The Four Doors



The Four-Doors is a Tarot Spread utilized by the character of Miss Cleo in her many infomercials which appeared on late-night television in the last 1990's and early 2000's. It can be used for specific questions or general readings.


The Four-Doors spread is a pretty straight-forward spread, however some readers may be intimidated from using it as the card positions do not have any designations as in other spreads (the past, the present, how you feel, the near future, the outcome, etc...). Without designations for each position in the spread, the reader is forced to look at the cards before him or her both individually and as a whole to intuit from them the information the cards are attempting to communicate.


However, as with any tarot spread, your accuracy with using the Four-Doors will depend on your level of understanding of the Tarot, your skill-level, and your amount of gifted-ness with reading cards in general.


The spread begins by shuffling the cards. When you are done they are cut into four stacks before you.


Next, turn over the top card in each stack and place it face up above its corresponding stack.



Finally, turn the top card in each stack over and leave it on top of its corresponding stack.




The cards are then read from left to right beginning with the first card on the top row and ending with the last card on the bottom row.


Past, Present, Future Spread


Miss Cleo also sometimes made use of a three card spread which is laid out in the same manner. However in this case the cards are cut into three stacks instead of four and they are read from Left to Right as the Past, Present and the Future.

The chakana (or Inca Cross) is a stepped cross made up of an equal-armed cross indicating the cardinal points of the compass and a superimposed square. The square is suggested to represent the other two levels of existence. The three levels of existence are Hana Pacha (the upper world inhabited by the superior gods), Kay Pacha, (the world of our everyday existence) and Ukhu or Urin Pacha (the underworld inhabited by spirits of the dead, the ancestors, their overlords and various deities having close contact to the Earth plane). The hole through the centre of the cross is the Axis by means of which the shaman transits the cosmic vault to the other levels. It is also said to represent Cusco, the center of the Incan empire, and the Southern Cross constellation.

The mestee historian Garcilaso de la Vega, el Ynga, reports about a holy cross of white and red marble or jasper, which was venerated in 16th-century Cusco[citation needed]. The cross had been kept in a royal house, in a sacred place or wak'a, but the Incas did not worship it. They simply admired it because of its beauty. The cross was square (quadrada), measuring about two by two feet, its branches three inch wide, the edges carefully squared and the surface brightly polished.[citation needed]

The Incas began to venerate the holy cross, after they heard how Pedro de Candia had miraculously defied a lion and a tiger holding a cross. When the Spaniards captured the city, they transferred the cross to sacristy of the newly built cathedral, where De la Vega saw it in 1560. He was surprised that the clergy had not decorated it with gold or gems.[1] As we know from Middle America, this may have been part of a deliberate strategy by mendicant friars, trying to adapt to indigenous cultural codes. As a rule, the veneration of the holy cross was a carefully designed ecclesiastical enterprise, incorporating native symbols and reproducing them on sacral level. Most surviving Meso-American crosses do not predate the 16th century.[2] Ongoing stories about indigenous crosses contributed to the idea of a 'natural' religion that would have prepared the Indians for their inevitable conversion to Christianity.[3]


2.3 The Four Position Foundation Which Realizes the Three Object Purpose through Origin-Division-Union Action

2.3.1 Origin-Division-Union Action

The process of God's creation begins when the dual characteristics within God form a common base through the prompting of His universal prime energy. As they engage in give and take action, they generate a force which engenders multiplication. This force projects the dual characteristics into discrete substantial object partners, each relating to God as its center. These object partners to God then assume the position of subject partner and object partner to each other as they are prompted by the universal prime energy to form a common base and engage in give and take action. They then join together in one harmonious union to form a new object partner to God. This whole process - in which out of God, the Origin, two entities are separately manifested and reunited in oneness - is called origin-division-union action. 

2.3.2 The Three Object Purpose

As a result of origin-division-union action, four positions are formed: the origin at the center, the subject partner and the object partner (distinct substantial object partners to the origin in the pattern of its dual characteristics), and their union. Any one of the four positions may assume the position of subject partner and engage the other three as its object partners, forming a communion of three object partners. When each of the four then acts as the subject partner and enters into give and take with the other three revolving around it, they fulfill the three object purpose. 

2.3.3 The Four Position Foundation

When through origin-division-union action, the origin, the subject partner and object partner projected from the origin, and their union all fulfill the three object purpose, the four position foundation is established. 

The four position foundation is the root of the number four. It is also the root of the number three, because it is the fulfillment of the three object purpose. The four position foundation is realized by God, husband and wife, and children; they complete the three stages of origin-division-union action. Hence, the four position foundation is the root of the principle of three stages. Furthermore, each of the four positions in the four position foundation takes on three object partners in fulfilling the three object purpose. In total there are twelve object partners; hence, it is the root of the number twelve. The four position foundation is the fundamental foundation of goodness. It is the realization of God's purpose of creation. It is the fundamental foundation for the life of all beings, providing all the forces necessary for their existence and enabling God to abide in them. Therefore, the four position foundation is God's eternal purpose of creation.


Based upon what numbers were the first human ancestors, prior to the Fall, to lay the foundation of faith? What numbers were they to have embodied in their perfection? We learned in the Principle of Creation that no entity can exist or thrive without first forming a four position foundation. Accordingly, Adam and Eve in their immaturity had to each form a four position foundation for their existence. Each position in the four position foundation is to pass through the three stages of the growing period, making a total of twelve. Furthermore, each position in the four position foundation accomplishes the three object purpose by taking three object partners, making a total of twelve object partners and fulfilling the twelve object purpose. Hence, the growing period during which Adam was to establish the foundation of faith was a period for fulfilling the number twelve. While in their immaturity, the first human ancestors were to lay the foundation of faith based on the number twelve, and in perfection they were to attain the twelve object purpose and thus embody the quality of the number twelve. Due to their fall, Satan defiled this number. Therefore, a central figure in the providence of restoration must pass through a period of indemnity to restore the number twelve in laying the foundation of faith. Only on that basis can he lay the foundation of substance for the restoration of the perfect embodiment of the quality of the number twelve.


Some examples of the indemnity period to restore the number twelve are: the 120 years it took Noah to build the ark, the 120 years of the providence to restore Canaan under Moses' leadership, and the 120 years from when Abraham was called by God until Jacob purchased the birthright from Esau for some bread and lentils. As we will discuss below, this last period was to be restored by the 120-year period of the united kingdom in the Old Testament Age, and in the New Testament Age by the corresponding 120-year period of the Christian empire under Charlemagne and his sons.


The maturation process during which Adam and Eve were laying the foundation of faith also required a period to fulfill the number four. They were to pass through the three stages of the growing period and enter the realm of God's direct dominion, which is the fourth stage. At that point, they would have completed the four position foundation. By thus fulfilling the number four, the first human ancestors were to become its perfect embodiments. Due to the Fall, this number was defiled by Satan. Therefore, central figures in the providence must complete an indemnity period to restore the number four in laying the foundation of faith. Only on that basis can they lay the foundation of substance for the restoration of the perfect embodiment of the quality of the number four.


It was already explained that indemnity periods to restore the number four are necessary to restore the foundation of faith.5(cf. Foundation 2.1.2) Examples include: Noah's forty-day flood judgment, Moses' forty-day fasts, the forty-day mission to spy out the land of Canaan, Jesus' forty-day fast, and the forty days of the ministry of the resurrected Jesus.


The growing period is also the period to fulfill the number twenty-one. The first human ancestors were to have become the perfect embodiments of the number twenty-one by laying the foundation of faith through a period based on the number twenty-one and then realizing the purpose of creation. However, due to the Fall, this number was defiled by Satan. Hence, central figures in history must complete an indemnity period to restore the number twenty-one in laying the foundation of faith. Only on that basis can they lay the foundation of substance for the restoration of the perfect embodiment of the quality of the number twenty-one.


To understand the significance of the number twenty-one, we should first understand the significance of the numbers three, four and seven in the Principle. God, whose dual characteristics exist in harmonious oneness, is a Being of the number three. The creation is perfected when it attains oneness with God in the four position foundation. Thus, for an individual to become perfect, he must form within himself a four position foundation in which the mind and body form a trinity, the center of which is God. For a man and a woman to become a perfect husband and wife, they must build a four position foundation in which they form a trinity with God as their center. For the universe to reach its perfection, it must form a four position foundation in which human beings and the natural world form a trinity with God as their center. Furthermore, for created beings to realize a four position foundation by becoming one centered on God, they must first pass through the three stages of the growing period and complete the three object purpose. For these reasons, the number three is the number of Heaven, or the number of perfection.


When a subject partner and an object partner form a trinity by becoming one centering on God, the resulting union is an individual embodiment of truth which completes the four position foundation. Having thus secured the status of God's creation, it comes to have position and extension in the four directions: north, south, east and west. In this sense, the number four is the number of the earth.


When a created being passes through the three stages of the growing period and builds the four position foundation, it becomes perfectly established in the qualitative dimensions of time and space, respectively. Thus, every creation becomes the perfect embodiment of the number seven, which is the sum of the number of Heaven and the number of earth. This is the reason why the Bible recounts the creation of heaven and earth as having taken seven days. Just as the period of creation fulfills the number seven, any period for attaining completion may be regarded as a period to fulfill the number seven. Looking at the three stages of the growing period in this manner, the period to complete the formation stage, the period to complete the growth stage, and the period to complete the completion stage are each periods which fulfill the number seven. In total, the entire growing period may be regarded as a period to fulfill the number twenty-one.


Examples of indemnity periods of the number twenty-one include the following: After the flood, God had Noah send out a dove three times to foreshadow His providence, which was to be carried out in three stages. The dove was sent out in seven-day intervals; hence the entire period adds up to twenty-one days.6(Gen. 7:4)CEV|KJ|NI; (Gen. 8:10, 12)CEV|KJ|NI When Jacob walked the family course to restore Canaan, he labored in exile in Haran before returning home to Canaan, enduring three seven-year periods which add up to twenty-one years. In the Old Testament Age, there was the 210-year period of the Israelites' exile in Babylon and their return to Israel, which was to restore through indemnity this twenty-one-year course of Jacob. In the New Testament Age, there was the 210-year period from the papal captivity in Avignon to the eve of the Reformation, which was also to restore through indemnity the twenty-one-year course of Jacob.


The growing period is also the period to fulfill the number forty. The first human ancestors were to perfectly embody the quality of the number forty by laying the foundation of faith based on the number forty and then realizing the purpose of creation. Satan's attack at the Fall defiled this number. Hence, the central figures in the providence must fulfill an indemnity period to restore the number forty in laying the foundation of faith. Only on that basis can they lay the foundation of substance for the restoration of the perfect embodiment of the quality of the number forty.


To understand how the number forty is fulfilled in the growing period, we must first study the significance of the number ten. If we divide each of the three stages of the growing period into three sub-stages, we arrive at a total of nine levels. Herein lies the significance of the number nine in the Principle. As a numerical unfolding of the dual characteristics of the invisible God, each of God's creations passes through the nine levels of the growing period. Each then fulfills its purpose of creation when it becomes one with God in the realm of His direct dominion, which constitutes the tenth level. For this reason, we call the number ten the number of unity. God set up the ten generations after Adam to fulfill the indemnity period to restore the number ten before he called upon Noah. By this condition, God wanted to have Noah complete the Will which Adam had left unfinished, and then have him become one with God.


In the four position foundation which Adam and Eve should have established, each position was to pass through the ten levels in their course to maturity, fulfilling in total the number forty. Thus, the course of their maturation was a period to fulfill the number forty, and their four position foundation would have become the perfect embodiment of the number forty. Some examples of indemnity periods of the number forty set up to restore this foundation include: the forty days from the time Noah's ark came to rest on Mt. Ararat until he sent out the dove, the forty years of Moses' life in the Pharaoh's palace, his forty-year exile in the wilderness of Midian, and the forty years in the wilderness during the national course to restore Canaan.


We can deduce that there are two types of periods of the number forty in the providence of restoration. One type is an indemnity period to restore the number four; in restoration, it is multiplied by the number ten, the number of unity, to form forty. The second type is the indemnity period to restore the number forty itself, which Adam should have fulfilled before the Fall, as was just described. The forty years in the wilderness for the national course to restore Canaan was set up to restore both these types of periods of forty at the same time. It restored through indemnity the forty-day spy mission and Moses' forty-day fast, which were periods to restore the number four. It also restored through indemnity Moses' forty years in the Pharaoh's palace and forty years in the wilderness of Midian, which were periods to restore the number forty. Such a phenomenon occurs when the central figure for the foundation of faith is restoring through indemnity horizontally all the vertical indemnity conditions in the history of the providence.


When such a dispensation to horizontally restore periods of the number forty is again prolonged, it can be extended by a rule of multiplication by ten, because the required period of indemnity may have to be expanded through ten stages. Thus, a period of forty years may be expanded to four hundred or even four thousand years. Examples include: the four-hundred-year period from Noah to Abraham, the four hundred years of slavery in Egypt and the four thousand biblical years from Adam to Jesus.


Let us summarize the numerical periods of indemnity a central figure in the providence must fulfill to restore the foundation of faith. Had the first human ancestors not fallen, they would have laid the foundation of faith based on significant numbers, including twelve, four, twenty-one and forty. When they then accomplished the purpose of creation, they would have become the perfect embodiments of the quality of these numbers. Yet due to their fall, all these numbers were claimed by Satan. Therefore, the central figures in providential history must fulfill numerical periods of indemnity to restore the numbers twelve, four, twenty-one and forty before they can restore the foundation of faith. Only on that basis can they lay the foundation of substance for the restoration of the perfect embodiment of the quality of these numbers.




First Rite[edit]


Five Tibetan rite 1

"Stand erect with arms outstretched, horizontal with the shoulders. Now spin around until you become slightly dizzy. There is only one caution: you must turn from left to right."[2] A tip for this is to look at the end of your right hand as a reference point.


St. Dominic and Praying Cruciform

The ancient Dominicans describe seeing their founder standing upright, with his hands and arms completely stretched out, extended like a cross. This cruciform posture of prayer was not uncommon among the saints. There are similar descriptions of St. Francis of Assisi and St. Francis Xavier at prayer. It seems to be a posture of intercession which imitates the prayer of Christ on the Cross. The psalms describe holding one's hands outstretched in intercession and connect this gesture with the soul's thirst for God (Psalm 143:6). Elijah also prayed in this way and worked great miracles (1 Kings 17:21). In Dominic's case, this form of prayer was reserved for special occasions, those moments when he was particularly prompted by the Holy Spirit to reverently ask for a great miracle, like restoring someone back to life.


Number and Time

By Marie-Louise Von Franz




There are eight musicians in a double quartet or an octet. Both terms may also refer to a musical composition for eight voices or instruments.

It has been argued that, as the cardinal number 7 is the highest number of item that can universally be cognitively processed as a single set, the etymology of the numeral eight might be the first to be considered composite, either as "twice four" or as "two short of ten", or similar. The Turkic words for "eight" are from a Proto-Turkic stem *sekiz, which has been suggested as originating as a negation of eki "two", as in "without two fingers" (i.e., "two short of ten; two fingers are not being held up");[2] this same principle is found in Finnic *kakte-ksa, which conveys a meaning of "two before (ten)". The Proto-Indo-European reconstruction *oḱtṓ(w)- itself has been argued as representing an old dual, which would correspond to an original meaning of "twice four". Proponents of this "quaternary hypothesis" adduce the numeral 9, which might be built on the stem new-, meaning "new" (indicating the beginning of a "new set of numerals" after having counted to eight).[3]



In some ways, the Tai xuan is even more complex than its model. While the Yijing is made up of 64 hexagrams, the Tai xuan is made up of 81 tetragrams. In the Yijing, each hexagram line can be solid or broken (representing the polarities of yin and yang). In the Tai xuan, each tetragram line can be solid, broken once, or broken twice (representing the triad of heaven, earth, and man), and each of the 81 tetragrams is correlated with, among other things, yin or yang, one of the “Five Phases,” a hexagram from the Yijing, a constellation, days of the calendar, and a musical note.


In the Tai xuan, each tetragram is articulated though an evolving series of nine appraisals or judgments (whereas in the Yijing, each hexagram is articulated through a series of six line statements). These line appraisals unfold in a cyclical pattern corresponding to periods of time, the transformations of yin and yang, and a continuous cycle of commencement, maturity and decline. The appraisals can also be divided into those that address the commoner, the noble, and the Emperor.


Also, the often obscure correlative-poetic organization of the images and their associated line appraisals can be seen in the Tai xuan commentary “Numbers of the Dark Mystery,” an example of the Han genre of classificatory works known as leishu. For example, “Numbers of the Mystery” correlates the number five with the earth, the color yellow, fear, wind omens, tumuli, the naked animal (humankind), fur, bottles, weaving, sleeping mats, complying, verticality, glue, sacks, hubs, calves, coffins, bows and arrows, stupidity, and the center courtyard rain well. The basis of these associations is analogical; A is to B as C is to D. The organization scheme is fivefold. The five numerical categories (three and eight, four and nine, two and seven, one and six, and five) correspond to the five directions (east, west, south, north, center), the five phases (wood, metal, fire, water, earth), the seasons (spring, autumn, summer, winter, four seasons), the five colors (green, white, red, black, yellow), the five trades (carpentry, metal smithing, working with fire, waterworks, earth works), and the like.


Bandura's social cognitive learning theory states that there are four stages involved in observational learning:[8]


Attention: Observers cannot learn unless they pay attention to what's happening around them. This process is influenced by characteristics of the model, such as how much one likes or identifies with the model, and by characteristics of the observer, such as the observer's expectations or level of emotional arousal.

Retention/Memory: Observers must not only recognize the observed behavior but also remember it at some later time. This process depends on the observer's ability to code or structure the information in an easily remembered form or to mentally or physically rehearse the model's actions.

Initiation/Motor: Observers must be physically and/intellectually capable of producing the act. In many cases the observer possesses the necessary responses. But sometimes, reproducing the model's actions may involve skills the observer has not yet acquired. It is one thing to carefully watch a circus juggler, but it is quite another to go home and repeat those acts.

Motivation: Coaches also give pep talks, recognizing the importance of motivational processes to learning.

The CMYK color model (process color, four color) is a subtractive color model, used in color printing, and is also used to describe the printing process itself. CMYK refers to the four inks used in some color printing: cyanmagentayellow, and key (black). Although it varies by print house, press operator, press manufacturer, and press run, ink is typically applied in the order of the abbreviation.[citation needed]

The "K" in CMYK stands for key because in four-color printing, cyan, magenta, and yellow printing plates are carefully keyed, or aligned, with the key of the black key plate. Some sources suggest that the "K" in CMYK comes from the last letter in "black" and was chosen because B already means blue.[1][2] However, some people disagree with this because C for Cyan is classed as the blue when printing in CMYK format. Some sources claim this explanation, although useful as a mnemonic, is incorrect, that K comes only from "Key" because black is often used as outline and printed first.[3]

I'm a To try to understand a particular phenomenon, one must not only describe the actions of its participants but "interpret" them as well. But interpretation poses a problem for the investigator who has to attempt to classify behavior as belonging to some prior "ideal type". Weber described four categories of "Ideal Types" of behavior: zweckrational (goal-rationality), wertrational (value-rationality), affektual (emotional-rationality) and traditional (custom, unconscious habit).. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.


Left: The Mechanical Christ emerging on stage during the Rock is Dead tour, as seen on the 'Last Tour on Earth' artwork.

Right: Salvador Dalí's surreal 'Christus Hypercubus', 1954. A possible influence for Manson's TV cross. Manson would later continue to seek his inspiration in another of Dalí's mystical crucifixion works, for his 2001 stage performance of 'Cruci-fiction in Space'...


Throughout the 'Mechanical Animals' 1999 tour, another version of the cross, closer to Jodorowsky's invention surfaces as a stage prop which is raised with Manson crucified on it, magnified and eventually set on fire a la Ku Klux Klan, creating a narration that prefigures Manson's Celebritarian philosophy while staying in the vein of his constant and provocative evocation of Fascism in expressionism. For both reasons the resulting image and overall combination can be seen without a doubt as a forerunning symbol of the Holy Wood Gun Crucifix.

A Warhol-esque Manson with eyes aflame, the crucified Mechanical Christ.

"I turned to see the voice that spake with me... and his eyes were as a flame of fire."

Revelation 1:12,14

Left; The Mechanical Christ's "xeroxed hands", appearing almost subliminally when Manson is awaiting for medical consultation, and revealing some kind of gangrenous stigmata caused by needles for his drugs consumption, which causes his amputation. Right; the Wise Men awaiting the Mechanical Christ.
This is not a coincidence. There is also a photo included that shows "END" on a road sign which acts as a reference to the alpha & the omega, the beginning and the end, as detailed in Revelation as well (Omēga also being Manson's main persona during the era). The opening vignette of the video depicts a set up of the three wise men at the manger of Christ's birth, as awaiting the Inauguration of the Mechanical Christ; with the album itself acting as a counterpart to Antichrist Svperstar's parallelism with Lucifer, Mechanical Animals parallels Manson to Christ.

Note to the uninitiated; the 'Inauguration of the Mechanical Christ' was the opening introduction to the Mechanical Animals tour.

The End, Omega & Mechanical Christ.

"God is in the T.V."


Marilyn Manson, Rock Is Dead


Still frame of a deleted scene from Alejandro Jodorowsky's 1973 cult film 'The Holy Mountain', and the original

inspiration for Manson's Mechanical Animals TV cross, according to the master himself.

The TV cross displayed during the 'Rock Is Dead' tour and subsequently set on fire during the 'Hell Outro' of the Sweet Dreams performance.

"Marilyn Manson, the great rock singer, saw a photo of this scene, I suppose, and used it at a music festival. He used this cross.


"The scene of the millionaire's son was taken out because we feared it might be considered as child abuse, as pedophilia. So we thought it was... I didn't think it was necessary."


Alejandro Jodorowsky, The Holy Mountain, deleted scenes commentary.

Cover art of 'The Last Tour On Earth' with TV cross aflame, highly reminiscent of the Ku Klux Klan ceremonial cross burnings aimed at intimidating the Klan's targets, and thus evoking the dichotomy of faith and glorification on one side, and hatred, destruction and blasphemy on the other, aimed at a society dictated by mass media and Christianity, and disturbingly gaining in resonance after the Columbine events. The cross also appeared in the 'Astonishing Panorama' flashcard.

The image would later serve as cover art for the live album 'The Last Tour On Earth', and also appeared on merchandizing items of the era. The burning TV cross thus acts as a new logo, which curiously constitutes a spiteful stab symbolic of Christianity's demise after the Columbine massacre happened in the meanwhile. A sarcastic direction Manson would pursue throughout the Holy Wood era, as detailed in our article: Holy Wood & Psalm 23.


"Kill your God / Kill your T.V."


Marilyn Manson, Astonishing Panorama Of The Endtimes


Hollywood - Named for "Holy Wood" of the Cross

Wow! All I can say is just, "Wow!" It never ever occurred to me that Hollywood a/k/a Tinseltown a/k/a Sodom and Gomorrah, was named after the "Holy Wood" of Christ's Cross.


Pat McNamara, another denizen of the Diocese of Brooklyn, writes about the first Hollywood priest, Father Daniel Murphy, on his blog "McNamara's Blog." Pat explains how Fr. Murphy was ordained in Baltimore in 1899 and then shipped off to assist at the cathedral in Los Angeles. After a four year stint at the cathedral, Father Murphy was then sent to run the parish of "Hollywood" where he built the church of St. Victor. Hollywood had been established in 1769 when Holy Mass was offered by Fr. Junipero Sera, the friar who established the California missions. When a wooden cross was erected in the area, it was given the name "Hollywood".


Maybe there's still hope for Hollywood, having had such an auspicious foundation. Read more of Pat McNamara's post here. It's a fascinating look back at the history of a city that has drifted far from its Catholic roots. And certainly a city for which the image of the holy cross is not the first image that comes to mind.

Manson as an integrally burnt Texan Christ during the 1999 European VMA's in Ireland, with traditional loincloth and the TV cross prop burning in the background, enacting his own destruction and resurrection/survival, naked in front of his ennemies shortly after Columbine. This highly symbolic performance

of 'Rock Is Dead' marked the destruction of the Mechanical Animals era, and announced the thematics of Holy Wood (read Holy Wood & Psalm 23).


Project X is a 2012 American comedy film directed by Nima Nourizadeh and written by Michael Bacall and Matt Drake based on a story by Bacall, and produced by director Todd Phillips.


Project X is a steel wild mouse roller coaster located at Legoland Florida in Winter Haven, Florida, USA. The ride was relocated from Legoland Windsor, where it was called Jungle Coaster.


Single car trains. Riders are arranged 2 across in 2 rows for a total of 4 riders per car. The cars are designed to look like they were built using Lego Technic bricks. When the ride was located at Legoland Windsor, the cars had canopies over them to make them resemble 4x4s.


Project X originally opened at Legoland Windsor in March 2004 under the name of Jungle Coaster. However, it was removed in 2009 due to noise complaints from local residents and replaced with the Legoland Hotel in 2012.


The ride was then relocated to its present location at Legoland in Florida, where it opened with the park on 15 October 2011.


No letter in the English language gets around like X. The 24th letter of the alphabet shows up everywhere, from the popular Xbox to standing in for a signature on legal documents. It represents a chromosome, signifies the multiplication process, and marks “the spot” on treasure maps.


Let’s explore just a few of the uses of this versatile letter.


The story behind the X in Xbox isn’t as mysterious as you might think. The original name was the DirectX box, which came from a group of Microsoft DirectX developers. Microsoft DirectX is a collection of application programming interfaces.


Generation X, or Gen X, refers to the generation born after the Baby Boom ended; its last members graduated from high school in 1999. The photographer Robert Capa coined the term. But Douglas Copeland popularized it with a successful novel published in 1991. “Generation X” tells the story of members of an uncertain and lost generation.


There are a few theories regarding where and when X was first used to signify the unknown. One probable thought is that Descartes used the last three letters of the alphabet as unknowns to correspond with the first three letters, which were used for known quantities. X, of course, was part of this group.


X is often found in friendly and amorous correspondence next to O. In XOXO, X represents a kiss and O represents a hug. The first recorded use of this term for affection was in 1765.


Great Britain was the first country to designate films with raunchy content with X, and the U.S. soon followed suit.


In the same vein, XX on malt liquor stands for “double quality” and XXX stands for “strongest quality.” This designation dates back to 1827.


The right face of the controller features four digital actions buttons; a green "A" button, red "B" button, blue "X" button and yellow "Y" button.

Jewel - "It's actually really simple, um, I was looking for, I like using
numbers instead of words so that it wouldn't give away sort of what the record
is about, you know what I mean? You didn't call the record 'whispers'
(whispers) you know what I mean, that's kind of what you'd expect from the
music, you know what I mean? Um, but... fans have been speculating about it
and like breaking into numerical code that 3 means C and 4 is D so they think
I called my record CD or March 4th so people are coming up with these really
creative solutions so I'm just letting it fly and I'm gonna be ambiguous about
it until I hear a really smart one then I'll adopt it, (laughs).

0304 became the highest-debuting album of Jewel's career, entering the Billboard 200 at number two with 144,000 copies sold in its first week.[14] It earned a gold certification from Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) one month after its release, on July 14, 2003,[15] and had sold over 771,000 copies in the United States as of June 2010.[16]


Eejanaika (ええじゃないか) is a steel 4th Dimension roller coaster at Fuji-Q Highland in Fujiyoshida, Yamanashi, Japan. The ride is the world's second 4th Dimension coaster. Eejanaika is the taller, faster, and longer of the two.[1]


The roller coaster, designed by S&S Arrow, is a "4th Dimension" coaster, a design in which the seats can rotate forward or backward 360 degrees in a controlled spin. This is achieved by having four rails on the track: two of these are running rails while the other two are for spin control. The two rails that control the spin of the seats move up and down relative to the track and spin the seats using a rack and pinion gear mechanism.


Power Tower at Blaine High School is a multi-tower attraction featuring a pair of Space Shot rides and a pair of Turbo Drop rides, arranged in a square-footprint with a crowning marquee and criss-crossed pyramidical arches joining the four rides at their peaks. Power Tower is the only four-towered drop tower ride in the world to date, devoting two towers to each drop cycle. Sixteen new LED lights were installed on Power Tower before the 2012 season.[2]


X2 (formerly known as X) is a steel roller coaster operating at Six Flags Magic Mountain in Valencia, California. It is the world's first 4th Dimension roller coaster and was the final roller coaster conceived and installed by ride manufacturer Arrow Dynamics.


X2 is a unique prototype design in which the seats can rotate forward or backward 360 degrees in a controlled spin. This is achieved by having four rails on the track. Two of these are running rails while the other two are for spin control. The two rails that control the spin of the seats move up and down relative to the main track and spin the seats using a rack and pinion gear mechanism. The ride also has an on-board audio soundtrack.


The prototype vehicle design on X2 allows riders to spin 360-degrees forwards and backwards, independent of the train's primary movement. Weighing 5 tons, each vehicle has a wing-shaped design that spans 20 feet (6.1 m). Riders sit on the outside of the coaster track in pairs. Four, 1-foot (0.30 m) tall rack gears move up and down following the profile of the seat rotation rails below the vehicle. This gear rotates the seats forwards and backwards throughout the ride. Unlike traditional roller coasters, 4th Dimension roller coasters, like X2, have four rails. The seat rotation rails bend up and down slightly pushing the rack gear up and down which in turn rotates the seats.[24] These "rotation" rails don't support the train. The other two rails are for the weight-bearing wheels, capable of supporting these heavy trains.

X-Flight was announced on September 1, 2011. Six Flags Great America was the first park to announce plans for a Wing Coaster in the United States.[2][3] Land clearing started in September 2011 on the former site of Splashwater Falls and the Great America Raceway.[4] The first pieces of the track began to arrive in early October.[5] 127 Caissons (footers), ranging from 30 feet (9.1 m) to 77 feet (23 m) were dug into the ground.[6] On January 27, 2012, the final piece of the lift hill was topped off.[7] The trains for X-Flight arrived at the park on March 2, 2012.[8] In a Chicago Sun-Times article in February, the park said they expect safety tests to start in early April.[9] X-Flight opened for "Xclusive season pass holders" on the weekend of May 12 and opened to the public on May 16.[10][11][12]


Formule X is a Maurer Söhne X-Car roller coaster at Drievliet amusement park in The Hague, the Netherlands. It opened on April 6, 2007. Formule X was the first X-car coaster to have an LSM launch.


Next up is Green Lantern. I think this only happened on the cover and not within the comic itself. Fortunately they only tied his arms and didn't pierce his flesh. I suppose it should also be include that Green Lantern and Green Arrow also encountered an activist who was tied, crucifixion style, to the wing of an airplane. The activist had long hair and a beard, was "crucified" with two others and died at dawn. Yeah, very subtle.


In an alternate reality, Spider-Man was captured by Kulan Gath, an evil wizard from Conan the Barbarian's era and crucified in revenge for a previous defeat. Spider-Man broke the cross and freed himself but died shortly thereafter. Since this is an alternate reality, this didn't result in any long reprecussions.



Superman: The Animated Series and Justice League. Twice, the supervillain Darkseid captured Superman and immobolized him in a crucifix position. The first time, it played very heavy in the episode with Darkseid tempting Superman on a mountain. He later refers to him as the people of Earth's savior. The second time, no allegory was played up. It was just for Darkseid to immobilize Superman.


This is the cover of Animal Man number 5, from January 1989. The issue is entitled Coyote Gospel, and it remains one of Morrison's better-known stories. Animal Man himself is not crucified in this story; that fate symbolically befalls a thinly disguised Wile E. Coyote:


The coyote gave himself up to suffer at the hands of his cruel creator in exchange for the safety for his cartoon animal brethren. We eventually find out that this situation somewhat resembles Animal Man's own in relation to his creator, Grant Morrison. It's all very self-referential, but well worth reading.


Simulated crucifixions have been performed in professional wrestling. On the December 7, 1998, edition of WWF Monday Night Raw, professional wrestling character The Undertaker crucified Steve Austin.[53] On October 26, 1996, in Extreme Championship Wrestling, Raven, during a feud with The Sandman, instructed his Raven's Nest to crucify Sandman.[54]


Crucifixion has been depicted in the television series Xena: Warrior Princess (1995–2001), where its depiction has been cited in feminist studies as illustrating violent and misogynist tendencies within a messianic paradigm.[57]

"Jesus Christ Pose" is the debut single by the American rock band Soundgarden, released in 1991 as the first single from the band's third studio album, Badmotorfinger (1991). The song was included on Soundgarden's 1997 greatest hits album, A-Sides.

The music video for "Jesus Christ Pose" was directed by Eric Zimmerman, who would later direct the music video for "Rusty Cage".[11] The video's intro includes words similar to John 3:16; "And God So Loved Soundgarden He Gave Them His Only Song". The video features the band members wandering around a desert interspersed with various images of crosses, cyborgs, a crucified girl, a crucified skeleton and even vegetables crucified in a human form. Thayil said, "A lot was chosen by the director Eric Zimmerman, and we checked it out and decided what we liked and didn't like."[11] Cornell said, "It was a pretty unanimous decision by the band to have a woman being crucified in the video ... As a visual, it's powerful and it's also challenging to people, because women basically have been persecuted since before recorded history, and it would almost make more sense than seeing a man on it." He also added, "There's upside down crosses and right-side up ones. But there's certainly no blatant direction as far as religious conviction in the video."[11]


Thayil on the "Jesus Christ Pose" music video and controversy:


That was our first single from Badmotorfinger, but it never got any airplay because of the references to Jesus. And MTV wouldn't play the video because they didn't like the idea of a girl on the cross. There are no guitars in the video at all. There's not even a picture of a guitar in the video. It's like this hard, rock-fast, punk-metal video that has no instruments in the whole thing. And it's a six minute video![4]






The central character is the ill-fated protagonist Adam Kadmon[1][45]—a name derived from the Kabbalah which means "original man".[25] Adam travels from Death Valley to Holy Wood. Idealistic and naive, he attempts a revolution,[44] which is usurped and consumed by Holy Wood's ideology of "guns, God and government", as well as its culture of perpetual violence: whereby fame is the primary moral value of a religion deeply rooted in celebrity worship and martyrdom.[27] In this religion, known as "Celebritarianism",[45] dead celebrities are revered as saints, and John F. Kennedy is idolized as a modern Jesus Christ.[2][27][44] Holy Wood's religion parallels Christianity, in that it juxtaposes the dead-celebrity phenomenon in American culture with the crucifixion of Jesus.[2][23][27]

The tolerance of violence within mainstream American culture is the central theme of the record,[46] which takes a critical look at the roles gun culture, conservative American Christianity, and traditional family values play in the glorification of violence.[1] A substantive portion of the album analyzes the cultural role of Jesus Christ, specifically Manson's view that the image of his crucifixion became the origin of celebrity.[47] Manson said that while his previous work argued against the credibility of the Bible's content, for the purpose of Holy Wood, he instead looked for things in the Bible to which he could relate.[29] He developed an opinion that Christ was a revolutionary figure—a person who was killed for having dangerous opinions, and whose image was later exploited and merchandised for financial gain by entities such as the Vatican.[27][29]

Christ's death is also compared to Abraham Zapruder's film of the assassination of John F. Kennedy,[48] which Manson called "the only thing that's happened in modern times to equal the crucifixion."[23] He watched the clip many times as a child, and said it was the most violent thing he had ever seen.[27] John Lennon is also referred to on the album as an assassinated icon.[2] While recording Holy Wood, Manson was drawn to The Beatles' 1968 White Album, due to its reported role in inspiring the Charles Manson "Family" murders, and the parallels he observed between that incident and Columbine, saying: "To my knowledge, it's the first rock n' roll record that's been blamed and linked to violence. When you've got "Helter Skelter" [taken from the Beatles song of the same name] written in blood on someone's wall, it's a little more damning than anything I've been blamed for."

Artwork for the album was designed by Manson and P. R. Brown. Manson began conceptualizing it as he wrote the songs, and Brown and Manson worked in tandem to realize the imagery after deciding to do the work themselves. The cover art, which portrays Manson as a crucified Christ with his jawbone torn off, is intended as a criticism of censorship and America's obsession with martyrs. It is a cropped reinterpretation of The Hanged Man Tarot card.[54]Underneath is an obscured portion of John F. Kennedy's coroner report, displaying the words "clinical record" and "autopsy".[65] The typeface used on the band's name is the same font used on the Disney World logo in the 1960s.[55]

The cover was controversial; editions of the album sold at Circuit City came housed in a cardboard sleeve featuring an alternate cover, while Walmart and Kmart refused to stock the album at all.[66] A pastor in Memphis, Tennessee threatened to go on a hunger strike unless the album was pulled from shelves.[47] Manson described these actions as attempts at censorship: "The irony is that my point of the photo on the album was to show people that the crucifixion of Christ is, indeed, a violent image. My jaw is missing as a symbol of this very kind of censorship. This doesn't piss me off as much as it pleases me, because those offended by my album cover have successfully proven my point."[66] In 2008, Gigwise ranked it at number ten on their list of "The 50 Most Controversial Album Covers of All Time".[67]


Stylized version of the alchemical symbol for mercury, used by the band as a logo for the album and the character of Adam Kadmon[31]

Soundgarden performing in February 2013. From left to right: Kim ThayilMatt CameronChris Cornell and Ben Shepherd.

'Cruci-Fiction In Space'. Manson is seen risen from the stage in a matter very similar to the 'Disposable Teens' video and, literally, crucified in space while performing 'Cruci-Fiction In Space' on the 'Guns, God & Government' tour in 2000-2001.


MDMA has become widely known as ecstasy (shortened "E", "X", or "XTC"), usually referring to its tablet form, although this term may also include the presence of possible adulterants or dilutants. The UK term "mandy" and the US term "molly" colloquially refer to MDMA in a crystalline powder form that is thought to be free of adulterants.[8][9][46] MDMA is also sold in the form of the hydrochloride salt, either as loose crystals or in gelcaps.[47][48]

Original source of Crucifixion in Space drawing

The Cruci-fiction In Space as it appears in the Holy Wood album artwork

"Of this remarkable Oriental drawing, J. P. Lundy has written: 'It looks like a Christian crucifix in many respects, and in some others it does not. The drawing, the attitude, and the nail-marks in hands and feet, indicate a Christian origin; while the Parthian coronet of seven points, the absence of the wood and of the usual inscription, and the rays of glory above, would seem to point to some other than a Christian origin. Can it be the Victim-Man, or the Priest and Victim both in one, of the Hindu mythology, who offered himself a sacrifice before the worlds were?' MPH"

The Crucifixion In Space From Higgins' Anacalypsis

As featured on the Philosophical Research Society website,


"Do you love your guns, your god, your government?" as Manson scathingly indicted on 'The Love Song', against the ideals America holds above all else. The three tools it uses to justify its bigotry, blind-hatred and bloodlust. The gun crucifix symbol which Manson adopted during the 'Holy Wood' era symbolizes that very theme of, literal, violence worship by combining three guns into a symbol of universal worship, the central arm of which is styled after the rifle used to assassinate Kennedy whom America has historically valued as a martyr, or Second Christ, via his very public death. The type of death which both makes the aggregate public reel in horror, and conversely enthralled to complete absorption and consumption of tragedy.


METAL EDGE: How do you see Kennedy as a Christ figure?


MARILYN MANSON: First of all, my theory that I've really been thinking about since I had so much interaction with Christianity after doing 'Antichrist Svperstar', is that Christ was the blue-print for celebrity. He was the first celebrity, or rock star if you want to look at it that way, and he became this image of sexuality and suffering. He's literally marketed - a crucifix is no different than a concert shirt in some ways. I think for America, in my lifetime, John F. Kennedy kind of took the place of that in some ways. He became lifted up as this icon and this Christ figure. I started to, in my weird drugged version of Hollywood, dream up a world where these dead stars are really saints. Jackie O[nassis] is kind of like Mary Immaculate. That's what I was thinking when I was writing the album, and I hinted that in a lot of song like 'Posthuman'.


HOLY WOOD, MERCURY & THE ANDROGYNE | The identity which Manson adopted during 'Holy Wood', as well as the Triptych containing its predecessors 'Mechanical Animals' and 'Antichrist Svperstar'. Mercury is the key element in alchemy which is said to yield the fabled Philosopher's Stone and is the planetary element which bears the influence of artistic and poet flair. Its equivalent in Greek mythology is the God Hermes who is known as 'The Messenger of the Gods'.


A still frame from the 'Coma White' video portraying a crucified and deified Manson in the role of JFK; imagery used to illustrate the manner in which Kennedy had become a "second Christ" in the eyes of America when his televised assassination had made him into a martyr to the popular consciousness.

The story was something that I had in my head, and that's where the songs came from. As the songs came to life the story kind of grew also. It's all really a metaphor for my own life, but the story, without giving away too much, takes place in an alternate dystopia of Hollywood where everything is taken to the extreme. It's sort of Andy Warhol's worst nightmare, combined with Scientology and communism. If you imagined everything was as far as anyone can take it, the way the movie stars are treated. There are a lot of references to the way that I see John F. Kennedy as a modern day Christ and how religion kind of sprouts from that. It's really a strange story, but in the end it's a parable about fame and love and what matters to you the most, but I can't say it's got a happy ending. The video for 'Coma White' is adapted from my script, so it will be a bit of a teaser, a hint at what people can expect... Though I'm sure they won't understand it or make it any clearer.

Metal Edge, July 1999 'Marilyn Manson - Revelations of an Alien-Messiah'

It's the very theme which Manson based his concept of Celebritarianism on and that which has been illustrated time and time again throughout history ; those who have died in a public or exceedingly gruesome manner and then subsequently their death's garner them the status of sainthood in the eyes of the very society that killed them. The gun crucifix was also intended to be used on the cover of Manson's novel 'Holy Wood', which was intended to be released coincidingly with the album to illustrate these themes of death worship, set in an exaggerated and metaphorical variation of America, to portray in allegorical story form the very concepts approached within the album.


The Raj Quartet is a four-volume novel sequence, written by Paul Scott, about the concluding years of the British Raj in India. The series was written during the period 1965–75. The Times called it "one of the most important landmarks of post-war fiction."[1]


The manner of narration is, especially in the first volume, looping and elliptical, shifting from 1942 to 1964 and back again, with detours back to the early 1900s. The voices shift as well as the perspective, from a third-person narrative about the doomed schoolteacher Edwina Crane to a first-person narration by another character, Lady Chatterjee, to a tour of Mayapore one evening in 1964.[8] This shifting chronology, while never confusing, has inspired much discussion.[9][10][11]


The four volumes are:


The Jewel in the Crown (1966)

The Day of the Scorpion (1968)

The Towers of Silence (1971)

A Division of the Spoils (1975)

Anthropologists enumerate four levels of society, noting that they are distinct levels requiring a sort of phase shift to transition from one level to the next. Societies throughout the world undergo transformations along these lines. The four kinds of society are
*Square one: Bands
*Square two: Tribes
*Square three: Chiefdoms
*Square four: States.
Bands consist of small kin groups, no larger than an extended family or clan. The first square is conservative and related to the family. Bands are egalitarian and ideal. Idealists tend to like the notion of egalitarianism and sharing. They are sensitive, as is the nature of the first square. Tribes are societies based largely on kinship, especially corporate descent groups. The second square is the most related to family. Tribes are not completely egalitarian, and are not extremely hierarchical. There are usually two classes, the chiefs and the commoners.
Chiefdoms led by chiefs, occur when multiple tribes get together. In chiefdoms there is more inequality, probably due in part to the fact that there is more genetic diversity. Chiefdoms are also more violent; the third square is always very violent. In the Bible King David was apparently a chief. Anthropologists point out that in cultural stories of mythic heroes the chiefs are often related to gods, or depicted as somewhat distant or separate from the people--the chiefs often kill their subjects. King David is depicted as possibly not completely related to Israel. Rabbis say that he was possibly the offspring of his Israelite mother, and possibly a Philistine father. David reportedly killed many people, including Israelites. A single lineage/ family elite usually rules a chiefdom. Chiefdoms are very violent, and according to most Anthropologists this is due to the fact that there is more genetic diversity, and more hierarchy and division. These societies are divided among kings, nobles, freemen, and serfs. The Artisan is a dreamer and known to be violent in their search for “more”. The consequence of this dynamic is stratification.
A state is formed when Chiefdoms get together to create complex social hierarchies, organization, and institutional governments. This is like the Rational. States have elements of all of the previous three types of society, but transcend them in complexity and effectiveness--the nature of the fourth square.

Game theory is used by biologists and psychologists to explain the behavior of organisms. The fundamental game of game theory is the prisoner’s dilemma. The movie, “The Beautiful Mind”, is about the man who came up with this theory, and how he discovered it. He is considered to have suffered from schizophrenia. Richard Dawkins, in studying game theory, discovered that nice guys do not finish last, but actually finish first. There is a common concept that the bad guy gets the girls. But evolutionary biologists think that nice guys actually are more likely to survive and spread their genes. Nash equilibriums and the prisoner's dilemma are essentially the quadrant model. The prisoner’s dilemma is
*Square one: both players cooperate -1,1
*Square two:player 1 cooperates player 2 defects 0, -10
*Square three: player 1 defects player 2 cooperates -10, 0
*Square four: both players defect -5, -5.
Game theory studies decision making, and what decisions yield the best results. Dawkins concludes that based on game theory nice guys should finish first, and evidence in the real world may indicate the same.


The oceans also fit the quadrant model pattern. They are
*Square one: Pacific Ocean
*Square two: Atlantic Ocean. These two are the duality
*Square three: Indian Ocean
*Square four: Antarctic Ocean
*Square five: Arctic Ocean. The fourth and the fifth are always very connected. The fourth points to the fifth. The Antarctic and Arctic names sound the same. The fourth is the true word. The fifth is the true light.


Historically, there are four named oceans: the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Arctic


The Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian are known as the three major oceans.


The Southern Ocean is the 'newest' named ocean. It is recognized by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names as the body of water extending from the coast of Antarctica to the line of latitude at 60 degrees South. The boundaries of this ocean were proposed to the International Hydrographic Organization in 2000. However, not all countries agree on the proposed boundaries, so this has yet to be ratified by members of the IHO. The U.S. is a member of the IHO, represented by the NOS Office of Coast Survey.

The four Continents of the Earth were once connected but separated to four separate bodies of land. They fit the quadrant model pattern. According to the principle underlying the quadrant model of connectivity between quadrants, it makes sense that all of the continents were once connected. The squares are separate, but very interlinked. This principle is seen in the forces of physics. There are four forces, but physicists say that these forces were all once one. They are separate, but they are also connected. The continents are
*Square one: Afro-Eurasia
*Square two: America
*Square three: Antarctica
*Square four: Australia--the fourth always seems to not belong. It is often not thought to be a separate continent.

In evolutionary psychology are found Tinbergen's four questions. Tinbergen was a Dutch biologist who studied animal behavior. The questions are:
*Square one: Causation--also called mechanisms. Causation asks what the stimuli are that create the response, and questions how the response has been modified by recent learning.
*Square two: Development--also called ontogeny. This questions how the behavior changes with age and what early experiences were necessary for the behavior to appear.
*Square three: Function--also called adaptation. This questions how the behavior affects the animal's chances of survival and reproduction. This one is about doing; Function is doing. That is the nature of the third square.
*Square four: Evolution--also called phylogeny. This is how the behavior affects similar behavior in similar species, and how it may have arisen due to evolution. The question asks why structural associations evolved in the way they did. There is a connection between the second square and the fourth square; the second square is culture, and the fourth social/society. The second square is the word, and the fourth square is the true word. Freud said that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, indicating that in the human womb the embryo evolves along the evolutionary history of life that led to humans. For instance, at first the embryo looks like a fish, then it looks like an amphibian, then it looks like a reptile, then it looks like a rodent, and it seems to evolve through the evolutionary history of life in its development to look like a human.

These four concepts yield four types of effects. Operant conditioning is centered around the quadrant model pattern.
*Square one: Positive reinforcement—an effect that happens when a response is followed by a rewarding stimulus, causing the behavior to increase. For instance, food can be given to a dog whenever it barks, and as a result the behavior of barking will increase.
*Square two: Negative reinforcement. This effect Skinner calls punishment, which happens when a response is followed by a stimulus, such as a shock, that causes the behavior to decrease. For instance, a shock that hurts a dog can be given to a dog until it barks, and then it stops being shocked. In this case when the operator wants the dog to bark the shocking continues it until the dog barks.
*Square three: Positive punishment--happens when a response is followed by a stimulus, such as producing a shock until the behavior decreases. The positive

aspect of this denotes the addition of a stimulus, such as a shock, that decreases the frequency of the behavior. An example is that whenever the dog barks the shock occurs, causing the dog to stop barking.
*Square four. Negative punishment. Skinner also calls this penalty. This happens when a response is followed by the removal of a stimulus, resulting in a decrease in behavior. An example of this would be, whenever the dog barks, food is withheld; as a result the dog stops barking.

The science of Psychology identifies four emotions. Scientists say that there are four basic emotions, although they used to think there were six.
*Square one: sad. The Idealist is sad because of being aware of so much, needs help, and is overwhelmed.
*Square two: happy. Guardians are happy because they successfully belong.
*Square three: mad/disgust. Artisans are mad because of their drive to achieve and be an authority figure.

*Square four: Scared/surprised. Insights evoke the emotion of surprise. Also being in the flow because being “on the edge” results in not knowing what is going to happen next, after much contemplation (insights occur that are unexpected). This emotion is associated with the insightful, rational temperament.

There is a famous model of competence. In the model there are two dichotomies. One is conscious and unconscious and the other is competent incompetent. The dualities yield four results.
Square 1: Unconscious incompetence. This is the idealist. Idealists are abstract which corresponds to being unconscious. But they are cooperative which corresponds to being incompetent. Cooperative people do what others do and what brings social harmony as opposed to what works. Unconscious incompetent relates to response, which is the first quadrant. When you respond you are not necessarily conscious of what you are doing and not necessarily competent. You are just reacting.
Square 2: Conscious incompetence. This corresponds with the guardian. Guardians are concrete, which relates to being conscious. Concrete people are aware of what’s going on and the facts of things and their surroundings. But guardians are cooperative, which means they are incompetent. They do what is socially right as opposed to what works. This relates to behaving which is the second quadrant. When you behave you do what others tell you to do because you are not competent.
Square 3: Conscious competence. This corresponds to the artisan. Artisans are concrete so they are conscious. They are utilitarian so they are competent. Conscious competence relates to doing which is the third quadrant.
Square 4. Unconscious competent. This corresponds to the rational. Unconscious competence relates to the flow, which is the fourth quadrant. When you are good at something and it is unconscious then you flow.
Square 5. There is a theoretical fifth level. The fifth is always questionable. This is conscious competence after being unconscious competent. This is becoming conscious of what you do unconsciously. The fifth level is the God level.


Psychiatrists use the Diagnostic and statistical Manual to diagnose diseases. The history of the manual fits the quadrant model pattern.
Square 1: DSM 1- The DSM 1 saw mental illnesses as reactions to stimuli. The first square is response, which is about reactions to stimuli- ie responses, which is quadrant 1. 
Square 2: DSM 2- Was more influenced by Freud. The DSM 2 saw homosexuality as a mental illness. The second square is always more strict and more moral. But the criticism of it was it was not scientific. The third square involves thinking so therefore should be more scientific.
Square 3: DSM 3- The DSM 3 begins to sell mental illnesses as due to biological imbalances of chemicals in the brain. The third square is always the most physical, and the DSM 3 elucidates mental disorders as physical phenomena.
Square 4: DSM 4- Homosexuality is no longer seen as a mental illness. The third and fourth squares are less into morality and rules and less strict. It adds upon the previous three DSMS. The DSM 4 is more complex and adds a lot of names and nomenclature. The fourth is always transcendent and a lot different from the first three.
Square 5: DSM 5- Very similar to the DSM 4. The fourth always points to the fifth. Many psychiatrists say that the DSM 5 is not needed. The fifth is always questionable.

There are four Parenting styles that reflect the quadrant model pattern. There are also two dichotomies that yield the four attachment styles. One dichotomy is self esteem and

thoughts about self; this is either positive or negative. The other dichotomy is sociability and thoughts about others. This is either positive or negative.
*Square one: Secure; The secure attachment type has positive thoughts about self and positive thoughts about others. The secure attachment type is related to the idealist. Abstract thought is related to positive thoughts about yourself. Abstract thinkers see the oneness and connection of things. If you are abstract you will have a positive thought about yourself. Being cooperative means that you see others positively. Cooperative people are themselves trustworthy, so they see others as similar to themselves, and thus trust others. Idealists are themselves trustworthy. They are responsible. People look at others through their own lenses. Because idealists are trustworthy, idealists trust others. Idealists, recall, are easily persuaded by authority. Idealists trust authority.
*Square two: Anxious-preoccupied; Anxious preoccupied people have negative thoughts about themselves and positive thoughts about others. This attachment type is associated with the guardian, who is concrete and cooperative. Concrete people are not abstract thinkers. They do not see the connections of things and the oneness of things. Concrete people may not be extremely confident in their own intellectual abilities. Thus guardians do not have necessarily positive thoughts about themselves. Guardians, however, are cooperative. Guardians themselves are very loyal. Remember, the second quadrant is belief and faith behavior and belonging. People who behave listen to orders. Guardians respect orders and trust authority. Guardians are faithful and make good friends because they are loyal and look at others through the lens of their own consciousness. Guardians thus have positive thoughts about others.
*Square three: Fearful-avoidant personality types have negative thoughts about themselves and others. The third square is associated with the Artisan temperament, which is concrete and utilitarian. Being utilitarian, they are spontaneous, do what they want and what they think works ,and care less about conforming to social considerations, maintaining the status quo, and not ruffling up feathers. As a result Artisans cannot be totally trusted and can therefore be considered “bad” or destructive. Artisans want respect and will be willing to hurt people to gain it, often putting themselves first before others. Being not too cooperative or trustworthy, they see others the same way. Thus they have negative thoughts about others. The third square has a quality of being destructive and bad. The fearful-avoidant attachment style is seen basically as a negative style.
*Square four: Dismissive-avoidant; Dismissive avoidant people have positive thoughts about themselves and negative thoughts about others. The fourth square is associated with the rational temperament. Rationals are abstract and utilitarian. Abstract people can see connections and understand patterns and understand things deeply. Abstract people tend to think positive thoughts about themselves.


The phrase four-letter word refers to a set of English-language words written with four letters which are considered profane, including common popular or slang terms for excretory functions, sexual activity and genitalia, terms relating to Hell or damnation when used outside of religious contexts or slurs. The "four-letter" claim refers to the fact that a large number of (but not all) English "swear words" are incidentally four-character monosyllables. This description came into use during the first half of the twentieth century.[1]


Common four-letter words (in this sense) that are widely considered vulgar or offensive to a notable degree include: cunt, fuck (and regional variants such as feck, fick and foak), jism (or gism), jizz, shit, twat and tits. Piss (formerly an offensive swear word) in particular, however, may be used in non-excretory contexts (pissed off, i.e. "angry", in US English and British UK English ; pissed, i.e. "drunk" in UK English) that are often not considered particularly offensive, and the word also occurs several times with its excretory meaning in the King James Bible. Several of these have been declared legally indecent under the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) TV and radio open-airwave broadcasting regulations.


A number of additional words of this length are upsetting to some, for religious or personal sensitivity reasons, such as: arse (UK), damn, crap, hell, piss, wang, and wank (UK). Racist, ableist, and slurs pertaining to an individual's sexual orientation may also qualify, such as mong (in the UK not a racial slur, but short for Mongol, or someone with Down's Syndrome - previously called Mongolism), gook, kike, spic, coon, dago and dyke. Several "four-letter words" have multiple meanings (some even serving as given names), and usually only offend when used in their vulgar senses, for example: cock, dick, knob, muff, puss, shag (UK) and toss (UK). A borderline category includes words that are euphemistic evasions of "stronger" words, as well as those that happen to be short and have both an expletive sound to some listeners as well as a sexual or excretory meaning (many also have other, non-vulgar meanings): butt (US), crud, darn, dump, heck, poop (US), slag (UK, NZ, AUS), slut and turd, as several examples. Finally, certain four-lettered terms with limited usage can be considered offensive by some, within the regional dialect in which they are used, such as mong and mary.


Occasionally the phrase "four-letter word" is humorously used to describe common words composed of four letters. Typical examples include the word work, implying that work can be unpleasant, or the game of golf, jokingly referred to as a four-letter word when a player's pastime becomes an exercise in frustration. Charlotte Observer journalist Doug Robarchek noted in 1993 how many politicians have names with four letters, "Ever notice how many U.S. politicians have names that are also four-letter words? Ford, Dole, Duke, Bush, Gore . . . and how many make us think of four-letter words?"[2]


Polish: the word dupa ("arse"/"ass") is called cztery litery ("the four letters"). Historically, also kiep, which formerly used to be a taboo word meaning "female genitals", but presently is a mild or humorous insult meaning "a fool". There is also a phrase Siadaj na cztery litery (sit down on your four letter), meaning sit on your arse.


In popular culture[edit]

Cole Porter's 1934 song "Anything Goes" includes the line "Good authors too who once knew better words, now only use four-letter words. Writing prose, anything goes."

Cheap Trick's 1982 album One On One finishes with a song titled "Four Letter Word".

The fact that love is a word with four letters has been used in several popular songs, including "Love Is Just a Four-Letter Word" written by Bob Dylan and performed by Joan Baez, "Four Letter Word" written by Ricki and Marty Wilde and performed by Kim Wilde, "4 Letter Word" written by Claude Kelly and Matt Squire and performed by David Cook.

A television show called Love Is a Four-letter Word was produced by ABC in Australia.[3]

The Cardigans in their song "For What It's Worth", use the "four letter word" expression several times.

The band Cake made a play on words in their song "Friend Is a Four Letter Word."

In a song sung by Cilla Black and covered by The Smiths, "Work Is a Four-letter Word," this phrase is used to describe work as obscene.

Work Is a Four-Letter Word is the title of a 1968 British comedy film.

That Four-Letter Word is a 2006 independent film from India.

Welsh punk band Four Letter Word, formed in 1991, named themselves after the phrase.

Jack Ingram's song "Love You", uses love as a play on another four letter word: "Yeah, I'm sick an' lovin' tired of all your lovin' around".

Metallica uses the line "Love is a four-letter word" in the song "The Day That Never Comes" from their album Death Magnetic.

A Four Letter Word is also the title of a 2007 gay-themed movie starring Jesse Archer and Charlie David.

R&B singer Raheem DeVaughan used the "love" meaning in his song "Four Letter Word" on his 2008 album Love Behind The Melody.

"Four Letter Word" is also the title of a 2003 song by Def Leppard.

American punk-rock band Gossip released a track entitled 'Four Letter Word' on their 2009 album Music For Men.

The 2007 Cold in California album by Ingram Hill includes a track entitled 'Four Letter Word.'

The opening track of Beady Eye's 2011 album Different Gear, Still Speeding is entitled 'Four Letter Word.'

Echobelly on their album On (Echobelly album) included a song named: 'Four Letter Word.'

Love Is a Four Letter Word, 2012, Jason Mraz

Chocolate Starfish have a track called 'Four Letter Word' on their eponymous album.

The song "Counting Stars" by OneRepublic features the line "hope is a four-letter word"

The song "Irresistible" by Fall Out Boy features the line 'You know I give my love a four letter name'

The band Shock Therapy sang a song 'Hate is just a four letter word'

The song "How We Do ('93 Til)" by Freddie Gibbs features the line "love is a four-letter word like fuck and shit, so love you can suck my dick."[4]

Sleep is an important subject of study in psychology. Dreaming is very common during sleep. Sleep is divided into four stages that reflect the quadrant model pattern.
*Square one: NREM--stage 1: This first stage of sleep is marked by alpha waves and theta waves in the brain. During this stage the sleeper many experience hypnagogic hallucinations. The first square personality type is the Idealist who, being very aware, is said to be subject to having hallucinations; they are highly intuitive, but their grasp of reality is often not firm. Frequent jokes are made that Idealists believe in things like fairies.
*Square two: NREM--stage 2, the second stage of sleep. Sleep spindles and k complexes, which are types of brain waves, are associated with this stage. The person is now firmly asleep. Interestingly, psychologists hypothesize that this stage is linked with homeostasis in the body. The second stage is always homeostasis..
*Square three: NREM--stage 3, the third stage of sleep, also known as deep sleep. This stage is marked by delta waves in the brain. It is interesting that this is the stage in which sleep walking, sleep talking, and bedwetting occurs. Remember that the third square is the doing square. The third square is also destructive and associated with negative things. The first two squares are more conservative. The third square though is breaking out of the comfort. Sleep walking and sleep talking is doing. Also this is the stage of sleep that is associated with night terrors, where people have very disturbing, scary dreams.
*Square four: REM sleep--stage 4. The first three squares are always extremely similar, whereas the fourth always has a very different quality. The first three are non-rapid eye movement stages of sleep; the fourth is called rapid eye movement. During this stage the body is completely paralyzed. The fourth square is associated with death--the paralysis of the body is like a death.
The debates regarding continuums and distinct stages in psychology occur in the understanding of sleep stages. In the quadrant model there are separate but connecting squares; all are interlinked, but very distinct. This is the nature of the squares in the quadrant model.


Another very famous model of childhood development is the Piaget model in which four stages of childhood development are outlined; they can be viewed as aligning with the quadrant model pattern.
*Square 1: the sensorimotor stage. This stage is from birth to 2 years. The square is Wilbur's instinctual stage of consciousness. In this stage an infant understands the world through the sensations. The first quadrant is sensation,  
perception, response, and awareness. During this stage infants lack object permanence. If you put an object in front of an infant, and hide it, the infant thinks it disappeared. Even after initially wanting it, the infant will lose interest in it. The first square is the Idealist temperament connoting gullibility. The first square is awareness. When aware of something, while not completely understanding it there is only “a sense” of what it is—only an impression without a firm grip on reality. This is the nature of infants in Piaget's first stage of development.
*Square two: preoperational stage. This stage is from 2 to 7 years. This quadrant of belief, faith, behavior, and belonging is associated with Wilbur's magical, religious stage of consciousness. Children now have object permanence, are. less gullible, but are not yet rational. Their thinking is magical and pre-rational. They have a quality of consciousness called animism leading them to think that spirits and gods are behind everything. They can be irrational and unable to do comparison tasks. Children are social in this stage, but are unable to recognize that others have a perspective differing from their own. They enjoy talking to other children; the second square is always social. But again, the children have difficulty being aware of the views of others--when they talk it is more like they are talking to themselves. During this stage they are obsessed with morality as they learn about right and wrong. The nature of the second stage is moral. The third square of the second quadrant is behavior. Keirsey’s guardian is associated with this stage.
*Square three: Concrete operations; this stage is from 7 to 11 years. The third square corresponds with Wilbur's rational, interpersonal stage of consciousness. During this stage children can do comparison tasks and take the perspective of others. This is the thinking, emotion, doing, and dreaming stage of development. They are more rational, but have a difficulty with abstract thought--the child's thoughts are able to be manipulated in the absence of the object. Piaget claims that their ideas are dominated by appearances, and by doing; the third square is about doing. This stage is related to Keirsey's Artisans who are logical but not good at abstractions and contemplation.
*Square four: Formal operational stage. This stage of development is from 11 years to 16 years. Children now are able to contemplate, think abstractly, and compose complex thoughts. The fourth quadrant is contemplation and knowledge. Children can imagine possible worlds that are very different from their usual experience. This is known as hypothetic-deductive reasoning. The adolescent can now use propositional logic to make assertions without real world circumstances readily present. In the concrete operational stage, in contrast, children need to have concrete evidence to make assertions. This stage is related to a Rational, who is contemplative and seeks knowledge and Truth.
*Square five: Some psychologists following Piaget have asserted that there is a fifth stage of development; the fifth square is always questionable. Debates in psychology center around whether processes are continuums or distinct stages. Piaget and others predict distinct stages, which progress via phase transitions, as do states of matter in physics in which things are either a solid, liquid, gas, or plasma, but are clearly not a continuum. Biologists note that these distinct stages in Piaget's model are marked by abrupt changes in the brain and language capacities.

There is another personality model linked to the big 5, named the “16 personality factor model”, which measures sixteen personality factor traits. Again, this model is aligned with the quadrant model of reality pattern having 16 squares.
The Freudian model of child development coincides with the quadrant model pattern. Four stages of development are postulated.
*Square one: Oral. Freud believed that the stage of development from birth to one year of age is associated with the mouth. He believed that children during this stage are either orally aggressive or orally passive. He claimed that an oral stage fixation led people to be passive, immature, gullible, and manipulative. These are qualities often associated with the Idealist who can passively submit to authority. Tending to be immature they have difficulty differentiating reality from fiction. An Idealist may be more likely to believe that a mythical figure literally did the supernatural things ascribed to him, 
even claiming to believe when not believing. They can be manipulative and disingenuous in attempts to inspire others.
*Square two: Anal. Freud identified the anal stage of development was occurring between 1 and 3 years of age. This stage is associated with the bowel and bladder. Freud coined the phrases anal retentive and anal expulsive. The former are very organized and neat; the latter are careless, defiant, disorganized, and reckless. This stage again is associated with organization. That is the nature of the second stage. The second stage is about homeostasis. The amount which somebody is anal means how much he is into homeostasis. The Keirsey equivalent is the Guardian who tends to be more planned, organized, and concerned with maintaining the status quo.
*Square three: Phallic. Freud believed that the phallic stage of development occurs from 3 to 6 years of age. He associated this stage with the genitalia, believing that during this stage the male child starts experiencing the oedipal complex--wanting to kill the father and have sex with the mother. The female child on the other hand starts feeling the Elektra complex--Elektra was a Greek goddess who wanted to kill her mother and have sex with her father. Carl Jung also considered the possible existence of the Elektra Complex. The third square--the doing square—has a bad and destructive connotation. The total oedipal complex has a negative quality to it. By contrast the first two squares are more conservative. The personality type related to the third square is the Artisan who tends to be destructive.
*Square four: Latency. The latency stage of development occurs from age 6 to puberty. During this stage there are dormant sexual feelings and sexual lack of fulfillment. The fourth square is always associated with sex and knowledge. This stage has a quality of being different from the other three, which are associated with enjoying the body and having fun. The fourth alway has a quality of being very the rational.

*Square five: Genital. The Genital stage goes from puberty to death. Freud declares that in this stage sexual interests mature. The consequence of psychological fixation in this stage Freud says is frigidity, impotence, and unsatisfactory relationships. The fourth and fifth stages are extremely linked, both being related to sex. The fifth stage builds on the fourth reflecting the nature of the quadrant model pattern. The fourth stage is the true word.; the fifth stage is the true light.

A very popular model among psychologists regarding personality is the “Big 5” Personality Traits model. The model was earlier called the “Big 4”, but after further factor analysis psychologists came to the conclusion that there is a fifth personality factor. Some psychologists note that existence of the fifth personality factor is somewhat questionable—a quality expressed in the fifth square.
The five factors of the Big 5 fit the quadrant model pattern.
*Square 1: Openness to experience. People are either inventive and curious, or consistent and cautious. The first square is the mind square. Openness has to do with curiosity. Idealists, the first quadrant temperament, are very curious. The idea of openness has a connotation of being linked with the mental. The first square is very mental. Openness has the quality of being intellectual, and related to an appreciation for novelty. Idealists are very interested in the bizarre, and spiritual things, liking to read science fiction and often practicing meditation. Their love of nature makes them more likely to believe in supernatural things like levitation, etc. Idealists are sensors and perceivers. To sense something implies not quite “having a handle on it”. Idealists have the tendency to be not extremely rational; they can get carried away, having a difficult time distinguishing between the possible and impossible, or the real and unreal often explaining their uncertainty as having a supernatural force behind it.
*Square two: Conscientiousness. People are either efficient and organized, or easy going and careless. The second square is associated with organization and homeostasis. Conscientiousness connotes an ability to be organized, disciplined, and dutiful. Guardians are very disciplined, reliable, faithful, well planned, and on time. They are important to a smooth running, orderly society. In the presence of too many Artisans and perceptive individuals, and too few judgers chaos will reign.
*Square three: Extraversion. People are either outgoing/energetic or solitary/reserved. Extraversion is associated with what you do in this model. The third square is about doing.
*Square four: Agreeableness. People are either friendly and cooperative or analytical and distant--suspicious and antagonistic. The fourth square is social and always connotes being in a larger context. Agreeableness connotes relating positively to the outside world.
*Square five: Neuroticism. People are either sensitive and nervous or secure and confident. Neuroticism is associated with the tendency to have unpleasant

emotions like anger, anxiety, depression, and a feeling of vulnerability. It is often related to emotional stability. The first four squares are the sensor, perceiver, responder, and the aware person. The fifth square is the belief square, belief has an emotional valence. Neuroticism is questioned as a separate factor; the fifth is always questionable and somewhat detached.

According to biologists there are four types of DNA. DNA recall, is the blueprint for creating organisms. DNA tells proteins what to do, and proteins build organisms. DNA is passed from parents to offspring. Different types of DNA are passed by Moms and Dads. The types of DNA are
*Square one: Y Chromosomal DNA
*Square two: X Chromosomal DNA. Notice how the first two are the duality
*Square three: Autosomal DNA
*Square four: Mitochondrial DNA.

The mechanism of inheritance for genetics was considered a mystery before Mendel. At first nobody noticed his work; he died with his work unnoticed. But now Mendelian genetics is considered the mechanisms of inheritance. Based on punnett squares, which are essentially quadrants. The model punnett square is a dihybrid cross in which two

heterozygote parents cross their genes.
Four possibilities emerge:
*Square one: BB—two dominant alleles, and yields blue
*Square two: Bb—one dominant, one recessive allele, and yields blue 
*Square three: bB--one recessive allele, one dominant allele, and yields blue
*Square four: bb--two recessive alleles, and yields green. 

The first three squares are the same--the nature of the quadrant model. The first three are very connected, and the fourth is very different. Mendel was a monk, more evidence that science and religion have always been connected. Religion was possibly the first example of scientific inquiry. Science has always contributed to religious knowledge, and religion has always contributed to scientific knowledge. An example of this is that scientists say that there was a big bang during which something came out of nothing, a proposition close to what is found in the Bible.

The human embryo divisions are based on the quadrant model pattern. Biologists have been unable to determine the reasons behind the the germ layer divisions. The human
embryo divisions are Re-presentations of the Quadrant Model of Reality—they are the Real and Intangible Form of Existence presented in discernible form.  
The germ layers of the embryo are:
*Square one: endoderm. Forms the digestive tube and the lining cells of the glands that form the digestive tube, including those of the liver and pancreas, the epitheliumm of the auditory tube and tympanic cavity; the trachea bronchi and air cells of the lungs; th urinary bladder and part of the urethra, and the follicle lining of the thyroid gland and thymus. The endoderm forms the stomach, colon, liver, pancreas, urinary bladder, epithelial parts fo the trachea, lungs pharynx, thyroid, parathyroid, and trachea.
*Square two: Mesoderm. The chorda-mesoderm develops into the notochord. The intermediate mesoderm develops into kidneys and gonads. The paraxial mesoderm develops into cartilage, skeletal muscle, and dermis. The lateral plate mesoderm develops into the circulatory system, which includes the spleen and heart, and the wall of the gut, and wall of the human body .The mesoderm forms muscle, bone, cartilage, connective tissue, adipose tissue, the circulatory system, the lymphatic system, the serous membrane, the notochord, the dermis, and the genitourinary system. This square is structure. The first two squares are the duality. They seem to form structures that are conservative and for homeostasis. The nature of the first two squares are both more conservative. The second square is the most about structure and homeostasis.
*Square three: ectoderm. The ectoderm generates the outer layer of the embryo, and it forms from the embryo's epiblast. The ectoderm develops into the surface ectoderm, neural crest, and the neural tube. The surface ectoderm produces hair, epidermis, lens of the eye, nails, cornea, tooth enamel, sebacesous glands, and the epithelium of the mouth and nose. The neural crest of the ectoderm produces the adrenal medulla, the peripheral nervous system, melanocytes, facial cartilage, and dentin of teeth. The neural tube of the ectoderm yields the spinal cord, motor neurons, the brain, the retina, and posterior pituitary. As you can see motor neurons and things associated with movement like the adrenal medulla are in the third layer. The third layer is solid and about doing.
*Square four: Neural crest. The fourth layer is different from the previous
three. Sometimes it is not even considered a different germ layer, but due to its importance, biologists consider it a fourth germ layer. The fourth is always different, questionable, and always somewhat transcendent.

Neurons are the functional units of the brain. Scientists think that thoughts are the product of the firing of electrochemical action potentials among neurons in the brain. The structure of the neuron divisions is based on the quadrant model pattern.
*Square one: dendrites
*Square two: cell body--forms the structure, characteristic of the second square

*Square three: axon, the third, action square where electrical stimulus travels. The third square is associated with action.
*Square four: synaptic terminal. The fourth part is social/society, is always different from the previous three, and points to a larger context--this leads to a new neuron.


The IX monogram or XI monogram is a type of early Christian monogram looking like the spokes of a wheel, sometimes within a circle.[1]

The IX monogram is formed by the combination of the letter "I" or Iota for IHSOYS (Ιησους, Jesus in Greek) and "X" or Chifor XPISTOS (Χριστος, Christ in Greek). The spokes can also be stand-alone, without the circle. These monograms can often be found as ancient burial inscriptions.[2][3]

  • Constantinople Christian sarcophagus with XI monogram, circa 400.


The staurogram (⳨), also monogrammatic cross or tau-rho,[1] is a ligature composed of a superposition of the letters tau (Τ) and rho (Ρ).

The staurogram was first used to abbreviate stauros (σταυρός), the Greek word for cross in very early New Testament manuscripts such as P66, P45 and P75, almost like a nomen sacrum, and may visually have represented Jesus on the cross.[2]


The Tau-Rho as a Christian symbol outside its function as nomen sacrum in biblical manuscripts appears from c. the 4th century, used as a monogramma Christi alongside the Chi-Rho and other variants, spreading to Western Europe in the 5th and 6th centuries.[3]


Ephrem the Syrian (4th century) discusses a Christian symbol, apparently combining the Tau-Rho with Alpha and Omega placed under the left and right horizontal arms of the Tau. Ephrem says that the Tau represents the cross of Jesus (prefigured by the outstretched hands of Moses in Exodus 17:11), the Alpha and Omega signify that the crucified Christ is "the beginning and end", and the Rho, finally, signifies "Help" (βοήθια [sic]; classical spelling: βοήθεια), because of the numerological value of the Greek word being 100, represented by Rho as a Greek numeral.[4]


The two letters tau and rho can be found separately (not in ligature) as symbols already on early Christian ossuaries.[5] Tertullian (Contra Marcionem 3.22) explains the Tau as a symbol of salvation by identification with the sign which in Ezekiel 9:4 was marked on the forehead of the saved ones.[2] The rho by itself can refer to Christ as Messiah because Abraham, taken as symbol of the Messiah, generated Isaac according to a promise made by God when he was one hundred years old, and 100 is the value of rho.[5]:158


The staurogram is encoded by Unicode in the Coptic block, at U+2CE8 ⳨ Coptic Symbol Tau Ro, and as of Unicode 7.0 (2014) also in the Ancient Symbols block, at U+101A0 𐆠 greek symbol tau rho. The Coptic block has a ligature of the full word σταυρός, where the τρ is represented by the staurogram, and two lunate sigmas are attached to either side of the tau's horizontal bar, at U+2CE7 ⳧ Coptic symbol Stauros.

solidus minted under Anastasius I Dicorus (struck in Constantinople between 507–518). On the obverse is Victory standing left, holding a staff surmounted by a staurogram.


The Chi Rho (/ˈkaɪ ˈroʊ/; also known as chrismon or sigla[1]) is one of the earliest forms of christogram, formed by superimposing the first two (capital) letters—chi and rho (ΧΡ)—of the Greek word ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ (Christos) in such a way that the vertical stroke of the rho intersects the center of the chi.[2]


The Chi-Rho symbol was used by the Roman emperor Constantine I (r. 306–337) as part of a military standard (vexillum). Constantine's standard was known as the Labarum. Early symbols similar to the Chi Rho were the Staurogram (Christliche Symbolik (Menzel) I 193 2.jpg) and the IX monogram (Christliche Symbolik (Menzel) I 193 4.jpg).


In pre-Christian times, the Chi-Rho symbol was also to mark a particularly valuable or relevant passage in the margin of a page, abbreviating chrēston (good).[3] Some coins of Ptolemy III Euergetes (r. 246–222 BC) were marked with a Chi-Rho.[4]


Although formed of Greek characters, the device (or its separate parts) are frequently found serving as an abbreviation in Latin text, with endings added appropriate to a Latin noun, thus XPo, signifying Christo, "to Christ", the dative form of Christus.[5]


The Chi Rho symbol has two Unicode codepoints: U+2627 ☧ Chi Rho in the Miscellaneous symbols block and U+2CE9 ⳩ Coptic symbol Khi Ro in the Coptic block.


According to Lactantius,[6] a Latin historian of North African origins saved from poverty by the Emperor Constantine I (r. 306–337), who made him tutor to his son Crispus, Constantine had dreamt of being ordered to put a "heavenly divine symbol" (Latin: coeleste signum dei) on the shields of his soldiers. The description of the actual symbol chosen by Emperor Constantine the next morning, as reported by Lactantius, is not very clear: it closely resembles a Chi-Rho or a staurogram (Christliche Symbolik (Menzel) I 193 2.jpg), a similar Christian symbol. That very day Constantine's army fought the forces of Maxentius and won the Battle of the Milvian Bridge (312), outside Rome.



Emperor Constantine's labarum, a standard incorporating the wreathed Chi-Rho, from an antique silver medal.

Eusebius of Caesarea (died in 339) gave two different accounts of the events. In his church history, written shortly after the battle, when Eusebius hadn't yet had contact with Constantine, he doesn't mention any dream or vision, but compares the defeat of Maxentius (drowned in the Tiber) to that of the biblical pharaoh and credits Constantine's victory to divine protection.


In a memoir of the Roman emperor that Eusebius wrote after Constantine's death (On the Life of Constantine, circa 337–339), a miraculous appearance is said to have come in Gaul long before the Battle of the Milvian Bridge. In this later version, the Roman emperor had been pondering the misfortunes that befall commanders that invoke the help of many different gods, and decided to seek divine aid in the forthcoming battle from the One God. At noon, Constantine saw a cross of light imposed over the sun. Attached to it, in Greek characters, was the saying "Τούτῳ Νίκα!".[7] Not only Constantine, but the whole army saw the miracle. That night, Christ appeared to the Roman emperor in a dream and told him to make a replica of the sign he had seen in the sky, which would be a sure defence in battle.


Eusebius wrote in the Vita that Constantine himself had told him this story "and confirmed it with oaths" late in life "when I was deemed worthy of his acquaintance and company." "Indeed", says Eusebius, "had anyone else told this story, it would not have been easy to accept it."


Eusebius also left a description of the labarum, the military standard which incorporated the Chi-Rho sign, used by Emperor Constantine in his later wars against Licinius.[8]


Late antiquity[edit]


The so-called "Chrismon of Saint Ambrose" (Chrismon Sancti Ambrosii), on display on the eastern wall of Milan Cathedral, a Chi-Rho combined with Alpha and Omega in a circle. According to Landulf of Milan (12th century), it was used by Saint Ambrose to introduce the catechumens to the mysteries of the Christian faith (whence it was called "oracle" or chresmos of St. Ambrose, written by Landulf as crismon, whence the later New Latin term for the Chi-Rho symbol).[9]

An early visual representation of the connection between the Crucifixion of Jesus and his resurrection, seen in the 4th century sarcophagus of Domitilla in Rome, the use of a wreath around the Chi-Rho symbolizes the victory of the Resurrection over death.[10]


After Constantine, the Chi-Rho became part of the official imperial insignia. Archaeologists have uncovered evidence demonstrating that the Chi-Rho was emblazoned on the helmets of some Late Roman soldiers. Coins and medallions minted during Emperor Constantine's reign also bore the Chi-Rho. By the year 350, the Chi-Rho began to be used on Christian sarcophagi and frescoes. The usurper Magnentius appears to have been the first to use the Chi-Rho monogram flanked by Alpha and Omega, on the reverse of some coins minted in 353.[11] In Roman Britannia, a tesselated mosaic pavement was uncovered at Hinton St. Mary, Dorset, in 1963. On stylistic grounds, it is dated to the 4th century; its central roundel represents a beardless male head and bust draped in a pallium in front of the Chi-Rho symbol, flanked by pomegranates, symbols of eternal life. Another Romano-British Chi-Rho, in fresco, was found at the site of a villa at Lullingstone (illustrated). The symbol was also found on Late Roman Christian signet rings in Britain.[12]


Insular Gospel books[edit]

In Insular Gospel books, the beginning of Matthew 1:18, at the end of his account of the genealogy of Christ and introducing his account of the life, so representing the moment of the Incarnation of Christ, was usually marked with a heavily decorated page, where the letters of the first word "Christi" are abbreviated and written in Greek as "XPI", and often almost submerged by decoration.[13] Though the letters are written one after the other and the "X" and "P" not combined in a monogram, these are known as Chi-Rho pages. Famous examples are in the Book of Kells and Book of Lindisfarne.[14] The "X" was regarded as the crux decussata, a symbol of the cross; this idea is found in the works of Isidore of Seville and other patristic and Early Medieval writers.[15] The Book of Kells has a second Chi-Rho abbreviation on folio 124 in the account of the Crucifixion of Christ,[16] and in some manuscripts the Chi-Rho occurs at the beginning of Matthew rather than mid-text at Matthew 1:18. In some other works like the Carolingian Godescalc Evangelistary, "XPS" in sequential letters, representing "Christus" is given a prominent place.[17]


The Chi-rho symbol with Alpha and Omega, Catacombs of Domitilla, Rome,_Domitilla-Katakomben,_Steintafel_mit_Inschrift,_Alpha_und_Omega_und_Christussymbol_Chi_Rho.jpg

Alpha (Α or α) and omega (Ω or ω) are the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, and a title of Christ and God in the Book of Revelation. This pair of letters are used as Christian symbols,[1] and are often combined with the Cross, Chi-rho, or other Christian symbols.

The letters Alpha and Omega in juxtaposition are often used as a Christian visual symbol (see examples). The symbols were used in early Christianity and appear in the Roman catacombs. The letters were shown hanging from the arms of the cross in Early Christian art, and some crux gemmata, jeweled crosses in precious metal, have formed letters hanging in this way, called pendilia; for example, in the Asturian coat of arms, which is based upon the Asturian Victory Cross. In fact, despite always being in Greek, the letters became more common in Western than Eastern Orthodox Christian art. They are often shown to the left and right of Christ's head, sometimes within his halo, where they take the place of the Christogram used in Orthodox art.