The "Quad antenna" is a resonant loop in a square shape; this one also includes a parasitic element

"Quad" loops may be in the shape of a circle, a square or any other closed geometric shape that allows the total perimeter to be one wave length. The most popular quad antenna in amateur radio consists of a resonant loop (and usually additional parasitic elements) in a square shape, so that it can be constructed of wire strung across a supporting ‘X’ frame. Other "quads" rotate this 45 degrees to a diamond shape. Triangular loops have also been used.[1]


The Breguet-Richet Gyroplane was an early French experimental quadcopter rotary-wing aircraft developed by Breguet Aviation.

The Gyroplane No.I was one of the earliest attempts to create a practical rotary-wing aircraft. It was designed by the Breguet brothers with help from Professor Charles Richet. The aircraft had an uncovered open steel framework with a seat for the pilot and a powerplant at the centre. Radiating from the central structure were four wire-braced tubular steel arms, each bearing a superimposed pair of four-bladed rotors. To eliminate the torque effect, two rotor sets were driven clockwise and two counter-clockwise.


Breguet-Richet Gyroplane No.1, 1907.



For many years now, boaters have debated the question of 4-blade propellers versus 3-blades. The traditional argument is that 4-blades are slow and 3-blades are fast, end of discussion. Today, new trends in the marine marketplace, higher fuel prices and challenging economic times are causing boaters to take a second look at this old debate. Speed is now a much smaller part of the boating equation, and now practical, real world performance is the name of the game for most people. Which props should you be using, 4-blade or 3?

In the beginning, the idea that 4-blades were slower than 3-blades was true to a certain extent, but that is because many of those 4-blades were not designed with speed in mind. Instead, the few designs that were available were intended to cure handling issues such as ventilation, cornering blowout, motor elevation requirements, and hole shot issues. Without many options in blade design, and very few of them truly intended to be particularly fast, the 4-blade got branded as slow, while their other performance benefits were largely dismissed.


By contrast, today’s 4-blade propeller designs have evolved into both all-purpose and highly specialized geometries. These propellers can be tailored to not only address those traditional handling issues, but can also be tailored to improve a boat’s performance envelope, which can, in some cases, even include speed.


Reasons for 4 Blades


The increased blade area afforded by the addition of the fourth blade can provide increased water displacement capability, lift, and grip, as compared to the comparable 3-blade propeller. In terms of actual boat performance, these characteristics can combine to enhance handling, hole shot, low-speed planning ability, cruise efficiency, fuel efficiency, load-carrying performance, big seas performance, following seas/down current performance, ventilation/cavitation resistance, motor elevation capability, etc. In short, a 4-blade propeller can improve all those characteristics that make for practical, all-around boat performance.



The four dogmas of perpetual virginity, Mother of God, Immaculate Conception and Assumption form the basis of Mariology


There are four Marian dogmas specifically defined by the Magisterium among a large number of other dogmas and doctrines about the Virgin Mary - for example, the Annunciation of Mary is dogma because it is in the scriptures, but it has not been specifically defined by the Magisterium. These four Marian dogmas include:[56]


Name First Magisterial Definition Dogma content

Mother of God Council of Ephesus (431) Mother of God, not that the nature of the Word or his divinity received the beginning of its existence from the holy Virgin, but that, since the holy body, animated by a rational soul, which the Word of God united to himself according to the hypostasis, was born from her, the Word is said to be born according to the flesh.

Assumption into heaven Pope Pius XII (1950) Mary, having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory

Immaculate Conception Pope Pius IX (1854) Mary, at her conception, was preserved immaculate from Original Sin

Perpetual virginity Baptismal symbols since the 3rd century 'Perpetual virginity of Mary', means that Mary was a virgin before, during and after giving birth



The identity of the individual apostles in The Last Supper is confirmed by The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci. From left to right in the painting, they are depicted in four groups of three, and react to the news as follows:

Bartholomew, James the Less and Andrew are all surprised. 
Judas Iscariot is taken aback; next to him, Peter holds a knife and looks stormy, while the boyish John, the youngest apostle, simply swoons.
Thomas is upset; James is shocked. Philip wants an explanation.
• GROUP 4 
In the final group of three, Jude Thaddeus and Matthew turn to Simon the Zealot for answers.

In short, the painting captures twelve individuals in the midst of querying, gesticulating, or showing various shades of horror, anger and disbelief. It's live, it's human and it's in complete contrast to the serene and expansive pose of Jesus himself.



Cross of Lorraine

beer, coffee

Photo courtesy of flickr.com

A circle topped with a two-bar cross is a Nabisco logo that stands for a European symbol of quality. Experts believe the design for the Nabisco symbol arose from the Cross of Lorraine, which was carried by the Knights Templar during the First Crusade in the 11th century. These knights, along with many other Christian pilgrims, went to Jerusalem, the capital of Israel, to recapture it from the Turks who were peacefully living there, whom the Knights mercilessly slaughtered upon their arrival to the city. Dark, dark, history; just like Oreo.


Cross Pattée

candy, chocolate

Photo courtesy of flickr.com

The geometric pattern of a dot with four triangles radiating outward is a symbol that once again connects Oreos with the history of the First Crusade. It closely resembles a Cross Pattee, a symbol the Knights Temples adopted by sewing the red or black crosses on their white robes and other pieces of clothing to distinguish themselves from soldiers of other religion.


But while some people do recognize this ancient emblem, most consumers see it as a four-leaf clover, with each leaf emphasizing hope, faith, love, and luck. No wonder why the Oreo company has so much luck selling more than 95 million packages each day.



The original box contained toasted oat cereal puffs with marshmallows in the shape of green clovers, yellow moons, yellow and orange stars, and pink hearts. The cereal is in the shape of bells, fish, crosses, three-leaf clovers, and trees. Some theorize these are early Christian symbols, while others claim they are talisman symbols, carried for good luck during medieval times.




The rest of the cereal contains Christian symbols. The Icthus (aka Jesus fish),bell, and Cross symbolizing ancient christianity, modern christianity, and the entire point of christianity respectively.


Prior to the airing of an Apple iPod nano commercial featuring this song, The Reminder was selling at approximately 6,000 copies per week, and "1234" at 2,000 downloads per week. Following the commercial, the song passed 73,000 total downloads and reached No. 7 on Hot Digital Songs and No. 8 on the Billboard Hot 100; The Reminder jumped from No. 36 to No. 28 on the Billboard 200, with sales of 19,000.[21] Following the television advertisement for the iPod nano in the UK, the single beat its original chart position of 102 to become number 8 in the UK charts. Time magazine named "1234" one of The 10 Best Songs of 2007, ranking it at No. 2. Writer Josh Tyrangiel called the song a "masterpiece," praising Feist for singing it "with a mixture of wisdom and exuberance that's all her own".[22][23] On 6 April 2008, Feist won a Juno Award for the single as "Single of the Year".


Feist performed an alternate version of "1234" on Sesame Street during its 39th season (2008), teaching children to count to the number four.[24] She said working with the Muppets was a career highlight.[25]



–In a climactic battle, Superman is seen in mid-air with his arms outstretched, like Christ on the cross.


–Superman is described as being 33 years old, the age of Jesus when he was crucified.


Even Samson–one of the inspirations for Superman–has been seen as a foreshadowing of Christ. When the Philistines captured Samson, they gouged out his eyes and chained him to two pillars in a pagan temple. Samson put his right hand on one pillar and his left hand on another pillar, symbolically putting him in the same pose as Christ on the cross, with outstretched arms. Then Samson used all of his strength to push down these pillars and bring down the temple dedicated to the god Dagon.



The Man of Steel

Speaks of Superman as a Christ figure and points to a cruciform pose in the Man of Steel as evidence.


And as for the aerial cruciform scene Heiser alludes to:

SINGER: I remember sitting with one of my writers and we were watching the visual effects of him [Superman] falling to Earth [after pushing the kryptonite-laced landmass into space]. And his hands are extended and he falls to Earth in that very…

SKELTON: It’s the crucifixion pose; it’s beautiful; it’s fantastic

SINGER: Yes. And he [the writer] looked at me—and he went to Catholic school, it’s very interesting—and he said, “Are we…? Are we…? Shouldn’t he open his legs a little bit more? Are we…? Is this too on the nose?” And I said, “If we’re telling this story, we’re going to tell this story. Some parts are going to be subtle. But this one is not.”

“Either we’re going to have him float down kind of in the position [of the crucifixion] or not…But if there was ever a time to hammer it home, this is it.”



Riders in the Chariot is the sixth published novel by Australian Author Patrick White, Nobel Prize winner of 1973. It was published in 1961 and won the Miles Franklin Award in that year. It also won the 1965 Gold Medal of the Australian Literature Society.[1]


The climax is a mock crucifixion of an old Jewish refugee (one of the four main characters) in the courtyard of the factory where he works. The owner of the factory fears to interfere, and a young aborigine says three times, that he does not know the victim.

The main four characters are outsiders with deeply different lives made more difficult because they are religious visionaries. Each experience the same vision of four horses drawing a chariot into a shining future: the fiery chariot from the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew bible; visions that make them vulnerable to – and affect the way they deal with – the wily plotting of others.[3]


They are Miss Mary Hare an eccentric heiress in a decaying mansion living with her housekeeper Mrs Jolley; Aboriginal artist Alf Dubbo, painter and sometime drunk; Mordecai Himmelfarb, Holocaust survivor, professor and now migrant working in a machine shop, and Mrs Ruth Godbold, a kindly washerwoman.


The primary form of symbolism within the book is through the chariot (or merkabah/merkavah), as described in the Book of Ezekiel. Other symbolism includes the mysteries of the Book of Revelation, with its Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, and the Seven Seals, along with biblical warnings about blood, fire, and destruction. As a symbol with a complex history in many cultures and artistic and religious traditions the chariot is most simply the vehicle for God's elect[4] or chosen ones.







Thrassylus’ division of the Platonic Corpus into groups of four dialogues (tetralogies).


Introductory remarks

The standard editions of the Platonic Corpus that we currently use reproduce a canonical arrangement of presentation of the Platonic dialogues. This arrangement, which is also preserved in the oldest extant manuscripts, follows the ancient canonical ordering into tetralogies, that is in groups of four dialogues.


1st tetralogy:




Socrates’ Apology






2nd tetralogy:






The Sophist


The Statesman


3rd tetralogy:










4th tetralogy:




Alcibiades II




Rival lovers


5th tetralogy:










6th tetralogy:










7th tetralogy:


Hippias a


Hippias b






8th tetralogy:










9th tetralogy:




Laws or o






The rationale of the ordering into tetralogies

The nine tetralogies cover the entire Platonic Corpus, including the letters as well as the spurious or disputed texts. The principle on which the dialogues were organized remains a question of for scholarly research and controversy. The only tetralogy that presents a clear thematic unity is the first, since the four dialogues describe Socrates’ last days and present the model of the life of philosophy.


Two basic interpretations have been proposed for the rest of the tetralogies. According to the first interpretation , the principle of the tetralogical ordering is the philosophical themes of the dialogues. Setting aside the first tetralogy, the remaining eight are grouped as follows: the second and the third tetralogies contain dialogues about knowledge and dialectic, the fourth and the fifth about the method of midwifery and education, the two next tetralogies on sophistic, and the two last ones on political philosophy.


The alternative interpretation is based on the idea of dramatic tetralogies and suggest that in each group the first three dialogues share a common character, while the fourth one varies, just as would be the case in the difference between tragedies and a satyr play. Besides the specific difficulties that each interpretation faces, there are some shared problems: a) their failure to explain the presence of spurious dialogues; and b) the changes both interpretations introduce with respect to the ordering of the dialogues in order to match the suggested scheme.


Hogwarts is divided into four houses, each bearing the last name of its founder: Godric GryffindorSalazar SlytherinRowena Ravenclaw and Helga Hufflepuff. Throughout the school year, the houses compete for the House Cup, gaining and losing points based on actions such as performance in class and rule violations. The house with the highest end-of-year total wins and has its colours displayed in the Great Hall for the following school year. Each house also has its own Quidditch team that competes for the Quidditch Cup. These two competitions breed rivalries between the houses. Houses at Hogwarts are living and learning communities for their students. Each house is under the authority of one of the Hogwarts staff members. The Heads of the houses, as they are called, are in charge of giving their students important information, dealing with matters of severe punishment, and responding to emergencies in their houses, among other things. Each year, year level groups of every separate house share the same dormitory and classes. The dormitory and common room of a House are, barring rare exceptions, inaccessible to students belonging to other Houses.

In the early days of Hogwarts, the four founders hand-picked students for their Houses. When the founders worried how students would be selected after their deaths, Godric Gryffindor took his hat off and they each added knowledge to it, allowing the Sorting Hat to choose the students by judging each student's qualities and placing them in the most appropriate house. The student's own choices may affect the decision: the clearest example is the Hat telling Harry that he would do well in Slytherin in the first book, but ultimately selecting Gryffindor after Harry asks it not to put him in Slytherin.

The translators of the books' foreign editions had difficulty translating the "house" concept; in countries where this system does not exist, no word could adequately convey the importance of belonging to a house, the loyalty owed to it, and the pride taken in prizes won by the house.[22]



Gryffindor values courage, bravery, nerve, and chivalry. Gryffindor's mascot is the lion, and its colours are scarlet and gold. The Head of this house is the Transfiguration teacher and Deputy Headmistress, Minerva McGonagall until she becomes headmistress, and the house ghost is Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington, more commonly known as Nearly Headless Nick. According to Rowling, Gryffindor corresponds roughly to the element of fire. The founder of the house is Godric Gryffindor.

The Gryffindor common room is in one of the castle's highest towers, and its entrance is on the seventh floor in the east wing of the castle and is guarded by a painting of The Fat Lady, who is garbed in a pink dress. She permits entry only after being given the correct password, as was distinguished in the third book, when Sirius Black tried forcing entry into the tower, only to be blocked by The Fat Lady after he could not give the correct password. In the first book, Neville Longbottom tends to forget the password and must wait near the painting until other Gryffindors arrive to open the way.[23]



Hufflepuff values hard work, patience, justice, and loyalty. The house mascot is the badger, and canary yellow and black are its colours. The Head of this house is the Herbology teacher Pomona Sprout, and the house ghost is The Fat Friar. According to Rowling, Hufflepuff corresponds roughly to the element of earth. The founder of this house is Helga Hufflepuff.

The entrance to the Hufflepuff dormitories and common room entrance is concealed in a pile of large barrels in an alcove in the corridor that holds the kitchen. To enter, one must tap the barrel two from the bottom in the middle of the second row in the rhythm of "Helga Hufflepuff". Unlike any other house, the Hufflepuff common room has a repelling device that douses the illegal entrant in vinegar if the wrong lid is tapped or the rhythm is wrong.[24] The Hufflepuff common room is filled with yellow hangings and fat armchairs and it has little underground tunnels leading to the dormitories, all of which have perfectly round doors, like barrel tops.[25]



Ravenclaw values intelligence, creativity, learning, and wit.[HP5][HP7] The house mascot is an eagle and the house colours are blue and bronze (blue and grey in the films). The head of this house is the Charms professor, Filius Flitwick, and the house ghost is The Grey Lady. According to Rowling, Ravenclaw corresponds roughly to the element of air. The founder of this house is Rowena Ravenclaw.

The dormitories are in Ravenclaw Tower, on the west side of Hogwarts. The common room, which went undescribed in the series until the climax of Deathly Hallows, is round and filled with blue hangings and armchairs, has a domed ceiling painted with stars and features a replica statue of Rowena wearing her diadem. Harry also notes that Ravenclaws "have a spectacular view of the surrounding mountains". A logical riddle must be solved to gain entry, whereas the Gryffindor and Slytherin common rooms only require a password (Hufflepuffs need to tap a barrel in the rhythm of "Helga Hufflepuff"), indicating that it may be easier for those students from other houses who possess a high degree of intelligence to enter this common room than others. Professor McGonagall, the head of the Gryffindor House, solves the riddle accurately.



Slytherin house values ambition, cunning, leadership, and resourcefulness; the Sorting Hat said in Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone that Slytherins will do anything to get their way. The house mascot of Slytherin is the serpent, and the house colours are green and silver. Salazar Slytherin founded the house. The Head of House is Severus Snape until the seventh book. Then, Horace Slughorn, the previous Head of House, comes out of retirement re-assuming authority after Snape becomes headmaster. The ghost of Slytherin house is The Bloody Baron.[26] According to Rowling, Slytherin corresponds roughly to the element of water. The Slytherin dormitories and common room are reached through a bare stone wall in the dungeons. The Slytherin common room is a long, low, dungeon-style room, under the Hogwarts Lake, furnished with green lamps and carved armchairs. The room is described in the second book as having a greenish glow.

The Sorting Hat claims that blood purity is a factor in selecting Slytherins, although this is not mentioned until the fifth book. There is no reason to believe, however, that Muggle-born students are not sorted there, merely that pure-blooded students are more desirable to that house, as there are several examples of half-bloods in the house (such as Snape and Voldemort). In Deathly Hallows, a group of Snatchers claim that "not many Mudbloods" are sorted into Slytherin.

When believing Harry to be dead and thinking that he has final victory in his grasp, Voldemort proclaims his intention to abolish the other three houses and force all Hogwarts students into Slytherin. This design is foiled by his defeat and death, after which Slytherin becomes more diluted in its blood purity, no longer remaining the pure-blood bastion it once was.

The coat of arms of Hogwarts shows each house's mascot and House colours. Clockwise from top left: the Gryffindor lion, the Slytherin serpent, the Ravenclaw eagle, and the Hufflepuff badger.


The four House dormitories have secret entrances, generally known only to members of that house and require a password (Gryffindor & Slytherin), riddle answer (Ravenclaw) or ritual (Hufflepuff) in order to gain entrance. Inside is the common room, which contains armchairs and sofas for the pupils and tables for studying and homework. There are fireplaces to keep the rooms warm, and students either relax here in the evenings or else complete their homework, but may complete their work in the bedroom. There are notice boards in each common room and at other strategic points throughout the school. The students sleep in their House dormitories, which branch off from the common rooms. Each dormitory gets at least two rooms; one for boys and one for girls (an enchantment prevents boys from entering the girls' area, although there is no spell to prevent the reverse from occurring). Each student sleeps in a large four-poster bed with bed covers and heavy curtains in the House colours, and thick white pillows. There is a bedside table for each bed, and each dormitory has a jug of water and goblets on a tray.

The house-elves at Hogwarts amongst other duties provide all food to students and staff. They cook a wide variety of dishes especially at the feasts. The various dishes are prepared in the kitchens directly below the Great Hall. within the kitchen as four long tables directly aligned with the house tables in the great hall above; at meal times the food is magically transported up, giving the façade of appearing for the students.[citation needed]




Victor Vasarely was a Hungarian-French artist, who is widely accepted as a “grandfather” and leader of the op art movement. Utilizing geometric shapes and colorful graphics, the artist created compelling illusions of spatial depth. Vasarely’s method of painting borrowed from a range of influences, including Bauhaus design principles, Wassily Kandinsky, and Constructivism. He is famous of works like this one:

Victor Vasarely, Vega Nor, 1969, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo




Born in 1945, the Russian artist Grisha Bruskin graduated from the Art Department at the Moscow Textile Institute in 1968. As a member of the Soviet Artists' Union, he staged a number of controversial exhibitions, most of which were closed down by the Soviet authorities. Bruskin immigrated to his current home, New York City, in 1989.


Refusing to adhere to the government-sanctioned style of Socialist Realism, Bruskin became a major figure in the Soviet Non-Conformist Art movement, dedicating himself to the research and presentation of his Jewish heritage and its associated mythologies, mysticism, and sacred texts. Bruskin's work juxtaposes this powerful visual vocabulary of Judaic imagery and text with symbolic remnants of the now dissolved Soviet Union. In Alefbet (1984) and Alefbet-Lexicon (1987), his most reknown painting series, Bruskin combines Hasidic text, figures in religious uniform and a slew of Jewish mystical symbols to produce an image system. Bruskin's prints continue this exploration of the conflict between religious and political mythology, investigating the point of intersection between two prescribed notions of social identity as manifested through tradition, image and text.


A prolific writer as well as visual artist, Bruskin's work is included in many permanent public collections, such as The Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois; The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY; Jewish Museum, New York, NY; Kunsthalle Emden, Germany; State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow, Russia; State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia, and Museo Galeria de Arte, Caracas, Venezuela.

Note C, 1991


34 x 27 inches

Edition of 75



Alexander Graham Bell Sure Did Love the Tetrahedrals



12/12/11 9:40pmFiled to: DESIGN




Alexander Graham Bell. Genius. Father of the telephone. Hardcore tetrahedral nut. Our friends at Oobject have assembled 12 of his best pyramid-shaped wonders.

When you get through here, check out these famous laboratories, these nine odd Edison inventions, and these 15 myths about the founding fathers' inventions.



Bell Flying a Fractal Kite


This 64 cell kite could be considered fractal, decades before the word meant anything, since the structure repeats its geometry and different scales. In other words, it is self similar, looking something like a Sierpinski triangle.



Bell's tetrahedral beach hut


At his Novia Scotia estate.



The Cygnet I, Bell's first attempt at a tetrahedral aeroplane



Bell Cygnet II, a collosal kite aeroplane


The Cygnet II was the largest tetrahedral plane Bell constructed, but it never flew under its own power.



Bell Cygnet III, Altitude 1 foot


The last of Bells quixotic attempts at tetrahedral flying machines manager to reach an altitude of around 1 feet in 1912.



Cockpit of Bell's tetrahedral plane at his laboratory in Nova Scotia



Bell's Frost King Tetrahedral Kite


When this kite accidentally hoisted someone into the air it inspired Bell to develop tetrahedral flying machines.



Model of Bells 80 ft high tetrahedral observation tower



Bell kissing his wife through a - tetrahedron!



Alexander Graham Bell seated on experimental tetrahedral truss boat


This wasn't Bells only aquatic foray - he created a much faster world speed record boat. But this one has tetrahedrons!



Bell sitting in his tetrahedral observation post



Four discourses is a concept developed by French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan. He argued that there were four fundamental types of discourse. He defined four discourses, which he called Master, University, Hysteric and Analyst, and suggested that these relate dynamically to one another.


Discourse of the Master – Struggle for mastery / domination / penetration. Based on Hegel's master–slave dialectic.

Discourse of the University – Provision and worship of "objective" knowledge — usually in the unacknowledged service of some external master discourse.

Discourse of the Hysteric – Symptoms embodying and revealing resistance to the prevailing master discourse.

Discourse of the Analyst – Deliberate subversion of the prevailing master discourse.

Lacan's theory of the four discourses was initially developed in 1969, perhaps in response to the events of social unrest during May 1968 in France, but also through his discovery of what he believed were deficiencies in the orthodox reading of the Oedipus Complex. The Four Discourses theory is presented in his seminar L'envers de la psychanalyse and in Radiophonie, where he starts using "discourse" as a social bond founded in intersubjectivity. He uses the term discourse to stress the transindividual nature of language: speech always implies another subject.


Discourse, in the first place, refers to a point where speech and language intersect. The four discourses represent the four possible formulations of the symbolic network which social bonds can take and can be expressed as the permutations of a four-term configuration showing the relative positions — the agent, the other, the product and the truth — of four terms, the subject, the master signifier, knowledge and objet petit a.


The four positions in each discourse are :


Agent = Upper left. This is the speaker of the discourse


Other = Upper right. This is what the discourse is addressed to


Product = Lower right. This is what the discourse has created


Truth = Lower left. This is what the discourse attempted to express


The four variables which occupy these positions are :


S1 = the master signifier


S2 = knowledge (le savoir)


$ = the subject (barred)


a = the objet petit a or surplus-jouissance


S1 refers to "the marked circle of the field of the Other," it is the Master-Signifier. S2 is the "battery of signifiers, already there" at the place where "one wants to determine the status of a discourse as status of statement," that is knowledge (savoir). S1 comes into play in a signifying battery conforming the network of knowledge. $ is the subject, marked by the unbroken line (trait unaire) which represents it and is different from the living individual who is not the locus of this subject. Add the objet petit a, the object-waste or the loss of the object that occurred when the originary division of the subject took place — the object that is the cause of desire: the plus-de-jouir.


Discourse of the Master:


It is the basic discourse from which the other three derive. The dominant position is occupied by the master signifier, S1, which represents the subject, S, for all other signifiers: S2. In this signifying operation there is a surplus: objet a. All attempts at totalisation are doomed to fail. This discourse masks the division of the subject, it illustrates the structure of the dialectic of the master and the slave. The master, S1, is the agent who puts the slave, S2, to work: the result is a surplus, objet a, that the master struggles to appropriate.


Discourse of the University:


It is caused by an anticlockwise quarter turn of the previous discourse. The dominant position is occupied by knowledge (savoir). An attempt to mastery can be traced behind the endeavors to impart neutral knowledge: domination of the other to whom knowledge is transmitted. This hegemony is visible in modernity with science.


Discourse of the Hysteric:


It is effected by a clockwise quarter turn of the discourse of the master. It is not simply "that which is uttered by the hysteric," but a certain kind of articulation in which any subject may be inscribed. The divided subject, $, the symptom, is in the pole position. This discourse points toward knowledge. "The cure involves the structural introduction of the discourse of the hysteric by way of artificial conditions": the analyst hystericizes the analysand's discourse.


Discourse of the Analyst:


It is produced by a quarter turn of the discourse of the hysteric in the same way as Freud develops psychoanalysis by giving an interpretative turn to the discourse of his hysterical patients. The position of the agent — the analyst — is occupied by objet a: the analyst becomes the cause of the analysand's desire. This discourse being the reverse of the discourse of the master, does it make psychoanalysis an essentially subversive practice which undermines attempts at domination and mastery?



Slavoj Žižek uses the theory to explain various cultural artefacts, including Don Giovanni and Parsifal.




The St. Andrew's Cross, Crux decussata, X-cross, X-frame or saltire cross is a common piece of equipment in BDSM dungeons. It typically provides restraining points for ankles, wrists, and waist. When secured to a saltire, the subject is restrained in a spreadeagle position.



Eagles are often informally divided into four groups.[note 1][18]


The snake eagles are placed in the subfamily Circaetinae. The fish eagles, booted eagles, and harpy eagles have traditionally been placed in the subfamily Buteoninae together with the buzzard-hawks (buteonine hawks) and harriers. Some authors may treat these groups as tribes of the Buteoninae; Lerner & Mindell[19] proposed separating the eagle groups into their own subfamilies of Accipitridae.


Fish eagles

Sea eagles or fish eagles take fish as a large part of their diets, either fresh or as carrion.


Proposed subfamily Haliaeetinae. Genera: Haliaeetus, Ichthyophaga.


Some authors include Gypohierax angolensis, the "vulturine fish eagle" (also called the palm-nut vulture) in this group.[18] However, genetic analyses indicate it is related to a grouping of Neophron–Gypaetus–Eutriorchis (Egyptian vulture, bearded vulture (lammergeier), and Madagascan serpent eagle).[20]


The fish eagles have a close genetic relationship with Haliastur and Milvus; the whole group is only distantly related to the Buteo group.[20]


Booted eagles

For the species Hieraaetus pennatus (Aquila pennata), see booted eagle.

Booted eagles or "true eagles"[18][21] have feathered tarsi (lower legs).


Tribe Aquililae or proposed subfamily Aquilinae. Genera: Aquila, Hieraaetus; Spizaetus, Oroaetus, Spizastur; Nisaetus;[20] Ictinaetus, Lophoaetus; Polemaetus; and Stephanoaetus.[18][21]


See comments under eagle species for changes to the composition of these genera.


Snake eagles

Snake or serpent eagles are, as the name suggests, adapted to hunting reptiles.


Subfamily Circaetinae. Genera: Circaetus, Spilornis, Dryotriorchis, Terathopius.[18]

Eutriorchis (subfamily Gypaetinae or Circaetinae).

Despite filling the niche of a snake eagle, genetic studies suggest that the Madagascan serpent eagle Eutriorchis is not related.[20]


Harpy eagles

Harpy eagles[18] or "giant forest eagles"[17] are large eagles that inhabit tropical forests. The group contains two to six species, depending on the author. Although these birds occupy similar niches, and have traditionally been grouped together, they are not all related: the solitary eagles are related to the black-hawks, and the Philippine eagle to the snake eagles.


Harpy eagles (proposed subfamily Harpiinae)

Harpia harpyja, harpy eagle ― Central and South America.

Morphnus guianensis, crested eagle ― Central and South America.

Harpyopsis novaeguineae, Papuan eagle ― New Guinea.

Philippine eagle

Pithecophaga jefferyi, Philippine eagle ― Philippines.

Solitary eagles

Chaco eagle or crowned solitary eagle, Buteogallus (formerly Harpyhaliaetus) coronatus ― South America.

Solitary eagle or montane solitary eagle, Buteogallus (formerly Harpyhaliaetus) solitarius ― South America.


"X" was the codename for one of Fox Mulder's informants and a member of the Men in Black. Although X's real name was never revealed, he became known as "X" or "Mr. X" because Mulder would seek his assistance by marking an "X" in masking tape on his apartment window.









Religious imagery: "as [Dara's] soul is taken, the camera pans to the right and stops to linger on a telephone pole that forms a cross."

Throughout the series, her Catholic faith served as a cornerstone, although a contradiction to her otherwise rigid skepticism of the paranormal.[23] Due to her career in science and medicine, she drifted from her Catholic Christian upbringing but remained somewhat entrenched in her religious beliefs. Scully almost always wears a gold cross necklace, given to her by her mother as a Christmas present when she was fifteen. When she was abducted by Duane Barry, a self-proclaimed alien abductee,[9] it was the only item left behind in Barry's getaway car. Mulder wore it as a talisman of her until Scully miraculously reappeared in a Washington, D.C. hospital.[24] After she recovered from the trauma of her abduction, he returned the cross to her.[2]





Dom and his cross in ‘The Fast and the Furious’ (The Kobal Collection/WireImage)


The characters in the Fast and Furious films live a life full of muscle cars, bikini-clad women, thrilling chases, and fights to the death. These are all pretty standard action-movie ingredients — but they co-exist with scenes of Dominic Toretto (Vin Diesel), Brian O’Conner (Paul Walker), and their friends praying over meals. Huge sacks of money figure prominently in the films, but the most valuable item to Dom is the silver cross he wears around his neck. It may seem ridiculous to say this about a franchise known for booty shots, Corona endorsements, and explosive car stunts, but there is an undeniable Catholic undertone to the Fast and the Furious films. And Furious 7 is the most devout installment yet. (Warning: Spoilers to follow)


Take, for example, that cross necklace. Dominic wears it throughout the first movie, and gives it to his girlfriend Letty (Michelle Rodriguez) in the fourth. After Letty dies in a crash (or so it seems) while trying to help Dom, the cross becomes a symbol of her sacrifice. When Letty comes back, suffering from amnesia and trying to kill Dom, he gives her the necklace, which now represents his unconditional love and forgiveness. The cross gets its climactic moment in Furious 7, when Dom is pulled from a terrible car wreck, unconscious and not breathing. Letty, who has suddenly got her memory back, clutches the cross and tells him the heretofore-unknown story of their wedding — when the couple used the necklace to seal their vows. With that, Dom regains consciousness. Sacrifice, forgiveness, love, resurrection: These are all meanings that Christians attach to the symbol of the cross.



Two songs taken from the album ("Mandatory Suicide" and "South of Heaven") have become near constant fixtures in the band's live setlist,[4] notching up appearances on the following: the live DVDs Live Intrusion,[35] War at the Warfield,[36] Still Reigning,[37] Soundtrack to the Apocalypse's deluxe edition's bonus live disc,[38] and the live double album Decade of Aggression.[39] Lombardo guested with Finnish cellist group Apocalyptica on a live medley of the two tracks at 1998's Headbanger's Heaven festival in the Netherlands.[40] Adrien Begrand of PopMatters described "South of Heaven" as "an unorthodox set opener in theory", noting "the song went over like a megaton bomb detonating the place: dozens of inverted crosses projected behind the high drum riser, the sinewy opening notes kicked in, followed by an overture of bass, cymbal crashes, and tom fills, leading up to the slowly building crescendo" in a concert review.[41] Lombardo remembers listening to a live rendition of "South of Heaven" and thinking, "'Man! There's just so much groove in that song.' To my kids I was saying, 'Listen to that! Listen to how groovy that is!' And it's heavy."[5] A live version of the track featured on the JÄGERMUSIC Rarities 2004 promotional CD, given away to attendees at the Spring 2004 Jägermeister Music Tour.[42] A live rendition of "South of Heaven" was also included on a bonus DVD which came with the group's 2007 re-release of ninth studio album Christ Illusion, shot in Vancouver, British Columbia during 2006's Unholy Alliance tour.[43]

"Behind the Crooked Cross" is rarely played live as Hanneman hates the track, though King has always wanted to play it "because it's got a cool intro" despite it not being his favorite song. King said "that's fine" when speaking of the situation, noting "there are songs that he wants to play that I always shoot down".[2] "Ghosts of War" isn't King's favorite song either, which he attests "everybody always wants to hear" performed live. He confessed; "I like the ending, you know, I like the big heavy part and I always say, 'Let's put the heavy ending at the end of "Chemical Warfare" and just do the last half.' But I could never make that fly."[44]





The lyrics on South of Heaven are FAR more intelligent and actually allow the listener to reflect upon their meaning. The best example of this on the album is the track Behind the Crooked Cross. The crooked cross in the title refers to the swastika symbol of Nazi Germany and the lyrics are about Nazi soldiers who realize that they might be fighting for the wrong cause. For some reason most people view all Nazi soldiers as "evil" but is not the case. The Nazi soldiers like any other soldier for any other nation were "brainwashed" to believe their cause was right and I commend Slayer for pointing that out. Sadly even though this song does not promote Nazism (it's actually against it) it still made people think Slayer were "Nazis" because they have written multiple songs on the subject. I am a historian and I have an interest in Nazism but that doesn't mean I am or agree with the views of the Nazi party. It's just an interesting subject to learn about and for Slayer tow right about. Right after Behind the Crooked Cross is another intelligent monster called Mandatory Suicide about how soldiers are forced to die in combat. Actually Tom Araya would dedicate this song to the American soldiers this summer while they were on tour. Another monster of a track is the title track (one of my all-time favorite songs) with good lyrics (not without Slayer's likeable nastiness) about all the hell that goes on Earth 'south of heaven'. This song shows Slayer's disagreement with Christianity but instead of saying childish lyrics like "Jesus Sucks" they do it in a well thought-out intelligent manner. Slayer would keep this intelligent lyrical manner of writing all the way through the Diabolus in Music album (yes even though they experimented with their sound on that album they still were able to write intelligent lyrics).



The back cover would originally feature Eddie shot on the back, but then the band opted to instead feature a detail of the tank icon featuring Eddie's head along with crossed guns.[12][13][14]


On the cover of the Iron Maiden album, A Matter of Life and Death (2006), a version of a Jolly Roger depicting a helmeted Eddie the Head and two assault rifles instead of bones is displayed hanging from a tank.



The re-issued version of the Megadeth album, Killing Is My Business... and Business Is Good! (1985), shows a stylized Vic Rattlehead skull on top of crossed swords and crossed bones. This was based on Mustaine's original drawing for the cover which the band did not have enough money to produce at the time.



"Looking Down the Cross" was penned by Mustaine in 1983 under the working title "Speak No Evil".[8] The song tells about the temptation of Jesus Christ, using religious metaphors and imagery.

Megadeth - Looking Down The Cross (with lyrics) [HQ] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BkrS_R1f5yY



So no one hears his cries

The skull beneath the skin

Now your drawn and quartered

Your bones will make the x

Symbol stands for poison

And it's chained to your head

And as we fold your arms

To make the holy cross

We cross the crucifix

Religion has been lost

The skull beneath the skin




In the film Eric Draven’s wounds are identical to wounds received by Christ. During the flashbacks within the film it is revealed that in Eric’s final moments his perpetrators held him in a crucifix position. The camera holds the scene of the cross-further emphasizing his crucifixion. The perpetrators then blast him through a window and he falls to his death several stories below. The images construct a parallel and create a “horizon of expectation.”[4] This horizon of expectation allows the audience to better connect with his resurrection. When Eric is resurrected from the grave he returns to the site of his death and the death of his fiancé. Through a series of flashbacks he reenacts both of their deaths. During the spiritual reenactment he cuts his hands, as he looks down he watches the wounds heal instantaneously. He understands his calling. Then he dons the iconic crow make up, complete with a black cross over each eye. With his facial transformation, Eric accepts his transformation as something much more powerful, the acoustmêtre.





let’s consider two other Christ figures in spectacle movies, characters who are, on the face of it, so far removed from their model as to make the comparison grotesque (though for precisely this reason it is already more interesting). First, there’s Kong, in the original King Kong (1933). Consider: Carl Denham displays him in New York with these words: “He was a King and God in the world he knew, but now he comes to civilization merely a captive, a show to gratify your curiosity.” It is only now, in his captivity, that Kong is christened (har!) King Kong. Displayed in a crucified position (a bit of symbolism Peter Jackson missed in his remake, preferring to have a symmetry between Anne and Kong’s shackles), Kong might as well have “INRI” over his head.




Kong is, of course, a symbolically overdetermined figure. He is everything from oppressed working class to male id to racist nightmare and beyond, so why not a Christ figure too? Making him one complicates the other references, and so adds to the extraordinary density of the 1933 film. But Christ is, therefore, just one of the roles given to Kong. An even closer match to what goes on in Man of Steel (though, again, much more successfully) occurs in two of the recent Gamera films: Attack of the Legion (1996) and Revenge of Iris (1999). The former is filled with Biblical quotations, from the title on down, and Gamera does effectively die before rising again on the third day. In the latter, he undergoes crucifixion (check out the scene here). Important point: Gamera experiences meaningful sacrifice. He suffers a lot to save the Earth.







"My guess, it'd do just about anything to get free. Enemy of my enemy..."

"That doesn't make it a friend."

―Royce and Isabelle, regarding the Crucified Predator (from Predators)

Crucified Predator

Crucified Predator

Biographical information




Physical description








7' 5" (2.26 m)


Hair color




Jungle Hunter Clan


Notable Facts

Captured by the Super Predators



Deceased as of 2010[1]


Portrayed by

Derek Mears


[Hide] [Source]

The Crucified Predator, also known as the Classic Predator, was a Yautja from the Jungle Hunter Clan. He was captured by the Super Predators on the Game Preserve Planet. He was released by Royce but was ultimately overpowered and killed while fighting Berserker. The Crucified Predator was the only "classic" Predator featured in the film Predators. The Crucified Predator also appeared in the motion comic Crucified.



Gallery 6395 12 41519

The Crucified Predator roaring in all the chaos of the Super Predator attack.

The Crucified Predator was captured by the Berserker and his hunting party sometime before the events of Predators. When Royce and his group came to the Super Predator's camp, they found the Crucified Predator strung up on one of the "totem poles" jutting out of the ground. When Nikolai came close to him and tapped him with his M134 Minigun, the captured Predator awakened and started roaring at the shocked humans. Soon after, the Super Predators arrived and started to assault the group of humans. The captive Predator roars in hatred at his rival clan members, adding more chaos to the incident. When the humans fled from the camp, the tied up Yautja lowered his head in despair. Several hours later, Royce comes back to the camp and makes a deal with the Predator. By letting Royce go back to Earth, he would untie him. The Predator agrees and uses his Wrist Gauntlet to hack into the Super Predators' ship and sends it on a course to Earth. When the Predator finished gearing up his retrieved equipment, the Berserker showed up to drop Edwin and Isabelle, which he just captured, into a pit. The Super Predator spotted him and unsheathed his Scimitar. Royce ran for the ship while the two Yautja engaged in combat.


Berserker about to decapitate the Crucified Predator

The Berserker had the upper hand most of the time. The Super Predator fired some shots from his Plasmacaster to vanquish his foe. But when the Predator took cover under a log, the Berserker drew in to investigate. This was all part of the Predator's plan, however, because when the Berserker leaned towards the log, the Yautja tackled him from behind and knocked him back. The Berserker soon recovered from this and gave three severe headbutts which knocked off the Predator's Bio-Mask. The Super Predator took off his mask and roared to try and strike fear into his opponent, but the Crucified Predator was unfazed by this and growled back. The Berserker then raised his Scimitar and finished his opponent by swiftly slicing his head off. The defeated Predator's head and lifeless body fell to the ground. The Super Predator roared over the corpse in victory and put his Bio-Mask back on.



In the prequel motion comic, The Crucified Predator is being hunted at the waterfall by Falconer and Berserker, Crucified attempts to fight and escape but gets captured by the more numerous Super Predators and is strung up onto the totem structure.

Personality & Traits

The Crucified Predator, like the rest of the mainstream Predators, was an honorable hunter. After he was released, he grabbed Royce by the throat. Afterwards, though, he let him go as the Predator was only inspecting him. This was a sign of Crucified keeping his deal with Royce to get him off the planet. He was a skilled warrior, but because of his capture and perhaps even tortured by the Super Predators, he was weakened and not at the full peak of his strength and stamina. This added with the Berserker Predator using plasma weaponry to disorient him, resulted in the eventual defeat and subsequent decapitation of the Crucified Predator.

This Predator had an appearance that was similar to the Jungle Hunter seen in the original film, although he was shorter. This could be that the Crucified was a Young Blood warrior, but even possibly younger than Scar's hunting party.


The Crucified Predator, due to torture and probably lack of food, water, other necessities, and also along with his wounds caused him to be fatigued and not as strong as he once was. Despite being rather weak, he managed to deliver a blow to the Berserker that knocked the Super Predator down. He is very tolerant of his pain as he is seen standing and running despite being nailed through his feet (shown in the motion comic) he was also able to withstand the heat of the plasma bolts that fired near him. The Predator managed to carry on running while many bolts exploded near him before being forced to jump over a log, and was not affected by the impact despite his weak state. Despite being at the disadvantage due to his weakened state, he never used his Plasmacaster showing him to be very honorable, and it was in fact operational as he is seen readying it.



The Crucified Predator had the typical equipment every Yautja hunter should have including Wristblades, a Wrist Gauntlet, a Cloak, and a Plasmacaster. His Bio-Mask was damaged in a previous battle (including a cracked upper section and burned through area on the left), but it still functioned properly showing that Bio-Masks can take a lot of damage. His active camouflage worked as well, but it malfunctioned and sparked when it touched water. He had far less protective gear than most hunters, most likely because of the Berserker Predator, stripping him of all his equipment.

Reason of Crucifixion

As for all crucifixions the reason was torture. Theories behind the methods of torture include exposure to the elements and or insects, starvation and dehydration. The most probable theory is suffocation. Predators are capable of surviving periods of time without nourishment, as seen in Predator 2, the City Hunter only felt hunger every two days. As stated in some of the expanded universe, Yautja cannot survive breathing an Earth like atmosphere for a given amount of time, hence the reason for their Bio-Mask's inbuilt rebreather, however, Predators have been able to breathe Earth's atmosphere with no trouble in the films, with City Hunter being the only predator using a breath mask, this may be down to his wounds and the freezing weapon Keyes used against it, as no other Yautja has been seen needing to use a breath mask.

Seeing as the scavenger Noland had survived on the Game Preserve Planet for several seasons, the atmosphere was similar, if not the same as Earth's. Being without his Bio-Mask and deprived of the nutrients in the air of Yautja Prime, the Crucified Predator would slowly suffocate in the foreign atmosphere.


NECA action figure biography

"A bold, new chapter in the Predator universe, shot under the creative auspices of Robert Rodriguez. In this story we follow Royce, a cold-blooded mercenary whose only allegiance is to those who pay him. He reluctantly leads a group of elite warriors who come to realize they've been brought together on an alien planet...as prey. With the notable exception of disgraced physician Edwin, they are all cold-blooded killers -- mercenaries, Yakuza, death squad members --human "predators" that are now being systematically hunted and eliminated by a new breed of alien Predators." [1]


The Crucified Predator was based on the original creature designed by Stan Winston from Predator.

The Crucified Predator is portrayed by Derek Mears, a famous movie monster actor.

The Crucified Predator is the first hunter to fight another Predator on-screen.

According to the Predators video game, the Crucified Predator was the leader of a clan. The player has to rescue their clan leader on mission 30.



Predators (Angry Mob game)

Predators (Gameloft game)





Moving to TV, a third season episode of Star Trek (1966 – 1969) called “The Empath” also featured a crucifixion of sorts.


Here, Captain Kirk (William Shatner), Mr. Spock (Leonard Nimoy) and Dr. Bones McCoy (De Forest Kelley) visit the planet Minara II, where alien scientists called Vians capture them and force them to endure painful medical tests. The aliens do so in an attempt to create in another test subject, Gem (Kathryn Hays) the feeling of empathy.


In short, the Vians must decide if Gem’s people — doomed to die in a stellar catastrophe — are worth saving. If Gem shows the advanced (and Jesus-like) trait of self-sacrifice for the good of others, her people will be “saved.” Doctor McCoy, realizing that Kirk and Spock could die, willingly submits to the torturous experiments, and is strung up, like Jesus on the cross, to endure suffering. Gem learns from his example (as Christians take to heart Christ’s example…) and develops the trait of empathy the Vians sought. The episode explicitly quotes the Gospel of Matthew 13:45-46, and terms Gem “one pearl of great price.”





In the seventh-season The X-Files (1993 – 2002) episode “Amor Fati,” Fox Mulder (David Duchovny) undergoes a difficult experience that resembles the crucifixion. In this story, Mulder — in the process of becoming a genetic hybrid of man and alien — is captured by the Cigarette Smoking Man (William B. Davis) and forced to endure torturous medical experiments. In the lab, Mulder is strapped to a table that is shaped like a giant X or from another perspective: a Catholic cross. Atop his head rests a fastener with vise-grips. The surgical table represents a high-tech version of Christ’s cross, and the helmet is a stand-in for Jesus’s crown of thorns, described in the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and John.


The remainder of the story adapts Nikos Kazantzaki’s novel The Last Temptation (1953) to X-Files lore, as the Cigarette Smoking Man – doubling as Satan – attempts to convince Mulder not to pursue his quest, uncovering the truth.


Instead, the villain wants Mulder to live an “ordinary life” of mortal, earthly pleasures. Mulder nearly goes the latter route, until confronted/rescued by Scully (Gillian Anderson). In doing so, we must assume he rescues the future of the human race, saving it from alien colonization and slavery.




It is like trying to reform the devil. With his curling goatee and Mephistophelean moustache Poncelet even looks Satanic as he gazes out from under his hooded eyes, refusing to give anything away. But by the end he becomes almost Christ-like, the imagery of the film turning to him crucified and upright on a gurney, about to be executed. The implication is that the dialogue with Sister Helen was able to elicit more remorse from him than the imminent threat of execution. And the film pulls no punches about the process of the execution. The first injection is an anaesthetic designed to relax the muscles; it is said that this will prevent the subject writhing around as their lungs are crushed and their heart stopped. Very humane. It also compares the quiet dignity of those people praying outside the execution with the in-your-face cheering of their opponents. Yet for all that, the reactions of the bereaved families are presented sympathetically. The film does not shy away from the wickedness of the act perpetrated by Poncelet and his friend, or how raw the wounds are for those left behind. For Mr and Mrs Percy (R. Lee Ermey and Celia Weston) it is as simple as whether Sister Helen is “taking his side” or not. By continuing to act as Poncelet’s spiritual advisor they see her as bringing evil into their house. Mr Delacroix (Raymond J. Barry) is likewise unable to let go of the past. However he at least is willing to have a dialogue with Helen. By the end of the film she has taken him under her wing too. His was a side of the story of which I would have liked to have seen more.

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