Beginning with the now-iconic phrase "Four score and seven years ago"—referring to the United States Declaration of Independence in 1776—Lincoln examined the founding principles of the United States as stated in the Declaration of Independence. In the context of the Civil War, Lincoln also memorialized the sacrifices of those who gave their lives at Gettysburg and extolled virtues for the listeners (and the nation) to ensure the survival of America's representative democracy: that "government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."


Assassination attempts and plots on Presidents of the United States have been numerous: more than 20 attempts to kill sitting and former presidents and presidents-elect are known. Four sitting presidents have been killed, all of them by gunshot: Abraham Lincoln (the 16th President), James A. Garfield (the 20th President), William McKinley (the 25th President) and John F. Kennedy (the 35th President). Two presidents were injured in attempted assassinations, also by gunshot: Theodore Roosevelt (the 26th President) and Ronald Reagan (the 40th President). With the exception of Lyndon B. Johnson, every president's life since John F. Kennedy has been threatened with assassination.

The Four Cardinal Principles (Chinese: 四项基本原则; pinyin: sì xiàng jīběn yuánzé) were stated by Deng Xiaoping in 1979 and are the four issues for which debate was not allowed within the People's Republic of China.[citation needed] These are:

the principle of upholding the socialist path
the principle of upholding the people's democratic dictatorship
the principle of upholding the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC), and
the principle of upholding Mao Zedong Thought and Marxism-Leninism
The four cardinal principles marked a relaxation of control over ideology. In stating the four cardinal principles, the implication was that these four topics could not be questioned, but political ideas other than those in the list could be debated. Moreover, while the principles themselves are not subject to debate, the interpretations of those principles are. There has for example, been extensive debate over the meaning of socialism.

On the other hand, the Principles were proclaimed as a sign of adherence to the communist ideology, thus paving the secure way to reevaluation of the Cultural Revolution while preserving ideological stability and legitimacy of the CPC, as a response to the Democracy Wall movement.



There have been many previous international workers' organisations, and the call for a Fifth International presupposes the recognition of four in particular, all of which regarded themselves as the successor to the previous ones:

The "First International", known as the "International Workingmen's Association", founded in London in 1864.

The "Second International", was founded in 1889 after the expulsion of Anarchists from the First International, and worked until its subsequent dissolution in 1916. The Second International was the direct ancestor of the present day Socialist International, an international organization of mainstream social democratic political parties.

The "Third International", known as the Communist International or "Comintern", was founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1919, after the failure of the Second International at the start of World War I, and was dissolved in 1943.

The "Fourth International" was founded in 1938 by Leon Trotsky, in opposition to Stalinism. Trotsky considered Comintern to be irreformable and to have crossed over to counter-revolution under the control of a bureaucratic elite in the Soviet Union. Although it still exists, the fragmentation of Trotskyism has similarly resulted in the call for a fifth international.

2 + 2 = 5

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For the song by Radiohead, see 2 + 2 = 5 (song).

The phrase "two plus two equals five" ("2 + 2 = 5") is a slogan used in many different forms of media, most notably in Part One, Chapter Seven of the book 1984 by George Orwell. In the novel, it is used as an example of an obviously false dogma that one may be required to believe, similar to other obviously false slogans promoted by the Party in the novel. It is contrasted with the phrase "two plus two makes four", the obvious—but politically inexpedient—truth.


Orwell's protagonist, Winston Smith, uses the phrase to wonder if the State might declare "two plus two equals five" as a fact; he ponders whether, if everybody believes it, does that make it true? The Inner Party interrogator of thought-criminals, O'Brien, says of the mathematically false statement that control over physical reality is unimportant; so long as one controls one's own perceptions to what the Party wills, then any corporeal act is possible, in accordance with the principles of doublethink ("Sometimes they are five. Sometimes they are three. Sometimes they are all of them at once").[1]


Contents [hide]

1 History

1.1 Coinage

1.2 Victor Hugo and Fyodor Dostoyevsky

1.3 Soviet planning

1.4 George Orwell

2 Self-evident truth

3 In popular culture

4 See also

5 References

6 Further reading

7 External links



The equation 2 + 2 = 4 has been proverbial as the type of an obvious truth since the 16th century, and it appears as such in Johann Wigand's 1562 De Neutralibus et Mediis Libellus: "That twyce twoo are foure, a man may not lawfully make a doubt of it, because that manner of knowledge is grauen [grown] into mannes [man's] nature."[2] The corollary to this, that 2 + 2 = 5 is the archetypical untruth, dates from at least as early as 1728. Ephraim Chambers' Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, published in that year, follows its definition of the word absurd with this illustrative example: "Thus, a proposition would be absurd, that should affirm, that two and two make five; or that should deny 'em to make four."[3] Similarly Samuel Johnson said in 1779 that "You may have a reason why two and two should make five; but they will still make but four."[2] The first known sympathetic reference to this equation is in an 1813 letter by Lord Byron to his soon-to-be wife Anabella Milbanke in which he writes, "I know that two and two make four—& should be glad to prove it too if I could—though I must say if by any sort of process I could convert 2 & 2 into five it would give me much greater pleasure."[4]


Victor Hugo and Fyodor Dostoyevsky[edit]

In Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Notes from Underground (published in 1864), the protagonist implicitly supports the idea of two times two making five, spending several paragraphs considering the implications of rejecting the statement "two times two makes four."


His purpose is not ideological, however. Instead, he proposes that it is the free will to choose or reject the logical as well as the illogical that makes mankind human. He adds: "I admit that twice two makes four is an excellent thing, but if we are to give everything its due, twice two makes five is sometimes a very charming thing too."


Dostoyevsky was writing in 1864. However, according to Roderick T. Long, Victor Hugo had used the phrase in 1852. He objected to the way in which the vast majority of French voters had backed Napoleon III, endorsing the way liberal values had been ignored in Napoleon III's coup.[5]


In his 1852 pamphlet, Napoléon le Petit, Victor Hugo writes: "Now, get seven million five hundred thousand votes to declare that two and two make five, that the straight line is the longest road, that the whole is less than its part; get it declared by eight millions, by ten millions, by a hundred millions of votes, you will not have advanced a step." Here, Hugo is echoing earlier French thought—Sieyès, in his What Is the Third Estate? (1789) uses the phrase, "Consequently if it be claimed that under the French constitution, 200,000 individuals out of 26 million citizens constitute two-thirds of the common will, only one comment is possible: it is a claim that two and two make five."[6]


It is very plausible that Dostoyevsky had this in mind. He had been sentenced to death for his participation in a radical intellectual discussion group. The sentence was commuted to imprisonment in Siberia, and he changed his opinions such that they would fit no conventional labels.


The idea seems to have been significant to Russian literature and culture. Ivan Turgenev wrote in Prayer (1881), one of his Poems in Prose "Whatever a man prays for, he prays for a miracle. Every prayer reduces itself to this: Great God, grant that twice two be not four." Also similar sentiments are said to be among Leo Tolstoy's last words when urged to convert back to the Russian Orthodox Church: "Even in the valley of the shadow of death, two and two do not make six." Even turn-of-the-century Russian newspaper columnists used the phrase to suggest the moral confusion of the age.[7] Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin in God and the State (1882), classifies Deism as: "Imagine a philosophical vinegar sauce of the most opposed systems, a mixture of Fathers of the Church, scholastic philosophers, Descartes and Pascal, Kant and Scottish psychologists, all this a superstructure on the divine and innate ideas of Plato, and covered up with a layer of Hegelian immanence accompanied, of course, by an ignorance, as contemptuous as it is complete, of natural science, and proving just as two times two make five; the existence of a personal God."[8] In The Reaction In Germany (1842) Bakunin compares the behavior of Compromising Positivists to the one of Juste-milieu at the beginning of the July Revolution quoting a French journal: "The Left says, 2 times 2 are 4; the Right, 2 times 2 are 6; and the Juste-milieu says, 2 times 2 are 5".[9][10][11]


Soviet planning[edit]


2+2=5: Arithmetic of a counter-plan plus the enthusiasm of the workers. Soviet propaganda poster by Yakov Guminer, 1931

The Soviet Union began its first five-year economic plan in 1928. Its goals were ambitious from the start, seeking the immediate transformation of the USSR into an industrial nation. The consequences for underperformance during the plan were severe; managers who admitted missing their targets, even as those targets were revised upward, could be charged with economic wrecking.[12] After statistics from the first two years indicated that the plan was ahead of schedule, Joseph Stalin announced that the plan would be completed in four years.[13] Propagandist Iakov Guminer supported this campaign with a 1931 poster reading "2+2=5: Arithmetic of a counter-plan plus the enthusiasm of the workers." Stalin declared the plan a success at the beginning of 1933, noting the creation of several heavy industries where none had existed.[14] George Orwell could have been influenced by this poster.[15]


George Orwell[edit]

George Orwell had used this concept before publishing Nineteen Eighty-Four in 1949. During his career at the BBC, he became familiar with the methods of Nazi propaganda. In his essay "Looking Back on the Spanish War",[16] published in 1943 (six years before the publication of Nineteen Eighty-Four), Orwell wrote:


Nazi theory indeed specifically denies that such a thing as "the truth" exists. ... The implied objective of this line of thought is a nightmare world in which the Leader, or some ruling clique, controls not only the future but the past. If the Leader says of such and such an event, "It never happened" – well, it never happened. If he says that two and two are five – well, two and two are five. This prospect frightens me much more than bombs.[16]


In the view of most of Orwell's biographers, the main source for this was Assignment in Utopia by Eugene Lyons, an account of his time in the Soviet Union. This contains a chapter "Two Plus Two Equals Five", that referred to Guminer's slogan.


However, Orwell spoke of the Nazis, so he may have been making reference to the Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, who once, in a debatably hyperbolic display of loyalty to Adolf Hitler, declared, "If the Führer wants it, two and two makes five!"[17]


In Nineteen Eighty-Four, Orwell writes:


In the end the Party would announce that two and two made five, and you would have to believe it. It was inevitable that they should make that claim sooner or later: the logic of their position demanded it. Not merely the validity of experience, but the very existence of external reality, was tacitly denied by their philosophy. The heresy of heresies was common sense. And what was terrifying was not that they would kill you for thinking otherwise, but that they might be right. For, after all, how do we know that two and two make four? Or that the force of gravity works? Or that the past is unchangeable? If both the past and the external world exist only in the mind, and if the mind itself is controllable – what then?[18]


Self-evident truth[edit]

In his play Dom Juan (1682), Molière's title character is asked what he believes. He answers that he believes that two plus two equals four.[19] Belief is the psychological state in which an individual holds a proposition or premise to be true.[20] A belief is separate from knowledge.[21][22] Were certain absolute knowledge to exist, belief in an existential claim would be unnecessary. Molière seeks the freedom to believe that two plus two equals four. Orwell seeks the freedom to say that two plus two equals four, as an objective fact which the Party cannot touch.


René Descartes' realm of pure ideas considers that self-evident ideas such as two plus two equals four may in fact have no reality outside the mind. According to the First Meditation (1641), the standard of truth is self-evidence of clear and distinct ideas. However, Descartes questions the correspondence of these ideas to reality.[23]


In popular culture[edit]

Honoré de Balzac's novel Séraphîta (1834) contains the following passage:[24]

"Thus, you will never find in all nature two identical objects; in the natural order, therefore, two and two can never make four, for, to attain that result, we must combine units that are exactly alike, and you know that it is impossible to find two leaves alike on the same tree, or two identical individuals in the same species of tree.

That axiom of your numeration, false in visible nature, is false likewise in the invisible universe of your abstractions, where the same variety is found in your ideas, which are the objects of the visible world extended by their interrelations; indeed, the differences are more striking there than elsewhere."

Popular English alternative rock band Radiohead used the slogan as the title for the opening track on their 6th studio album Hail to the Thief (2003).

In the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "Chain of Command, Part II" (1992), Captain Picard is tortured by a Cardassian in a manner similar to the torture of Winston Smith by O'Brien from Nineteen Eighty-Four. During the episode, the Cardassian officer tries to coerce Picard to admit seeing five lights when in fact there were only four. Picard valiantly sticks to reality. Near the end when Picard is about to be brought back to his crew, he defiantly declares, once again, "There!...Are!...Four!...Lights!".[25] However, later in a counselling session with Troi, Picard admits that he believed he did see five lights at the end.

In Ayn Rand's Atlas Shrugged (1957),[26] the hero John Galt posits that "the noblest act you have ever performed is the act of your mind in the process of grasping that two and two make four".

In presidential debates prior to the 2009 Iranian presidential elections, reformist candidate Mir Hossein Mousavi accused his interlocutor, president Ahmadinejad, of being illogical and said: "If you ask (the president) what two by two makes he would answer five." In the following days, one of the slogans chanted by Mousavi's supporters was "two by two makes five!"

Media critic Andrew Keen uses the phrase in his 2007 critique of Wikipedia's policy to let anyone edit. He believes, along with Marshall Poe, that this leads to an encyclopedia of common knowledge, not expert knowledge. He believes the "wisdom of the crowd" will distort truth.[27]


The State Duma or Imperial Duma was the Lower House, part of the legislative assembly in the late Russian Empire, which held its meetings in the Taurida Palace in St. Petersburg. It convened four times between 27 April 1906 and the collapse of the Empire in February 1917. The First and the Second Dumas were more democratic and represented a greater number of national types than their successors.[1] The Third Duma was dominated by gentry, landowners and businessmen. The Fourth Duma held five sessions; it existed until 2 March 1917, and was formally dissolved on 6 October 1917.

Clark, Katerina. Moscow, the Fourth Rome: Stalinism, Cosmopolitanism, and the Evolution of Soviet Culture, 1931–1941 (2011) excerpt and text search


Glenmorangie's water source is the Tarlogie Springs, situated in the Tarlogie Hills above the distillery.[7] Barley grain is supplied by Highland Grain Ltd, a co-operative of farmers in the area.[14] The stills used, the tallest in Scotland at 26 ft 3 in (8.00 m) tall, with 16 feet 10.25 inches (5.1372 m) necks,[15] are claimed by the company to produce an extremely light taste.[16] The distillation process was for decades undertaken by a staff of 16, known as The Sixteen Men of Tain, who worked year round, with the exceptions of Christmas and periods of maintenance.[4] Expansion of production since 2008 has led to a larger staff of 24, who are now referred to on bottles and in promotional leaflets just as The Men of Tain.[15]


In Unicode, braille is represented in a block called Braille Patterns (U+2800..U+28FF). The block contains all 256 possible patterns of an 8-dot braille cell, thereby including the complete 6-dot cell range.[3]


In doing so, he fought discrimination against immigrants, blacks, and indigenous peoples of the Americas.[12] Many American anthropologists adopted his agenda for social reform, and theories of race continue to be popular subjects for anthropologists today. The so-called "Four Field Approach" has its origins in Boasian Anthropology, dividing the discipline in the four crucial and interrelated fields of sociocultural, biological, linguistic, and archaic anthropology (e.g. archaeology). Anthropology in the United States continues to be deeply influenced by the Boasian tradition, especially its emphasis on culture.



The concept of four "generations" in the history of modern warfare was created by a team of United States analysts, including William S. Lind,[1] for the purpose of an argument for "the changing face of war" entering into a "fourth generation".


First-generation warfare refers to Ancient and Post-classical battles fought with massed manpower, using line and column tactics with uniformed soldiers governed by the state.

Second-generation warfare is the Early modern tactics used after the invention of the rifled musket and breech-loading weapons and continuing through the development of the machine gun and indirect fire. The term second generation warfare was created by the U.S. military in 1989.

Third-generation warfare focuses on using Late modern technology-derived tactics of leveraging speed, stealth and surprise to bypass the enemy's lines and collapse their forces from the rear. Essentially, this was the end of linear warfare on a tactical level, with units seeking not simply to meet each other face to face but to outmaneuver each other to gain the greatest advantage.

Fourth-generation warfare as presented by Lind et al. is characterized by "Post-modern" a return to decentralized forms of warfare, blurring of the lines between war and politics, combatants and civilians due to nation states' loss of their near-monopoly on combat forces, returning to modes of conflict common in pre-modern times.

Fourth-generation warfare (4GW) is conflict characterized by a blurring of the lines between war and politics, combatants and civilians.

The term was first used in 1989 by a team of United States analysts, including paleoconservative William S. Lind, to describe warfare's return to a decentralized form. In terms of generational modern warfare, the fourth generation signifies the nation states' loss of their near-monopoly on combat forces, returning to modes of conflict common in pre-modern times.


In the case of the Navajo, there were four genders: man, woman, masculine female-bodied nádleeh, and feminine male-bodied nádleeh. Intercourse between two people of different genders, regardless of biological sex, was not stigmatized. However, any sexual relationship between two of the same one gender was considered homosexual, and was strongly disapproved of. In the majority of Native American societies however, biological sex played no part in any gender variant role.[6]


In languages with grammatical gender, each noun is assigned to one of the classes called genders, which form a closed set. Most such languages usually have from two to four different genders, but some are attested with up to 20.[3][11][12]


An example is the Zande language, which has four genders: male human, female human, animal, and inanimate.[29] However, there are about 80 nouns representing inanimate entities which are nonetheless animate in gender: heavenly objects (moon, rainbow), metal objects (hammer, ring), edible plants (sweet potato, pea), and non-metallic objects (whistle, ball). Many have a round shape or can be explained by the role they play in mythology.[29]


The four-in-hand knot is a method of tying a necktie. It is also known as a simple knot or schoolboy knot, due to its simplicity and style. Some reports state that carriage drivers tied their reins with a four-in-hand knot, while others claim that the carriage drivers wore their scarves in the manner of a four-in-hand, but the most likely etymology is that members of the Four-in-Hand Club in London began to wear the neckwear, making it fashionable. The knot produced by this method is on the narrow side, notably asymmetric, and appropriate for most, but not all occasions.[citation needed] For United States Army uniforms, and United States Navy uniforms that include a necktie, the four-in-hand knot is one of three prescribed options for tying the necktie, the other two being the half-Windsor and Windsor.[1][2]


The United States Intelligence Community (IC)[1] is a federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities considered necessary for the conduct of foreign relations and national security of the United States. Member organizations of the IC include intelligence agencies, military intelligence, and civilian intelligence and analysis offices within federal executive departments. The IC is headed by the Director of National Intelligence (DNI), who reports to the President of the United States.


The awards were first presented in 1982 on the centennial of President Roosevelt's birth as well as the bicentennial of diplomatic relations between the United States and the Netherlands. The awards were founded to celebrate the Four Freedoms espoused by President Roosevelt in his speech:


Freedom of speech

Freedom of worship

Freedom from want

Freedom from fear

For each of the four freedoms an award was instituted, as well as a special Freedom medal. In 1990, 1995, 2003 and 2004 there were also special awards.



With the notable exception of vocal and musical quartets, groups of four tend not to last very long. Two persons in the group are apt to find it more satisfying to relate to each other than to either of the others. If the other two feel left out, they have at least that in common. They may feel a need to counteract the advantage a pair has when acting together over an individual operating alone. The relationship becomes one of two pairs rather than an effective group of four members.


In decision-making groups the tendency to split two against two can lead to frustrating stalemates. Differences can be resolved more easily if the group starts out with three or five rather than four members.


On the other hand, a group of four can be stable if it depends upon unique contributions from each of its members. In a musical quartet each participant’s part is different and essential. The more experience the musicians have in playing together the better they can perform. Some such groups stay together for decades.


The 1991 Austin yogurt shop murders refers to the deaths of four teenage girls in a yogurt shop in Austin, Texas, on December 6, 1991, after which the shop was set aflame. The bodies of 13-year-old Amy Ayers (sometimes spelled Ayres), 17-year-old Jennifer Harbison, her 15-year-old sister Sarah, and 17-year-old Eliza Thomas were discovered after the fire was extinguished.


The Lake Bodom murders (Finnish: Bodominjärven murhat, Swedish: Bodommorden) were multiple homicides that took place in Finland in 1960. Lake Bodom is a lake by the city of Espoo, about 22 kilometres northwest of the country's capital, Helsinki. In the early hours of June 5, 1960, four teenagers were camping on the shores of Lake Bodom.[1] Between 4AM and 6AM, an unknown person or persons murdered three of them with a knife and blunt instrument, while wounding the fourth. The sole survivor, Nils Wilhelm Gustafsson, led an otherwise normal life until 2004, when he became a suspect and was subsequently charged. In October 2005, a district court found Gustafsson not guilty on all charges against him.


The topographical division can be experienced on a higher spiritual level as a classification of the universe. These thoughts took shape in the Old Kingdom (2635 – 2155 BC.) when the pyramids were surrounded by various functional representations, complementing the four-fold structure (fig. 78).




Fig. 78 – The pyramid complex in the Old Kingdom can be seen as a four-staged journey to holiness. The mental movement follows the light from the east (where the sun comes up) to the west (where the sun goes down) and can be divided in four stages:


1. The temple near the river Nile connects the living with earth, water and day-to-day life;


2. The (covered) road represents the choice in a visible world and leads in a linear direction towards the holy;


3. The temple of the dead in front of the pyramid is the preparation at the end of the road;


4. The pyramid is the ultimate four-fold manifestation of the world of the dead and afterlife on this world.


Emilio Mola, a Nationalist general during the Spanish Civil War, told a journalist in 1936 that as his four columns of troops approached Madrid, a "fifth column" (Spanish: Quinta columna) of supporters inside the city would support him and undermine the Republican government from within.[1]:126–127 The term was then widely used in Spain. Ernest Hemingway used it as the title of his only play, which he wrote in Madrid while the city was being bombarded, and published in 1938 in his book The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories.[2]

The phrase four-letter word refers to a set of English-language words written with four letters which are considered profane, including common popular or slang terms for excretory functions, sexual activity and genitalia, terms relating to Hell or damnation when used outside of religious contexts or slurs. The "four-letter" claim refers to the fact that a large number of (but not all) English "swear words" are incidentally four-character monosyllables. This description came into use during the first half of the twentieth century.[1]


An academic term (or simply "term") is a portion of an academic year, the time during which an educational institution holds classes. The schedules adopted vary widely.


A quarter system divides the academic year into four terms, one per season, with attendance required in three quarters per year to total 32 to 36 weeks of instruction.


According to the Torah, Kehath (Hebrew: קְהָת, Qəhāṯ) or Kohath was one of the sons of Levi[1] and the patriarchal founder of the Kehathites, one of the four main divisions of the Levites in biblical times. In some apocryphal texts, such as the Testament of Levi and the Book of Jubilees, Levi's wife, Kehath's mother, is Milkah, a daughter of Aram.[2][3]


In the Book of Exodus, Kehath has four sons, Amram, Izhar, Hebron and Uzziel. Amram marries Jochebed and sires Moses, Aaron, and Miriam.[7] Although some Greek and Latin manuscripts of the Septuagint version of the Torah state that Jochebed was Kehath's cousin,[8] the Hebrew Masoretic Text states that she was his sister[9] ---that is, Amram's aunt---and Jochebed's relationship to Levi is otherwise described unambiguously as his daughter in the Book of Numbers 26:59. According to Numbers, Kehath gained 8,600 descendants during the lifetime of his grandson.



In England, the year is divided into four terms:


Michaelmas term - from October to December

Hilary term - from January to April

Easter term - from April to May, and

Trinity term - from June to July.


As used in the Napoleonic wars, the formation was constituted as a hollow square, or sometimes a rectangle, with each side composed of two or more ranks of soldiers armed with single-shot muskets or rifles with fixed bayonets. Generally, a battalion (approx. 500 to 1,000 men) was the smallest force used to form a square. The unit's colours and commander were positioned in the centre, along with a reserve force to reinforce any side of the square weakened by attacks. A square of 500 men in four ranks, such as those formed by Wellington's army at Waterloo, was a tight formation less than twenty metres in length upon any side.


At Waterloo (1815) the four-rank squares of the Allied forces withstood eleven cavalry charges (unsupported by either horse artillery or infantry). At Lützen (1813), despite infantry and light artillery support, Allied cavalry charges failed to break green French troops. Similarly, impressive infantry efforts were seen at Jena-Auerstedt (1806), Pultusk (1806), Fuentes de Oñoro (1811) and first Battle of Krasnoi (August 14, 1812). If a square was broken, as happened at Rio Seco (1808), the infantry could suffer many casualties, although brave and well-disciplined infantry could recover even from this disaster.

four line formation

The French advance drove in the British skirmishers and reached the sunken road. As they did so, Pack's men stood up, formed into a four deep line formation for fear of the French cavalry, advanced, and opened fire. However, a firefight had been anticipated and the French infantry had accordingly advanced in more linear formation. Now, fully deployed into line, they returned fire and successfully pressed the British troops; although the attack faltered at the centre, the line in front of d'Erlon's right started to crumble. Picton was killed shortly after ordering the counter-attack and the British and Hanoverian troops also began to give way under the pressure of numbers.[69] Pack's regiments, all four ranks deep, advanced to attack the French in the road but faltered and began to fire on the French instead of charging. The 42nd Black Watch halted at the hedge and the resulting fire-fight drove back the British 92nd Foot while the leading French 45e Ligne burst through the hedge cheering. Along the sunken road, the French were forcing the Allies back, the British line was dispersing, and at two o'clock in the afternoon Napoleon was winning the Battle of Waterloo.[70]

The Four Chaplains, also sometimes referred to as the "Immortal Chaplains" or the "Dorchester Chaplains", were four United States Army chaplains who gave their lives to save other civilian and military personnel as the troop ship SS Dorchester sank on February 3, 1943, during World War II. They helped other soldiers board lifeboats and gave up their own life jackets when the supply ran out.[1] The chaplains joined arms, said prayers, and sang hymns as they went down with the ship.


The Botorrita plaques are four bronze plaques discovered in Botorrita (Roman Contrebia Belaisca), near Zaragoza, Spain, dating to the early 1st century BC, known as Botorrita I, II, III and IV.


Botorrita III, discovered in 1979, is inscribed in four columns on one side of a plaque, introduced by a heading of two lines. A part of the plaque is missing, but the inscribed portion is complete. It is heavily corroded, and the text was only legible by x-ray.

Ethnicity theory was based on the assimilation model. Park outlined his four steps to assimilation: contact, conflict, accommodation, and assimilation. Instead of explaining the marginalized status of people of color in the United States with an inherent biological inferiority, he instead said that it was a failure to assimilate into American culture that held people back. They could be equal as long as they dropped their culture which was deficient compared to white culture.


Sociopolitical typology refers to four types, or levels, of a political organization: “band,” “tribe,” “chiefdom,” and “state” created by the anthropologist Elman Service.


foragers (hunter-gatherer): band society

horticulture: tribe

pastoralism: chiefdom

agriculture: state




Plan of palace 1 (phase III)

The site is divided into four phases, each of roughly 50 years.


During Phase I, covering 100 ha (250 acres), Erlitou was a rapidly growing regional center with estimated population of several thousand,[7] but not yet an urban civilization or capital.[8]


Urbanization began in Phase II, expanding to 300 ha (740 acres) with a population around 11,000.[7] A palace area of 12 ha (30 acres) was demarcated by four roads. It contained the 150x50 m Palace 3, composed of three courtyards along a 150-meter axis, and Palace 5.[4] A bronze foundry was established to the south of the palatial complex that was controlled by the elite who lived in palaces.[9]


The city reached its peak in Phase III, and may have had a population of around 24,000.[8] The palatial complex was surrounded by a 2-meter thick rammed earth wall and Palaces 1, 7, 8, 9 were built. The earthwork volume of rammed earth for the base of largest Palace 1 is 20,000 m³ at least.[10] Palaces 3 and 5 were abandoned and replaced by 4200 m2 Palace 2 and Palace 4.[11]


In Phase IV the population decreased to around 20,000, but building continued. Palace 6 was built as an extension of Palace 2, and Palaces 10 and 11 were built. Phase IV overlaps with the Lower phase of the Erligang culture (1600–1450 BC). Around 1600 to 1560 BC, about 6 km northeast of Erlitou, Eligang cultural walled city was built at Yanshi,[11] which coincide with an increase in production of arrowheads at Erlitou.[7] This situation might indicate that the Yanshi City was competing for power and dominance with Erlitou.[7]


Production of bronzes and other elite goods ceased at the end of Phase IV, at the same time as the Erligang city of Zhengzhou was established 85 km (53 mi) to the east. There is no evidence of destruction by fire or war, but during the Upper Erligang phase (1450–1300 BC) all the palaces were abandoned, and Erlitou was reduced to a village of 30 ha (74 acres).[11]


When Xu Xusheng first discovered Erlitou, he suggested that it was Bo, the first capital of the Shang under King Tang in the traditional account.[15] Since the late 1970s speculation among Chinese achaeologists has focused on its relationship to the Xia. The traditional account of the overthrow of the Xia by the Shang has been identified with the ends of each of the four phases of the site by different authors. The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project identified all four phases of Erlitou as Xia, and the construction of the Yanshi walled city as the founding of the Shang.[16] Other scholars, particularly outside China, point to the lack of any firm evidence for such an identification, and argue that the historiographical focus of Chinese archaeology is unduly limiting.[17]


The title character first appears as an old woman at the door of a family celebrating their son's wedding. She describes her four "beautiful green fields," representing the four provinces, that have been unjustly taken from her. With little subtlety, she requests a blood sacrifice, declaring that "many a child will be born and there will be no father at the christening"


In 1897, along with Yeats and Arthur Griffith, she organised protests against Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee. In April 1902, she took a leading role in Yeats's play Cathleen Ní Houlihan. She portrayed Cathleen, the "old woman of Ireland," who mourns for her four provinces, lost to the English colonizers. She was already spending much of her time in Paris.[9]


The Quadrilateral group or the Quad is an informal group which includes the trade ministers of the European Union, the United States, Japan and Canada. It was first suggested during a private meeting during the 7th G7 summit in July 1981. Initially, a trilateral group was proposed (excluding Canada) because of tensions between the two North American countries at the time but eventually, the Canadian government successfully lobbied to be included.[1] The European Commission has avoided formalizing the group because of resistance from certain European Union members, particularly France, who resent their lack of direct involvement.[1]

The Quad Cities[1][2][3] is a region of four counties in northwest Illinois and Southeastern Iowa.[4] The urban core consists of four principal cities: Davenport and Bettendorf in Iowa, and Rock Island and Moline in Illinois. These cities are the center of the Quad Cities Metropolitan Area, which as of 2013 had a population estimate of 383,781 and a CSA (Combined Statistical Area) population of 474,937, making it the 90th largest CSA in the nation.[5][6][7]

Short term effectiveness and efficiency alone are inadequate. Quality decisions must be both effective and efficient in the short and long run. These four functional horizons are illustrated below:…/adi…/1-Adizes-Competing_Values.gif
Layered over these four functional horizons, Adizes describes four corresponding activities: Producing, Administrating, Entrepreneuring and Integrating. These activities address short-term and long-term effectiveness and efficiency.

In the Adizes framework, Producing is the activity of attaining short term or immediate results, and Administrating is the activity of minimizing waste in ongoing activities. Entrepreneuring is the activity of seeking out and recognizing new opportunities or new orientations to the environment, and Integrating is the activity of coordinating shared attention and identification. Integration keeps organizations socially and functionally cohesive, preventing them from degenerating into mechanical, purely formally interrelated collections of functionally isolated individuals. When it operates properly, the organization becomes an organic unit that can survive even when key people leave the organization. Integration makes a whole that is more than the sum of its parts – one in which no single person on the team is indispensable. Any individual can step down from their position to be replaced by someone else, and the organization will still be what it is.

One advantage of the Adizes Methodology as a frame of reference for this study is that Adizes abbreviates his four categories of Producing, Administrating, Entrepreneuring and Integrating using just the four first letters of each word – PAEI. This makes it easier to disembed the concerns he lists for each value set, taking them out of their context in organizational studies to apply them more broadly as a possible features of some larger reality.

It might seem easy to make good quality decisions, since we only need to consider four simple concerns. However, people are very likely to disagree on the right balance of priorities for any given situation. Each concern requires decision-makers to adopt certain preoccupations, motivations, values, instincts and priorities. But due to personal preferences, some concerns appeal to us more than others. We each have biases towards or away from different styles of concern. Furthermore, we are very unlikely to be equally skilled at solving problems in all four styles of concern, because talent in one biases against talent in others (e.g. a talent for quick, snap decisions and a talent for long, careful meticulous decisions are hard to maximize within the same person).

An implication is that something in our biological organization makes it impossible to operate with equal brilliance in all four quadrants of concern. We are not wired up to be extremely talented in all four styles of concern at once. Most people will have a dominant style, a second strong style, a third competent style and a final weak style. We can attain ‘foursquare’ excellence only by teaming up with other people whose talents and preferences are different from ours. This creates synergy. It also necessarily entails conflict among collaborators.

If it is kept constructive, conflict is a positive development. Incompatibilities on teams can be leveraged to produce better group decisions by ensuring that all four functional horizons receive due consideration. Teams can thereby accomplish the well-rounded decisionmaking that individuals will always find more difficult to do, given the inevitability of personal biases and preferences. To understand conflict in decision-making, and to use it constructively rather than destructively, these
preferences and biases have to be generally understood.

Adizes illustrates these biases through the construction of four allegorical or prototypical personality profiles: the Producer, the Administrator, the Entrepreneur and the Integrator. These characters
exemplify the styles he describes. They are introduced below, and they illustrate the structure of concern in the field of personality, although the characters are clearly simplified. Each one represents a single, unadmixed dominant style, rather than the unique mixture of all four styles that
characterizes most adult human beings.

Layered over these four functional horizons, Adizes describes four corresponding activities: Producing, Administrating, Entrepreneuring and Integrating. These activities address short-term and long-term effectiveness and efficiency.


Together the two dimensions generate a matrix with four dominant models (see “Four Models”): the opportunist (diffused ownership and ad hoc resource allocation); the enabler (diffused ownership and dedicated resources); the advocate (focused ownership and ad hoc resource allocation); and the producer (focused ownership and dedicated resources). Each model represents a distinct way of fostering corporate entrepreneurship. A closer look at the models illustrates how they help companies build corporate entrepreneurship in different ways.


A 2013 study concluded that sustainability reporting should be reframed through the lens of four interconnected domains: ecology, economics, politics and culture.[14]


The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)[edit]

In September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly formally adopted the "universal, integrated and transformative" 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The goals are to be implemented and achieved in every country from the year 2016 to 2030.



See also: Planetary boundaries and Triple bottom line

Sustainable development.svg

About this image

Scheme of sustainable development:

at the confluence of three constituent parts. (2006)

Sustainable development, or sustainability, has been described in terms of three spheres, dimensions, domains or pillars, i.e. the environment, the economy and society. The three-sphere framework was initially proposed by the economist René Passet in 1979.[15] It has also been worded as "economic, environmental and social" or "ecology, economy and equity."[16] This has been expanded by some authors to include a fourth pillar of culture,[17][18] institutions or governance.[16]


Working with a different emphasis, some researchers and institutions have pointed out that a fourth dimension should be added to the dimensions of sustainable development, since the triple-bottom-line dimensions of economic, environmental and social do not seem to be enough to reflect the complexity of contemporary society. In this context, the Agenda 21 for culture and the United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) Executive Bureau lead the preparation of the policy statement "Culture: Fourth Pillar of Sustainable Development", passed on 17 November 2010, in the framework of the World Summit of Local and Regional Leaders – 3rd World Congress of UCLG, held in Mexico City. This document inaugurates a new perspective and points to the relation between culture and sustainable development through a dual approach: developing a solid cultural policy and advocating a cultural dimension in all public policies. The Circles of Sustainability approach distinguishes the four domains of economic, ecological, political and cultural sustainability.[83][84][85]


Other organizations have also supported the idea of a fourth domain of sustainable development. The Network of Excellence "Sustainable Development in a Diverse World",[86] sponsored by the European Union, integrates multidisciplinary capacities and interprets cultural diversity as a key element of a new strategy for sustainable development. The Fourth Pillar of Sustainable Development Theory has been referenced by executive director of IMI Institute at UNESCO Vito Di Bari[87] in his manifesto of art and architectural movement Neo-Futurism, whose name was inspired by the 1987 United Nations’ report Our Common Future. The Circles of Sustainability approach used by Metropolis defines the (fourth) cultural domain as practices, discourses, and material expressions, which, over time, express continuities and discontinuities of social meaning.[82]


Andrew Van de Ven and Marshall Scott Poole (1995), differentiates theories based on four distinct "motors" for generating change. According to this framework, the following four types of group development models exist:


Life cycle models: Describe the process of change as the unfolding of a prescribed and linear sequence of stages following a program that is prefigured at the beginning of the cycle (decided within the group or imposed on it).

Teleological models: Describe change as a purposeful movement toward one or more goals, with adjustments based on feedback from the environment.

Dialectical models: Describe change as emerging from conflict between opposing entities and eventual synthesis leading to the next cycle of conflict

Evolutionary models: Describe change as emerging from a repeated cycle of variation, selection and retention and generally apply to change in a population rather than change within an entity over time.

Tuckman's Stages model[edit]

Bruce Tuckman reviewed about fifty studies of group development (including Bales' model) in the mid-sixties and synthesized their commonalities in one of the most frequently cited models of group development (Tuckman, 1965). Tuckman's model of group development describes four linear stages (forming, storming, norming, and performing) that a group will go through in its unitary sequence of decision making


Tubbs' systems model[edit]

Stewart Tubbs "systems" approach to studying small group interaction led him to the creation of a four-phase model of group development:


Orientation: In this stage, group members get to know each other, they start to talk about the problem, and they examine the limitations and opportunities of the project.

Conflict: Conflict is a necessary part of a group's development. Conflict allows the group to evaluate ideas and it helps the group conformity and groupthink

Consensus: Conflict ends in the consensus stage, when group members compromise, select ideas, and agree on alternatives.

Closure In this stage, the final result is announced and group members reaffirm their support of the decision.


McGrath's Time, Interaction, and Performance (TIP) theory[edit]

McGrath's (1991) work emphasized the notion that different teams might follow different developmental paths to reach the same outcome. He also suggested that teams engage in four modes of group activity: inception, technical problem solving, conflict resolution, and execution. According to this model, modes "are potential, not required, forms of activity" (p. 153) resulting in Modes I and IV (inception and execution) being involved in all group tasks and projects while Modes II (technical problem solving) and III (conflict resolution) may or may not be involved in any given group activity (Hare, 2003 uses the terms meaning, resources, integration, and goal attainment for these four modes).


McGrath further suggested that all team projects begin with Mode I (goal choice) and end with Mode IV (goal attainment) but that Modes II and III may or may not be needed depending on the task and the history of the group's activities. McGrath contended that for each identified function, groups can follow a variety of alternative "time-activity paths" in order to move from the initiation to the completion of a given function. Specifically, TIP theory states that there is a "default path" between two modes of activity which is "satisficing" or "least effort" path, and that such default path will "prevail unless conditions warrant some more complex path" (1991, p. 159).


Mode I: Inception Inception and acceptance of a project (goal choice)

Mode II: Technical Problem Solving Solution of technical issues (means choice)

Mode III: Conflict Resolution Resolution of conflict, that is, of political issues (policy choice)

Mode IV: Execution Execution of the performance requirements of the project (goal attainment)

FOUR STAKEHOLDER GROUPS–in_software_development

The four stakeholder groups[edit]

What sets outside-in software development apart from other stakeholder-based approaches is the categorization of the four types of stakeholders. The following four groups are unique, but there is a lot of interaction between all four:


Principals: The people who buy your software—the most important stakeholder to appease.

End users: The people who interact with your product. They experience how your software works in the real world.

Partners: The people who make your product work in real life, such as operations teams and also business partners and system integrators.

Insiders: The people within your company that have some impact on how your team develops software.

It is crucial to speak with all stakeholders, even if they are not the primary audience of your software.


A business opportunity consists of four elements all of which are to be present within the same timeframe (window of opportunity) and most often within the same domain or geographical location, before it can be claimed as a business opportunity. These four elements are:


A need

The means to fulfill the need

A method to apply the means to fulfill the need and;

A method to benefit

"The Big Four" was the name popularly given to the famous and influential businessmen, philanthropists and railroad tycoons who built the Central Pacific Railroad, (C.P.R.R.), which formed the western portion through the Sierra Nevada and the Rocky Mountains of the First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States, built from the mid-continent at the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean during the middle and late 1860s.[1] Composed of Leland Stanford, (1824–1893), Collis Potter Huntington, (1821–1900), Mark Hopkins, (1813–1878), and Charles Crocker, (1822–1888), the four themselves however, personally preferred to be known as "The Associates."[2]

Contents [hide]

1 Membership

2 In popular culture

3 References

4 External links


Leland Stanford, (1824–1893), – C.P.R.R. President, Stanford University founder.

Collis Potter Huntington, (1821–1900), – C.P.R.R. Vice President, for which the city of Huntington, West Virginia was named. He is also the uncle of Henry E. Huntington, (1850–1927), founder of the famous Huntington Library with its art galleries and gardens in San Marino, California.

Mark Hopkins, (1813–1878), – C.P.R.R. Treasurer

Charles Crocker, (1822–1888), – Construction Supervisor, President of Charles Crocker & Co., a C.P.R.R. subsidiary, later founder of the larger, more extensive Southern Pacific Railroad, another transcontinental link to the east, built later in 1883.

Collectively, the four philanthropically also established the Sacramento Library Association for the state capital in Sacramento, California in 1857, which later established the present Sacramento Public Library.[3]


David Hewes, an enterprising businessman, was called the "maker of San Francisco" for his work in clearing land for development. He was invited to be a part of the "Big Four" but declined due to the financial risks. Over his lifetime he gained and lost several fortunes.[4]


In their time, the four men were sometimes referred to as nabobs or "nobs," a reference to their wealth and influence. When the four built mansions in the same neighborhood of San Francisco, the area quickly became known as Nob Hill, a name it carries today.[5]


In popular culture[edit]

Author, newspaper reporter and columnist Ambrose Bierce included characters based on the "Big Four" in his work "Black Beetles in Amber" as Sootymug (Hopkins), Happy Hunty (Huntington), Cowboy Charley (Crocker) and Leland, The Kid (Stanford).[6]


The Four Ps[edit]

Main article: Marketing mix

In the early 1960s, Professor Neil Borden at Harvard Business School identified a number of company performance actions that can influence the consumer decision to purchase goods or services. Borden suggested that all those actions of the company represented a “Marketing Mix”. Professor E. Jerome McCarthy, at the Michigan State University in the early 1960s, suggested that the Marketing Mix contained 4 elements: product, price, place and promotion.



The product aspects of marketing deal with the specifications of the actual goods or services, and how it relates to the end-user's needs and wants. The scope of a product generally includes supporting elements such as warranties, guarantees, and support.


This refers to the process of setting a price for a product, including discounts. The price need not be monetary; it can simply be what is exchanged for the product or services, e.g. time, energy, or attention. Methods of setting prices optimally are in the domain of pricing science.

Placement (or distribution)

This refers to how the product gets to the customer; for example, point-of-sale placement or retailing. This third P has also sometimes been called Place, referring to the channel by which a product or service is sold (e.g. online vs. retail), which geographic region or industry, to which segment (young adults, families, business people), etc. also referring to how the environment in which the product is sold in can affect sales.


This includes advertising, sales promotion, including promotional education, publicity, and personal selling. Branding refers to the various methods of promoting the product, brand, or company.

These four elements are often referred to as the marketing mix,[9] which a marketer can use to craft a marketing plan.


The four Ps model is most useful when marketing low value consumer products. Industrial products, services, high value consumer products require adjustments to this model. Services marketing must account for the unique nature of services.


A formal approach to this customer-focused marketing is known as SIVA[15] (Solution, Information, Value, Access). This system is basically the four Ps renamed and reworded to provide a customer focus.


The SIVA Model provides a demand/customer centric version alternative to the well-known 4Ps supply side model (product, price, place, promotion) of marketing management.


Product → Solution

Promotion → Information

Price → Value

Placement → Access


The 4Ps have been the cornerstone of the managerial approach to marketing since the 1960s

Product refers to what the business offers for sale and may include products or services. Product decisions include the "quality, features, benefits, style, design, branding, packaging, services, warranties, guarantees, life cycles, investments and returns".[22]


Price refers to decisions surrounding "list pricing, discount pricing, special offer pricing, credit payment or credit terms". Price refers to the total cost to customer to acquire the product, and may involve both monetary and psychological costs such as the time and effort expended in acquisition.[22]


Place is defined as the "direct or indirect channels to market, geographical distribution, territorial coverage, retail outlet, market location, catalogues, inventory, logistics and order fulfilment". Place refers either to the physical location where a business carries out business or the distribution channels used to reach markets. Place may refer to a retail outlet, but increasingly refers to virtual stores such as "a mail order catalogue, a telephone call centre or a website".[22]


Promotion refers to "the marketing communication used to make the offer known to potential customers and persuade them to investigate it further".[22] Promotion elements include "advertising, public relations, direct selling and sales promotions.



The 'marketing mix' (also known as the four Ps) is a foundation concept in marketing. The marketing mix has been defined as the "set of marketing tools that the firm uses to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market".[1] Thus the marketing mix refers to four broad levels of marketing decision, namely: product, price, promotion, and place.[2] Marketing practice has been occurring for millennia, but marketing theory emerged in the early twentieth century. The contemporary marketing mix, or the 4Ps, which has become the dominant framework for marketing management decisions, was first published in 1960.[3] In services marketing, a modified and expanded marketing mix is used, typically comprising seven Ps made up of the original 4 Ps plus process, people, physical environment.[4] Occasionally service marketers will refer to eight Ps; comprising the 7 Ps plus performance.[5]


In the 1990s, the concept of four Cs was introduced as a more customer-driven replacement of the four Ps.[6] There are two theories based on four Cs: Lauterborn's four Cs (consumer, cost, communication, convenience), and Shimizu's four Cs (commodity, cost, communication, channel).


The origins of the four Ps can be traced to the late 1940s.[8][9] The first known mention of a mix has been attributed to a Professor of Marketing at Harvard University, Prof. James Culliton.[10] In 1948, Culliton published an article entitled, The Management of Marketing Costs[11] in which Culliton describes marketers as 'mixers of ingredients'. Some years later, Culliton's colleague, Professor Neil Borden, published a retrospective article detailing the early history of the marketing mix in which he claims that he was inspired by Culliton's idea of 'mixers', and credits himself with popularising the concept of the 'marketing mix'.[12] According to Borden's account, he used the term, 'marketing mix' consistently from the late 1940s. For instance, he is known to have used the term 'marketing mix' in his presidential address given to the American Marketing Association in 1953.[13]



Lauterborn's four Cs (1990)[edit]

Robert F. Lauterborn proposed a four Cs classification in 1990.[29] His classification is a more consumer-orientated version of the four Ps[30] that attempts to better fit the movement from mass marketing to niche marketing:[29]


Four Ps Four Cs Definition


Consumer wants and needs

A company will only sell what the consumer specifically wants to buy. So, marketers should study consumer wants and needs in order to attract them one by one with something he/she wants to purchase.[29][31]



Price is only a part of the total cost to satisfy a want or a need. The total cost will consider for example the cost of time in acquiring a good or a service, a cost of conscience by consuming that or even a cost of guilt "for not treating the kids".[29] It reflects the total cost of ownership. Many factors affect cost, including but not limited to the customer's cost to change or implement the new product or service and the customer's cost for not selecting a competitor's product or service.[32]



While promotion is "manipulative" and from the seller, communication is "cooperative" and from the buyer[29] with the aim to create a dialogue with the potential customers based on their needs and lifestyles.[33] It represents a broader focus. Communications can include advertising, public relations, personal selling, viral advertising, and any form of communication between the organization and the consumer[citation needed].



In the era of Internet,[31] catalogues, credit cards and phones people neither need to go anywhere to satisfy a want or a need nor are limited to a few places to satisfy them. Marketers should know how the target market prefers to buy, how to be there and be ubiquitous, in order to guarantee convenience to buy.[29][33] With the rise of Internet and hybrid models of purchasing, Place is becoming less relevant. Convenience takes into account the ease of buying the product, finding the product, finding information about the product, and several other factors[citation needed].


The basic PEST analysis includes four factors:


Political factors are basically how the government intervenes in the economy. Specifically, political factors has areas including tax policy, labour law, environmental law, trade restrictions, tariffs, and political stability. Political factors may also include goods and services which the government aims to provide or be provided (merit goods) and those that the government does not want to be provided (demerit goods or merit bads). Furthermore, governments have a high impact on the health, education, and infrastructure of a nation.

Economic factors include economic growth, interest rates, exchange rates, the inflation rate. These factors greatly affect how businesses operate and make decisions. For example, interest rates affect a firm's cost of capital and therefore to what extent a business grows and expands. Exchange rates can affect the costs of exporting goods and the supply and price of imported goods in an economy.

Social factors include the cultural aspects and health consciousness, population growth rate, age distribution, career attitudes and emphasis on safety. High trends in social factors affect the demand for a company's products and how that company operates. For example, the ageing population may imply a smaller and less-willing workforce (thus increasing the cost of labour). Furthermore, companies may change various management strategies to adapt to social trends caused from this (such as recruiting older workers).

Technological factors include technological aspects like R&D activity, automation, technology incentives and the rate of technological change. These can determine barriers to entry, minimum efficient production level and influence the outsourcing decisions. Furthermore, technological shifts would affect costs, quality, and lead to innovation.


Perceptual maps can have any number of dimensions but the most common is two dimensions. The first perceptual map below shows consumer perceptions of various automobiles on the two dimensions of sportiness/conservative and classy/affordable. This sample of consumers felt Porsche was the sportiest and classiest of the cars in the study (top right corner). They felt Plymouth was most practical and conservative (bottom left corner).


Some maps plot ideal vectors instead of ideal points. The map below displays various aspirin products as seen on the dimensions of effectiveness and gentleness. It also shows two ideal vectors. The slope of the ideal vector indicates the ratio of the two dimensions preferred by those consumers within that segment. This study indicates that there is one segment that is more concerned with effectiveness than harshness, and another segment that is more interested in gentleness than strength.


On March 15, 1962, President John F. Kennedy presented a speech to the United States Congress in which he extolled four basic consumer rights, later called the Consumer Bill of Rights. The United Nations through the United Nations Guidelines for Consumer Protection expanded these into eight rights, and thereafter Consumers International adopted these rights as a charter and started recognizing March 15 as World Consumer Rights Day.


Helen Ewing Nelson was a drafter of the Consumer Bill of Rights and sought an outlet for distributing it.[1][2][3] During Kennedy's election campaign he made a promise to support consumers.[2] After his election, Fred Dutton, a colleague of Nelson's and a government officer who advised the president, asked for Nelson's suggestions on how the president could support consumers, and she sent him the Consumer Bill of Rights.[2] Kennedy presented those rights in a speech to Congress on March 15, 1962.[4] In that speech he named four basic rights of consumers.


Freedom from fear is listed as a fundamental human right according to The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. On January 6, 1941, American president Franklin D. Roosevelt called it one of the "Four Freedoms" at his State of the Union, which was afterwards therefore referred to as the "Four Freedoms Speech."[1]

THERE HAVE BEEN FOUR WORLD CONFERENCES - fourth is different…/Fourth_World_Conference_on_Women
Fourth World Conference on Women
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The Fourth World Conference on Women: Action for Equality, Development and Peace was the name given for a conference convened by the United Nations during 4–15 September 1995 in Beijing, China.[1]

Contents [hide] 
1 Background
1.1 First World Conference on Women, Mexico City, 1975
1.2 Second World Conference on Women, Copenhagen, 1980
1.3 Third World Conference on Women, Nairobi, 1985
1.4 Preceding the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 1995



Identifying PLC stages[edit]

Identifying the stage of a product is an art more than a science, but it's possible to find patterns in some of the general product features at each stage. Identifying product stages when the product is in transition is very difficult.[citation needed]



features Stages

Introduction Growth Maturity Decline

Sales Low High High Low

Investment cost Very high High (lower than intro stage) Low Low

Competition Low or no competition High Very high Very High

Profit Low High High Low


Customer loyalty[edit]

See also: Loyalty marketing, customer retention, brand loyalty, loyalty program, and customer loyalty program

Customer loyalty, defined as “the relationship between an individual's relative attitude and repeat patronage" (Dick and Basu, 1994: p. 99). Thus, by definition, loyalty has both an attitudinal component and a behavioural component. Dick and Basu proposed four types of loyalty based on relative attitude and patronage behaviour:[111]



Dick and Basu's Loyalty Matrix

No Loyalty

Characterised by low relative attitude and low repeat patronage behaviour. May occur when competing brands are seen as similar or in the case of new brands (or categories) where insufficient time has elapsed for loyalty to become established.

Spurious Loyalty

Characterised by low relative attitude and high repeat patronage. Spurious loyalty occurs when the consumer undertakes repeat purchasing due to situational factors such as access, convenience or shelf placement. Spurious loyalty can also occur when there are no genuine alternatives or the consumer is ‘locked-in’ to purchasing a given brand due to some quasi-contractual arrangement or membership status which creates difficulties for switching. In other words, where switching costs are relatively high, high patronage behaviour may be observed despite the absence of a favourable attitude towards the brand. An example would be a consumer who always purchases petrol from the same outlet on the way to work because there are no other outlets in the vicinity.

Latent Loyalty

Characterised by high relative attitude and low repeat patronage. Latent loyalty occurs when situational factors over-ride strong favourable attitudes. For example, a person may have a preferred restaurant but may not patronize it, due to the preferences of dining companions.


(i.e. true loyalty) Characterised by favourable attitude and favourable patronage behaviour. For marketers, true loyalty is the ideal situation.


Frequent flyer schemes are among the most well known of the reward programs

File:Rewards Card Programs - explained by simpleshow foundation.webm

Rewards Card Programs - explained

Loyalty marketing programs are built on the insight that it costs 5-20 times more to acquire a new customer than to retain an existing customer.[112] Marketers use a variety of loyalty programs to strengthen customer attitudes towards the brand (or service provider/ retailer) in order to retain customers, minimise customer defections and strengthen loyalty bonds with existing customers. Broadly there are two types of program: reward and recognition programs. In a Reward Program, the customer accumulates points for each purchase, and the points can subsequently be exchanged for goods or services.[113] Recognition Programs operate on a quasi-membership basis where the consumer is issued with a card that upon presentation leads to various entitlements such as free upgrades, special privileges or access to products/services that are not normally available to non- members, and that acknowledge the loyal customer's "VIP" status.[114] For example, a hotel might recognise loyal patrons by providing a complimentary fruit bowl and bottle of champagne in the room on arrival. Whereas reward programs are motivated by the consumer's desire for material possessions, recognition programs are motivated by the consumer's need for esteem, recognition and status. Many commercial loyalty programs are hybrid schemes, combining elements of both reward and recognition. In addition, not all reward programs are designed to encourage loyalty. Certain reward programs are designed to encourage other types of positive customer behaviour such as the provision of referrals or providing positive word-of-mouth (WOM) recommendations.[115]


Loyalty marketing can involve the use of databases and sophisticated software to analyse and profile customer loyalty segments with a view to identifying the most desirable segments, setting goals for each segment and ultimately attempting to increase the size of the loyal customer base.


The international shipping industry can be divided into four closely related shipping markets, each trading in a different commodity: the freight market, the sale and purchase market, the newbuilding market and the demolition market. These four markets are linked by cash flow and push the market traders in the direction they want.


Contents [hide]

1 The freight market

1.1 Freight derivatives

2 The sale and purchase market

3 The newbuilding market

4 The demolition market

5 See also

6 References

The freight market[edit]

The freight market consists of shipowners, charterers and brokers. They use four types of contractual arrangements: the voyage charter, the contract of affreightment, the time charter and the bareboat charter. Shipowners contract to carry cargo for an agreed price per tonne while the charter market hires out ships for a certain period. A charter is legally agreed upon in a charter-party in which the terms of the deal are clearly set out.


Brand loyalty: Consumer loyalty is the most valuable wealth of enterprises. Consumers can be divided into four types according to their brand loyalty: True Friends, Butterflies, Barnacles and Strangers.


True Friends: They are the highest level of the four types and the most important part of the customer group. For example, a fan of a Swiss knife, they will keep telling their friends and neighbors the benefits of this knife, their frequency of use. These loyal customers will be free of charge to the brand, and continue to recommend to others. For any business, this is the most popular type of customer.



Cicero, an early philosopher who discusses duty in his work “On Duty", suggests that duties can come from four different sources:[2]


as result of being human

as a result of one's particular place in life (one's family, one's country, one's job)

as a result of one's character

as a result of one's own moral expectations for oneself

FOUR QUADRANTS–share_matrix

To use the chart, analysts plot a scatter graph to rank the business units (or products) on the basis of their relative market shares and growth rates.


Cash cows is where a company has high market share in a slow-growing industry. These units typically generate cash in excess of the amount of cash needed to maintain the business. They are regarded as staid and boring, in a "mature" market, yet corporations value owning them due to their cash-generating qualities. They are to be "milked" continuously with as little investment as possible, since such investment would be wasted in an industry with low growth.

Dogs, more charitably called pets, are units with low market share in a mature, slow-growing industry. These units typically "break even", generating barely enough cash to maintain the business's market share. Though owning a break-even unit provides the social benefit of providing jobs and possible synergies that assist other business units, from an accounting point of view such a unit is worthless, not generating cash for the company. They depress a profitable company's return on assets ratio, used by many investors to judge how well a company is being managed. Dogs, it is thought, should be sold off.

Question marks (also known as problem children) are businesses operating with a low market share in a high-growth market. They are a starting point for most businesses. Question marks have a potential to gain market share and become stars, and eventually cash cows when market growth slows. If question marks do not succeed in becoming a market leader, then after perhaps years of cash consumption, they will degenerate into dogs when market growth declines. Question marks must be analyzed carefully in order to determine whether they are worth the investment required to grow market share.

Stars are units with a high market share in a fast-growing industry. They are graduated question marks with a market- or niche-leading trajectory, for example: amongst market share front-runners in a high-growth sector, and/or having a monopolistic or increasingly dominant unique selling proposition with burgeoning/fortuitous proposition drive(s) from: novelty (e.g. Last.FM upon CBS Interactive's due diligence), fashion/promotion (e.g. newly prestigious celebrity-branded fragrances), customer loyalty (e.g. greenfield or military/gang enforcement backed, and/or innovative, grey-market/illicit retail of addictive drugs, for instance the British East India Company's, late-1700s opium-based Qianlong Emperor embargo-busting, Canton System), goodwill (e.g. monopsonies) and/or gearing (e.g. oligopolies, for instance Portland cement producers near boomtowns),[citation needed] etc. The hope is that stars become next cash cows.

Stars require high funding to fight competitors and maintain their growth rate. When industry growth slows, if they remain a niche leader or are amongst the market leaders, stars become cash cows; otherwise, they become dogs due to low relative market share.


Perhaps the most important danger[7] is, however, that the apparent implication of its four-quadrant form is that there should be balance of products or services across all four quadrants; and that is, indeed, the main message that it is intended to convey. Thus, money must be diverted from 'cash cows' to fund the 'stars' of the future, since 'cash cows' will inevitably decline to become 'dogs'. There is an almost mesmeric inevitability about the whole process. It focuses attention, and funding, on to the 'stars'. It presumes, and almost demands, that 'cash cows' will turn into 'dogs'.


Similar to the growth-share matrix, the Advantage Matrix groups businesses into four categories. These are volume, stalemated, specialized and fragmented businesses. However, this matrix takes as its axes the two contrasting alternatives, economies of scale (described by them as 'potential size of advantage') against differentiation (shown as 'number of approaches to achieving advantage'). In essence, the former category covers the approach described in the more popular growth-share matrix, while the latter represents the approach (described by Michael Porter) of differentiating products so that they do not compete head-on with their competitors.


Volume business. In this case there are considerable economies of scale, but few opportunities for differentiation. This is the classic situation in which organizations strive for economies of scale by becoming the volume, and hence cost, leader. Examples are volume cars and consumer electronics.

Stalemated business. Here there is neither the opportunity for differentiation nor economies of scale; examples are textiles and shipbuilding. The main means of competition, therefore, has been reducing the `factor costs' (mainly those of labor) by moving to locations where these costs are lower, even to different countries in the developing world.

Specialized business. These businesses gain benefits from both economies of scale and differentiation (often characterized by experience effects in their own, differentiated, segment); examples being branded foods and cosmetics. The main strategies are focus and segment leadership.

Fragmented business. These organizations also gain benefit from differentiation, particularly in the services sector, but little from economies of scale; examples being restaurants and job-shop engineering. Competition may be minimized by innovatory differentiation.


The Ansoff Matrix is a strategic planning tool that provides a framework to help executives, senior managers, and marketers devise strategies for future growth.[1][2] It is named after Russian American Igor Ansoff, who came up with the concept.


Diagram showing the Ansoff Matrix

Contents [hide]

1 Growth strategies

1.1 Market penetration

1.2 Market development

1.3 Product development

1.4 Diversification

2 References

Growth strategies[edit]

Ansoff, in his 1957 paper, provided a definition for product-market strategy as "a joint statement of a product line and the corresponding set of missions which the products are designed to fulfill".[3] He describes four growth alternatives:


Market penetration[edit]

In market penetration strategy, the organization tries to grow using its existing offerings (products and services) in existing markets. In other words, it tries to increase its market share in current market scenario.This involves increasing market share within existing market segments. This can be achieved by selling more products or services to established customers or by finding new customers within existing markets. Here, the company seeks increased sales for its present products in its present markets through more aggressive promotion and distribution.


This can be accomplished by: (i) Price decrease; (ii) Increase in promotion and distribution support; (iii) Acquisition of a rival in the same market; (iv) Modest product refinements


Market development[edit]

In market development strategy, a firm tries to expand into new markets (geographies, countries etc.) using its existing offerings.


This can be accomplished by (i) Different customer segments (ii) Industrial buyers for a good that was previously sold only to the households; (iii) New areas or regions about of the country (iv) Foreign markets. This strategy is more likely to be successful where:- (i) The firm has a unique product technology it can leverage in the new market; (ii) It benefits from economies of scale if it increases output; (iii) The new market is not too different from the one it has experience of; (iv) The buyers in the market are intrinsically profitable.


Product development[edit]

In product development strategy, a company tries to create new products and services targeted at its existing markets to achieve growth.


This involves extending the product range available to the firm's existing markets. These products may be obtained by: (i) Investment in research and development of additional products; (ii) Acquisition of rights to produce someone else's product; (iii) Buying in the product and "branding" it; (iv) Joint development with ownership of another company who need access to the firm's distribution channels or brands.



In diversification an organization tries to grow its market share by introducing new offerings in new markets. It is the most risky strategy because both product and market development is required. (i) Related Diversification - Here there is relationship and, therefore, potential synergy, between the firms in existing business and the new product/market space. (a) Concentric diversification, and (b) Vertical integration. (ii) Unrelated Diversification: This is otherwise termed conglomerate growth because the resulting corporation is a conglomerate, i.e. a collection of businesses without any relationship to one another.A strategy for company growth through starting up or acquiring businesses outside the company’s current products and markets


The four types of value include: functional value, monetary value, social value, and psychological value. The sources of value are not equally important to all consumers. How important a value is, depends on the consumer and the purchase. Values should always be defined through the "eyes" of the consumer.


Functional Value: This type of value is what an offer does, it's the solution an offer provides to the customer.


Monetary Value: This is where the function of the price paid is relative to an offerings perceived worth. This value invites a trade-off between other values and monetary costs.


Social Value: The extent to which owning a product or engaging in a service allows the consumer to connect with others.


Psychological Value: The extent to which a product allows consumers to express themselves or feel better.


According to Hall, "a message must be perceived as meaningful discourse and be meaningfully de-coded before it has an effect, a use, or satisfies a need". There are four codes of the Encoding/Decoding Model of Communication. The first way of encoding is the dominant (i.e. hegemonic) code. This is the code the encoder expects the decoder to recognize and decode. "When the viewer takes the connoted meaning full and straight and decodes the message in terms of the reference-code in which it has been coded, it operates inside the dominant code". The second way of encoding is the professional code. It operates in tandem with the dominant code. "It serves to reproduce the dominant definitions precisely by bracketing the hegemonic quality, and operating with professional codings which relate to such questions as visual quality, news and presentational values, televisual quality, ‘professionalism’ etc."[30] The third way of encoding is the negotiated code. "It acknowledges the legitimacy of the hegemonic definitions to make the grand significations, while, at a more restricted, situational level, it makes its own ground-rules, it operates with ‘exceptions’ to the rule".[31] The fourth way of encoding is the oppositional code also known as the globally contrary code. "It is possible for a viewer perfectly to understand both the literal and connotative inflection given to an event, but to determine to decode the message in a globally contrary way." "Before this message can have an ‘effect’ (however defined), or satisfy a ‘need’ or be put to a ‘use’, it must first be perceived as a meaningful discourse and meaningfully de-coded."[32]


Hall challenged all four components of the mass communications model. He argues that (i) meaning is not simply fixed or determined by the sender; (ii) the message is never transparent; and (iii) the audience is not a passive recipient of meaning.[28] For example, a documentary film on asylum seekers that aims to provide a sympathetic account of their plight, does not guarantee that audiences will decode it to feel sympathetic towards the asylum seekers. Despite its being realistic and recounting facts, the documentary form itself must still communicate through a sign system (the aural-visual signs of TV) that simultaneously distorts the intentions of producers and evokes contradictory feelings in the audience.[28]


In his essay,[1] Hall compares two models of communication. The first, the traditional model is criticized for its linearity – sender/message/receiver – and for its lack of structured conception of various moments as a complex structure of relations. The author proposes the idea that there is more to the process of communication and, thus, advances a four-stage model of communication that takes into account the production, circulation, use and reproduction of media messages. In contrast to the traditional linear approach of the sender and receiver, he perceives each of these steps as both autonomous and interdependent. Hall further explains that the meanings and messages in the discursive "production" are organized through the operation of codes within the rules of "language." "Each stage will affect the message (or "product") being conveyed as a result of its 'discursive form' (e.g. practices, instruments, relations)."[1] Therefore, once the discourse is accomplished, it must be translated into social practices in order to be completed and effective – "If no 'meaning' is taken, there can be no 'consumption'." Each of these steps helps defines the one that follows, while remaining clearly distinct.[1] Thus, even though each of these moments (stages) are equally important to the process as a whole, they do not completely ensure that the following moment will necessary happen. "Each can constitute its own break or interruption of the 'passage of forms' on whose continuity the flow of effective production (i.e. reproduction) depends."[1]


These four stages are:[1]


Production – This is where the encoding, the construction of a message begins. Production process has its own "discursive" aspect, as it is also framed by meanings and ideas; by drawing upon society's dominant ideologies, the creator of the message is feeding off of society's beliefs, and values. Numerous factors are involved in the production process. On one hand "knowledge-in-use concerning the routines of production, technical skills, professional ideologies, institutional knowledge, definitions and assumptions, assumptions about the audience"[1] form the "production structures of the television."[1] On the other hand, "topics, treatments, agendas, events, personnel, images of the audience, ‘definitions of the situation' from other sources and other discursive formations"[1] form the other part of wider socio-cultural and political structure.

Circulation – How individuals perceive things: visual vs. written. How things are circulated influences how audience members will receive the message and put it to use. According to Philip Elliott the audience is both the "source" and the "receiver" of the television message. For example, circulation and reception of a media message are incorporated in the production process through numerous "feedbacks." So circulation and perception, although not identical, are certainly related to and involved into the production process.

Use (distribution or consumption) – For a message to be successfully "realized", "the broadcasting structures must yield encoded messages in the form of a meaningful discourse."[1] This means that the message has to be adopted as a meaningful discourse and it has to be meaningfully decoded. However, the decoding/interpreting of a message requires active recipients.

Reproduction – This stage is directly after audience members have interpreted a message in their own way based on their experiences and beliefs. The decoded meanings are the ones with "an effect" (e.g. influence, instruct, entertain) with "very complex perceptual, cognitive, emotional, ideological or behavioral consequences."[1] What is done with the message after it has been interpreted is where this stage comes in. At this point, you will see whether individuals take action after they have been exposed to a specific message.


In this important book, Joseph Vogl offers a much longer perspective on these developments, showing how the dynamics of modern finance capitalism have always rested on a complex and constantly evolving relationship between private creditors and the state. Combining historical and theoretical analysis, Vogl argues that over the last three centuries, finance has become a "fourth estate," marked by the systematic interconnection of treasury and finance, of political and private economic interests.

The Four Lords of the Warring States were four powerful aristocrats of the late Warring States period of Chinese history who exerted a strong influence on the politics of their respective states in the third century BCE.[1]


During this time, the Zhou king was a mere figurehead, and seven states led by aristocratic families competed for real power. Although they were not themselves monarchs, four aristocrats stood out because of their tremendous military power and wealth: Lord Mengchang (d. 279 bce) of Qi, Lord Xinling (d. 242 bce) of Wei, Lord Pingyuan (d. 251 bce) of Zhao and Lord Chunshen (d. 237 bce) of Chu.[2]


All four were renowned for their activity in the politics of their era as well as being the persona of their state respectively at the time; they also wielded influence via the cultivation and housing of many talented house-guests, who often included learned men and tacticians. As such, they came to be the most prominent patrons of the shi (士) or scholar-knights, stimulating the intellectual life of the time. Their prestige became the inspiration for Lü Buwei when he created his academic analogue in Qin.


Proposed by Lars Konzack of University of Copenhagen as a framework for analysis and design of RPGs, this model examines a role-playing game both as a composite whole (Gesamtkunstwerk) of four art forms: Sub-Creation (setting), Ludus (game system), Performance, and Narrative; and as a "cabinet of curiosities" (Wunderkammer), a metaphor for their capacity to smoothly incorporate any player-suggested concepts into their imaginary space.[10]


In game theory, coordination games are a class of games with multiple pure strategy Nash equilibria in which players choose the same or corresponding strategies.


If this game is a coordination game, then the following inequalities in payoffs hold for player 1 (rows): A > B, D > C, and for player 2 (columns): a > c, d > b. In this game the strategy profiles {Left, Up} and {Right, Down} are pure Nash equilibria, marked in gray. This setup can be extended for more than two strategies (strategies are usually sorted so that the Nash equilibria are in the diagonal from top left to bottom right), as well as for a game with more than two players.


Matching pennies is the name for a simple game used in game theory. It is played between two players, Even and Odd. Each player has a penny and must secretly turn the penny to heads or tails. The players then reveal their choices simultaneously. If the pennies match (both heads or both tails), then Even keeps both pennies, so wins one from Odd (+1 for Even, −1 for Odd). If the pennies do not match (one heads and one tails) Odd keeps both pennies, so receives one from Even (−1 for Even, +1 for Odd).


As the shooter makes his approach to the ball, the goalkeeper has only a fraction of a second to "read" the shooter's motions and decide where the ball will go. If their guess is correct, this may result in a saved penalty. Helmuth Duckadam, the goalkeeper of Steaua București, saved a record four consecutive penalties in the 1986 European Cup Final against FC Barcelona. He dived three times to the right and a fourth time to his left to save all penalties taken, securing victory for his team.


Systematic depiction of AGIL functions[edit]

The four functions of AGIL into external and internal problems, and further into instrumental and consummatory problems. External problems include the use of natural resources and making decisions to achieve goals, whereas keeping the community integrated and maintaining the common values and practices over succeeding generations are considered internal problems. Furthermore, goal attainment and the integral function belong to the consummatory aspect of the systems.[2]


It is common to use a table to illustrate the four functions and their differences in spatial and temporal orientation. (The following only addresses the AGIL component examples for the social system—for example, "political office" is not a unit for the categories on the action-system level).


Instrumental functions Consummatory functions

External problems Adaptation

- natural resources

- commodity production



- political offices

- common goals


Internal problems Latency (or Pattern Maintenance)

- family

- schools



- religious systems

- media


Each of the four individual functional necessities are further divided into four sub-categories. The four sub-categories are the same four functions as the major four AGIL categories and so on. Hence one subsystem of the societal community is the category of "citizenship," which is a category we today would associate with the concept of civil society. In this way, citizenship (or civil society) represents according to Parsons, the goal-attainment function within the subsystem of the Societal Community. For example, a community's adaption to the economic environment might consist of the basic "industrial" process of production (adaption), political-strategic goals for production (goal-attainment), the interaction between the economical system and the societal community, which integrates production mechanisms both in regard to economic as well as societal factors (integration), and common cultural values in their "selective" relevance for the societal-economic interchange process (latency (or Pattern Maintenance)). Each of these systemic processes will (within the scope of the cybernetic hierarchy) be regulated by what Talcott Parsons calls generalized symbolic media. Each system level of the general action-paradigm has each their set of generalized symbolic media (so that the set of generalized symbolic media for the social system is not identical with those of the action system or those of the human condition paradigm). In regard to the social system, there are the following four generalized symbolic media:


A: (Economy): Money. G: (Political system): Political power. I: (Societal Community): Influence. L: (Fiduciary system): Value-commitment.[3]




In sociological research, functional prerequisites are the basic needs (food, shelter, clothing, and money) that an individual requires to live above the poverty line.[1] Functional prerequisites may also refer to the factors that allow a society to maintain social order.


On the other hand Parsons argued any successful social system has four functional prerequisites – adaptation; goal attainment; integration and pattern maintenance.


Adaptation – in order to survive any society needs the basics of food and shelter. Having these gives any society control over its environment. A society needs a functioning economy to provide this.


Goal attainment – all societies need to provide some sort of collective goals for it members to aspire to. Governments set goals such as New Labour setting a target of 50% of school leavers would attend university. To do deliver such goals governments provide the resources, laws and other institutional mechanisms so such goals can be met.


Integration – all societies need a legal system in order to mediate any conflict and therefore protect the social system from breaking down.


Pattern maintenance – this prerequisite is provided by institutions like education and the family. These institutions exist to reaffirm the essential values needed for society to function. For Parsons the key institution in passing on such basic values is religion.


Durkheim's concept[edit]

Durkheim (1858–1917) claimed that deviance was in fact a normal and necessary part of social organization.[1] When he studied deviance he stated four important functions of deviance.


"Deviance affirms cultural values and norms. Any definition of virtue rests on an opposing idea of vice: There can be no good without evil and no justice without crime".[2]

Deviance defines moral boundaries, people learn right from wrong by defining people as deviant.

A serious form of deviance forces people to come together and react in the same way against it.

Deviance pushes society's moral boundaries which, in turn leads to social change.


Howard Becker, a labeling theorist, identified four different types of deviant behavior labels which are given as:


"Falsely accusing" an individual - others perceive the individual to be obtaining obedient or deviant behaviors.

"Pure deviance", others perceive the individual as participating in deviant and rule-breaking behavior.

"Conforming", others perceive the individual to be participating in the social norms that are distributed within societies.

"Secret deviance" which is when the individual is not perceived as deviant or participating in any rule-breaking behaviors.


Robert K. Merton discussed deviance in terms of goals and means as part of his strain/anomie theory. Where Durkheim states that anomie is the confounding of social norms, Merton goes further and states that anomie is the state in which social goals and the legitimate means to achieve them do not correspond. He postulated that an individual's response to societal expectations and the means by which the individual pursued those goals were useful in understanding deviance. Specifically, he viewed collective action as motivated by strain, stress, or frustration in a body of individuals that arises from a disconnection between the society's goals and the popularly used means to achieve those goals. Often, non-routine collective behavior (rioting, rebellion, etc.) is said to map onto economic explanations and causes by way of strain. These two dimensions determine the adaptation to society according to the cultural goals, which are the society's perceptions about the ideal life, and to the institutionalized means, which are the legitimate means through which an individual may aspire to the cultural goals.[3]


Merton described 5 types of deviance in terms of the acceptance or rejection of social goals and the institutionalized means of achieving them:


1. Innovation is a response due to the strain generated by our culture's emphasis on wealth and the lack of opportunities to get rich, which causes people to be "innovators" by engaging in stealing and selling drugs. Innovators accept society's goals, but reject socially acceptable means of achieving them. (e.g.: monetary success is gained through crime). Merton claims that innovators are mostly those who have been socialised with similar world views to conformists, but who have been denied the opportunities they need to be able to legitimately achieve society's goals.[1]


2. Conformists accept society's goals and the socially acceptable means of achieving them (e.g.: monetary success is gained through hard work). Merton claims that conformists are mostly middle-class people in middle class jobs who have been able to access the opportunities in society such as a better education to achieve monetary success through hard work.[1]


3. Ritualism refers to the inability to reach a cultural goal thus embracing the rules to the point where the people in question lose sight of their larger goals in order to feel respectable. Ritualists reject society's goals, but accept society's institutionalised means. Ritualists are most commonly found in dead-end, repetitive jobs, where they are unable to achieve society's goals but still adhere to society's means of achievement and social norms.[1]


4. Retreatism is the rejection of both cultural goals and means, letting the person in question "drop out". Retreatists reject the society's goals and the legitimate means to achieve them. Merton sees them as true deviants, as they commit acts of deviance to achieve things that do not always go along with society's values.[1]


5. Rebellion is somewhat similar to retreatism, because the people in question also reject both the cultural goals and means, but they go one step further to a "counterculture" that supports other social orders that already exist (rule breaking). Rebels reject society's goals and legitimate means to achieve them, and instead creates new goals and means to replace those of society, creating not only new goals to achieve but also new ways to achieve these goals that other rebels will find acceptable.[1]


In Suicide (1897), Durkheim explores the differing suicide rates among Protestants and Catholics, arguing that stronger social control among Catholics results in lower suicide rates. According to Durkheim, Catholic society has normal levels of integration while Protestant society has low levels. Overall, Durkheim treated suicide as a social fact, explaining variations in its rate on a macro level, considering society-scale phenomena such as lack of connections between people (group attachment) and lack of regulations of behavior, rather than individuals' feelings and motivations.[44][64]


Durkheim believed there was more to suicide than extremely personal individual life circumstances: for example, a loss of a job, divorce, or bankruptcy. Instead, he took suicide and explained it as a social fact instead of a result of one’s circumstances. Durkheim believed that suicide was an instance of social deviance. Social deviance being any transgression of socially established norms. He created a normative theory of suicide focusing on the conditions of group life. The four different types of suicide that he proposed are egoistic, altruistic, anomic, and fatalistic. He began by plotting social regulation on the x-axis of his chart, and social integration on the y-axis. Egoistic suicide corresponds to a low level of social integration. When one is not well integrated into a social group it can lead to a feeling that he or she has not made a difference in anyone’s lives. On the other hand, too much social integration would be altruistic suicide. This occurs when a group dominates the life of an individual to a degree where they feel meaningless to society. Anomic suicide occurs when one has an insufficient amount of social regulation. This stems from the sociological term anomie meaning a sense of aimlessness or despair that arises from the inability to reasonably expect life to be predictable. Lastly, there is fatalistic suicide, which results from too much social regulation. An example of this would be when one follows the same routine day after day. This leads to he or she believing there is nothing good to look forward to. Durkheim suggested this was the most popular form of suicide for prisoners.


There are four types of differentiation: segmentation, stratification, center-periphery, and functional.


Instead of the standard four 75-minute periods found in the semestered school MSIP schools adopt five 60-minute periods including one 60-minute multi-subject instructional period


How MSIP works[edit]

Students attend their regular four classes each day plus a one-hour supervised MSIP class


A method called 4×4 block scheduling splits the academic year into quarters, and uses a four-period day.[2] This leaves eight slots available for classes during a semester (four classes in each of two quarters). The 4×4 method is somewhat more flexible in that students can take two sequential classes (such as Algebra 1 and 2) in the same semester (in different quarters), which would not be possible on a traditional schedule. This also allows students in their final year to fail a third-quarter class but repeat it in the fourth quarter in order to graduate. One more variant of the block schedule is a day 1–8 schedule, in which each day a student would have two blocks, lunch, an everyday class, and then a final block. The reason why there are 8 days in the schedule is because for one set of the days, each class (besides the everyday class) is shifted up one block, and on the other day each class is shifted down one block from its normal position. This results in year-long classes, which are in a constant cycle of switching positions to allow the students to have a variety of time that classes happen. For example, on Day 1, it would go Block 1, Block 2, Lunch, Everyday class, and then Block 3. On Day 3, the next day that all of those classes meet, the schedule would be Block 3, Block 1, Lunch, Everyday class, Block 2. The same would happen with the even days, and in reverse on Days 7 and 8. (Days 5 and 6 are meant to have the same schedule on Days 1 and 2).



"Where we were able to combine data to produce summary effect sizes, we found that 4 x 4 block scheduling resulted in higher cross subject achievement than traditional schedules. However, the outcome average cross-subject achievement could conceal worsening performance in some subjects and better performance in others."[3]

Big Three (colleges)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Big Three is a historical term used in the United States to refer to Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. The phrase Big Three originated in the 1880s, when these three colleges dominated college football.[1] In the early 1900s, these schools formed a sports compact that predates the Ivy League. The rivalry remains intense, though the three schools are no longer athletic powers, and schools continue to refer to their intercollegiate competitions as "Big Three" or "Harvard-Yale-Princeton" meets.

Historic status
2 U.S. News & World Report rankings
3 Economic diversity
4 Order of the names
5 As an athletic association
6 Big Four

Big Four[edit]
More than 150 years ago, Union College was one of the Big Four along with Harvard, Yale and Princeton. Student attrition due to the Civil War and a scandal over college finances led to a decline at Union that caused it to lose ground and drop from the Big Four.[22]


U.S. News & World Report has consistently ranked Harvard, Yale, and Princeton as the top three institutions in the National Universities category.[12] Over the past seventeen years ending with the 2017 rankings, U.S. News has named as the best national university Princeton ten times, Harvard twice and the two schools tied for first five times. In the 2017 rankings, Princeton was ranked first, Harvard was ranked second, and Yale was ranked third, tied with the University of Chicago.[13] This third-place tie with Chicago is the first time over the seventeen-year span in which a fourth university has tied with one of The Big Three.



The Carhart four-factor model is an extension of the Fama–French three-factor model including a momentum factor, also known in the industry as the MOM factor (monthly momentum).[1] Momentum in a stock is described as the tendency for the stock price to continue rising if it is going up and to continue declining if it is going down. The MOM can be calculated by subtracting the equal weighted average of the lowest performing firms from the equal weighed average of the highest performing firms, lagged one month (Carhart, 1997). A stock is showing momentum if its prior 12-month average of returns is positive. Similar to the three factor model, momentum factor is defined by self-financing portfolio of (long positive momentum)+(short negative momentum). Momentum strategies continue to be popular in financial markets such that financial analysts incorporate the 52-week price high/low in their Buy/Sell recommendations.[2]


The four factor model is commonly used as an active management and mutual fund evaluation model.


Fourth market

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fourth market trading is direct institution-to-institution trading without using the service of broker-dealers. Trades are usually done in blocks. It is impossible to estimate the volume of fourth market activity because trades are not subject to reporting requirements. Studies have suggested that several million shares are traded per day and trading commissions can be avoided.[1][2]


AQR was an early adopter of style, or factor, investing given the strategy’s academic roots. Although the four styles — value, momentum, defensive and carry — have been well-known and used in quantitative investing for decades, they’ve gained popularity in recent years under the mantle of “Smart Beta.” AQR has long advocated for using these styles together, citing their diversifying qualities. AQR reiterated its strong belief in the strategy, but objection to the name “Smart Beta” in the 2014 article, “Smart Beta: Not New, Not Beta, Still Awesome.”[4]


The Big Four Banking Trojans Ransomware / Blockers - A New Approach to...

October 21, 2013


Article by

Brian Donohue


177 posts

“We are what we pretend to be, so we must be careful about what we pretend to be.” ― Kurt Vonnegut


Banking trojans are like rats, you kick a trashcan and six of them go scurrying off in every direction. Most of them you’ll read about once and never again. But there is a big four of sorts that just never seem to go away: Carberp, Citadel, SpyEye, and especially Zeus.


A "Big Four" bitcoin exchange[1] in the world, which operates a BTC/USD market with support for various currencies for deposit and withdrawal.


Bitstamp is one of the four exchanges that determine CoinDesk Bitcoin Price Index BPI.


Big Four (banking)

Connected to: Ireland ING Group Scotland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The Big Four is the colloquial name for the four main banks in several countries, where the banking industry is dominated by just four institutions and where the phrase has gained currency.


International use

Internationally, the term "Big Four Banks" has traditionally referred to the following central banks:[1]


United States The Federal Reserve

China The People's Bank of China

Japan The Bank of Japan

European Union The European Central Bank


The 4 Legendary Ships in Assassin's Creed 4: Black Flag are located on the four corners of the map, and are extremely hard to destroy, although beating them means a reward of 20,000R per battle. Upgrading your ship to have at least elite armor, side cannons and rams are probably the most important for survival.


Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America is a 1989 book by David Hackett Fischer that details the folkways of four groups of people who moved from distinct regions of Great Britain (Albion) to the United States. The argument is that the culture of each of the groups persisted, to provide the basis for the modern United States.[1] Fischer explains "the origins and stability of a social system which for two centuries has remained stubbornly democratic in its politics, capitalist in its economy, libertarian in its laws and individualist in its society and pluralistic in its culture."[2] Fischer describes Albion's Seed as a modified Teutonic germ theory within the framework of the Frontier Thesis and the migration model.


Four folkways[edit]

The four migrations are discussed in the four main chapters of the book:


East Anglia to Massachusetts

The Exodus of the English Puritans (Pilgrims and Puritans influenced the Northeastern United States' corporate and educational culture)[3]

The South of England to Virginia

The Cavaliers and Indentured Servants (Gentry influenced the Southern United States' plantation culture)[4]

North Midlands to the Delaware Valley

The Friends' Migration (Quakers influenced the Middle Atlantic and Midwestern United States' industrial culture)[5]

Borderlands to the Backcountry

The Flight from North Britain (Scotch-Irish and border English influenced the Western United States' ranch culture and the Southern United States' common agrarian culture)[6]

Fischer includes satellite peoples such as Welsh, Scots, Irish, Dutch, French, Germans, Italians and a treatise on black slaves in South Carolina. Fischer covers voting patterns and dialects of speech in four regions that span from their Atlantic colonial base to the Pacific.


Fischer remarks on his own connective feelings between the Chesapeake and Southern England in Albion's Seed but attempts to flesh that out in Bound Away: Virginia and the Westward Movement, a corollary of his work in the book.[7]


Following his death, in May 1978, the Trustees of the University of Wyoming named him Distinguished Professor of Anthropology. In 1997, the Department of Anthropology at the University of Wyoming established the annual Mulloy Lecture Series in recognition of Mulloy's "four-field" approach, which integrated archaeology, biological anthropology, cultural anthropology and linguistic anthropology into a unified program at UW. In 2003, twenty-five years after his death, the College of Arts and Sciences at the University of Wyoming named him to their roster of Outstanding Former Faculty.


In telecommunications, quadruple play or quad play is a marketing term combining the triple play service of broadband Internet access, television and telephone with wireless service provisions.[1] This service set is also sometimes humorously referred to as "The Fantastic Four".


Quadruple play[edit]

Main article: Quadruple play

A so-called quadruple play (or quad play) service integrates mobility as well, often by supporting dual mode mobile plus hotspot-based phones that shift from GSM to Wi-Fi when they come in range of a home wired for triple-play service. Typical Generic Access Network services of this kind, such as Rogers Home Calling Zone (Rogers is an incumbent in the Canadian market), allow the caller to enter and leave the range of their home Wi-Fi network, and only pay GSM rates for the time they spend outside the range. Calls at home are routed over the IP network and paid at a flat rate per month. No interruption or authorization for the shift is required—soft handoff takes place automatically as many times as the caller enters or leaves the range.




There are four distinct indigenous peoples living in the Andaman Islands: Andamanese, Onges, Jarawa and Sentinelese. The Andaman Islands are a chain of over 500 islands, twenty-seven of which are inhabited, in the Bay of Bengal. Although they are closer to the South-East Asian archipelago, the islands, along with the Nicobar Islands to the south, are an Indian Union Territory, under the jurisdiction of the Home Ministry in New Delhi.


Of a total population of 180,000 on the islands in the 1990s, indigenous people of the four ethnic groups now numbered just a few hundred. Like other indigenous peoples in India, indigenous Andaman Islanders are classed as scheduled tribes and enjoy special protection under the Indian constitution. (See Adivasis)


The cooperative principle can be divided into four maxims, called the Gricean maxims, describing specific rational principles observed by people who obey the cooperative principle; these principles enable effective communication.[3] Grice proposed four conversational maxims that arise from the pragmatics of natural language.[3] Applying the Gricean maxims is a way to explain the link between utterances and what is understood from them.


This page gives a tutorial on the Stan Weinstein method of price movement and how to select stocks for long term gains. The method works.


Four Stages: Methodology


Weinstein's strategy revolves around two themes: identifying which stage the stock is in and using a 30-week moving average to help with timing and identification. To test his method, I used a portion of my existing trades and mapped the stage in which the buys and sells occurred. To do this, I had to understand his method.


Switch to the weekly scale on the stock of your choice and look for these four stages, outlined in my awful drawing.


Stock prices may appear random, but there are repeating price cycles, which are predominantly driven by the participation of large financial institutions. Large institutional buying plays out in four distinct phases:






A trader must have a strategy to take advantage of price action as it is happening. Understanding the four phases of price will maximize returns because only one of the phases gives the investor optimum profit opportunity in the stock market. When you become aware of stock cycles and the phases of price, you will be prepared to profit consistently with less drawdown.




Read more: The Stock Cycle: What Goes Up Must Come Down

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The value of stock prices and thus stock market indices such as the S&P 500 and the Dow 30 literally move through four emotional stages. Those emotional stages are: 1) optimism; 2) euphoria; 3) hope; and 4) despair. These emotional stages will be a force on stock values in both the intermediate-term time frame (less than one year as I measure it) as well as the long-term time frame (one year or more). The financial press unwittingly at times will use these exact words to explain the overriding investor emotion as that emotion pertains to the movement and value of the stock market. You too will feel and sense that same overriding emotion as you either add or subtract from the capital and assets you allow to be risked in the stock market.


Investment advisor Mark Hulbert has tracked the long-term performance of Norman Fosback’s a Seasonality Timing System that combines month-end and holiday-based buy/sell rules. According to Hulbert, this system has been able to outperform the market with significantly less risk.[7] According to Stan Weinstein there are four stages in a major cycle of stocks, stock sectors or the stock market as a whole. These four stages are (1) consolidation or base building (2) upward advancement (3) culmination (4) decline.[8]- FOURTH DIFFERENT DEATH- THIRD IS THE ACTION THIRD ALWAYS MOST PHYSICAL SOLID


Identifying PLC stages[edit]

Identifying the stage of a product is an art more than a science, but it's possible to find patterns in some of the general product features at each stage. Identifying product stages when the product is in transition is very difficult.[citation needed]



features Stages

Introduction Growth Maturity Decline

Sales Low High High Low

Investment cost Very high High (lower than intro stage) Low Low

Competition Low or no competition High Very high Very High

Profit Low High High Low



Deal and Kennedy[edit]

Deal and Kennedy (1982)[10] defined organizational culture as the way things get done around here.


Deal and Kennedy created a model of culture that is based on 4 different types of organizations. They each focus on how quickly the organization receives feedback, the way members are rewarded, and the level of risks taken:[41]


Work-hard, play-hard culture: This has rapid feedback/reward and low risk resulting in: Stress coming from quantity of work rather than uncertainty. High-speed action leading to high-speed recreation. Examples: Restaurants, software companies.[41]

Tough-guy macho culture: This has rapid feedback/reward and high risk, resulting in the following: Stress coming from high risk and potential loss/gain of reward. Focus on the present rather than the longer-term future. Examples: police, surgeons, sports.[41]

Process culture: This has slow feedback/reward and low risk, resulting in the following: Low stress, plodding work, comfort and security. Stress that comes from internal politics and stupidity of the system. Development of bureaucracies and other ways of maintaining the status quo. Focus on security of the past and of the future. Examples: banks, insurance companies.[10][41]

Bet-the-company culture: This has slow feedback/reward and high risk, resulting in the following: Stress coming from high risk and delay before knowing if actions have paid off. The long view is taken, but then much work is put into making sure things happen as planned. Examples: aircraft manufacturers, oil companies.

The Four-Step Impact Assessment is an academic framework initiated and published by Jonathan Mann and colleagues at the François-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights at the Harvard School of Public Health. The assessment takes into account the negotiation of objectives between human rights and public health. Such an approach takes into account a measure of each discipline's respective overlap to expose infringement of goals. Such infringement or confluence can be mapped out in what Mann and colleagues proposed in a 2 by 2 table, as illustrated below.

The Four-Step Impact Assessment:


To what extent does the proposed policy or program represent “good public health”?

Is the proposed policy or program respectful and protective of human rights?

How can we achieve the best possible combination of public health and human rights quality?

How serious is the public health problem?

Is the proposed response likely to be effective?

What are the severity, scope and duration of the burdens on human rights resulting from the proposed policy or program?

To what extent is the proposed policy or program restrictive and intrusive?

Is the proposed policy or program over inclusive or under inclusive?

What procedural safeguards are included in the proposed policy or program?

Will the proposed policy or program be periodically reviewed to assess both its public health effectiveness and its impact on human rights? Identify specific changes to the proposed policy or program that increase its human rights and/or public health quality while maintaining (or even strengthening) its public health effectiveness.

Finally, does the proposed policy or program (as revised) still appear to be the optimal approach to the public health problem?

Four Green Steps is an internet environmental organization based in Montreal, Quebec.[1] The organization was founded in 2008 by Jaye and Bill Yarrow. The business has been active for three years, but the official launch was held in October 2011.[2] The organization consists of four sections: School Program, Community, Marketplace and InfoZone.[1] Four Green Steps contains information on various environmental topics such as green living, sustainable products, and corporate responsibility. The site also provides an environmental curriculum for various schools of different ages.[3][4]...[5][6] The organization celebrated 'Unsolicited Acts of Kindness Week' in August 2012, celebrating by donating used office equipment and pledging to plant a tree for anyone who does a good deed during Kindness Week.[7]

I POSTED ALL THIS BEFORE IT IS IN MY OVER 60 QMR BOOKS……/ou…/260/56a4f54b/c02424b9/b628_3_4.jpg
(Source: based on Ruble and Thomas, 1976, and Whetten and Cameron, 1984)
Figure 4 A two-dimensional model of conflict behaviour


If you haven't read the 1980 article Theories of Sexual Orientation by Michael Storms at the University of Kansas cited in our Wikipedia entry*, you should do so. It's an important part of our prehistory and, I believe, the second oldest scholarly work we've found calling us asexuals.

Storms's theory isn't just of historical interest, it also represents something of a lost model differing from both the Kinsey scale and the AVEN triangle.




By placing homo-eroticism and hetero-eroticism on two axes, he created the whole grid of orientations. Here, a very bisexual person is just as hetero-erotic as a very straight person and as homo-erotic as a very gay person. An asexual is as homo-erotic as a straight person and as hetero-erotic as a gay person -- that is to say, not very. But Kinsey, Storms points out, would classify the two together, because on the two-dimensional scale they're both typified by a lack of strong gender preference. He believed that many Kinsey bisexuals might actually have been asexual.


This would look like the AVEN triangle if you turned it 45 degrees and squished it out, but it differs in a few ways. The triangle treats the axes as something like "direction of attraction" and "strength of attraction (attractability?)" -- or something, I've never had a solid answer on the y axis. Whatever you call them, these would simply be diagonal functions arising out of Storms's model, where the axes are two independent variables of eroticism.


I can see this being a challenging model for us, because it demands a solid definition of what exactly eroticism is. We don't like to use eroticism because it's a squidgy concept with multiple meanings. Defining what Storms means by it would be the first step in interpreting his model. Personally, I think eroticism is a useful tool to take the focus off sexual practice, which is really what Kinsey was all about. Maybe it's time to bring it back into the discussion.



The best hurricane forecasting models we have are "global" models that solve the mathematical equations governing the behavior of the atmosphere at every point on the globe. Models that solve these equations are called "dynamical" models. The four best hurricane forecast models—ECMWF, GFDL, GFS, and UKMET—are all global dynamical models. These models take several hours to run on the world's most advanced supercomputers.


The BAMM model (Beta and advection model, medium layer) is included on Wundermap. The BAMM is a simple trajectory model that is very fast to run, and did the best of any individual model at 3-5 day track forecasts in 2005. Since this model is always available, we have included it along with the "big four". In general, one should not trust the BAMM model for the 1-2 day time period when output from "the big four" are available. "The big four" are generally not available for tropical disturbances, and for these situations we post plots of a number of other non-global models such as the LBAR, A98E, etc. All of these models are described in detail on NHC's web site.

Quadrant A. Company-regulated, CSR-conscious design decision making: In this quadrant, both organisations and individual designers are consciously aware of SRD decision-making and they engage in formalised discussions about SRD. Businesses adopt some degree of voluntary regulatory standards as a part of their genuine commitment to social responsibility.

Quadrant B. Non-regulated, but CSR-conscious design decision making: This is concerned with a socially-conscious, designer-led approach toward SRD in which there is no company regulation related to SRD, yet individual designers try to make decisions in socially-conscious ways based on their personal ethical value system, going beyond a narrow view of company regulation.

Quadrant C. Non-regulated, CSR-unconcerned design decision-making: This view captures a perspective in which a business has no provision to look beyond a narrow view of profit maximisation. From this perspective, any part of socially responsible design decision making is socially unconcerned and non-regulated; rather it can often be seen as a response from the market which is actually a market or consumer-led approach.

Quadrant D. Company-regulated, but CSR-unconcerned design decision-making: In this quadrant, corporations tend to follow existing guidelines and regulations to fulfil minimum CSR criteria, and designers develop products and services only in a manner that adheres to the company’s legal and economic responsibilities.

When addressing this question, it is first helpful to determine what follower traits you currently have. A researcher named R. E. Kelly interviewed leaders and followers to determine the best way of identifying the best followers. Click on the different sections of Kelly’s Two-Dimensional Model of Follower Behavior for a short scenario for each type of follower. Remember, these categorized follower types represent extremes. People generally don’t fall into the extreme end of the continuum. For demonstration purposes, the members in the examples represent extreme cases.


It is interesting how much we focus on leadership, because in doing so, we forget about the other key players in the process: followers.

Like good leaders, good followers need to develop some sound characteristics. Consider a good sports team. We have those who lead and those who follow, at different times, and for different reasons, within a game. The team relies on the expertise and abilities of those with the required skill set, as the team needs the skills in question.


To be able to access those skills on the fly, the team has to be aware of the talents available and who possesses them. No one can be passive, and everyone has to be a good thinker.


In fact, there are two key parameters that we, as followers, need to display: critical thinking, and active behaviour.


The critical thinking is where we are mindful of what is going on around us, and of what the team needs for their outcome to be achieved. It is not about us: it is about the organisational goal.


Active behaviour is where we don't sit back and wait for others to put their hands up: we get on and do it, if we are the best qualified.


Based on these two ideas - critical thinking and active behaviour - Robert E. Kelley thought about two continua: the first being independent, critical thinking, versus dependent, uncritical thinking; the second being active versus passive behaviour.


Based on those two continua, came up with his Five Followership Styles model, which are:

Effective: a follower who is both a critical, independent thinker and active in behaviour. They exhibit consistent behaviour to all people, regardless of their power in the organisation, and deal well with conflict and risk. They cope with change, put forward their own views, and stay focused on what the organisation needs. They understand how others see them - so are mindful. They make acts of leadership often, and use their referent, expert, network and information power often in service of the organisation. Kelly called this group originally "The Stars".

Conformist: this follower type is very busy, but doesn't necessarily engage their brain to think through what it is they are doing. They participate very willingly but don't question orders. They will avoid conflict at all costs and take the quietest path, but will defend their boss to loyal extremes. Kelley originally named this follower type "The Yes-People".

Passive: think of a two year old who doesn't want to do something and just goes floppy. This is the passive follower. They don't engage their brain enough, nor do they take concrete action. Robert Kelley called this group "The Sheep". While not showing any initiative nor responsibility, this follower type can be the result of micro-managers or a negative, over-controlling and blame-oriented culture.

Alienated: this follower thinks extremely well, but for some reason often snipes from the sidelines. They have got stuck where they are, are very negative and feel they have lost their power. They have seen 'too much', have become bitter in their work from being passed over for promotion, or from having stayed too long in one position.

Pragmatic Survivor: this follower type I think of as the organisational 'canary in the mine-shaft'. They can flip between different followership styles, to suit each situation, and are our early warning system when the organisation's culture is starting to change for the worse. We all know that there are some people who can see the writing on the wall early: identify them and use them to ensure that your work culture remains healthy at all times.


The Circumplex Model of Group Tasks

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


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The Circumplex Model is a graphical representation of emotional states. Fundamentally, it is a circle with pleasant on the left, unpleasant on the right, activation of the top, and deactivation on the bottom. All the other emotions are placed around the circle as combinations of these four basic states. It is based on the theory that people experience emotions as overlapping and ambiguous.[1] Group dynamics are the distinctive behaviors and attitudes observed by people in groups, and the study thereof. It is of most interest in the business world, the workforce, or any other setting where the performance of a group is important. Joseph E McGrath enlarged the circumplex model to include group dynamics, based on the work of Shaw, Carter, Hackman, Steiner, Shiflett, Taylor, Lorge, Davis, Laughlin, and others.[2] There are four quadrants in this model representing: generating a task, choosing correct procedure, conflict resolution, and execution, and again there are subtypes distributed around the circle. He used this model as a research tool to evaluate group task performance.


Contents [hide]

1 Group dynamics

2 Development

2.1 Breakdown

2.2 Details

3 Visual representation

4 Further explanation

5 References

Group dynamics[edit]

Group dynamics involve the influential actions, processes and changes that exist both within and between groups.[3] Group dynamics also involve the scientific study of group processes.[3] Through extensive research in the field of group dynamics, it is now well known that all groups, despite their innumerable differences, possess common properties and dynamics.[3] Social psychological researchers have attempted to organize these commonalities, in order to further understand the genuine nature of group processes.


For instance, social psychological research indicates that there are numerous goal-related interactions and activities that groups of all sizes undertake . These interactions have been categorized by Robert F. Bales, who spent his entire life attempting to find an answer to the question, "What do people do when they are in groups?".[3] To simplify the understanding of group interactions, Bales concluded that all interactions within groups could be categorized as either a relationship interaction (or socioemotional interaction) or a task interaction.[4]



Just as Bales was determined to identify the basic types of interactions involved in groups, Joseph E. McGrath was determined to identify the various goal-related activities that are regularly displayed by groups. McGrath contributed greatly to the understanding of group dynamics through the development of his circumplex model of group tasks.[5] As intended, McGrath's model effectively organizes all group-related activities by distinguishing between four basic group goals. These goals are referred to as the circumplex model of group task's four quadrants, which are categorized based on the dominant performance process involved in a group's task of interest.[6]



The four quadrants are as follows:


Generating ideas or plans

Choosing a solution

Negotiating a solution to a conflict

Executing a task

To further differentiate the various goal-related group activities, McGrath further sub-divides these four categories, resulting in eight categories in total. The breakdown of these categories is as follows:


1. Generating ideas or plans


Type 1 – Planning tasks

E.g. Generating plans

Type 2 – Creativity tasks

E.g. Generating ideas

2. Choosing a solution


Type 3 – Intellective tasks

E.g. Solving problems with correct answers

Type 4 – Decision-making tasks

E.g. Deciding issues with no right answer

3. Negotiating a solution to a conflict


Type 5 – Cognitive conflict tasks

E.g. Resolving conflicts of viewpoints

Type 6 – Mixed-motive tasks

E.g. Resolving conflicts of interest

4. Executing a task


Type 7 – Contests/battles/competitive tasks

E.g. Resolving conflicts of power

Type 8 – Performance/psychomotor tasks

E.g. Executing performance tasks


According to McGrath and Kravitz (1982),[6] the four most commonly represented tasks in the group dynamics literature are intellective tasks, decision-making tasks, cognitive conflict tasks and mixed-motive tasks.


The circumplex model of group tasks takes the organization of goal-related activities a step further by distinguishing between tasks that involve cooperation between group members, cooperation tasks (Types 1, 2, 3 and 8) and tasks that often lead to conflict between group members, conflict tasks (Types 4, 5, 6 and 7).[3] Additionally, McGrath's circumplex model of group tasks also distinguishes between tasks that require action (behavioural tasks) and tasks that require conceptual review (conceptual tasks). 'Behavioural tasks' include Types 1, 6, 7 and 8, while 'conceptual tasks' include Types 2, 3, 4 and 5.[3]


Visual representation[edit]

The circumplex model of group tasks is, evidently, a very detailed and complex model. To allow for a more thorough understanding of its properties, a visual representation of the model has been developed. (Need a diagram of the model)


Further explanation[edit]

Since the circumplex model of group tasks is quite detailed and complex, numerous social psychological researchers have attempted to describe the model in various ways to ensure readers obtain an optimal understanding of the model. For instance, according to Stratus and McGrath (1994),[7] the four quadrants and the various task types with which they contain all relate to one another within a two-dimensional space. More specifically, Stratus and McGrath (1994)[7] states that the horizontal dimension of the circumplex model of group tasks visual representation reflect the extent to which a task entails cognitive versus behavioural performance requirements. Likewise, the vertical dimension of the circumplex model of group tasks visual representation reflects the extent and form of interdependence among members.[7]

Not surprisingly, van Zuuren & Wolfs (1991) find that 'monitoring' (that is, information-seeking) correlates highly with problem-focused coping.


Figure 3: Two-dimensional model of coping (Krohne, 1986; 1989)

The relationship between information-seeking and coping is set out in Krohne's two-dimensional model (Figure 3 below). This suggests that various states will exist as a result of intolerance of uncertainty and intolerance of arousal, of which, from an information-seeking behaviour perspective, the upper two cells, representing Sensitization and Anxiety, are most interesting. If the right hand part of the diagram is seen as 'on top of' the left hand part, Sensitization is then seen as giving rise to Constant monitoring (explained by the high tendency to vigilance and the low tendency to cognitive avoidance), while Anxiety will give rise to Fluctuating coping (because of the high tendency to cognitive avoidance). The other parts of Figure 3 may be read in a similar way.

This brief review of stress and coping suggests that it may be a useful part of any revised general theory of information-seeking behaviour and could provide a theoretical basis for a great deal of research in diverse fields. Section 5.2 includes further discussion of the relationship between self-efficacy and coping.

For an example of a more complex phase space, we can consider the fact that gender identification does not always agree with biological sex. We could represent that situation by constructing two distinctions in different dimensions, like so:

Figure 5.

Figure 5. Sex and gender as a phase space composed of two orthogonal distinctions.


And if we wanted to highlight more of the relations between these categories, we might look at Monica Helms’ four-dimensional model, which separates gender expression, gender identity, gender presentation, and sexual attraction as independent dimensions. These are fairly good models for some relations between sex and gender, but they’re both incomplete. The simple model in Figure 5 represents gender and sex as simple categories, which can be a problematic idealization. First off, there is biological sex—male vs. female—but there are also bodies that do not quite fit into either category. For example, there is a great variety conditions such as Klinefelter syndrome, XXYY syndrome, various forms of hermaphroditism and others that complicate categorization by biological sex (these papers by Anne Fausto-Sterling are a little old but include a concise discussion of some intersexual variation and Western history). So the distinction between female and male is not a dichotomy. Maybe we could imagine the female-male space as a continuum, but given the variety of non-binary conditions it might pay sometimes to have a more complex view of sex. If we’re interested in genetics, we could plot number of X chromosomes and number of Y chromosomes independently, but if we’re interested in manifestations, complications, and other factors we may find it more helpful to categorize the variety some other way.

Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI®)

The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI®) tool is the world’s best-selling tool for helping people understand how different conflict-handling styles affect interpersonal and group dynamics—and for empowering them to choose the appropriate style for any situation.

The TKI tool assesses an individual’s typical behavior in conflict situations and describes it along two dimensions: assertiveness and cooperativeness. It provides detailed information about how that individual can effectively use five different conflict-handling modes, or styles.

As a potential tool to help us think about this dynamic, I have published elsewhere1 a discussion of what I call the issue of ‘depth perception’ in libraries, which I suggest can be measured along two dimensions: one is spatial (defining a spectrum from local to global) and the other is temporal (defining a spectrum from short-term to long-term). The two-dimensional model shown in Figure 1 defines four quadrants of orientation.



Figure 1

The four quadrants of orientation


Overlaying the ‘soldier’ and ‘revolutionary’ orientations on this matrix yields a model as shown in Figure 2.

SLM is a four step model:

Directing - Provide a lot of direction (learner does not know how to perform) and a small amount of support (you do not want to overload learner).

Coaching - Decrease direction (so that learner can learn - trial & error) and increase support (needs emotional support due to some failure).

Supporting - Decrease direction even more (so that learner can become self-supporting) and decrease support.

Delegating - Provide direction and support on an as-needed basis.

Figure 01 Two-Dimensional Model of Communication Modalities

From a social capital perspective, ‘Social networking is about collecting your social capital’ (Rosen, L. 2012, P.37). Martin Gargiulo, an Associate Professor of Organisational Behaviour at INSEAD and expert on social network analysis, claims that social networks are an asset that helps individuals get things done but they can also represent a liability. Gargiulo cautions against having too wide a network because maintaining these relationships requires time and can distract people from caring for the ones that truly matter. His recommendation is to condense one’s network into a core group of ‘between 20 and 30 … and sometimes even smaller’. These people may change over time (some ties become stronger, some weaker), but there is always a core network that matters, and you need to nurture these ties above all others (Cho, K. 2009). Dave Morin, an American entrepreneur, angel investor and CEO and co-founder of the social network Path, stated that ‘50 is the perfect number of friends’ (Constine, J. 2012). According to Morin, Path is perfect for nurturing these core ties and he also claims that Path’s competitors are not Facebook or Twitter, but email and sms because these people have been opting to share content through older mediums instead of new-fangled tools (Constine, J. 2012). In addition to using email addresses to register for different online resources, those who have each other’s phone numbers are most likely part of the core tie group. Regardless of who the group is composed of, perhaps family members, close friends, old friends or colleagues, the group is likely to evolve over time as mentioned previously. To maintain a balanced lifestyle and connected daily routine, a model has been visualised based on the overlapped views of Martin Gargiulo, Dave Morin and Larry Rosen (Figure 02).

Importantly for our purposes, this two-dimensional model allows us to explore the quadrant where both complaint and communion are high. In a follow up article in 2007 I called the quadrant the Winter Christian experience as opposed to the Summer Christian experience where communion is high and complaint is low:



In the Winter Christian experience there is a great deal of complaint--lament and protest--but engagement/communion with God remains high. This is exactly what we see in Job and the lament psalms. Even with Jesus's cry from the cross.


And what this means is that communion and complaint are not antithetical. Communion and compliant can co-exist. And when they do they create the Winter Christian experience.


And this is ultimately why I moved away from the attachment paradigm. Specifically, in contrast to the attachment styles framework the Winter Christian paradigm depathologized lament.


In this model lament could be a natural, regular and even a healthy feature of faith. In this model you are not anxiously or insecurely attached to God. You're just a Winter Christian.


Satisfaction drivers terminology[2]

Author(s) Driver type 1 Driver type 2 Driver type 3 Driver type 4

Herzberg et al. (1959)[3] Hygiene Motivator

Kano (1984)[4] Must-be Attractive One-dimensional Indifferent

Cadotte and Turgeon (1988)[5] Dissatisfier Satisfier Critical Neutral

Brandt (1988)[6] Minimum requirement Value enhancing Hybrid Unimportant as determinant

Venkitaraman and Jaworski (1993)[7] Flat Value-added Key Low

Brandt and Scharioth (1998)[8] Basic Attractive One-dimensional Low impact

Llosa (1997,[9] 1999[10]) Basic Plus Key Secondary


Paul Higgs and Chris Gilleard, Rethinking Old Age: Theorizing the Fourth Age (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), vii, 119–120.


Anal sex may be depicted, but far more rarely. The evidence is not explicit and is open to interpretation.[need quotation to verify] Some vase paintings, which Percy considers a fourth type of pederastic scene in addition to Beazley's three, show the erastês seated with an erection and the erômenos either approaching or climbing into his lap. The composition of these scenes is the same as that for depictions of women mounting men who are seated and aroused for intercourse.[75] As a cultural norm considered apart from personal preference, anal penetration was most often seen as dishonorable to the one penetrated, or shameful,[76] because of "its potential appearance of being turned into a woman" and because it was feared that it may distract the erômenos from playing the active, penetrative role later in life.[77] A fable attributed to Aesop tells how Aeschyne (Shame) consented to enter the human body from behind only as long as Eros did not follow the same path, and would fly away at once if he did.[78] No shame was associated with intercrural penetration or any other act that did not involve anal penetration.[79] Oral sex is likewise not depicted,[need quotation to verify] or is indicated only indirectly; anal or oral penetration seems to have been reserved for prostitutes or slaves.[80]

Quadrants: Quadrants reflect the complex identities and the privileged and marginalized statuses that counselors and clients bring to the counseling relationship. Clients and counselors are both members of various racial, ethnic, gender, sexual orientation, economic, disability and religious groups, to list a few. These identities are categorized into privileged and marginalized statuses. A client or counselor may hold either status or both statuses simultaneously. These statuses are prevalent depending on how each individual is experiencing the current interaction.

Being attentive of these statuses highlights how issues of power, privilege and oppression play out between counselors and clients. The interactions are categorized into four quadrants:

Quadrant I: Privileged Counselor–Marginalized Client

Quadrant II: Privileged Counselor–Privileged Client

Quadrant III: Marginalized Counselor–Privileged Client

Quadrant IV: Marginalized Counselor–Marginalized Client

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The x-axis is the Axis of Trust, with a positive Solidarity Pole and a negative Suspicion Pole. The y-axis is the Axis of Agency, with a positive Ethical Pole and a negative Structural Pole. The labels on the graph above designate leftist positions. Some of these positions are concepts or ideologies, while others are movements or organizations. In both cases, however, their positions on the graph are a consequence of the practical implications of people who hold a particular ideology, subscribe to the validity of a particular concept or belong to a particular movement. That is to say: on the Axis of Trust, people who subscribe to labels closer to Solidarity will tend to extol the virtues of like-mindedness and shared interests among citizens, while people subscribing to labels closer to Suspicion will tend to stress the virtues of searching out damaging people and ideas and analyzing differences within citizen movements. On the Axis of Agency, people who subscribe to more Ethical labels will tend to privilege individual agency and the autonomous struggle toward virtuous, productive action; while those who subscribe to more Structural labels will tend to downplay the consequences of individual behavior in favor of large-scale historical forces, which many will unknowingly bring about.

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The Four-Tiered Class System of Feudal Japan





The first shogun of the Tokugawa Shogunate, Tokugawa Ieyasu. via Wikipedia

by Kallie Szczepanski

Updated June 13, 2017

Between the 12th and 19th centuries, feudal Japan had an elaborate four tier class system.


Unlike European feudal society, in which the peasants (or serfs) were at the bottom, the Japanese feudal class structure placed merchants on the lowest rung. Confucian ideals emphasized the importance of productive members of society, so farmers and fishermen had higher status than shop-keepers in Japan.


At the top of the heap was the samurai class.



Refining and extending Erik Erikson’s work, James Marcia came up with four Identity Statuses of psychological identity development. The main idea is that one’s sense of identity is determined largely by the choices and commitments made regarding certain personal and social traits.

Around 10% of the Northern England workforce is employed in retail.[161] Of the Big Four supermarkets in the UK, two – Asda and Morrisons – are based in the North. In addition, Northern England was the birthplace of the modern cooperative movement, and the Manchester-based Co-operative Group has the highest revenue of any firm in the North West.[162][163] The area is also home to many online retailers, with startups emerging around tech hubs in Northern cities.[164][165]


This is a list of supermarket chains in the United Kingdom. Grocery sales in the UK are dominated by Tesco, Asda, Sainsbury's and Morrisons. These, dubbed the 'big four', had a combined market share of 73.2% of the UK grocery market in the 12 weeks ending 4 January 2015,[1] a decline from 74.1% in 2007.[2] Discounters Aldi and Lidl have seen a combined rise in market share from 4.8% to 8.3% over that time, while upscale grocer Waitrose's share rose from 3.9% to 5.1%


Economies of the Four Asian Dragons[edit]

Singapore Singapore

China Hong Kong Hong Kong (China)

South Korea South Korea

Taiwan Taiwan


Kondratiev identified three phases in the cycle: expansion, stagnation, and recession. More common today is the division into four periods with a turning point (collapse) between the first and second phases. Writing in the 1920s, Kondratiev proposed to apply the theory to the 19th century:


The K wave is a 60 year cycle (+/- a year or so) with internal phases that are sometimes characterized as seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter:


Spring phase: a new factor of production, good economic times, rising inflation

Summer: hubristic 'peak' war followed by societal doubts and double digit inflation

Autumn: the financial fix of inflation leads to a credit boom which creates a false plateau of prosperity that ends in a speculative bubble

Winter: excess capacity worked off by massive debt repudiation, commodity deflation & economic depression. A 'trough' war breaks psychology of doom.


These waves are long cycles, lasting 50-60 years and consisting of various phases that are repetitive in nature. They are divided into four primary cycles:


Spring-Inflationary growth phase: The first wave starts after a depressed economic state. With growth comes inflation. This phase sees stable prices, stable interest rates and a rising stock market, which is led by strong corporate profits and technological innovations. This phase generally lasts for 25 years.

Summer-Stagflation (Recession): This phase witnesses wars such as the War of 1812, the Civil War, the World Wars and the Vietnam War. War leads to a shortage of resources, which leads to rising prices, rising interest rates and higher debt, and because of these factors, companies’ profits decline.

Autumn-Deflationary Growth (Plateau period): After the end of war, people want economic stability. While the economy sees growth in selective sectors, this period also witnesses social and technological innovations. Prices fall and interest rates are low, which leads to higher debt and consumption. At the same time, companies’ profits rise, resulting in a strong stock market. All of these excesses end with a major speculative bubble.

Winter-Depression: This is a period of correcting the excesses of the past and preparing the foundation for future growth. Prices fall, profits decline and stock markets correct to the downside. However, this period also refines the technologies of the past with innovation, making it cheaper and more available for the masses.


In modern economies, these phase precedences are somewhat differently expressed by the three-sector theory.[citation needed]


Primary stage/degree of the economy: Involves the extraction and production of raw materials, such as corn, coal, wood and iron. (A coal miner and a fisherman would be workers in the primary degree.)

Secondary stage/degree of the economy: Involves the transformation of raw or intermediate materials into goods e.g. manufacturing steel into cars, or textiles into clothing. (A builder and a dressmaker would be workers in the secondary degree.) At this stage the associated industrial economy is also sub-divided into several economic sectors (also called industries). Their separate evolution during the Industrial Revolution phase is dealt with elsewhere.

Tertiary stage/degree of the economy: Involves the provision of services to consumers and businesses, such as baby-sitting, cinema and banking. (A shopkeeper and an accountant would be workers in the tertiary degree.)

Quaternary stage/degree of the economy: Involves the research and development needed to produce products from natural resources and their subsequent by-products. (A logging company might research ways to use partially burnt wood to be processed so that the undamaged portions of it can be made into pulp for paper.) Note that education is sometimes included in this sector.



The primary and secondary sectors are increasingly dominated by automation, and the demand for workforce numbers falls in these sectors. It is replaced by the growing demands of the tertiary sector. The situation now corresponds to modern-day industrial societies and the society of the future, the service or post-industrial society. Today the tertiary sector has grown to such an enormous size that it is sometimes further divided into an information-based quaternary sector


Colin Clark's sector model of an economy undergoing technological change. In later stages, the Quaternary sector of the economy grows.

Modern judgements of abnormality are are not based on any one criteria, instead it's influenced by interaction of the the four Ds- dysfunction, distress, deviance, and dangerousness.


Dysfunctional: Behaviors and feelings are dysfunctional when they interfere with person's ability to function in daily life, to hold a job, or form relationships.


Distress: Behaviors and feelings that cause distress to the individual or to others around him or her are considered abnormal.


Deviant: Highly deviant behaviors like chronic lying or stealing lead to judgements of abnormality.


Dangerous: Behaviors and feelings that are potentially harmful to an individual or the individuals around them are seen as abnormal.


The four Ds together make up mental health professionals' definition of behaviors or feelings being abnormal. They capture what most of us mean when we call something abnormal while avoiding some of the problems of using only the cultural relativism, unusualness, distress, and illness criteria. However, there is no sharp line between normal and abnormal.


It recognizes four pillars of research (factor conditions, demand conditions, related and supporting industries, firm structure, strategy and rivalry) that one must undertake in analysing the viability of a nation competing in a particular international market, but it also can be used as a comparative analysis tool in recognising which country a particular firm is suited to expanding into.



The four different components of the framework are:


Factor endowment

Related and supporting industries

Demand conditions

Strategy, structure, and rivalry

Porter's four corners model is a predictive tool designed by Michael Porter that helps in determining a competitor's course of action. Unlike other predictive models which predominantly rely on a firm's current strategy and capabilities to determine future strategy, Porter's model additionally calls for an understanding of what motivates the competitor. This added dimension of understanding a competitor's internal culture, value system, mindset, and assumptions helps in determining a much more accurate and realistic reading of a competitor's possible reactions in a given situation.


In cellular automata, the von Neumann neighborhood is classically defined on a two-dimensional square lattice and is composed of a central cell and its four adjacent cells.[1] The neighborhood is named after John von Neumann, who used it to define the von Neumann cellular automaton and the von Neumann universal constructor within it.[2] It is one of the two most commonly used neighborhood types for two-dimensional cellular automata, the other one being the Moore neighborhood.


This neighbourhood can be used to define the notion of 4-connected pixels in computer graphics.[3]


The Major Divisions of the Human Race


Most anthropologists recognize 3 or 4 basic races of man in existence today. These races can be further subdivided into as many as 30 subgroups.


Ethnographic division into races from Meyers Konversationslexikon of 1885-90 is listing:


Caucasian races (Aryans, Hamites, Semites)

Mongolian races (northern Mongolian, Chinese and Indo-Chinese, Japanese and Korean, Tibetan, Malayan, Polynesian, Maori, Micronesian, Eskimo, American Indian),

Negroid races (African, Hottentots, Melanesians/Papua, “Negrito”, Australian Aborigine, Dravidians, Sinhalese)


Skull: Dolicephalic(Long-Head),High forehead,Little supraobital development.

Face: Mainly Leptoproscopic( Narrow)Sometimes Meso- or even Euryproscopic, Neither Facial nor alveolar prognathism occurs except among some archaic peoples.

Nose:Long,narrow,high in both root and bridge.



Skull: High incidence of Brachycephaly(Short Round Head)

American Indians while Mongoloid are often Dolicephalic.

Foreheads slightly lower than that of the Caucasoid.

No Supraobital development.

Face: Wide and short, projecting cheek bones, Prognathism rare. Shovel shaped incisors common especialy in Asia.

Nose: Mesorine(Low and Broad in both root and bridge.



Skull: usually Dolicephalic, a small minority are Brachycephalic.

Forehead most often high, little supraobital development.

Face: Leproscopic (to a much lesser degree than the Caucasion), Prognathism common in most Negro populations.

Nose: Low & broad in root and bridge with characteristic depression at root.


Another popular division recognizes 4 major races


The world population can be divided into 4 major races, namely white/Caucasian, Mongoloid/Asian, Negroid/Black, and Australoid. This is based on a racial classification made by Carleton S. Coon in 1962. There is no universally accepted classification for “race”, however, and its use has been under fire over the last few decades. The United Nations, in a 1950 statement, opted to “drop the term ‘race’ altogether and speak of “ethnic groups”. In this case, there are more than 5,000 ethnic groups in the world, according to a 1998 study published in the Scientific American.


Classification of "races" in Crania Americana

In Crania Americana Morton divides humankind primarily into four races with the following characteristics:


Bulliet identifies and explores four stages in the history of the human-animal relationship-separation, predomesticity, domesticity, and postdomesticity.


Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) was a German philosopher who encouraged the examination of man's inner self rather than making inferences about the inner self based upon the exterior physical self.[35] In 1775, Kant published On the Different Races of Man (Über die verschiedenen Rassen der Menschen), which proposed natural or purposive causes of variation, as opposed to mechanical law or a product of chance. He distinguished four fundamental races: whites, blacks, Kalmuck, and Hindustanic, and attributed the variation to differences in environment and climate, such as the air and sun, but clarified by saying that the variation served a purpose and was not purely superficial. Kant argued that human beings were equipped with the same seeds (Keime) and the natural predispositions or characteristics (Anlagen) that when expressed were dependent upon climate and served a purpose due to the circumstance. After this process had occurred, it was also irreversible. Therefore, race could not be undone by changes in climate. "Whichever germ was actualized by the conditions, the other germs would retire into inactivity." Kant stated:



Fisher's theory of decision emergence includes four phases which a group goes through in the decision making process. According to Fisher the distribution of different tasks and decision making changes a team and, when managed successfully, it makes the team stronger.

The first phase is the orientation phase, where team members establish relationships but also tensions. Effective communication is very important in this phase but it is also quite difficult because team members may not know each other well enough for complete trust to exist.

Next comes the conflict phase. New ideas will be discussed and there may well be significant tension as the proposers and champions of alternative approaches interact. If a natural order within the team emerges then a strong team can result. However, in some teams the conflict continues and competing factions can form.

The next phase is emergence, where the outcome of the conflict phase takes form. During this phase some people may need to soften their positions so as not to seem dominating. Individuals may need to put the interests of the team above their own personal needs and decisions.

The final phase is the reinforcement phase. Here all members of the team need to commit to the objectives and plans, whether they agree with them personally or not.


Charles F. Dowd proposed a system of one-hour standard time zones for American railroads about 1863, although he published nothing on the matter at that time and did not consult railroad officials until 1869. In 1870 he proposed four ideal time zones (having north–south borders), the first centered on Washington, D.C., but by 1872 the first was centered on the meridian 75° W of Greenwich, with geographic borders (for example, sections of the Appalachian Mountains). Dowd's system was never accepted by American railroads. Instead, U.S. and Canadian railroads implemented a version proposed by William F. Allen, the editor of the Traveler's Official Railway Guide.[5] The borders of its time zones ran through railroad stations, often in major cities. For example, the border between its Eastern and Central time zones ran through Detroit, Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Atlanta, and Charleston. It was inaugurated on Sunday, November 18, 1883, also called "The Day of Two Noons",[6] when each railroad station clock was reset as standard-time noon was reached within each time zone. The zones were named Intercolonial, Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific. Within a year 85% of all cities with populations over 10,000, about 200 cities, were using standard time.[7] A notable exception was Detroit (which is about halfway between the meridians of eastern time and central time) which kept local time until 1900, then tried Central Standard Time, local mean time, and Eastern Standard Time before a May 1915 ordinance settled on EST and was ratified by popular vote in August 1916. The confusion of times came to an end when Standard zone time was formally adopted by the U.S. Congress in the Standard Time Act of March 19, 1918.