The Sonderkommando photographs are four blurred photographs taken secretly in August 1944 inside the Auschwitz concentration camp in Nazi-occupied Poland.[1] Along with a few photographs in the Auschwitz Album, they are the only ones known to exist of events around the gas chambers.

No. 282: Women being taken to the gas chamber

The Four Horsemen was a professional wrestling stable in the National Wrestling Alliance and later World Championship Wrestling. The original group consisted of Ric FlairArn AndersonOle Anderson, and Tully Blanchard. Flair and Arn Anderson have been constant members in each incarnation of the group except once following Anderson's neck injury, when Curt Hennig was given his spot in the Horsemen.

The original Four Horsemen were innovative in developing and popularizing the concept of heel stables. On the 2007 Four Horsemen DVDcommentator Jim Ross stated "without the Horsemen there would damn sure be no nWo or no DX".

Team Package[edit]

In 2000, former Horsemen Ric Flair and Lex Luger reunited as a heel tag team in WCW for the first time in over 12 years as Team Package after having feuded on and off during that time, managed by Elizabeth. They primarily feuded with Hulk Hogan and Sting. This team would only last until May, while Vince Russo was feuding with both of them. Flair and Luger would reunite one more time in early 2001, with Luger joining Flair's Magnificent Seven stable just months before WCW was purchased by the WWF.

X IS THE QUADRANT-The Xtreme Horsemen[edit]

The Xtreme Horsemen was a professional wrestling stable in Turnbuckle Championship Wrestling, and later Major League Wrestling, and also appeared across Japan, that disbanded in 2004. The groups name was in homage to the Four Horsemen, who in the 1980s were one of professional wrestling's top draws worldwide. The group came together in Dusty Rhodes' Turnbuckle Championship Wrestling promotion, but the group later left Rhodes' promotion to join Major League Wrestling where Steve Corino and "The Enforcer" C.W. Anderson were joined by former ECW superstars Justin Credible and Simon Diamond. This incarnation was briefly managed by former Four Horsemen manager J.J. Dillon before Major League Wrestling ceased operations. Barry Windham also joined the group for a War Games match for one time only.

At WXW-C4's Sportsfest 2009, Steve Corino reformed the Xtreme Horsemen in the form of Corino, NYWC's Papadon, WXW-C4's A.C. Anderson, and Corino's student Alex Anthony. They are managed by Corino's personal manager, Rob Dimension.

As of 2016, Corino and Anderson have retained the Extreme Horsemen faction and added independent wrestler John Skyler to the group.


Main article: Evolution

In 2003, rumors began circulating that Ric Flair (at the time working for the World Wrestling Entertainment) was going to reform the Four Horsemen with Triple HRandy Orton, and Batista. This group was eventually formed, but under the name Evolution instead of the Four Horsemen, and with Triple H as the leader instead of Flair. They served much the same function as the original heel Horsemen had, dominating the titles on Raw and feuding with that brand's top faces. The group slowly died between August 2004 and October 2005. Orton was kicked out of the group after he won the World Heavyweight Championship, which Triple H coveted. In February 2005, Batista left the group after winning the Royal Rumble, in a storyline where Triple H tried to protect his title from Batista. During a Triple H hiatus, Flair turned face, and at Raw Homecoming, Triple H returned as a face, but turned heel by the end of the night, hitting Flair in the face with a sledgehammer and officially ending Evolution. At Raw 15th Anniversary, an Evolution reunion as faces took place, though then-heel Randy Orton refused to participate and instead challenged the face versions of Flair, Batista, and Triple H to a match in which he partnered with then-heel, Edge and Umaga, and at the same time reforming Rated-RKO for one night. On the March 31, 2008 episode of Raw, Flair delivered his farewell address. Afterward, Triple H brought out many current and retired superstars to thank Flair for all he has done, including Four Horsemen members, Arn Anderson, Tully Blanchard, Barry Windham, J.J. Dillon, and Dean Malenko. Also, it was the night in which Evolution got back together in the ring, except for Randy Orton (who was outside the ring). This would mark the last time both groups would be in the ring together.

On the April 14, 2014 episode of Raw, Triple H, Orton, and Batista reunited Evolution full-time, once again heels, to feud with The Shield. However, on the April 28, 2014 episode of Raw, Flair showed his endorsement for The Shield, effectively turning his back on his old teammates, thus not turning heel.


Main article: Fortune

Fortune was a professional wrestling stable in Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, announced by Ric Flair on June 17, 2010 as a "reformed" version of the Four Horsemen. Flair had been loosely associated with A.J. StylesDesmond WolfeBeer Money, Inc. (James Storm and Robert Roode) and Kazarian since April 5, 2010, and announced that each of them and anyone else who wanted to join Fortune (originally spelled Fourtune) would have to earn their place in the stable.[9] On July 11 at Victory Road, Styles and Kazarian became the first official members of Fortune by defeating Samoa Joe and Rob Terry in a tag team match.[10] On the July 29 edition of Impact!, Flair announced that James Storm and Robert Roode had earned the right to become the final two members of Fortune.[11] However, on the August 12 edition of Impact! Douglas Williams, who had helped Flair defeat his nemesis Jay Lethal the previous week, and Matt Morgan were added to Fortune as the stable assaulted EV 2.0, a stable consisting of former Extreme Championship Wrestling performers.[12] Fortune had since merged with Hulk Hogan and Eric Bischoff's Immortal stable, but turned on them months later, splitting them into two feuding factions. Ric Flair would turn on Fortune and remain associated with Immortal.

The Four Horsewomen[edit]

The stable was invoked by mixed martial artists Ronda RouseyShayna BaszlerJessamyn Duke and Marina Shafir (Invicta Fighter), who named themselves "The Four Horsewomen" in 2013, with the blessing of Anderson and Flair.[13] After Bethe Correia defeated Duke, she held up four fingers and symbolically put one down. She did this again after beating Baszler. As Shafir is not in the UFC, these two wins set the stage for a bantamweight title fight between her and Rousey (the "Ric Flair of the Four Horsewomen") at UFC 190.[14] Rousey knocked Correia out in 34 seconds.[15]

The group was shown at ringside during WrestleMania 31, where Rousey was later involved in an in-ring segment with The RockTriple H and Stephanie McMahon.[16]

The NXT wrestlers Charlotte (Ric Flair's daughter), BayleyBecky Lynch and Sasha Banks have referred to themselves as "The Four Horsewomen", and posed in ring at NXT TakeOver: Brooklyn, following a match between Bayley and Banks, each with four fingers held up.[17]

Both Four Horsewomen groups were at the Mae Young Classic tapings on July 14, 2017, where Baszler defeated Zeda, Mia YimCandice LeRae and Mercedes Martinez to advance into the finals.



There are two positions for basic iron cross form. Neither is more correct than the other; simply choose the one that best reflects your individual strengths. If your shoulders are stronger than your lats, perform an iron cross by "rolling" your shoulders forward as you descend into position. If your lats are dominant, pull your shoulders back and contract the lats strongly while going into the cross.


The exception is if you're training to pull from a cross to a higher position (Maltese, planche, etc.) in which case the shoulder forward version will be necessary to allow you the leverage to complete the movement.


Shoulders rolled forward Shoulders rolled back



Regardless of which position you prefer, when performing an iron cross, it's important that you're able to just see your hands out of the corner of your eyes. Don't turn your head to check position, but rather use your peripheral vision. If you can't catch a glimpse of your hands, then they're too far back behind your shoulders. If you can see them clearly, they're too far forward of your shoulders.



Four Acts, Not Three

From Aristotle to McKee, stories have always been seen as having three movements, or Acts. How can there be anything more to a story than the Beginning, the Middle, and the End?

For the longest time, writers everywhere have struggled with the elusive traditional Second Act. They often know how they want to start things out, and they’ve usually got a great idea for a killer ending, but when it comes to all that stuff in the Middle, they can find themselves feeling a bit lost or confused. How do they keep the energy level up for such an extended period of time?

Syd Field made things easier with his recognition of the Midpoint, an event that happens directly in the middle of a screenplay. This discovery effectively divided the traditional Second Act into two parts and gave writers welcome relief from narrative exasperation. Blake Snyder reiterated as much in his Save the Cat! series, as did many other experts in story.

With the previously insurmountable traditional Second Act divided into two manageable chunks, writers everywhere rejoiced. They finally had a way of trudging through that first draft. But what most failed to see was that their new found ease of movement came more as a result of aligning their writing process with the natural structure of a complete story rather than simply breaking a larger piece into manageable chunks.

Rather, writing from the perspective of four movements is closer to what really goes on in the human mind when it attempts to solve a problem. If stories are about solving problems, it only follows that the words will flow effortlessly when brought into line with the natural process of problem-solving.

As mentioned previously, Sheriff Brody (Roy Scheider) has a personal issue with going into the water—he’s terrified of it. He spends a good portion of the story avoiding this fear, doing whatever he can to keep from facing it regardless of the problems it creates for him and those around him. The story, and the Plot Points that propel it forward, move Brody to a point where he can finally overcome that fear by having to face them head-on.

Driven by this fear, Brody takes several approaches to dealing with this problem externally. His approach changes with each Act Turn, as it should in response to the shifting dramatic tides going on within the story.

It should be noted that the following four stages of approach are NOT in every story, nor do they necessarily reflect accurately what Brody is dealing with personally. The four listed below are merely the different approaches one can take when determining how to deal with a man-eating shark. It is one way to look at the problem-solving process, however one complete way. The following sequence is simply provided as an example of the natural progression that comes when a writer begins to think in terms of four, rather than three.


Following the awful demise of Chrissie, Brody is forced into protection mode. In this First Act, he endeavors to safeguard the people of Amity from any further attacks. A character stuck in preservation mode won’t do anything more or less than what it would take to put things back the way they were, almost as if nothing had happened at all. This is reflected in his efforts to make warning signs and his desire to close the beaches.

Only problem is, Amity has a Mayor and several city fathers who would rather see their town thrive as it always has on the 4th of July.


Having failed to resolve the problem with protection, Brody tries doing nothing in the Second Act. Sure, he argues with the Mayor at the council meeting and at the dock with the captured tiger shark, but when it comes down to it, he spends most of this Act reamining relatively ineffectual. The Kitner kid gets it and Brody responds by getting drunk on wine.

This approach of inaction carries itself up to the apparent third “shark” attack, wherein Brody stands shoreline as dozens and dozens of panicked swimmers rush past him. He can’t step into the water, can’t help anyone and even when the real shark threatens his own son, all he can do is stand by and watch. He does nothing to further or hinder the progress of the problem.


The severed leg of the poor fisherman falls to the ocean floor and Brody has to change his approach yet again. No longer able to hide behind the guise of protecting, and no longer content with standing idly by at the water’s edge, Brody spends the majority of the Third Act reacting. This is different from preservation in that, when something negative happens, the reactive person attacks the source of the problems rather than try to bring things back to an equitable state regardless of source.

When Quint destroys the radio, Brody responds by yelling at him, challenging him to the point of being overreactive. If this had been the Brody of the First Act, he would have tried putting the radio back together. If instead this had been the Brody of the previous act, he wouldn’t have done a thing. But he didn’t because this is the Brody of the Third Act; there is no going back to previous Acts when it comes to character development and plot progression. The human mind doesn’t backtrack when solving problems, and neither should a story.

Brody moves into this Third Act focused on responding to the shark as his new approach. The reactive person attacks the source of the problem that attacks them, reacting to what has happened. There is no looking forward, and no anticipation.


The shark attacks the boat, chomps down on Quint, and suddenly Brody finds himself propelled into his Fourth and Final Act. Having tried every other approach one can when dealing with a killer shark, Brody is left with one final method: Proaction. This is different from Reaction in that a character won’t’t wait for something negative to happen first, instead they initiate the action. Sheriff Brody doesn’t wait for the shark to attack first, as Hooper did in the cage, or as Quint did trying to punch his way free of those massive teeth.

Instead, the man who was once afraid of water, grabs the gun, climbs the masthead and tells G.W. to flash those pearly whites.

The Completeness of Four Movements

It is a natural progression, when trying to determine how to effectively deal with a menacing shark, to move from a point of preservation to inaction to reaction, and finally, to proaction. Whether or not Brody’s final shot rang true or not, every tactical aspect of fighting a monster of the sea had been covered. A completely new story would have to be created to further deal with the problem if the menace had somehow survived. There was nowhere else Brody could have gone.

Plot points and the Acts they form are not devices designed to organize storytelling into 30-page increments. Instead, they help form the carrier wave for the message a writer hopes to impart on their audience. Thinking in terms of four Acts, rather than three, insures that the entire message will be delivered intact.

The problem with thinking of “the first half of Second Act” and “the second half of the Second Act” is that a writer is in essence saying both halves are dealing with the same thematic elements, both are parts of the same whole, when the truth is they’re not. They are separate, dramatic movements that should be treated as much.

All Acts are created equal in the eyes of a sophisticated writer.

Advanced Story Theory for this Article

Pretty much everything in Dramatica is divided up into fours. The Four Throughlines, the Four Domains, and yes, the Four Acts of each of those Throughlines. The model itself is based on Quad Theory—a super complicated mathematical relationship that many writers needn’t concern themselves with. Suffice it to say that every structural part of a story can be seen from four different contexts, and the model reflects that.

Those who look hard enough will find the quad of Preservation (now Protection), Inaction, Reaction and Proaction under the Issue of Strategy in the Physics Domain. This is NOT the OS Quad and certainly not Brody’s MC Quad. It is simply used as a point of reference for looking at Brody’s approach or tactics used when dealing with the shark. When it comes to a character trying to strategize how to deal with a monster, those four Problem elements cover everything.

In earlier versions of Dramatica these four elements were seen as part of the Action “Need” Quad, a concept that has now proven to be limited in its scope when it comes to understanding the meaning of a complete story. However, the above analysis can be seen as an example of the flexibility of the current model in appreciating any story, even one that is a tale, a short story or a very simple story as is the case with Jaws.

Take any quad of elements at the bottom of the Dramatica model and one can tell a relatively simple story that still feels somewhat complete. The trick is making sure that all four are represented with equal time and equal focus. In this way, the audience won’t feel short-changed or cheated. This will give the story the feeling of having covered “all the bases.”

The "Core Four" are the former New York Yankees baseballplayers Derek JeterAndy PettitteJorge Posada, and Mariano Rivera. All four players were drafted or originally signed as amateurs by the Yankees in the early 1990s. They played together in the minor leagues, and made their Yankee major league debuts in 1995. Each of them was a key contributor to the Yankees' late-1990s dynasty that won four World Serieschampionships in five years. By 2007, they were the only remaining Yankees from the franchise's dynasty of the previous decade. All four players were on the Yankees' active roster in 2009 when the team won the 2009 World Series—its fifth championship in the previous 14 years.

The Core Four in 2015. From left: Andy PettitteJorge PosadaMariano Rivera, and Derek Jeter.


In tennis, the term Big Four refers to the quartet of men's singles players comprising Roger FedererRafael NadalNovak Djokovic, and Andy Murray. These players are considered dominant in terms of ranking and tournament victories, including Grand Slam tournaments and ATP Masters 1000 events, as well as the ATP World Tour Finals and Olympic Games, having dominated the sport amongst them from 2004 onwards. Never before in the history of tennis has there been a group of players as dominant as these four.

Quad is a television play by Samuel Beckett, written and first produced and broadcast in 1981. It first appeared in print in 1984 (Faber and Faber) where the work is described as "[a] piece for four players, light and percussion"[1] and has also been called a "ballet for four people.

It consists of four actors dressed in robes, hunched and silently walking around and diagonally across a square stage in fixed patterns, alternately entering and exiting. Each actor wears a distinct colored robe (white, red, blue, yellow), and is accompanied by a distinct percussion instrument (leitmotif). The actors walk in sync (except when entering or exiting), always on one of four rotationally symmetric paths (e.g., when one actor is at a corner, so are all others; when one actor crosses the stage, all do so together, etc.), and never touch – when walking around the stage, they move in the same direction, while when crossing the stage diagonally, where they would touch in the middle, they avoid the center area (walking around it, always clockwise or always anti-clockwise, depending on the production).[3] In the original production, the play was first performed once, and then, after a pause, an abbreviated version is performed a second time, this time in black and white and without musical accompaniment. These are distinguished as Quad I and Quad II, though Quad II does not appear in print.



The Pythagoreans, said Nicomachus, call the number four " the

greatest miracle," " a God after another manner," " a manifold divinity,"

the " fountain of Nature," and its " key bearer." It is the " introducer

and cause of the permanency of the Mathematical discipline." It is

"most masculine" and "robust;" it is Hercules, and ^olus. It is

Mercury, Vulcan and Bacchus. Among the Muses, Urania. They also

called it Feminine, effective of Virility, and an Exciter of Bacchic fury.

In harmony it was said to form by the quadruple ratio, the symphony

disdiapason. They called it Justice, as the first evenly even number.


As a type of Deity, we all know of the famous Hebrew title Tetra-

grammaton or unpronounceable name Jehovah I HVH : this name was

disclosed by the Kabbalistic Rabbis as a blind to the populace, and to

hide their secret tenets.


Almost all the peoples of Antiquity possessed a name for Deity

consisting of four letters, and many of them considered 4 to be a Divine

number, thus : —


Hebrew Yehovah IHVH, and IHIH called Eheie, and AHIH called



Assyrian ADAD. German GOTT.


Egyptian AMUN. French DIEU.


Persians SYRE or SIRE, Turkish ESAR.


Greek ThEOS, Tartar ITGA.


Latin DEUS, Arabian ALLH, Allah.


Samarian J ABE see Theodoret.


Egyptian TEUT, TAUT, THOTh.


In Sanchoniathon we find the Deity called lEVO.


In Clemens Alexandrinus „ „ „ JAOU.


The Tetractys says, Theo of Smyrna in the edition of Ismael Bullialdo

1644, page 147, was not only principally honoured b>' the Pythagoreans

because all symphonies exist within it, but also because it appears to

contain the nature of all things, hence their oath " Not by him who

delivered to our souls the Tetractys " (that is Pythagoras) this tetractys

is seen in the composition of the first numbers i. 2. 3. 4.


But the 2nd Tetractys arises from the increase by MULTIPLICATION

of odd and even numbers beginning from the Monad.


The 3rd subsists according to Magnitude.


The 4th is in simple Bodies, Monad-Fire, Duad-Air, Triad-Water





C 23 )


The 5th is of the figures of Bodies, Pyramid-Fire, Octahedron-Air,

Icosahedron-Water, Cube-Earth.


The 6th of Vegetative Life, Seed-Monad or point ; if it increase in

length — duad-ling ; in breadth — triad-superficies ; in thickness — tetrad-



The 7th is of Communities ; as Man, House, Street, City.


The 8th is the Judicial power. Intellect, Science, Opinion, Sense.


The 9th is of the parts of the Animal, the Rational, Irascible and

Epithymetic soul, and the Body they live in.


The loth Tetractys is of the Seasons of the Year, spring, summer,

autumn, winter.


The nth Tetractys is of the Ages of Man, the infant, the lad, the

man, and the senex.


The various Indo-European branches had a shared linguistic and cultural origin in prehistory, and this book sets out to overcome the difficulties about understanding the gods who were inherited by the later literate cultures from this early silent period by modelling the kind of society where the gods could have come into existence. It presents the theory that there were ten gods, who are conceived of as reflecting the actual human organization of the originating time. There are clues in the surviving written records which reveal a society that had its basis in the three concepts of the sacred, physical force, and fertility (as argued earlier by the French scholar, Georges Dumezil). These concepts are now seen as corresponding to the old men, young men, and mature men of an age-grade system, and each of the three concepts and life stages is seen to relate to an old and a young god. In addition to these six gods, and to two kings who relate in positive and negative ways to the totality, there is a primal goddess who has a daughter as well as sons. The gods, like the humans of the posited prehistorice society, are seen as forming a four-generation set originating in an ancestress, and the theogony is explored through stories found in the Germanic, Celtic, Indian, and Greek contexts. The sources are often familiar ones, such as the Edda, the Mabinogi, Hesiod's Theogony, and the Ramayana, but selected components are looked at from a fresh angle and, taken together with less familiar and sometimes fragmentary materials, yield fresh perspectives which allow us to place the Indo-European cosmology as one of the world's indigenous religions. We can also gain a much livelier sense of the original culture of Europe before it was overlaid by influences from the Near East in the period of literacy. The gods themselves continue to exert their fascination, and are shown to reflect a balance between the genders, between the living and the ancestors, and between peaceful and warlike aspects expressed at the human level in alternate succession to the kingship.


A narrative of the succession of three generations of kings from a

primal goddess is one way — and a most important way — of expressing the

Indo-European cosmogony. The birth of the final king in the succession,

and the completion of the first phase of the creation of the cosmos, are one

event. In the Celtic pantheon discussed in Chapter 6, there is a first king,

Nuada, whose consort is the primal goddess figure, Boand; there is a

second king, Nuada's successor, Bres; and the third king who succeeds

Bres is the centrally important figure of Lug in the next generation (Mac

Cana 1983, 58; MacKillop 2005, 137-44). In terms of Greek myth, the

four generations are those of (1) Gaia, (2) her son Uranus, (3) their son

Cronus, and (4) Cronus's son Zeus. The structure elicited here is in

keeping with the idea that the creation of the world through the emergence of the gods is not only a theogony but a "cratogony", as Jan Assmann has called the creation sequence in the Egyptian context (2008, 61): that is to say that it is a power structure legitimizing kingship. The claim being made here is that the structure of the proposed four-generation pantheon is the charter for a system by which the king was selected from alternate halves of the society in each generation. The four-generation capsule I have called the Indo-European block of four generations a "capsule" to emphasize its isolation as a separate entity. This block is quite evident in several contexts, including Greece. 

The relationships in the model are illustrated in Figure 4-1. The king (ego) is a young adult. In the previous generation are his father (F) and the mother's brother (MB) who was king before him. In the generation before that is his father's father (FF) who was the king before his mother's brother. The king and his grandfather belong to one line (say, white) while his mother's brother belongs to the other line (say, red). The key people in this group are the king (ego), his father (F), his mother's brother (MB), his father's father (FF) and his mother's mother's mother (MMM). There are four key people in the generations before the king. 44 Chapter Four If there were bilateral cross-cousin marriage, the king's wife (W) would be his mother's brother's daughter, and would ideally be a daughter of his predecessor in the kingship. Figure 4-1 presents the four-generation block with the descent and marriage connections of sixteen people, seven of whom correspond to gods. These are the six already discussed, and in addition a brother of the queen who carries the line of succession, as discussed below. The two matrilines are those of the ancestress (MMM/FFM) and the queen (W) and the two patrilines are those that supply the white king and the red king. It should be remembered that what is represented in the figure is simply a four-generation segment of a continuous process. Whichever generation is in power, the ancestress is three generations before it. The only difference is that there may be either a white or a red king and an adjustment has to be made when moving from one to the other. Since this is a matrilineal system, the line of succession is the same as the same-gender line of descent from parent to child for the women: each queen is a daughter of the former queen, and each mother of a king is a daughter of the previous king's mother. For the men, the line of succession differs from the same-gender line of descent from parent to child. Each man succeeds not his father, but his mother's brother. In the case of the kings, it is important to take account both of succession from the mother's brother within the king matrilineage (which transmits eligibility to kingship), and of succession from the father's father within the patriline (which transmits the white or red attributes of the reign). The members of the line of male royal succession are either white or red, and, in functional terms, are alternately first- function and second-function figures. The members of the line of male latent succession (the fathers of kings) are third-function figures. The current successor in the latent line is a brother of the queen who is the husband of the king's sister (WB/ZH). He will be the father of the next king. The queen's divine counterpart, the sun goddess, has twin brothers (the Dioskouroi), who are respectively second-function and third-function figures (see below). The queen's brother who carries the royal succession corresponds to the third-function twin relating to fertility, and she has another brother (WB) who wins fame in battle and corresponds to the second- function twin. The queen and her two brothers relate to three of the four young gods who are the counterparts of the four old gods of the cosmic levels, and a brother of the king (B) is taken to be the fourth member of the set, who relates to the first-function young god.





The song remains popular and is played at many sporting events in the U.S. and Europe, with crowds using the dance in which the arms are used to spell out the four letters of the song's title as an opportunity to stretch. Moreover, the song also remains particularly popular due to its status as a disco classic. "Y.M.C.A." appeared as Space Shuttle Wakeup call on mission STS-106, on day 11.

  • The 1993 comedy film Wayne's World 2 features a scene where Wayne, Garth, and two of their show's colleagues (while running away from the main antagonist) accidentally go into a gay club; since they are dressed in different clothing (power line worker, policeman, sailor, and roadie respectively), the DJ puts on the song and the four perform the dance.

  • On March 2, 2013, during the opening monologue on Saturday Night Live, Jay Pharoah parodied President Barack Obama giving a press conference about the recent budget cuts in Congress, saying that there were going to be cuts on the military, social service workers, federal construction projects, and Native American funding. The representatives of each of the four Village People characters did the arm dance in order after Pharaoh recited the appropriate verse of the song.[69]

Ibn 'Arabl finally arrives at the book’s central image of revelation: a Tree with four birds in its branches. Our author will converse with each of them.

There, in a garden at the farthest boundary of the cosmos, he hears the discourse of a Tree and four Birds, whose charming tales and flowery speech mask the fact that they are none other than the awesome images of the Perfect Pluman Being and his four cosmic faculties: the First Intellect, the Universal Soul, Prime Matter, and Universal Body. Never before have these abstruse philosophical concepts been described in such an elliptical and suggestive way.

Thus a ternary structure consisting of right-hand branch, left-hand branch, and central axis can be imagined. When leaves, symboliz- ing the myriad and ever-renewed forms of creation, are generated, a fourth element results, and a circle, encompassing this cruciform structure, comes into view. Quaternity embraces such notions as the four elements: fire, air, water, and earth, and four temperaments: hot, cold, dry, and wet - the basic building blocks and qualities of the embodied world. In our treatise, in keeping with this quaternity, Ibn 'Arab! has placed four birds among the branches, representing the four-fold structure of the cosmos.

As Ibn 'Arabl explains elsewhere, the four spiritual beings: Intellect, Soul, Prime Matter, and Body, repre- sented here by the four birds, in one sense occupy one rank.

The Universal Tree and the Four Birds, one of Ibn 'Arabi’s early works, is a dazzling blend of poetry and rhymed prose, encompassing a number of themes that were of perennial concern to the Shaykh al-Akbar. Based on the mystical framework of the ascent, the stages of the journey to union with the Real are described in an intriguingly enigmatic way. Beginning with a dizzying series of poems that explain the existential fluctuation of the human heart, the narrator goes on to describe his meeting with his Essential Self in a place outside of space and time. He then finds himself in a garden with the Universal Tree and four delightful birds: an Eagle, a Ringdove, a fabulous Anqa’, and a Jet-Black Crow. Each in turn regales the author with a tale of its origins and essential characteristics, but only at the end are their true natures revealed.

The Swastika represents the Heart of the Buddha Shakyamuni, resignation of spirit, all happiness that humanity desires, mind, infinity, all, many, 10,000.


Blue Swastika stands for infinite celestial virtues.

Red Swastika stands for infinite sacred virtues of the Heart of Buddha.

Yellow Swastika stands for infinite prosperity.

Green Swastika stands for infinite virtues of agriculture.


America's Four Gods: What We Say about God-- & what that Says about Us is a book published in 2010 by Baylor University professors Paul Froese and Christopher Bader.[1] The book was based on a 2005 survey of religious views and reports that Americans conception of God fall into four different classes.[2] Further, they report, American's views on political, moral and scientific issues are usually tied to their conception of God.[3]


The four different conceptions of God described in the book are the authoritative God, the benevolent God, the critical God and the distant God.[4]


Individuals who conceive of an authoritative God and a benevolent God both see God as taking an interventionist role in believers lives. They differ, however, in how they see God intervening.[4] Those who conceive of an authoritative God imagine God intervenes to punish those who lapse from his rules, and are likely to be white males. Those who conceive of a benevolent God imagine God intervenes to rescue and present alternatives, and are likely to be female.


Individuals who conceive of a critical God imagine he does not intervene in individuals lives, but will judge them in an afterlife. Statistically black Americans are more likely to hold this conception.[4]


Those who believe in a distant God imagine that God set the entire Universe in motion, but has no engagement with humanity at all.[4] Americans who hold this conception are statistically likely to have completed more years of education than those in the other three groups.


Father Patrick J. Howell, a Jesuit writing in The Seattle Times, noted that the four conceptions of God where represented by followers of Judaism, Buddhism, Catholicism, Protestantism and Islam.[1] Howell wrote:


Some would have us believe, Froese and Bader argue, that American society is engaged in a titanic struggle between "true believers" and the "godless." But the two authors note that only 5 percent are atheists, and they identify four, mostly contradictory, views of God as the source for the intractable social and political divisions among Americans.


François Bernier's New division of Earth by the different species or races which inhabit it" (1684)The first comprehensive classification of humans into distinct racesis believed to be François Bernier's Nouvelle division de la terre par les différents espèces ou races qui l'habitent("New division of Earth by the different speciesor races which inhabit it"), published in 1684(Gossett, 1997:32-33). Bernier distinguished four "races":This map shows the racial classification scheme ofFrançois Bernier.[1].1.European, North African, Middle Eastern, South Asian and Native American race2.East Asian, Southeast Asian, and Central Asian race3.Sub-Saharan African race4.Lapp raceBernier's race classification had a political message. At the time, races were distinguished by skin color, facial type, cranial profile and amount, texture and color of hair (see scientific racism). Though many experts declare these to have little relationship with any other heritable characteristics, they remain persuasive due to the ease of distinction based on physical appearance. One term for this now-discredited form of classification is the typological model.Because of interracial breeding, such classification is weak in that it is difficult to classify some borderline individuals.


Returning to Pasadena in search of Elaine, Benjamin breaks into the Robinson home but encounters Mrs. Robinson. She tells him he will not be able to stop the wedding and then calls the police claiming that her house is being burgled. Benjamin visits Carl’s fraternity brothers who tell him that the wedding is in Santa Barbara, Californiathat very morning. He rushes to the church and arrives just as Elaine is married. He bangs on the glass at the back of the church and screams out "Elaine!" repeatedly. After a brief hesitation, Elaine screams out "Ben!" and starts to run toward him. A brawl ensues as guests try to stop Elaine and Benjamin from leaving together. Elaine manages to break free from her mother, who then slaps her. Benjamin manages to keep the guests at bay by using a large cross and jamming it into the doors of the church. Both he and Elaine then run into the street to flag down a passing bus and take the back seat. Although initially elated at their victory, the pair become increasingly uncomfortable as they journey towards an uncertain future.


Pollock's famous "War" is the only drawing he ever titled, and, although inscribed "1947," it relates to the iconographically complex images he produced earlier, around 1943–44. In this composition, the monstrous destruction of war is conveyed both by the fierceness of the graphic execution and by the imagery, much of which is camouflaged by the many linear motions, darkened and thickened and highlighted with flashes of red and yellow pencil to heighten the dramatic intensity. The drawing's narrative is one of horrific proportions. A human figure and a bull are flung onto a raging pyre of human debris. To the right, the crucifixion of a hooded figure is suggested. Some of the imagery may be traced to Picasso's pair of etchings "The Dream and Lie of Franco," and to the Spanish artist's epic painting on war, "Guernica," both from 1937. Yet even as Pollock's work engages with the history of art and offers a statement on the universal horrors of war, it also has a personal dimension, drawing on from the psychological language of Surrealism that fueled his early works.



‘Shipmates, this book, containing only four chapters—four yarns—is one of the smallest strands in the mighty cable of the Scriptures. Yet what depths of the soul does Jonah’s deep sea-line sound! what a pregnant lesson to us is this prophet! What a noble thing is that canticle in the fish’s belly! How billow-like and boisterously grand! We feel the floods surging over us; we sound with him to the kelpy bottom of the waters; sea-weed and all the slime of the sea is about us! But what is this lesson that the book of Jonah teaches? Shipmates, it is a two-stranded lesson; a lesson to us all as sinful men, and a lesson to me as a pilot of the living God. As sinful men, it is a lesson to us all, because it is a story of the sin, hard-heartedness, suddenly awakened fears, the swift punishment, repentance, prayers, and finally the deliverance and joy of Jonah. As with all sinners among men, the sin of this son of Amittai was in his wilful disobedience of the command of God—never mind now what that command was, or how conveyed—which he found a hard command. But all the things that God would have us do are hard for us to do—remember that—and hence, he oftener commands us than endeavours to persuade. And if we obey God, we must disobey ourselves; and it is in this disobeying ourselves, wherein the hardness of obeying God consists.


Mitrocoma cellularia (A. Agassiz, 1865) : Cross Jelly

Phylum Cnidaria / Class Hydrozoa / Order Leptomedusae / Family Mitrocomidae




The cross jelly is among the more common hydromedusae to appear in the waters of Monterey Bay and other West Coast locations. Typical of members of this group, the bell is transparent, thus making it difficult to see without careful observation. The margin of the bell (diameter up to 90 mm) is lined with several hundred fine, white tentacles. The most conspicuous part of this jelly are the 4 radial canals to which are attached the white gonads. They form the relatively conspicuous “cross” that gives the common name to this species. The small stomach has 4 frilly lips. A strong bioluminescence is produced around the bell margin. Fall and winter months are the best times to find Mitrocoma in Monterey Bay. At times they may form large aggregations that are easily visible from the surface. The third photo shows a swarm that has invaded near-surface waters of a kelp forest at Point Lobos in central California. Cross jellies are found in nearshore waters from Alaska to central California.


Recent research has shown that cross jellies can actually detect chemicals in the water – they respond with changes in swimming behavior and extensions of tentacles when presented with traces of blended food. This may be implicated in their tendency to form large aggregations since they may be able to detect concentrations of prey. Other species presumably have similar chemical sensing abilities.


The Berenstain Bears Show is an animated comedy television series based on Stan and Jan Berenstain's Berenstain Bears children's book series, produced by Southern Star Productions and Hanna-Barbera Australia.



The series tells the story of a bear family that lives in a tree, the bears are just like humans. The family consists of Mama Bear, Papa Bear, Brother Bear, and Sister Bear


The main shot from the opening, showing all four main characters.



The game board is surrounded by four mechanical, colorful, plastic hippopotamuses operated by levers on their backs. When the lever is pressed, the hippo opens its mouth and extends its head forwards on a telescopic neck. When the lever is released, the head comes down and retracts. Colored plastic marbles are dispensed into the board by each player, and the players repeatedly press the lever on their hippo in order to have it "eat" the marbles, which travel down from under the hippo into a small scoring area for each player. Once all marbles have been captured, the player who has collected the most is the winner.


There were four hippos in the original version of the game: Lizzie Hippo (purple), Henry Hippo (orange), Homer Hippo (green), and Harry Hippo (yellow). A later edition of the game replaces the purple hippo, Lizzie, with a pink one named Happy. Although this passage states there was a purple Hippo named Lizzie, games that are stamped with a 1978 copyright have a Pink Hippo named Happy. In some versions of Hungry Hungry Hippos, Henry is replaced by a blue hippo of the same name. The fall 2009 North American edition of the game has a lighter blue base with pastel colored versions of the Hippos: Sweetie Potamus (blue), Bottomless Potamus (yellow), Veggie Potamus (green), and Picky Potamus (orange).


"The Incom T-65 X-wing is the fighter that killed the Death Star. An almost perfect balance of speed, maneuverability, and defensive shielding make it the fighter of choice for Rogue Squadron."

―General Carlist Rieekan[src]

Wonder Woman Arms Crossed on Yellow Star & Red Background Button / Pin


When Diana won the Contest to become Wonder Woman, she was given a pair of magical silver bracelets. The bracelets were later explained as having been forged from the remnants of the Aegis, a shield made from the indestructible hide of the great she-goat, Amalthea, who suckled Zeus as an infant. When crossed before her, the bracelets are able to generate a remnant of the Aegis, allowing Diana to deflect attacks far larger than the surface area of her bracelets. This remnant takes the form of a semi-visible spherical forcefield roughly twice the height of Diana.



The four major classes of medusozoan Cnidaria are:

Scyphozoa are sometimes called true jellyfish, though they are no more truly jellyfish than the others listed here. They have tetra-radial symmetry. Most have tentacles around the outer margin of the bowl-shaped bell, and long, oral arms around the mouth in the center of the subumbrella.

Cubozoa (box jellyfish) have a (rounded) box-shaped bell, and their velarium assists them to swim more quickly. Box jellyfish may be related more closely to scyphozoan jellyfish than either are to the Hydrozoa.[39]

Hydrozoa medusae also have tetra-radial symmetry, nearly always have a velum attached just inside the bell margin, do not have oral arms, but a much smaller central manubrium with terminal mouth opening, and are distinguished by the absence of cells in the mesoglea. The majority of hydrozoan species maintain the polyp form for their entire life cycle and do not form medusa at all (such as Hydra, which is hence not considered a jellyfish).

Staurozoa (stalked jellyfish) are characterized by a medusa form that is generally sessile, oriented upside down and with a stalk emerging from the apex of the "calyx" (bell), which attaches to the substrate. Some Staurozoa (all? – it is not known yet) also have a polyp form that alternates with the medusoid portion of the life cycle. Until recently, Staurozoa were classified within the Scyphozoa.


Anteater is a common name for the four extant mammal species of the suborder Vermilingua[1] (meaning "worm tongue") commonly known for eating ants and termites.[2] The individual species have other names in English and other languages. Together with the sloths, they are within the order Pilosa. The name "anteater" is also colloquially applied to the unrelated aardvark, numbat, echidnas, pangolins and some members of the Oecobiidae.


Socrates and his companions Adeimantus and Glaucon conclude their discussion concerning education. Socrates breaks the educational system into two. They suggest that guardians should be educated in these four virtues: wisdom, courage, justice and temperance. They also suggest that the second part of the guardians' education should be in gymnastics. With physical training they will be able to live without needing frequent medical attention: physical training will help prevent illness and weakness. In summary, Socrates asserts that both male and female guardians be given the same education, that all wives and children be shared, and that ownership of private property ought to be prohibited amongst them.


Socrates discusses four unjust constitutions: timocracy, oligarchy, democracy, and tyranny. He argues that a society will decay and pass through each government in succession, eventually becoming a tyranny, the most unjust regime of all.


The starting point is an imagined, alternate Aristocracy (ruled by a philosopher-king); a just government dominated by the wisdom-loving element. When its social structure breaks down and enters civil war, it is replaced by Timocracy. The Timocratic government is dominated by the spirited element, with a ruling class of property-owners consisting of warriors or generals (Ancient Sparta is an example). As the emphasis on honor is compromised by wealth accumulation, it is replaced by Oligarchy. The Oligarchic government is dominated by the desiring element, in which the rich are the ruling class. The gap between rich and poor widens, culminating in a revolt by the underclass majority, establishing a Democracy. Democracy emphasizes maximum freedom, so power is distributed evenly. It is also dominated by the desiring element, but in an undisciplined, unrestrained way. The populism of the Democratic government leads to mob rule, fueled by fear of oligarchy, which a clever demagogue can exploit to take power and establish Tyranny. In a Tyrannical government, the city is enslaved to the tyrant, who uses his guards to remove the best social elements and individuals from the city to retain power (since they pose a threat), while leaving the worst. He will also provoke warfare to consolidate his position as leader. In this way, tyranny is the most unjust regime of all.


Leo Strauss identified a four-part structure to the Republic,[citation needed] perceiving the dialogues as a drama enacted by particular characters, each with a particular perspective and level of intellect:


Book I: Socrates is forcefully compelled to the house of Cephalus. Three definitions of justice are presented, all are found lacking.

Books II–V: Glaucon and Adeimantus challenge Socrates to prove: Why a perfectly just man, perceived by the world as an unjust man, would be happier than the perfectly unjust man who hides his injustice and is perceived by the world as a just man? Their challenge begins and propels the dialogues; in answering the challenge, of the "charge", Socrates reveals his behavior with the young men of Athens, whom he later was convicted of corrupting. Because Glaucon and Adeimantus presume a definition of "Justice", Socrates digresses; he compels the group's attempt to discover justice, and then answers the question posed to him about the intrinsic value of the just life.

Books V–VI: The "Just City in Speech" is built from the earlier books, and concerns three critiques of the city. Leo Strauss reported that his student Allan Bloom identified them as: communism, communism of wives and children, and the rule of philosophers. The "Just City in Speech" stands or falls by these complications.

Books VII–X: Socrates has "escaped" his captors, having momentarily convinced them that the just man is the happy man, by reinforcing their prejudices. He presents a rationale for political decay, and concludes by recounting The Myth of Er ("everyman"), consolation for non-philosophers who fear death.[citation needed]


While Plato spends much of the Republic having Socrates narrate a conversation about the city he founds with Glaucon and Adeimantus "in speech", the discussion eventually turns to considering four regimes that exist in reality and tend to degrade successively into each other: timocracy, oligarchy (also called plutocracy), democracy and tyranny (also called despotism).




Socrates defines a timocracy as a government of people who love rule and honor. Socrates argues that the timocracy emerges from aristocracy due to a civil war breaking out among the ruling class and the majority. Over time, many more births will occur to people who lack aristocratic, guardian qualities, slowly drawing the populace away from knowledge, music, poetry and "guardian education", toward money-making and the acquisition of possessions. This civil war between those who value wisdom and those who value material acquisition will be in struggle until a just medium is compromised. The timocracy values war insofar as it satisfies a love of victory and honor. The timocratic man loves physical training, and hunting, and values his abilities in warfare.




Temptations create a confusion between economic status and honor which is responsible for the emergence of oligarchy. In Book VIII, Socrates suggests that wealth will not help a pilot to navigate his ship, as his concerns will be directed centrally toward increasing his wealth by whatever means, rather than seeking out wisdom or honor. The injustice of economic disparity divides the rich and the poor, thus creating an environment for criminals and beggars to emerge. The rich are constantly plotting against the poor and vice versa. The oligarchic constitution is based on property assessment and wealth qualification. Unlike the timocracy, oligarchs are also unable to fight war, since they do not wish to arm the majority for fear of their rising up against them (even more so fearing the majority than their enemies), nor do they seem to pay mercenaries, since they are reluctant to spend money.




As this socioeconomic divide grows, so do tensions between social classes. From the conflicts arising out of such tensions, the poor majority overthrow the wealthy minority, and democracy replaces the oligarchy preceding it. The poor overthrow the oligarchs and grant liberties and freedoms to citizens, creating a most variegated collection of peoples under a "supermarket" of constitutions. A visually appealing demagogue is soon lifted up to protect the interests of the lower class. However, with too much freedom, no requirements for anyone to rule, and having no interest in assessing the background of their rulers (other than honoring such people because they wish the majority well) the people become easily persuaded by such a demagogue's appeal to try and satisfy people's common, base, and unnecessary pleasures.




The excessive freedoms granted to the citizens of a democracy ultimately leads to a tyranny, the furthest regressed type of government. These freedoms divide the people into three socioeconomic classes: the dominating class, the elites and the commoners. Tensions between the dominating class and the elites cause the commoners to seek out protection of their democratic liberties. They invest all their power in their democratic demagogue, who, in turn, becomes corrupted by the power and becomes a tyrant with a small entourage of his supporters for protection and absolute control of his people.

Humans are said to be made in the image and likeness of God. Humans in most aspects, reflect the quadrant model pattern. Human beings are “Re-presentations” of the Quadrant Model of Reality—the Real and intangible Form of Existence presented in discernible form. 
One example is found in the four types of human tissue.
*Square one: Epithelial tissue, which protects the body from moisture loss bacterial attacks, and internal injury. The nature of the first square is it is conservative and protective.
*Square two: Connective tissue, the provider of support for the body and its structure. That is the nature of the second square, which is always concerned with homeostasis, order, and structure. It is also conservative.
*Square three: Muscular tissue is the doer; the third square is always the solid, physical doer.

*Square four: Nervous tissue. This is the rational temperament tissue. Nervous tissue is in the brain where intelligence is located and processed.

Also the animals fit the quadrant model pattern. Square 1 is the fish. Square 2 is amphibians. Amphibians represent homeostasis. Amphibians like frogs can show whether an environment is polluted or not by if they are dieing in it. Also they eat insects which is homeostasis. They do not move around too much. The second square is more conservative. The third square is reptiles. Reptiles are more solid/physical and more bad. Reptiles are more dangerous. The dinosaurs were very dangerous. Also reptiles are more solitary. For instance lizards don’t really hang out in packs but are often found by themselves. The third square is more the individual. The fourth square is mammals. Mammals kind of transcend the previous three and mammals are social. The fourth square is social. The fifth square is birds. The fifth square is the most transcendent. Also the fifth square is social in that it is the first square of the second quadrant. The second quadrant is culture. Birds are often social in that they fly in v formations. The sixth square is insects. Insects are the most cultural. They are extremely social. Insects are the sixth square, which is the second square of the second quadrant. The second square of the second quadrant is the most cultural, because it is the cultural of the cultural. The seventh square is spiders. Spiders are the third square of the second quadrant so they are more bad and more solitary. But spiders are nonetheless in the second quadrant so they do represent homeostasis. Spiders do make becautiful webs and eat insects, creating homeostasis.

In biology there is a concept called tropic levels. There are four tropic levels with an occasional fifth, the existence of which is always questionable. It does not matter the number of things; what matters is the pattern in which they emerge. A tropic level is an organisms position on the food chain. The tropic levels are,
*Square one: tropic level 1 are primary producers including plants that perform photosynthesis and archaea that perform chemosynthesis. In a scenario reminiscent of the Idealist, these creatures do not eat other living things; instead they gain energy from chemicals. It is interesting that Idealists are often vegetarians, and are very aware and concerned with other creatures. Idealists are sensitive, perceptive, and responsible, thinking that they are helping other people and other creatures by being vegetarians. Idealists think that they are helping other people because they recognize the concept of tropic levels. Plants carry high levels of energy. Only ten percent of the energy from the previous tropic level is retained, thus energy is saved by being vegetarian. Certain nutritional elements however, are more accessible from animals. Idealists can come up with strange notions of being breatharians, eating no meat or plants, while accessing energy exclusively from the air. Plants can be called breatharians.
*Square two: tropic level 2, the herbivore known as primary consumers; they, like the Guardian, fit the second square description. Both are not very physical or violent. The second square is not yet the third square, which is the physical and violent square. Plants are living, suggesting (as do the breatharians) that eating plants is somewhat violent.
*Square three: the third tropic level is the predator, called a secondary consumer. Predators are violent. Like the artisans, predators are doers. They work hard, running and sprinting in search of their food, which is often the herbivore.
*Square four: Carnivores; they eat other carnivores, and are called tertiary consumers. This tends to be a dangerous endeavor. The fourth square includes destruction and death. Carnivores often die while doing what is required for their survival.
*Square five: apex predators. The fifth level is the God level. These are carnivores that have no predators; in this they are in a transcending domain. They include crocodiles and lions. Crocodiles and lions are sometimes associated with God. The food chain does not go beyond this level.


The feeding positions in a food chain or web are called trophic levels. The different trophic levels are defined in the Table below. Examples are also given in the table. All food chains and webs have at least two or three trophic levels. Generally, there are a maximum of four trophic levels.

Trophic Level Where It Gets Food Example

1st Trophic Level: Producer Makes its own food Plants make food

2nd Trophic Level: Primary Consumer Consumes producers Mice eat plant seeds

3rd Trophic Level: Secondary Consumer Consumes primary consumers Snakes eat mice

4th Trophic Level: Tertiary Consumer Consumes secondary consumers Hawks eat snakes

One of the four domains of life is the Eukaryote--divided into four kingdoms these kingdoms fulfill the quadrant model pattern.
*Square one: plants. The first square is more sedentary. The first square is spiritual. I think of plants as spiritual because they gather sunlight. Also plants have awareness. The first quadrant is awareness.
*Square two: fungus. Fungi break down dead organic matter. Fungi clean up things. Fungi are the homeostasis. The second square is homeostasis. Also fungi can be used to heal people. Healing is homeostasis. Plants and fungi are also found in symbiotic relationships. The first and second squares are always very interconnected.
*Square three: animals. Humans are animals. Animals are the doers. The third

square is the most physical, and it is the doing square.
*Square four: protists. Scientists describe protists as plant-like, fungi-like, and animal-like protists, which is consistant with the attributes found in the fourth square, which always encompasses the previous three. The fourth is always separate from the previous three types, but it also contains them.

The instruction manual for all life is the quadrant model pattern. Watson, who discovered the structure of DNA, thought that DNA could not have developed through natural selection processes; in the absence of other evidence he proposed that aliens created it. It is instructive to note that origins-of-life biologists claim that originally there were only four amino acids, existing as collections of three nucleobases. This fits the quadrant model pattern. Natural selection or other “natural” methods are argued to underlie the structure of things, but the real explanation for why things are the way they are is the quadrant model pattern.
There are four types of macromolecules:
*Square one: carbohydrates made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates have less potential energy per gram than fats.
*Square two: fats. Lipids, like carbohydrates are made up of a lot of carbon and hydrogen. Lipids provide structure and support and protection. That is why lipids are the second square; the second square is structure.
*Square three: proteins; doers perform actions in the cells and build things. The third square is the doer.
*Square four: nucleic acids; DNA and RNA. DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA gives instructions to proteins and tells them what to do. Without DNA there would be no carbohydrates, fats, or proteins. DNA is separate from the previous three types of macromolecules, but also encompasses them; that is the nature of the fourth square. The fourth square is very different from the previous three, yet it encompasses them. Proteins are made up of polymers; instructions for the assembly of these polymers are in DNA. ATP is also a nucleic acid and is responsible for fascilitaing all processes in cells like DNA and RNA.


Chemistry and biology are closely connected. Chemistry is the second square; biology is the third square science. The second square is always connected to the third. Chemistry reveals how connections are made that result in the emergence of life.
The two elements called “miracle elements” are carbon and silicon. All living organisms are composed primarily of carbon. The reason carbon is so special is that it has four valence electrons; in other words, carbonlooks like a quadrant. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon chemistry. Silicon is the other miracle element. Computers require silicon; diamonds are made of silicon. While most of the Earth is made of carbon and silicon, sand and glass are made of silicon. What makes silicon so special is that it has four valence electrons. In other words, silicon also looks like a quadrant.
DNA, the instruction manual for life, is described as the blueprint that contains the information needed for creating living organisms. It is composed of four nucleobases.
*Square one: Adenine
*Square two: Guanine
*Square three: Cytosine
*Square four: Thymine.
RNA has an additional nucleobase called, Urine, with a possible fifth. There is often the possible fifth.


In mathematics conic sections are curves obtained as the intersection of a cone. There are four conic sections. These curves are the curves through which terrestrial bodies like planets and asteroids travel. They are
*Square one: hyperbola. If the plane intersects both halves of the double cone but does not pass through the apex of the cones then the conic is a hyperbola
*Square two: parabola. If the plane is not closed and it does not pass through the apex of the cones then it is a parabola
*Square three: ellipse. If the plane is a closed curve then it is an ellipse. The ellipse fits the qualities of the third square because it is a closed curve, thus an individual. It is solid and physical
*Square four: circle. If the plane is closed, and the radius is the same throughout, it is a circle. The fourth does not seem to belong. Sometimes there appear to be only three conic sections, but the fourth may exist according to mathematicians. Theses shapes are th shapes that orbits of bodies in space take.


The planets fit the quadrant model pattern. Scientists have always tried to explain things through naturalistic phenomena, but planets elude such explanations. One example of this is an asteroid belt formed around Mars, probably composed of debris from two colliding and destroyed planets. However, scientists are wrong in their proposal of this explanation. The ultimate answer is revealed in the quadrant model pattern, which is the Form of Existence--the planets are organized the way they are because they reveal the Quadrant Model of Reality, and not other rationalistic reasons.
The first four planets are called terrestrial planets, and are first quadrant planets.
*Square one: Mercury is tiny; it is the sensor. It orbits very close to the sun, is full of craters, making it weird; the first square is always weird. It’s orbit is known as strange.
*Square two: Venus is the perceiver, and in the second square, which is homeostasis. The second square is always pretty. Upon closer inspection its atmosphere is made up of sulfuric acid, which is deadly to humans, and not a wonderful place. It has only a superficial quality of being pretty; that is the nature of the second square.
*Square three: Earth, the responder in the doing, action square. The third square is also considered bad. Earth is plagued with wars, violence, and destructive weather, evidencing much action. Yet it is the only known planet known to sustain life. Life is associated with action. The third square is action.
*Square four: Mars is the aware square. The fourth has a quality of not belonging, and of seeming to be a void. For instance, Rationals comprise only five percent of the population, and are very different from the other three temperaments. Mars is unusual in the solar system in that scientists speculate that water and life existed there. Some scientists even propose that life on Earth came from asteroids or from Mars. While apparently a void, it still arouses suspicion that life may yet be found on the planet; the fourth is always mysterious.
After Mars there is the asteroid belt, which is no coincidence. The asteroid belt demarcates the boundary between one quadrant and another. The first four squares are followed by another four. The asteroid belt demarcates the boundary between the first quadrant and the second. The first four planets are terrestrial planets, which are planets made of rock. The next four planets are gaseous planets. These next four planets are the second quadrant, which is always the prettiest. The second quadrant is belief, faith, behavior and belonging. The second quadrant is also protection. These planets are very large, which empowers them to protect Earth from asteroids by virtue of the gravitational field. Thus they are homeostasis, and they all contain rings, thus they are pretty, which is the nature of the second quadrant.

*Square five: Jupiter is a large, gaseous planet. It is the believer planet, the fifth planet. The second quadrant is always structure. It is large but not very solid since it is made up of gas. It is the first square of the second quadrant, thus it will not be very solid. Some scientists think that Jupiter may have been a failed star. It has a ring, making it very beautiful and comforting. Belief brings comfort.
*Square six: Saturn is the second square of the second quadrant, and, because

of its amazing rings, is the most beautiful. It is gaseous, therefore not solid, which is consistent with the second square of the second quadrant; the second square is always the most aesthetically appealing.
*Square seven: Uranus, the third square of the second quadrant, is the behaver planet. Uranus is unusual in that it is a gaseous planet with a solid core, making it quite different from the previous two. Because it is the third square, it is becoming more solid. The third square is always more solid. Uranus is still in the second quadrant so with its ring it is also quite beautiful.
*Square eight: Neptune is the belonger planet located in the second quadrant. With its ring it too is quite appealing. Neptune also has a partially solid core. The forth square is also usually more solid.
These four planets have the quality of being protective and beautiful. The second quadrant has the quality of homeostasis and has the quality of looking good.
Next is Quadrant 3. A comet belt creates a demarcation between the second quadrant and the third quadrant. 
*Square nine: Pluto, in the ninth square, is not a planet; it is a planetesimal. It is the first square of Quadrant 3. Pluto is the thinker; thinking is wild and difficult to control. The first eight planets have concentric orbits, but the orbit of Pluto is different, “doing its own thing”. As a unique individual, the third quadrant is the ego-oriented, selfish quadrant. It does not follow the rules or orbits of the other planets. The other planitesimals fulfill the quadrant model pattern, but will not be gone into with detail, due to my ignorance of them.
In the order and quality of the planets the Quadrant Model of Reality is revealed. Scientists often try to explain that this order and quality is due to random and rational processes. However, the planets, and everything that exists is the way it is because it reveals the Quadrant Model Reality, which is the expression of the Form of Existence.
An interesting side note is a lot of hype is made by conspiracy enthusiasts over a mysterious planet x. Some say that ancient cultures claimed that this planet was the home of the gods. It is fascinating to note that the translation of the name of planet x is the planet of the cross. The cross is the form of existence. No coincidence it was considered the planet of the gods.

The four seasons fit the quadrant model.
*Square one: Spring; the first square is birth
*Square two: Summer, associated with being a very pleasant, social time--the second quadrant is about relationships and life; it is the normal square.
*Square three: Fall; connoting destruction, causing leaves to fall, and life to hibernate; it is often seen as very different and unpleasant and destructive.
*Square four: Winter. The fourth square, represents death.


The Earth atmosphere, consisting of four layers with a possible fifth, fits the quadrant model pattern; the fourth points to the possible fifth. What matters is not the number, but the pattern in which they occur, which is revealed by the qualities of each.
*Square one: troposphere, where the Earth weather exists and the biosphere is found
*Square two: stratosphere, the protective layer of the atmosphere containing the ozone layer, which protects the Earth from UV radiation--the second square is always protection and homeostasis
*Square three: mesosphere. Just below the mesopause, the air is so cold that even the very scarce water vapor at this altitude can be sublimated into polar-mesospheric noctilucent clouds made of ice crystals. Seemingly solid, they are luminous doers. The third square is always solid and associated with doing
*Square four: thermosphere, an extremely low density mass of air molecules called, rarefied air, leaving an impression that nothing is there--the fourth is always different from the previous three.
*Square five: exosphere; in addition to the four obvious layers of the atmosphere there is possibly a fifth, reflecting the qualities of the fourth--like the thermosphere, the exosphere is composed of rarefied air.


The book's 26 chapters can be divided into four sections: Chapters 1-11 discuss the different types of principalities or states, Chapters 12-14 discuss the different types of armies and the proper conduct of a prince as military leader, Chapters 15-23 discuss the character and behavior of the prince, and Chapters 24-26 discuss Italy's desperate political situation. The final chapter is a plea for the Medici family to supply the prince who will lead Italy out of humiliation.


The types of principalities


Machiavelli lists four types of principalities:


Hereditary principalities, which are inherited by the ruler

Mixed principalities, territories that are annexed to the ruler's existing territories

New principalities, which may be acquired by several methods: by one's own power, by the power of others, by criminal acts or extreme cruelty, or by the will of the people (civic principalities)

Ecclesiastical principalities, namely the Papal States belonging to the Catholic church


The types of armies


A prince must always pay close attention to military affairs if he wants to remain in power. Machiavelli lists four types of armies:


Mercenaries or hired soldiers, which are dangerous and unreliable

Auxiliaries, troops that are loaned to you by other rulers—also dangerous and unreliable

Native troops, composed of one's own citizens or subjects—by far the most desirable kind

Mixed troops, a combination of native troops and mercenaries or auxiliaries—still less desirable than a completely native army


There are four thermodynamic potentials essential to an understanding of chemistry.
*Square one: internal energy, found when there is constant Volume and constant entropy
*Square two: Helmholtz free energy, found when there is constant volume and constant temperature
*Square three: Enthalpy, found when there is constant pressure and constant temperature
*Square four: Gibbs Free Energy, found when there is constant temperature and constant pressure. Notice how square two and square four are both free energies. The second and fourth squares are the word and true word according to the heuristic of the quadrant model
*Square five: Grand potential. This fifth potential that is not really needed; the fifth always seems unnecessary.


In chemistry there are four atomic orbitals. Square one: s orbitals are spherical orbitals; square two: p orbitals (similar to balloons or spheres--forming the duality); square three: d orbitals; square four: f orbitals. Each orbital builds on its predecessor. The fourth is very different from the previous three. This is the quadrant model pattern.
There are four quantum numbers for describing an electron completely. They are
*Square one: SHELL the principal quantum number. This is the shell within which the electron spins
*Square two: SUBSHELL, azimuthal quantum number. This describes the subshell, and gives the magnitude of the orbital angular momentum. It influences the shape of the atomic orbital, and influences chemical bonds and bond angles. The second square is homeostasis and is about relationships and structure and order
*Square three: ENERGY SHIFT (orientation of the subshell shape) magnetic quantum number. It describes the orbital within the subshell, and yields the projection of the orbital angular momentum along a specified axis; the third square is the doing square
*Square four: SPIN OF THE ELECTRON, the spin projection quantum number. This quantum number is different from the rest. the fourth is always different from the previous three. It describes the spin (intrinsic angular momentum) of the electron within that orbital, and gives the projection of the spin angular momentum S along the specified axis:

Shell and subshell are the duality, energy shift is the doing third square, and spin is the forth square which is different than the previous three.

M theory is an attempt by physicists to combine all of the forces of nature into one theory. The theory is that particles are in fact vibrating strings. This theory evolved into five main theories called string theories to explain the nature of reality as a symphony of vibrating strings. These string theories were combined by Edward Witten into one, known as M theory. M theory recognizes that the different string theories are different aspects of one ultimate theory. Witten combined the separate theories, noticing that they were all interrelated. Similarly the Quadrant Model of Reality recognizes that thinking, emotion, doing, and dreaming are all different aspects of the same thing. They are all interrelated. The M theory fits the quadrant model pattern.
*Square one: type I string theory
*Square two: type II A string theory
*Square three: type II B string theory
*Square four: Heterotic SO(32)
*Square five: Heterotic E8xE8.
The first three string theories are very related. Then the fourth is different. The fourth
is heterotic, and indicates the nature of the fifth. Heterotic E8xE8 apparently is extremely transcendent, and people associate it with divine. The fifth has a quality of transcendence,
like God. This fits the quadrant model pattern. M theory is called the theory of everything for physics. But it is merely a reitteration of the quadrant model pattern.


The standard model of particle physics is perhaps the most comprehensive and popular model that describes the nature of particles in physics. This model is essentially the quadrant model pattern. In it there are three generations of fermions, each with four particles. There are also four bosons. Fermions are particles that obey different laws than bosons; this is the quadrant model pattern. The first three quadrants are the three generations of fermions. The fourth quadrant is the four bosons. Physicists know that this is the way particle physics is structured, but they do not know why. The Quadrant Model of Reality states that the standard model of particle physics is structured in this form because the purpose of reality is to express the quadrant model pattern, which is what the standard model of particle physics does.
Quadrant 1: The first generation is fermions. The first two squares form the duality;

the first two squares are always a duality. The duality is the up and the down quark. The third square is the electron. The electron is the doer; the third square is always the doer. The electron is constantly moving and changing position, whereas the up quarks and the down quarks make up the protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Therefore they represent homeostasis which is characterisitc of the first and seecond squares. The electron neutrino is the fourth. The fourth never seems to belong with the previous three. Scientists experienced great difficulty in discovering neutrinos. They eventually discovered that electron neutrinos can become electrons and down and up quarks. Electron neutrinos are essentially different from the previous three, yet they encompass them. That is the nature of the forth square being simultaneously different yet the same and encompassing the previous three.
*Square one: up quark
*Square two: down quark
*Square three: electron
*Square four: electron neutrino.
Quadrant 2: The second generation of fermions. Here a similar pattern emerges; there is the charm quark and the strange quark, which form the duality. The muon is the doer. the muon neutrino is the fourth, and different, yet it can become the previous three. The fourth is separate yet encompasses the previous three.
*Square one: charm quark
*Square two: strange quark
*Square three: muon
*Square four: muon neutrino.
Quadrant 3: In this quadrant the same pattern is formed. There is the duality between the first and second. The third is the doer, and the different fourth engages the previous three.
*Square one: top quark
*Square two: bottom quark
*Square three: tau
*Square four: tau neutrino.
Quadrant 4. The first three squares and quadrants are always very connected, whereas the fourth is always different. In the thinking, emotion, doing and dreaming quadrant thinking, emoting, and doing, seem interconnected, and dreaming seems different. But while dreaming seems different, it is clearly interconnected with the previous three. The same pattern holds true here; the first three generations of matter are fermions, and fermions are all very similar. There are four bosons:
*Square one: gluon
*Square two: photon
*Square three: z boson
*Square four: w boson. The four bosons are the fourth quadrant.
There is a 17th particle called the God particle. The 17th square transcends the first four quadrants; it is outside the quadrant model, establishing the first square of the fifth quadrant. The 17th is God. That which transcends the quadrant has a quality of being like God/Being. It is no coincidence that the 17th particle, the Higgs Boson, is viewed as the God particle; it was the last to be found. Without the Higgs Boson none of the other particles can exist, because the Higgs boson creates matter. The Higgs Boson is Being. The 17th square is Being. The 17th square is God. There is also a possible 18th and 18th particle which would fit the 19 squares of the quadrant model.

There are also the four laws of thermodynamics. 
Law 1: helps define the notion of temperature
Law 2: energy is conserved--the second square is always about homeostasis
Law 3: entropy- the third square is always construction
Law 4: entropy of a system reaches a constant value at absolute zero.
Laws of Thermodynamics

Four equations describe the nature of light. A lot of people walk around with these equations on their shirts. They are the famous Maxwell's equations. Maxwell's equations inspired Einstein because they combined electricity and magnetism. Maxwell's big discovery was that light was an electromagnetic phenomenon, and that all light travels at the same speed. This helped lead Einstein to the general theory of relativity. These equations are basically the equations for light. They are
*Square one: Gauss' law
*Square two: Gauss' law for magnetism
*Square three: Maxwell-Farraday equation
*Square four: Ampere's circuital law.


There are also four kinematic equations describing the motion of all objects. The fourth one is different from the previous three in that it is a quadratic equation. There is a possible fifth kinematic that is also a quadratic equation. The fourth always points to the fifth, which is not necessary; the fifth always seem unnecessary. There only four essential kinematic equations, while allowing for a possible fifth. They are as follows:
*Square one: vf=vi+at
*Square two: x=.5(vf+vit)
*Square three: vfsquared=visquared+2ax
*Square four: x=vit+.5atsquared
*Square five: x=vft-.5atsquared.
Kinematic equations


It is important to note that the four distinct squares of the quadrant model are often divided by two dichotomies which yield four results.
These four elements relate to the four phases of matter.
*Square one is gas. This corresponds to wind.
*Square two is liquid. This corresponds to water
*Square three is solid. This corresponds to earth.
*Square four is plasma. This corresponds to fire. 


Plasmas are electrically conductive, create magnetic fields and electric currents, and react readily to electromagnetic forces. Positively charged nuclei swim in a "sea" of freely-moving disassociated electrons, and is similar to how such charges exist in conductive metal, and an electron "sea" that allows matter in the plasma state to conduct electricity. In fact, fire is a plasma; stars are plasma. The fourth, plasma, seems very different from the previous three states of matter, seeming not to belong. But the fourth is always essential.
It is important to note that movement between these phases always includes a distinct phase transition. Each stage is connected to the other, but they are all distinct. The squares of the quadrant model are simultaneously continuous and divided. Matter is either a gas, liquid, solid, or plasma. They are distinct yet unified. There is a possible fifth state of matter called the “Einstein Bose condensate”. Sometimes this is called the fifth state of matter. Again, this state is transcendent, like God; the fifth is always like God. It is sometimes called solid light. Light is often associated with God.

Here's another excerpt from my book QMR

It is important to note that the four distinct squares of the quadrant model are often divided by two dichotomies which yield four results.
These four elements relate to the four phases of matter.
*Square one is gas. This corresponds to wind.
*Square two is liquid. This corresponds to water
*Square three is solid. This corresponds to earth.
*Square four is plasma. This corresponds to fire. 


Plasmas are electrically conductive, create magnetic fields and electric currents, and react readily to electromagnetic forces. Positively charged nuclei swim in a "sea" of freely-moving disassociated electrons, and is similar to how such charges exist in conductive metal, and an electron "sea" that allows matter in the plasma state to conduct electricity. In fact, fire is a plasma; stars are plasma. The fourth, plasma, seems very different from the previous three states of matter, seeming not to belong. But the fourth is always essential.



Some years ago I had chronic fatigue syndrome. After trying many dif- ferent therapies, which all helped to some extent, I had the distinct feel- ing that the problems I was having with the body were a process. I saw that the imbalances were mental-emotional overlays to the body, belief systems of a very subtle nature. I knew that I could look deeply into the body and process myself out of them. My rationale was that everything is consciousness, including the body. Processing will shift consciousness; therefore processing will shift the body. I would just have to find the right pieces. That was the hard part, finding the right pieces. I made a list of hundreds of polarities associated with the material plane—things like: HEALTH and SICKNESS, OLD and YOUNG, STRONG and WEAK, GRAVITY and LEVITY.

I sat on my bed and resolved not to move until I was successful in shift- ing my condition. It was during this time that I intuited the squares tech- nique. I filled two or three notebooks in my determination to be healed. It took three weeks, but I found most of the issues. Eventually, after experi- encing numerous subtle shifts, the most spectacular came with a square on LIFE and DEATH. This involved looking deeply into the issues of why I DESIRED TO LIVE, why I FEARED LIVING, why I DESIRED TO DIE, and why I FEARED DYING. As I completed the square and did the offering, I felt the meridians, or channels of subtle energy, in the body pop open and the energy begin to flow in the body again. The disability was over, and the cure seemed miraculous. I was sold on the squares technique, as you may imagine. Now I would like to share this technique with you.

The Marriage of Spirit ◆ Section Two

Understanding the sqUares techniqUe

This technique is a little more complicated than the lists of opposites. It is associated mainly with the physical body and the physical world, although it serves to clear the subtle bodies as well—including mental and emotional. The number four and the square are symbols for the physical plane. The consciousness is quite boxed-in at this level, and that creates density. The square is a very a-dynamic form. We even have a colloquial expression in our language, calling someone a square, meaning that they are rather conservative, stuck and boring. The dynamic wave energy of life has been contained in a box and cannot unravel itself easily.

As you read ahead about how a square works, you will see that each corner is an aspect of consciousness that is out of balance. Each corner represents some part of the ego that pushes or pulls you off center. In the normal course of our lives, we tend to live out the corners rather uncon- sciously. They are our desires and fears. When we live by habit or by rote and don’t examine the nature of our own egos, it can take years, or even lifetimes, to live out our desires and fears represented in one square. This translates as feeling boxed-in and stuck in life, and normally we don’t even know why we feel this way. Usually, most people blame the outside circumstances of their lives, rather than look within to see what needs to change in order to effect outer change.

When we have little or no knowledge of the principle of changing the inner to change the outer, we have to live out in the physical world the experience of the effect of our desires and fears. In other words, before we tumble to the fact that what limits us is the inner, egoic condition- ing—our desires and fears—they will cause us to have to live out physi- cally whatever their effects are. Until we realize this fact, we generally don’t experience significant change in our lives. We may try to change the outer appearance, the window dressing, for example by changing jobs or relationships or locations, but we don’t experience a real change in our lives until we begin to examine what really limits us—our egoic condi- tioning, which comes down to our desires and fears. This is why we often find that we have to keep repeating the same lessons and the same kinds of experiences over and over with just a change in scenery, and we feel caught in some kind of bizarre loop.

As you read ahead about the squares technique, you will see that it offers a much faster method of experiencing change in your life than hav- ing to live out in the physical world the experience of your desires and fears. Doing a square allows you to complete the experience mentally,


rather than physically. All you have to do is write about the desires and fears in your journal. This allows you to shorten the path greatly. In fact, this is also true for the polarities and triangles techniques. Because these are all mental techniques, they offer a very fast way to transform con- sciousness, rather than having to live out our lessons physically.

When I was given this structure, spirit said to me that DESIRE and FEAR form a pair of opposites. Energetically, DESIRE is the pull- ing toward something and FEAR is pushing it away, or pulling back from it. Desire and fear represent one of the ways in which we use ATTRACTION and REPULSION. As we have seen, attraction and repulsion are the powerful magnetic forces that shape the physical world. To use the squares technique, we insert the relevant polarity into this powerful format of desire and fear.

the sqUares techniqUe

The oscillations in consciousness, back and forth (the ups and downs in life), are kept in motion by our attractions to things and our repulsions to things, our desires for things and our fears of them. The square pro- cessing technique is a diagram for the flow of awareness and energy on a mental and emotional level. These awarenesses form projections and cre- ate the events we live with in the physical world. They shape our physical world and the body. So we can examine any one polarity in a way that also takes into consideration that pushing/pulling sensation and effect change right through the mental-emotional levels down into the physi- cal. This is the square.

step One—pick a pOlarity

To do the square technique, first you pick a polarity that you want to examine in greater depth. Maybe it is one that you uncovered when you wrote a story for polarity processing, a polarity that for you seems to have a lot of charge on it. For example, our old friend of the freeway, Paul, decided to do a square on CONTROL and OUT OF CONTROL.

step twO—draw and label a sqUare

Then you draw a square in your journal. You label the two corners on the left side of the square the DESIRE TO _____. The two corners on the right side of the square are labeled the FEAR OF _____. Then you fill in the blanks with the polarities. One polarity goes into both top corners, and the other polarity goes into the two bottom corners.

The Marriage of Spirit ◆ Section Two

desire tO be in cOntrOl

desire tO be OUt OF cOntrOl

Fig. 10–1.

Fear OF being in cOntrOl

Fear OF being OUt OF cOntrOl

desire Fear tO... OF...

desire Fear tO... OF...

Fig. 10–2.

Using Paul’s example, in the upper left-hand corner of this square, we write the words, DESIRE TO BE IN CONTROL, and in the upper right- hand corner we write the words, FEAR OF BEING IN CONTROL. The desire and fear of the opposite, we write in the lower two corners. In the lower left we write DESIRE TO BE OUT OF CONTROL, and in the lower right we write FEAR OF BEING OUT OF CONTROL (Fig. 10-1).

So for any polarity, we just attach the words, DESIRE TO . . . , FEAR OF..., DESIRE TO..., and FEAR OF.... Whatever the polarity is, we use the same word for both top corners, and the opposite polarity for both bottom corners. We put the label, DESIRE TO . . . on both the left- hand corners, and the label FEAR OF . . . on both right-hand corners. We always use this structure (Fig. 10-2).

Now is a good time to practice the first step of the technique. Try labeling a square in your journal on the polarity LOVE and HATE, for example. Also try labeling a square on WIN and LOSE.

step three—Make all cOrners cOnsciOUs

Once we have labeled the square, then the real fun begins. We explore it. We look at it and try to recognize which corners we are familiar with. If there are one or two corners that we have never seen before, then we try to feel them.

We all contain all four corners of the square. Some of them may be locked into the unconscious, but they are all in there somewhere.

It is very common to want to go into denial regarding some of the corners.


Usually when we do squares, especially when we are working with a pair of opposites that we really react to, we will find that there is at least one corner (sometimes two) that we have not seen before. This is our hidden side, the part that is in our unconscious. Everything in each cor- ner exists within us because we are all everything. It is denial to say, “I don’t do that!” If we indulge in denial and avoidance in this way, we are choosing to make something unconscious.

We have to try to remember an instance when we felt it.

saMple sqUares

Step three takes place on a mental-emotional level. Step four will involve writing about this in your journal. For now just think or feel it through, and don’t worry about the writing part. Before we get into journal work, take some time to think about these sample squares.

dependent and independent

That is a polarity that pushes on people a lot. The corners are: the desire to be dependent, the fear of being dependent, the desire to be indepen- dent, and the fear of being independent.

The fear of being dependent is very common. The image of growing old, becoming feeble and being a burden on one’s family usually sends most people into fear.

But how about the desire to be dependent? Perhaps this corner is less easily visible and might require a little more internal examination. But if you look deeply enough, you can see that it is easy to long for someone else to take care of you, to nurture you and to provide for you. It can feel wonderful to be dependent on someone loving and strong in this way. This is the desire to be dependent.

The desire to be independent is pretty easy to see. Especially during the teenage years, we crave our independence. Is there a corner that you have never seen before? The fear of being independent perhaps? That is prob- ably the least commonly felt corner. But if you feel your way into it, you can probably recall a time when you feared your own independence. For example, what about when it was time to leave your parents’ house and strike out on your own? Or what about leaving a long-term relationship? Usually there is some degree of fear of being independent involved in these instances.

The Marriage of Spirit ◆ Section Two

inFeriOr and sUperiOr

The desire to be inferior. Most people try their very best never to feel this corner! You might ask yourself incredulously, “Could some part of me really desire to feel inferior?! How can this possibly be?” But it is true. The desire to feel inferior is a part in the unconscious played by the vic- tim. As the victim, we might find we get attention and sympathy, or we get to blame the outside and feel self-righteous, which feels good and juicy. If you look hard enough, you will probably be able to remember at least one time when you felt this. When you can own this corner, you are on the way to awakeness.

The other corners are: the fear of being inferior, the desire to be superior (we all know that feeling), and the fear of being superior.

apprOval and disapprOval

Everybody grapples with this one. The desire to be approved of and the fear of being approved of—you start suppressing the natural expression of your innate self because of these two. Most of us know about the desire to be approved of. However, a lot of people develop a self-destructive pattern so that they will not have to deal with success and with being approved of. They cannot handle it, and that feeds into the desire to be disapproved of—the rebel. The fear of being approved of is the lesser known part. It will sabotage your efforts, especially if you are working with the public in some way and just cannot handle the praise or the acclaim—or the criti- cism, actually. They both have the power to throw you off balance. Praise is something that everyone craves, yet when you get it, it often knocks you sideways.

Then, it leads to the desire to be disapproved of. For example, maybe that is the reason why movie stars sometimes do outrageous things! For the shock value. You create the outside to reject and push you away. There is juice in that.

Then, of course, you go to the fear of being disapproved of because some part of you doesn’t like feeling rejected. It creates a loop in con- sciousness. The energy keeps moving, and the corners lead into each other, cycling around and around continuously.

lack and abUndance

We know the desire for abundance—everyone knows that one!

The fear of abundance can be a biggie for spiritual seekers, since many of us have taken a vow of poverty in one lifetime or another. There is a


fear that money corrupts. When doing this square, people often think, “Well, you know, if I had money, I would be a bad person.” So they will not let themselves have it. It is too big a responsibility, they feel. They fear they might have to shine their shoes, put a smile on their faces, and go out there to face the world or to take care of other people.

Abundance does not have to mean money, really. So you can examine abundance to see if you have chosen abundant loving, money, generosity, creativity and relationships.

The fear of abundance and the desire for lack are much less acknowledged than the other corners. These corners are usually associated with the belief that asceticism is spiritual and good. Can you find another reason?

The fear of lack runs very deeply in most of us. Some people’s worst fear is about being poor and homeless—being a bag person pushing a shopping cart on the streets.

step FOUr—apply data tO the sqUare

So, the next step is to divide your journal page into four equal sections by drawing a large cross in the middle of the page. Label the top of each quadrant with one corner of the square. Then, in each quadrant you write down every possible way in which you know that desire or fear.

Many times, you will have too much for one corner to fit it all on a fourth of a page. In this case, you may want to use four pages, one for each corner of the square. If you run out of room using just one page, don’t try to economize with paper. Be extravagant and fill up as many sheets as you need to.

Write words, short phrases, or a narrative of how you have lived out that corner. This includes emotions, thoughts, states of mind, memories, dreams and anything else that comes up for you. For each corner ask yourself, “How do I feel about this corner? How does/did that look for me at one time? And why do I desire or fear this thing? What is my moti- vation to desire or fear this thing?”

saMple sqUare and JOUrnal entry

A prominent theme in many processing stories is of being a VICTIM who is abused by a TYRANT. In a workshop we conducted, a group filled in the corners of the VICTIM/TYRANT square with the follow- ing responses. Before you read their responses, take a few minutes and try this square in your own journal. Then, look at the lists below. Some of their answers will probably be real eye-openers for you.

The Marriage of Spirit ◆ Section Two

Here is how you can divide your page (Fig. 10-3). For our example, we have made lists. The lists are long enough for each cor- ner that we have used several pages.

In the corner labeled the DESIRE TO BE A VICTIM: feeling the need to be punished feeling guilty

to get attention

don’t have to work


at least I am harmless as a victim

security of the familiar

to get sympathy

don’t have to be conscious

to be a martyr

to avoid conflict

I have feelings of unworthiness


balancing out bad karma

get pampering


belonging to the victim tribe


comparing and sharing wounding with others

to get nurturing and love

to blame others

to manipulate others

playing games


I want people to have compassion for me

don’t have to be responsible

have an excuse

can’t help it

justified anger


as a child when I got sick, I’d get special treatment

desire tObea victiM

desire tObea tyrant

Fig. 10–3.

Fear OF being a victiM

Fear OF being a tyrant

In the corner labeled the


it’s embarrassing and humiliating

I’ll never get out of my rut



fear of death

lose self-respect

lose respect of others

fear of no love

fear of no intimacy

fear of feeling worthless

being in danger



being vulnerable

being pitied

being terrorized



fear of dying unconscious, unawake betrayed

lack of control















as a child I feared my father spanking me


In the corner labeled the DESIRE TO BE A TYRANT: to have power over my own life

to have power and control over others self-control

to get my own way

don’t have to face being wrong

at least I know what to expect


access to people and things

for tough love

to get adoration

it’s strong

to feel superior

state of being active (not passive)

to feel in charge

to get attention

to win

to get respect



to punish others

to have no fear

don’t have to feel

to enjoy being cruel

to vent rage





make others work

so I can be lazy

create order

feeling immortal

for fame

be a great leader

The Marriage of Spirit ◆ Section Two


In the corner labeled the FEAR OF BEING A TYRANT: could be lonely

being punished

fear of making mistakes

fear of facing my power

I’d be unloved

responsible for consequences

fear of being hated

fear of being disapproved of

fear of not being accepted


fear of being unspiritual

hurting others


fear of having no friends or family

bad karma

could be fatal

fear of feeling separate

fear of people not being honest

can’t trust people

loss of love

being out of control

step Five—OFFer Up yOUr sqUare

Now give the whole square back to spirit. Offer it up with a prayer, just like you did with the polarity processing and triangles techniques. It is impor- tant to remember at this point, after you have churned up all of this egoic stuff and feel as though you have emptied your cup, just to let it all go. You don’t have to continue to analyze, fret, figure it out with your head, or be the one to fix the situation. Spirit does the work for you after you have made the unconscious conscious. Remember that all of the desires and fears are not real; they are not who you are. You are pure awareness, and these states just pass through you. You can rest and relax after your offer- ing, knowing that you are releasing everything you have dug up. There is nothing more for you to do once you have made the four corners of the square conscious. You can trust that grace will come in and make the changes for you, bringing you more into wholeness, balance and healing, more into the knowledge of who you truly are—the Self.

The Marriage of Spirit ◆ Section Two

step six—wait FOr grace

Just as with the opposites and triangle techniques, after you make your offering, remember to wait for grace. You can occupy your time by per- forming some simple, mundane activities, like tending the plants or tak- ing a walk. You will get a shift from doing a square. Try to remain in your neutral witness and just be present and mindful, so that you can be con- scious of and experience the shift. If you are sensitive, you may especially feel it in your body after doing a square. In fact, you may have already had an experience of feeling a shift in your body from doing polarities or triangles. But because squares take the process a step further, into the physical, you will be more likely to experience the shift physically, in addition to mentally and/or emotionally. You may also find new insights pouring in. You may find yourself saying, “Oh, I got it. I really got it!” Be open to new information coming in or a next step in your process being presented to you—from anyone and anywhere. Or as the layer of the process peels off, you may find that you begin to emote. This is an excel- lent way to discharge old, stuck energy and is often a good sign that you have cleared something. If you don’t feel the shift, that is okay. It is hap- pening anyway. You can trust in that.


the steps OF the sqUares techniqUe

1. Pick a polarity.

2. Draw and label a square.

3. Make all four corners conscious. 4. Apply data to the square.

5. Offer up your square.

6. Wait for grace.

The growth–share matrix (aka the product portfolio matrix,[1]Boston Box, BCG-matrix, Boston matrix, Boston Consulting Group analysis, portfolio diagram) is a chart that was created by Bruce D. Henderson for the Boston Consulting Group in 1970 to help corporations to analyze their business units, that is, their product lines. This helps the company allocate resources and is used as an analytical tool in brand marketingproduct managementstrategic management, and portfolio analysis. Some analysis of market performance by firms using its principles has called its usefulness into question.

To use the chart, analysts plot a scatter graph to rank the business units (or products) on the basis of their relative market shares and growth rates.

  • Cash cows is where a company has high market share in a slow-growing industry. These units typically generate cash in excess of the amount of cash needed to maintain the business. They are regarded as staid and boring, in a "mature" market, yet corporations value owning them due to their cash-generating qualities. They are to be "milked" continuously with as little investment as possible, since such investment would be wasted in an industry with low growth.

  • Dogs, more charitably called pets, are units with low market share in a mature, slow-growing industry. These units typically "break even", generating barely enough cash to maintain the business's market share. Though owning a break-even unit provides the social benefit of providing jobs and possible synergies that assist other business units, from an accounting point of view such a unit is worthless, not generating cash for the company. They depress a profitable company's return on assets ratio, used by many investors to judge how well a company is being managed. Dogs, it is thought, should be sold off.

  • Question marks (also known as problem children) are businesses operating with a low market share in a high-growth market. They are a starting point for most businesses. Question marks have a potential to gain market share and become stars, and eventually cash cows when market growth slows. If question marks do not succeed in becoming a market leader, then after perhaps years of cash consumption, they will degenerate into dogs when market growth declines. Question marks must be analyzed carefully in order to determine whether they are worth the investment required to grow market share.

  • Stars are units with a high market share in a fast-growing industry. They are graduated question marks with a market- or niche-leading trajectory, for example: amongst market share front-runners in a high-growth sector, and/or having a monopolistic or increasingly dominant unique selling proposition with burgeoning/fortuitous proposition drive(s) from: novelty (e.g. Last.FM upon CBS Interactive's due diligence), fashion/promotion (e.g. newly prestigious celebrity-branded fragrances), customer loyalty (e.g. greenfield or military/gang enforcement backed, and/or innovative, grey-market/illicit retail of addictive drugs, for instance the British East India Company's, late-1700s opium-based Qianlong Emperor embargo-busting, Canton System), goodwill (e.g. monopsonies) and/or gearing (e.g. oligopolies, for instance Portland cement producers near boomtowns),[citation needed] etc. The hope is that stars become next cash cows.

Stars require high funding to fight competitors and maintain their growth rate. When industry growth slows, if they remain a niche leader or are amongst the market leaders, stars become cash cows; otherwise, they become dogs due to low relative market share.

The Ansoff Matrix is a strategic planning tool that provides a framework to help executives, senior managers, and marketers devise strategies for future growth.[1][2] It is named after Russian American Igor Ansoff, who came up with the concept.

Ansoff, in his 1957 paper, provided a definition for product-market strategy as "a joint statement of a product line and the corresponding set of missions which the products are designed to fulfill".[3] He describes four growth alternatives:


Market penetration[edit]

In market penetration strategy, the organization tries to grow using its existing offerings (products and services) in existing markets. In other words, it tries to increase its market share in current market scenario.This involves increasing market share within existing market segments. This can be achieved by selling more products or services to established customers or by finding new customers within existing markets. Here, the company seeks increased sales for its present products in its present markets through more aggressive promotion and distribution.


This can be accomplished by: (i) Price decrease; (ii) Increase in promotion and distribution support; (iii) Acquisition of a rival in the same market; (iv) Modest product refinements


Market development[edit]

In market development strategy, a firm tries to expand into new markets (geographies, countries etc.) using its existing offerings.


This can be accomplished by (i) Different customer segments (ii) Industrial buyers for a good that was previously sold only to the households; (iii) New areas or regions about of the country (iv) Foreign markets. This strategy is more likely to be successful where:- (i) The firm has a unique product technology it can leverage in the new market; (ii) It benefits from economies of scale if it increases output; (iii) The new market is not too different from the one it has experience of; (iv) The buyers in the market are intrinsically profitable.


Product development[edit]

In product development strategy, a company tries to create new products and services targeted at its existing markets to achieve growth.


This involves extending the product range available to the firm's existing markets. These products may be obtained by: (i) Investment in research and development of additional products; (ii) Acquisition of rights to produce someone else's product; (iii) Buying in the product and "branding" it; (iv) Joint development with ownership of another company who need access to the firm's distribution channels or brands.



In diversification an organization tries to grow its market share by introducing new offerings in new markets. It is the most risky strategy because both product and market development is required. (i) Related Diversification - Here there is relationship and, therefore, potential synergy, between the firms in existing business and the new product/market space. (a) Concentric diversification, and (b) Vertical integration. (ii) Unrelated Diversification: This is otherwise termed conglomerate growth because the resulting corporation is a conglomerate, i.e. a collection of businesses without any relationship to one another.A strategy for company growth through starting up or acquiring businesses outside the company’s current products and markets