In the late 1970s, Garry Marshall was credited with adding the fourth camera (known then as the "X" Camera, and occasionally today known as the "D" Camera) to the multi-camera set-up for his series Mork & Mindy. Actor Robin Williamscould not stay on his marks due to his physically active improvisations during shooting, so Marshall had them add the fourth camera just to stay on Williams so they would have more than just the master shot of the actor.[5][6] Soon after, many productions followed suit and now having four cameras (A, B, C and X or D) is the norm for multi-camera situation comedies.

Diagram showing a multicamera setup


Strictly 4 My N.I.G.G.A.Z... is the second studio album by rapper Tupac Shakur, released by T.N.T. Recordings, Interscope Records and EastWest Records America on February 16, 1993



Instruments on the Philae lander found at least sixteen organic compounds at the comet's surface, four of which (acetamideacetonemethyl isocyanate and propionaldehyde) have been detected for the first time on a comet


In Christianity, Lectio Divina (Latin for "Divine Reading") is a traditional Benedictine practice of scriptural reading, meditation and prayer intended to promote communion with God and to increase the knowledge of God's Word.[1]It does not treat Scripture as texts to be studied, but as the Living Word.[2]

Traditionally, Lectio Divina has four separate steps: read; meditate; pray; contemplate. First a passage of Scripture is read, then its meaning is reflected upon. This is followed by prayer and contemplation on the Word of God.

The roots of Scriptural reflection and interpretation go back to Origen in the 3rd century, after whom St. Ambrose taught them to St. Augustine.[7][8] The monastic practice of Lectio Divina was first established in the 6th century by Saint Benedict and was then formalized as a four-step process by the Carthusian monk Guigo II during the 12th century.[3] In the 20th century, the constitution Dei verbum of the Second Vatican Council recommended Lectio Divina to the general public and its importance was affirmed by Pope Benedict XVI at the start of the 21st century.[9]

Guigo II's book The Ladder of Monks is subtitled "a letter on the contemplative life" and is considered the first description of methodical prayer in the western mystical tradition.[19] In Guigo's four stages one first reads, which leads to think about (i.e. meditate on) the significance of the text; that process in turn leads the person to respond in prayer as the third stage. The fourth stage is when the prayer, in turn, points to the gift of quiet stillness in the presence of God, called contemplation.[3][20]

Guigo named the four steps of this "ladder" of prayer with the Latin terms lectio, meditatio, oratio, and contemplatio.[3] In the 13th century the Carmelite Rule of St. Albert prescribed to Carmelites the daily prayerful pondering on the Word of God, namely to ruminate day and night the Divine Law. Lectio Divina alongside the daily celebration of liturgy is to this day the pillar of prayer in Carmel.

While the Lectio Divina has been the key method of meditation and contemplation within the BenedictineCistercian and Carthusian orders, other Catholic religious orders have used other methods.

An example is another four-step approach, that by Saint Clare of Assisishown in the table opposite, which is used by the Franciscan order.[37]Saint Clare's method is more visual than Guigo II's which seems more intellectual in comparison.[37]

The four movements of Lectio Divina. Clockwise from top left: Lectio ("read"); Meditatio ("meditate"); Oratio ("pray"); Contemplatio ("contemplate").


The hexadecagonal tower from Raphael's The Marriage of the Virgin

A hexadecagrammic pattern from the Alhambra

In the early 16th century, Raphael was the first to construct a perspective image of a regular hexadecagon: the tower in his painting The Marriage of the Virginhas 16 sides, elaborating on an eight-sided tower in a previous painting by Pietro Perugino.[5]


A hexadecagrammic pattern from the Alhambra

Hexadecagrams (16-sided star polygons) are included in the Girih patterns in the Alhambra.[6]


In the spring of the fifth year of his reign, in May 1274 BC, Ramesses II launched his campaign from his capital Pi-Ramesses (modern Qantir). The army moved beyond the fortress of Tjel and along the coast leading to Gaza.[20]Ramesses led an army of four divisions: AmunRe (P're), Seth(Suteh) and the apparently newly formed Ptah division.[21]


The initial model, the C-130A used a three bladed propeller to absorb the 4050 shp of Allison T56-9 turboprops.


Later models used a four bladed propeller as the engine power was increased to 4590 shp in Allison T56-A-15 turboprops.

The world loves 2×2 matrices – they help make complex issues appear simple. Unfortunately though, some complex issues are complex and need far more information to support effective decision making and action. The apparent elegance of a 2×2 view or the world quickly moves from simple to simplistic.

One such situation is managing project and program stakeholders and convincing the stakeholders affected by the resulting organisational change that change is necessary and potentially beneficial. As a starting point, some stakeholders will be unique to either the project, the overarching program or the organisational change; others will be stakeholders in all three aspects, and their attitude towards one will be influenced by their experiences in another (or what others in their network tell them about ‘the other’).

The problem with a simple 2×2 view of this complex world is the assumption that everyone falls neatly into one of the four options and everyone categorised as belonging in a quadrant can be managed the same way. A typical example is:


Marr earned a reputation as a maverick genius with his Japhetic theory, postulating the common origin of CaucasianSemitic-Hamitic, and Basque languages. In 1924, he went even further and proclaimed that all the languages of the world descended from a single proto-language which had consisted of four "diffused exclamations": sal, ber, yon, rosh. Although the languages undergo certain stages of development, his method of linguistic paleontology claims to make it possible to discern elements of primordial exclamations in any given language. One of his followers was Valerian Borisovich Aptekar, and one of his opponents was Arnold Chikobava.

Most modern linguists and philologists say that they do not know for sure how and when language first appeared, but Marr had a theory. He claimed that speech, in the form of several different languages, emerged in lots of different places simultaneously. He believed that the sounds of the languages arose via collective human activity and it was the socio-economic nature of the society that determined the language. Over the years he worked to discover the minimum number of semantic elements that formed the basis of all the world's languages and he finally got this number down to four. So, what he was saying was that all the words in all the languages of the world could ultimately be traced back to four 'words' or elements, namely sal, ber, yon and rosh.








Climate and geography divide human populations

For a brief period, from about 10,000 years ago to about 500 years ago, the rising seas at the end of the last ice age divided the world into four non-connected geographic zones. Isolated from one another, four groups of people developed distinct lifeways and conducted their own experiments in human culture.

What are world zones?

In his book Maps of Time, David Christian describes the division of the world into four world zones, which helps him analyze and explain human history. Many other historians have recognized the two largest world zones — Afro-Eurasia, which they often call the “Old World,” and the Americas, which they call the “New World.” But Christian was living in Australia, and preferred looking at the whole world. These are the four world zones that he uses:

01 - Afro-Eurasia: Africa and the Eurasian landmass, including offshore islands like Britain and Japan

02 - The Americas: North, Central, and South America, plus offshore islands like the Caribbean Islands

03 - Australasia: Australia and the island of Papua New Guinea, plus neighboring islands in the Pacific Ocean

04 - The Pacific: Island societies such as New Zealand, Micronesia, Melanesia, Hawaii


A world zone is simply a large region of human interaction, linked geographically, culturally, economically, and sometimes politically. It may have a hundred thousand to millions of people living in different types of communities. Each of the four world zones functioned as a separate world, not in regular contact with other zones until Europeans sailed to the Americas late in the 15th century. The world today no longer has four separate world zones — our world is increasingly global.

For most of human history, humans existed only in Afro-Eurasia. Homo sapiens migrated to Australasia about 60,000–50,000 BCE and to the Americas about 20,000–15,000 BCE. Human interaction continued among these three areas until the melting at the end of the Ice Age caused sea levels to rise sufficiently to drown the land bridge between Asia and the Americas. There never was a land bridge between Australasia and Afro-Eurasia; a significant sea passage always existed, which is why the arrival of humans in Australasia seems such an achievement. But the passage between Afro-Eurasia and Australasia became wider, and harder to cross, after the seas rose.

The rising of the seas occurred sometime after humans got to the Americas, creating three separate world zones. The fourth world zone, the Pacific Islands, did not emerge until humans became skilled enough at sailing to reach these islands — sometime in the past 4,000 years. Hence three of the four world zones operated from about 10,000 BCE to about 1500 CE, while the fourth functioned only from about 2000 BCE to 1500 CE. After 1500 CE, extensive travel by sea connected all of the zones and established the first global exchange network.


What the four world zones reveal

The rising seas cut off the four groups of humans from each other long enough for them to develop different experiments in culture and civilization, but not so long that they would develop into separate species. How amazing is that?

Comparing human societies is a bit like deciding whether a glass is half full or half empty. You can notice how different human societies are from each other, or you can exclaim how similar they are to one another. World history and anthropology courses usually focus on the differences in human societies in the four world zones. Big history courses focus instead on the similarities of different human societies, even though they were completely separated from each other for quite a long period.

Agrarian civilizations emerged only in the two largest world zones for very specific reasons. A closer look at the four zones demonstrates that some zones had more advantages than others. Afro-Eurasia was so much larger, with better plants for food and animals better suited for transportation, that civilization emerged there several thousand years earlier than in the Americas. This gave peoples from Afro-Eurasia a decisive edge when they arrived in the Americas and found civilizations similar to theirs in structure, but earlier in their development.

The smaller two world zones were so much smaller in their habitable land mass, available resources, and population that they did not reach the density of people required for civilization in the time allowed. On the larger Pacific islands, like Hawaii and New Zealand’s North Island, agriculture emerged, and something very close to states. Would these societies have become states/civilizations if they had not been interrupted by conquest from the larger zones? We can never know.

In most areas of the Australasian world zone people remained foragers until the arrival of the Europeans. Agriculture did emerge in the highlands of Papua New Guinea, but their root crops could not be stored in large quantities and villages were not easily connected. Hence, political structures beyond village life did not emerge. On the Australian mainland, widespread agriculture never developed. Soil was poor and, by chance, the available species of plants were not easy to domesticate. Still, archaeological sites show that the population was increasing in the two millennia before Europeans arrived.

When you compare the four zones, it’s easy to see the advantages that people living in Afro-Eurasia had over the other regions. Its people had a head start with the earliest human habitation, the greatest geographic area, and the largest population. Afro-Eurasia also had the most varied resources and the largest networks of collective learning, which contained more — and more diverse — information than those networks existing in the smaller zones.


South Park is an American adult animated sitcom created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone and developed by Brian Graden for the Comedy Central television network. The show revolves around four boys—Stan Marsh, Kyle Broflovski, Eric Cartman, and Kenny McCormick—and their bizarre adventures in and around the titular Colorado town.


Quaternary ammonium cations, also known as quats, are positively charged polyatomic ions of the structure NR+

4, R being an alkyl group or an aryl group.[1] Unlike the ammonium ion (NH+

4) and the primary, secondary, or tertiary ammonium cations, the quaternary ammonium cations are permanently charged, independent of the pH of their solution. Quaternary ammonium salts or quaternary ammonium compounds (called quaternary amines in oilfield parlance) are salts of quaternary ammonium cations.


Quaternary ammonium salts are used as disinfectants, surfactants, fabric softeners, and as antistatic agents (e.g. in shampoos). In liquid fabric softeners, the chloride salts are often used. In dryer anticling strips, the sulfate salts are often used. Spermicidal jellies also contain quaternary ammonium salts.


As antimicrobials[edit]

Quaternary ammonium compounds have also been shown to have antimicrobial activity.[8] Certain quaternary ammonium compounds, especially those containing long alkyl chains, are used as antimicrobials and disinfectants. Examples are benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, methylbenzethonium chloride, cetalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, cetrimonium, cetrimide, dofanium chloride, tetraethylammonium bromide, didecyldimethylammonium chloride and domiphen bromide. Also good against fungi, amoebas, and enveloped viruses,[9] quaternary ammonium compounds are believed to act by disrupting the cell membrane.[citation needed] Quaternary ammonium compounds are lethal to a wide variety of organisms except endospores, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-enveloped viruses.


Quaternary ammonium compounds are cationic detergents, as well as disinfectants, and as such can be used to remove organic material. They are very effective in combination with phenols. Quaternary ammonium compounds are deactivated by anionic detergents (including common soaps). Also, they work best in soft waters.[citation needed] Effective levels are at 200 ppm. They are effective at temperatures up to 100 °C (212 °F).


Quaternary ammonium salts are commonly used in the foodservice industry as sanitizing agents.


As phase transfer catalysts[edit]

In organic chemistry, quaternary ammonium salts are employed as phase transfer catalysts (PTCs). Such catalysts accelerate reactions between reagents dissolved in immiscible solvents. The highly reactive reagent dichlorocarbene is generated via PTC by reaction of chloroform and aqueous sodium hydroxide.


Fabric softeners[edit]

In the 1950s, distearyldimethylammonium chloride (DHTDMAC), was introduced as a fabric softener. This compound was discontinued because the cation biodegrades too slowly. Contemporary fabric softeners are based on salts of quaternary ammonium cations where the fatty acid is linked to the quaternary center via ester linkages; these are commonly referred to as betaine-esters or ester-quats and are susceptible to degradation, e.g., by hydrolysis.[10] Characteristically, the cations contain one or two long alkyl chains derived from fatty acids linked to an ethoxylated ammonium salt.[11] Other cationic compounds can be derived from imidazolium, guanidinium, substituted amine salts, or quaternary alkoxy ammonium salts.[12]



Quaternary ammonium compounds are present in osmolytes, specifically glycine betaine, which stabilize osmotic pressure in cells.[13]


Plant growth retardants[edit]

Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) reduces plant height by inhibiting the production of gibberellins, the primary plant hormones responsible for cell elongation. Therefore, their effects are primarily on stem, petiole and flower stalk tissues. Lesser effects are seen in reductions of leaf expansion, resulting in thicker leaves with darker green color.[14]


Glycine betaine is a naturally occurring quaternary ammonium cation. Its degradation product, trimethylamine, is responsible for the odor of spoiled fish.


The optic chiasm is an X-shaped structure formed by the crossing of the optic nerves in the brain. The optic nerve connects the brain to the eye.


To biologists, the optic chiasm is thought to be a turning point in evolution. It is thought that the crossing and uncrossing optic nerve fibers that travel through the optic chiasm developed in such a way to aid in binocular vision and eye-hand coordination.



Anatomy of the Optic Chiasm

At the optic chiasm, nerve fibers from half of each retina cross over to the opposite side of the brain. The fibers from the other half of the retina travel to the same side of the brain. Because of this junction, each half of the brain receives visual signals from the visual fields of both eyes.

Wolverine, beaten and bruised, hangs from a wooden X outside the X-Men's base camp. Donald Pierce, Wolverine's captor, continues to torment the shackled Wolverine, who begins to hallucinate. In his delusions, in actuality one of Gateway's "Dreamtimes", Wolverine witnesses the past. He watches the X-Men return from their trip to the Savage Land. Next, he is visited by phantoms of various acquaintances, both friends and foes. He sees his own return to town, and his subsequent capture. Again, his vision returns to the arrival of the four X-Men from the Savage Land. As the Reavers approach the X-Men's position to attack, Psylocke opens the Siege Perilous and telepathically cajoles the X-Men to enter. Arriving too late, Pierce is furious at the loss of his prey. Back to reality and the present, the town comes under the fury of a powerful storm that seems to be encircling the whole globe. While the Reavers wait out the tempest inside, Jubilee summons the courage to approach Wolverine. To her surprise, Wolverine frees himself from his X-shaped crucifix. Lacking the strength to even stand, Wolverine asks the young Jubilee for help.


Beyonce releases sexy crucifixion picture in bid to sell new album 4

Beyonce, who makes tens of millions of dollars a year, has even released a bra-less raunchy crucifixion image.


The 29-year-old singer, known for more than the odd wardrobe malfunction on stage, has promised to release further shots before the release of her first album in three years, 4, Beyonce's fourth studio album.


In two of the photos Beyonce is topless save for two furry gillets and her long blonde hair, while in another she is seen staring into a mirror in a corset.


It is the crucifixion image that is most controversial, with her legs spread between two ropes. In another shot, she shows off her couture pose in a white layered dress with a navy basque.


"The album is definitely an evolution. It’s bolder than the music in my previous albums because I’m bolder. The more mature I become and the more life experiences I have, the more I have to talk about," Beyonce said of 4.


"I really focused on songs being classics, songs that would last, songs that I could sing when I’m 40 and when I’m 60."


On Sunday (GMT), Beyonce will appear at Glastonbury in England to finish the four day festival.

The first image that stood out that made me really jazzed was the El Camino doing donuts on the asphalt with her micro-mini braids and stretched out fur-coat covered arms forming the sign of the cross. That was a dope image. In my own artistic practice, I am fascinated when black pop-culture icons use their bodies to reference the cross. I wonder, is the body the physical cross? And if so, what is being crucified upon it?


levi strauss canonical formula fourfold quantum interaction fourfold hermitian matrices and pauli mtrices fourfolds


3 The canonical formula and quantum interaction. The relation between the left hand side and the right hand side of the canonical formula can be treated as a transformation, that is, Fx(a) : Fy(b) → Fx(b) : Fa−1 (y).According to Morava, “Le ́vi-Strauss is describing a logical system in which truth-values lie in an algebraic system called a noncommutative group” [18, p.55]. The noncommutative group is identified as the quaternion group of or- der eight with the elements Q = {±1, ±i, ±j, ±k}, with the noncommutative productoperationdefinedasij = k = −ji,jk = i = −kj,ki = j = −ik, ii=jj=kk=−1,and(−1)2 =1.Let us define an antiautomorphism λ : Q → Q as λ(i) = k, λ(j) = −i, and λ(k) = j. Assigning x → 1, a → i, y → j, and b → k, this automorphism reproduces the canonical formula [8].The Pauli matrices are a set of three 2 × 2 complex matrices which are Hermitian and unitary. They are: 01 0−i 1 0 σx= 10 , σy= i0 , σz= 0−1 .Together with the identity matrix I, they form a basis for the real Hilbert space of 2 × 2 complex Hermitian matrices. Each Pauli matrix is related to an operator that corresponds to an observable describing the spin of a spin-1/2 particle, in each of the corresponding three spatial directions.The real linear span of {I , iσx , iσy , iσz } is isomorphic to the real algebra of quaternions H. The isomorphism from H to this set is given by the following map:1 →I, i →−iσx, j →−iσy, k →−iσz. (3)Since any 2 × 2 complex Hermitian matrices can be expressed in terms of the identity matrix and the Pauli matrices, 2 × 2 mixed states, that is, 2 × 2 positive semidefinite matrices with trace one, can be represented by the Bloch sphere. This can be seen by simply first writing a Hermitian matrix as a real linear


The twelve jewels in the breastplate were each, according to the Biblical description, to be made from specific minerals, none of them the same as another, and each of them representative of a specific tribe, whose name was to be inscribed on the stone. According to a rabbinic tradition, the names of the twelve tribes were engraved upon the stones with what is called in Hebrew: שמיר = shamir, which, according to Rashi, was a small, rare creature which could cut through the toughest surfaces,[6] but according to Rabbi David Kimhi and Rabbi Jonah ibn Janah, was a stone stronger than iron (possibly Naxian stone).[7][8] The word has its equivalent in the Greek, σμήρις (smeris).[9]


There are different views in classical rabbinical literature as to the order of the names; the Jerusalem Targum, for example, argued that the names appeared in the order according to which they were born. Maimonides describes the jewel stones arranged in four rows, saying that on the first stone belonging to Reuben were also engraved the names of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, while on the last stone belonging to Benjamin were also engraved the words, the tribes of God;[10] kabbalistic writers such Hezekiah ben Manoah and Bahya ben Asher argued that only six letters from each name was present on each stone, together with a few letters from the names of Abraham, Isaac, or Jacob, or from the phrase [these are] the tribes of Jeshurun, so that there were 72 letters in total (72 being a very significant number in Kabbalistic thought).[1]


There was also a different order for the names inscribed on the two "onyx" stones, carried on the High Priest's shoulders. One opinion suggests that the names of the twelve tribes were arranged in groups after their mothers: Leah's six sons aligned one after the other on one stone, with Judah heading this list, followed by Rachel's sons with the names of the concubines' sons interposed between the two sons of Rachel.[11]


Unfortunately, the meaning of the Hebrew names for the minerals, given by the masoretic text, are not clear,[1] and though the Greek names for them in the Septuagint are more clear, some scholars believe that it cannot be completely relied on for this matter because the breastplate had ceased to be in use by the time the Septuagint was created, and several Greek names for various gems have changed meaning between the classical era and modern times.[1] However, although classical rabbinical literature argues that the names were inscribed using a Shamir worm because neither chisels nor paint nor ink were allowed to mark them out,[12][13] a more naturalistic approach suggests that the jewels must have had comparatively low hardness in order to be engraved upon, and therefore this gives an additional clue to the identity of the minerals.[4] Others suggest that they were engraved with emery, having the similar property of a diamond used in cutting other stones and which was called in Greek σμήρις (smeris).


Explanation of the symbolic meaning of the jewels generated a great deal of both Jewish and Christian writing, and was a staple component of the tradition of lapidaries or books on gemology.


The jewel stones are as follows (the first item in each row is probably the right hand side, as Hebrew is a right to left script):


First row[edit]

Part of a series of articles on

Priesthood in Judaism


Kohen · Recognition of priestly descent

Priestly covenant


High Priests[show]

Twenty-four kohanic gifts[show]

Priestly Garments[show]

Miscellaneous topics[show]

v t e

Odem (אֹדֶם‎, in the masoretic text) / Sardios (in the Septuagint) - both names mean red (Odem is cognate with Adam), and probably refers to Sard, an immensely common stone in classical cultures.[4] All authors agree that this stone was of a red colour.[14] With due respect to the Septuagint, Odem might also refer to Carnelian, which was flesh-coloured, or to Jasper, which was usually a deep blood-red, was valued as a charm against bleeding, and was common in the surrounding nations of Egypt, Babylonia, and Assyria.[1] The Chinese Union Version refers to this stone as being a ruby.

Pit'dah (פִּטְדָה = in the masoretic text) / Topazios (in the Septuagint) - despite the suggestion of the Septuagint that it was Topaz, Topaz was scarcely known at the time the Book of Exodus was written (according to both the traditional dating of the book and that by critical scholars);[4] in the classical era, topazios referred to Topazos Island on which a particular yellow mineral was mined (topazios means to seek, in reference to the difficulty in finding the island).[1] Others suggest that topaz was merely peridot, a light green semi-precious stone, and which stone in the ancient world was found primarily on Topazos Island as well as on St. John’s Island (Zabargad) in the Egyptian Red Sea. The word pit'dah is thought by scholars to be connected with the Assyrian word hipindu, which refers to something that flashed (presumably meaning shimmered), and thus the jewel in question would fit the description of Chrysolite, a translucent greenish yellow mineral, common throughout the Levant,[1] and particularly found on a particular island in the Red Sea, under the control of the Egyptian Pharaoh.[4]

Bareḳet (בָּרֶקֶת = in the masoretic text) / Smaragdos (in the Septuagint) - Bareketh etymologically means ‘lightning flash’, whence shimmering or shiny. Smaragdos is cognate with Emerald, and literally means green stone, but is somewhat of a false friend as the Greek term could apply to a number of different green gems, not just the emerald in particular. Smaragdos was often used in Greek literature to refer to an intensely bright crystal found in columnar formations.[1] Emerald in the proper sense of green beryl exists locally in Egypt. Items carved from emerald are known from as early as the 12th Dynasty, 1900s BCE, during the Bronze Age. But these emeralds are random finds, and not actively mined until the Ptolemaic period. Cleopatra, the last of the Ptolemies, is famous for her love for the Egyptian emerald. Other minerals resembling emerald are heliodor (taking into account the implication of Smaragdos that it was green) and rock crystal (ignoring the literal meaning of Smaragdos, since the masoretic text doesn't appear to specify colour);[4] there is much to be said for Smaragdos being either of those.[4] Although “emerald” is the most common form used to describe the Hebrew word, bareḳet, in other sources (e.g. the Septuagint on Ezek. 28:13), the word bareḳet is rendered as “onyx.” Aquilas the proselyte (Onkelos), in his Aramaic translation of the Pentateuch, writes בָרקָן = barḳan, for this word. According to the Midrash Rabba (Numbers Rabba 2:7), the stone called bareḳet had veins or parallel bands of colours white, black and red running through it, suggesting that it may have actually been a kind of agate or onyx. This may explain why in some French translations the word is rendered as “agate.” In the South Arabian dialect spoken in Yemen during the Middle Ages, baḳarani (believed to be a corruption of barḳan) was an exceptionally beautiful and rare onyx stone mined on Mount Anis, in Yemen, one variety of which having a red surface with a vein of white over another of black running through it.[Note 2] Symmachus, an ancient Jewish translator whose Greek translation of the Pentateuch appeared in Origen's Hexapla, has also written κεραύνιος (= onyx) for the stone known in Hebrew as bareḳet in Exo. 28:17.[Note 3]

Second row[edit]

Nofekh (נֹפֶךְ = in the masoretic text) / Anthrax (in the Septuagint) - while Anthrax simply means coal (presumably here referring to the colour of burning coal), the Vulgate here has Carbunculus, referring to the Carbuncle, which was red.[4] Philo of Alexandria, when writing about this stone, says that it was red. He seems to be in agreement with Josephus,[17] the LXX, and the Jerusalem Targum, the latter saying that it is כדכדנא, explained by Saadia Gaon as meaning karkand, a red variety of precious stone. Nofekh appears to be a loan word; it may derive from the Egyptian term m-f-k-t, referring to Malachite or Turquoise, both of which are a greenish blue;[4] it may instead derive from lupakku, a term appearing in the Amarna letters, referring to a mineral of unknown colour which was sent in tribute to Akhnaten from Ashkalon. In classical rabbinical literature there is some debate between whether Nofekh was red or greenish blue; Exodus Rabbah and the second Jerusalem Targum favour it being red, while the Babylonian Targum and first Jerusalem Targum favour it being green.[1]

Sapir (סַפִּיר = in the masoretic text) / Sapphiros (in the Septuagint) - despite appearing to refer to Sapphire, Sapphire was essentially unknown before the era of the Roman Empire and its use in Greek texts is believed to be a mere transliteration of the Hebrew. Once it became more known, it was treated as merely being a form of hyacinth or of jacinth.[1] It is more likely that the term Sapir referred to a mineral of similar colour to Sapphires, and that the name gradually came to refer to the latter mineral, on account of its colour; scholars think the most likely candidate is lapis lazuli, a stone with a deep, ocean-blue colour which was frequently sent as a gift to Akhenaten from Babylon.[1][4] Theophrastus mentions the stone sapphirus as being "dark" and having the "colour of verdigris," as well as being "speckled as of with gold."[18] By all accounts, his description fits the lapis-lazuli.

Yahalom (יָהֳלֹם = in the masoretic text) / Onychion (in the Septuagint) - in some other places the Septuagint instead has Beryllios where the masoretic reads Yahalom.[4] The word Yahalom appears to be connected with the Hebrew meaning strike hard, and possibly with the word hallamish meaning flint;[4] hallamish is connected to the Assyrian word elmeshu, referring to a precious stone which was hard, and possibly white, or at least with an insignificant colour, and from which whole rings were sometimes made.[4] A few scholars have suggested that Yahalom may refer to diamonds, owing to their hardness, though the skill of cutting diamonds had not been discovered before the classical era.[1] Although the Septuagint's Onychion is the Greek term for Onyx, Onyx was not mined prior to the era of classical Greece. Onyx is derived from the Greek for fingernail, due to the pink-white veining.[Note 4] In the Syriac Peshitta of the sixth or seventh century (MS. B.21, Inferiore of the Ambrosian Library in Milan, Italy), the word used to describe this stone is ܢܩܥܬܐ = naq'atha,[19] a word which is sometimes transliterated into Arabic as it is pronounced in Aramaic, mainly by Arabic-speaking Christians. Bar-Ali, a 9th-century Arab author, brings down two opinions about this stone, the naq'atha, saying, by one opinion, that it is "honey-coloured," and by the other opinion that it is "turquoise, a blue-coloured stone."[20] In some versions of the Peshitta, the Aramaic word rendered for the same stone is shabzez, translated as "diamond." This may account for today's understanding of this word, although in ancient times yahalom may have meant something else. Of the well-known honey-coloured gemstones, we find Citrene and Hessonite garnet (both, from Sri Lanka), while in Africa (Tanzania) we find Imperial Zircon, a honey-coloured stone with an extreme brilliance. Spanish Jewish scholar, Abraham ibn Ezra says the yahalom was a white stone.

Third row[edit]

Lešem (לֶשֶׁם = in the masoretic text) / Ligurios (in the Septuagint) - the names here seem to refer to places - Leshem and Liguria, respectively.[4] Theophrastus mentions the fossilized pine resin, amber, called in Greek liggourrion or lyngurium,[21] as does Dioscorides and Aëtius.[22][Note 5] In Greek antiquity, this stone was believed to have been the solidified urine of lynxes, and its name a mere corruption of lykos ouron,[4] meaning white urine, presumably in reference to its colour.[24] Pliny (who did not believe the stone existed) described the Ligurios as having certain electrical properties, which a number of scholars have taken to imply that it referred to amber.[1] Amber was one of the first items to have been discovered to have electrical properties (see Thales); the English stem electric- derives from the Latin word for amber (elektrum). In the Latin Vulgate the name was given as ligure, a Latinization apparently invented by Flavius Josephus, and equated with lyngurium, but Luther used hyacinth (jacinth), and during the Renaissance belief in lyngurium died away.[25][Note 6] Modern scholars are inclined to think that the stone must have been similar to the pale colour of natural gold (as opposed to the colour known as gold);[1] The Midrash Rabba (Numbers Rabba 2:7) states that the mineral had a black colour, and is there named כוחלין, meaning the antimony known as stibium. Rabbi Saadia Gaon, and other medieval rabbinical commentators, argued that the gem itself was an onyx (Judeo-Arabic: גזע = جَزَع ), although Abraham ibn Ezra casts doubt on the accuracy of Rabbi Saadia's tradition.[26] Modern English translations use either amber or jacinth.[27]

Ševo (שְׁבוֹ = in the masoretic text) / Achates (in the Septuagint) - Achates definitely refers to agate, and Ševo may be cognate with the Assyrian term Subu, meaning agate.[1][4] Agates were common in Egypt and Assyria, and were regarded as a potent talismans. Isidore of Seville lists the agate as being among the black gems.[28] The Midrash Rabba (Numbers 2:7) appears to argue for the jewel in question having been a grey variety.[1] Conversely, in Rabbi Saadia Gaon’s (882-942 CE) Judeo-Arabic translation of the Pentateuch, as well as in the medieval Samaritan Arabic translation, the stone is rendered as سبج , meaning, obsidian.

Aḥlamah (אַחְלָמָה = in the masoretic text) / Amethystos (in the Septuagint) - Amethystos refers to Amethyst, a purple mineral which was believed to protect against getting drunk from alcohol (Amethyst's name refers to this belief, and literally translates as not intoxicating),[1] and was commonly used in Egypt.[4] Aḥlamah appears to be derived from a term meaning strong, though it may equally be derived from Ahlamu, a place where Amethysts were found;[1] in the Babylonian Targum, Aḥlamah is translated into a term meaning strong drinking, which appears to reference beliefs about the Amethyst, but in the Jerusalem Targum, it is translated into a term meaning calf's eye.[1] The Midrash Rabba (Numbers Rabba 2:7), while describing the stone's colour, says: "[It is] similar to clear wine whose redness is not too strong."

Fourth row[edit]

Taršīš (תַּרְשִׁישִׁ = in the masoretic text) / Chrysolithos (in the Septuagint) - in some other places the Septuagint instead has Anthrax (meaning Coal) where the masoretic reads Tarshish.[1] Taršīš is thought by scholars to refer to Tarshish, in reference to the main source of the mineral being Tarshish.[1][4] Chrysolithos does not refer specifically to Chrysolite, which was named much later, but is an adjective which translates as gold-stone, meaning either that it was golden, or that it contained flecks of gold.[4] With golden flecks it could refer to lapis lazuli,[4] which would fit the Targums' description of the gem being the colour of the sea.[1] As a golden material if translucent, it could refer to Topaz[4] or to amber,[1] and since Chrysolithos came to mean Topaz in particular by the classical era, some scholars favour this as being the most likely use, though it would be jarring for there to be two different translucent yellow gemstones so close to one another on the breastplate.[4] If an opaque golden material, it could refer to a yellow form of Jasper or of serpentine, which were commonly used in Egypt and Babylon.[4] It may even be the case that the Septuagint is mistaken, and the masoretic text's Taršīš is a corruption of Asshur (they are similar when spelt using the Hebrew alphabet), referring to Assyria's quintessential exported mineral - flint.[4] The 2nd century Jewish translator, Symmachus, renders the word as yakinthos, meaning "jacinth," or "hyacinth."[29] There is little certainty among scholars in regard to which of these is the most likely to be the jewel in question.[1]

Šoham (שֹׁהַם = in the masoretic text) / Beryllios (in the Septuagint) - in some other places the Septuagint instead has Onychion,[Note 7] or Smaragdos, or the phrase leek-green stone, where the masoretic reads Šoham;[4][Note 8] Beryllios refers to Beryl but earlier to the blue-green colour of the sea, Onychion refers to Onyx, and Smaragdos literally means green stone and refers to a bright columnar crystal (either beryl or rock crystal). Onyx is an opaque and banded stone, while Smaragdos is translucent, and Beryl is cloudy, and all these come in several colours. Šoham could be derived from the Assyrian word Samtu, meaning dark or cloudy;[4] it could be derived from the Arabic word meaning pale, in which case it fits more with Onyx and certain forms of Beryl, excluding the Emerald,[4] with Heliodor being the form of Beryl fitting the leek green description; it could be derived from the Arabic word musahham, meaning striped garment, and therefore very definitely describing something like Onyx;[4] or it could be a place name, for example there is a place in the Yemen named Soheim.[4] Jewish tradition generally favours leek-green Beryl (Heliodor) as the likely meaning of Šoham, though scholars think it is more likely to be Malachite, which can be green enough to be compared to Smaragdos and the blue-green colour of the sea (the original meaning of beryllios), is cloudy enough to be compared to a cloudy form of Beryl, and is striped and opaque enough to be confused for a form of Onyx.[1][4] According to Epiphanius’ Treatise on the Twelve Stones (Epiphanius de Gemmis), the beryl was “white like a cloud.”[Note 9] Scholars point out that the Syriac form of the word is berūlā and/or belūra, the latter evidently going back to a Pahlevi form (the old Persian tongue), and all in turn to the Sanskrit वैडूर्य = vaiḍūrya (Pali: veḷuriyaṁ), the gemstone which is called in English, "cat's eye, beryl,"[30] a variety of chalcedonic quartz that has a chatoyant lustre resembling the eye of a cat when cut.

Yašfeh (יָשְׁפֵה = in the masoretic text) / Iaspis (in the Septuagint) - in reference to the Septuagint and Josephus,[Note 10] scholars suspect that Yasepheh may be the original reading.[1][4] Although Yasepheh and Iaspis are cognate to Jasper, they don't quite have the same meaning; while Jasper is usually red, the mineral which the Greeks called Iaspis was generally a richly green one (the most prized form of Jasper), and scholars think this is most likely to be the colour referred to by Yasepheh;[1] the ambiguity of the term is present in the Targums, where the jewel is variously identified as a ruby (which is red), as a hyacinth (which is yellow), or as an emerald (which is green).[1] In the Babylonian Talmud,[31] one opinion states that the gemstone was the same as kadkhod,[32] a stone described by Bar-Ali as being al-karkahan = الكركھن (the Baghdadi onyx), “a kind of gemstone from which they cut [smaller] stones for setting in ouches.”[33] Rabbi Saadia Gaon, however, in his Judeo-Arabic translation of Isaiah,[34] translates kadkhod as karkand, a red variety of precious stone. Josephus, quoting from one version of the Septuagint, says that it was a beryl.[35] The Midrash Rabba (Numbers Rabba 2:7) says that the stone was varicolored, meaning, all of the colours combined were to be found in the Yašfeh.

12 Jewels in New Testament[edit]

In the New Testament Book of Revelation is the description of a city wall, with each layer of stones in the wall being from a different material; in the original Koine Greek, the layers are given as iaspis, sapphiros, chalcedon, smaragdos, sardonyx, sardion, chrysolithos, beryllos, topazion, chrysoprason, yacinthos, amethystos.[36] This list appears to be based on the Septuagint's version of the list of jewels in the Breastplate – if the top half of the breastplate was rotated by 180 degrees, and the bottom half turned upside down, with Onchion additionally swapping places with Topazion, the lists become extremely similar; there are only four differences:


Onchion (literally Onyx) has become Sardonyx (red Onyx)

Anthrax has become Chalcedon (literally meaning Chalcedony, of which the red variety is the most common). Anthrax literally means coal, presumably meaning the red colour of burning coal, while Chalcedon literally means Chalcedony, of which the red variety is the most common.

Ligurios has become Chrysoprason. Scholars suspect that Ligurios was a pale yellowish mineral, and although Chrysoprase now refers to a specific gemstone – Chrysoprase – which is generally apple-green in colour, in earlier times it referred to gems of a yellowish leek-green, such as Peridot; Chrysoprase literally means golden leek.[4]

Achates (Agate) has been replaced by Yacinthos (Jacinth). According to classical rabbinical literature, the specific agate was of a sky-blue colour, and though Jacinth now refers to a red-tinted clear gem – the Jacinth – this wasn't the case at the time the Book of Revelation was written, and at that time Jacinth appears to have referred to a bluish gem; Pliny describes Jacinth as a dull and blueish amethyst, while Solinus describes it as a clear blue tinted gem – the modern Sapphire.[4]

Whether there is any pattern to the choice of gemstones depends on their identity. Taking the majority view of scholars in regard to the identity of the gems, and including the implication from the Book of Revelation that the Onyx at the end of the fourth row was a Sardonyx, there are four colours – red, green, yellow, and blue – each represented by a clear gem (red – Carbuncle, green – Heliodor, yellow – Chrysolite, blue – Amethyst), an opaque gem (red – Carnelian/red Jasper, green – green Jasper, yellow – yellow Jasper/yellow Serpentine, blue - Lapis Lazuli), and a striped gem (red – Sardonyx, green – Malachite, yellow – pale golden Agate, blue – sky-blue Agate).[4] The four colours of red, green, yellow, and blue, are the first four colours (apart from black and white) distinguished by languages, and are distinguished in all cultures with at least six colour distinctions (the other two being black and white).[37] These colours roughly correspond to the sensitivities of the retinal ganglion cells. (The retinal ganglia process colour by positioning it within a blue to yellow range, and separately positioning it within a red to green range.)[37]

It is clear that the seven days of Genesis reveal a pattern, and that the pattern is the quadrant model pattern. Most theologians say that Genesis is poetry, and not meant to be taken literally. Whether it is taken literally or not does not matter so much as does the fact that what seems to be random in its structure reveals the underlying structure of the quadrant model pattern.
A very important feature of the garden of Eden is the existence of the four rivers of Eden. The names of these rivers fit the quadrant model pattern. Even more incredibly their 

very geographic locations fit the nature of the quadrant model pattern. The four are:
*Square one: Pishon. Pishon means to increase. The first square is the Idealist. The idealist is optimistic. Something has to increase before it can do anything. The first square is not yet doing anything. The first square is conservative. This is the thinking square of the quadrant model. Recall the first square of the third square is thinking.
*Square two: Gihon. The names, Pishon and Gihon have a similar sound; they are the duality. The Bible associates the Gibon river with riches; riches are always associated with the second square, which is the belonging square. Riches are often referred to as belongings. Guardians can be quite wealthy. The second square is associated with order, which is associated with riches. Caucasians are the ethnic group associated with the second square; they are associated with being rich. Gihon means “bursting fourth”. This is the emotion square; the second square of the Quadrant 3 is emotion. Emotion has an association of bursting forth, meaning to cause to move. When something is about to burst forth it is in a state of readiness to move. The second square is not yet action. Pihon and Gihon are leading to the third square, which is the doing square.
*Square three: Hiddekel--the third river, separated from the Pishon and the Gihon rivers, it is characteristically an individual. The first two squares are always more conservative--the third more physical and action-oriented. The third square is about doing its own thing. Also Hiddekel means rapid which is associated with action. The first two squares were building up to the action; the bursting fourth, and moving rapidly.
*Square four: Euphrates--means fruitful. Fruit in the Bible is related to sex--to be fruitful is to have many offspring- or doing productive things. Sex is related to knowledge. The fourth quadrant is the knowledge quadrant. This would be the dreaming square. The dreaming square is the fourth square of Quadrant 3. The names of these rivers fit the qualities of the first, second, third, and fourth squares of the quadrant model.

The seven days of creation in Genesis fit the quadrant model pattern. It may be confusing to advocate that a phenomenon with more than four can still fit the model. What matters is not the number of things, but the pattern out of which the phenomenon emerge. Regarding the seven days in the Genesis story, the pattern works as follows:
*Square one: the first day--God says, “Let there be light”. The first element in Aristotle's model is air, which is hot and wet, corresponding to the Idealist who is abstract and cooperative. The first square is Ken Wilbur's mind square.--the mind is often associated with light. Also light has a quality of being like air--not solid and not grounded. On the first day God separated the light from the darkness.
*Square two: the second day--God makes water, and separates the water from the sky. In Aristotle's model of elements the second square is water--cold and wet. This corresponds with the Guardian personality type, which is concrete and cooperative. It is no coincidence that on the second day of Creation water is produced and separated from the sky. The second square is water.

*Square three: the third day--God makes land to produce vegetation. The third square is always the most solid and physical--the doing square; the land is producing vegetation. This corresponds to Aristotle's third element, earth. Earth is cold and dry. This relates to the Artisan personality type, which is concrete and utilitarian.  
*Square four: the fourth day--God creates the sun. Square five is the first square of the second quadrant. In terms of the quadrant model, the fact that the creation of the sun is placed on the fourth day is consistent with the fourth square qualities encompassing the previous three. Without the fourth, the previous three do not exist. The fourth element in Aristotle’s model is fire; the sun is made of fire. The fourth square always seems to transcend the previous three squares. The first three squares are more terrestrial, but the sun is more heavenly and transcends the Earth. Many ancient cultures worshipped the sun, but the book of Genesis tries to make sure that the sun is not depicted as a God or divine, but a product of God's creation.
*Square five: the fifth day--God creates life. Some cultures see the fifth element as life, which fully transcends the previous four; the fourth always points to the fifth. Without the sun there cannot be life. God tells these animals to be fruitful; fruit and knowledge are related, as are knowledge and sex. God is telling the animals to have sex and have offspring. The first square of the second, the relational quadrant is the belief square. The first four squares were sensation, perception, response, and awareness, and this square is belief.
*Square six: the sixth day--God says, “Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: the livestock, the creatures that move along the ground, and the wild animals, each according to its kind.” This is the second square of the second quadrant. The second quadrant is always relational. The second square of the second quadrant is the most relational. This is the faith square. God says to let the living creatures reproduce according to their kinds. Reproduction has to do with relationships. But also God says to do this according to their own kind--the second square is homeostasis and order. God also creates humans to rule with authority over the animals. Humankind is the ultimate symbol of order, which is the nature of the second square.
*Square seven: the seventh day--God rested. The seventh is the third square of the second quadrant, the behavior square. Resting is an action, and the third square is always action.
It is clear that the seven days of Genesis reveal a pattern, and that the pattern is the quadrant model pattern. Most theologians say that Genesis is poetry, and not meant to be taken literally. Whether it is taken literally or not does not matter so much as does the fact that what seems to be random in its structure reveals the underlying structure of the quadrant model pattern.

Another example are the four laws for fish diets.
*Square one: fins and no scales cannot be eaten. An example is dolphins.
*Square two: no fins and no scales cannot be eaten. An example is octopus.
*Square three: no fins and has scales cannot be eaten. 
*Square four: fins and scales can be eaten. The fourth is always different from the previous three. No fins would be concrete, and fins would be abstract. Scales would be utilitarian, and no scales would be cooperative.

The Old Testament dietary laws manifest the quadrant model of reality.
*Square one: animals with cleft hooves and do not chew the cud are not to be eaten. Cleft hooves represent the abstract. Pigs are an example.
*Square two: animals without cleft hooves and do not chew the cud are not to be eaten. Non cleft (one solid piece) hooves represent the concrete.
*Square three: animals without cleft hooves and chew the cud cannot be eaten. Not cud-chewing represents cooperation.
*Square four: animals with cleft hooves and chew the cud can be eaten. Chewing the cud represents the utilitarian.
Some suggest that chewing cud represents chewing the word of God, and having cleft hooves represents being able to climb rugged terrains or go through hardships, which is why they argue God allowed those animals to be eaten.

Known as the JEPD model, this respected historical description of how the Torah was compiled and created fits the quadrant model pattern.
*Square one: J (Jahwist) source—apparently compiled around 950 BCE in the southern kingdom of Judah, not long before the split between the northern kingdom of Israel and the southern kingdom of Judah. The documentary hypothesis argues that anthropomorphic descriptions of Yahweh, personal visits from Yahweh, and the use of the name Yahweh prior to Exodus 3 are products of the J source. The E, D, and P sources use the term Yahweh, but the J source is the only one to use the name Yahweh prior to Exodus 3. The J source, using narratives, makes up half of Genesis, half of Exodus, and a small part of Numbers. Family is an important part of the J source. The first square is conservative as well as intellectual--the first square is the mind. Idealists, who are the first square, are focused on family, as are Guardians, who are the second square. There are also sequences of sin, punishment, and mercy in the J source. Conservative Idealists want to follow rules, but also value the notion of mercy. They like to make people feel good about themselves, and therefore are optimistic. 
*Square two: E (Elohist) source—apparently compiled around 850 BCE in the Kingdom of Israel. The first and second squares are always the duality. The J source uses the name, Yahweh, and the E source Elohim, a more impersonal name for God. The call to Abraham is that his descendants will bless the world and become a great family--the second square is always about family. According to the documentary hypothesis the two sources are difficult to distinguish; the first and second squares are the duality, and are always highly interconnected. E comprises a third of Genesis, half of Exodus, and parts of Numbers. The main themes of the E source are prophetic leadership, fear of God, covenant, and theology of history. The second square is always associated with obedience and faith; faith in God is related to relationship with God--the second square is the most relational. The idea of covenant is a notion of a relationship between God and Israel.
*Square three: D (Deuteronomist) source—apparently compiled around 600 BCE in Jerusalem during a period of religious reform. The D source is supposed to have been written during the Babylonian dispersion, allegedly to describe how punishments of Israel are deserved. The third square is always bad and destructive. The third square is doing; the third quadrant is thinking, emotion, doing, and dreaming. The D source describes Israel's punishment as due to their disobedience. D, in the torah, is exclusively in the book of Deuteronomy,referring always to God as Yahweh Elohenu, "the Lord our God". The intention of D source, according to scholars, was to show the Israelites that they had abandoned God's law, and to get them to return. The nature of the third quadrant is that it has broken out of the second. The second quadrant is belief, faith, behavior, and belonging; the second quadrant is following God's law. The third is breaking free; the third square is associated with the Artisan personality, who is more rebellious.
*Square four: P (Priestly) source alleged to have been compiled around 500 BCE by Kohanim (Jewish priests) in exile in Babylon. It depicts the P source as using the name Elohim in Genesis 1-11. The P source also uses the name El Shadai, which is the first special name for God, controversially translated as “God Almighty”. P has many lists, genealogies, numbers, laws, and dates. The fourth quadrant is associated with the Rational type, who is good at mathematics and logical issues. Also the P source describes God as the Creator of the Earth, describing the work as “Good”. At times D duplicates J and E, but changes details to emphasize the importance of the priesthood, thereby pointing beyond the other three. P comprises about a fifth of Genesis, much of Exodus and Numbers, and almost all of Leviticus. The style of P is not extremely elegant. The P source depicts God as interested in ritual, and dietary laws, circumcision, and the tabernacle, all a part of God's divine plan.
JEDP Model




Christianity is based on the Bible, the organization of which can be characterized as fitting the quadrant model pattern. The Old Testament portion of the Bible contains the four books of Moses, called the Torah, the ordering of which fits the pattern.
*Square one: Genesis—myth and legend stories that precede the beginnings of Israel, including the stories of Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel, the Noah flood, Tower of Babel, the stories of Abraham and Issac, the stories of Jacob and the birth of his sons, who are the twelve tribes of Israel. The first square always has a quality of being weird. They have a supernatural and spiritual quality to them, the nature of the first square. Myth is a truth poetically expressed, a legend is a summary narrative of a historical event.
*Square two: Exodus--about the family of Israel, and its escape from Egypt. The second square, the cultural square, is always associated with family and belonging. The second quadrant is belief, faith, behavior, and belonging. In the story of Exodus, Moses is told by God, in the setting of a burning bush, that he must help lead Israel out of Egypt. Israel is the descendants of the family of Jacob, who went to Egypt during a famine to survive. They were made slaves, and stopped living by the Law of God. Moses led the family out of Egypt to the promised land, Cannan, which became the land of Israel. The second square is always about family, homeostasis, and belonging; Exodus is about the family of Israel and its struggle to get out of Egypt, which represents enslavement to sin.
*Square three: Leviticus--delineates the law of God. The third square is always about doing; Leviticus tells Israel what it must do, defining actions to be taken in order to maintain their covenant with God. The third square is always about physical action. The third quadrant is thinking emotion, doing, and dreaming. It is made clear that Israel often does not follow the law of God, which leads to destruction and death.
*Square four: Numbers—an expansion, pointing beyond Leviticus. Numbers expands on the law, and is more philosophical and poetic. The nature of the fourth is that it expands on the third, but it has a more abstract quality to it. The fourth quadrant is contemplation, passion, flowing, and knowing.
*Square five: Deuteronomy--an even more abstract and poetic document. The fourth always points to and indicates the nature of the fifth. Numbers points to Deuteronomy, which expands the law, but has an even more philosophical and poetic quality to it. The documentary hypothesis, called the Wellhausen hypothesis, named after its founder Wellhausen, proposes that the pentateuch, the first five books of Moses, also called the Torah, was the product a compilation of four sources. These sources are labelled source J, source E source P, and source D.

After the Buddha becomes aware of the four, he realizes that life is suffering, and decides to be an ascetic. This is the foundational story of Buddhism.
As an outgrowth of deep, inner searching the Buddha is able to identify the four noble truths, which are the four cornerstones of Buddhism. 
*Square one: the truth of Dukkha, which means suffering, anxiety, and unsatisfactoriness. The first square religion is Buddhism. The first square is associated with the Idealists who describe feeling a sort of emptiness, which leads to a desire to find themselves. They often feel like they do not belong, Idealists wish to be Guardians—they typically belong.
*Square two: The Truth of the Origin of Suffering--attachment. The second square is associated with relationships and belonging, which are attachments. Guardians are associated with attachment.
*Square three: The Truth of Cessation of Dukkha--the end of suffering comes with ceasing attachment. The third square is the Artisan, the individualist, having broken out of belonging. The third quadrant breaks away from attachments, which is often considered bad and destructive.
*Square four: The Truth of the Path leading to cessation of Dukkha. This is called the eightfold path.

The mythologies of Buddhism fit the quadrant model pattern. Buddha was a Hindu Brahman prince. Brahmin priests tell the Buddha's father that his son will be either a great king or a religious, spiritual leader. The father tries to shelter the Buddha from suffering so rather than becoming a religious leader he should be a prince. But the Buddha leaves the palace, and is surprised by four realizations, called the four sights. The four are of:
*Square one: an old man
*Square two: a sick man. The old man and the sick man are the duality. The first two squares are always a duality
*Square three: a corpse. This is bad, connoting utter destruction and death. The third square is always negative.
*Square four: an ascetic. An ascetic has renounced the world, pointing beyond. This is the nature of the forth square.

There are four world religions. Some sociologists argue that there is a fifth; Judaism is sometimes considered the fifth, but is most often not included among the world religions because it is an ethnic phenomenon that does not try to convert people. The recognized world religions are:
*Square one: Buddhism--associated with the first quadrant, it is stereotypically about sensation, perception, response, and awareness. It is focused on finding the real self, which is the nature of the first quadrant. Idealists are often attracted to Buddhism. The Buddha was an Indian priest of the Brahman class. He taught people to get married, have children, not commit adultery, not murder, and not steal. His teachings are very similar to the teachings of the Torah. Many Buddhists corrupt his teaching, deify him, and do not practice what he preached, often praying to the Buddha for selfish purposes. Buddhists are taught that life is suffering, so they can be sad, an emotion of the first square. The buddha taught that people should seek nirvana, which is separation from the world, and from a destiny of rebirth. Buddhism is associated asians which is the first square race.
*Square two: Christianity--associated with the second quadrant, is about belief, faith, behavior, and belonging. Messianic Jews teach that Jesus was an orthodox Jew who taught others to follow the Torah precisely. They teach that Paul was also an orthodox Jew who sought to bring the Torah back to the lost tribes of Israel, whom he called gentiles, because they had broken out of covenant--gentile means out of covenant. According to messianic Jews, Black Hebrew Israelites, and even Seventh Day Adventists, Jesus and his disciples taught that belief in Jesus entailed following the commandments of God; the second square focuses on order and homeostasis. Christianity is second square oriented, and associated with the Guardian personality type—wanting to belong. Christianity is characterized a lot by converting people. Chrisstianity is associated with Europeans is the second square race
*Square three: Islam--a third quadrant religion. Like Christianity, Islam considers itself an Abrahamic religion--descended from Abraham. Arabs consider themselves descendants of Ishmael, a son of Abraham. The Israelites descend from Abraham's other son, Issac. Many rabbis think that Europeans are often descendants of Issac's son Esau; Israel descends from Issac's other son Jacob. The third quadrant is thinking, emotion, doing, and dreaming. Thinking challenges beliefs; Islam challenges the beliefs of Christianity, teaching that Jesus is not God, but is a messenger of God. Thinking is considered to be destructive and bad for challenging and breaking down beliefs, and breaking followers out of the comfort of belonging. Islam means submission to God. Islam is often associated with Black people and arabs, which is the third square race.
*Square four: Hinduism--a polytheistic religion, Hindus tend to believe in more than one God, and worship different Hindu Gods. The fourth quadrant

encompasses the previous three, while pointing beyond them. The fourth quadrant is contemplation, passion, flowing, and knowing. Hinduism is definitely the most contemplative of the world religions. Also Hinduism encompasses the other world religions, teaching that the messengers of other religions, like Jesus, and Muhammad, and the Buddha, are avatars usually of the Hindu God Vishnu or other Gods. So Hinduism is pluralistic. The forth square encompasses the previous three. Many Hindus believe that the ultimate awareness is that humans are Gods. Hinduism is associated with
karma sutra, which is a type of meditation based on sexual positions. The fourth quadrant is knowledge; knowledge is associated with sex. Hinduism is associated with fear and surprise, which are fourth square emotions. Hinduism is associated with Brown people/Indians, which is the forth square race.

Carl Jung, a maverick and courageous psychology scientist, considered the cross and the mandala (a circle divided into four sections) as the most important symbol in religion. He noted that most religions have four primary gods, which fits the principal of the quadrant model. He thought that the idea of the trinity, developed in catholicism, was flawed because it was missing a fourth element. Jung proposed that the fourth should be Satan, who is related to death and sex--the fourth square. Another suggestion is that the fourth should be the Mother Mary. Some, like Providence Church, advocate that the holy spirit is female. These suggestions point beyond the first three.
Sociologists divide religions into four categories.
*Square one: Ecclesias/Churches--usually do not support competition, and have an overarching ideology. They also usually fit into the framework of the society in which they exist. Islam is a Church in places like Saudi Arabia, where it fits into the political and economic framework of the society. The first square is very interested in doing what is good for the group rather than the individual.
*Square two: Denominations--when a Church loses its religious monopoly in a society it becomes a denomination, tending to remain on good terms with the state, and relatively friendly with other denominations. They follow a fairly routinized ritualistic procedure, and are not full of spontaneous emotional expression. The second square reflects order and homeostasis. Denominations are less involved in social and political issues than sects, but more involved than Ecclesias. Denominations also have a trained and professional clergy. An example is the coptic Christians in Egypt where Islam is the dominant religion. Coptics were forced by muslims to tattoo a cross on their wrists to signal that they were Christians; now they do this on their own volition.
*Square three: Sects--formed to protest their parent religion, usually a denomination. The third square is the doer, and typically considered bad or destructive. The third square is also the thinker--sects question and break away from conformity to their parent religion. Early Christianity was a sect that broke away from Judaism; first Christians were all Jews. Sects often decry things that they think are wrong in the parent religion. 
*Square four: Cults--new religious movements, are like sects in that they form spontaneously, but not out of a parent religion. Campbell says that cults believe that humans contain divine elements, often attributing special divinity. to their leaders. Cults often do not advocate the return to pure religion, but are more into advocating something new. Cults are different from the first three; this is always the nature of the third square. The first three are very connected. Churches turn into denominations denominations develop sects, and sects become denominations. Cults spring up out of nowhere, and maintain no connections with the others. They are separate, pointing beyond the previous three. They usually do not advocate questioning their laws but preach to stay within their confines.

Merton, a famous sociologist, created a theory of deviance that reflects the quadrant model pattern. His model is used in criminology and strain theory. He believed that there are five situations facing an actor in a system. They are divided among two dichotomies, yielding four results. One dichotomy is acceptance and rejection of societal goals. Another

dichotomy is acceptance and rejection of societal means of attaining those goals. There is a fifth possibility, which is a combination of all. This is like Aristotle's four elements that are derived from two dichotomies of four qualities, and the fifth element, which is a combination of all qualities.
*Square one: Ritualism. In ritualism the individual rejects the goals of a society but accepts the means to attaining them. This corresponds to the Idealist who is abstract, and considered to be weird, able to accept neither what is normal nor the goals of a society. They are also cooperative, so they want to fit in, not shake things up, and maintain the status quo--they accept the means to attaining societal goals, while rejecting those goals, although they are still concerned with self image.
*Square two: Conformity--the individual accepts the goals of a society, and accepts the means to attaining them. This corresponds to the Guardian, who is concrete and cooperative. Because they are concrete they do not think deeply about things, thus they are normal. But because they are cooperative they try to fit within norms.
*Square three: Innovation--the individual accepts the goals of a society, but rejects the means to attaining those goals. This corresponds to the Artisan, who is concrete, a surface thinker, thus acceptant of societal goals. However, they do not care about social harmony and making others happy, caring more about doing what they want and what works; as the doers they are often viewed as bad or destructive.
*Square four: Retreatism--the individual rejects the goals of a society, and rejects the means to attaining them. This corresponds to the Rational temperament, which is abstract--he thinks deeply and does not accept the goals of a society. Rationals are therefore weird and utilitarian, doing what they think will work best first, as opposed to what they think makes others happy and maintain the status quo.
Square five: Rebellion--transcends the goals of society by combining a rejection and acceptance of them.
Merton’s theory of deviance

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