For the infinite amount of theorizing that goes on in the Zelda community, it’s no shock that there are conspiracy theories hiding amongst them. There are people who still cling to the Triforce being obtainable in Ocarina of Time, just like others cling to the 1969 moon landing being fraudulent. Of all Zelda conspiracy theories, none have ever come quite as prominent as the theory of the Tetraforce.



Everything you know about the three Golden Godesses – Din, Farore and Nayru – and the Triforce – Power, Wisdom and Courage – just forget it. Because according to this theory, it’s all a big sham. There are actually four Triforce… err, Tetraforce pieces. It is quite a laughable concept, at least now it is. When the series was younger, in the days of Ocarina of Time, a Tetraforce may have had some bearing (not really), but these days it’s just absurd. With those cynical impressions of the theory laid down, let’s take a look at where the reasoning for this insane idea comes from.


The notion of a Tetraforce (or Quadraforce as it’s called by the more ignorant conspirators) first arose in Ocarina of Time, with the design of the Hylian Shield. Below the bird of the Hylian crest a fourth yellow triangle can be found (see below-right). Ignoring that it could simply be a matter of shield design, some people begun the “Tetraforce Cult”, insisting that there must be a fourth piece, and have never let go of the notion since.




According to this theory, the term “triforce” refers to the triangular nature of each individual part. In other words, that they are tri-angular – with three (tri) sides. Yes, triangles. Complex stuff. This argument is generally made with the point that in the original Legend of Zelda only two pieces were known about, however they were still referred to as “tri”-forces. So, with that said, this means there could be three Triforce pieces, four pieces, 12 pieces or even 73. Four is chosen because it is somewhat more verifiable.


The number four plays a significant role in the series, so the conspirators say. There are four elements in The Minish Cap, four giants and landscapes in Majora’s Mask, not to mention – wait for it – Four Swords and Four Swords Adventures. Oh snap! There is also the four light spirits: Eldin, Lanayru, Faron and Ordona – corresponding with the golden goddesses respectively: Din, Nayru, Farore… and… wait…


Four Light Spirits corresponding to three gods? This is another piece of evidence commonly used for the theory, although “Ordona” also corresponds to the end of “Farore”, just as Faron corresponds to the beginning. There’s also the little tidbit that Ordona’s territory isn’t actually a part of Hyrule, but it stands – The Light Spirits somewhat add to the Tetraforce notion.


I find it amusing that the argument is made for four being a significant number in the series, all the while overlooking the significance of the number three. This is Zelda folks, known for the infamous three dungeons, plot twist, three dungeons and then final boss formula. Three Pendants of Virtue, three Spiritual Stones, three Goddesses Pearls, three pure metals, and it goes on. But what about there being four pieces of the Fused Shadow, but Link only has to collect three? Or four Mirror of Twilight pieces, but only three for Link to collect? Conflicting…


Jumping back to the mention of the Four Sword, there are also Four Links in those games. The theory now draws from the colors of Link’s tunics (shush, don’t laugh). The conspirators say that if Green is Farore, Red is Din and Blue is Nayru – then purple (or indigo for you pedantic people) must be the color of the fourth Goddess. Yes, of course, there must be a fourth Goddess if there is to be a fourth piece, right? Perhaps the only sound logic in the theory.


Now, we must search the whole series for usage of the color purple to discover who the Goddess is. It must be Majora… no wait Vaati…or what about Zelda being a Goddess herself? (cough) Conspirators tend to agree, though, that if two pieces are in the hands of righteousness – Link and Zelda – then two must be in the hands of evil – Ganondorf and someone else like Majora, or Vaati.


Light Force


Due to the purple color, the fourth Goddess is referred to as the “reb-dog” of the bunch. Purple corresponds with the Shadow Temple, so the fourth piece is the evil Shadow Triforce… Ahh, so Bongo Bongo is the Goddess? Oh, no, right. But get this; there is a triangle on the design of the Shadow Medallion from Impa. Coincidence much? Conspirators think not!


If the fourth Goddess is a rebel then it could be Majora, who lives in the land of the Four Giants who let their people build giant-penises for the three golden-goddesses. I’m not sure if that’s extreme hate or extreme fondness though. Hey, Four Golden Goddesses for Four Male Giants, if you catch my drift. It’s all starting to check out isn’t it?


As was mentioned earlier, despite the Fourth Goddess apparently being “evil”, some think it is Zelda, firstly because of her possession of the Light Force in The Minish Cap – which some claim to be the fourth piece, and for this one very fact that kind of seals the deal. In The Wind Waker, Zelda is called Tetra. I bet you didn’t see that one coming!


There’s also Zelda’s appearance in the Oracles, where she claims to be the “Oracle of Hope” along with the other oracles: Din, Nayru and Farore. Oh, and let’s not forget the great fairies in Majora’s Mask, who correspond to the three Golden Goddesses, except for the fourth, who is the Great Fairy of Kindness. Maybe we’re after a Goddess of hope or kindness. Hold up a sec, conspiracy theory. I though the fourth goddess was a rebel? Shouldn’t it be despair and wickedness, not hope and kindness? Consistent much.


Then there are a whole other plethora of ideas for the Fourth Goddess. Some say the Goddess of Time – despite that role easily being fitted to existing goddesses (check out our debate on the matter). Some make up The Goddess of the Sand, you know, the Desert Colossus of the Gerudo. You see, rebel Goddess and apparently rebel Gerudo people. It fits……


It goes on. Some say Link. Others try to bring the Fierce Deity into this and make it really awesome. It isn’t. Others still say that the shadow Triforce is possessed by Shadow Link. Frankly, you could say that Tingle is the goddess of the fourth Triforce piece and this theory wouldn’t lose any validity, because it has got none to lose.


“Why write about it then?” Ahh, a just question my liege. Despite the obvious truth that it doesn’t work, the Tetraforce is quite an interesting study for those who get into it. To see all of the connections drawn (read as “straws clutched”) can be quite fascinating. Most normal people wouldn’t ever think of a whole genius theory from just one shield design, but some legends once did! Truly commendable.




Funnily though, that shield design was actually purposefully changed to remove the fourth piece in later games – to clear up the misconception. (You’re right, that wasn’t funny!) If that isn’t enough though, Miyamoto has actually denied the Tetraforce’s existence, as will Nintendo if you send them an e-mail, but there is no letting go for the conspirators. And why should they let go? Clearly Miyamoto has nothing on their genius theories!


Sarcasm finally aside, the notion of four Triforce pieces, instead of three, is against everything in the series. We know the backstory, and it never mentions a fourth Golden Goddess. We’ve completed the Triforce, and there has only ever been three pieces. Not to mention that there are only three characters – Zelda, Link and Ganondorf – bound to the Triforce’s existence. I will concede, however, that if there is a fourth piece, it is undoubtedly Ghirahim’s “Triforce of Fabulous”. Now that you know all about the Tetraforce, let us never speak of it again. Plz, ‘k, th’nks!

The T Puzzle has four shapes. The cross puzzle is a quadrant


The T puzzle is a tiling puzzle consisting of four polygonal shapes which can be put together to form a capital T. The four pieces are usually one isosceles right triangle, two right trapezoids and an irregular shaped pentagon.

The Latin cross puzzle consists of a reassembling a five-piece dissection of the cross with three isosceles right triangles, one right trapezoids and an irregular shaped six-sized piece (see figure). When the pieces of the cross puzzle have the right dimensions, they can also be put together as a rectangle. From Chinese origin, the oldest examples date from the first half of the nineteenth century.[1][2] One of the earliest published descriptions of the puzzle appeared in 1826 in the 'Sequel to the Endless Amusement'.[3] Many other references of the cross puzzle can be found in amusement, puzzle and magicians books throughout the 19th century.[4] The T puzzle is based on the cross puzzle, but without head and has therefore only four pieces. Another difference is that in the dissection of the T, one of the triangles is usually elongated as a right trapezoid. These changes make the puzzle more difficult and clever than the cross puzzle.[5]


At the 1912 International Congress of MathematiciansEdmund Landau listed four basic problems about primes. These problems were characterised in his speech as "unattackable at the present state of mathematics" and are now known as Landau's problems. They are as follows:

  1. Goldbach's conjecture: Can every even integer greater than 2 be written as the sum of two primes?

  2. Twin prime conjecture: Are there infinitely many primes p such that p + 2 is prime?

  3. Legendre's conjecture: Does there always exist at least one prime between consecutive perfect squares?

  4. Are there infinitely many primes p such that p − 1 is a perfect square? In other words: Are there infinitely many primes of the form n2 + 1? (sequence A002496 in the OEIS).

As of 2017, all four problems are unresolved.


The fourth number is different, the fifth is ultra transcendent.

In mathematics a Fermat number, named after Pierre de Fermat who first studied them, is a positive integer of the form


where n is a nonnegative integer. The first few Fermat numbers are:

351725765537, 4294967297, 18446744073709551617,


Quaternions were introduced by Hamilton in 1843.[6] Important precursors to this work included Euler's four-square identity (1748) and Olinde Rodriguesparameterization of general rotations by four parameters (1840), but neither of these writers treated the four-parameter rotations as an algebra.[7][8] Carl Friedrich Gauss had also discovered quaternions in 1819, but this work was not published until 1900.[9][10]

Handel's four coronation anthems


Handel's four coronation anthems use text from the King James Bible and were designed to be played at the coronation of the British monarch. They are Zadok the Priest, Let Thy Hand Be Strengthened, The King Shall Rejoice, and My Heart Is Inditing. Each was originally a separate work but they were later published together


In music, SATB is an initialism for sopranoaltotenorbass, defining the voice types required by a chorus or choir to perform a particular musical work. Pieces written for SATB (the most common combination, and used by most hymn tunes) can be sung by choruses of mixed genders, by choirs of men and boys, or by four soloists.


The term "four-part harmony" refers to music written for four voices or for some other musical medium—four musical instruments or a single keyboard instrument, for example—where the various musical parts can give a different note for each chord of the music.

The four main voices are typically labelled as: soprano (or treble),[2] alto (contralto or countertenor), tenor, and bass. Because most singers have a relatively limited range, the upper notes of the soprano or tenor part cannot be sung by a bass singer.[3]

Even groups of just four people, singing as quartets, can perform in four-part harmony.


On the December 6, 2007 episode of Pardon the InterruptionTony Kornheiser named the Sky Bar as his favorite chocolate bar. On the March 14, 2013 episode of his radio show, Tony Kornheiser once again professed his love of the Sky Bar.

Sky Bar is an American candy bar, produced since 1938 by Necco. Each Sky Bar has four sections, each with a different filling: caramelvanillapeanut and fudge, all covered in milk chocolate.

In 1938, the Sky Bar was first announced to the public by means of a dramatic skywriting advertising campaign. Necco was the first candy manufacturer in the United States to introduce a molded chocolate bar, having four distinctly different centers enrobed in chocolate. The originator of the Sky Bar was a candy maker working for Necco named Joseph Cangemi.[citation needed]

The original four-finger bar was developed after a worker at Rowntree's York Factory put a suggestion in a recommendation box for a snack that "a man could take to work in his pack"


The standard bars consist of two or four fingers



Dum Dums are made in sixteen flavors with new flavors rotating into the mix every so often.[2] The Mystery Flavor is a result of the end of one batch mixing with the next batch, rather than stopping production to clean machines in between flavors.[3]



In 1972, Binney & Smith introduced eight Crayola fluorescent crayons, designed to fluoresce under black light. The following year, they were added to the 72-count box, in place of the duplicate colors. These crayons remained steady until 1990, when all eight were renamed, and eight more were added, for a total of sixteen fluorescent crayons. 


Following previous issues with scented crayons in 1994 and 1995, Binney & Smith released a new line, known as "Magic Scent" crayons in 1997. None of the crayons were named after or given the scent of foods. The sixteen crayons all consisted of regular Crayola colors.





16 Crayola Silly Scents crayons

The Silly Scents are produced by Crayola in a 16-pack. The sixteen crayons all consisted of regular Crayola colors.



In 2001, Crayola produced the Metallic FX crayons, a set of 16 metallic crayons whose names were chosen through a contest open to residents of the U.S. and Canada.[22] The hex triplets below are representative of the colors produced by the named crayons.[5] All colors are included in the special 152-count Ultimate Crayon Collection pack alongside 120 standard and 16 glitter crayons. Four of the colors are included in the regular 96-count crayon box.



16 Crayola Heads 'n Tails crayon colors

The eight Heads 'n Tails crayons are double-sided and encased in plastic tubes that function much like the ones on Crayola Twistables. Each crayon has two shades of color, for a total of 16 colors, which are approximated by the background colors and hex RGB values below.[23]



In anatomy, the rotator cuff (sometimes called a "rotator cup", "rotor cuff", or "rotary cup"[1]) is a group of muscles and their tendons that act to stabilize the shoulder. The four muscles of the rotator cuff are over half of the seven scapulohumeral muscles. The four muscles are the supraspinatus muscle, the infraspinatus muscle, teres minor muscle, and the subscapularis muscle.


Ho'oponopono consists of four phrases: "I am sorry. Please forgive me. I love you. Thank you." Why would you start out "I am sorry; Please forgive me" when you need to forgive someone else for a transgression against you? Ho'oponopono teachers call this practice "cleaning," you clean yourself of your own negative feelings to erase from your memory or consciousness whatever negativity is not working for you

Hooponopono is demonstrated below

There are 16 squares in the quadrant model- I sat in classes at Naam yoga and there is a lot of fourfolds and there is a lot of 16 countings


Breath: Inhale in sixteen equal, rapid strokes through the nose. Time the strokes by mentally vibrating: Saa-Taa-Naa-Maa I Saa-Taa-Naa-Maa I Saa-Taa-Naa-Maa I Saa-Taa-Naa-Maa (about 6 seconds total time for the inhalation).

Exhale in sixteen equal, rapid strokes through the nose. Time the strokes by mentally vibrating: Saa-Taa-Naa-Maa I Saa-Taa-Naa-Maa I Saa-Taa-Naa-Maa | Saa-Taa-Naa-Maa (about 6 seconds total time for the exhalation).

I studied in my animal psychology calss at UCSD a monkey that tricks other monkeys by making fake alarm calls. At the first fake all the monkeys respond and almost all monkeys respond for the first three fakes. At four fakes it is different and a lot of monkeys do not respond. At five fakes no monkeys repsond. The fourth is always different, and the fifth questionable.


Vervet monkeys have four confirmed predators: leopards, eagles, pythons, and baboons. The sighting of each predator elicits an acoustically distinct alarm call

At four bifurcations things become different. After FOUR THERE IS CHAOS


This is called periodic behavior. Since there are two states the period is two. When we see four branches, the system has undergone a second bifurcation and the period has increased to four. More bifurcations beyond period four lead to chaotic, rather than periodic, behavior of the system 


Depending upon how "different tartan" is defined, it has been estimated that there are about 3,500[56] to 7,000[57]different tartans, with around 150 new designs being created every year.[57] With four ways of presenting the hues in the tartan—"modern", "ancient", "weathered", and "muted" colours—there are thus about 14,000 recognised tartan variations from which to choose. The 7,000 figure above includes many of these variations counted as though they were different tartans.[57]

  1.  Although there are many tartans attributed to the Campbells, and many tartans named Campbell, there are only four tartans recognised by the current chief as Clan Campbell tartans: Campbell (a.k.a. Black Watch), Campbell of Breadalbane, Campbell of Cawdor, and Campbell of Loudoun.[21]


  3. Each thread in the warp crosses each thread in the weft at right angles. Where a thread in the warp crosses a thread of the same colour in the weft they produce a solid colour on the tartan, while a thread crossing another of a different colour produces an equal mixture of the two colours. Thus, a set of two base colours produces three different colours including one mixture. The total number of colours, including mixtures, increases quadratically with the number of base colours so a sett of six base colours produces fifteen mixtures and a total of twenty-one different colours. This means that the more stripes and colours used, the more blurred and subdued the tartan's pattern becomes.[6][9]

Tartan https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartan

Plaid shirts have the cross pattern on them, and they were very popular a few years ago.



Lönnrot is a famous detective in an unnamed city that may or may not be Buenos Aires. When a rabbi is killed in his hotel room on the third of December, Lönnrot is assigned to the case. Based on a cryptic message left on the rabbi's typewriter—"The first letter of the name has been uttered"—the detective determines that the murder was not accidental. He connects this with the Tetragrammaton, the unspeakable four-letter name of God, and with his criminal nemesis Red Scharlach.

However, Lönnrot isn't convinced that the spree is at an end, as the Tetragrammaton contains four letters—two of them being the same letter repeated. Furthermore, he surmises that the murders may actually have taken place on the fourth of December, January, and February, respectively, since a new day begins at sunset within the Jewish calendar (the murders were all committed at night). He predicts that the next month will see one final killing.

Sixteen Auspicious Dreams in Jainism




Beyond the above-mentioned forms, Param Pujya Dadashri explained that Lord Krishna was a manifested God living in continuous awareness and an exalted Self-realized stage; He was a Vasudeva Narayan, a Yogeshwar, and one of the 64 Shalaka Purusha (one with super-human abilities and achievements).



Lord Shiva is considered to be one of the most powerful yet benevolent Lords in Hinduism. He is the one who has the power to devastate all that we see. God Shiva can be pleased easily and He fulfills all the wishes of his devotees. In this article we will discuss the 64 forms of Lord Shiva. This list is called the Maheshwara Murtham. You can recite these 64 forms if you want to on Mondays. These are the various forms that were given to the Lord Shiva by the Gods and the devotees as per the form that He took for the benefit of the mankind.



The text is an inventory of 64 locations; 63 of which are treasures of gold and silver, which have been estimated in the tons. Tithing vessels are also listed among the entries, along with other vessels, and three locations featured scrolls. One entry apparently mentions priestly vestments. The final listing points to a duplicate document with additional details. That other document has not been found.


In Traditional Chinese Acupuncture, the Fourfold in the acupuncture point named Siman (also called Ki-14 by English speaking practitioners) usually refers to a Fourfold nature of: 1) Blood, 2) Qi; 3) Food; and 4) Dampness. In Esoteric Acupuncture, we are interested in the Fullness portion of Fourfold Fullness that refers to the “Fullness” of consciousness by the awakening and the interconnectedness of different levels of consciousness. The consciousness levels are divided into two parts each with four divisions. There is the Lower Quaternary of the Physical, Etheric, Astral and Mental Planes. The lower level connects with the Upper Quaternary consisting of the Buddhic, Atmic, Monadic and Logoic Planes. The two divisions are linked together through the Causal Plane. This is the esoteric meaning of “Fourfold Fullness.” 

The Window Groups in Esoteric Acupuncture are mostly groups of three or four acupuncture sites with one group having five acupuncture sites

TETRAHEDRONS IN ACUPUNCTURE. I ran into a girl with a book on esoteric acupuncture and it talked dominantly about fourness and tetrahedrons and the fourfold and I took pictures of it and put them online. I'd have to go through a lot of that stuff hopefully and find it.


Triangles are the signature for tetrahedrons. Tetrahedrons are the signature for consciousness.

Some people may feel that working with triangles and tetrahedrons represent the old, closed system. But, triangles actually represent open systems. If you draw a triangle of any size and shape on a 2-dimensional surface starting at a point which is called point A, then draw a vector from point A to point B and another vector from point B to point C and the third vector from point C back to point A, you will have an open triangle. Where the starting vector at point A touches the ending vector from point C, there is a gap. In a 2-dimensional plane, 2 points cannot occupy the same space at the same time. (See figure 1.) Since the triangle is an open polygon, it is in reality a spiral. It may be a very flat spiral, but nonetheless it is still a spiral. In the microscopic world, spirals are never stationary and are always moving and changing shape. When we open triangle A and triangle B and combine the two triangles, a tetrahedron is formed. (See figure 2.)


A tetrahedron is the simplest structure in our 3-D world that has both insidedness and outsidedness. These two qualities within a tetrahedron represent the concept of consciousness.

It requires six vectors to form a tetrahedron. Six is the minimum number of vectors necessary to create a stable structure that contains both insidedness and outsidedness. The number 6 is a key component to one’s understanding of Sacred Geometry as it is used in Esoteric Acupuncture.

Shith or sometimes Sheth means 6 in Hebrew. Breshith in Hebrew means “In beginning,” or in a more grammatically correct format: “In the beginning.” Beshith comes from Bara Shith which means “created 6.” Bara is the word for the Creator in the Old Testament. Thus “Creator” and “6” are inseparably interconnected.

This same concept of “6” is key component in Esoteric Acupuncture. Esoteric Acupuncture starts with the concept of 6 surrounding 1 which comes from 3-6-1 or 361. Why do you think there are 361 major acupuncture points in the Asian acupuncture theory. Is this number just a coincidence? 361 can be formed by multiplying 19 by 19. Where do you see 19 X 19 in our 3-D world? The Japanese game of “Go” has a board somewhat similar to a board used in chess, except the Go board has 19 lines intersecting 19 lines. They use black stones opposing whites stones which represent yin and yang. Do you think that is a coincidence? The “Go” board represents the Earth and the Hartman grids that insect the Earth. By understanding and placing New Encoding Pattern grids on the body through Esoteric Acupuncture treatments, a vibrational field is created allowing one the opportunity to connect to fields outside of his or her own body systems.



An RGBW matrix (from Red, Green, Blue, White) is a CFA that includes "white" or transparent filter elements that allow the photodiode to respond to all colors of light; that is, some cells are "panchromatic", and more of the light is detected, rather than absorbed, compared to the Bayer matrix. Sugiyama filed for a patent on such an arrangement in 2005.[7] Kodak announced several RGBW CFA patents in 2007, all of which have the property that when the panchromatic cells are ignored, the remaining color filtered cells are arranged such that their data can be processed with a standard Bayer demosaicing algorithm.


A Bayer filter mosaic is a color filter array (CFA) for arranging RGB color filters on a square grid of photosensors. Its particular arrangement of color filters is used in most single-chip digital image sensorsused in digital cameras, camcorders, and scanners to create a color image. The filter pattern is 50% green, 25% red and 25% blue, hence is also called BGGR, RGBG,[1][2] GRGB,[3] or RGGB.


The Bayer arrangement of color filters on the pixel array of an image sensor

The Bayer filter is almost universal on consumer digital cameras. Alternatives include the CYGM filter (cyanyellow, green, magenta) and RGBE filter (red, green, blue, emerald), which require similar demosaicing. The Foveon X3 sensor (which layers red, green, and blue sensors vertically rather than using a mosaic) and arrangements of three separate CCDs (one for each color) don't need demosaicing.

Three new Kodak RGBW filter patterns



Ayat al-Kursi displays an internal symmetry comprising concentric looping verses surrounding a pivotal chiasm 'x' of the type A B C D X D' C' B' A'. The reciter imagines him or herself walking through Ayat al-Kursi until reaching the centre, seeing what is in front and what is behind, and finds they represent a perfect reflection of each other. The central chiasm is represented by "Ya'lamu ma baina aidihim wa ma khalfahum = He knows what is before them and what is behind them". This is flanked symmetrically outwards so that A corresponds to A', B corresponds to B', and so forth. For example, line 3 "he is the lord of the heavens and the earth" corresponds to line 7 "his throne extends over heavens and earth".


The Torah provides for specific vestments to be worn by the priests when they are ministering in the Tabernacle: "And you shall make holy garments for Aaron your brother, for dignity and for beauty" (Exodus 28:2). These garments are described in detail in Exodus 28Exodus 39 and Leviticus 8. The high priest wore eight holy garments (bigdei kodesh). Of these, four were of the same type worn by all priests, and four were unique to the Kohen Gadol.

Those vestments which were common to all priests, were:

  • Priestly undergarments (Hebrew michnasayim) (breeches): linen pants reaching from the waist to the knees "to cover their nakedness" (Exodus 28:42)

  • Priestly tunic (Hebrew ketonet) (tunic): made of pure linen, covering the entire body from the neck to the feet, with sleeves reaching to the wrists. That of the High Priest was embroidered (Exodus 28:39); those of the priests were plain (Exodus 28:40).

  • Priestly sash (Hebrew avnet) (sash): that of the High Priest was of fine linen with "embroidered work" in blue and purple and scarlet (Exodus 28:3939:29); those worn by the priests were of white, twined linen.

  • Priestly turban (Hebrew mitznefet): that of the High Priest was much larger than that of the priests and wound so that it formed a broad, flat-topped turban; that for priests was wound so that it formed a cone-shaped turban, called a migbahat.

The vestments that were unique to the High Priest were:

  • Priestly robe (me'il) ("Robe of the Ephod"): a sleeveless, blue robe, the lower hem of which was fringed with small golden bells alternating with pomegranate-shaped tassels in blue, purple, and scarlet—tekhelet,[12] argaman, tolaat shani.

  • Ephod: a richly embroidered vest or apron with two onyx engraved gemstones on the shoulders, on which were engraved the names of the tribes of Israel

  • Priestly breastplate (Hebrew hoshen): with twelve gems, each engraved with the name of one of the tribes; a pouch in which he probably carried the Urim and Thummim. It was fastened to the Ephod

  • On the front of the turban was a golden plate inscribed with the words: "Holiness unto YHWH" attached to the mitznefet.



The first sixteen of von List's runes correspond to the sixteen Younger Futhark runes, with slight modifications in names (and partly mirrored shapes). The two additional runes are loosely inspired by the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc. The first sixteen are named Fa, Ur, Thurs, Os, Rit, Ka, Hagal, Nauth, Is, Ar, Sig, Tyr, Bar, Laf, Man, Yr. The final two are Eh (the name is from Anglo-Saxon Futhork, the shape like Younger Futhark Ar) and Gibor (the name similar to Anglo-Saxon Futhork Gyfu, but in shape similar to a Wolfsangel symbol).




Pluto's four small moons orbit Pluto at two to four times the distance of Charon, ranging from Styx at 42,700 kilometres to Hydra at 64,800 kilometres from the barycenter of the system. They have nearly circular prograde orbits in the same orbital plane as Charon.

All are much smaller than Charon. Nix and Hydra, the two larger, are roughly 42 and 55 kilometers on their longest axis respectively,[6] and Styx and Kerberos are 7 and 12 kilometers respectively.[7][8] All four are irregularly shaped.

The dwarf planet Pluto has five moons down to a detection limit of about 1 km in diameter. In order of distance from Pluto, they are CharonStyxNixKerberos, and Hydra.[1] Charon, the largest of the five moons, is mutually tidally locked with Pluto, and is massive enough that Pluto–Charon is sometimes considered a double dwarf planet.



The innermost large moons of Saturn orbit within its tenuous E Ring, along with three smaller moons of the Alkyonides group.

  • Mimas is the smallest and least massive of the inner round moons,[36] although its mass is sufficient to alter the orbit of Methone.[45] It is noticeably ovoid-shaped, having been made shorter at the poles and longer at the equator (by about 20 km) by the effects of Saturn's gravity.[46] Mimas has a large impact crater one-third its diameter, Herschel, situated on its leading hemisphere.[47] Mimas has no known past or present geologic activity, and its surface is dominated by impact craters. The only tectonic features known are a few arcuate and linear troughs, which probably formed when Mimas was shattered by the Herschel impact.[47]

  • Enceladus is one of the smallest of Saturn's moons that is spherical in shape—only Mimas is smaller[46]—yet is the only small Saturnian moon that is currently endogenously active, and the smallest known body in the Solar System that is geologically active today.[48] Its surface is morphologically diverse; it includes ancient heavily cratered terrain as well as younger smooth areas with few impact craters. Many plains on Enceladus are fractured and intersected by systems of lineaments.[48] The area around its south pole was found by Cassini to be unusually warm and cut by a system of fractures about 130 km long called "tiger stripes", some of which emit jets of water vapor and dust.[48] These jets form a large plumeoff its south pole, which replenishes Saturn's E ring[48] and serves as the main source of ions in the magnetosphere of Saturn.[49] The gas and dust are released with a rate of more than 100 kg/s. Enceladus may have liquid water underneath the south-polar surface.[48] The source of the energy for this cryovolcanism is thought to be a 2:1 mean-motion resonancewith Dione.[48] The pure ice on the surface makes Enceladus one of the brightest known objects in the Solar System—its geometrical albedo is more than 140%.[48]

  • Tethys is the third largest of Saturn's inner moons.[36] Its most prominent features are a large (400 km diameter) impact crater named Odysseus on its leading hemisphere and a vast canyon system named Ithaca Chasma extending at least 270° around Tethys.[47] The Ithaca Chasma is concentric with Odysseus, and these two features may be related. Tethys appears to have no current geological activity. A heavily cratered hilly terrain occupies the majority of its surface, while a smaller and smoother plains region lies on the hemisphere opposite to that of Odysseus.[47] The plains contain fewer craters and are apparently younger. A sharp boundary separates them from the cratered terrain. There is also a system of extensional troughs radiating away from Odysseus.[47] The density of Tethys (0.985 g/cm3) is less than that of water, indicating that it is made mainly of water ice with only a small fraction of rock.[35]

  • Dione is the second-largest inner moon of Saturn. It has a higher density than the geologically dead Rhea, the largest inner moon, but lower than that of active Enceladus.[46] While the majority of Dione's surface is heavily cratered old terrain, this moon is also covered with an extensive network of troughs and lineaments, indicating that in the past it had global tectonic activity.[50] The troughs and lineaments are especially prominent on the trailing hemisphere, where several intersecting sets of fractures form what is called "wispy terrain".[50] The cratered plains have a few large impact craters reaching 250 km in diameter.[47] Smooth plains with low impact-crater counts are present as well on a small fraction its surface.[51] They were probably tectonically resurfaced relatively later in the geological history of Dione. At two locations within smooth plains strange landforms (depressions) resembling oblong impact craters have been identified, both of which lie at the centers of radiating networks of cracks and troughs;[51] these features may be cryovolcanic in origin. Dione may be geologically active even now, although on a scale much smaller than the cryovolcanism of Enceladus. This follows from Cassini magnetic measurements that show Dione is a net source of plasma in the magnetosphere of Saturn, much like Enceladus.[51]

Equatorial ridge on Iapetus

  • Iapetus is the third-largest of Saturn's moons.[46] Orbiting the planet at 3.5 million km, it is by far the most distant of Saturn's large moons, and also has the largest orbital inclination, at 15.47°.[37] Iapetus has long been known for its unusual two-toned surface; its leading hemisphere is pitch-black and its trailing hemisphere is almost as bright as fresh snow.[71] Cassini images showed that the dark material is confined to a large near-equatorial area on the leading hemisphere called Cassini Regio, which extends approximately from 40°N to 40°S.[71] The pole regions of Iapetus are as bright as its trailing hemisphere. Cassini also discovered a 20 km tall equatorial ridge, which spans nearly the moon's entire equator.[71] Otherwise both dark and bright surfaces of Iapetus are old and heavily cratered. The images revealed at least four large impact basins with diameters from 380 to 550 km and numerous smaller impact craters.[71] No evidence of any endogenic activity has been discovered.[71] A clue to the origin of the dark material covering part of Iapetus's starkly dichromatic surface may have been found in 2009, when NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered a vast, nearly invisible disk around Saturn, just inside the orbit of the moon Phoebe—the Phoebe ring.[72] Scientists believe that the disk originates from dust and ice particles kicked up by impacts on Phoebe. Because the disk particles, like Phoebe itself, orbit in the opposite direction to Iapetus, Iapetus collides with them as they drift in the direction of Saturn, darkening its leading hemisphere slightly.[72] Once a difference in albedo, and hence in average temperature, was established between different regions of Iapetus, a thermal runaway process of water ice sublimation from warmer regions and deposition of water vapor onto colder regions ensued. Iapetus's present two-toned appearance results from the contrast between the bright, primarily ice-coated areas and regions of dark lag, the residue left behind after the loss of surface ice.[73][74]



These moons all orbit beyond the E Ring. They are:


Inktomi or "The Splat", a relatively young crater with prominent butterfly-shaped ejecta on Rhea's leading hemisphere

  • Rhea is the second-largest of Saturn's moons.[46] In 2005 Cassini detected a depletion of electrons in the plasma wakeof Rhea, which forms when the co-rotating plasma of Saturn's magnetosphere is absorbed by the moon.[22] The depletion was hypothesized to be caused by the presence of dust-sized particles concentrated in a few faint equatorial rings.[22] Such a ring system would make Rhea the only moon in the Solar System known to have rings.[22] However, subsequent targeted observations of the putative ring plane from several angles by Cassini's narrow-angle cameraturned up no evidence of the expected ring material, leaving the origin of the plasma observations unresolved.[55]Otherwise Rhea has rather a typical heavily cratered surface,[47] with the exceptions of a few large Dione-type fractures (wispy terrain) on the trailing hemisphere[56] and a very faint "line" of material at the equator that may have been deposited by material deorbiting from present or former rings.[57] Rhea also has two very large impact basins on its anti-Saturnian hemisphere, which are about 400 and 500 km across.[56] The first, Tirawa, is roughly comparable to the Odysseus basin on Tethys.[47] There is also a 48 km-diameter impact crater called Inktomi[58][b] at 112°W that is prominent because of an extended system of bright rays,[59] which may be one of the youngest craters on the inner moons of Saturn.[56] No evidence of any endogenic activity has been discovered on the surface of Rhea.[56]


Three crescent moons of Saturn: Titan, Mimas and Rhea

  • Titan, at 5,150 km diameter, is the second largest moon in the Solar System and Saturn's largest.[36] Out of all the large moons, Titan is the only one with a dense (surface pressure of 1.5 atm), cold atmosphere, primarily made of nitrogenwith a small fraction of methane.[60] The dense atmosphere frequently produces bright white convective clouds, especially over the south pole region.[60] On June 6, 2013, scientists at the IAA-CSIC reported the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the upper atmosphere of Titan.[61] On June 23, 2014, NASA claimed to have strong evidence that nitrogen in the atmosphere of Titan came from materials in the Oort cloud, associated with comets, and not from the materials that formed Saturn in earlier times.[62] The surface of Titan, which is difficult to observe due to persistent atmospheric haze, shows only a few impact craters and is probably very young.[60] It contains a pattern of light and dark regions, flow channels and possibly cryovolcanos.[60][63] Some dark regions are covered by longitudinal dune fields shaped by tidal winds, where sand is made of frozen water or hydrocarbons.[64]Titan is the only body in the Solar System beside Earth with bodies of liquid on its surface, in the form of methane–ethane lakes in Titan's north and south polar regions.[65] The largest lake, Kraken Mare, is larger than the Caspian Sea.[66] Like Europa and Ganymede, it is believed that Titan has a subsurface ocean made of water mixed with ammonia, which can erupt to the surface of the moon and lead to cryovolcanism.[63] On July 2, 2014, NASA reported the ocean inside Titan may be "as salty as the Earth's Dead Sea".[67][68]

  • Hyperion is Titan's nearest neighbor in the Saturn system. The two moons are locked in a 4:3 mean-motion resonancewith each other, meaning that while Titan makes four revolutions around Saturn, Hyperion makes exactly three.[36] With an average diameter of about 270 km, Hyperion is smaller and lighter than Mimas.[69] It has an extremely irregular shape, and a very odd, tan-colored icy surface resembling a sponge, though its interior may be partially porous as well.[69] The average density of about 0.55 g/cm3[69] indicates that the porosity exceeds 40% even assuming it has a purely icy composition. The surface of Hyperion is covered with numerous impact craters—those with diameters 2–10 km are especially abundant.[69] It is the only moon besides the small moons of Pluto known to have a chaotic rotation, which means Hyperion has no well-defined poles or equator. While on short timescales the satellite approximately rotates around its long axis at a rate of 72–75° per day, on longer timescales its axis of rotation (spin vector) wanders chaotically across the sky.[69] This makes the rotational behavior of Hyperion essentially unpredictable.[70]


Equatorial ridge on Iapetus

  • Iapetus is the third-largest of Saturn's moons.[46] Orbiting the planet at 3.5 million km, it is by far the most distant of Saturn's large moons, and also has the largest orbital inclination, at 15.47°.[37] Iapetus has long been known for its unusual two-toned surface; its leading hemisphere is pitch-black and its trailing hemisphere is almost as bright as fresh snow.[71] Cassini images showed that the dark material is confined to a large near-equatorial area on the leading hemisphere called Cassini Regio, which extends approximately from 40°N to 40°S.[71] The pole regions of Iapetus are as bright as its trailing hemisphere. Cassini also discovered a 20 km tall equatorial ridge, which spans nearly the moon's entire equator.[71] Otherwise both dark and bright surfaces of Iapetus are old and heavily cratered. The images revealed at least four large impact basins with diameters from 380 to 550 km and numerous smaller impact craters.[71] No evidence of any endogenic activity has been discovered.[71] A clue to the origin of the dark material covering part of Iapetus's starkly dichromatic surface may have been found in 2009, when NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered a vast, nearly invisible disk around Saturn, just inside the orbit of the moon Phoebe—the Phoebe ring.[72] Scientists believe that the disk originates from dust and ice particles kicked up by impacts on Phoebe. Because the disk particles, like Phoebe itself, orbit in the opposite direction to Iapetus, Iapetus collides with them as they drift in the direction of Saturn, darkening its leading hemisphere slightly.[72] Once a difference in albedo, and hence in average temperature, was established between different regions of Iapetus, a thermal runaway process of water ice sublimation from warmer regions and deposition of water vapor onto colder regions ensued. Iapetus's present two-toned appearance results from the contrast between the bright, primarily ice-coated areas and regions of dark lag, the residue left behind after the loss of surface ice.[73][74]


The Gallic group are a group of four prograde outer moons named for characters in Gallic mythology -Albiorix, Bebhionn, Erriapus, and Tarvos. Here too, the moons are similar in appearance and have orbits that range from 16 to 19 million km. Their inclinations are in the 35°-40° range, their eccentricities around 0.53, and they range in size from 6 to 32 km.


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2015-09-moons-saturn.html#jCp


Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys and Dione are inner large moons with diameters 396 km, 504 km, 1,062 km and 1,123 km respectively

Outer large moons are Rhea, Titan, Hyperion and Iapetus


The first two moons to be discovered were Titania and Oberon, which were spotted by Sir William Herschel on January 11, 1787, six years after he had discovered the planet itself. Later, Herschel thought he had discovered up to six moons (see below) and perhaps even a ring. For nearly 50 years, Herschel's instrument was the only one with which the moons had been seen.[4] In the 1840s, better instruments and a more favorable position of Uranus in the sky led to sporadic indications of satellites additional to Titania and Oberon. Eventually, the next two moons, Ariel and Umbriel, were discovered by William Lassell in 1851.[5] The Roman numbering scheme of Uranus's moons was in a state of flux for a considerable time, and publications hesitated between Herschel's designations (where Titania and Oberon are Uranus II and IV) and William Lassell's (where they are sometimes I and II).[6] With the confirmation of Ariel and Umbriel, Lassell numbered the moons I through IV from Uranus outward, and this finally stuck.[7] In 1852, Herschel's son John Herschel gave the four then-known moons their names.[8]

No other discoveries were made for almost another century. In 1948, Gerard Kuiper at the McDonald Observatory discovered the smallest and the last of the five large, spherical moons, Miranda.[8][9] Decades later, the flyby of the Voyager 2 space probe in January 1986 led to the discovery of ten further inner moons.[2]Another satellite, Perdita, was retroactively discovered in 1999[10] after studying old Voyager photographs.[11]



After Herschel discovered Titania and Oberon on January 11, 1787, he subsequently believed that he had observed four other moons: two on January 18 and February 9, 1790, and two more on February 28 and March 26, 1794. It was thus believed for many decades thereafter that Uranus had a system of six satellites, though the four latter moons were never confirmed by any other astronomer. Lassell's observations of 1851, in which he discovered Ariel and Umbriel, however, failed to support Herschel's observations; Ariel and Umbriel, which Herschel certainly ought to have seen if he had seen any satellites beside Titania and Oberon, did not correspond to any of Herschel's four additional satellites in orbital characteristics. Herschel's four spurious satellites were thought to have sidereal periods of 5.89 days (interior to Titania), 10.96 days (between Titania and Oberon), 38.08 days, and 107.69 days (exterior to Oberon).[14] It was therefore concluded that Herschel's four satellites were spurious, probably arising from the misidentification of faint stars in the vicinity of Uranus as satellites, and the credit for the discovery of Ariel and Umbriel was given to Lassell.[15]




Cosmologist Max Tegmark has provided a taxonomy of universes beyond the familiar observable universe. The four levels of Tegmark's classification are arranged such that subsequent levels can be understood to encompass and expand upon previous levels. They are briefly described below.[54][55]

Level I: An extension of our Universe[edit]

A prediction of chaotic inflation is the existence of an infinite ergodic universe, which, being infinite, must contain Hubble volumes realizing all initial conditions.

Accordingly, an infinite universe will contain an infinite number of Hubble volumes, all having the same physical laws and physical constants. In regard to configurations such as the distribution of matter, almost all will differ from our Hubble volume. However, because there are infinitely many, far beyond the cosmological horizon, there will eventually be Hubble volumes with similar, and even identical, configurations. Tegmark estimates that an identical volume to ours should be about 1010115 meters away from us.[25]

Given infinite space, there would, in fact, be an infinite number of Hubble volumes identical to ours in the universe.[56] This follows directly from the cosmological principle, wherein it is assumed that our Hubble volume is not special or unique.

Level II: Universes with different physical constants[edit]


Bubble universes – every disk represents a bubble universe. Our universe is represented by one of the disks.
Universe 1 to Universe 6 represent bubble universes. Five of them have different physical constants than our universe has.

In the chaotic inflation theory, a variant of the cosmic inflation theory, the multiverse or space as a whole is stretching and will continue doing so forever,[57] but some regions of space stop stretching and form distinct bubbles (like gas pockets in a loaf of rising bread). Such bubbles are embryonic level I multiverses.

Different bubbles may experience different spontaneous symmetry breaking, which results in different properties, such as different physical constants.[56]

Level II also includes John Archibald Wheeler's oscillatory universe theory and Lee Smolin's fecund universes theory.

Level III: Many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics[edit]

Hugh Everett III's many-worlds interpretation (MWI) is one of several mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics.

In brief, one aspect of quantum mechanics is that certain observations cannot be predicted absolutely. Instead, there is a range of possible observations, each with a different probability. According to the MWI, each of these possible observations corresponds to a different universe. Suppose a six-sided die is thrown and that the result of the throw corresponds to a quantum mechanics observable. All six possible ways the die can fall correspond to six different universes.

Tegmark argues that a Level III multiverse does not contain more possibilities in the Hubble volume than a Level I or Level II multiverse. In effect, all the different "worlds" created by "splits" in a Level III multiverse with the same physical constants can be found in some Hubble volume in a Level I multiverse. Tegmark writes that, "The only difference between Level I and Level III is where your doppelgängersreside. In Level I they live elsewhere in good old three-dimensional space. In Level III they live on another quantum branch in infinite-dimensional Hilbert space."

Similarly, all Level II bubble universes with different physical constants can, in effect, be found as "worlds" created by "splits" at the moment of spontaneous symmetry breaking in a Level III multiverse.[56] According to Yasunori Nomura,[32] Raphael Bousso, and Leonard Susskind,[30] this is because global spacetime appearing in the (eternally) inflating multiverse is a redundant concept. This implies that the multiverses of Levels I, II, and III are, in fact, the same thing. This hypothesis is referred to as "Multiverse = Quantum Many Worlds".

Related to the many-worlds idea are Richard Feynman's multiple histories interpretation and H. Dieter Zeh's many-minds interpretation.

Level IV: Ultimate ensemble[edit]

The ultimate mathematical universe hypothesis is Tegmark's own hypothesis.[58]

This level considers all universes to be equally real which can be described by different mathematical structures.

Tegmark writes that:

Abstract mathematics is so general that any Theory Of Everything (TOE) which is definable in purely formal terms (independent of vague human terminology) is also a mathematical structure. For instance, a TOE involving a set of different types of entities (denoted by words, say) and relations between them (denoted by additional words) is nothing but what mathematicians call a set-theoretical model, and one can generally find a formal system that it is a model of.

He argues that this "implies that any conceivable parallel universe theory can be described at Level IV" and "subsumes all other ensembles, therefore brings closure to the hierarchy of multiverses, and there cannot be, say, a Level V."[25]

Jürgen Schmidhuber, however, says that the set of mathematical structures is not even well-defined and that it admits only universe representations describable by constructive mathematics—that is, computer programs.

Schmidhuber explicitly includes universe representations describable by non-halting programs whose output bits converge after finite time, although the convergence time itself may not be predictable by a halting program, due to the undecidability of the halting problem.[59][60][61] He also explicitly discusses the more restricted ensemble of quickly computable universes.[62]


According to MIT cosmologist Max Tegmark, there are four levels of parallel universes:

  • Level 1: An infinite universe that, by the laws of probability, must contain another copy of Earth somewhere

  • Level 2: Other distant regions of space with different physical parameters, but the same basic laws

  • Level 3: Other universes where each possibility that can exist does exist, as described by the many worlds interpretation (MWI) of quantum physics

  • Level 4: Entirely distinct universes that may not even be connected to ours in any meaningful way and very likely have entirely different fundamental physical laws




Max Tegmark's Multiverse



The Einstein field equations are the 16 coupled hyperbolic-elliptic nonlinear partial differential equations that describe the gravitational effects produced by a given mass in general relativity. As result of the symmetry of  and , the actual number of equations reduces to 10, although there are an additional four differential identities (the Bianchi identities) satisfied by , one for each coordinate.



The Four Asian Tigers or Four Asian Dragons, are the wealthy high-tech industrialized developed countries of Taiwan,[1] Singapore, Hong Kong (China) and South Korea[2] which underwent rapid industrialization, technological innovation and development and also maintained exceptionally high growth rates (in excess of 7-8 percent a year) between the mid-1950s and early 1990s. These four countries invested heavily in their infrastructure as well as in developing the intellectual abilities of their human talent, fostering and retaining their educated population to help further develop and improve their respective countries. This policy turned out to be so effective that by the late 20th century, all four countries had developed into advanced and high-income industrialized developed countries, developing many different areas of advanced technology that give them a tremendous competitive advantage in the world. For example, all four countries have become top level global education centers with Singapore, Taiwan, South Korea and Hong Kong (China) high school students consistently outperforming all other countries in the world and achieving the highest top scores on international math and science exams such as the PISA exam and with Taiwan students winning multiple gold medals every year consistently at the International Biology Olympiad, International Linguistics Olympiad,[3] International Physics Olympiad, International Earth Science Olympiad, International Mathematical Olympiad and International Chemistry Olympiad.


The Pacific Pumas are a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America’s Pacific coast that includes ChileColombiaMexico and Peru. The term references the four larger Pacific Latin American emerging markets that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration.


PIGS or PIIGS or PIIGGS is an acronym used in economics and finance. The PIGS acronym originally refers, often derogatorily, to the economies of the Southern European countries of PortugalItalyGreece, and Spain.[1][2][3][4][5] During the European debt crisis, the term was also increasingly used to refer to the economies of Portugal, Ireland, Greece, and Spain, four EU member states that were unable to refinance their government debt or to bail out over-indebted banks on their own during the crisis.[6][7][8][9]



When Elisha asked to receive a "double portion" of Elijah's spirit in 2 Kings 2:9, he was not seeking a ministry twice as great as his master's. Instead, he was using cultural terms derived from inheritance law to express his desire to carry on Elijah's ministry. Inheritance law assigned a double portion of a father's possessions to the firstborn son (see Dt 21:17). Elijah's response that "If you see me...it will be yours" (2 Kng 2:10) left the gift Elisha requested in God's hands. Elisha sees Elijah being taken up by the chariots of God at the Jordan River, and God fulfills the request: Elisha received the "double portion" = the power and authority of his master. It is ironic that Elijah performed 8 works of God while Elisha is given 16! Elisha went on to accomplish greater works than his master Elijah by performing exactly double the miracles his master performed in the name of God.


Scholars see Noahs arc as a reference to the Oagadad and borrowed from the Egyptian Oagadad of four paris of original Gods male and female.

n the Book of Jubilees (160–150 BC) the names of the wives of NoahShemHam and Japheth are as follows:

  • Wife of Noah – Emzara, daughter of Rake'el, son of Methuselah

  • Wife of Shem – Sedeqetelebab

  • Wife of Ham – Ne'elatama'uk or Na'eltama'uk

  • Wife of Japheth – 'Adataneses


Islamic scholars agree that Noah had four sons whose names were HamShemYam and Japheth. According to the Quran, one of Noah's sons was a disbeliever who refused to come aboard the Ark, instead preferring to climb a mountain, where he drowned. It is agreed among most Islamic scholars that Yam was the one who drowned; the other three remained believers



Dogon mythology says that Nommo was the first living creature created by the sky god Amma. Shortly after his creation, Nommo underwent a transformation and multiplied into four pairs of twins. One of the twins rebelled against the universal order created by Amma. To restore order to his creation, Amma sacrificed another of the Nommo progeny, whose body was dismembered and scattered throughout the universe.[1] This dispersal of body parts is seen by the Dogon as the source for the proliferation of Binu shrines throughout the Dogons’ traditional territory; wherever a body part fell, a shrine was erected.



In economics, BRIC is a grouping acronym that refers to the countries of BrazilRussiaIndia and China, which are all deemed to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development. It is typically rendered as "the BRICs" or "the BRIC countries" or "the BRIC economies" or alternatively as the "Big Four"



When Noah and his family stepped out of the Ark, they were the only people on Earth. It fell to Noah's three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and their wives, to repopulate the Earth through the children that were born to them after the Flood. Of Noah's grandchildren, 16 grandsons are named in Genesis chapter 10.

Ruins in Turkey. There is evidence suggesting that this country's name is derived from that of Noah's descendant Togarmah (see text).

God has left us ample evidence to confirm that these 16 grandsons of Noah really lived, that the names the Bible gives were their exact names, and that after the Babel dispersion (Genesis 11) their descendants fanned out over the earth and established the various nations of the ancient world.



There were sixteen Judges (or group of Judges) that governed Israel from the time the Israelites took possession of the promised land to the time Saul was anointed their first human king. They were Joshua, Othniel, Ehud, Deborah and Barak, Eli, Gideon, Abimelech (North only), Tola (North only), Jephthah (East only), Samson (in the South and West only), Samuel, Ibzan (East only), Jair (North only), Elon (East only) and Abdon (East only). Samuel's sons comprised the sixteenth and final Judge over Israel. Designated Judges by Samuel when he was old and could no longer perform his duties, they soon became so corrupt in their responsibilities that the Israelites requested a human king be placed over them.


1820 drawing of a Book of Gatesfresco of the tomb of Seti I, depicting (from left) four groups of people: Libyans ("Themehu"), a Nubian("Nehesu"), an Asiatic ("Aamu"), and an Egyptian ("Reth").

The Ancient Egyptian (New Kingdomfunerary text known as the Book of Gates distinguishes "four groups" in a procession. These are the Egyptians, the Levantine/Canaanite peoples or "Asiatics", the "Nubians" and the "fair-skinned Libyans".[7] The Egyptians are depicted as a light reddish brown, the Nubians (modern Sudan) as black skinned, the Semites from the Levant (modern Syria) and Canaan (modern LebanonIsrael and Jordan) as light skinned, and the Berbersof ancient Libya as similarly fair.[citation needed]


In 1758, Carl Linnaeus proposed what he considered to be natural taxonomic categories of the human species. He distinguished between Homo sapiens and Homo sapiens europaeus, and he later added four geographical subdivisions of humans: white Europeansred Americans, yellow Asians and black Africans. Although Linnaeus intended them as objective classifications, his descriptions of these groups included cultural patterns and derogatory stereotypes.[27]


Bernier advocated using the “four quarters” of the globe as the basis for providing labels for human differences.[11] The four subgroups that Bernier used were Europeans, Far Easterners, Negroes (blacks), and Lapps



Many sets of these paintings still exist (around one hundred complete sets in museums and private collections and many more individual paintings), of varying artistic quality, usually consisting of sixteen paintings representing as many racial combinations. Some of the finer sets were done by prominent Mexican artists, such as Miguel Cabrera, José Joaquín Magón (who painted two sets), José de Ibarra, and Juan Patricio Morlete Ruiz


The Queens of Comedy is both a sequel and spin-off film of The Original Kings of Comedy both created and produced by Walter Latham. The film follows four black female stand-up comedians at Memphis's Orpheum Theatre.


Simplified population models usually start with four key variables (four demographic processes) including death, birth, immigration, and emigration. Mathematical models used to calculate changes in population demographics and evolution hold the assumption (or null hypothesis) of no external influence. Models can be more mathematically complex where "...several competing hypotheses are simultaneously confronted with the data."[4] For example, in a closed system where immigration and emigration does not take place, the rate of change in the number of individuals in a population can be described as:




Nestled in the mysterious reaches of the Peruvian desert in the Palpa Mountains is one of the most precise geometric configurations known to man:  The Sun-Star, and its “satellite” – the Sun-Cross.  This famed Geoglyph has for centuries remained an obscure earthly reflection of ancient calibration – an astronomical wonderment depicting something far and beyond the immediate reach of human understanding … if the Great Pyramid of Giza, Egypt, is to metrologists the Seventh Wonder of the World (still standing) in the Northern Hemisphere – then the Sun-Star of Peru is the “Eighth” World Wonder whose measurements may claim the Southern Hemisphere.



Crux /ˈkrʌks/ is a constellation located in the southern sky in a bright portion of the Milky Way. It is among the most easily distinguished constellations, as all of its four main stars have an apparent visual magnitude of at least +2.8, even though it is the smallest of all 88 modern constellations. Its name is Latin for cross, and it is dominated by a cross-shaped or kite-like asterism that is sometimes known as the Southern Cross.


The Northern Cross is a prominent astronomical asterism in the northern hemisphere celestial sphere, corresponding closely with the constellation Cygnus The Swan. It is much larger than the more famous Southern Cross and consists of the brightest stars in Cygnus, DenebSadrGienahDelta Cygni and Albireo. The 'head' of the cross, Deneb, is also part of the Summer Triangle asterism.



Naqsh-e Rustam (Persian: نقش رستم‎‎ [ˌnæɣʃeɾosˈtʰæm]) is an ancient necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars ProvinceIran, In Naghsh-e Rostam we can see four tombs and one building from Achaemenid dynasty with a group of ancient Iranian rock reliefs cut into the cliff, from Sassanid density , the last important relief is from Elam dynasty and its date back to 1000 B.c .

Naqsh-e Rustam is the necropolis of the Achaemenid dynasty (500–330 BC), with four large tombs cut high into the cliff face. These have mainly architectural decoration, but the facades include large panels over the doorways, each very similar in content, with figures of the king being invested by a god, above a zone with rows of smaller figures bearing tribute, with soldiers and officials. The three classes of figures are sharply differentiated in size. The entrance to each tomb is at the center of each cross, which opens onto a small chamber, where the king lay in a sarcophagus.

Four tombs belonging to Achaemenid kings are carved out of the rock face at a considerable height above the ground. The tombs are sometimes known as the Persian crosses, after the shape of the facades of the tombs. The entrance to each tomb is at the center of each cross, which opens onto to a small chamber, where the king lay in a sarcophagus. The horizontal beam of each of the tomb's facades is believed to be a replica of a Persepolitan entrance.



In astrology, the Royal Stars of Persia are AldebaranRegulusAntares and Fomalhaut. They were regarded as the guardians of the sky in approximately 3000 BCE during the time of the Ancient Persians in the area of modern-day Iran.[1] The Persians believed that the sky was divided into four districts with each district being guarded by one of the four Royal Stars.[2] The stars were believed to hold both good and evil power and the Persians looked upon them for guidance in scientific calculations of the sky, such as the calendar and lunar/solar cycles, and for predictions about the future.


Four Color, also known as Four Color Comics and One Shots, was a long-running American comic book anthology series published by Dell Comics between 1938 and 1968. The title is a reference to the four basic colors used when printing comic books (cyanmagentayellow and black at the time).[1]



Charles Dickens is a well know author that has written many famous works. One of his most popular and best-loved books is "A Christmas Caro" (Rowell 1). In Dickens's book "A Christmas Carol" four ghosts appear to Ebenezer Scrooge, each representing a moral lesson that teaches Scrooge how to better live his life.


The four ghosts in Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol" are Jacob Marley, Christmas Past, Christmas Present, and Christmas Future.



The remaining rites are the dances, of which there must be two, though there may be others. These two are the Buffalo Dance and the Sun-Gazing Dance. These dances are divided into periods. The Buffalo Dance has four periods and the Sun-Gazing Dance must have four and may have an indefinite number of periods. A period consists of the dance proper and the intermission. The (lancing must take place while the music is sounded; an intermission is the interval between the (lancing. The leader should give the signal for the musicians to begin sounding the music for each period and the musicians should repeat the song for each period four times.

The Buffalo Dance should be danced only by those who are to dance the second, third, or the fourth form of the Sun Dance and by those who have danced this dance on some former occasion. It is danced as follows:--The leader should go to the altar and feign three times to lift the ornamented buffalo head; the fourth time he should lift it and place it on the uncovered

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space so that the dancers can surround it. The dancers should form in a circle about this head when the leader should signal for the music to begin and when it does, the dancers should dance the step of the Buffalo Dance. This step should be synchronous with the beat of the drum, each second beat being emphatic; at the emphatic beat the feet are alternately brought to the ground with a scraping motion. This is done to imitate the pawing of a buffalo bull in rage or defiance and to manifest a defiant bravery of the dancers equal to that of the buffalo bull. During this dance those who are to dance the Sun Dance must keep the whistles in their mouths, but should not sound them. While dancing they must gaze continually at the ornamented buffalo head. The red marshals should watch them, and if one of them ceases to gaze at this head they should admonish him; and if he persists in looking away from it they should conduct him to his robe. One thus removed from this dance loses the privilege of becoming a buffalo man. Those who dance the four periods of this dance become buffalo men. The red herald should proclaim that they are buffalo men and the people should shout and sing, lauding them with such praises as these:--"You now belong to the people of the Sun; you now will not have to pay the price when you take a woman for your wife; you now will have many children who will honor you; you now may receive a communication from the Sun."

The attendants should then each give to his dancer one of the buffalo tails attached to a handle and the buffalo men should sit about the dried buffalo skin and when they sing should drum on it with the tails.



The Shamans should teach these doctrines to the people and exhort them to practise the four great virtues which, named in the order of their importance, are:--

1. Bravery.
2. Fortitude.
3. Generosity.
4. Fidelity.

Each of these four classes consists of four individuals as follows:

The individuals of the Superior Gods:--
     Wi, the Sun, the Chief of the Gods.
     Skan, the Sky, the Great Spirit.
     Maka, the Earth, the All-mother.
     Inyan, the Rock, the All-father.

The individuals of the Associate Gods:--

Hanwi, the Moon, the Associate of Wi.
Tate, the Wind, the Associate of Skan.
Wohpe, the Feminine, the Associate of Maka.
Wakinyan, the Winged God, the Associate of Inyan.

The individuals of the Subordinate Gods:

Tatanka, the Buffalo God.
Hunonpa, the Bear God.
Tatetob, the Four Winds.
Yumni, the Whirlwind.

The individuals of the Gods-like:--

Nagi, the Spirit.
Niya, the Ghost.
Nagila, the Spirit-like.
Sicun, the imparted Supernatural Potency.

The following are four individuals, but they should be considered as only one, the Chief God:

The Sun.
The Moon.
The Buffalo.
The Spirit.

The following are four individuals, but they should be considered as only one, the Great Spirit:--

The Sky.
The Wind.
The Bear.
The Ghost.

The following are four individuals, but they should be considered as only one, the Creator God:

The Earth.
The Feminine.
The Four Winds.
The Spirit-like.

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The following are four individuals, but they should bc considered as only one, the Executive God:--

The Rock.
The Winged.
The Whirlwind.
The Potency.

The following are but as one, and that One is Wakan Tanka, the Great Mysterious:--

The Chief God.
The Great Spirit.
The Creator.
The Executive.

The individualities of the Great Mysterious have properties that may be described as follows:--

Except for the Four Winds, They had no beginning, though some were before others and some bear the relation of parent and offspring. This is akan, for no one of mankind can comprehend it. They will have no end.

The Sun is a material God whose substance is always visible and He ranks first among the Superior Gods, though the other three were before He was. He may be addressed as the Great God, the Revered One, or Our Father. His domain is the spirit world and the regions under the world. His will prevails though the Wind thwart his purposes. The Sky gave Him His power and can withhold it, but he is more powerful than the Sky. Daily He makes His journey above the domain of the Sky and at night He rests with His people in the regions under the World and there communes with his comrade, the Buffalo. He is the patron of the four great virtues, but is indifferent to small affairs. His favor may be secured by appropriate offerings and ceremonies and He may grant a communication to one who dances the Sun Dance. His potency abides in fire and cannot be imparted to any other thing. His symbolic color is red and because He is the Chief of the Gods, red is the sacred color.

The Sky is an immaterial God whose substance is never visible. He ranks second among the Superior Gods. His titles given by the people are Taku Skan-skan and Nagi Tanka, or the Great Spirit, and those given by the Shamans are Skan and To, or blue. The concept expressed by the term Taku Skan-skan is that which gives motion to anything that moves. That expressed by the Shamans by the word, Skan, is a vague concept of force or energy and by the word, To, is the immaterial blue of the sky which symbolizes the presence of the Great Spirit. His domain is all above the world beginning at the ground. He is the source of all power and motion and is the patron of directions and trails and of encampment. He imparts

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to each of mankind at birth a spirit, a ghost, and a sicun, and at the death of each of mankind He hears the testimony of the ghost and adjudges the spirit. He may sit in judgment on other Gods. His word is unalterable, except by Himself. He only can undo that which is done. His people are the stars and the Feminine is His daughter. His potency can be imparted only to mysterious things and by much ceremony correctly performed by wise Shamans. The Fetish that has His potency can prevail in all things. Only Shamans may have such a Fetish. His symbolic color is blue.

The Earth is a material God, whose substance is always visible. She ranks third of the Superior Gods, though she existed next after the first in existence. She is most often addressed as the All-mother, for She is an ancestor of all material things, except the Rock. Her domain is the world and She is the patron of all things that grow from the ground, of drink and food, and the tipi. Her potency may be imparted to anything that has grown from the ground. Her symbolic color is green.

The Rock is a material God whose substance may always be seen. He ranks fourth of the Superior Gods, but existed first of all. He is most often addressed as the All-father, for He is the ancestor of all things and all the Gods. The All-father and the All-mother never were related as husband and wife and neither has a child by the other. The Rock is the father of Iktomi, whose other parent is the Winged God, and the father of Iya, or Ibom, the Great God of Evil, whose other parent is an Unktehi, or one of the Monsters.

The domain of the Rock is the mountains; but His authority extends through all the domain of the Earth. He is the patron of authority and vengeance, of construction and destruction, and of implements and utensils. His potency can be imparted to anything that is hard as stone. His symbolic color is yellow.

The symbolic colors of the four Superior Gods, red, blue, green, and yellow, are sacred, when applied by a Shaman with ceremony and each symbolizes the God to which it pertains. If red alone is ceremonially applied, it signifies consecration. Black is also a ceremonial color, its significance being intensity of emotion or firmness of purpose.

The Moon is a material God whose substance is visible or partly invisible, as She wills. She governs the third time, which is a moon, and combats Anog Ite, the double-woman, who incites contention. She has no domain and Her potency cannot be imparted to anything. She fixes the time for the more important undertakings of mankind but She is indifferent to ceremonies and cannot be influenced by them.

Tate is an immaterial God whose substance is never visible, for He is

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as a Spirit. He is the father of the Four Winds whose mother is Anog Ite. He governs the fourth time, which is a year, and the coming and going of the four seasons. He abides at the entrance of the spirit trail and hides it from mankind. He admits or excludes spirits from this entrance, according to the judgment of the Great Spirit, Skan. He cannot be influenced by sacrifice or ceremony and His potency cannot be imparted to anything.

The Feminine is a material God whose substance may be visible or invisible as She wills. She is most often addressed as the Woman, the Beautiful One, or the Gracious One. She is the daughter of Skan, the Sky, and is of the star people. She abides in the tipi of Okaga, the South Wind, and is His associate. Her potency, which cannot be imparted to anything, is in the smoke of the pipe and the smoke of sweetgrass. Her functions are to harmonize and are effective when the pipe is smoked or sweetgrass burned. She is a mediator between the Gods, between the Gods and mankind, and between mankind. She is the protector of chastity and of little children and the patron of adornment and pleasure. She should be invoked in every ceremony and there has precedence over all the Gods.

Wakinyan is a material God whose substance is visible only when He so wills. His properties are akan and anti-natural. He abides in his lodge on the top of the mountain at the edge of the world where the Sun goes down to the regions under the world. He is many, but they are as only one; he is shapeless, but has wings with four joints each; be has no feet, yet he has huge talons; be has no head, yet has a huge beak with rows of teeth in it, like the teeth of the wolf; his voice is the thunder clap and rolling thunder is caused by the beating of His wings on the clouds; he has an eye, and its glance is lightning. In a great cedar tree beside His lodge He has His nest made of dry bones, and in it is an enormous egg from which His young continuously issue. He devours His young and they each become one of His many selves. He had issue by the Rock and it was Iktomi, the oldest son of the Rock. He flies through all the domain of the Sky, hidden in a robe of clouds, and if one of mankind sees His substance he is thereby made a heyoka, and must ever afterwards speak and act clownishly in an anti-natural manner. Yet, if He so wills, He may appear to mankind in the form of a giant man, and if so, He is then the God, Heyoka. One who looks upon the God, Heyoka, is not thereby made a heyoka. The potency of the Winged God cannot be imparted to anything. His functions are to cleanse the world from filth and to fight the Monsters who defile the waters and to cause all increase by growth from the ground.

The acceptable manner of addressing Him is by taunt and villification, the opposite of the intent of the address. He may be visualized as a bird whose wings have four joints. His symbol is a zigzag red line forked at

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each end. His akicita are the dog, swallow, snowbird, night hawk, lizard, frog, and dragon fly, and if either of these is seen in a vision the one to whom it appears is thereby made a heyoka.

The Buffalo is a material God whose substance is visible only when He so wills. His form is that of a great beast, but he may appear to mankind as a man. He abides with the buffalo people in the regions under the world, and roams throughout all the domain of the Earth. He is the patron of sexual relations, generosity, industry, fecundity, and ceremonies. He is the protector of maidens and of the very old. He is the comrade of the Sun and in ceremonies pertaining to the Sun, His potency prevails. He controls the chase and gives or withholds success to hunters. His potency abides in the skull of the animal buffalo and can be imparted to anything that has been a part of a buffalo.

The Bear is a material God, whose substance is invisible at His will. He may appear to mankind as a huge bear, or as a very old man. He is the patron of wisdom, medicine, and magic. Those who would know the lore of the Lakota should have His aid. His potency can be imparted to anything that is strange or unusual.

The Four Winds is an immaterial God, whose substance is never visible. He is akan and therefore no one of mankind can comprehend him. While He is one God, He is four individuals:--

He may be addressed as the Four, or, the Four Quarters, or, as the Wind of the Four Directions, or as the Sons. They are the sons of Tate and their mother is Anog Ite. They were born at one birth, but Yata came first. Eya, the second-born, displaced Yata and holds the birthright of the firstborn. Yanpa was third born and Okaga the last-born son. They have their tipis at the edge of the world, that of Eya on the mountain beside the lodge of the Winged God; that of Yata under the stars that never come down to the edge of the world; that of Yanpa where the Sun begins His daily journey over the world; that of Okaga is under where the Sun pauses at midday when His journey is half done. They do not abide in these tipis, for they are continually traveling on the trail that circles the edge of the world, and where they are, or whence they may come, no man can tell. In ceremonies, they should be addressed as the one God, the Four Winds, and have precedence over all the Gods, except Wohpe, the Feminine. They are jealous of their precedence and of that among themselves. In every ceremony of importance they should be invoked after the Feminine, in the following manner:--

1. Eya, the West Wind.
2. Yata, the North Wind.
3. Yanpa, the Wind.
4. Okaga, the South Wind.

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The lighted pipe should be elevated with its mouthpiece toward the tipi of Eya and carried so that the mouthpiece, pointing toward the edge of the world, circles until it points toward the tipi of Yata, where it should be held for an instant, then carried in the same manner until it points toward the tipi of Yanpa, and held there an instant; then it should be carried in the same manner and held an instant toward the tipi of Okaga; thence in the same manner until it returns toward the tipi of Yata. Thus, the potency of the Feminine is tendered in the proper order of precedence to each and all of the Four Winds. While the Four travels continually on the trail around the edge of the world, when He comes on the world, that individual of himself that prevails will give the direction from which He comes. As the four sons of Tate, the Wind, they established the four directions on the world and then, by the decree of Their father, were to travel forever on the trail around at the edge of the world. Each such completion from beginning to end is the fourth time, or, a year. Therefore, a circle is an emblem of all four of the units of time, each of which, day, night, moon, and year, goes in a circle. While they are one as a God, as the sons of Tate, they are four individuals. The personality of these individuals differs each from the other. Eya is a burly, boisterous God. He is the associate of the Winged God and accompanies Him when He flies through the domain of the Sky and aids Him in cleansing the world. Eya is reckless and often does His work harshly, when He prevails and sweeps the world. His akicita is the hawk. Yata is a strong, cold, and surly God. He is forever contesting with Okaga, because He desired to have Wohpe, the Feminine, as His own, but Okaga won Her as His companion. Because of His surly selfishness He was deposed from the birthright of the first-born son and it was given to Eya. His akicita is the magpie. Yanpa is an indolent God whose akicita is the crow. Okaga is a pleasing God and when He prevails all things rejoice. The Feminine, Wohpe, dwells in His tipi and is His companion, often traveling with Him. The little son of Tate, the Whirlwind, also dwells in the tipi of Okaga, and comes forth only when Okaga prevails, for He fears Yata. The akicita of Okaga are all the waterfowls. The functions of the God, the Four Winds, are to be the messengers of Skan, the Great Spirit, and of Tate, their father, and to control the weather.

Kant has four examples that illustrate each kind of duty.


“Under human conditions, where we have to struggle against unruly impulses and desires, good will is shown by acting for the sake of duty.” Duty does not apply to a perfectly good will because then it does not have subjective obstacles to overcome (18). In my words, one who is wholly rational, can be inside the necessity and be mastering it freely or one can be without it and be experiencing the “ought” standing against one‘s inclinations. The latter experiences necessity while the former, only the necessitation of reason (26).



For Kant the GOOD involves the Principle of Universalizability!


Kant argues that there can be four formulations of this principle:


The Formula of the Law of Nature: "Act as if the maxim of your action were to become through your will a universal law of nature."


The Formula of the End Itself: "Act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end."


The Formula of Autonomy: "So act that your will can regard itself at the same time as making universal law through its maxims."


The Formula of the Kingdom of Ends: "So act as if you were through your maxims a law-making member of a kingdom of ends."

Points according to where the animal is stopped



In a work on alchemy in the 16th century, Paracelsus identified four types of beings with the four elements of alchemy: gnomes, earth elementals; undines, water elementals; sylphs, air elementals; and salamanders, fire elementals.[23] Most of these beings are found in folklore as well as alchemy; their names are often used interchangeably with similar beings from folklore.[24]



Several other factors affect a person's measured span, and therefore it is difficult to pin down the capacity of short-term or working memory to a number of chunks. Nonetheless, Cowan proposed that working memory has a capacity of about four chunks in young adults (and fewer in children and old adults).[23]


Psychoticism is a personality pattern typified by aggressiveness and interpersonal hostility, one of four traits in Hans Eysenck's model of personality. High levels of this trait were believed by Eysenck to be linked to increased vulnerability to psychosis such as schizophrenia. He also believed that blood relatives of psychotics would show high levels of this trait, suggesting a genetic basis to the trait.[67][68]



In the last few centuries, various psychologists would begin expressing the four temperaments in terms of pairs of behaviors that were held in common by two temperaments each.

Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936), from his work with dogs, came up with the factors of "passivity" (active or passive) and "extremeness" (extreme response or moderate response). His view of the temperaments in dogs was:

  • The Melancholic type (Weak inhibitory): categorized as "weak" dogs;

  • Choleric type (Strong excitatory): strong, unbalanced, easily aroused (excitable);

  • Sanguine type (Lively): strong, balanced, mobile;

  • Phlegmatic type (Calm imperturbable): strong, balanced, sluggish.

This theory would also be extended to humans.

Alfred Adler (1879–1937) measured "activity" (connected with "energy") against "social interest", yielding the four "styles of life":[3]

  • Ruling or Dominant type: high activity, low social interest

  • Getting or Leaning type: low activity, high social interest

  • Avoiding type: low activity, low social interest

  • Socially Useful type: high activity, high social interest

These he compared to the choleric, phlegmatic, melancholic and sanguine respectively.[4]

Erich Fromm's (1900–1980) factors were acquiring and assimilating things ("assimilation"), and reacting to people ("socialization"). These two factors form four types of character, which he calls Receptive, Exploitative, Hoarding and Marketing.

Also deserving mention is a single scale invented in the 1940s by Karen Horney (1885–1952). This one dimension measured "movement" towards, against and away from people. This would result in the coping strategies, in which these three "neurotic" patterns would be paired with a fourth, "healthy" one called "movement with people". These would describe behaviors associated with both extroversion and reacting to people, in which people attempt to avoid getting hurt, by either distancing themselves from others or maintaining self-sufficiency and independence on one hand; or approaching others, attempting to control or exploit them, and otherwise gain power and recognition; or "give in" to them to gain acceptance and approval, on the other.



As the twentieth century progressed, numerous other instruments were devised measuring not only temperament, but also various individual aspects of personality and behavior, and several began using forms of extroversion and the developing category of people versus task focus as the factors.

In 1928, William Moulton Marston identified four primary emotions, each with an initial feeling tone of either pleasantness or unpleasantness. This led to his viewing people's behavior along two axes, with their attention being either "passive" or "active", depending on the individual's perception of his or her environment as either "favorable" or "antagonistic". By placing the axes at right angles, four quadrants form with each describing a behavioral pattern:

  • Dominance, which produces activity in an antagonistic environment; with a feeling of unpleasantness until stimulus is acted upon

  • Compliance, which produces passivity in an antagonistic environment; with a feeling of unpleasantness until stimulus is reconciled

  • Inducement, which produces activity in a favorable environment; with a feeling of pleasantness increasing as interaction increases

  • Submission, which produces passivity in a favorable environment; with a feeling of pleasantness increasing as yielding increases

This would be further developed in the 1970s by John G. Geier[5] into the DiSC assessment System, which grades individual scales of "Dominance", "Influence", "Steadiness", and "Conscientiousness". By now, it would be classified in terms of the two factors; consisting of pairs of Extroverted or "Assertive" aspects (D, I), Introverted or "Passive" aspects (S, C), Task-oriented or "Controlled" aspects (D, C) and social or "Open" aspects (I, S).

The California Psychological Inventory's CPI 260 Instrument also has similar scales, of "Initiates action, Confident in social situations" versus "Focuses on inner life, Values own privacy"; and "Rule-favoring, Likes stability, Agrees with others" versus "Rule-questioning, Has personal value system, Often disagrees with others" and the four "lifestyles": Leader, Supporter, Innovator, and Visualizer.




Main article: Prologue (Prose Edda)

The Prologue is the first section of four books of the Edda, and consists of an euhemerized Christian account of the origins of Nordic mythology: the Nordic gods are described as human Trojan warriors who left Troy after the fall of that city (an origin similar to the one chosen by Geoffrey of Monmouth in the 12th century to account for the ancestry of the British nation, and which parallels Virgil's Aeneid). According to Edda, these warriors settled in northern Europe, where they were accepted as divine kings because of their superior culture and technology. Remembrance ceremonies later conducted at their burial sites degenerate into heathen cults, turning them into gods. Alexander M. Bruce suggested that Sturlson was in possession of the Langfeðgatal or a closely related text when he composed the detailed list of gods and heroes given. He noted parallel sequences in the Langfeðgatal and the Edda, noting the second appearance of a "Scyld figure" as both an ancestor and a descendant of Odin in both. This figure is expanded upon in the Edda detailing Skjöldr as Odin's son after his migration northwards to Reidgothlandand his ordination as a King of Denmark.[12]



Gylfi and three speakers. Manuscript SAM 66 (Iceland, 1765–1766), ReykjavíkÁrni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies.

Main article: Gylfaginning

Gylfaginning (Old Icelandic "the tricking of Gylfi")[13] follows the Prologue in Edda. Gylfaginning deals with the creation and destruction of the world of the Nordic gods, and many other aspects of Norse mythology. The section is written in prose interspersed with quotes from skaldic poetry.



Thjazi and Loki. Beginning of the myth of the abduction of Idun, reported by Skáldskaparmál. Manuscript NKS 1867 4to (Iceland, 1760), Copenhagen, Royal Library

Main article: Skáldskaparmál

Skáldskaparmál (Old Icelandic "the language of poetry"[14]) is the third section of Edda, and consists of a dialogue between Ægir, a god associated with the sea, and Bragi, a skaldic god, in which both Nordic mythology and discourse on the nature of poetry are intertwined. The origin of a number of kenningar are given and Bragi then delivers a systematic list of kenningar for various people, places, and things. Bragi then goes on to discuss poetic language in some detail, in particular heiti, the concept of poetical words which are non-periphrastic, for example "steed" for "horse", and again systematises these.


Main article: Háttatal

Háttatal (Old Icelandic "list of verse-forms"[15]) is the last section of Edda. The section is composed by the Icelandicpoet, politician, and historian Snorri Sturluson. Using, for the most part, his own compositions it exemplifies the types of verse forms used in Old Norse poetry. Snorri took a prescriptive as well as descriptive approach; he has systematized the material, and often notes that "the older poets did not always" follow his rules.



Ynglingatal is composed in kviðuháttr (modern Norwegian kviduhått); this genealogical verse form is also used in Son loss(Sonatorrek) in Egils saga.[2] In this form of verse, the lines alternate between three and four syllables—the first line has three syllables, the next has four, the next three, and so on. For example:[3]

Ok Vísburs
vilja byrgi
sævar niðr
svelga knátti

Ynglingatal has also makes extensive use of acquaintance, such as rewriting and metaphors that give life to the poem, which otherwise contains much litany.[4]

The Icelandic philologist Finnur Jonsson believed the eight-line stanza defines Ynglingatal's structure, while Walter Akerlund believed the four-line helming—the half-stanza as in the example above—defines the poem's structure.[5]Akerlund has also said the bard Thjodolf learned the verse-form kviðuháttr by studying the Rök Runestone in present-day Sweden, which dates from around the year 800.[6]


As an argument, Krag said the first four kings' deaths represent the cosmology of Greek philosopher Empedocles, with the four classical elements Earth, Water, Air, and Fire, and thus that a euhemeristic vision influenced the description of the first few generations. Krag's perception was captivating and won widespread acclaim.[39]

Krag found a literary pattern of elements in the kings' deaths


The concept of core self-evaluations was first examined by Judge, Locke, and Durham (1997)[1][2] and involves four personality dimensions: locus of controlneuroticism, generalized self-efficacy, and self-esteem



A half century ago, Paul MacLean introduced the idea that the human brain consists of three main parts, and that the parts of our "Triune Brain" correlate to the time sequence of their evolutionary emergence: reptilian, paleo-mammalian, and neo-mammalian. Since then, scientists have recognized that there is a fourth and far more recently evolved mammalian structure, which is profoundly manifest in the human brain: the prefrontal cortex, or frontal lobes.


In this video Evolutionary Theologian Michael Dowd provides a brief overview of each of the components of what he calls the “Quadrune Brain”:

Lenore Thomson offers yet another model of the cognitive functions. In her book, Personality Type: An Owners Manual, Thomson advances a hypothesis of a modular relationship of the cognitive functions paralleling left-right brain lateralization. In this approach the Judging functions are in the front-left and back-right brain and the Perception functions in the back-left and front-right brain. The extraverted functions are in the front of the brain, while the introverted functions are in the back of the brain. The order of the cognitive functions are then determined not by an archetypal hierarchy (as supposed by Beebe) but by an innate brain lateralization preference.



The four most common brain developed patterns are: Double Basal, Double Left, Double Frontal and Double Right. As a rule people with such developed patterns find and make friends easiest, because there are simply more of them around than any other developed brain patterns. Single-brained people and multi-dominant triple- and whole-brained people find it more difficult to find friends, especially close friends because, simply there are not many people who have developed so many modes.

Here is a brief overview of Katherine Benziger's model: The brain has four specialised areas. Each is responsible for different brain functions (which imply strengths, behaviour and thinking style). The specialised areas are called 'modes'.


In his brain dominance model, Herrmann identifies four different modes of thinking:

  • A. Analytical thinking

Key words : Auditive,logical, factual, critical, technical and quantitative.

Preferred activities : collecting data, analysis, understanding how things work, judging ideas based on facts, criteria and logical reasoning.

  • B. Sequential thinking

Key words : safekeeping, structured, organized, complexity or detailed, planned.

Preferred activities : following directions, detail oriented work, step-by-step problem solving, organization and implementation.

  • C. Interpersonal thinking

Key words : Kinesthetic, emotional, spiritual, sensory, feeling.

Preferred activities : listening to and expressing ideas, looking for personal meaning, sensory input, and group interaction.

  • D. Imaginative thinking

Key words : Visual, holistic, intuitive, innovative, and conceptual.

Preferred activities : Looking at the big picture, taking initiative, challenging assumptions, visuals, metaphoric thinking, creative problem solving, long term thinking.

The format of the instrument is a 120 question online test, which claims to determine which of the model's four styles of thinking is a dominant preference. More than one style may be dominant at once in this model.[8][9] For example, in Herrmann's presentation a person may be dominant in both analytical and sequential styles of thinking but be weaker in interpersonal or imaginative modes, though he asserts all people use all styles to varying degrees.

A 1985 dissertation by C. Bunderson, currently CEO of the non-profit EduMetrics Institute [10] asserts that "four stable, discrete clusters of preference exist", "scores derived from the instrument are valid indicators of the four clusters", and "The scores permit valid inferences about a person's preferences and avoidances for each of these clusters of mental activity".[11]



The interplay of overweighting of small probabilities and concavity-convexity of the value function leads to the so-called fourfold pattern of risk attitudes: risk-averse behavior when gains have moderate probabilities or losses have small probabilities; risk-seeking behavior when losses have moderate probabilities or gains have small probabilities.

Below is an example of the fourfold pattern of risk attitudes. The first item in each quadrant shows an example prospect (e.g. 95% chance to win $10,000 is high probability and a gain). The second item in the quadrant shows the focal emotion that the prospect is likely to evoke. The third item indicates how most people would behave given each of the prospects (either Risk Averse or Risk Seeking). The fourth item states expected attitudes of a potential defendant and plaintiff in discussions of settling a civil suit.[4]



Bunny was the created short-lived sister of the Powerpuff Girls. She was shown only once in "Twisted Sister". The Powerpuff Girls each have a unique ingredient for her; sugar, spice, and everything nice. Just as each of the other Powerpuff Girls has a signature color, hers is a light shade of purple.

In the episode "Twisted Sister," the Girls created a fourth Powerpuff Girl named Bunny so that they could ease the burden of saving the town by themselves.

The girls were too overworked for the day, so they sneak into the lab to create a fourth Powerpuff Girl. Unlike her predecessors, she was created by the girls using imitation objects of those which gave the girls life (artificial sweetener instead of sugar, dirt and twigs instead of spices, what the girls considered to be "everything nice"), and Chemical X added "accidentally" along with the beaker containing it. While she possessed the same powers as the girls and a similar color theme (having purple eyes and a purple dress to match), she has a hunch back, a stray tooth, big lips and a raggedy brown ponytail unlike the Powerpuff Girls. She couldn't speak in complete English, so Bubbles gave her the name Bunny (although Buttercup named her Braces at first, because of her crooked teeth, much to Blossom's disapproval). Bunny wants to please her sisters/creators, but her size and weight don't help. However, despite of her physical and mental abnormality, they let Bunny join them in fighting crime. When they started their usual day of crime-fighting, she thought that having a gun made a person a criminal, and when she alone saw and alone confronted two cops taking in two crooks and brandishing guns, she threw the cops into jail, and started to release criminals, thinking they were good people.

As a result of her mishaps, the girls send Bunny away, only to be confronted by every convict Bunny released throughout the episode. To redeem herself and save the girls, she defeats every criminal herself. However, due to her instability, after defeating the criminals, she exploded in a flash of light. After which, a piece of her dress fell to ground as the girls kneeled to it in mourning.

Richard McKeon’s system of Philosophical Semantics arises from the sixteen pairwise and ordered relations between his four aspects of knowing or cognates: knower, knowledge, the known, and the knowable. These sixteen relations can be sorted in four groups of four elements each: methods, interpretations, principles, and selections.

Between knower and knowledge, and between the knowable and the known, arise the four methods of two each: the universal and the particular.

  • From knower to knowledge, the operational method.

  • From knowledge to knower, the dialectical method.

  • From the knowable to the known, the logistic method.

  • From the known to the knowable, the problematic method.

Between knower and the known, and between the knowable and knowledge, arise the four interpretations of two each: the phenomenal and the ontic.

  • From knower to the known, the existential interpretation.

  • From the known to knower, the essential interpretation.

  • From the knowable to knowledge, the entitative interpretation.

  • From knowledge to the knowable, the ontological interpretation.

Between knower and the knowable, and between knowledge and the known, arise the four principles of two each: the meroscopic and the holoscopic.

  • From knower to the knowable, the actional principle.

  • From the knowable to knower, the simple principle.

  • From knowledge to the known, the comprehensive principle.

  • From the known to knowledge, the reflexive principle.

Between each of the aspects of knowing with itself, arise the four selections.

  • From knower to itself, the perspectival selection.

  • From knowledge to itself, the transcendental selection.

  • From the knowable to itself, the reductive selection.

  • From the known to itself, the functional selection.

Each method can be associated with a discursive process: operational with debate, dialectical with dialogue, logistic with proof, and problematic with inquiry. Each method is also associated with a mode of thought which in turn has two moments and one dependency or assumption: the operational method is debate by discrimination and postulation dependent on chosen theses, the dialectical method is dialogue by assimilation and exemplification dependent on changeless models, the logistic method is proof by construction and decomposition dependent on indivisible constituents, and the problematic method is inquiry by resolution and question dependent on discoverable causes.


Rocket Power is an American animated television series created by Arlene Klasky and Gábor Csupó, the creators of Rugrats. The series ran on Nickelodeon for four seasons from 1999 to 2004.[1] The show mainly revolves around four friends and their daily lives of playing extreme sports, surfing, and getting into various situations.



Avatar: The Last Airbender takes place in a world that is home to humans and hybrid animals, adjacent to a parallel Spirit World. Human civilization is divided into four nations: the Water Tribes, the Earth Kingdom, the Fire Nation, and the Air Nomads. Each has a distinct society, wherein select people known as "benders" have the ability to manipulate and control the element of their nation using the physical motions of martial arts. The show's creators based each bending style on an existing Chinese martial art, leading to clear visual and physical differences in the techniques used by Waterbenders (Tai Chi), Earthbenders (Hung Ga Kung Fu), Firebenders (Northern Shaolin Kung Fu) and Airbenders (Baguazhang).[18] In addition to these four types of bending, there are several minor subcategories of bending within them, including but not limited to: Metalbending, Sandbending (Earth); Lightning generation and redirection (Fire) and Bloodbending, Healing, Plantbending (Water).

At any given time, only one person in the world is capable of bending all four elements: the Avatar. When the Avatar dies, the Avatar spirit is reincarnated into the next one of the four nations in the Avatar Cycle: the Fire Nation, Air Nomads, Water Tribe, Earth Kingdom, in order. An Avatar incarnation is born alternating male or female, and is required to master each bending art in seasonal order from the age of sixteen, starting with its native land's element (Fire: Summer, Air: Autumn, Water: Winter, Earth: Spring). Additionally, the Avatar can enter a phase known as the Avatar State: normally a defense mechanism until placed under his/her control through mental discipline, wherein the current Avatar briefly gains the knowledge and abilities of all past Avatars. If an Avatar were to be killed while in the Avatar State, the reincarnation cycle would end and the Avatar would never again be reborn.[19] The Avatar exists as an international arbiter, maintaining a relative equality among the nations while serving as mediator between humans and spirits.[18][20] The origin of the Avatar and the Avatar cycle is revealed in the sequel series The Legend of Korra, as the result of a young man named Wan combining his soul with the spirit Raava to imprison her opponent, Vaatu. The sequel series also revealed that bending was originally bestowed by the immense Lion Turtles, before these giant creatures renounced their roles as mankind's protectors upon the creation of the Avatar.

A map of the four nations. The characters at the top, 群雄四分, mean "Powers are divided into Four". The characters of the four lands are 水善 (Water is Benevolent), 土強 (Earth is Strong), 火烈 (Fire is Fierce), and 气和 (Air is Peaceful). The phrase at the bottom, 天下一匡, reads "The world (all under heaven) is guided by one".


The idea of four small stars came from On the People's Democratic Dictatorship a speech by Mao Zedong, which defined the Chinese people as consisting of four social classes.

Some disliked the symbolism which Zeng attached to the four smaller starshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_of_China and said it should not include the bourgeoisie.


In the episode "Twisted Sister," the Girls created a fourth Powerpuff Girl named Bunny so that they could ease the burden of saving the town by themselves.


The Shaolin 5 Animal System is a metaphor for human character styles but also for the most successfully team in human history. It is a personality type indicator 1000 years ahead of it's time, developed well before the current A/B model and well before the popular MBTI model.

It is not the first Personality Model. Simpler personality styles models have been around for some 2500 years including Ezekiel (Lion, Ox, Man and Eagle), Hippocrates (Cheerful, Somber, Enthusiastic and Calm) and more recently the Isabel Myers 1950's model of Sanguine, Melancholic, Choleric and Phlegmatic. There are many but none more wide spread and famous than the Shaolin 5 Animal Model.

The reason that the animal style has survived so well over the past 1000 year is because of it's clever use of the 4 Animal symbols and in choosing two Great Cats (Tiger and Panther) then a Bird and a Reptile. The choice of the two great cats show how similar the two are and yet how very much differently this play out in real life. Then the use of the Crane and the Snake, almost totally opposing animals yet, in any many ways very similar but not.

But what made this 5 Animal model so much more than all the other, is the realization of the 'intangible influence' on human beings through the usage of the Dragon as the 5th metaphor. Both symbolizing the ideal and the meta-physical or spiritual component of human beings. Thus the 5 Animal Model, based on human beings having 5 senses, 5 attachments to the body, 5 fingers, etc., works much better than all the other models. And that is why it has survived so long and so well know. A instinctive subconscious recognition that it is about more than just the tangible.



The first four expansions in the vilasa category (prabhava-vilasa) originate from Lord Balarama (vaibhava-prakasha). Prabhava manifestations are fully potent; vaibhava manifestations are partially potent. The four expansions Vasudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha are known as the catur- vyuha.Catur means “four,” and vyuha means “guard” or “arms.” These forms have four arms, and They guard the four directions of the material world. They reside in the spiritual world. Srila Prabhupada refers to Them as the aides-de-camp of Lord Krishna.

  1. Vasudeva, the first expansion, is the presiding deity of consciousness and the cause of the brahmajyoti effulgence.

  2. Sankarshana comes from Vasudeva and is the presiding deity of false ego. He is the source of Karanodakashayi Vishnu. Sankarshana is known as the integrating and disintegrating power of God. In other words, He maintains the law of gravity and oversees the destruction of the universe.

  3. Pradyumna comes from Sankarshana and is the presiding deity of intelligence. He is responsible for universal growth and maintenance. From Pradyumna comes Garbhodakashayi Vishnu.

  4. Aniruddha, who comes from Pradyumna, is the presiding deity of the mind and the source of Kshirodakashayi Vishnu.

Srila Prabhupada explains: “The Lord in His different features (Vasudeva, Aniruddha, Pradyumna, and Sankarshana) maintains both the gross and subtle material elements of this world. As mentioned in Bhagavad-gita, the gross material elements are earth, water, fire, air, and ether, and the subtle material elements are mind, intelligence, and ego. All of them are controlled by the Supreme Personality of Godhead as Vasudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha… . Lord Krishna, by His quadruple expansion (Vasudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha), is the Lord of psychic action—namely thinking, feeling, willing, and acting.” (Srimad-Bhagavatam 4.24.35-36, Purport)

From these first four expansions come other catur- vyuhas, known as vaibhava-vilasa. The months of the year and the markings of tilaka are named for these vaibhava-vilasa manifestations.



 Lord Sri Krishna is the svayam-rupa Personality of Godhead, and all other forms of Godhead are Lord Sri Krishna's plenary portions and integrated parts. Balarama is the first plenary manifestation of Lord Krishna.  From Baladeva expands Sankarshana, Vasudeva, Pradyumna and Aniruddha.  From Sankarshana there is an expansion of Narayana, and from Narayana there is a second quadruple expansion of Sankarshana, Vasudeva, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. From second Sankarshana comes Maha-Vishnu - the first purusa-avatara. Maha-Vishnu in the Causal Ocean, is the creator of the aggregate material energy. Garbhodakasayi Vishnu, is an expansion of Pradyumna; and the third purusa Ksirodakasayi Vishnu, is an expansion of Aniruddha.


There are four generally accepted boxing styles that are used to define fighters. These are the swarmer, out-boxer, slugger, and boxer-puncher. Many boxers do not always fit into these categories, and it's not uncommon for a fighter to change their style over a period of time.



Julio Cesar Chavez (Swarmer)

The swarmer (in-fighter, crowder) is a fighter who attempts to overwhelm his opponent by applying constant pressure — taking away an opponent's spacing and timing. Swarmers tend to have a very good bob and weave, good power, a good chin, and a tremendous punch output (resulting in a great need for stamina and conditioning). This style favors closing inside an opponent, overwhelming them with intensity and flurries of hooks and uppercuts. They tend to be fast on their feet which can make them difficult to evade for a slower fighter; or are great at cutting the ring with precise footwork. They also tend to have a good "chin" because this style usually involves being hit with many jabs before they can maneuver inside where they are more effective.[1] Many swarmers are often either shorter fighters or fighters with shorter reaches, especially in the heavier classes, that have to get in close to be effective. Tommy Burns was the shortest Heavyweight champion at 5'7, while Rocky Marciano had the shortest reach at 67-68 inches. One exception is Jack Dempsey, who was nearly 6'1 with a 77-inch reach. Famous swarmers include Henry ArmstrongCarmen BasilioNigel BennMelio Bettina,[2] Burns, Joe CalzagheJulio Cesar ChavezSteve CollinsJack DempseyJoe FrazierKid GavilanGennady GolovkinRomán GonzálezHarry GrebEmile GriffithFighting HaradaRicky HattonJake LaMottaRocky MarcianoTerry McGovern,[3]Sam McVeyBattling NelsonBobo OlsonManuel OrtizFloyd PattersonAaron PryorAlexander PovetkinSailor Tom SharkeyDavid TuaMike TysonMicky WardWilfredo Gomez and Mickey Walker.[4][5]



Muhammad Ali (out-boxer)

The out-boxer (out-fighter, boxer) is the opposite of the swarmer. The out-boxer seeks to maintain a gap from their opponent and fight with faster, longer range punches. Out-boxers are known for being extremely quick on their feet, which often makes up for a lack of power. Since they rely on the weaker jabs and straights (as opposed to hooks and uppercuts), they tend to win by points decisions rather than by knockout, although some out-boxers can be aggressive and effective punchers.[1] Out-boxers such as Benny LeonardGene TunneyMuhammad Ali, and Larry Holmes have many notable knockouts, but usually preferred to wear down their opponents and outclass them rather than just knock them out. Out-boxers also cross over frequently with counter-punch and/or swarming techniques, such as Naseem Hamed, who used his speed on his feet to avoid injury and his precision and power to carve his opponents down. Notable out-boxers include Ali, Wilfred BenitezCecilia BrækhusEzzard CharlesKid ChocolateBilly ConnJames J. CorbettGeorge DixonChris EubankTiger FlowersMike GibbonsHolly Holm, Larry Holmes, Harold JohnsonJack JohnsonJunior JonesZab JudahHerol GrahamErislandy Lara, Leonard, Tommy LoughranFloyd Mayweather Jr.Philadelphia Jack O'BrienWillie PepMaxie RosenbloomBarney RossMichael Spinks, Tunney, Jersey Joe WalcottWladimir KlitschkoHughie Fury and Pernell Whitaker.[5] The fictional character Apollo Creed is considered an out-boxer.



George Foreman (Slugger)

Most sluggers lack mobility in the ring and may have difficulty pursuing fighters who are fast on their feet. They usually throw harder, slower punches than swarmers or out-boxers and tend to ignore combination punching. Sluggers often throw predictable punching patterns (single punches with obvious leads) which can leave them open for counterpunching.[1]Sluggers can also be fast and unpredictable fighters, such as the case with Terry McGovernStanley Ketchel, and Rocky Graziano. While normally considered the most crude boxers, Bob Fitzsimmons was considered by many boxing historians to be highly scientific in his slugging techniques. Because of their similar brawling tactics, swarmers and sluggers are often confused with each other, and some fighters may fit into either category. Famous sluggers include Max BaerPaul BerlenbachRiddick Bowe, Fitzsimmons, George ForemanSonny ListonBob Foster,[6] Gene FullmerCeferino GarciaArturo GattiWilfredo Gomez, Graziano, Al HostakJames J. JeffriesIngemar Johansson, Ketchel, Vitali KlitschkoRon LyleFreddie MillsEddie Mustafa MuhammadRicardo MayorgaRuslan ProvodnikovEarnie ShaversJohn L. SullivanBarbados Joe WalcottVonda Ward and Ann Wolfe.[5] Fictional characters Rocky Balboa and Clubber Lang are considered to be sluggers.



Marvin Hagler (Boxer-Puncher)

The boxer-puncher possesses many of the qualities of the out-boxer; hand speed, often an outstanding jab, combination and/or counter-punching skills, better defense and accuracy than a slugger, while possessing slugger type power. The Boxer-puncher may also be more willing to fight in an aggressive swarmer-style than an out-boxer. In general the boxer-puncher lacks the mobility and defensive expertise of the pure boxer. Boxer-punchers usually do well against out-boxers, especially if they can match their speed and mobility. They also tend to match up well against swarmers, because the extra power often discourages the swarmer's aggression. Boxer-punchers can be hard to categorize since they can be closer in style to a slugger, swarmer, or an out-boxer. Notable boxer-punchers include Laila AliAlexis ArguelloMarco Antonio BarreraTony CanzoneriMarcel CerdanOscar De La HoyaRoberto DuranJoe GansTommy Gibbons,[7] Marvin HaglerThomas HearnsBernard HopkinsEvander HolyfieldEder JofreRoy Jones, Jr.Sam LangfordSugar Ray LeonardLennox LewisAnthony JoshuaRicardo LopezVasyl LomachenkoJoe LouisChristy MartinCarlos MonzonArchie MooreErik MoralesJose NapolesManny PacquiaoSugar Ray RobinsonLuis Manuel Rodríguez,[8] Sandy SaddlerCarlos Zarate SernaFreddie Steele,[9] James ToneyFelix TrinidadIke WilliamsJimmy Wilde and Tony Zale. .[5][10]


The four basic punches in modern boxing are the jab, the cross, the hook, and the uppercut.



Becker created four categories by splitting church into "ecclesia" and "denomination", and sect into "sect" and "cult." Cults, for Becker, were small religious groups lacking in organization and emphasizing the private nature of personal beliefs. Sociologists still maintain that unlike sects, which are products of religious schism that maintain continuity with traditional beliefs and practices, cults arise spontaneously around novel beliefs and practices.



The concept of a "cult" as a sociological classification was introduced in 1932 by American sociologist Howard P. Becker as an expansion of German theologian Ernst Troeltsch's church-sect typology. Troeltsch's aim was to distinguish between three main types of religious behavior: churchly, sectarian and mystical. Becker created four categories out of Troeltsch's first two by splitting church into "ecclesia" and "denomination", and sect into "sect" and "cult"



Shiva Tandava Stotram is a stotra (Hindu hymn) that describes the Hindu God Shiva's power and beauty. It is traditionally attributed to Ravana, the asura King of Lanka and devotee of Shiva. Both the ninth and tenth quatrains of this hymn conclude with lists of Shiva's epithets as destroyer, even the destroyer of death itself. Alliteration and onomatopoeia create roiling waves of resounding beauty in this example of Hindu devotional poetry.

In the final quatrain of the poem, after tiring of rampaging across the Earth, Ravana asks, "When will I be happy?" Because of the intensity of his prayers and ascetic meditation, of which this hymn was an example, Ravana received from Shiva powers and a celestial sword.

The stotra is in the Panchachaamara Chhanda. It has 16 syllables per line of the quatrain



The stanzas in an "ashtakam" are a rhyming quartet with four lines, i.e. end lines rhyme as a-a-a-a. Thus, in an ashtakam generally thirty-two lines are maintained. All these stanzas follow a strict rhyme scheme. The proper rhyme scheme for an astakam is: a-a-a-a/b-b-b-b….. (/ represents a new stanza). The rhyme designs are both ear-rhymes and eye-rhymes. Ear-rhyme where the end letters rhyme in sound and audibility, and eye-rhyme where the end letters appear similar. This rhyme sequence sets the usual structure of the astakam. astakam rhyme consists of identical ("hard-rhyme") or similar ("soft-rhyme") sounds placed at predictable locations, normally the ends of lines for external rhyme or within lines for internal rhyme.

Sanskrit language exhibits high richness in sustaining rhyming structures. Thus Sanskrit ashtakams are capable of carrying a limited set of rhymes all over a lengthy composition.

Several times in an ashtakam, the quatrains (sets of four lines) conclude abruptly or in other cases, with a couplet (a pair of lines). In the body quatrains the poet establishes a theme and then may resolve it in the final lines, called the couplet, or may leave them unsolved. Sometime the end couplet may contain self-identification of the poet. The structure is also bound by rules of meter for enhanced suitability for recital and classical singing. However, there are several ashtakams that do not conform to the regular structure.

Achyuta Ashtakam ( Awesome ) (Must Listen) From Holy Chants


Tintal (or teental, trital; Hindi: तीन ताल) is one of the most famous talas of Hindustani music. It is also the most common tal in North India. The structure of tintal is so symmetrical that it presents a very simple rhythmic structure against which a performance can be laid.

Tintal has sixteen (16) beats[2] in four equal divisions (vibhag). The period between every two beats is equal. The first beat out of 16 beats is called sam and the 9th beat is called khali ('empty'). To count the Teental, the audience claps on the first beat, claps on the 5th beat, then waves on the 9th beat and lastly again claps on the 13th beat; these three claps (Hindi tin 'three' + tāl 'clap') give the rhythm its name.



Each repeated cycle of a tala is called an avartan. This is counted additively in sections (vibhag or anga) which roughly correspond to bars or measures but may not have the same number of beats (matra, akshara) and may be marked by accents or rests. So the Hindustani Jhoomra tal has 14 beats, counted 3+4+3+4, which differs from Dhamar tal, also of 14 beats but counted 5+2+3+4. The spacing of the vibhag accents makes them distinct, otherwise, again, since Rupak tal consists of 7 beats, two cycles of it of would be indistinguishable from one cycle of the related Dhamar tal.[40] However the most common Hindustani tala, Teental, is a regularly-divisible cycle of four measures of four beats each.


Tilwada or Tilwara (Hindi: तिलवाडा, tilvāḍā ?) is a tala of Hindustani music.[1] Like Tintaal, Tilwada tala also has 16 beats.[2][3] Tilwada is often used in Kheyal.[1]

Some Christian apologists, most notably Louie Giglio, have written about the fact that laminin is shaped like a Christian cross, comparing the role of the cross in theology and laminin's role in the human body. For example, David D. Swanson states: "Our knowledge of truth is most clearly revealed on the cross of Christ. And what holds the human body together? Laminin. And what does it look like? A cross. Coincidence? Some would say yes, but I think it is yet another way God reveals his glory to us. I think God is the one who holds all things together-our bodies-our world-our lives."[28] Fazale Rana, a biochemist and apologist, disagrees with Giglio and instead argues that "Instead of pointing to superficial features of biomolecules such as the “cross-shaped” architecture of laminin, there are many more substantive ways to use biochemistry to argue for the necessity of a Creator."[29]

Sketch of a laminin showing its asymmetric structure




The tiger represents the masculine principle in nature and is king of all the animals, as shown by the four stripes on his forehead, which form the character Wang (王), or King. The tiger is regarded as one of the four super-intelligent creatures, along with the dragonphoenix and tortoise; for centuries, the four have been a major design motif in Chinese art.



Among the languages spoken in Tanzania are all four of Africa's language families: BantuCushiticNilotic, and Khoisan.



Greenberg grouped the hundreds of African languages into four families, which he dubbed AfroasiaticNilo-SaharanNiger–Congo, and Khoisan. During the course of his work, Greenberg invented the term "Afroasiatic" to replace the earlier term "Hamito-Semitic", after showing that the Hamitic group, accepted widely since the 19th century, is not a valid language family. Another major feature of his work was to establish the classification of the Bantu languages, which occupy much of sub-Saharan Africa, as a part of the Niger–Congo language family, rather than as an independent family as many Bantuists had maintained.

Psychologist and Philosopher William James described four characteristics of mystical experience in The Varieties of Religious Experience. According to James, such an experience is:

  • Transient – the experience is temporary; the individual soon returns to a "normal" frame of mind. It is outside our normal perception of space and time.

  • Ineffable – the experience cannot be adequately put into words.

  • Noetic – the individual feels that he or she has learned something valuable from the experience. Gives us knowledge that is normally hidden from human understanding.

  • Passive – the experience happens to the individual, largely without conscious control. Although there are activities, such as meditation (see below), that can make religious experience more likely, it is not something that can be turned on and off at will.

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_experience

Porphyry tells us that on four occasions during the six years of their intercourse Plotinus attained to this ecstatic union with God. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_experience

I was in Stuart Anstis Perception class at UCSD and he did not show many illusion but he did show some illusions that he was famous for and they involved crosses/quadrants. The most famous illusions I learend about in my psychology classes involved qudrants


Motion can shift an object’s perceived position. If an image of an upright cross flashes briefly on a textured wheel that is rotating clockwise, the cross itself will appear to be tilted clockwise, and it sometimes even looks distorted. Notably, only the motion of the background that occurs after the flash can drag the cross along: motion beforehand has no effect.

SPINNING BACKGROUND: Red and green crosses flashing in alternation look bent out of shape, with the right angles no longer looking like right angles. This is because the vertical arms of the crosses lie on the edge of a pie-shaped sector of the moving background, while the horizontal arms lie on the middle of a sector. The edge of a sector has more pulling power than the middle of a sector.

FOLLOW THE CENTER: In the top-left panel, a vertical bar and an overlapping horizontal bar both move in a clockwise circular path without rotating. Most observers correctly see each bar as moving clockwise, but falsely view the central intersection as going clockwise too. In fact, the intersection of the bars moves counterclockwise, as becomes apparent in the top-right panel, in which a red outline surrounds the bars.






How many moving objects can you keep track of at once? Clicking on the image below will take you to Lana M. Trick’s web site, where she has a nifty demo of a multi-object tracking task. You’re asked to keep track one to four of the smiley-faces as they move randomly around the screen. Then when the faces stop moving, you click on the ones you were supposed to follow. Go ahead, give it a try!




You’ll notice there are four levels of difficulty. Most adults can, with a little practice, track four out of ten randomly moving objects for ten seconds — they fall apart when there are more than four objects to track or more than ten total objects (the “most difficult” trial features four objects to track and twelve total). But when do kids develop the ability to track multiple objects? Very young infants can track a single object moving by itself quite easily, but what about several objects moving among others?


As expected, 19-year-olds were accurate at tracking “spies,” even when there were four of them. But younger kids’ abilities tapered off at different levels. Six-year-olds, for example, were just 55 percent accurate when asked to track three items.


Six-year-olds, by this logic, can successfully track two objects, because their score is above the chance result when tracking two objects, but below it when tracking three. Eight-year-olds, however, can track three objects. Only 19-year-olds could track four objects successfully.


Palmistry is the art of characterizing or foretelling the future through the reading of palm lines. Though there are certainly many variations and techniques when it comes to interpreting the meaning of palm lines, you can brush up on Palmistry 101 by getting acquainted with your four major palm lines: the heart line, head line, life line, and fate line.

Once you've identified the four major palm lines on each of your hands (palm line shapes and positioning tend to differ from one hand to another), you can get started on interpreting their different meanings.



Twenty Four Sky Emperors (Tiandi 天帝)

  • Six Tiandi of the North

    • 1. Bìfàn Xuánwú Tiandi

    • 2. Bìkōng Zhēnjì Tiandi

    • 3. Bìluó Yuánshǐ Tiandi

    • 4. Bìgě Chéngkāi Tiandi

    • 5. Bìyàn Zhūjǐng Tiandi

    • 6. Bìhóng Xūkuàng Tiandi

  • Six Tiandi of the South

    • 7. Bìzhēn Dòngyáng Tiandi

    • 8. Bìyáo Jiànggōng Tiandi

    • 9. Bìxiá Míngsù Tiandi

    • 10. Bìwú Yàodòng Tiandi

    • 11. Bìyùn Shǐtú Tiandi

    • 12. Bìhào Zhēngxū Tiandi

  • Six Tiandi of the West

    • 13. Bìshén Zhàozhì Tiandi

    • 14. Bìchōng Zǐyào Tiandi

    • 15. Bìgě Fànkōng Tiandi

    • 16. Bìdòng Xiáyáng Tiandi

    • 17. Bìhuá Kāilì Tiandi

    • 18. Bìfàn Míngyáo Tiandi

  • Six Tiandi of the North

    • 19. Bìguāng Hánhuá Tiandi

    • 20. Bìyè Zhùyán Tiandi

    • 21. Bìdān Huáqì Tiandi

    • 22. Bìkuò Címíng Tiandi

    • 23. Bìlà Gēyīn Tiandi

    • 24. Bìxū Níngyáng Tiandi

Twenty Eight Sky Emperors (Tiandi 天帝)

  • Seven Tiandi of the East

    • 1. Tàimíng Hùzhēn Tiandi

    • 2. Juéfàn Tàilíng Tiandi

    • 3. Húyuè Cuìxiù Tiandi

    • 4. Zǐdān Míngchǔ Tiandi

    • 5. Dòngxiá Yùzhēn Tiandi

    • 6. Kōngxuán Lìshǔ Tiandi

    • 7. Qiáotōng Zhūpǔ Tiandi

  • Seven Tiandi of the South

    • 8. Yányú Zhēngshǐ Tiandi

    • 9. Jīngwéi Xiāomíng Tiandi

    • 10. Qìngfú Zīshàn Tiandi

    • 11. Suíwén Xīdù Tiandi

    • 12. Chángjī Lèwán Tiandi

    • 13. Qíhuá Bùróng Tiandi

    • 14. Gāolíng Dàiwú Tiandi

  • Seven Tiandi of the West

    • 15. Zhōuyú Píngwú Tiandi

    • 16. Jǐngyán Tàizhēn Tiandi

    • 17. Lǜjǐng Shǔchén Tiandi

    • 18. Niúluó Pǔshì Tiandi

    • 19. Dìngliáng Huìzōng Tiandi

    • 20. Zhàolíng Sūjì Tiandi

    • 21. Jiǔwēi Dònghuáng Tiandi

  • Seven Tiandi of the North

    • 22. Dìshū Guāngjìng Tiandi

    • 23. Zǐyí Jìhuā Tiandi

    • 24. Zhìdìng Yǔnlǐ Tiandi

    • 25. Guāngfàn Jiùzhì Tiandi

    • 26. Hǔ口 Zhēngbù Tiandi

    • 27. Bàyān Wúyuán Tiandi

    • 28. Dàomíng Húnxìng Tiandi

Thirty Two Sky Emperors (Tiandi 天帝)

  • Eight Tiandi of the East

    • 1. Tàihuáng Huángzēng Tiandi

    • 2. Tàimíng Yùwán Tiandi

    • 3. Qīngmíng Hétóng Tiandi

    • 4. Xuántāi Píngyù Tiandi

    • 5. Yuánmíng Wénjǔ Tiandi

    • 6. Qīyào Móyí Tiandi

    • 7. Xūwú Yuèhéng Tiandi

    • 8. Tàijí Méngyì Tiandi

  • Eight Tiandi of the South

    • 9. Chìmíng Héyáng Tiandi

    • 10. Xuánmíng Gōnghuá Tiandi

    • 11. Yàomíng Zōngpiāo Tiandi

    • 12. Zhúlà Huángjiā Tiandi

    • 13. Xūmíng Tángyào Tiandi

    • 14. Guànmíng Duānjìng Tiandi

    • 15. Xuánmíng Gōngqìng Tiandi

    • 16. Tàihuàn Jíyáo Tiandi

  • Eight Tiandi of the West

    • 17. Yuánzǎi Kǒngshēng Tiandi

    • 18. Tàiān Huángyá Tiandi

    • 19. Xiǎndìng Jífēng Tiandi

    • 20. Shǐhuáng Xiàománg Tiandi

    • 21. Tàihuáng Wēngchóng Tiandi

    • 22. Wúsī Jiāngyóu Tiandi

    • 23. Shǎngshé Ruǎnlè Tiandi

    • 24. Wújí Tánshì Tiandi

  • Eight Tiandi of the North

    • 25. Hàotíng Xiāodù Tiandi

    • 26. Yuāntōng Yuándòng Tiandi

    • 27. Hànchǒng Miàochéng Tiandi

    • 28. Xiùlè Jīnshǎng Tiandi

    • 29. Wúshàng Chángróng Tiandi

    • 30. Yùlóng Téngshèng Tiandi

    • 31. Lóngbiàn Fàndù Tiandi

    • 32.Píngyù Jiǎyì Tiandi

Sixty Four Sky Emperors (Tiandi 天帝)

  • Sixteen Tiandi of the East

    • 1. Wǎnkōng Míngfàn Tiandi

    • 2. Zǐyuán Bàwú Tiandi

    • 3. Yānjǐng Yùxū Tiandi

    • 4. Chōngzhēng Dòngjí Tiandi

    • 5. Míngbiàn Yuánhuáng Tiandi

    • 6. Lǐchóng Yuānxū Tiandi

    • 7. Jiàozhēn Quánzhòng Tiandi

    • 8. Qīngwēi Huángyǔ Tiandi

    • 9. Jiùmíng wàngshì Tiandi

    • 10. Yuèfǔ Wènshí Tiandi

    • 11. Qìlíng Zhāopǔ Tiandi

    • 12. Xuánxū Guāngfàn Tiandi

    • 13. Shǎngjí Sìzhǒng Tiandi

    • 14. Yìhuā Zhēngzhèn Tiandi

    • 15. Gūshì Bāfàn Tiandi

    • 16. Jiǔyán Yùdìng Tiandi

  • Sixteen Tiandi of the South

    • 17. Dānmó Yìhuā Tiandi

    • 18. Dòujiàn Xūyú Tiandi

    • 19. Dìguāng Wújì Tiandi

    • 20. Zhūlíng Yàoguāng Tiandi

    • 21. Zǐjǐng Duànbái Tiandi

    • 22. Jiàngxiān Táiyuán Tiandi

    • 23. Shuǎngzhì Xièshēn Tiandi

    • 24. Yùjiāng Sīchán Tiandi

    • 25. Gūhóu Lìzhēn Tiandi

    • 26. Gǔxuán Dàoyòng Tiandi

    • 27. Lǐbù Míngwēi Tiandi

    • 28. Shénlú Chāngyìng Tiandi

    • 29. Dùzhēng Kèzōng Tiandi

    • 30. Dàhuǒ Chìyī Tiandi

    • 31. Qīngdì Dòngyáo Tiandi

    • 32. Xuánchéng Bǎihuā Tiandi

  • Sixteen Tiandi of the West

    • 33. Jīnlí Guāngqǐ Tiandi

    • 34. Jíhuáng Xuányùn Tiandi

    • 35. Zhōuyán Jìngpíng Tiandi

    • 36. Bǎosòng Róngzī Tiandi

    • 37. Qìngzhēn Měiyuán Tiandi

    • 38. Zhàiwú Shénsì Tiandi

    • 39. Gāojiàng Zhìhuá Tiandi

    • 40. Dàoqī Yánjì Tiandi

    • 41. Tónglì Dàochú Tiandi

    • 42. Dǐngshén Huàwēi Tiandi

    • 43. Tàiān Shùnjí Tiandi

    • 44. Qióngxī Yàoxiān Tiandi

    • 45. Zǐdū Yuèguǎng Tiandi

    • 46. Cuīkāng Jiéshí Tiandi

    • 47. Jìngbì Làmáng Tiandi

    • 48. Pǔhǎi Dòngjī Tiandi

  • Sixteen Tiandi of the North

    • 49. Yúsì Tǒngzhēn Tiandi

    • 50. Hǔjiā Pīfāng Tiandi

    • 51. Qiúyuān Làyú Tiandi

    • 52. Jīnbái Zhēngjì Tiandi

    • 53. Huánglì Kǒngxiū Tiandi

    • 54. Yáoshū Jīnglíng Tiandi

    • 55. Shényín Xiāodū Tiandi

    • 56. Qìngzhāo Yuèfú Tiandi

    • 57. Chēnmíng Chúkǔ Tiandi

    • 58. Fēngxìn Kǎofú Tiandi

    • 59. Zhèngrù Bàobù Tiandi

    • 60. Gěnglěi Lìquán Tiandi

    • 61. Guǐchǔ Shǐlè Tiandi

    • 62. Língfù Hǎilún Tiandi

    • 63. Shǎngjí Xiāotán Tiandi

    • 64. Bìcháng Dòngyuán Tiandi




The Celtic Cross Spread is the classic, most common Tarot layout used for reading the cards.



The Tetractys is a triangular figure consisting of ten points arranged in four rows: one, two, three, and four points in each row. As a mystical symbol, it was very important to the followers of the secret worship of the Pythagoreans.




The first row of a single position represents the Premise of the reading, forming a foundation for understanding all the other cards.


The second row of two positions respresents the cosmos and the individual and their relationship.


The Light Card to the right represents the influence of the cosmos leading the individual to an action.

The Dark Card to the left represents the reaction of the cosmos to the actions of the individual.

The third row of three positions represents three kinds of decisions an individual must make.


The Creator Card is rightmost, representing new decisions and directions that may be made.

The Sustainer Card is in the middle, representing decisions to keep balance, and things that should not change.

The Destroyer Card is leftmost, representing old decisions and directions that should not be continued.

The fourth row of four positions represents the four Greek elements.


The Fire card is rightmost, representing dynamic creative force, ambitions, and personal will.

The Air card is to the right middle, representing the mind, thoughts, and strategies toward goals.

The Water card is to the left middle, representing the emotions, feelings, and whims.

The Earth card is leftmost, representing physical realities of day to day living.



The four main characters WillGraceKaren and Jack



A quadrathlon (or quadriathlon, tetrathlon) is an endurance sports event composed of four individual disciplines. All four disciplines are completed in succession and the lowest overall time decides the winner.


The World Quadrathlon Federation defines that a quadrathlon consists of


Sprint Distance Middle Distance Long Distance

swimming 0.75 kilometers 1.5 km 4 km

cycling 20 km 40 km 100 km

kayaking 4 km 8 km 20 km

running 5 km 10 km 21 km



A pattern of warfare emerged during the clashes between the European colonial powers and the American Indians which characterized the four major French and Indian wars. The complex network of relations was fundamental between some Indian tribes and some colonies, the Indian tribes becoming the allies of the colonial powers. These alliances were a result of the economic ties that had been formed by the fur trade and by the Indian tribes' need for allies against their Indian rivals. The warfare included the widespread and escalating abuse of civilians on all sides, in which settlements were attacked, both Colonial and Indian, the residents killed or abducted and houses and crops burned.

As the wars proceeded, the military advantage moved toward the British side. This was chiefly the result of the greater population and productive capacity of the British colonies compared with those of France. In addition, the British had the greater ability to resupply their colonies and project military power by sea. In the first three conflicts, the French were able to offset these factors largely by more effective mobilization of Indian allies, but they were finally overwhelmed in the fourth and last war.


The Intolerable Acts were the American Patriots' term for a series of punitive laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 after the Boston Tea Party. They were meant to punish the Massachusetts colonists for their defiance of throwing a large tea shipment into Boston Harbor in reaction to changes in taxation by the British to the detriment of Colonial goods. In Great Britain, these laws were referred to as the Coercive Acts.




The Boston Port Act, the first of the laws passed in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party, closed the port of Boston until the colonists paid for the destroyed tea and until the king was satisfied that order had been restored. Colonists objected that the Port Act punished all of Boston rather than just the individuals who had destroyed the tea, and that they were being punished without having been given an opportunity to testify in their own defense.


The Massachusetts Government Act provoked even more outrage than the Port Act because it unilaterally took away Massachusetts' charter and brought it under control of the British government. Under the terms of the Government Act, almost all positions in the colonial government were to be appointed by the governor, Parliament, or king. The act also severely limited the activities of town meetings in Massachusetts to one meeting a year, unless the Governor called for one. Colonists outside Massachusetts feared that their governments could now also be changed by the legislative fiat of Parliament.


The Administration of Justice Act allowed the Royal governor to order that trials of accused royal officials take place in Great Britain or elsewhere within the Empire if he decided that the defendant could not get a fair trial in Massachusetts. Although the act stipulated for witnesses to be reimbursed after having travelled at their own expense across the Atlantic, it was not stipulated that this would include reimbursement for lost earnings during the period for which they would be unable to work, leaving few with the ability to testify. George Washington called this the "Murder Act" because he believed that it allowed British officials to harass Americans and then escape justice.[3] Many colonists believed the act was unnecessary because British soldiers had been given a fair trial following the Boston Massacre in 1770.[citation needed]


The Quartering Act applied to all of the colonies, and sought to create a more effective method of housing British troops in America. In a previous act, the colonies had been required to provide housing for soldiers, but colonial legislatures had been uncooperative in doing so. The new Quartering Act allowed a governor to house soldiers in other buildings if suitable quarters were not provided. While many sources claim that the Quartering Act allowed troops to be billeted in occupied private homes, historian David Ammerman's 1974 study claimed that this is a myth, and that the act only permitted troops to be quartered in unoccupied buildings.[4] Although many colonists found the Quartering Act objectionable, it generated the least protest of the four Coercive Acts.[citation needed]



According to the verses in Ezekiel and its attendant commentaries, his vision consists of a chariot made of many heavenly beings driven by the "Likeness of a Man." The base structure of the chariot is composed of four beings. These beings are called the "living creatures" (Hebrew: חיות hayyot or khayyot). The bodies of the creatures are "like that of a human being", but each of them has four faces, corresponding to the four directions the chariot can go (East, South, North and West). The faces are that of a man, a lion, an ox (later changed to a cherub in Ezekiel 10:14) and an eagle. Since there are four angels and each has four faces, there are a total of sixteen faces. Each "Hayyot" angel also has four wings. Two of these wings spread across the length of the chariot and connect with the wings of the angel on the other side. This creates a sort of 'box' of wings that forms the perimeter of the chariot. With the remaining two wings, each angel covers its own body. Below, but not attached to, the feet of the "Hayyot" angels are other angels that are shaped like wheels. These wheel angels, which are described as "a wheel inside of a wheel", are called "Ophanim" אופנים (lit. wheels, cycles or ways). These wheels are not directly under the chariot but are nearby and along its perimeter. The angel with the face of the man is always on the east side and looks up at the "Likeness of a Man" that drives the chariot. The "Likeness of a Man" sits on a throne made of sapphire.