists. As such psychology is essential to an understanding the physical nature of reality. Understanding psychology may lead to a better understanding of reality. Psychology is also influenced by chemistry; medical research suggests that the brain is influenced by neurotransmitters, which are chemicals in the brain, and hormones, which are chemicals in the body. Biologists need to understand psychology because the brain and the mind control organisms. The forth square always encompasses the previous squares while transcending them.
*Square five: Sociology. There may be a fifth field, the science of sociology. The fourth always incorporates the previous three, while pointing to what follows. Psychology encompasses physics, chemistry, and biology, and it points to sociology, which is the study of psychology in groups.

The four personality types relate to the four fields of inquiry, which are Science, Religion, Art, and Philosophy.
*Square one: Science. Science, like the Idealist, is abstract, concerned with belonging, and is somewhat weird, which is the nature of the first square. Philosophers of science, including Kuhn and Popper, point out that science likes to consider itself objective, but is very much shaped by authority. Scientists are tempted to see only what they are looking for. Science is sensation and perception. An example of this occurred in observations of photos of the pyramids that showed evidence of cavities within them. But nobody took note of that evidence. An architect looking at the photos, being aware of the capacity to build something from the inside out, was the first to realize those cavities were used to build the pyramids. 
Science, as well as the Idealist, is very much shaped by consensus and tradition. Boltzmann, a scientist, proposed that atoms were real things, and people thought he was crazy. Scientists are often afraid to shake up the status quo, tending instead to hold consensus-established views. He ended up committing suicide. Only after his death did the scientific community realize that he was right. This occurs often in science; often proposals are considered by fellow scientists to be crazy, only later to be proven valid. It is difficult to trust science because it is based on sensation and perception, which are limited and somewhat flawed.
Science is subjective, not objective. Its initial findings are shaped by prejudices. For a long time eugenics, the study of race, was very popular. But after world war II such studies became politically incorrect and taboo. Cultural norms shape science, which is very dependent on volunteer funding, so scientists are constantly trying to appeal to people and worrying about what others think. Science and Idealists, are very into helping, like fighting cancer, or saving the environment. Scientists are concerned with problems like the climate and asteroids, also examine weird stuff like aliens, often studying supernatural phenomena like astral projection. Science, like the Idealists, can be considered weird, often exploring beyond the boundaries of the normal, which some call “the spiritual”. Physics is actually mostly about the study of invisible forces, which evidences this “spiritual” quality. Fields like quantum mechanics are very weird, studying how thoughts affect reality. The first square is weird.
*Square two: Religion. Religion, like the Guardian is concerned with homeostasis, maintaining the status quo, and protecting order and stability. Religions provide laws and ways of living designed to create harmony. Religions are about belief, faith, behavior, and belonging (Quadrant 2). Religions often separate people along ethnic lines. For instance, in Europe different ethnic groups adopted different religions; northern Germany adopted protestantism, while southern Germany adopted catholicism. It can be argued that this separation was due to ethnic differences. In Asia different ethnic groups adopted alternate forms of Buddhism. In Arab lands different ethnic groups adopted alternate forms of Islam. So belonging is very tied into religion.
Religions tend to be very concerned with behavior--distinguishing right from wrong. Like the Guardian, religions are concerned with morality and maintaining order, a fundamental characteristic of the second square. Religion and art are often considered to be completely separate, however, being in the first two squares they form a duality, remaining interconnected. Science has always informed religion, and religion has always informed science. The big bang theory was proposed by a priest. Mendel, who discovered punnet square genetics, was a monk. Science also tries to explain religion. Scientists studying ancient astronaut possibilities try to explain the Bible and other holy texts as products of alien visitations to earth.
*Square three: Art. Art corresponds to the Artisan; it is about thinking, emotion, doing, and dreaming (Quadrant 3). Art includes painting, music, dance, and literature. Van Goh declared that he painted his dreams. Artists often claim that they express their emotions through their art. Music has been described as emotion in sound form. Art makes people think. It can be destructive by causing people to question their assumptions and the status quo, as it deals with subjects such as race and religion. The third square has the nature of being destructive. Like the Artisan, it can generate great discomfort; it can “show off” and engage in “having fun”. Art is at its best when spontaneous. Art can be used to support the status quo, but more often it shakes up the status quo.
*Square four: Philosophy. Philosophy keeps company with the Rational. The fourth square always engulfs the previous three squares; there is a philosophy of science, a philosophy of religion, and a philosophy of art. Philosophy is contemplation, passion, flowing, and knowing (Quadrant 4). Philosophy is the love of knowledge. Knowledge is the understanding of what exists beyond simple sensation and perception, preferring instead a very deep understanding. Philosophy deals with the study of knowledge, the study of being, and the study of concepts that are beyond the reach of rational comprehension. The forth square is associated with the transrational. Philosophy is viewed as not belonging with the other three fields of inquiry; the fourth is always different. Philosophers, like Rationals, are seen as having their heads in the clouds. Philosophy is interested in contemplating trans-rational qualities and realities, like the Good, Beauty, Truth, Love, and God.
It can be argued that there is a fifth field of inquiry history. But many say that history is a science. Science is the first square so it is the light. History would be the true light, so it is like a science, but also it is not in that it is not very empirical. History instead is shaped greatly by philosophy. Again, the fourth square, philosophy, points to the fifth, history.

One further example of this pattern of four in physical nature is displayed by biology in the domains of life. The first two domains are archaea and bacteria. Archaea is square one, bacteria is square two, forming the duality. Often they are called archaebacteria, and are, in effect, clumped together. The first two squares are always very similar and interconnected. But biologists point out the differences are greater than the differences between a cow and a blade of grass. The first two squares are very interlinked, but are also vastly different.
The differences reflect the variations in cell structure. Archaea and bacteria are both prokaryotes, meaning they both have no cell nucleus and no other membrane-bound organelles. Archaea and bacteria are the duality; they are similar in that both are prokaryotes, but are very different in structure.
The first square is always weird, with a loner quality to it, a sort of “weirdo” quality that wants to fit in, but cannot. Archaea are weird, living in extreme environments like thermal vents in the oceans. Archaea is the first square. Archaea corresponds to the thinking square of the personality model. Bacteria is the second square, expressing a property of homeostasis. Its function is in maintaining order, structure, and protection. The second square has a quality of being normal and fitting in, making sure things are clean and organized. Bacteria in the gut break down food, maintaining a state of homeostasis by transforming left-over food into disposable trash. Bacteria correspond to the emotion square in the personality model. They are homeostasis which is characteristic of the second square.
Eukaryotes are the third square. They are not prokaryotes like archaea and bacteria. The third is always different from the first two, and is always the most solid. Eukaryotes have cell nuclei and membrane-bound organelles. Therefore eukaryotes have a quality of being solid, and are different from the previous two domains of life, archaea and bacteria. Yet they possess elements of them. Eukaryotes include things like plants, fungi, animals, and protists; they are the doers, corresponding to the doing square in the personality model. Eukaryotes include animals, and Eukaryotes are associated with action. The third square is the most associated with action.
The fourth square is the virus. The fourth is always different while encompassing the previous three. Many biologists say that the virus is not a domain of life because viruses they claim are not living. Some biologists describe viruses as both living and dead, noting that if one were to ask if a virus is alive or dead, the answer would be, “yes”, because the nature of the virus is that it demands the questioning of whether it is alive or dead. The reason the virus is seen as dead is because it needs a host cell to survive; it cannot live without a host cell. Host cells include eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea. So the virus is separate but transcends and encapsulates the previous three domains. This is the quality characteristic of the quadrant model.
To reiterate, the pattern of the quadrant model includes initially a duality in which the two items are very similar, but also clearly distinct. The third is the most physical, followed by the fourth, which is very different, transcending and including the other three. The fourth square never seems to belong. The domains of life in biology are:
Square one: archaea; Square two: bacteria; Square three: eukaryotes; Square four: virus.

The quadrant pattern in physical nature also occurs in the orbitals in chemistry. There are probability densities where electrons can be found, namely the orbital shells. The first orbital shell is the S orbital, which occupies the first square. The second is the P orbital, and occupies the second square. The appearance is essentially of two spheres. The S and P orbitals are the duality. The third square is occupied by the D orbital. Think of the quadrant model as a holistic model with each orbital building upon the preceding orbital, as each square builds upon the previous squares. Each square has all elements of the last square, but contains new elements. The D orbital is the third square; the fourth is the F orbital.
The fourth builds upon the previous three. Yet it is very different. The fourth always seems not to belong with the other three, expressing a quality transcendence. In the periodic table of elements seen in every chemistry classroom, the S, P, and D orbital sections are together, but the F section is placed to the side, by itself. The nature of the Quadrant Model of Reality is revealed in the graphic representation of the periodic table. The fourth square is always quite different from the first three. But the F orbital does not exist without the other three. The fourth square is separate from, yet builds upon the first three squares.
The four orbitals in chemistry are:
Square one: S orbital; Square two: P orbital; Square three: D orbital; Square four: F orbital.

The quadrant pattern is clearly revealed in the four forces of nature in physics. The first square is the strong nuclear force. The second square is the weak nuclear force evidencing a duality; their names are even similar, both being nuclear forces. The first two are always similar. They are the duality. The third force is electromagnetism. The triad includes the strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force, and electromagnetism. The fourth is gravity, which is different from the previous three forces, yet it envelops them.
The strong force, the weak force, and electromagnetism can be combined easily with quantum mechanics. But the fourth force, gravity, can be explained only through general relativity. The fourth always transcends yet contains the first three, and the first three are always extremely interconnected. Einstein advocated that gravity exists due to the bending of space and time. He also observed that space and time are bent by matter--space and time bend due to mass. Mass is brought about through the interactions among the strong force, the weak force, and electromagnetism. Gravity does not exist without the first three forces. Gravity is separate from the first three, transcends them, and contains them.
Gravity does not seem to belong, like dreaming does not seem to belong with thinking, emoting, and doing. But gravity does not exist without the other three, as dreaming does not exist without thinking, emoting, and doing. Gravity is separate from the first three forces, yet it does not exist without them. Thus it simultaneously envelopes and emerges from them. The fourth square is intimately connected with the first three squares, yet it always has a different nature--the nature of the fourth square is transcendent.
The four forces of Nature are:
Square one: Strong nuclear force; Square two: Weak nuclear force; Square three: Electromagnetism; Square four: Gravity.