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Diagram 1 shows Saussure’s Semiology of isomorphism (conceptual variability) bringing form and matter, signified and signifier, into correspondence.  Saussure’s is isomorphism with correspondence, because he remains within formed matter differentiated only by opposition and negation.  (See Diagram 1.)

ANCIENT GREEKS SAW FOUR COLORS

Empedocles, one of the earliest Ancient Greek color theorists, described color as falling into four areas, light or white, black or dark, red and yellow; Xenophanes described the rainbow as having three bands of color: purple, green/yellow, and red (6). These colors are fairly consistent with the four colors used by Homer in his color description, this leads us to the conclusion that all Ancient Greeks saw color only in the premise of Empedocles' colors, in some way they lacked the ability to perceive the whole color spectrum.  
 

Mann's "Veillance Compass" diagram, indicating the relationship between SurveillanceSousveillance, and their ratio or difference, McVeillance.

2. Four Types of Veillance Society
And the definitions matter because, as noted above, the surveillance-sousveillance distinction is critical to understanding the possible futures that are open to us. You have to imagine that surveillance and sousveillance represent two different dimensions or matrices along which future societies can vary. A society can have competing attitudes toward both surveillance and sousveillance. That is: they can reject both, embrace both, or embrace one and reject the other. The result is four possible futures, which can be represented by the two-by-two matrix below.

http://philosophicaldisquisitions.blogspot.com/2014/10/sousveillance-and-surveillance-what.html

Let’s consider these four possible futures in more detail:

 

The Equiveillance Society: This is a society which embraces both surveillance and sousveillance. The authorities can watch over us with their machines of loving grace and we can watch over them with our smartphones, smartwatches and other smart devices (though there are questions to be asked about who really controls those technologies).

The Univeillance Society: This is a society which embraces sousveillance but resists surveillance. It’s not quite clear why it is called univeillance (except for the fact that it embraces one kind of veillance only, but then that would imply that a society that embraced surveillance only should have the same name, which it doesn’t). But the basic idea is that we accept all forms of peer-to-peer monitoring, but try to cut out monitoring by authorities.

The McVeillance Society: This is a society that embraces surveillance but resists sousveillance. Interestingly enough, this is happening already. There are a number of businesses that use surveillance technologies but try to prevent their customers or other ordinary citizens from using sousveillance technologies (like smartphone cameras). For example, in Ireland, the Dublin Docklands Development Authority tries to prevent photographs being taken in the streets of the little enclave of the city that it controls (if you are ever there, it seems like the streets are just part of the ordinary public highways, but in reality they are privately owned). The name “McVeillance” comes from Mann’s own experiences with McDonalds (which you can read about here).

The Counterveillance Society: This is a society that resists both types of veillance technology. Again, we see signs of this in the modern world. People try to avoid being caught by police speed cameras (and there are websites set up to assist this), or having their important life events being recognised by big data, and or having their photographs taken on nights out.

The classical hotel (katagogion) was used as a blue print for the building of hospitals. The katagogion in Epidauros, erected in the fourth century BC, was a healing center with a rectangular ground plan, consisting of four courtyards surrounded by colonnades (fig. 332).

GRIDS ARE QUADRANTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grid_plan

Ancient grid plans[edit]

By 2600 BC, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization (in what is now Pakistan and Northwestern India), were built with blocks divided by a grid of straight streets, running north-south and east-west. Each block was subdivided by small lanes.[1] The cities and monasteries of Gandhara (e.g. Sirkap and Taxila), dating from the 1st millennium BC to the 11th century AD, also had grid-based designs.[2] Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan since 1959, was also founded on the grid-plan of the nearby ruined city of Sirkap.[3]

A workers' village (2570-2500 BC) at GizaEgypt, housed a rotating labor force and was laid out in blocks of long galleries separated by streets in a formal grid. Many pyramid-cult cities used a common orientation: a north-south axis from the royal palace and an east-west axis from the temple, meeting at a central plaza where King and God merged and crossed.

Hammurabi king of the Babylonian Empire in the 17th century BC, ordered the rebuilding of Babylon: constructing and restoring temples, city walls, public buildings, and irrigation canals. The streets of Babylon were wide and straight, intersected approximately at right angles, and were paved with bricks and bitumen.

The tradition of grid plans is continuous in China from the 15th century BC onward in the traditional urban planning of various ancient Chinese states. Guidelines put into written form in the Kaogongji during the Spring and Autumn period (770-476 BC) stated: "a capital city should be square on plan. Three gates on each side of the perimeter lead into the nine main streets that crisscross the city and define its grid-pattern. And for its layout the city should have the Royal Court situated in the south, the Marketplace in the north, the Imperial Ancestral Temple in the east and the Altar to the Gods of Land and Grain in the west."

Teotihuacan, near modern-day Mexico City, is the largest ancient grid-plan site in the Americas. The city's grid covered eight square miles.

Perhaps the most well-known grid system is that spread through the colonies of the Roman Empire. The archetypal Roman Grid was introduced to Italy first by the Greeks, with such information transferred by way of trade and conquest.[4]

The ancient Greek grid[edit]

Although the idea of the grid was present in Hellenic societal and city planning, it was not pervasive prior to the 5th century BC. However, it slowly gained primacy through the work of Hippodamus of Miletus, who planned and replanned many Greek cities in accordance with this form.[5] The concept of a grid as the ideal method of town planning had become widely accepted by the time of Alexander the Great. His conquests were a step in the propagation of the grid plan throughout colonies, some as far-flung as Taxila in Pakistan,[5] that would later be mirrored by the expansion of the Roman Empire. The Greek grid had its streets aligned roughly in relation to the cardinal points[5] and generally looked to take advantage of visual cues based on the hilly landscape typical of Greece and Asia Minor.[6]This was probably best exemplified in Priene, in present-day western Turkey, where the orthogonal city grid was based on the cardinal points, on sloping terrain that struck views out[clarification needed] towards a river and the city of Miletus.[7]

Ancient Roman civilization[edit]

 

Caesaraugusta roman city matching the current Zaragoza city map:
1.- Decumano; 2.- Cardo ; 3.- Foro de Caesaraugusta ; 4.- Puerto fluvial; 5.- Termas públicas; 6.- Teatro; 7.- Muralla

The Etruscan people, whose territories in Italy encompassed what would eventually become Rome, founded what is now the city of Marzabotto at the end of the 6th century BC. Its layout was based on Greek Ionic ideas, and it was here that the main east-west and north-south axes of a town (the decumanus maximus and cardo maximus respectively) could first be seen in Italy. According to Stanislawski (1946), the Romans did use grids until the time of the late Republic or early Empire, when they introduced centuriation, a system which they spread around the Mediterranean and into northern Europe later on.[4]

 

Straight road in the Province of BergamoItaly, following line of Roman Grid

The military expansion of this period facilitated the adoption of the grid form as standard: the Romans established castra(forts or camps) first as military centres; some of them developed into administrative hubs. The Roman grid was similar in form to the Greek version of a grid, but allowed for practical considerations. For example, Roman castra were often sited on flat land, especially close to or on important nodes like river crossings or intersections of trade routes.[6] The dimensions of the castra were often standard, with each of its four walls generally having a length of 2,150 feet (660 metres). Familiarity was the aim of such standardisation: soldiers could be stationed anywhere around the Empire, and orientation would be easy within established towns if they had a standard layout. Each would have the aforementioned decumanus maximus and cardo maximus at its heart, and their intersection would form the forum, around which would be sited important public buildings. Indeed, such was the degree of similarity between towns that Higgins states that soldiers "would be housed at the same address as they moved from castra to castra".[6] Pompeii has been cited by both Higgins[6] and Laurence[8] as the best preserved example of the Roman grid.

Outside of the castra, large tracts of land were also divided in accordance with the grid within the walls. These were typically 2,400 feet (730 metres) per side (called centuria), and contained 100 parcels of land (each called heredium).[9]The decumanus maximus and cardo maximus extended from the town gates out towards neighbouring settlements. These were lined up to be as straight as possible, only deviating from their path due to natural obstacles that prevented a direct route.[9]

While the imposition of only one town form regardless of region could be seen as an imposition of imperial authority, there is no doubting the practical reasoning behind the formation of the Roman grid. Under Roman guidance, the grid was designed for efficiency and interchangeability, both facilitated by and aiding the expansion of their empire.

Asia from the first millennium AD[edit]

As Japan and the Korean peninsula became politically centralized in the 7th century AD, those societies adopted Chinese grid-planning principles in numerous locations. In Korea, Gyeongju, the capital of Unified Silla, and Sanggyeong, the capital of Balhae, adapted the Tang Dynasty Chinese model. The ancient capitals of Japan, such as Fujiwara-Kyô (AD 694-710), Nara (Heijô-Kyô, AD 710-784), and Kyoto (Heian-Kyô, AD 794-1868) also adapted from Tang's capital, Chang'an. However, for reasons of defense, the planners of Tokyo eschewed the grid, opting instead for an irregular network of streets surrounding the Edo Castle grounds. In later periods, some parts of Tokyo were grid-planned, but grid plans are generally rare in Japan, and the Japanese addressing system is accordingly based on increasingly fine subdivisions, rather than a grid.

The grid-planning tradition in Asia continued through the beginning of the 20th century, with Sapporo, Japan (est. 1868) following a grid plan under American influence.

Europe and its colonies[edit]

 

Bastide schema in Gascony

 

Barcelona

 

Ouagadougou, 1930

New European towns were planned using grids beginning in the 12th century, most prodigiously in the bastides of southern France that were built during the 13th and 14th centuries. Medieval European new towns using grid plans were widespread, ranging from Wales to the Florentine region. Many were built on ancient grids originally established as Roman colonial outposts.

The Roman model was also used in Spanish settlements during the Reconquista of Ferdinand and Isabella. It was subsequently applied in the new cities established during the Spanish colonization of the Americas, after the founding of San Cristóbal de La Laguna (Canary Islands) in 1496. In 1573, King Phillip II of Spain compiled the Laws of the Indies to guide the construction and administration of colonial communities. The Laws specified a square or rectangular central plaza with eight principal streets running from the plaza's corners. Hundreds of grid-plan communities throughout the Americas were established according to this pattern, echoing the practices of earlier Indian civilizations.

The grid plan became popular with the start of the Renaissance in Northern Europe. In 1606, the newly founded city of Mannheim in Germany was the first Renaissance city laid out on the grid plan. Later came the New Town in Edinburgh and almost the entire city centre of Glasgow, and many planned communities and cities in AustraliaCanada and the United States.

The baroque capital city of MaltaValletta, dating back to the 16th Century, was built following a rigid grid plan of uniformly designed houses, dotted with palaces, churches and squares.

Derry, constructed in 1613–1618, was the first planned city in Ireland. The central diamond within a walled city with four gates was considered a good design for defence. The grid pattern was widely copied in the colonies of British North America.

Early United States[edit]

 

Commissioners' Plan of 1811 for Manhattan.

 

Twenty American grids compared at a scale of 400 feet to the inch.

Many of the earliest cities in the United States, such as Boston, did not start with a grid system.[10] However, even in pre-revolutionary days some cities saw the benefits of such a layout. New Haven Colony, one of the earliest colonies in America, was designed with a tiny 9-square grid at its founding in 1638. On a grander scale, Philadelphia was designed on a rectilinear street grid in 1682: one of the first cities in North America to use a grid system.[11][12] At the urging of city founder William Penn, surveyor Thomas Holme designed a system of wide streets intersecting at right angles between the Schuylkill River to the west and the Delaware River to the east, including five squares of dedicated parkland. Penn advertised this orderly design as a safeguard against overcrowding, fire, and disease, which plagued European cities. Holme drafted an ideal version of the grid,[13] but alleyways sprouted within and between larger blocks as the city took shape. Arguably the most famous grid plan in history is the plan for New York City formulated in the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, a visionary proposal by the state legislature of New York for the development of most of Manhattan[14] above Houston Street.

 

The city blocks and streets of Barcelona as conceived by Ildefonso Cerdá. The blocks include wide open spaces that continue across the street to adjacent blocks.

 

A diagram of three city grids at the same scale showing the differences in dimensions and configuration

Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, was planned under French-American architect Pierre Charles L'Enfant. Under the L'Enfant plan, the original District of Columbia was developed using a grid plan that is interrupted by diagonal avenues, most famously Pennsylvania Avenue. These diagonals are often connected by traffic circles, such as Dupont Circle and Washington Circle. As the city grew, the plan was duplicated to cover most of the remainder of the capital. Meanwhile, the core of the city faced disarray and the McMillan Plan, led by Senator James McMillan, was adopted to build a National Mall and a parks system that is still today a jewel of the city.

Often, some of the streets in a grid are numbered (First, Second, etc.), lettered, or arranged in alphabetical order. Downtown San Diego uses all three schemes: north-south streets are numbered from west to east, and east-west streets are split between a lettered series running southward from A through L and a series of streets named after trees or plants, running northward alphabetically from Ash to Walnut. As in many cities, some of these streets have been given new names violating the system (the former D Street is now Broadway, the former 12th Avenue is now Park Boulevard, etc.); this has meant that 2nd, not 1st, is the most common street name in the United States.[15]

An exception to the typical, uniform grid is the plan of Savannah, Georgia (1733), known as the Oglethorpe Plan. It is a composite, cellular city block consisting of four large corner blocks, four small blocks in between and a public square in the centre; the entire composition of approximately ten acres (four hectares) is known as a ward.[16] Its cellular structure includes all the primary land uses of a neighborhood and has for that reason been called fractal.[17] Its street configuration presages modern traffic calming techniques applied to uniform grids where certain selected streets become discontinuous or narrow, thus discouraging through traffic. The configuration also represents an example of functional shared space, where pedestrian and vehicular traffic can safely and comfortably coexist.[18]

In the westward development of the United States, the use of the grid plan was nearly universal in the construction of new settlements, such as in Salt Lake City (1870), Dodge City (1872) and Oklahoma City (1890). In these western cities the streets were numbered even more carefully than in the east to suggest future prosperity and metropolitan status.[11]

One of the main advantages of the grid plan was that it allowed the rapid subdivision and auction of a large parcel of land. For example, when the legislature of the Republic of Texas decided in 1839 to move the capital to a new site along the Colorado River, the functioning of the government required the rapid population of the town, which was named Austin. Charged with the task, Edwin Waller designed a fourteen-block grid that fronted the river on 640 acres (exactly 1 square mile; about 2.6 km²). After surveying the land, Waller organized the almost immediate sale of 306 lots, and by the end of the year the entire Texas government had arrived by oxcart at the new site. Apart from the speed of surveying advantage, the rationale at the time of the grid's adoption in this and other cities remains obscure.

Late 19th century to the present[edit]

Ildefonso Cerdá, a Spanish civil engineer, defined a concept of urban planning, based on the grid, that he applied to the Eixample of Barcelona. The Eixample grid introduced innovative design elements which were exceptional at the time and even unique among subsequent grid plans:

  • a very large block measuring 113 by 113 m (371 by 371 ft), far larger than the old city blocks and larger than any Roman, Greek blocks and their mutations (see drawing below);

  • a 20 m (66 ft) road width (right of way) compared to mostly 3 m in the old city;

  • square blocks with truncated corners; and

  • major roads, perpendicular and diagonal, measuring 50 m (160 ft) in width.

These innovations he based on functional grounds: the block size, to enable the creation of a quiet interior open space (60 m by 60 m) and allow ample sunlight and ventilation to its perimeter buildings; the rectilinear geometry, the wide streets and boulevards to sustain high mobility and the truncated corners to facilitate turning of carts and coaches and particularly vehicles on fixed rails.[19]

In maps of larger American cities the downtown areas are almost always grids. These areas represent the original land dimensions of the founded city, generally around one square mile. Some cities expanded the grid further out from the centre, but maps also show that, in general, as the distance from the centre increases, a variety of patterns emerge in no particular discernible order. In juxtaposition to the grid they appear random. These new patterns have been systematically classified and their design characteristics measured[20]

In the United States, the grid system was widely used in most major cities and their suburbs until the 1960s. However, during the 1920s, the rapid adoption of the automobile caused a panic among urban planners, who, based on observation, claimed that speeding cars would eventually kill tens of thousands of small children per year. Apparently, at this early stage of the car's entry into the grid, the streets of major cities worldwide were the scene of virtual "slaughter" as the fatality rate in proportion to population was more than double the current rate.[21][22] In 2009, after several decades of road safety improvements and a continuous decline in fatalities, an estimated 33,963 people died in motor vehicle traffic crashes and, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, "Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for children from 3 to 14 years old.".[23] Planners, therefore, called for an inwardly focused "superblock" arrangement that minimized through automobile traffic and discouraged cars from traveling on anything but arterial roads; traffic generators, such as apartment complexes and shops, would be restricted to the edges of the superblock, along the arterial. This paradigm prevailed between about 1930 and 1960, especially in Los Angeles, where notable examples include Leimert Park (an early example) and Panorama City (a late-period one).

A prominent 20th century urbanist, Lewis Mumford, severely criticized some of the grid's characteristics: "With a T-square and a triangle, finally, the municipal engineer could, without the slightest training as either an architect or a sociologist, 'plan' a metropolis, with its standard lots, its standard blocks, its standard street widths, in short, with its standardized comparable, and replaceable parts. The new gridiron plans were spectacular in their inefficiency and waste. By usually failing to discriminate sufficiently between main arteries and residential streets, the first were not made wide enough while the second were usually too wide for purely neighborhood functions... as for its contribution to the permanent social functions of the city, the anonymous gridiron plan proved empty."[24]

In the 1960s, traffic engineers and urban planners abandoned the grid virtually wholesale in favor of a "street hierarchy". This is a thoroughly "asymmetric" street arrangement in which a residential subdivision—often surrounded by a noise wall or a security gate—is completely separated from the road network except for one or two connections to arterial roads. In a way, this is a return to medieval styles: as noted in Spiro Kostof's seminal history of urban design, The City Shaped, there is a strong resemblance between the street arrangements of modern American suburbs and those of medieval Arab and Moorish cities. In each case, the community unit at hand—the clan or extended family in the Muslim world, the economically homogeneous subdivision in modern suburbia—isolates itself from the larger urban scene by using dead ends and culs-de-sac.

 

A one km2 sector in Milton Keynes framed by major roads in a grid configuration. The road network within the sector uses cul-de-sac streets complemented by bike and foot paths which connect the entire sector and beyond.

Milton Keynes[edit]

Main article: Milton Keynes grid road system

One famous grid system is in the British new town of Milton Keynes. In this planned city, which began construction in 1967, a system of ten "horizontal" (roughly east-west) and eleven "vertical" (roughly north-south) roads was used, with roundabouts at each intersection. The horizontal roads were all given names ending in 'way' and H numbers (for 'horizontal', e.g. H3 Monks Way). The vertical roads were given names ending in 'street' and V numbers (for 'vertical', e.g. V6 Grafton Street). Each grid road was spaced roughly one kilometre along from the next, forming squares of approximately one square kilometre. Each square and each roundabout was given its own name. The system provided very easy transport within the city, although it confused visitors who were unfamiliar with the system. The grid squares thus formed are far larger than the city blocks described earlier, and the road layouts within the grid squares are generally 'organic' in form – matching the street hierarchy model described above.

Various plans of institutions of care in Europe are given in fig. 343. They illustrate the attractions of the square and the cross-in-square layout as an important feature in the building of hospitals over a long period of time. There seems to be a historic relation between the intention of ‘healing the masses’ and a tetradic-architectonic setting, even if the eclectic nature of this presentation is taken into account.

Fig. 341 – Albergo dei Poveri at Genova (Italy), started in 1654.

The four stages in the evolution of hospitals

https://quadralectics.wordpress.com/3-contemplation/3-5-hospitals/

https://quadralectics.wordpress.com/3-contemplation/3-2-temples/3-2-5-eastern-religious-architecture/

Fig. 139 – This ground plan of the ‘Great Stupa’ of Sanchi (India) indicate the four gateways (or toranas), which were later added to make the plan look like a swastika.

The outer railing and the gates of the ‘Great Stupa’ are richly sculptured. The southern gate reveals the birth of Buddha, the northern gate is crowned by the wheel of law, the eastern gate depicts the young Gautam leaving the house to seek enlightenment and the western gate gives the Seven Incarnations of Buddha (four trees and tree stupa).

The worship of Buddha was not made visible through figures at Sanchi, but through the artistic use of symbols.

1. The lotus represents Buddha’s birth,

2. The tree signifies his enlightenment,

3. The wheel (of Law, Dharmachakra) points to his first sermon

4. The stupa is his nirvana or salvation.

These various stages are mirrored in the four sacred Buddhist pilgrimage centers in Nepal and India as mentioned in the ‘Mahaparinirvana Sutra’ (The Book of the Great Decease) in Chapter V:

  1. His birthplace at Lumbini, east of Kapilavastu (Nepal);

  1. Buddha Gaya (Bihar), where he attained enlightenment under the sacred pipal tree (Ficus religiosa). The nearby Mahabodhi Temple has a beautiful pyramidal spire and is situated on the location of Buddha’s original Bodhi Tree;

  1. Sarnath or Isipatan (Uttar Pradesh), where he delivered his first sermon and

  1. Kushinara or Kashinagar (Uttar Pradesh), where he died.

These four places/stages are, by and large, in agreement with the Four Quadrants of the quadralectic world view. Characteristics  of these areas are given in terms of (a dualistic) visibility. The First Quadrant (I) is designated as a place of the invisible invisibility. It contains an indeterminable and arbitrary ‘beginning’, before any division took place. The Second Quadrant (II) is regarded as the realm of ideas and the first division, creating an invisible visibility. The Third Quadrant (III) harbors the consciousness of limitations and the establishment of a visible visibility, known as empirical reality. Finally, the Fourth Quadrant (IV), with its visible invisibility, is the summary of previous and future experiences.

The symbolism of the elements is reflected in the different architectonic parts of the stupa(fig. 140). The lower part of the stupa consists of a square or cube with terraces and steps in various forms. This square/cube symbolized the earth, the most stable and static geometric body. The covering dome is related to the mass of a world all-encircling sea (water). The triangular shape of the conus points to the highest aims, in the same way as flames reach for the sky (fire). The calyx, symbolizing Buddha’s upturned begging bowl, was associated with the sky (air) and the flaming drop is a reference to space (quintessence).

Fig. 144 – A map of the Candi Sewu (Tjandi Sewoe) complex, near Prambanan (Indonesia) shows the general plan of a mandala. The cruciform main temple is positioned in the middle of an enclosed area and surrounded by the ‘Thousand Temples’, protected by a second wall.

The Candi Sewu has a cruciform ground plan and four stairs in the wind directions (fig. 145). The central part of the building is surrounded by four cellas, one of which leads into the main room (from the east).

https://quadralectics.wordpress.com/3-contemplation/3-2-temples/3-2-5-eastern-religious-architecture/

THIRD IS BAD SECOND IS ABOUT ORDER HOMEOSTASIS

https://owlcation.com/social-sciences/Erik-Erickson-Psychosocial-Development

The early Freudian theory of psychosexual development consisted of four stages culminating in maturity at adolescence. This theory has been criticized as simplistic and overly deterministic in it's surplus emphasis on childhood events and their immutable effects upon an individual's personality.

Freud's stages were as Follows:

The Oral stage is contained within the first year of life and divided into two sub-stages. The Oral-Receptive stage pertains to a babies initial means by gaining pleasure, through the oral interaction of breastfeeding. The later Oral-Sadistic phase, which comes with the development of teeth is an early defense against an uncertain environment. The infant's reaction to breastfeeding and subsequent weaning can impact the quality of relationships later in life. Freud theorized that our lifelong oral orogeny, (i.e. pleasure from kissing) has its genesis in this stage.

The Anal stage, occurring during year one through two, is also broken into two parts. The early anal phase and late anal period. The early stage is characterized by defecation as an act of aggression. The later stage transforms the act of defecation into a source of pride and pleasure for the child. They may feel accomplishment at what they have, "created," and may present it as a gift and Freud theorized that the way in which this gift is received is a formative factor in personality. A positive reception engenders generosity and a punitive reception can lead to obsessive or narcissistic traits.

The Phallic phase occurs during years 3 and 4. At this stage, auto-arousal becomes almost a universal for children as the genitals become a principle erogenous zone. How parents react to this and children's experience of this reaction can either engender shame or a healthy sexuality in the developed adult.

Around age 5 until puberty, Freud believed children entered a latency period characterized by a lack of Psychosexual progress.

The Genital phase is reached at puberty in which sexual desire is directed outward toward others, and the erogenous zones consolidate so as to allow the genitals to be the primary erogenous zone.

It is important to understand that destructive mind control can be determined when the overall effect of these four components promotes dependency and obedience to some leader or cause. It is not necessary for every single item on the list to be present. Mindcontrolled cult members can live in their own apartments, have nine-to-five jobs, be married with children, and still be unable to think for themselves and act independently.

http://old.freedomofmind.com/Info/BITE/bitemodel.php

The BITE Model

I. Behavior Control

II. Information Control

III.Thought Control

IV. Emotional Control

  

An academic quarter refers to the division of an academic year into four parts.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Academic_quarter_(year_division)

The modern academic quarter calendar can be traced to the historic English law court / legal training pupillage four term system:

  • Hilary: January–April

  • Easter: April–May

  • Trinity: June–July

  • Michaelmas: October–December

Hypersudoku with a cross inside. Sudoku is made of quadrant grids

Karnaugh map 16 square grid https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karnaugh_map

THE STAR OF DAVID IS THE DOUBLE TETRAHEDRON MERKABA- 73 and 37 ARE RELATED TO THE MERKABA- TETRA IS FOUR

The first verse of the Hebrew Bible consists of just 7 words and 28 letters, but is a powerful and precise account of the creation of the universe. Much has been done to reveal the remarkable gematria of this famous verse by researcher Vernon Jenkins.

 

These words from Genesis 1:1 sum to 2701, which is 73 x 37 and the 73rd triangular number. Note that the gematria values of the first letter of each of these seven words sum to 22:

Danger Doom said "three or four either or." at 1:00. Doom also says "How you know Octagon, or much less tetragrammaton" at 40 seconds on the video to the left.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samaritans

Demographic investigations of the Samaritan community were carried out in the 1960s. Detailed pedigrees of the last 13 generations show that the Samaritans comprise four lineages:

  • The Tsedakah lineage, claiming descent from the tribe of Manasseh

  • The Joshua-Marhiv lineage, claiming descent from the tribe of Ephraim

  • The Danafi lineage, claiming descent from the tribe of Ephraim

  • The priestly Cohen lineage from the tribe of Levi.

FOUR GAS VARIABLES

https://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry/Physical_Properties_of_Matter/States_of_Matter/Properties_of_Gases/Gas_Laws/Gas_Laws%3A_Overview

Ideal gas, or perfect gas, is the theoretical substance that helps establish the relationship of four gas variables, pressure (P), volume(V), the amount of gas(n)and temperature(T). It has characters described as follow:

  1. The particles in the gas are extremely small, so the gas does not occupy any spaces.

  2. The ideal gas has constant, random and straight-line motion.

  3. No forces between the particles of the gas. Particles only collide elastically with each other and with the walls of container.

Link tetractys and tree of life  The Alphabet That Changed the World: How Genesis Preserves a Science of ...

FOUR PERFS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Academy_ratio

The Academy ratio of 1.375:1 (abbreviated as 1.37:1) is an aspect ratio of a frame of 35mm film when used with 4-perf pulldown.[1][2] It was standardized by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences as the standard film aspect ratio in 1932, although similar-sized ratios were used as early as 1928.

The Academy ratio is not created in the camera, which has continued to use the full frame silent aperture gate for all 4-perf spherical filming.[1][2] Rather, it is created in the married print, when the optical soundtrack and frame lines are added. Though most non-anamorphic film prints with a soundtrack are now framed to one of the non-anamorphic widescreen ratios, from 1.66 to 1.85, some still retain Academy-sized frames.[1][2] These frames are then cropped in the projector by means of aperture masks used in the projector's gate in conjunction with a wider lens than would be used for projecting Academy ratio films.[1][2]

During filming, using the 4-perf frame for widescreen framing when spherical lenses are used is sometimes considered to be wasteful in terms of the cost of film stock and processing, especially in the case of television, which does not require a film print. The 3-perf pulldown process was originally proposed in 1973, developed by Miklos Lente in 1976, and further developed by Rune Ericson in 1986 to solve this problem.

Paramount took this concept a step further, using old Stein cameras from the 1930s which used a two-frame color format that was itself adopted from a 1902 three-frame color film process developed by Edward Raymond Turner. For the aborted early 1930s color process, instead of an image four perforations high, the camera exposed eight perforations (essentially two frames) consisting of one 4-perf image through a red filter and one 4-perf image through a green filter. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VistaVision

In shooting VistaVision, the film was run horizontally rather than vertically, and instead of exposing two simultaneous 4-perf frames, the entire eight perforations were used for one image.[1]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Darwin%27s_finches

DARWINS FAMOUS IMAGE OF FOUR FINCHES IN QUADRANT FORMATION

16 BAR SECTIONS FOUR PLAYERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Construction_(Cage)

In First Construction, Cage introduced the technique of composing using fixed "rhythmic structures".[3] The idea was extremely important for his development as a composer, and during the next 17 years most of his work was done using the same technique or variations of it.[4] In this particular case the basic structure is 4, 3, 2, 3, 4, and a single unit contains 16 bars. So the composition begins with four units of 16 bars each, then the next section has three units, the third has two, and so on. Each unit is also divided the same way: four bars, then three, then two, etc.[5] The first part of the piece (four units of 16 bars each) was termed "exposition" by Cage, and the ending (which is a separate nine-bar section) "coda". The music itself is built around sixteen motives employed in strictly determined sequences.[5]Both the use of ethnic percussion and the rhythmic proportions technique were inspired in part by Henry Cowell's lectures that Cage attended in New York City in 1933.[6]

A recording of the piece by the London Sinfonietta is included in their 2006 CD Warp Works & Twentieth Century Masters.

Second Construction[edit]

Second Construction was composed in 1940 and scored for four percussionists. This work, which adopts roughly the same rhythmic scheme as in First Construction (sixteen 16-bar sections, only the proportion is different—here it is 4, 3, 4, 5), is notable for the use of prepared piano: although the technique is that of string piano, the score instructs to place a piece of cardboard and a screw in the strings.[7] The nature of the motive use is fugal, which caused Cage to become dissatisfied with the piece in his later years: in a 1980 interview he called it "[essentially] a fugue of a novel order" which has "carry-overs from education and theory" and expressed his dislike of repetition of material in fugues.[8]

Third Construction[edit]

Third Construction was composed in 1941 and dedicated to Xenia Kashevaroff-Cage, to whom Cage was married at the time and who played in his percussion orchestra. Third Construction is scored for four percussionists. There are 24 sections of 24 bars each, and the rhythmic structure is rotated between the players: 8, 2, 4, 5, 3, 2 for the fourth, 2, 8, 2, 4, 5, 3 for the first, etc.[9]

Instrumentation:[1]

Player I: North West Indian rattle (wooden), 5 graduated tin cans, 3 graduated drums (tom toms), claves, large Chinese cymbal (suspended), maracasteponaztli

Player II: 3 graduated drums (tom toms), 5 graduated tin cans, claves, 2 cowbells, Indo-Chinese rattle (wooden, with many separate chambers), lion's roar

Player III: 3 graduated drums (tom toms), tambourine, 5 graduated tin cans, quijadas, claves, cricket callers (split bamboo), conch shell

Player IV: tin can with tacks (rattle), 5 graduated tin cans, claves, maracas, 3 graduated drums (tom toms), wooden ratchetbass drum roar

IT IS CONSTRUCTED OF JUST FOUR PITCHES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Flower

A Flower is a song for voice and closed piano by John Cage. It was composed in 1950, for a choreography by Louise Lippold, wife of sculptor Richard Lippold. There is no text; the singer vocalises a small number of phonemes such as "uh", "wah", etc., without vibrato. Instructions given in the score include, for some passages, "like a pigeon" and "like a wild duck". The entire vocal line is constructed of just four pitches, except for a single bar near the end where a fifth pitch is used. The pianist plays by hitting the piano lid in various ways - with his fingers, with his knuckles, etc. The composition is somewhat similar to the earlier work for voice and closed piano, The Wonderful Widow of Eighteen Springs.

STRING QUARTET FOUR PARTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/String_Quartet_in_Four_Parts

The String Quartet in Four Parts is based partly on the Indian view of the seasons, in which the four seasons—spring, summer, autumn and winter—are associated each with a particular force–those of creation, preservation, destruction and quiescense. The parts and their corresponding seasons are as follows:[1]

  1. Quietly Flowing Along – Summer

  2. Slowly Rocking – Autumn

  3. Nearly Stationary – Winter

  4. Quodlibet – Spring

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam

The Socialist Republic of Vietnam, along with ChinaCuba, and Laos, is one of the world's four remaining one-party socialist states officially espousing communism.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Baptiste_Lamarck

Jablonka, Eva (2006). Evolution in Four Dimensions: Genetic, Epigenetic, Behavioral, and Symbolic Variation in the History of Life. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-60069-9.

A four-bar linkage, also called a four-bar, is the simplest movable closed chain linkage. It consists of four bodies, called bars or links, connected in a loop by four joints. Generally, the joints are configured so the links move in parallel planes, and the assembly is called a planar four-bar linkage.[1]

If the linkage has four hinged joints with axes angled to intersect in a single point, then the links move on concentric spheres and the assembly is called a spherical four-bar linkage. Bennett's linkage is a spatial four-bar linkage with hinged joints that have their axes angled in a particular way that makes the system movable. 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four-bar_linkage

A four-bar linkage used as the suspension for a bicycle. If we count the two bars that form the shock absorber attached to the output link, then this is a Watt II six-bar linkage

https://www.smartkitchen.com/resources/the-history-of-discovering-taste

DEMOCRITUS ADDED THE FOURTH

https://www.smartkitchen.com/resources/the-history-of-discovering-taste

Before the Ancient Greeks, most educated people agreed that there were three tastes: sweet, of course, sour and salty. But a Greek philosopher, Democritus, thought about it long and hard several thousand years ago, and added the taste we call bitter today, making it four. His conception was that when you chew on your food and it breaks into little bits, which eventually break into four geometric shapes corresponding to the four tastes. Plato and Aristotle bought into that. And so did everyone else, believing that all flavors were a combination of the four tastes.

 

Even when taste buds were discovered with the microscope in the early 1800’s, all that changed was the abandonment of Democritus’ geometric shapes in favor of the keyhole shapes found under the microscope lens. Until relatively recently, four tastes and keyhole shapes was the scientific standard.

THE CROSS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_the_Majlis_of_Muslims_of_Ichkeria_and_Dagestan.png

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scimitar

Example of a modern jihadist flag showing two crossed swords.

  • Flag of the Pakistani Army

  • Badge of Bengali Army

    ​​Flag of a Persian Army Corps General are a few more examples of crossed sword quadrants

KOGI PEOPLE FOUR QUADRANTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kogi_people

Traditional Kogi religion is closely related to the structure of the cosmic universe that exists in dualistic expressions. On a cosmic level, the sun separates the universe into two hemispheres: the east/west and consequently a right/left. The Kogi use this dualistic notion to elaborate on a number of earthly divides: man/woman, male/female, heat/cold, light/dark, and right/left. They believe each of these groupings are complementary opposites. Within each pair, one cannot survive without the other. In the case of good(right)/evil(left), the Kogi believe committing a sin once in a while serves as a justification for the existence of good. These natural opposites are a way to keep the society balanced or “in agreement” (yuluka).

The two hemispheres are then divided into four segments: North/South/East/West. Within these four points of reference, the Kogi have associated the orientation of their religious framework into South/East as good/light and North/West as evil/dark. This cosmic structure has influenced four entrances to each village, four principal clans, and has divided the Sierra Nevada into four sections. Following this concept, the Kogi have structured the ceremonial houses and sacred offering sites into four quadrants. In the ceremonial house, a line is drawn down the middle of a circle, which divides the men into a left side where men “know more”, and a complementary right side of men who “know less.”

In a system of four quadrants, the four lines inevitably meet in the center creating a fifth dimension to the cosmic universe. The central point holds great significance to the Kogi people. It represents the center of the universe, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. During the ceremony, this is the point where the mama buries the four sacred offerings and “speaks with god.” In the center of the circle, he places a tiny stool upon the spot where he receives and answers questions of the cosmic universe.

In Kogi cosmology, they have added three dimensions to the standard N/S/E/W: ZenithNadir and the Center. This fixed system of points resembles an egg and is formulated into nine stages/layers of development. Mother Goddess, the creator of the universe and mankind, created the cosmic egg. The horizontal layers of the egg are divided into two sections of 4 four worlds with mankind (the 5th layer) residing in the center. The cosmic egg also represents the uterus of Mother Goddess and the Sierra Nevada. Because of this, the Kogi have built the structure of the ceremonial house as a replica of the cosmos.

16 SQUARES QMR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quadrature_amplitude_modulation

The first rectangular QAM constellation usually encountered is 16-QAM, the constellation diagram for which is shown here. A Gray coded bit-assignment is also given. The reason that 16-QAM is usually the first is that a brief consideration reveals that 2-QAM and 4-QAM are in fact binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) and quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK), respectively. Also, the error-rate performance of 8-QAM is close to that of 16-QAM (only about 0.5 dB better[citation needed]), but its data rate is only three-quarters that of 16-QAM.

THESE ARE ALL QUADRANT NUMBERS- 64 IS FOUR 16s AND 256 IS FOUR TO THE FOURTH POWER

Since QAM is usually square, some of these are rare—the most common forms are 16-QAM, 64-QAM and 256-QAM.

Constellation diagram for rectangular 16-QAM.

Sometimes this is known as quadriphase PSK, 4-PSK, or 4-QAM. (Although the root concepts of QPSK and 4-QAM are different, the resulting modulated radio waves are exactly the same.) QPSK uses four points on the constellation diagram, equispaced around a circle. With four phases, QPSK can encode two bits per symbol, shown in the diagram with Gray codingto minimize the bit error rate (BER) — sometimes misperceived as twice the BER of BPSK.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase-shift_keying

Constellation diagram for QPSK with Gray coding. Each adjacent symbol only differs by one bit.

Offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) is a variant of phase-shift keying modulation using 4 different values of the phase to transmit. It is sometimes called Staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (SQPSK).

 

Difference of the phase between QPSK and OQPSK

Taking four values of the phase (two bits) at a time to construct a QPSK symbol can allow the phase of the signal to jump by as much as 180° at a time. When the signal is low-pass filtered (as is typical in a transmitter), these phase-shifts result in large amplitude fluctuations, an undesirable quality in communication systems. By offsetting the timing of the odd and even bits by one bit-period, or half a symbol-period, the in-phase and quadrature components will never change at the same time. In the constellation diagram shown on the right, it can be seen that this will limit the phase-shift to no more than 90° at a time. This yields much lower amplitude fluctuations than non-offset QPSK and is sometimes preferred in practice.

The picture on the right shows the difference in the behavior of the phase between ordinary QPSK and OQPSK. It can be seen that in the first plot the phase can change by 180° at once, while in OQPSK the changes are never greater than 90°.

The modulated signal is shown below for a short segment of a random binary data-stream. Note the half symbol-period offset between the two component waves. The sudden phase-shifts occur about twice as often as for QPSK (since the signals no longer change together), but they are less severe. In other words, the magnitude of jumps is smaller in OQPSK when compared to QPSK.

16 PSQ

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase-shift_keying

Dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DPQPSK) or dual-polarization QPSK - involves the polarization multiplexing of two different QPSK signals, thus improving the spectral efficiency by a factor of 2. This is a cost-effective alternative, to utilizing 16-PSK instead of QPSK to double the spectral efficiency.

The graph on the left compares the bit-error rates of BPSK, QPSK (which are the same, as noted above), 8-PSK and 16-PSK. It is seen that higher-order modulations exhibit higher error-rates; in exchange however they deliver a higher raw data-rate.

I hopefully have to find it but there are dances where they make quadrants and quadrant models with butons and stuff.

KANT FOUR MOMENTS

http://www.iep.utm.edu/kantaest/

Kant discusses four particular unique features of aesthetic judgments on the beautiful (he subsequently deals with the sublime). These he calls 'moments', and they are structured in often obscure ways according to the main divisions of Kant's table of categories (See article on Kant's Metaphysics).

The First Moment. Aesthetic judgments are disinterested. There are two types of interest: by way of sensations in the agreeable, and by way of concepts in the good. Only aesthetic judgment is free or pure of any such interests. Interest is defined as a link to real desire and action, and thus also to a determining connection to the real existence of the object. In the aesthetic judgment per se, the real existence of the beautiful object is quite irrelevant. Certainly, I may wish to own the beautiful painting, or at least a copy of it, because I derive pleasure from it - but that pleasure, and thus that desire, is distinct from and parasitic upon the aesthetic judgment (see sect;9). The judgment results in pleasure, rather than pleasure resulting in judgment. Kant accordingly and famously claims that the aesthetic judgment must concern itself only with form (shape, arrangement, rhythm, etc.) in the object presented, not sensible content (color, tone, etc.), since the latter has a deep connection to the agreeable, and thus to interest. Kant is thus the founder of all formalism in aesthetics in modern philosophy. This claim of the disinterestedness of all aesthetic judgments is perhaps the most often attacked by subsequent philosophy, especially as it is extended to include fine art as well as nature. To pick three examples, Kant's argument is rejected by those (Nietzsche, Freud) for whom all art must always be understood as related to will; by those for whom all art (as a cultural production) must be political in some sense (Marxism); by those for whom all art is a question of affective response expressionists).

The Second Moment. Aesthetic judgments behave universally, that is, involve an expectation or claim on the agreement of others - just 'as if' beauty were a real property of the object judged. If I judge a certain landscape to be beautiful then, although I may be perfectly aware that all kinds of other factors might enter in to make particular people in fact disagree with me, never-the-less I at least implicitly demand universality in the name of taste. The way that my aesthetic judgments 'behave' is key evidence here: that is, I tend to see disagreement as involving error somewhere, rather than agreement as involving mere coincidence. This universality is distinguished first from the mere subjectivity of judgments such as 'I like honey' (because that is not at all universal, nor do we expect it to be); and second from the strict objectivity of judgments such as 'honey contains sugar and is sweet', because the aesthetic judgment must, somehow, be universal 'apart from a concept' (sect;9). Being reflective judgments, aesthetic judgments of taste have no adequate concept (at least to begin with), and therefore can only behave as if they were objective. Kant is quite aware that he is flying in the face of contemporary (then and now!) truisms such as 'beauty is in the eye of the beholder'. Such a belief, he argues, first of all can not account for our experience of beauty itself, insofar as the tendency is always to see 'beauty' as if it were somehow in the object or the immediate experience of the object. Second, Kant argues that such a relativist view can not account for the social 'behavior' of our claims about what we find beautiful. In order to explore the implications of 'apart from a concept', Kant introduces the idea of the 'free play' of the cognitive faculties (here: understanding and imagination), and the related idea of communicability. In the case of the judgment of the beautiful, these faculties no longer simply work together (as they do in ordinary sensible cognition) but rather each 'furthers' or 'quickens' the other in a kind of self-contained and self-perpetuating cascade of thought and feeling. We will return to these notions below.

The Third Moment. The third introduces the problem of purpose and purposiveness (also translated 'end' and 'finality'). An object's purpose is the concept according to which it was manufactured; purposiveness, then, is the property of at least appearing to have been manufactured or designed. Kant claims that the beautiful has to be understood as purposive, but without any definite purpose. A 'definite purpose' would be either the set of external purposes (what the thing was meant to do or accomplish), or the internal purpose (what the thing was simply meant to be like). In the former case, the success of the process of making is judged according to utility; in the latter, according to perfection. Kant argues that beauty is equivalent neither to utility nor perfection, but is still purposive. Beauty in nature, then, will appear as purposive with respect to our faculty of judgment, but its beauty will have no ascertainable purpose - that is, it is not purposive with respect to determinate cognition. Indeed, this is why beauty is pleasurable since, Kant argues, pleasure is defined as a feeling that arises on the achievement of a purpose, or at least the recognition of a purposiveness (Introduction, VI).

The purposiveness of art is more complicated. Although such works may have had purposes behind their production (the artist wished to express a certain mood, or communicate a certain idea), nevertheless, these can not be sufficient for the object to be beautiful. As judges of art, any such knowledge we do have about these real purposes can inform the judgment as background, but must be abstracted from to form the aesthetic judgment properly. It is not just that the purpose for the beauty of the beautiful happens to be unknown, but that it cannot be known. Still, we are left with the problem of understanding how a thing can be purposive, without having a definite purpose.

The Fourth Moment. Here, Kant is attempting to show that aesthetic judgments must pass the test of being 'necessary', which effectively means, 'according to principle'. Everyone must assent to my judgment, because it follows from this principle. But this necessity is of a peculiar sort: it is 'exemplary' and 'conditioned'. By exemplary, Kant means that the judgment does not either follow or produce a determining concept of beauty, but exhausts itself in being exemplary precisely of an aesthetic judgment. With the notion of condition, Kant reaches the core of the matter. He is asking: what is it that the necessity of the judgment is grounded upon; that is, what does it say about those who judge?

The Doctrine of Method contains four sections. The first section, Discipline of Pure Reason, compares mathematical and logical methods of proof, and the second section, Canon of Pure Reason, distinguishes theoretical from practical reason.

The Divisions of Critique of Pure Reason

Dedication

1. First and second Prefaces

2. Introduction

3. Transcendental Doctrine of Elements

A. Transcendental Aesthetic

B. Transcendental Logic(1) Transcendental Analytica. Analytic of Concepts

i. Metaphysical Deduction

ii. Transcendental Deduction

b. Analytic of Principles

i. Schematism (bridging chapter)

ii. System of Principles of Pure Understanding

a. Axioms of Intuition

b. Anticipations of Perception

c. Analogies of Experience

d. Postulates of Empirical Thought (Refutation of Idealism)

iii. Ground of Distinction of Objects into Phenomena and Noumena

iv. Appendix on the Amphiboly of the Concepts of Reflection

(2) Transcendental Dialectic: Transcendental Illusion

a. Paralogisms of Pure Reason

b. Antinomy of Pure Reason

c. Ideal of Pure Reason

d. Appendix to Critique of Speculative Theology

4. Transcendental Doctrine of Method

A. Discipline of Pure Reason

B. Canon of Pure Reason

C. Architectonic of Pure Reason

D. History of Pure Reason

FOUR PARALOGISMS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critique_of_Pure_Reason#The_Antinomy_of_Pure_Reason

In the Transcendental Logic, there is a section (titled The Refutation of Idealism) that frees Kant's doctrine from any vestiges of subjective idealism, which would either doubt or deny the existence of external objects (B274-79). However, Senderowics warns that "... If the Refutation of Idealism indeed addresses a question left unanswered by the previous introductory pages of the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant's preceding comments contain a gap that needs to be bridged."[27] Kant's distinction between the appearance and the thing-in-itself is not intended to imply that nothing knowable exists apart from consciousness, as with subjective idealism. Rather, it declares that knowledge is limited to phenomena as objects of a sensible intuition. In the Fourth Paralogism ("... A Paralogism is a logical fallacy"),[28] Kant further certifies his philosophy as separate from that of subjective idealism by defining his position as a transcendental idealism in accord with empirical realism (A366–80). "The Paralogisms of Pure Reason" is the only chapter of the Dialectic that Kant rewrote for the second edition of the Critique of Pure Reason. In the first edition, the Fourth Paralogism offers a defence of Transcendental Idealism, which Kant reconsidered and relocated in the second edition.[29]

KANTS QUADRANTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critique_of_Pure_Reason#The_Antinomy_of_Pure_Reason

Logicians prior to Kant had concerned themselves to classify the various possible logical forms of judgment. Kant, with only minor modifications, accepts and adopts their work as correct and complete, and lays out all the logical forms of judgment in a table, reduced under four heads:

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant-judgment/supplement5.html

The transcendental doctrine of the power of judgment consists of two parts: (1) the “schematism of the pure concepts of the understanding” or transcendental schematism (A137–A147/B176–187), and (2) the system of all principles of pure understanding (A148–235/B187–294), which formally corresponds to the architectonic format of the table of categories, which in turn mimics the architectonic format of the table of logical forms in judgments (see Section 2.1.1):

Table of Categories

  1. Categories of Quantity: Unity, Plurality, Totality

  2. Categories of Quality: Reality, Negation, Limitation

  3. Categories of Relation: Inherence and Subsistence (substantia et accidens), Causality and Dependence (cause and effect), community (reciprocity between agent and patient)

  4. Categories of Modality: Possibility--Impossibility, Existence--Non-existence, Necessity--Contingency (CPR A80/B106)

System of Principles

  1. Axioms of Intuition

  2. Anticipations of Perception

  3. Analogies of Experience

  4. Postulates of Empirical Thinking in General (CPR A161/B200)

EIGHT BY FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bao_(mancala_game)

Bao is based on a mancala board comprising four rows of eight pits each—in Swahili, pits are termed mashimo(singular: shimo), meaning "holes". Each player owns a half of the board comprising two adjacent rows.

Some pits that play a special role in the game have specific names. The fourth rightmost pit in the "inner" row of each half board is called nyumba ("house") or kuu ("main"); in most traditional boards, it is visually distinguished by a square shape. The first and last pit of the inner row are called kichwa ("head"), while the name kimbi applies to both the kichwa and the pits adjacent to them (i.e., the second and next to last pit in the row).

Every player has 32 undifferentiated counters (or "seeds" according to the standard mancala terminology) that are termed kete ("shells"). Note that a similar equipment (a 4x8 board and 64 seeds) is shared by a number of other African mancalas, including Omweso (Uganda) and Isolo (Tanzania).

BACKGAMMON IS DESCRIBED AS BEING FOUR QUADRANTS

http://www.bkgm.com/rules.html

Backgammon is a game for two players, played on a board consisting of twenty-four narrow triangles called points. The triangles alternate in color and are grouped into four quadrants of six triangles each. The quadrants are referred to as a player's home board and outer board, and the opponent's home board and outer board. The home and outer boards are separated from each other by a ridge down the center of the board called the bar.

The dice has 64 faces. 64 is four times 16.

Both players have their own pair of dice and a dice cup used for shaking. A doubling cube, with the numerals 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 on its faces, is used to keep track of the current stake of the game.

QUADSKULL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quad_scull

A quad scull, or quadruple scull in full, is a rowing boat used in the sport of competitive rowing. It is designed for four persons who propel the boat by sculling with two oars, one in each hand

Racing boats (often called "shells") are long, narrow, and broadly semi-circular in cross-section in order to reduce drag. They usually have a fin towards the rear, to help prevent roll and yaw. Originally made from wood, shells are now almost always made from a composite material (usually carbon-fiber reinforced plastic) for strength and weight advantages. The riggers in sculling apply the forces symmetrically to each side of the boat. Quad sculls is one of the classes recognized by the International Rowing Federation and the Olympics.[1] FISA rules specify minimum weights for each class of boat so that no individual will gain a great advantage from the use of expensive materials or technology.

When there are four rowers in a boat, each with only one sweep oar and rowing on opposite sides, the combination is referred to as a "coxed four" or "coxless four" depending on whether the boat has a cox. In sweep oared racing the rigging means the forces are staggered alternately along the boat. The symmetrical forces in sculling make the boat more efficient and so the quadruple scull is faster than the coxless four.[2] *Update Required*

A 'quad' is different to a 'four' in that a 'quad', or quadruple scull, is composed of four rowers each with two blades, sculling. A 'four' is made up of four rowers each with one oar in hand, sweeping.

Quad scull Germany 1982: Martin Winter (front), Uwe Heppner (second), Uwe Mund (third), and Karl-Heinz Bußert (last)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coxed_four

A coxed four is a rowing boat used in the sport of competitive rowing. It is designed for four persons who propel the boat with sweep oars and is steered by a coxswain.

The crew consists of four rowers, each having one oar, and a cox. There are two rowers on the stroke side (rower's right hand side) and two on the bow side (rower's lefthand side). The cox steers the boat using a rudder and may be seated at the stern of the boat where there is a view of the crew or in the bow (known as a bowloader). With a bowloader, amplification is needed to communicate with the crew which is sitting behind, but the cox has a better view of the course and the weight distribution may help the boat go faster. When there is no cox, the boat is referred to as a "coxless four".

Racing boats (often called "shells") are long, narrow, and broadly semi-circular in cross-section in order to reduce drag to a minimum. Originally made from wood, shells are now almost always made from a composite material (usually carbon-fibre reinforced plastic) for strength and weight advantages. Fours have a fin towards the rear, to help prevent roll and yaw and to help the rudder. The riggers are staggered alternately along the boat so that the forces apply asymmetrically to each side of the boat. If the boat is sculled by rowers each with two oars the combination is referred to as a quad scull. In a quad scull the riggers apply forces symmetrically. A sweep oared boat has to be stiffer to handle the unmatched forces, and so requires more bracing, which means it has to be heavier than an equivalent sculling boat. However most rowing clubs cannot afford to have a dedicated large hull with four seats which might be rarely used and instead generally opt for versatility in their fleet by using stronger shells which can be rigged for either as fours or quads.

"Coxed four" is one of the classes recognized by the International Rowing Federation. It was one of the original events in the Olympics but was dropped in 1992.[1]

The world fastest time in the coxed four has been set by the crew from Germany in the Final of the World Championships in Vienna, Austria in 1991. The crew of Matthias Ungemach, Armin Weyrauch, Armin Eichholz, Bahne Rabe and coxswain Joerg Dederding finished in a time of 5:58.96 min.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coxless_four

A coxless four is a rowing boat used in the sport of competitive rowing. It is designed for four persons who propel the boat with sweep oars.

The crew consists of four rowers, each having one oar. There are two rowers on the stroke side (rower's right hand side) and two on the bow side (rower's lefthand side). There is no cox, but the rudder is controlled by one of the crew, normally with the rudder cable attached to the toe of one of their shoes which can pivot about the ball of the foot, moving the cable left or right. The steersman may row at bow, who has the best vision when looking over their shoulder, or on straighter courses stroke may steer, since they can point the stern of the boat at some landmark at the start of the course. The equivalent boat when it is steered by a cox is referred to as a "coxed four".

Racing boats (often called "shells") are long, narrow, and broadly semi-circular in cross-section in order to reduce drag to a minimum. Originally made from wood, shells are now almost always made from a composite material (usually carbon-fibre reinforced plastic) for strength and weight advantages. Fours have a fin towards the rear, to help prevent roll and yaw and to help the rudder. The riggers are staggered alternately along the boat so that the forces apply asymmetrically to each side of the boat. If the boat is sculled by rowers each with two oars the combination is referred to as a quad scull. In a quad scull the riggers apply forces symmetrically. A sweep oared boat has to be stiffer to handle the unmatched forces, and so requires more bracing, which means it has to be heavier than an equivalent sculling boat. However most rowing clubs cannot afford to have a dedicated large hull with four seats which might be rarely used and instead generally opt for versatility in their fleet by using stronger shells which can be rigged for either as fours or quads.

"Coxless four" is one of the classes recognized by the International Rowing Federation[1] and is an event at the Olympic Games.

In 1868, Walter Bradford Woodgate rowing a Brasenose coxed four arranged for his coxswain to jump overboard at the start of the Stewards' Challenge Cup at Henley Royal Regatta to lighten the boat. The unwanted cox narrowly escaped strangulation by the water lilies, but Woodgate and his home-made steering device triumphed by 100 yards and were promptly disqualified. This led to the adoption of Henley Regatta rules specifically prohibiting such conduct and a special prize for four-oared crews without coxswains was offered at the regatta in 1869. However in 1873 the Stewards cup was changed to a coxless four event.[2]

THESE ARE THE FOUR TYPES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racing_shell

Number of rowers. In all forms of modern competition the number of rowers can be 1, 2, 4, or 8. Although they are very rare, boats for other numbers of rowers do exist 

TETRADIC THEORY

https://lhomme.revues.org/21745

In Trautmann’s view (2000, 2001), the unevenness of the Dravidian-Iroquois distribution argues against evolutionist explanations of kinship such as Allen’s tetradic theory (1986, 1998) in favor of historicist explanations such as Trautmann’s comparative study of Dravidian kinship systems in South India (1981). Tetradic theory holds that all attested kinship systems ultimately derive from a prescriptive truly elementary system based on bilateral cross-cousin marriage structured by cross-cutting exogamous descent moieties and endogamous alternate generation moieties similar to the Kariera four-section systems known from Australia (Radcliffe-Brown 1931). In tetradic theory, Dravidian systems are formerly Kariera-type systems that have lost their alternate generation equations and hence their sections (marriage classes). Allen (1989a) assumes a «patchy» retention of Dravidianate kinship systems from early – Upper Paleolithic – times while Trautmann emphasizes the historical distinctiveness of kinship systems in different world regions – Dravidian in South India and Iroquois in Africa.

TETRACTYS IN ASSASINS CREED

Ezio left the clue on the Sanctuary staircase, just behind the bookcase in Mario Auditore's study. It consisted of a tetractys, an etching of an equilateral triangle with nine other equilaterals within it – the same marking found on the Colosseum Vault's door – and the numbers 1419, 1420, and 1421, which were only visible to those who possessed the gift of Eagle Vision.

Modern-day discoveryEdit

"The Tetragrammaton. The 72 names of God. You see? They're all contained within three verses: Exodus 19 through 21. And, get this, you'll like this. If you arrange the four Hebrew letters in God's name within an equilateral triangle, their numerical values add up to the same number: 72."

―Shaun explaining the password to the other Assassins.[src]

The Colosseum Vault's door  http://assassinscreed.wikia.com/wiki/72

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triskelion

THERE IS THE TRISKELION AND THE TETRASKELION (SWASTIKA) THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR)

A triskelion or triskele is a motif consisting of a triple spiral exhibiting rotational symmetry. The spiral design can be based on interlocking Archimedean spirals, or represent three bent human legs.

Both terms are from Greek "τρισκέλιον" (triskelion) or "τρισκελής" (triskeles), "three-legged",[1] from prefix "τρι-" (tri-), "three times"[2] + "σκέλος" (skelos), "leg".[3]

SUBITIZING OCCURS FOR ABOUT FOUR ITEMS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subitizing

The accuracy, speed, and confidence with which observers make judgments of the number of items are critically dependent on the number of elements to be enumerated. Judgments made for displays composed of around one to four items are rapid,[2] accurate[3] and confident.[4] However, as the number of items to be enumerated increases beyond this amount, judgments are made with decreasing accuracy and confidence.[1] In addition, response times rise in a dramatic fashion, with an extra 250–350 ms added for each additional item within the display beyond about four.[5]

While the increase in response time for each additional element within a display is 250–350 ms per item outside the subitizing range, there is still a significant, albeit smaller, increase of 40–100 ms per item within the subitizing range.[2] A similar pattern of reaction times is found in young children, although with steeper slopes for both the subitizing range and the enumeration range.[6] This suggests there is no span of apprehension as such, if this is defined as the number of items which can be immediately apprehended by cognitive processes, since there is an extra cost associated with each additional item enumerated. However, the relative difference in costs associated with enumerating items within the subitizing range are small, whether measured in terms of accuracy, confidence, or speed of response. Furthermore, the values of all measures appear to differ markedly inside and outside the subitizing range.[1] So, while there may be no span of apprehension, there appear to be real differences in the ways in which a small number of elements is processed by the visual system (i.e., approximately less than four items), compared with larger numbers of elements (i.e., approximately more than four items).

In each place value, the Chinese abacus uses four or five beads to represent units, which are subitized, and one or two separate beads, which symbolize fives. This allows multi-digit operations such as carrying and borrowing to occur without subitizing beyond five.

APPROXIMATE NUMBER SYSTEM IS NUMBERS GREATER THAN FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Approximate_number_system

The approximate number system (ANS) is a cognitive system that supports the estimation of the magnitude of a group without relying on language or symbols. The ANS is credited with the non-symbolic representation of all numbers greater than four, with lesser values being carried out by the parallel individuation system, or object tracking system

PARALLEL INDIVIDUATION SYSTEM OCCURS FROM 0 TO 4 EVEN ANIMALS CUT OFF AT FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallel_individuation_system

The parallel individuation system, also called object tracking system is a non-symbolic cognitive system that supports the representation of numerical values from zero to three (in infants) or four (in adults and non-human animals). It is one of the two cognitive systems responsible for the representation of number, the other one being the approximate number system.[1] Unlike the approximate number system, which is not precise and provides only an estimation of the number, the parallel individuation system is an exact system and encodes the exact numerical identity of the individual items.[2] The parallel individuation system has been attested in human adults, non-human animals,[2] such as fish[3] and human infants, although performance of infants is dependent on their age and task.

Parallel individuation system in animals was demonstrated in an experiment in which guppies were tested on their preference of social groups of different size, under the assumption that they have a preference for bigger size groups. In this experiment, fish successfully discriminated between numbers from 1 to 4 but after this number their performance decreased.[3] However, not all studies find confirmation of this system and for example New Zealand robins showed no difference in their understanding of small (1 to 4) and larger (above 4) amounts.[5]

SAY FOUR SUCCESSIVE THINGS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milgram_experiment

The Milgram experiment on obedience to authority figures was a series of social psychology experiments conducted by Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram. They measured the willingness of study participants, men from a diverse range of occupations with varying levels of education, to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts conflicting with their personal conscience; the experiment found, unexpectedly, that a very high proportion of people were prepared to obey, albeit unwillingly, even if apparently causing serious injury and distress. Milgram first described his research in 1963 in an article published in the Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology[1] and later discussed his findings in greater depth in his 1974 book, Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View.

The teacher would then read the first word of each pair and read four possible answers. The learner would press a button to indicate his response. If the answer was incorrect, the teacher would administer a shock to the learner, with the voltage increasing in 15-volt increments for each wrong answer. If correct, the teacher would read the next word pair.

If at any time the subject indicated his desire to halt the experiment, he was given a succession of verbal prods by the experimenter, in this order:[1]

  1. Please continue.

  2. The experiment requires that you continue.

  3. It is absolutely essential that you continue.

  4. You have no other choice, you must go on.

If the subject still wished to stop after all four successive verbal prods, the experiment was halted. Otherwise, it was halted after the subject had given the maximum 450-volt shock three times in succession.[1]

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

FOUR CARD PROBLEM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wason_selection_task

The Wason selection task (or four-card problem) is a logic puzzle devised by Peter Cathcart Wasonin 1966.[1][2][3] It is one of the most famous tasks in the study of deductive reasoning.[4] An example of the puzzle is:

You are shown a set of four cards placed on a table, each of which has a number on one side and a colored patch on the other side. The visible faces of the cards show 3, 8, red and brown. Which card(s) must you turn over in order to test the truth of the proposition that if a card shows an even number on one face, then its opposite face is red?

Vishuddha (Sanskrit: विशुद्ध, IAST: Viśuddha, English: "especially pure"), or Vishuddhi, or throat chakra is located at the base of subtle body's throat.[3] It is symbolized as a sixteen petaled lotus.[3] The Vishuddha is iconographically represented as a silver crescent within a white circle, with 16 light or pale blue, or turquoise petals. The seed mantra is Ham, and the residing deity is Panchavaktra shiva, with 5 heads and 4 arms, and the Shakti is Shakini.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chakra

16 PETALS 16 SQUARES QUADRANT MODEL- ALSO THE ANAHATA CHAKRA HAS A STAR OF DAVID IN IT WHICH IS A DOUBLE TETRAHEDRON MERKABA

16 SQUARES QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vishuddha

Vishuddha has 16 purple petals upon which are written the 16 Sanskrit vowels in golden;

अ aआ āइ iई īउ uऊ ūऋ ṛॠ ṝ

ऌ ḷॡ ḹए eऐ aiओ oऔ auअः ḥअं ṃ

NB: Some vowels listed above do not strictly correspond to the grammatical definition of a Sanskrit vowel, specifically ॡ ḹ,अः ḥ, and अं ṃ. See Sanskrit Phonology for details.

The petals correspond to the Vittis of the mantra Ong [Aum], the Sama-mantras, the mantras Hung, Phat, Washat, Swadha, Swaha, and Namak, the nectar Amrita, and the seven musical tones.

POEMS FOUR OR EIGHT LINES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_Chinese_poetry_forms

Because of the tendency to write poetry as groups of couplets, most poems had an even number of lines. Generally four lines (two couplets) were considered to be the minimum length for a poem. In the case of curtailed verse (jueju), the poem was limited to this length. Other types of poems were limited to eight lines (four couplets). If the overall length of some form of poetry was not limited, the poems tended to be written using four- or eight-line stanzas, so the poem lengths would work out to multiples of four or eight. Some poems were quite long. The length of poems based upon specific song and ballad forms depended upon the specific tune or form selected as the model. The fu type of poem, which sometimes even incorporated sections of prose, had few limitations on line length, except that, within a section of verse, the line lengths tended to be of equal length.[2] A specific poem's length for those forms in which this was a restriction, is another basic classifying criterion (as in Seven-character eight-line verse).

QUATRAINS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jueju

Jueju (Chinese: 絕句), or Chinese quatrain, is a type of jintishi ("modern form poetry") that grew popular among Chinese poets in the Tang Dynasty (618–907), although traceable to earlier origins. Jueju poems are always quatrains; or, more specifically, a matched pair of couplets, with each line consisting of five or seven syllables.[1]

SAUSSURE WAS ONE OF THE FEW GUYS WE LEARNED ABOUT IN SOCIOLOGY CLASS AT UCSD AND THEY TAUGHT THREE TYPES AND THEY LEFT OUT THE TRANSCNENDENT FOURTH OF THE SEMIOTIC CROSS

 

https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-QYbqKGnzqvs/WAubtvsOpaI/AAAAAAAADHE/MeP0jS7ajX4SqceVv1VsMTYoprKxyg42ACLcB/s1600/22Sem%2BCross.jpg

http://wsuillustrationf16-class.blogspot.com/2016/10/assign-2-illustration-semiotics.html

Quadrant

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fashion_capital

The cities considered the global "Big Four" fashion capitals of the 20th century were ParisMilanLondon and New York; while the fashion scene turns more multipolar in the 21st century with other important centers like RomeBerlinBarcelonaTokyoSão Paulo and Los Angeles.[1]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dravidian_languages

The Dravidian languages form a close-knit family. Most scholars agree on four groups: South (or South Dravidian I), South-Central (or South Dravidian II), Central, and North Dravidian, but there are different proposals regarding the relationship between these groups. Earlier classifications grouped Central and South-Central Dravidian in a single branch. Krishnamurti groups South-Central and South Dravidian.[24]

FOUR PHOTOS ONLY ONE OF FOUR GOOD THE THREE PLUS ONE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loch_Ness_Monster

"Surgeon's photograph" (1934)

The "surgeon's photograph" is reportedly the first photo of the creature's head and neck.[30] Supposedly taken by Robert Kenneth Wilson, a London gynaecologist, it was published in the Daily Mail on 21 April 1934.[31] Wilson's refusal to have his name associated with it led to it being known as the "surgeon's photograph".[32]According to Wilson, he was looking at the loch when he saw the monster, grabbed his camera and snapped four photos. Only two exposures came out clearly; the first reportedly shows a small head and back, and the second shows a similar head in a diving position. The first photo became well-known, and the second attracted little publicity because of its blurriness.

LOCHNESS MONSTER FOUR PARTS

OLYMPUS MONS AND THE THARSIS MOUNTAINS ARE A THREE PLUS ONE PATTERN

TUPAC MOVIE ABOUT FOUR FRIENDS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juice_(film)

Bishop (Tupac Shakur), Q (Omar Epps), Raheem (Khalil Kain), and Steel (Jermaine 'Huggy' Hopkins) are four friends growing up together in Harlem. They regularly skip school, instead spending their days hanging out at Steel's apartment, at a neighborhood arcade, and also a record store where they steal LPs for Q's DJ interests. Generally, they are harassed daily by the police or a Puerto Rican gang led by Radames (Vincent Laresca).

  • CRUCIFIED HERO POSE

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christ_figure

  • King Leonidas I in the 2007 historical-fantasy film 300, adapted from the graphic novel 300 by Frank Miller. At the end of the film, Leonidas, along with the rest of his 300 Spartans, stay behind to defend a narrow pass against their vastly more numerable Persian foe. Despite suffering a gruesome death to arrow fire, Leonidas' death gives the rest of Sparta time to mobilize an army to defeat the Persian Empire. The final shots of the film show Leonidas' body laying in a crucifix-like pose, pierced in the side and hands by arrows.[47]

FOUR VOCAL REGISTERS- FOUR PROCESSES- FOUR GROUPS MEN- FOUR STAGES BREATHING

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singing

Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, and the whistle register. This view is also adopted by many vocal pedagogues.[12]

 

Men are usually divided into four groups: countertenor, tenor, baritone, and bass.

 

Singing when done with proper vocal technique is an integrated and coordinated act that effectively coordinates the physical processes of singing. There are four physical processes involved in producing vocal sound: respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation. These processes occur in the following sequence:

 

Breath is taken

Sound is initiated in the larynx

The vocal resonators receive the sound and influence it

The articulators shape the sound into recognizable units

Although these four processes are often considered separately when studied, in actual practice, they merge into one coordinated function. With an effective singer or speaker, one should rarely be reminded of the process involved as their mind and body are so coordinated that one only perceives the resulting unified function. Many vocal problems result from a lack of coordination within this process.[22]

 

Within singing, there are four stages of breathing: a breathing-in period (inhalation); a setting up controls period (suspension); a controlled exhalation period (phonation); and a recovery period.

THE FATHER OF PSYCHOLOGY WILLIAM JAMES FOUR PARTS OF SELF

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_James#Jamesian_theory_of_self

Material self[edit]

The material self consists of things that belong to a person or entities that a person belongs to. Thus, things like the body, family, clothes, money, and such make up the material self.[57] For James, the core of the material self was the body.[59] Second to the body, James felt a person's clothes were important to the material self. He believed a person's clothes were one way they expressed who they felt they were; or clothes were a way to show status, thus contributing to forming and maintaining one's self-image.[59] Money and family are critical parts of the material self. James felt that if one lost a family member, a part of who they are was lost also. Money figured in one's material self in a similar way. If once a person had significant money then lost it, who they were as a person changed as well.[59]

Social self[edit]

Our social selves are who we are in a given social situation. For James, people change how they act depending on the social situation that they are in. James believed that people had as many social selves as they did social situations they participated in.[59] For example, a person may act in a different way at work when compared to how that same person may act when they are out with a group of friends. James also believed that in a given social group, an individual's social self may be divided even further.[59] An example of this would be, in the social context of an individual's work environment, the difference in behavior when that individual is interacting with their boss versus their behavior when interacting with a co-worker.

Spiritual self[edit]

For James, the spiritual self was who we are at our core. The spiritual self is more concrete or permanent than the other two selves. The spiritual self is our subjective and most intimate self. Aspects of an individual's spiritual self include things like their personality, core values, and conscience that do not typically change throughout their lifetime. The spiritual self involves introspection, or looking inward to deeper spiritual, moral, or intellectual questions without the influence of objective thoughts.[59] For James, achieving a high level of understanding of who we are at our core, or understanding our spiritual selves is more rewarding than satisfying the needs of the social and material selves.

Pure ego[edit]

The pure ego is what James refers to as the "I" self. For James, the pure ego is what provides the thread of continuity between our past, present, and future selves. The pure ego's perception of consistent individual identity arises from a continual stream of consciousness.[60] James believed that the pure ego was similar to what we think of as the soul, or the mind. The pure ego was not a substance and therefore could not be examined by science.[57]

http://historyofmusic.tripod.com/id6.html

We distinguish music from other sounds by recognizing the four main properties of musical sounds: pitch, dynamics (loudness or softness), tone color, and duration. 

Duration: the length of time a musical sound lasts

Pitch is the relative highness or lowness that we hear in a sound

-The pitch of a sound is determined by the frequency of its vibrations. 

-The faster the vibrations, the higher the pitch; the slower the vibrations, the lower the pitch. 

-Vibration frequency is measured in cycles per second. 

-On a piano the highest-frequency tone is 4,186 cycles per second, and the lowest is about 27 cycles per second.

In general, the smaller the vibrating object, the faster its vibrations and the higher its pitch. All other things being equal, plucking a short string produces a higher pitch than plucking a long string. The relatively short strings of a violin produce higher pitches than do the longer strings of a double bass.

In music, a sound that has a definite pitch is called a tone. It has a specific frequency, such as 440 cycles per second. The vibrations of a tone are regular and reach the ear at equal time intervals. 

Noiselike sounds (squeaking brakes or clashing cymbals) have an indefinite pitch because they are produced by irregular vibrations.

-Two tones will sound different when they have different pitches. 

-The "distance" in pitch between any two tones is called an interval.

-          When tones are separated by the interval called an octave, they sound very much alike. 

The distance between the lowest and highest tones that a voice or instrument can produce is called its pitch range, or simply its range. 

-The range of the average untrained voice is between 1 and 2 octaves;

 -A pianos range is over 7 octaves. 

-When men and women sing the same melody, they usually sing it an octave apart.

Though most music we know is based on definite pitches, indefinite pitchessuch as those made by a bass drum or by cymbalsare important as well. Some percussion instruments, such as gongs, cowbells, and wood-blocks, come in different sizes and therefore produce higher or lower indefinite pitches. Contrasts between higher and lower indefinite pitches play a vital role in twentieth-century western music and in musical cultures around the world.

Dynamics: Degrees of loudness or softness in music are called dynamics our second property of sound. 

-Loudness is related to the amplitude of the vibration that produces the sound. The harder a guitar string is plucked (the farther it moves from the fingerboard), the louder its sound. When instruments are played more loudly or more softly, or 

when there is a change in how many instruments are heard, a dynamic change results; such a change may be made either suddenly or gradually.

Crescendo: A gradual increase in loudness.  It often creates excitement, particularly when the pitch rises too. 

Decrescendo: a gradual decrease in loudness. It can be used to convey a sense of calm.

When notating music, composers have traditionally used Italian words, and their abbreviations, to indicate dynamics. The most common terms are:

For extremes of softness and loudness, composers use ppp or ppppand fff or ffff. The following notations indicate gradual changes in dynamics:

 

 

 

 

Tone Color

We can tell a trumpet from a flute even when each of them is playing the same tone at the same dynamic level. The quality that distinguishes them our third property of musical soundis called tone color, or timbre (pronounced tam-ber). Tone color is described by words like bright, dark, brilliant, mellow, and rich.

Like changes in dynamics, changes in tone color create variety and contrast. When the same melody is played by one instrument and then by another, it takes on different expressive effects because of each instruments tone color. On the other hand, a contrast in tone color may be used to highlight a new melody: after violins play a melody, an oboe may present a contrasting one.

Tone colors also build a sense of continuity; it is easier to recognize the return of a melody when the same instruments play it each time. Specific instruments can reinforce a melodys emotional impact: the brilliant sound of a trumpet is suited to heroic or military tunes; the soothing tone color of a flute fits the mood of a calm melody. In fact, composers often create a melody with a particular instruments tone color in mind.

A practically unlimited variety of tone colors is available to composers. Combining different instrumentsviolin, clarinet, and trombone, for exampleresults in new colors that the instruments cannot produce by themselves. And tone color can be changed by varying the number of instruments or voices that perform a melody. Finally, electronic techniques developed in recent years allow composers to create colors completely unlike those of traditional instruments.

http://historyofmusic.tripod.com/id6.html

The Instruments of the Orchestra:

 We can divide the instruments of the orchestra in four families:(This classification is made by the way the sound is produced)

 

            -The String Family:       

          -Violin

                        -Viola

                        -Cello

                        -Double bass

 

            -The Woodwind Family:

                        -Flute and Piccolo

                        -Clarinet and Bass Clarinet

                        -Oboe and English Horn

                        -Basson and Contrabassoon

 

            -The Brass family:

                        -Trumpet and cornet

                        -French Horn and baritone Horn

                        -Trombone

                        -Tuba

 

           

-The Percussion Family 

                        Definite Pitch:

                                    -Timpani (Kettledrums)

                                    -Glockenspiel

                                    -Xylophone

                                    -Celesta

                                    -Chimes

 

                        Indefinite Pitch:

                                    -Snare Drum

                                    -Bass Drum

                                    -Tambourine

                                    -Triangle

                                    -Cymbals

                                    -Gong (tam-tam)

https://ask.audio/articles/analog-synthesis-part-1-the-four-properties-of-sound

FOUR PROPERTIES OF SOUND

https://ask.audio/articles/analog-synthesis-part-1-the-four-properties-of-sound

But here’s a little secret… For the most part, all analog synths are the same. That is, they share the same basic design concept and have similar components and controls. Most importantly, it’s a design which makes it easy to control the four properties of sound. Yes, just four. You’d think there would be many more than that, but after working with synths and sound for over 30 years* I haven’t found any!

 

And because analog synths are so fundamentally similar, I wouldn’t be stretching the truth** to say that after you learn how one analog synth works, you can sit down in front of any other one and have a pretty darn good idea of how to program it. Without having to read the manual, I hasten to add!

 

* there’s a slight chance that I’ve rounded that number down

 

** be sure to ask about the AskAudio 100% money back truth guarantee!

 

But what we need to do first, of course, is learn what these four properties of sound are. Then we can move on to learn which of a synthesizer’s various components let us create and control them. So let’s start to get familiar with…

 

The Four Properties of Sound

 

Pitch (or Noise)

Timbre - a word traditionally used in synthesis meaning "tone color"

Amplitude (loudness, volume) - how the volume changes over time

Duration - how long a sound lasts

There they are, the four properties of sound. And we can start to get more intimately familiar with them without even being in front of a synthesizer, simply by listening to the world.

 

Listening to the World!

 

The best way to get familiar with the four properties is simply by paying closer attention than usual to sounds you hear every day. The following exercise will change the way you hear sound forever (that’s a good thing, by the way) and its purpose is to hone your listening skills towards hearing sound in terms of the four properties.

 

Listening Exercise

 

Choose any sound from your environment or from a piece of music and focus on it from beginning to end, blocking out all other sounds. The sounds you choose from can be anything at all: a police siren, a telephone dial tone, a car horn honking, a bird song, a kick drum, a saxophone lead, or an amazing synth effect that you heard in your favorite song. As you concentrate on it, ask yourself these four questions:

 

PITCH or NOISE: Is the sound pitch-based or noise-based, or perhaps a mixture of the two?

TIMBRE: How would you describe its “tone color”? Any words that come to mind are fine.

DURATION: How long does the sound last?

AMPLITUDE (Loudness, Volume): Here's some audio you can listen to for these sound exercises:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolai_Hartmann

In Hartmann's ontological theory, the levels of reality are: (1) the inorganic level (German: anorganische Schicht), (2) the organic level (organische Schicht), (3) the psychical/emotional level (seelische Schicht) and (4) the intellectual/cultural level (geistige Schicht). In the Structure of the Real World (Der Aufbau der realen Welt), Hartmann postulates four laws that apply to the levels of reality.

  1. The law of recurrence: Lower categories recur in the higher levels as a subaspect of higher categories, but never vice versa.

  2. The law of modification: The categorial elements modify in their recurrence in the higher levels (they are shaped by the characteristics of the higher levels).

  3. The law of the novum: The higher category is composed of a diversity of lower elements, but it is a specific novum that is not included in the lower levels.

  4. The law of distance between levels: Since the different levels do not develop continuously but in leaps, they can be clearly distinguished.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jambudvipa

MADE OF FOUR QUADRANTS

Jambudvīpa (Sanskrit: जम्बुद्वीप) is the dvipa ("island" or "continent") of the terrestrial world, as envisioned in the cosmologies of HinduismBuddhism, and Jainism, which is the realm where ordinary human beings live.

Markandeya Purana and Brahmanda Purana divide Jambudvipa into four vast regions shaped like four petals of a lotus with Mount Meru being located at the center like a pericarp. The city of Brahmapuri is said to be enclosed by a river, known as Akash Ganga. Akash Ganga is said to issue forth from the foot of Lord Vishnu and after washing the lunar region falls "through the skies" and after encircling the Brahmapuri "splits up into four mighty streams", which are said to flow in four opposite directions from the landscape of Mount Meru and irrigate the vast lands of Jambudvipa.[4]

Four continents (Wyl. gling bzhi) — the four island-continents (Skt. dvīpaWyl.gling) which surround Mount Meru according to the cosmology of the Abhidharma. They are:

  1. Purvavideha (Skt. Pūrvavideha; Tib. LüpakpoWyl. lus 'phags po; Eng. 'Surpassing the Body') in the East, which is semi-circular and white in colour;

  2. Jambudvipa (Skt. Jambudvīpa; Tib. DzambulingWyl. ‘dzam bu gling; Eng. 'Rose-Apple Continent') in the South, which is trapezoidal and blue (this is the continent we human beings live in);

  3. Aparagodaniya (Skt.; Tib. BalangchöWyl. ba lang spyod; Eng. 'Enjoyer of Cattle') in the West, which is circular and ruby red; and

  4. Uttarakuru (Skt.; Tib. DraminyenWyl. sgra mi snyan; Eng. 'Unpleasant Sound') in the North, which is square and green.

Each of the four continents is flanked by two subcontinents (Skt. kṣudradvīpāniWyl. gling phreng) of the same shape (see eight subcontinents).


Apart from the Chamara subcontinent of Jambudvipa, which is inhabited by rakshasademons, all the other island-continents are inhabited by human beings of different characteristicslife styles and life-spans. Each continent also has a specific attribute (see four attributes of the four continents).

An illustration of our world system

http://www.chinabuddhismencyclopedia.com/en/index.php/Four_attributes_of_the_four_continents

Four attributes of the four continents — each of the four continents belonging to one world system is endowed with a specific attribute:

  1. the jewel mountain (Tib. rinpoche riwo) is the main attribute of Purva Videha

  2. the wish-fulfilling tree (Tib. pak sam gyi shing) is the main attribute of Jambudvipa

  3. the wish-fulfilling cows (Tib. dö jö ba) are the main attributes of Aparagodaniya

  4. the harvest which need no sowing (Tib. ma mö pé lo tok) is the main attribute of Uttarakura

Alternative Translations

  1. the mountain of jewels/precious gems, the precious mountain

  2. the grove of wish-fulfilling trees

  3. the bountiful cow, the herd of wish-fulfilling cows, the inexhaustible bountiful cow

  4. the spontaneous harvest, the self-ripening crops, the harvest which grows without cultivation

THERE HAVE BEEN FIVE BUDDHAS OF THIS AGE- THE FIFTH IS SAID TO BE YET TO COME MAITREYA- THE FOURTH WAS THE TRANSCENDENT GAUTEMA THAT MOST PEOPLE KNOW AS THE BUDDHA- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS TRASNCENDENT FIFTH ULTRA TRANSCENDENT AND QUESTIONABLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kassapa_Buddha

The present kalpa is called the bhadrakalpa (Auspicious aeon). The five Buddhas of the present kalpa are:[3][4]

  1. Kakusandha (the first Buddha of the bhadrakalpa)

  2. Koṇāgamana (the second Buddha of the bhadrakalpa)

  3. Kassapa (the third Buddha of the bhadrakalpa)

  4. Gautama (the fourth and present Buddha of the bhadrakalpa)

  5. Maitreya (the fifth and future Buddha of the bhadrakalpa)​

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_death_deities

The Layer Quaternity are four marble sculpture figurines approximately 25 centimetres (10 in) in height located on the two columns of the Layer Monument, an early 17th-century polychrome mural monument (320 by 350 centimetres [130 in × 140 in]) installed in the Church of Saint John the Baptist, Maddermarket, Norwich to the memory of Christopher Layer(1531–1600).

The role of the Quaternity in religious symbolism is discussed at length by Carl Gustav Jung. Much of his in-depth study and observations upon the function and role of the quaternity in religious symbolism is applicable to the Layer Quaternity. To Jung the quaternity was a natural expression of differentiation which always represents a totality, citing the four elements, the four seasons, the ancient Greek schemata of the four humours, and the four temperaments, as well as the four Evangelists with their respective emblems in the form of the tetramorph in Christian iconography, as examples.

The symbolism of the four entities of the Layer Quaternity exemplify Jung's observation that individuation develops through psychic qualities consisting of two pairs of opposites, which are often polarised to each other.[6][7][8][9]

As such, the Layer Quaternity may be viewed as exemplary of Renaissance-era psychology. Its four highly-symbolic figurine entities are simultaneously, a 'map' of the psyche, and a highly-original alchemical mandala in western funerary art.[10]

24 STATUES AND QUATERNITIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grande_Commande

The grande commande was a commission ordered by Louis XIV for statues intended to decorate the parterre d’eau of the gardens of the Palace of Versailles, as initially conceived in 1672. The commission, which included 24 statues and four groups,[1] was ordered in 1674. Designed by Charles Le Brun from Cesare Ripa’sIconologia, the statues were executed by the foremost sculptors of the day (Blunt, 1980; Friedman, 1988, 1993; Nolhac, 1913; Thompson, 2006; Verlet, 1985).

  • Charles Le Brun, The Four Parts of the Day

  •  

  •  

    Le Brun, The Four Seasons

  •  

  •  

    Le Brun, The Four Elements

  •  

  •  

    Le Brun, 'The Four Humors of Man

  •  

  •  

    Le Brun, 'The Four Forms of Poetry

The 24 statues were personifications of the classic quaternities:

  • The Four Humors of Man

  • Melancholic

  • Phlegmatic

  • Choleric

  • Sanguine

  • The Four Parts of the Day

  • Dawn

  • Noon

  • Evening

  • Night

  • The Four Parts of the World

  • Europe

  • Africa

  • Asia

  • America

  • The Four Forms of Poetry

  • Lyric

  • Pastoral

  • Satirical

  • Epic

  • The Four Seasons

  • Spring

  • Summer

  • Autumn

  • Winter

  • The Four Elements

  • Fire

  • Air

  • Earth

  • Water

The four groupings represented the four classic Abductions:

  • The Four Abductions:

 

Thomas Regnaudin, L'Automne sous les traits de Bacchus (the autumn represented as Bacchus), copy, cast, Versailles' gardens.

 

The original statues Water, Night, America, preserved in the galerie basse of the Palace of Versailles.

Statues of the grande commande - The Four Humors of Man

“Meoncholy” by Michel de la Perdrix, (? - 1693)“Phlegmatic” by Matthieu Lespagnandelle, (1617–1689)“Choloric” by Jacques Houzeau, (1624–1691)“Sanguine” by Noël V Jouvenet, (?-1716)

Statues of the grande commande - The Four Parts of the Day

“Dawn” by Pierre I Legros, (1629–1714)“Noon” by Gaspard Marsy, (1624–1681)“Evening” by Martin Desjardins, (1637–1694)“Night” by Jean Raon, (1631–1707)

Statues of the grande commande – The Four Parts of the World

“Europe” by Pierre Mazeline, (1632–1708)“Africa” by Jean Cornu, (1650–1710)“Asia” by Léonard Roger, (1644-après 1694)“America” by Gilles Guérin, (1611/1612-1678)

Statues of the grande commande - The Four Forms of Poetry

“Lyric Poetry” by Jean-Baptiste Tuby, (1635–1700)“Pastoral Poetry” by Pierre Granier, (1655–1715)“Satyrical Poetry” by Philippe de Buyster, (1595–1688)“Epic Poetry” by Jean Drouilly, (1641–1698)

Statues of the grande commande - The Four Seasons

“Spring” by Laurent Magnier, (1618–1700)“Summer” by Pierre Hutinot, (1616–1679)“Autumn” by Thomas Regnaudin, (1622–1706)“Winter” by François Girardon, (1628–1715)

Statues of the grande commande - The Four Elements

“Fire” by Nicolas Dossier, (1629–1700)“Air” by Etienne Le Hongre, (1628–1690)“Earth” by Benoît Massou, (1627–1684)“Water” by Pierre I Legros, (1629–1714)

Statues of the grande commande – The Abductions

“Boreas abducting Orethyia” by Anselme I Flamen, (1647–1717)“Saturn abducting Cybele” by Thomas Regnaudin, (1622–1706)“Pluto abducting Persephone” by François Girardon, (1628–1715)
 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rG_6nmr1dpE

THE TITLE OF THE FIRST CHAPTER OF FULLERS GRUNCH OF GIANTS IS FEE FI FO FUM TO THE FOURTH POWER. SOME THINK THE FEE FI FO FUM ARE THE FOUR ELEMENTS OF GRUNCH

FEE FI FO FUM FAIRTY TALE QUATRAIN- TETRAMERIC

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fee-fi-fo-fum

"Fee-fi-fo-fum" is the first line of a historical quatrain (or sometimes couplet) famous for its use in the classic English fairy tale Jack and the Beanstalk. The poem, as given in Joseph Jacobs' 1890 rendition, is as follows:

 

Fee-fi-fo-fum,
I smell the blood of an Englishman,
Be he alive, or be he dead
I'll grind his bones to make my bread.[1]

Though the rhyme is tetrametric, it follows no consistent metrical foot; however, the respective verses correspond roughly to monosyllabic tetrameter, dactylic tetrametertrochaic tetrameter, and iambic tetrameter. The poem has historically made use of assonant half rhyme.

FOUR TYPES OF CINAMMON

http://www.naturalnews.com/049240_ceylon_cinnamon_Korintje_cassia_Saigon.html

(NaturalNews) There are hundreds of types of cinnamon, but there are only four varieties used for commercial purposes. The cinnamon known as "true cinnamon" is Ceylon cinnamon. This is the only variety that many other countries refer to as cinnamon. Other varieties are known as cassia.

Other cinnamon varieties, which are much more common in North America, are easier to produce and less expensive than Ceylon cinnamon. Cassia (Chinese) cinnamon, Saigon cinnamon, and Korintje are typically all lumped in together and referred to as cassia cinnamon, though they are each distinctively different. Each of these three closely related spices are much stronger and more pungent than Ceylon cinnamon.
 

TETRAQUARK IS TRANSCENDENT- THREE QUARKS IS USUAL- FOUR TETRA IS TRANSCENDENT/DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetraquark

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetraquark

A tetraquark, in particle physics, is an exotic meson composed of four valence quarks. In principle, a tetraquark state may be allowed in quantum chromodynamics,[1] the modern theory of strong interactions. Any established tetraquark state would be an example of an exotic hadron which lies outside the quark model classification.

In 2003 a particle temporarily called X(3872), by the Belle experiment in Japan, was proposed to be a tetraquark candidate,[3] as originally theorized.[4] The name X is a temporary name, indicating that there are still some questions about its properties to be tested. The number following is the mass of the particle in MeV/c2.

In 2004, the DsJ(2632) state seen in Fermilab's SELEX was suggested as a possible tetraquark candidate.[citation needed]

In 2007, Belle announced the observation of the Z(4430) state, a 
c

c

d

u
 tetraquark candidate. There are also indications that the Y(4660), also discovered by Belle in 2007, could be a tetraquark state.[5]

In 2009, Fermilab announced that they have discovered a particle temporarily called Y(4140), which may also be a tetraquark.[6]

In 2010, two physicists from DESY and a physicist from Quaid-i-Azam University re-analyzed former experimental data and announced that, in connection with the 
ϒ
(5S) meson
 (a form of bottomonium), a well-defined tetraquark resonance exists.[7][8]

In June 2013, the BES III experiment in China and the Belle experiment in Japan independently reported on Zc(3900), the first confirmed four-quark state.[9]

In 2014, the Large Hadron Collider experiment LHCb confirmed the existence of the Z(4430) state with a significance of over 13.9 σ.[10][11]

In February 2016, the DØ experiment announced the observation of a narrow tetraquark candidate, named X(5568), decaying to Bsπ±.[12] However, preliminary results from LHCb, presented at the 51st Rencontres de Moriond Electroweak session, show no evidence for the state, despite a much larger sample of 
B0
sπ±candidates.[13]

In June 2016, LHCb announced the discovery of three additional tetraquark candidates, called X(4274), X(4500) and X(4700).[14][15][16]

THERE ARE FOUR WAYS

Schematics, called Feynman diagrams show the main ways that the Standard Model Higgs boson can be produced from colliding protons at the LHC.

THE FOUR PARTS OF THE ATLAS DETECTOR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ATLAS_experiment

The ATLAS detector consists of a series of ever-larger concentric cylinders around the interaction point where the proton beams from the LHC collide. It can be divided into four major parts: the Inner Detector, the calorimeters, the Muon Spectrometer and the magnet systems.[19] Each of these is in turn made of multiple layers. The detectors are complementary: the Inner Detector tracks particles precisely, the calorimeters measure the energy of easily stopped particles, and the muon system makes additional measurements of highly penetrating muons. The two magnet systems bend charged particles in the Inner Detector and the Muon Spectrometer, allowing their momenta to be measured.

THE FOUR PARTICLE ACCELERATORS OF THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER

http://www.wired.co.uk/article/large-hadron-collider-explained

The beams inside the LHC are made to collide at four locations around the huge underground ring, corresponding to the four particle detectors, named ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb.

http://www.stfc.ac.uk/research/particle-physics-and-particle-astrophysics/large-hadron-collider/

Each of the four main detectors sit in huge chambers around the LHC ring to detect the outcomes of the particles colliding. ATLAS, ALICE, CMS and LHCb.

http://united-states.cern/accelerators-and-detectors

The LHC accelerates hair-thin beams of particles to a whisker below the speed of light. Thousands of powerful superconducting magnets steer the beams around the LHC’s 16.5-mile-long ring. At four points the particles collide in the hearts of the main experiments, known by their acronyms: ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. These experiments record the properties, trajectories and momenta of the particles produced in the high-energy collisions. From this data, scientists can reconstruct the particles produced during the high-energy collisions and look for new particles and interactions.

THE FOUR MAIN DETECTORS/EXPERIMENTS OF THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER

THE SECOND MOST FAMOUS COLLIDER BEHIND THE CERN LHC IS THE LEPC. IT ALSO HAS FOUR DETECTORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Large_Electron–Positron_Collider

The Large Electron–Positron Collider had four detectors, built around the four collision points within underground halls. Each was the size of a small house and was capable of registering the particles by their energymomentum and charge, thus allowing physicists to infer the particle reaction that had happened and the elementary particles involved. By performing statistical analysis of this data, knowledge about elementary particle physics is gained. The four detectors of LEP were called Aleph, Delphi, Opal, and L3. They were built differently to allow for complementary experiments.

ALEPH[edit]

Main article: ALEPH experiment

ALEPH stands for Apparatus for LEP PHysics at CERN. The detector determined the mass of the W-boson and Z-boson to within one part in a thousand. The number of families of particles with light neutrinos was determined to be 2.982±0.013, which is consistent with the standard model value of 3. The running of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) coupling constant was measured at various energies and found to run in accordance with perturbative calculations in QCD.[2]

DELPHI[edit]

Main article: DELPHI experiment

DELPHI stands for DEtector with Lepton, Photon and Hadron Identification.

OPAL[edit]

Main article: OPAL experiment

OPAL stands for Omni-Purpose Apparatus for LEP. The name of the experiment was a play, as some of the founding members of the scientific collaboration which first proposed the design had previously worked on the JADE detector at DESY in Hamburg.[3] OPAL was a general-purpose detector designed to collect a broad range of data. Its data were used to make high precision measurements of the Z boson lineshape, perform detailed tests of the Standard Model, and place limits on new physics. The detector was dismantled in 2000 to make way for LHC equipment. The lead glass blocks from the OPAL barrel electromagnetic calorimeter are currently being re-used in the large-angle photon veto detectors at the NA62 experiment at CERN.

L3[edit]

Main article: L3 experiment

L3 was another LEP experiment.[4] Its enormous octagonal magnet return yoke remained in place in the cavern and became part of the ALICE detector for the LHC.

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.03952.pdf

There are essentially four mechanisms for the single production of the SM Higgs boson at th LHC; Some Feynman diagrams are shown in Fig. 4. 

TRANSCENDENT FOURTH COLOR CHARGE IN GLUONS- ADDING TO THE NORMAL THREE RED, GREEN, AND BLUE, THE TRANSCENDENT COLOR LILAC

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pati–Salam_model

 

In physics, the Pati–Salam model is a Partial Unification Theory proposed in 1974 by nobel laureate Abdus Salam and Jogesh Pati. The unification is based on there being four quark color charges, dubbed red, green, blue and violet (or lilac), instead of the conventional three, with the new "violet" quark being identified with the leptons. The model also has Left–right symmetry and predicts the existence of a high energy right handed weak interaction with heavy W' and Z' bosons.

 

Originally the fourth color was labelled "lilac" to alliterate with "lepton". Pati–Salam is a mainstream theory and a viable alternative to the Georgi–Glashow SU(5) unification. It can be embedded within an SO(10) unification model (as can SU(5)).

IN THE MIRACLE OF MIDWAY THE CARRIERS SUNK IN A THREE PLUS ONE PATERN- PLANES CAME OUT OF THE CLOUDS AND ACCIDENTALLY FOUND THEMSELVES ABOVE THE FOUR AND IT IS DESCRIBED THE FIRST THREE SUNK AND LATER THE FOURTH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Midway

By the time the battle ended, 3,057 Japanese had died. Casualties aboard the four carriers were: Akagi: 267; Kaga: 811; Hiryu: 392; Soryu: 711 (including Captain Yanagimoto, who chose to remain on board); a total of 2,181

 

https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2011/08/world-war-ii-battle-of-midway-and-the-aleutian-campaign/100137/

At the end of several days of fighting, the Japanese Navy had lost four aircraft carriers and nearly 250 aircraft and suffered more than 3,000 deaths. 

http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/ct-battle-of-midway-press-leak-20170605-story.html

The Japanese navy was crippled by the loss of four aircraft carriers - all used in the attack on Pearl Harbor - and hundreds of planes and sailors when it was ambushed by a smaller U.S. force that had been forewarned by good intelligence.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francia

FOURFOLD DIVISIONS OF FRANCE

Clovis's sons[edit]

At the death of Clovis, his kingdom was divided territorially by his four adult sons in such a way that each son was granted a comparable portion of fiscal land, which was probably land once part of the Roman fisc, now seized by the Frankish government.

 

The division of Francia on Clovis's death (511). The kingdoms were not geographic unities because they were formed in an attempt to create equal-sized fiscs. The discrepancy in size reveals the concentration of Roman fiscal lands.

Clovis's sons made their capitals near the Frankish heartland in northeastern Gaul. Theuderic I made his capital at ReimsChlodomer at OrléansChildebert I at Paris, and Chlothar I at Soissons. During their reigns, the Thuringii (532), Burgundes (534), and Saxons and Frisians (c. 560) were incorporated into the Frankish kingdom. The outlying trans-Rhenish tribes were loosely attached to Frankish sovereignty, and though they could be forced to contribute to Frankish military efforts, in times of weak kings they were uncontrollable and liable to attempt independence. The Romanised Burgundian kingdom, however, was preserved in its territoriality by the Franks and converted into one of their primary divisions, incorporating the central Gallic heartland of Chlodomer's realm with its capital at Orléans.

The fraternal kings showed only intermittent signs of friendship and were often in rivalry. On the early death of Chlodomer, his brother Chlothar had his young sons murdered in order to take a share of his kingdom, which was, in accordance with custom, divided between the surviving brothers. Theuderic died in 534, but his adult son Theudebert Iwas capable of defending his inheritance, which formed the largest of the Frankish subkingdoms and the kernel of the later kingdom of Austrasia.

Theudebert was the first Frankish king to formally sever his ties to the Byzantine Empire by striking gold coins with his own image on them and calling himself magnus rex (great king) because of his supposed suzerainty over peoples as far away as Pannonia. Theudebert interfered in the Gothic War on the side of the Gepids and Lombards against the Ostrogoths, receiving the provinces of RaetiaNoricum, and part of Veneto.

Chlothar[edit]

His son and successor, Theudebald, was unable to retain them and on his death all of his vast kingdom passed to Chlothar, under whom, with the death of Childebert in 558, the entire Frankish realm was reunited under the rule of one king.

 

The division of Gaul on Chlothar I's death (561). Though more geographically unified realms were created out of the second fourfold division of Francia, the complex division of Provence created many problems for the rulers of Burgundy and Austrasia.

In 561 Chlothar died and his realm was divided, in a replay of the events of fifty years prior, between his four sons, with the chief cities remaining the same. The eldest son, Charibert I, inherited the kingdom with its capital at Paris and ruled all of western Gaul. The second eldest, Guntram, inherited the old kingdom of the Burgundians, augmented by the lands of central France around the old capital of Orléans, which became his chief city, and most of Provence.

The rest of Provence, the Auvergne, and eastern Aquitaine were assigned to the third son, Sigebert I, who also inherited Austrasia with its chief cities of Reims and Metz. The smallest kingdom was that of Soissons, which went to the youngest son, Chilperic I. The kingdom Chilperic ruled at his death (584) became the nucleus of later Neustria.

This second fourfold division was quickly ruined by fratricidal wars, waged largely over the murder of Galswintha, the wife of Chilperic, allegedly by his mistress (and second wife) Fredegund. Galswintha's sister, the wife of Sigebert, Brunhilda, incited her husband to war and the conflict between the two queens continued to plague relations until the next century. Guntram sought to keep the peace, though he also attempted twice (585 and 589) to conquer Septimania from the Goths, but was defeated both times.

All the surviving brothers benefited at the death of Charibert, but Chilperic was also able to extend his authority during the period of war by bringing the Bretons to heel again. After his death, Guntram had to again force the Bretons to submit. In 587, the Treaty of Andelot—the text of which explicitly refers to the entire Frankish realm as Francia—between Brunhilda and Guntram secured his protection of her young son Childebert II, who had succeeded the assassinated Sigebert (575). Together the territory of Guntram and Childebert was well over thrice as large as the small realm of Chilperic's successor, Chlothar II. During this period Francia took on the tripartite character it was to have throughout the rest of its history, being composed of Neustria, Austrasia, and Burgundy.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francia

The division of Gaul on Chlothar I's death (561). Though more geographically unified realms were created out of the second fourfold division of Francia, the complex division of Provence created many problems for the rulers of Burgundy and Austrasia.

ROMAN ARMY USED QUINCUNX PATTERN- QUINCUNX IS A CROSS/QUADRANT OF FIVE ELEMENTS

  

The video does a great job of explaining how the Triplex Acies might have worked in an actual tactical scenario. And the first point to note here is that in spite of being less rigid than the traditional phalanx, the maniple system and the associated checkerboard pattern (quincunx) did require a tremendous degree of discipline on the part of the Roman soldiers. To that end, it was this sheer scope of organization that was possibly ‘flaunted’ in front of the enemy, thus psychologically rattling the opposing forces by both impressing and intimidating them.

But beneath the veneer of discipline and organization, it was the intrinsic flexibility offered by the Triplex Acies of the maniple system that made it such a favored formation among the Romans. Suited to most terrain types, the quincunx pattern would have surely boosted the morale of the first lines of hastati, as these young men knew that they were bolstered in their rear ranks by the more experienced troops of the Republic.

THE ROMAN ARMY CONSISTED OF FOUR LEGIONS- THE ARMY WAS DIVIDED INTO FOUR LINES THAT WERE A THREE PLUS ONE PATTERN AND THE THREE LINES BEHIND THE FIRST FORMED A QUINCUNX PATTERN, WHICH WAS CROSSES/QUADRANTS

https://sites.psu.edu/successoftheromans/organization-of-the-roman-army/

The early Roman Manipular Legion, used from the fourth century B.C. until the Marian Reforms of 107 B.C., was the largest and most basic unit of the army’s composition. The Roman Army consisted of four Legions, each with the strength of roughly 4200 infantrymen.

 

The manipular formation would be initially deployed in four lines. The first was a solid line made up of the skirmishing velites, who would hurl missiles at the approaching enemy to inflict casualties and disrupt their formations. The final three lines known as the triplex acies were made up of the infantry, a line each for the hastati, principes and triarii. These three lines would be segmented and deployed in a checkerboard pattern known as a quincunx. When the marching enemy would get close the velites would retreat through the gaps in the maniples to the rear of the formation. The front line of hastati then would most likely have formed a solid line to engage the enemy in close-quarters combat. If the front line could not hold, they would fall back on the principes. If that line could not hold they would then fall back on the triarii.

CRUCIFIXION BRAVEHEART

http://bibleblogireland.com/?tag=braveheart

As you look at Braveheart the movie what word sums up the whole life of William Wallace? It’s got to be ‘freedom’. As a boy the memory of his father said, “Your heart is free. Have the courage to follow it.” When inspiring the men to fight at Stirling he gave his famous stirring speech ending with, “They may take our lives, but they’ll never take our freedom.” Then finally after being led through the crowd carrying a crossbeam and being laid on a wooden cross-shaped block he draws his last breath and with it shouts ‘Freedom‘ as his life leaves his body. It summed up his life in a single word. It was loud and as the crowd watched him they remain speechless.

   

Jesus, too, carried his crossbeam with the crowd looking on. He too took it toward the place of execution. He too was placed on a wooden cross. And at the moment of his death he too cried out in a loud voice. “Then Jesus, calling out with a loud voice, said “Father, into your hands I commit my spirit” And having said this he breathed his last.” (Luke 23:46). Firstly, he said he committed his spirit to the Father. Just like Wallace’s last word, this sums up all that characterised the life of Jesus. He had at all times committed himself to God, the Father, in loving faithful submission. Secondly, notice how Jesus called out with a loud voice. Nobody would have expected that to happen. Most victims of crucifixion did not say a word in their final moments as they are so weak they could hardly even breathe. But here Jesus called aloud. Such was the force of it that it made the Roman centurion standing there realise something profound about who hung there on the wooden cross in front of him. He would have seen hundreds if not thousands of crucifixions before. But never before had he met this person. It would have taken supernatural strength to exclaim loud intelligible words at the moment of death. Wallace’s cry of freedom simply proclaimed his life’s purpose but Jesus’ words revealed more than his life’s purpose, they also revealed his identity. The Gospel writer Mark tells us the centurion’s reaction, “And Jesus uttered a loud cry and breathed his last. And when the centurion, who stood facing him, saw that in this way he breathed his last, he said, “Truly this man was the Son of God!” (Mark 15:37 and 39). Have you realised who Jesus is yet? Has his life, death, and resurrection made you take notice that he was and is the Son of God sent into the world to bring true spiritual freedom to all who trust him? Trust him today.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Cowboys

Space Cowboys is a 2000 American space drama film directed and produced by Clint Eastwood. It stars Eastwood, Tommy Lee JonesDonald Sutherland, and James Garner as four older "ex-test pilots" who are sent into space to repair an old Soviet satellite.

ARABS WORSHIPPED FOUR GODS IN A THREE PLUS ONE PATERN

http://sakina.wikidot.com/arabian-deities

In Arabian archaeology a large number of inscriptions on rocks, tablets and walls, have pointed to the worship of a family of four; one male and his three ‘daughters’ or goddesses. Those three goddesses are sometimes engraved together with Allah, represented by a crescent moon above them. But Allah was the ‘Lord of the Kaaba… Lord of Manat, al-Lat, and al-Uzza…and even as ‘Lord of Sirius’.’(Peters, Muhammad, 98.) His ‘daughters’ were his associates, helpers and were themselves worshipped, after the manner of ancient Babylonian customs and symbolised by astronomical symbols.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolution

FOUR MAJOR POLITICAL REVOLUTIONS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Anatomy_of_Revolution

The Anatomy of Revolution is a book by Crane Brinton outlining the "uniformities" of four major political revolutions: the English Revolution of the 1640s, the American, the French, and 1917 Russian Revolution. Brinton notes how the revolutions followed a life-cycle from the Old Order to a moderate regime to a radical regime, to Thermidorian reaction. The book has been called "classic,[1] "famous" and a "watershed in the study of revolution," [2] and has been influential enough to have inspired advice given to US President Jimmy Carter by his National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski during the Iranian Revolution. [3]

FOUR CLASSIC CASES REVOLUTION FOUR GENERATIONS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolution
Many such early studies of revolutions tended to concentrate on four classic cases: famous and uncontroversial examples that fit virtually all definitions of revolutions, such as the Glorious Revolution (1688), the French Revolution (1789–1799), the Russian Revolution of 1917, and the Chinese Revolution (also known as the Chinese Civil War) (1927–1949).[15] In his The Anatomy of Revolution, however, the Harvard historian Crane Brinton focused on the English Civil War, the American Revolution, the French Revolution, and the Russian Revolution.[17]

Aberle's Four Types of Social Movements

Based on who a movement is trying to change and how much change a movement is advocating, Aberle identified four types of social movements: redemptive, reformative, revolutionary and alternative.

FOUR THEORETICAL TRADITIONS OF SOCIOLOGY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sociological_theory

The contemporary discipline of sociology is theoretically multi-paradigmatic.[11] In Randall Collins' well-cited survey of sociological theory[12] he retroactively labels various theorists as belonging to four theoretical traditions: functionalism, conflict, symbolic interactionism, and utilitarianism.[

MARX FOUR EPOCHS OF WESTERN SOCIETY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_conflict_theory

Marx believed that western society developed through four main epochs—primitive communism, ancient society, feudal society and capitalist society.

Table 2. Analytic Dimensions of the Four Sociological Traditions

POLYA FOUR STEP APPROACH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/How_to_Solve_It

How to Solve It (1945) is a small volume by mathematician George Pólya describing methods of problem solving.[1]

 

Four principles[edit]

How to Solve It suggests the following steps when solving a mathematical problem:

 

First, you have to understand the problem.[2]

After understanding, make a plan.[3]

Carry out the plan.[4]

Look back on your work.[5] How could it be better?

Mood structures

Watson and Tellegen (1985) proposed a basic two-

factor model of mood, which represents the two

dominant dimensions that consistently emerge in

studies of the affective structure of moods, and have

been used extensively in the self-report mood

literature (Watson, Clark & Tellegen, 1988): Valence

(pleasure - displeasure) and arousal (high energy –

low energy). Together these dimensions represent

four basic mood categories, see Figure 1.

Figure 1. Four basic mood categories; based on the

PANAS model by Watson and Tellegen (1985), with

examples of moods (in the circle) from Russell (1980)

and Barrett & Russell (1999).


Pick-A-Mood; development and application of a pictorial mood-reporting instrument (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/239949649_Pick-A-Mood_development_and_application_of_a_pictorial_mood-reporting_instrument [accessed Sep 4, 2017].

THERE IS AN INTERPLAY BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR STRAND CHALLAH

THERE ARE ACTUALLY FIVE BRAID AND SIX BRAID AND SO ON, BUT A LOT OF PEOPLE TEND TO LIKE THE FOUR BRAID. MAKING THE CHALLAH INVOLVES A LOT OF CROSSINGS.

https://toriavey.com/how-to/challah-bread-part-2-how-to-braid-challah/

FOUR-STRAND CHALLAH

The Four-Strand Challah is my favorite braid. I love the design it creates. When braiding a Four-Strand Challah it’s important to remember that you always start with the strand that is furthest to the right. Memorize the “over, under, over” pattern and say it out loud as you braid to keep you on track.

 


See the full post:https://toriavey.com/how-to/challah-bread-part-2-how-to-braid-challah/#CRQQuB9hpVKxEQ3k.99

How To Make a 4-Braided Challah | Challah Workshop Part 5

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hot_Cross_Buns

"Hot Cross Buns" is an English language nursery rhymeEaster song, and street cry referring to the spiced English bun known as a hot cross bun, which is associated with the end of Lent and is eaten on Good Friday in various countries. It has a Roud Folk Song Index number of 13029.

Lyrics[edit]

Hot Cross Buns

MENU

0:00

Tune for Hot Cross Buns

Problems playing this file? See media help.

The most common modern version is:[1]

Hot cross buns!
Hot cross buns!
One a penny, two a penny,
Hot cross buns!

If you have no daughters,
give them to your sons.
One a penny two a penny,
Hot cross buns!

THERE IS AN INTERPLAY BETWEEN QUADRUPLE AND TRIPPLE CHOCOLATE BROWNIES

http://www.thelittleepicurean.com/2016/12/triple-chocolate-brownies.html

I lied about the name of these brownies. While they’re called “triple chocolate brownies,” I technically used four chocolates: 1.) unsweetened chocolate (cocoa powder and solid chocolate), 2.) extra dark chocolate chips, 3.) semi-sweet chocolate chips, and 4.) white chocolate chips. The difference between dark chocolate and semi-sweet chocolate chips is negligible. I would only call these quadruple chocolate brownies if I had included milk chocolate chips. (Note to self: add milk chocolate chips to shopping list.)

FROZEN FRUIT CO FOUR FLAVORS

https://la.eater.com/2016/7/25/12277244/frozen-fruit-co-santa-monica-soft-serve

With sky high temperatures, Frozen Fruit Co couldn't have made a timelier debut. Although the London-born concept first posted signage on its Santa Monica shop back in September, the frozen fruit soft serve specialist opened at the beginning of July right on Montana Avenue.

Currently offering four flavors, pineapple and passion fruit, mango and strawberry, raspberry and orange, and coconut and cacao, the frozen treats are sweetened with things like dates and natural fruit extracts. That means they satisfy just about every dietary restriction being dairy-free, gluten-free, vegan, and paleo.

TOMS ON ABBOT KINNEY HAS A WINDOW WITH FOUR ITEMS ON IT- SHOES, GLASSES, BAGS, AND COFFEE. FOR BUDYING EACH OF THOSE FOUR ITEMS A DONATION IS GIVEN TO FOUR DIFFERENT CHARITIES (they sometimes add a the fifth changes fifth is always questionable fourth always different)

http://www.toms.com/what-we-give-water

THEY HAD THE FOUR SQUARE SNICKERS AND BUTTERFINGER AND OTHERS

THE 15 FLAVORS AT LE LABO AS WELL AS THE ULTRA TRANSCENDENT 16th. AGAIN I TOOK A LOT OF PICTURES OF QUADRANT EXAMPLES BUT I DONT KNOW WHERE A LOT ARE. BUT I STUDIED A LOT OF COSMETIC STUFF AND THEY WOULD OFTEN HAVE THREE MAIN PARTS, AND I WOULD ASK IF THEY HAD A FOURTH. OFTEN THEY WOULD SAY YES. IT OWOULD BE A TRANSCENDENT FOURTH AND THEY'D LITERALLY HAVE TO GO INTO THE CABINET TO GET IT. AN EXAMPLE THAT SORT OF FITS THAT PHENOMENA IS PROACTIV WHERE THERE IS THE THREE REGULAR PARTS AND THEN A TRANSCENDENT DIFFERENT FOURTH, BUT I SAW EXAMPLES OF OTHER CREAMS THAT HAD THE FOUR WITH THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH THAT WAS MORE APPARENT

I HAVE SEEN THESE QUADRANT SODA FOUNTAINS USUALLY HAVE FOUR QUADRANTS MAKING 16 SELECTIONS IN A QUADRANT MODEL 16

I WENT TO DO MY LAUNDRY AT A PLACE LAST YEAR AND THEY HAD THE FOUR LOADS WASHER-EXTRACTORS

ASTERISMS FOUR GROUPS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_constellations

The Chinese asterisms are generally smaller than the constellations of Hellenistic tradition. The Song dynasty (13th-century) Suzhou planisphere shows a total of 283 asterisms, comprising a total of 1,565 individual stars[2] The asterisms are divided into four groups

The Twenty-Eight Mansions are grouped into Four Symbols, each associated with a compass direction and containing seven mansions. The names and determinative stars are:[7][8]

Azure Dragon
of the East

(東方青龍)
Spring1角 (Jué/Jiăo)Hornα Vir

2亢 (Kàng)Neckκ Vir

3氐 (Dī)Rootα Lib

4房 (Fáng)Roomπ Sco

5心 (Xīn)Heartα Sco

6尾 (Wěi)Tailμ Sco

7箕 (Jī)Winnowing Basketγ Sgr

Black Tortoise
of the North

(北方玄武)
Winter8斗 (Dǒu)(Southern) Dipperφ Sgr

9牛 (Niú)Oxβ Cap

10女 (Nǚ)Girlε Aqr

11虛 (Xū)Emptinessβ Aqr

12危 (Wéi/Wēi)Rooftopα Aqr

13室 (Shì)Encampmentα Peg

14壁 (Bì)Wallγ Peg

White Tiger
of the West

(西方白虎)
Fall15奎 (Kuí)Legsη And

16婁 (Lóu)Bondβ Ari

17胃 (Wèi)Stomach35 Ari

18昴 (Mǎo)Hairy Head17 Tau

19畢 (Bì)Netε Tau

20觜 (Zī)Turtle Beakλ Ori

21參 (Shēn)Three Starsζ Ori

Vermilion Bird
of the South

(南方朱雀)
Summer22井 (Jǐng)Wellμ Gem

23鬼 (Guǐ)Ghostθ Cnc

24柳 (Liǔ)Willowδ Hya

25星 (Xīng)Starα Hya

26張 (Zhāng)Extended Netυ¹ Hya

27翼 (Yì)Wingsα Crt

28軫 (Zhěn)Chariotγ Crv
 

ASIANS ARE THE FIRST SQUARE RACE, SO THEY ARE SEEN AS WEIRD AND THEY USE A LOT OF DIFFERENT NUMBERS. INSTEAD OF FOUR ELEMENTS THEY USE FIVE BUT IT IS STILL THE FOUR PLUS ONE PATTERN. FOR INSTANCE, THE TEA CEREMONIES ARE THE FOUR DIRECTIONS PLUS THE CENTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wu_Xing

There are spring, summer, fall, and winter teas. The perennial tea ceremony ("perennial", literally means four steps or sequences that are linked together, each representing a season of the year) includes four tea settings (茶席) and a tea master (司茶). The tea settings are:

  • earth, (Incense), yellow, center, up and down

  • wood, 春風 (Spring Wind), green, east

  • fire, 夏露 (Summer Dew), red, south

  • metal, 秋籟 (Fall Sounds), white, west

  • water, 冬陽 (Winter Sunshine) black/blue, north

Each tea setting is arranged and stands for the four directions (north, south, east, and west). A vase of the seasons' flowers is put on tea table. Sometimes if four tea masters are included then five chairs are arranged per tea setting, making a total of twenty plus the 4 tea masters equalling 24, which symbolizes the 24 solar terms of the Chinese calendar, and represents that nature continues or is perennial.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marshall_Islands_stick_chart

The Marshallese recognized four main ocean swells: the rilib, kaelib, bungdockerik and bundockeing.[1] Navigators focused on effects of islands in blocking swells and generating counterswells to some degree, but they mainly concentrated on refraction of swells as they came in contact with undersea slopes of islands and the bending of swells around islands as they interacted with swells coming from opposite directions. The four types of ocean swells were represented in many stick charts by curved sticks and threads.

Rilib swells[edit]

The rilib swell is the strongest of the four ocean swells and was referred to as the "backbone" swell. It is generated by the northeast trade winds and is present during the entire year, even when they do not penetrate as far south as the Marshall Islands. Marshallese considered the rilib swells to come from the east, even though the angle of the winds as well as the impact of the ocean currents varied the swell direction.

Kaelib swells[edit]

The kaelib swell is weaker than the rilib and could only be detected by knowledgeable persons, but it is also present year round.

Bungdockerik swells[edit]

The bungdockerik is present year round as well and arises in the southwest. This swell is often as strong as the rilib in the southern islands.

Bundockeing swells[edit]

The bundockeing swell is the weakest of the four swells, and is mainly felt in the northern islands.

https://svmshippingblog.wordpress.com/2012/10/14/mattang-reading-the-pattern-of-the-waves/

THE STICK CHARTS ARE REPRESENTED BY THE QUADRANT

The Marshallese recognized four main ocean swells.  Navigators focused on effects of islands in blocking swells and generating counterswells to some degree, but they mainly concentrated on refraction of swells as they came in contact with undersea slopes of islands and the bending of swells around islands as they interacted with swells coming from opposite directions. The four types of ocean swells were represented in many stick charts by curved sticks and threads.

CONWAYS GAME OF LIFE IS A VERY BIG DEAL- IT HAS FOUR SIMPLE RULES

http://study.com/academy/lesson/conways-game-of-life-rules-instructions.html

This lesson goes over the four simple rules for Conway's Game of Life, a single-person logic game created in 1970. Read on to learn how the simple rules lead to many interesting patterns.

 

Rules for Conway's Game of Life

At the heart of this game are four rules that determine if a cell is live or dead. All depend on how many of that cell's neighbors are alive.

 

Births: Each dead cell adjacent to exactly three live neighbors will become live in the next generation.

Death by isolation: Each live cell with one or fewer live neighbors will die in the next generation.

Death by overcrowding: Each live cell with four or more live neighbors will die in the next generation.

Survival: Each live cell with either two or three live neighbors will remain alive for the next generation.

The Four Types

The Human Design System groups people into one of four categories called Types: Manifestors, Generators, Projectors and Reflectors

https://www.humandesignamerica.com/about-the-system/the-four-types

THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://www.jovianarchive.com/Human_Design/Types

THE FOUR TYPES - STRATEGY & AURA

Humanity mechanically is divided into four Types:

  • Manifestors

  • Generators (Including Manifesting Generators)

  • Projectors

  • Reflectors

 

Generators are the dominant Type on the planet with nearly 70% of the population. They are the driving life force of the planet. Their strategy is to respond, and through response to find satisfaction and avoid frustration. They have an open and enveloping aura, and need to learn about themselves.

Projectors are around 20% of the population. Their strategy is to wait for the Invitation to find success and avoid bitterness. They have a focused and absorbing aura, and need to learn about and understand the other.

Manifestors are about nine percent of the population. Their strategy is to inform before they act to find peace and avoid anger. They have a closed and repelling aura, and are here to understand their impact on others.

Reflectors are without definition and are just over one percent of the population. Their strategy is to wait a full cycle of the moon before making decisions to find clarity, leading to a life of more surprise and less disappointment. They have a resistant and sampling aura, and are learning to reflect rather than identify.

RELATIONSHIP AUM AND ALLH (BOTH FOURFOLD)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-_TVfPM_hoM

786 ALLAH AND AUM BOTH FOURFOLD

https://www.quora.com/How-is-ॐ-related-to-786

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SNraVirlP8U

In Hinduism, OM Is The Consciousness In The Sound Form.

And In Islam, 786 Is Said To Be A Code For The Word Bismillah Which Means “ In The Name Of Allah” .

THE FOUR VARIABLES OF OHMS WHEEL

Ohms Law Wheel 

  1.  Home

  2.  

  3. Ohms Law Wheel

Ohm's law (named after the German physicist Georg Ohm) defines the relationship between Voltage, Current and Resistance.

V = I x R

Where:

  • V is the electrical potential (voltage), measured in volts (V),

  • I is the current, measured in Amperes (Amps/A), and

  • R is the resistance, measured in Ohms (Ω).

Joule's law states that:

P = V x I

where:

  • P is Power, measured in Watts.

The combination of Ohm's law and Joule's law gives us 12 formulas where 2 of the 4 variables are known. The wheel below is a handy tool and memory jogger. To use it, simply choose the quadrant corresponding to the variable you want to calculate, then select the segment corresponding to the variables that you know the values of.

STACKED PLANES DO NOT GO BEYOND FOUR- TRANSCENDENT FOURTH QUADRUPLANE DIFFERENT THAN TRIPLANE- "NO PLANE BEYOND FOUR SETS OF WINGS HAS PROVEN SUCCESSFUL"- NAGLO DII THREE PLUS ONE PATTERN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiplane_(aeronautics)

In aviation, a multiplane is a fixed-wing aircraft-configuration featuring multiple wing planes. The wing planes may be stacked one above another, or one behind another, or both in combination. Types having a small number of planes have specific names and are not usually described as multiplanes:

  • Biplane - two wings stacked one above the other

  • Triplane - three wings stacked one above another

  • Quadruplane- four stacked wings

  • Tandem wing - two main planes, one behind the other. The tandem triple or tandem triplet configuration has three lifting surfaces one behind another.

While triplane, quadruplane and tandem designs are relatively uncommon, aircraft with more than four sets of wings rarely occur - none have proven successful.

The quadruplane configuration takes the triplane approach a step further, using efficient wings of high aspect ratio and stacking them to allow a compact and light weight design. During the pioneer years of aviation and World War I, a few designers sought these potential benefits for a variety of reasons, mostly with little success.

From ca. 1909 the American inventor Matthew Bacon Sellers II made a series of flights in the Sellers 1909 Quadruplane, progressively fitted with powerplants of decreasing power, in order to investigate low-powered flight. He eventually achieved flight on only 5 to 6 hp at a speed of 20 mph.

Pemberton-Billing Ltd. made two prototype Zeppelin killers, the Pemberton-Billing P.B.29E and Pemberton-Billing P.B.31E, respectively in 1915 and 1917. They were comparatively large, twin-engined fighters. After the company changed its name to Supermarine, the P.B.31E became known as the Supermarine Nighthawk.

Following test flights with the prototype Armstrong Whitworth F.K.9 in 1916, a small number of Armstrong Whitworth F.K.10 quadruplane reconnaissance fighters were produced, but none saw combat action.

The private-venture Wight Quadruplane scout fighter was flown in 1917.

The Euler Vierdecker of 1917 unusually featured a standard triplane arrangement of fixed wings with a fourth uppermost wing comprising left and right hand articulated surfaces which acted as full-span ailerons. Two examples were built, with different engines.

Also in 1917, Friedrichshafen created the even more unusual Friedrichshafen FF54 scout fighter, which featured narrow-chord second and third wings, with struts connecting only the upper pair and lower pair of planes. The prototype proved unacceptable in the air and was later modified as an equally unsuccessful triplane, again with a short-chord intermediate plane.

The Naglo D.II quadruplane fighter of 1918 featured a standard triplane arrangement with a smaller fourth wing attached below the main assembly, somewhat analogous to a sesquiplane. It participated in Germany's second D-type contest in 1918, and was praised for its construction and workmanship.

In 1922 Besson constructed the H-5, a prototype quadruplane flying boat transport. It was unusual in having two braced biplane wing stacks deeply staggered and vertically offset such that the four wing planes were stacked in an overall zig-zag arrangement.[1] The only example was damaged and development was abandoned.

FOUR GREAT ORDERS ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friar

In the Roman Catholic Church, there are two classes of orders known as friars, or mendicant orders: the four "great orders" and the so-called "lesser orders".

Major Orders[edit]

The four great orders were mentioned by the Second Council of Lyons (1274), and are:

  • The Carmelites, founded c. 1155.[3] They are also known as the "White Friars" because of the white cloak which covers their brown habit. They received papal approval from Honorius III in 1226 and later by Innocent IVin 1247. The Carmelites were founded as a purely contemplative order, but became mendicants in 1245. There are two types of Carmelites, those of the Ancient Observance (O.Carm.) and those of the Discalced Carmelites(O.C.D.), founded by St. Teresa of Avila in the 16th century.

 

Conventual Franciscans in their variant grey habits

  • The Franciscans, founded in 1209. They are also known as the "Friars Minor". The Franciscans were founded by St. Francis of Assisi and received oral papal approval by Innocent III in 1209 and formal papal confirmation by Honorius III in 1223. Today the Friars Minor is composed of three branches: the Order of Friars Minor (Brown Franciscans), Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (Brown Friars with long pointed hoods) and the Order of Friars Minor Conventual wearing grey or black habits.

  • The Dominicans, founded c. 1216. They are also known as the "Friar Preachers", or the "Black Friars", from the black mantle ("cappa") worn over their white habit. The Dominicans were founded by St. Dominic and received papal approval from Honorius III in 1216 as the "Ordo Praedicatorum" under the Rule of St. Augustine. They became a mendicantorder in 1221.

  • The Augustinians, founded in 1244 (the "Little Union") and enlarged in 1256 (the "Grand Union"). They are also known as the "Hermits of St. Augustine", or the "Austin Friars". Their rule is based on the writings of Augustine of Hippo. The Augustinians were assembled from various groups of hermits as a mendicant order by Pope Innocent IV in 1244 (Little Union). Additional groups were added by Alexander IV in 1256 (Grand Union).

A VERY POPULAR MOVIE ONE OF THE FEW I SAW AS A KID- BASED AROUND FOUR FRIENDS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I_Know_What_You_Did_Last_Summer

I Know What You Did Last Summer is a 1997 American slasher film written by Kevin Williamson and directed by Jim Gillespie. The film is loosely based on the 1973 novel of the same name by Lois Duncan. The film also draws inspiration from the urban legend known as The Hook.

The film stars Jennifer Love HewittSarah Michelle GellarRyan Phillippe and Freddie Prinze, Jr., with Anne HecheBridgette Wilson, and Johnny Galeckiappearing in supporting roles. I Know What You Did Last Summer centers on four friends who are being stalked by a killer, one year after covering up a car accident in which they were involved.

CHEVROLET SWISS CROSS BOWTIE EMBLEM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chevrolet_firstbowtie_1913.png

Chevrolet first used the "bowtie emblem"[8] logo in 1914 on the H series models (Royal Mail and Baby Grand) and The L Series Model (Light Six). It may have been designed from wallpaper Durant once saw in a French hotel room.[9] More recent research by historian Ken Kaufmann presents a case that the logo is based on a logo of the "Coalettes" coal company.[10][11] An example of this logo as it appeared in an advertisement for Coalettes appeared in the Atlanta Constitution on November 12, 1911.[12] Others claim that the design was a stylized Swiss cross, in tribute to the homeland of Chevrolet's parents.

 

The "bowtie" emblem, introduced in 1913

The "bowtie" emblem, introduced in 1913

MERCEDES SYMBOL IS TETRAHEDRON OF DOUBLE TETRAHEDRON MERKABA I POSTED STUFF ON THAT A LONG TIME AGO ARTICLES AND STUFF

TETRA IS FOUR- THE 64 (4 TIMES 16) DOUBLE TETRAHEDRON MERKABA GRID AND THE MITSUBISHI LOGO

http://logos144.blogspot.com/2012/11/

THERE ARE ALSO FOUR BRANCHES OF THE JEWISH MENORAH

THE FOUR RINGS ARE SAID TO REPRESENT THE AMALGAMATION OF FOUR MANUFACTURERS

It's one of the most multi-faceted stories ever told in the history of the automobile. The Audi emblem with its four rings identifies one of Germany’s oldest-established automobile manufacturers. It symbolizes the amalgamation in 1932 of four previously independent motor-vehicle manufacturers: Audi, DKW, Horch and Wanderer. These companies form the roots of what is today AUDI AG.

THE FOUR CIRCLES OF THE FLOWER OF LIFE ARE THE BASIS FOR THE 64 TETRAHEDRON GRID- TETRA IS FOUR

Sun Cross

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BMW

The circular blue and white BMW logo or roundel evolved from the circular Rapp Motorenwerke company logo, from which the BMW company grew, combined with the blue and white colors of the flag of Bavaria.[127] The logo has been portrayed as the movement of an aircraft propeller with the white blades cutting through a blue sky—first used in a BMW advertisement in 1929, twelve years after the roundel was created—but this is not the origin of the logo itself.[128] The BMW logo still used today was created in early 1920.[129]

THE LITTLE ILLIAD IS FOUR BOOKS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Iliad

The Little Iliad (Greek: Ἰλιὰς μικρά, Ilias mikra; Latin: parva Illias) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. It was one of the Epic Cycle, that is, the "Trojan" cycle, which told the entire history of the Trojan War in epic verse. The story of the Little Iliadcomes chronologically after that of the Aethiopis, and is followed by that of the Iliou persis ("Sack of Troy"). The Little Iliadwas variously attributed by ancient writers to Lesches of Pyrrha, Cinaethon of Sparta, Diodorus of Erythrae, Thestorides of Phocaea, or Homer himself (see Cyclic poets). The poem comprised four books of verse in dactylic hexameter, the heroic meter.

FOUR BOOKS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telemachy

The Telemachy (from Greek Τηλεμάχεια) is a term traditionally applied to the first four books of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey. They are named so because – just as the Odyssey tells the story of Odysseus – they tell the story of Odysseus' son Telemachus as he journeys from home for the first time in search of news about his missing father.

FIRST SUCCESSFUL HELICOPTER FOUR BLADES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helicopter_rotor

The first successful attempt at a single-lift rotor helicopter design used a four-blade main rotor, as designed by Soviet aeronautical engineers Boris N. Yuriev and Alexei M. Cheremukhin, both working at the Tsentralniy Aerogidrodinamicheskiy Institut (TsAGI, the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute) near Moscow in the early 1930s. Their TsAGI 1-EA helicopter was able to fly in low altitude testing in 1931-32, with Cheremukhin flying it as high as 605 meters (1,985 ft) by mid-August 1932.[5][6]

The first autogyro to fly successfully in 1923.