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FOUR LIONS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Carving_of_Ashokan_pillar_at_Sanchi.jpg

Depiction of the four lions capital surmounted by a Wheel of Law at Sanchi, Satavahana period, South gateway of stupa 3.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pillars_of_Ashoka

The most celebrated capital (the four-lion one at Sarnath (Uttar Pradesh)) erected by Emperor Ashoka circa 250 BC. also called the "Ashoka Column" . Four lions are seated back to back. At present the Column remains in the same place whereas the Lion Capital is at the Sarnath Museum. This Lion Capital of Ashoka from Sarnath has been adopted as the National Emblem of India and the wheel "Ashoka Chakra" from its base was placed onto the centre of the flag of India.

 

 

Depiction of the four lions capital surmounted by a Wheel of Law at Sanchi, Satavahana period, South gateway of stupa 3.

The lions probably originally supported a Dharma Chakra wheel with 24 spokes, such as is preserved in the 13th century replica erected at Wat Umong near Chiang Mai, Thailand by Thai king Mangrai.[18]

 

The pillar at Sanchi also has a similar but damaged four-lion capital. There are two pillars at Rampurva, one with a bull and the other with a lion as crowning animals. Sankissa has only a damaged elephant capital, which is mainly unpolished, though the abacus is at least partly so. No pillar shaft has been found, and perhaps this was never erected at the site.[19]

I POSTED THOSE ARTICLES AND BOOKS IN PSYCHOLOGY SECITON AND OTHER PLACES SHOWING THAT MOST CULTURES DID NOT COUNT BEYOND FOUR ALMOST ALL COUNTED TO THREE AND THEN WOULD CALL FOUR (THREE PLUS 1) OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT---- PEOPLE ONCE THEY GO BEYOND FOR CANNOT ESTIMATE WELL- AT FOUR IT GETS HARD AT FIVE VERY HARD- BUT UP TO THREE EASY- ALSO CHILDREN ONCE THEY LEARN FOUR IS VERY HARD BUT ONCE THEY GET TO FIVE WHICH IS THE MOST DIFFICULT THEY FINALLY MAGICALLY ACHIEVE COUNTING PRINCIPAL

https://www.theguardian.com/education/2004/oct/21/research.highereducation1

The first is a small number system related to the fact that we can recognise the exact number of objects up to three or four without counting. We use a second system to deal with numbers larger than four, but it only works with approximations

I POSTED MANY ARTICLES ON THIS- EVEN ABOUT EVERY CULTURE WOULD REPRESNET NUMBERS ONE TWO AND THREE SIMILARLY BUT WOULD CHANGE AT NUMBER FOUR (SOME WOULD CHANGE AT NUMBER FIVE)----- I POSTED BOOKS ON IT FROM THAT GUY BUT I FORGET HIS NAME NOW- BUT HE POSTED GRAPHS HOW PEOPLE ONLY SUBITIZE WELL UP TO THE NUMBER FOUR AT FOUR THERE IS A SLIGHT DECREASE AT FIVE RAPID DECREASE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subitizing- THE ABACUS USES FOUR BEADS or five- but only four are subitized- I learned that in my psychology class at ucsd

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subitizing

 

The accuracy, speed, and confidence with which observers make judgments of the number of items are critically dependent on the number of elements to be enumerated. Judgments made for displays composed of around one to four items are rapid,[2] accurate[3] and confident.[4] However, as the number of items to be enumerated increases beyond this amount, judgments are made with decreasing accuracy and confidence.[1] In addition, response times rise in a dramatic fashion, with an extra 250–350 ms added for each additional item within the display beyond about four.[5]

 

While the increase in response time for each additional element within a display is 250–350 ms per item outside the subitizing range, there is still a significant, albeit smaller, increase of 40–100 ms per item within the subitizing range.[2] A similar pattern of reaction times is found in young children, although with steeper slopes for both the subitizing range and the enumeration range.[6] This suggests there is no span of apprehension as such, if this is defined as the number of items which can be immediately apprehended by cognitive processes, since there is an extra cost associated with each additional item enumerated. However, the relative difference in costs associated with enumerating items within the subitizing range are small, whether measured in terms of accuracy, confidence, or speed of response. Furthermore, the values of all measures appear to differ markedly inside and outside the subitizing range.[1] So, while there may be no span of apprehension, there appear to be real differences in the ways in which a small number of elements is processed by the visual system (i.e., approximately less than four items), compared with larger numbers of elements (i.e., approximately more than four items).

 

In each place value, the Chinese abacus uses four or five beads to represent units, which are subitized, and one or two separate beads, which symbolize fives. This allows multi-digit operations such as carrying and borrowing to occur without subitizing beyond five.

IT GOES FROM 0 TO 3 IN INFANTS- AND 0 TO FOUR IN ADULTS- COWAN HAS THE BOOK THE MAGIC NUMBER FOUR WHERE HE REFUTES HIS OLD BELIEF IN 7 PLUS MINUS TWO AND REALIZES THAT IT CENTERS AROUND FOUR- THAT COUNTING IS DONE IN CHUNKS OF FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallel_individuation_system

The parallel individuation system, also called object tracking system is a non-symbolic cognitive system that supports the representation of numerical values from zero to three (in infants) or four (in adults and non-human animals)

EVEN FISH CAN SUCCESSFULLY DISCRIMINATE ONE THROUGH FOUR- NOT BEYOND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallel_individuation_system

Parallel individuation system in animals was demonstrated in an experiment in which guppies were tested on their preference of social groups of different size, under the assumption that they have a preference for bigger size groups. In this experiment, fish successfully discriminated between numbers from 1 to 4 but after this number their performance decreased.[3] However, not all studies find confirmation of this system and for example New Zealand robins showed no difference in their understanding of small (1 to 4) and larger (above 4) amounts.[5]

ONE THROUGH FOUR- AT FOUR THINGS GET DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallel_individuation_system

The evidence for parallel individuation system comes from a number of experiments on adults, infants and non-human animals. For example, adults perform error-free when they enumerate elements for numerosities from one to four, after which their error rate rises.[4] Similarly, infants of 10 to 12 months represented the values for "exactly one", "exactly two" and "exactly three", but not for higher numbers, in a task based on hidden object retrieval.[4]

 

Parallel individuation system in animals was demonstrated in an experiment in which guppies were tested on their preference of social groups of different size, under the assumption that they have a preference for bigger size groups. In this experiment, fish successfully discriminated between numbers from 1 to 4 but after this number their performance decreased.[3] However, not all studies find confirmation of this system and for example New Zealand robins showed no difference in their understanding of small (1 to 4) and larger (above 4) amounts.[5]

ONE THROUGH FOUR- AT FOUR THINGS GET DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallel_individuation_system

The evidence for parallel individuation system comes from a number of experiments on adults, infants and non-human animals. For example, adults perform error-free when they enumerate elements for numerosities from one to four, after which their error rate rises.[4] Similarly, infants of 10 to 12 months represented the values for "exactly one", "exactly two" and "exactly three", but not for higher numbers, in a task based on hidden object retrieval.[4]

 

Parallel individuation system in animals was demonstrated in an experiment in which guppies were tested on their preference of social groups of different size, under the assumption that they have a preference for bigger size groups. In this experiment, fish successfully discriminated between numbers from 1 to 4 but after this number their performance decreased.[3] However, not all studies find confirmation of this system and for example New Zealand robins showed no difference in their understanding of small (1 to 4) and larger (above 4) amounts.[5]

AGAIN DOES NOT GO BEYOND FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Number_sense_in_animals

Numerosity is believed[8] to be represented by two separate systems in animals, similarly to humans. The first system is the approximate number system, an imprecise system used for estimations of quantities. This system is distinguished by distance and magnitude effects, which means that a comparison between numbers is easier and more precise when the distance between them is smaller and when the values of the numbers are smaller. The second system for representation of numerosity is the parallel individuation system which supports the exact representation of numbers from 1 to 4. In addition, humans can represent numbers through symbolic systems, such as language.

 

The distinction between the approximate number system and the parallel individuation system is, however, still disputed, and some experiments[9] record behavior that can be fully explained with the approximate number system, without the need to assume another separate system for smaller numbers. For example, New Zealand robins repeatedly selected larger quantities of cached food with a precision that correlated with the total number of cache pieces. However, there was no significant discontinuity in their performance between small (1 to 4) and larger (above 4) sets, which would be predicted by the parallel individuation system. On the other hand, other experiments only report knowledge of numbers up to 4, supporting the existence of the parallel individuation system and not the approximate number system[1]

RHESUS MONKEYS INNATE UNDERSTANDING OF NUMBERS UP TO FOUR- four is different- they spontaneously discriminate from one to three like humans do but humans at four they start to make errors and at five start to make a lot of errors (fourth is different, fifth is ultra transcendent)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Number_sense_in_animals

Rhesus monkeys seem to have an innate understanding of numbers up to 4. This is shown by the study on semi-free-ranging rhesus monkeys in their natural environment[1] in which the monkeys spontaneously discriminated numbers from 1 to 3 but did not demonstrate a numerical ability beyond this number. In another study that included training, rhesus monkeys showed the ability to generalize this knowledge to numerosities up to nine[16]

NUMBERS UP TO FOUR ARE CARRIED OUT BY THE PARALLEL INDIVIDUATING SYSTEM- APPROXIMATE NUMBER SYSTEM IS BEYOND FOUR- THAT IS WHY HUMANS WHEN DOING SPONTANEOUS NUMBER TASKS MAKE NO MISTAKES UP TO THREE MAKE NOT THAT MUCH AT FOUR BUT AT FIVE START TO MAKE A LOT OF MISTAKES- FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT/TRANSCENDENT- FIFTH ULTRA TRANSCENDENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Approximate_number_system

The approximate number system (ANS) is a cognitive system that supports the estimation of the magnitude of a group without relying on language or symbols. The ANS is credited with the non-symbolic representation of all numbers greater than four, with lesser values being carried out by the parallel individuation system, or object tracking system.[

HUMAN ADULTS CAN SUBITIZE THREE OR FOUR OBJECTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyscalculia

The earliest appearance of dyscalculia is typically a deficit in the ability to know, from a brief glance and without counting, how many objects there are in a small group (see subitizing). Human adults can subitize 3 or 4 objects. However, children with dyscalculia can subitize fewer objects and even when correct take longer to identify the number than their age-matched peers.[10]

THIS ARTICLE DISCUSSES THAT THERE IS A LANDMARK REACHED ONCE A CHILD LEARNS THE NUMBER FOUR- AT FOUR OR FIVE THE CHILD LEARNS THE CARDINALITY PRINCIAP HE LEARNS WHAT NUMBERS REALLY ARE (IT TAKES A LONG TIME TO LEARN FOUR---- IT TAKES EVEN LONGER TO LEARN FIVE AND IT IS VERY DIFFICULT TO LEARN FIVE BUT ONCE IT IS LEARNE DHE UNDERSTANDS NUMBER)

http://www.scilearn.com/blog/kindergarten-math-readiness-cardinal-principle

Something very interesting happens in the brains of young children when they reach age four, or thereabouts. They start to understand “how many” items are in a set—and in particular, they begin to be able to differentiate sets of “four” items or more. This ability signals that they have discovered “the cardinal principle,” the idea that the last number reached when counting the items in a set represents the entire set.

 

Of the many challenging concepts that preschoolers need to master for kindergarten math readiness, the cardinal principle is one of the harder ones, and it takes about a year to develop. It is a major milestone in a child’s mathematical development, after which the child is able to demonstrate a good understanding of “how many” in a variety of ways, such as matching sets of unlike items when the number of items in each set is the same.

 

Most parents believe that their child’s mathematical skills are developed largely by formal schooling, but research indicates that certain kinds of parent-child interactions in the preschool years, commonly referred to as “number talk,” are a primary driver of children’s mathematical ability through at least 5 thgrade. Number talk includes activities such as rote counting (counting “one, two, three, four,” as when playing hide and seek), counting tangible objects such as Cheerios (“one, two, three, four Cheerios”), and labeling the number of items in a set (“there are four Cheerios”).

 

As with verbal literacy, there is wide variation in the math knowledge of four year olds, with a one to two year gap between children who are more mathematically advanced and their less advanced peers. Children with more exposure to number talk, and specifically to number talk about sets of four or more items, catch on to the cardinal principle faster than those who engage in less number talk or in number talk that focuses mostly on smaller sets of one to three items.

 

Unfortunately, few parents are informed about how kindergarten math readiness develops, and they tend not to know which math skills are developmentally appropriate for their child in the preschool years. For example, parents often do not realize that their young child, who can easily count to 10, may not be able to identify a group of 10 objects. Parents also tend to spend more time engaged in number talk around smaller sets of one to three items instead of larger sets of four and more, while the opposite has been shown to be more beneficial.

 

Strategies to Improve Math Readiness

 

There are simple things that parents and caregivers can do to help preschoolers learn about numbers and prepare for kindergarten math:

 

Ask children to count objects they can touch, such as Cheerios, pieces of cheese, or blocks, and objects they can see, like pictures of dogs on a page of the book Go, Dog. Go!

Label the number of items in sets of objects children use throughout the day. For example, “You have six crayons.”

When counting tangible objects, label the number of items in the set, too, to point children toward the crux of the cardinal principle—that the last number counted represents the entire set of objects. For example, “one, two, three, four crackers; you have four crackers.”

Talk about larger sets more often. What children learn about larger sets helps them perform better on tasks involving smaller sets as well.

Expose children to age-appropriate, educational math games for preschoolers.

Perhaps one day in the not-too-distant future, public awareness of the importance of building preschool math literacy will match that of building preschool verbal literacy. But for now, parents and caregivers who are in the know can begin to engage preschoolers with the right kinds of activities to give them an edge in developing the early childhood math skills needed for success throughout the elementary grades.

 

I encourage you to try the some of the tips outlined above if you have young children of your own and to share this article with other parents of preschool-age kids, as we work together to raise our children’s opportunities for future success.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Tomasello
Furthermore, four broad mechanisms of language acquisition are highlighted and updated under the framework of construction grammar. It is important to note that these processes are assumed to occur in many other theories of language acquisition, with the 'entrenchment' and 'preemption' hypotheses having been developed by early nativist theorists. Although this account of language learning applies to all types of linguistic items including lexical items and phonological classes, the account presented below applies particularly to English morpho-syntax or grammar.

Intention Reading and Cultural Learning posits that children learn conventional form-meaning correspondences from their caregivers through various forms of social interaction. Social interaction works on the child to account for the child's acquisition of both lexical items of any length, from individual words and morphemes to idiomatic or fixed phrases, as well as 'grammatical rules', which in construction grammar include both adult-like linguistic categories such as noun or verb as well as intermediate entities called lexically-specific constructions or schemas memorised as word-specific frames such as 'I wanna X'. Crucially, all of these components, traditionally divided into the 'lexical' and 'grammatical', are thought to have psychological reality and are stored the same way in the user's mind as 'constructions'.
Schematization and Analogy: Unlike most Universal Grammar approaches to child language acquisition, construction grammar posits that grammatical rules are emergent over already acquired constructions or learnt piecemeal from actually occurring utterances rather than acquired through the setting of linguistic parameters during child development. Schematization occurs when these lexically-specific construction schemas are entrenched in the young child's mind through associative or statistical learning. Through analogy over a broad range of utterances/schemas that share either formal or functional similarity, the child eventually acquires adult-like syntactic constructions (e.g. SUBJECT VERB OBJECT) and their semantic correlates (e.g. AGENT ACTION PATIENT)[16]:135–136
Entrenchment and Preemption accounts for how children limit their utterances to those found in adult speech. The entrenchment hypothesis states that repeated presentation of a particular item in a particular construction constitutes probabilistic evidence that it can NOT be used in constructions in which it has not appeared.[16]:252 The pre-emption hypothesis states that overgeneralization errors (such as 'sleeped' instead of 'slept', due to the application of the past tense morpheme -ed) cease when the child learns an adult form that expresses the desired meaning, with this form then out-competing the error.[16]:254
In Functionally-based Distributional Analysis, the child groups together words that perform similar functions (e.g. words that denote events) and that appear in similar sentence constructions. This would presumably allow the child to extract words such as 'eat', 'kick' and 'hit' from the input 'I X-ing it' or vice versa.[16]:136 This process is presumably essential to all accounts of language learning, whether nativist or otherwise.

humans can only successfully (without luck) track four objects i went over the studiss at ucsd paychology class
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/…/9c89ef97011ae90febd888c2…
Previous studies have indicated that humans can track upto four objects reliably [5, 20] in video sequence.

four objects can be tracked successfully not more (anything beyond four they found is luck i learned these studies at ucsd)
http://scienceblogs.com/…/03/keeping-track-of-multiple-obje/
As expected, 19-year-olds were accurate at tracking “spies,” even when there were four of them. But younger kids’ abilities tapered off at different levels. Six-year-olds, for example, were just 55 percent accurate when asked to track three items.

Six-year-olds, by this logic, can successfully track two objects, because their score is above the chance result when tracking two objects, but below it when tracking three. Eight-year-olds, however, can track three objects. Only 19-year-olds could track four objects successfully.

this experiment saya they fall apart when there is "more than four objects to track" beyond four is impossible and four is hard/transcendent

http://scienceblogs.com/…/03/keeping-track-of-multiple-obje/

You’ll notice there are four levels of difficulty. Most adults can, with a little practice, track four out of ten randomly moving objects for ten seconds — they fall apart when there are more than four objects to track or more than ten total objects (the “most difficult” trial features four objects to track and twelve total). But when do kids develop the ability to track multiple objects? Very young infants can track a single object moving by itself quite easily, but what about several objects moving among others?

limit of four- four objects in my paychology class at ucsd we had better experiments than this we studied but maximum number of objects is four tht can be tracked and at four it is difficult/transcendent
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2927133/…

For example, Todd and Marois (2004) found that the number of objects retained in a working memory task leveled off at a maximum of four objects (in agreement with previous studies of the capacity of VSTM; Vogel, Woodman, & Luck, 2001), and that a single area in the intraparietal and intraoccipital sulci showed an activation pattern that was similar to the behavioral pattern. Xu and Chun (2006) also found that activation in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) increased when the number of items stored in working memory increased, up to a limit of approximately four, regardless of object complexity

In this view, the observation that people with WS can track a maximum of two objects at a time--at the level of a normally developing 4-year-old-- while remembering the locations of up to four static objects could be attributed to selective impairment of a mechanism such as indexing that can be reliably used for tracking moving objects.

SO THIS IS WHAT I WAS SAYING---- CHILDREN LEARN INDIVIDUALLY ONE TWO THREE AND FOUR- BUT AFTER FOUR THEY LEARN THE CARDINALITY PRINCIPAL ALL AT ONCE AND UNDERSTAND NUMBER

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3116985/

 

The first is that children learn the exact, cardinal meanings of the number words ‘one,’ ‘two,’ ‘three’ and ‘four,’ one at a time, and in order. The second claim is that children figure out the meanings of all higher number words at once when they learn the cardinality principle (Gelman & Gallistel, 1978), which connects cardinal numerosity to counting; (e.g., Carey, 2009; Le Corre, Van de Walle, Brannon, & Carey, 2006; Sarnecka & Carey, 2008; Wynn, 1992). The third claim is that, before learning the cardinality principle, children do not know the meanings (even approximately) of any higher number words.

 

These children (the pre-, one-, two-, three- and four-knowers) have not yet acquired the cardinality principle, and so do not use counting to solve the Give-N task in any case.

 

Le Corre M, Carey S. One, two, three, four, nothing more: An investigation of the conceptual sources of the verbal counting principles. Cognition. 2007;105:395–438. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

FREUDS FIVE STAGES FIT THE QUADRANT PATTERN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychosexual_development

First stage is oral- guillable and manipulative like the idealist

Second stage is anal- this is the guardian who likes to be organized and control- the second square is always HOMEOSTASIS

THIRD STAGE IS PHALLIC- THIRD IS ALWAYS BAD AND VIOLENT AND RELATED TO ACTION- THIS IS OEDIPAL COMPLEX WANTING TO KILL DAD

LATENCY IS THE FOURHT- FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT- IT DOESNT EVEN HAVE A NAME RELATED TO THE FIRST THREE BODY PARTS- IT IS LATENT LIKE NOTHING IS THERE THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT/TRANSCENDENT

FIFTH IS GENITAL- RELATED TO RELATIONSHIPS- IT IS FIRST SQUARE OF THE SECOND QUADRANT

 

Oral Birth–1 year Mouth Orally aggressive: chewing gum and the ends of pencils, etc.

Orally Passive: smoking, eating, kissing, oral sexual practices[4]

Oral stage fixation might result in a passive, gullible, immature, manipulative personality.

 

 

Anal 1–3 years Bowel and bladder elimination Anal retentive: Obsessively organized, or excessively neat

Anal expulsive: reckless, careless, defiant, disorganized, coprophiliac

Phallic 3–6 years Genitalia Oedipus complex (in boys and girls); according to Sigmund Freud.

Electra complex (in girls); according to Carl Jung.

 

Latency 6–puberty Dormant sexual feelings Sexual unfulfillment if fixation occurs in this stage.

Genital Puberty–death Sexual interests mature Frigidity, impotence, unsatisfactory relationships

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychological_Types

In the book Jung categorized people into primary types of psychological function. He proposed four main functions of consciousness:

 

Two perceiving functions: Sensation and Intuition

Two judging functions: Thinking and Feeling

JUNG SAID "THE SELF IS SYMBOLIZED AS THE CIRCLE DIVIDED INTO FOUR QUADRANTS)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self_in_Jungian_psychology

The Self in Jungian psychology is one of the Jungian archetypes, signifying the unification of consciousness and unconsciousness in a person, and representing the psyche as a whole.[1] The Self, according to Carl Jung, is realized as the product of individuation, which in his view is the process of integrating one's personality. For Jung, the Self is symbolized by the circle (especially when divided in four quadrants), the square, or the mandala.

FOUR PROPERTIES OF QUALIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qualia

 

Frank Jackson (1982) later defined qualia as "...certain features of the bodily sensations especially, but also of certain perceptual experiences, which no amount of purely physical information includes" (p. 273).

 

Daniel Dennett identifies four properties that are commonly ascribed to qualia. According to these, qualia are:

 

ineffable; that is, they cannot be communicated, or apprehended by any other means than direct experience.

intrinsic; that is, they are non-relational properties, which do not change depending on the experience's relation to other things.

private; that is, all interpersonal comparisons of qualia are systematically impossible.

directly or immediately apprehensible in consciousness; that is, to experience a quale is to know one experiences a quale, and to know all there is to know about that quale.

I TOOK A CLASS FROM RAMACHANDRAN AT UCSD AND SAT IN ON HIS CLASSES STUDYING QMR- HE HAD FOUR LAWS OF QUALIA THE FOURTH LATER ADDED- FOURTH ALWAYS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qualia

Ramachandran and Hirstein[edit]

 

V. S. Ramachandran

V. S. Ramachandran and William Hirstein[33] proposed three laws of qualia (with a fourth later added), which are "functional criteria that need to be fulfilled in order for certain neural events to be associated with qualia" by philosophers of the mind:

 

Qualia are irrevocable and indubitable. You don't say 'maybe it is red but I can visualize it as green if I want to'. An explicit neural representation of red is created that invariably and automatically 'reports' this to higher brain centres.

Once the representation is created, what can be done with it is open-ended. You have the luxury of choice, e.g., if you have the percept of an apple you can use it to tempt Adam, to keep the doctor away, bake a pie, or just to eat. Even though the representation at the input level is immutable and automatic, the output is potentially infinite. This isn't true for, say, a spinal reflex arc where the output is also inevitable and automatic. Indeed, a paraplegic can even have an erection and ejaculate without an orgasm.

Short-term memory. The input invariably creates a representation that persists in short-term memory—long enough to allow time for choice of output. Without this component, again, you get just a reflex arc.

Attention. Qualia and attention are closely linked. You need attention to fulfill criterion number two; to choose. A study of circuits involved in attention, therefore, will shed much light on the riddle of qualia.[34]

FOUR PROBLEM TYPES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trizics

TRIZICS differs from TRIZ and its common derivatives by providing the problem-solver with additional (non-TRIZ) problem-solving tools and a framework that allows classical TRIZ tools to be applied systematically and sequentially to technical problems classified by four problem types. Instead of diminishing the tools of TRIZ, TRIZICS adds a framework and additional tools to TRIZ which simplifies its use.

 

TRIZICS works by directing the user to the appropriate specific TRIZ (and non-TRIZ) tools to apply for the type of technical problem to be solved (TRIZICS defines four types of technical problem) and at which stage of the problem-solving process to use each tool. TRIZICS enables TRIZ users to systematically apply TRIZ right away by providing a structured framework for using TRIZ tools and removes the need to accumulate years of TRIZ experience to know how to coordinate and apply the tools of TRIZ (and other non-TRIZ tools) with proficiency.

 

The four types of problem

 

Specific Problems are Types 1 and 2 (may be reactive or proactive)

 

Type 1: Solve a specific problem when the root cause is unknown.

Type 2: Solve a specific problem for which the root cause is known.

General Problems are Types 3 and 4 (proactive)

 

Type 3: Improve, develop, invent a technical system, or technical process.

Type 4: Prevent future failures for a technical system or technical process.

Examples of the four problem types: Type 1: Eliminate intermittent leaking of a pipe in a gas supply system (specific, cause unknown). Type 2: Eliminate the fracturing of a glass tube due to thermal expansion when it is heated (specific, cause known). Type 3: Determine how to develop a motor car to gain market advantage. Invent a better floor cleaner. Improve the efficiency, repairability and quality of a preventative maintenance process (general inventive goal to improve a technical system or technical process). Type 4: Eliminate the causes of failure for a metal electroplating process, a radio, roller coaster, a kettle (failure prevention).

FOUR IDENTITY STATUSES

 

Marcia[edit]

James Marcia created a structural interview designed to classify adolescents into one of four statuses of identity. The identity statuses are used to describe and pinpoint the progression of an adolescent's identity formation process. In James Marcia's theory, the operational definition of identity is whether an individual has explored various alternatives and made firm commitments to: an occupation, religion, sexual orientation and a set of political values.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Identity_formation

The four identity statuses in James Marcia's theory are:[5]

 

Identity Diffusion (also known as Role Confusion): This is the opposite of identity achievement. The individual has not yet resolved their identity crisis, failing to commit to any goals or values and establish future life direction. In adolescents, this stage is characterized by disorganized thinking, procrastination, and avoidance of issues and action.[4]

Identity Foreclosure: This occurs when teenagers accept traditional values and cultural norms, rather than determining their own values. In other words, the person conforms to an identity without exploration as to what really suits them best. For instance, teenagers might follow the values and roles of their parents or cultural norms. They might also foreclose on a negative identity, the direct opposite of their parent's values or cultural norms.[4]

Identity Moratorium: This postpones identity achievement by providing temporary shelter. This status provides opportunities for exploration, either in breadth or in depth. Examples of moratoria common in American society include college or the military.[4]

Identity Achievement: This status is attained when the person has solved the identity issues by making commitments to goals, beliefs and values after extensive exploration of different areas.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solomon_Four_Group_Design

Solomon Four Group Design

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

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The Solomon Four Group Design is a research method that is sometimes used in social science, psychology and medicine. It can be used if there are concerns that the treatment might be sensitized by the pre-test.[1] The four groups have four different experiences:

 

Pre-test, treatment, post-test

Pre-test, no treatment, post-test

Treatment, post-test

No treatment, post-test

The effectiveness of the treatment can be evaluated by comparisons between groups 1 and 2 and between groups 3 and 4.

FOUR BASIC BEHAVIORS FOUR MATURITY LEVELS- FOUR PERMUTATIONS

http://www.leadership-central.com/situational-leadership-theory.html#axzz4gbYrnwgQ

 

Discussion

The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory has two pillars: leadership style and the maturity level of those being led. To Hersey and Blanchard, there leadership styles stem from four basic behaviors, designated with a letter-number combination:

 

S-1 Telling

S-2 Selling

S-3 Participating

S-4 Delegating.

The leadership style, itself, manifests itself as behavior related to the task and behavior as to relationship with the group. "Telling" behavior simply is a unidirectional flow of information from the leader to the group. Do this task in this manner because of [whatever] at this location, and get it finished by [whenever]. Transactional leadership techniques operate here. In the "selling" behavior, the leader attempts to convince the group of that the leader should lead by providing social and emotional support to the individual being convinced. There is two-way communication, but it is clear that the leader is leading. With "participating" behavior, the leader shares decision making with the group, making the system more democratic. There is less of an emphasis on accomplishing an objective than building human relations. The fourth type of behavior in leadership style, "delegating" is reflected by parceling out tasks to group members. The leader still is in charge but there is more of an emphasis on monitoring the ones delegated with the tasks.

 

Four maturity levels of the group are posited by Hersey and Blanchard with letter designations:

 

M-1: basic incompetence or unwillingness in doing the task

M-2: inability to do the task but willing to do so

M-3: competent to do the task but do not think they can

M-4: the group is ready, willing, and able to do the task.

Each type of task may involve a different maturity level, so a person with an overall maturity level of M-3 might be only an M-1 with respect to specific work.

 

According to Hersey, ability level and willingness to do work can be cultivated by a good leader by raising the level of expectations. Blanchard overlays four permutations of competency-commitment, again, with a letter designation:

 

D1 - Low competence and low commitment

D2 - Low competence and high commitment

D3 - High competence and low/variable commitment

D4 - High competence and high commitment [2]

 

 

Read more: http://www.leadership-central.com/situational-leadership-theory.html#ixzz4gbYyPpjR

THE FOUR LEADERSHIP STYLES AGAIN BASED ON TWO DICHOTOMIES

http://www.investopedia.com/terms/h/hersey-and-blanchard-model.asp

 

What is the 'Hersey And Blanchard Model'

The Hersey and Blanchard model is a situational leadership model which suggests that there is no single optimal leadership style, and successful leaders adjust their styles based on "follower maturity." Follower maturity is determined by the ability and confidence of the group they are attempting to lead. The model proposes that leaders deal with varying levels of follower maturity by adjusting their relative emphasis on task and relationship behaviors. According to the model, this gives rise to four leadership styles -

 

 

Delegating Style: a low-task, low-relationship style, where the leader allows the group to take responsibility for task decisions.

 

 

Participating Style: a low-task, high-relationship style that emphasizes shared ideas and decisions.

 

 

Selling Style: a high-task, high-relationship style, in which the leader attempts to "sell" his ideas to the group by explaining task directions in a persuasive manner.

 

 

Telling Style: a high-task, low-relationship style where the leader gives explicit directions and supervises work closely.

 

 

 

Read more: Hersey And Blanchard Model http://www.investopedia.com/terms/h/hersey-and-blanchard-model.asp#ixzz4gbZPZaec

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FOUR COMBINATIONS COMPETENCE COMMITMENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Situational_leadership_theory

Developing people and self-motivation[edit]

A good leader develops "the competence and commitment of their people so they’re self-motivated rather than dependent on others for direction and guidance."[5] According to Hersey's book,[5] a leader’s high, realistic expectation causes high performance of followers; a leader’s low expectations lead to low performance of followers. According to Ken Blanchard, "Four combinations of competence and commitment make up what we call 'development level.'"

 

D1 - Low competence and high commitment[4]

D2 - Low competence and low commitment

D3 - High competence and low/variable commitment

D4 - High competence and high commitment

In order to make an effective cycle, a leader needs to motivate followers properly.

I LISTENED TO THE LECTURES A LONG TIME AGO BEFORE I RECORDED STUFF ON FACEBOOK BUT JUNG TALKED ABOUT HIS VISIONS ALL THAT AND HE DESCRIBED THEM ALL AS HAVING FOUR PARTS AND THE FOURTH WAS ALWAY DIFFERENT THAN THE PREVIOUS THREE- FOUR STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adult_development

Carl Jung's theory[edit]

Carl Jung, a Swis psychoanalyst, formulated four stages of development and believed that development was a function of reconciling opposing forces.

 

Childhood: (birth to puberty) Childhood has two substages. The archaic stage is characterized by sporadic consciousness, while the monarchic stage represents the beginning of logical and abstract thinking. The ego starts to develop.

Youth: (puberty until 35 – 40) Maturing sexuality, growing consciousness, and a realization that the carefree days of childhood are gone forever. People strive to gain independence, find a mate, and raise a family.

Middle Life: (40-60) The realization that you will not live forever creates tension. If you desperately try to cling to youth, you will fail in the process of self-realization. Jung believed that in midlife, one confronts one's shadow. Religiosity may increase during this period, according to Jung.

Old Age: (60 and over) Consciousness is reduced. Jung thought that death is the ultimate goal of life. By realizing this, people will not face death with fear, but with a hope for rebirth.

PIAGET PROPOSED HIS FOUR FAMOUS STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT- FIRST IS LIKE IDEALIST SENSATION AND GUILLABLE SECOND IS PREOPERATIONAL LIKE GUARDIAN INTO RULES AND ORDER THIRD IS CONCRETE OPERATIONAL THIRD QUADRANT THINKING DOING- FOURTH IS THE TRANSCENDENT ABSTRACT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piaget%27s_theory_of_cognitive_development

Cognitive development is Jean Piaget's theory. Through a series of stages, Piaget proposed four stages of cognitive development: the sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational period.[20] The sensorimotor stage is the first of the four stages in cognitive development which "extends from birth to the acquisition of language".[21] In this stage, infants progressively construct knowledge and understanding of the world by coordinating experiences (such as vision and hearing) with physical interactions with objects (such as grasping, sucking, and stepping).[22] Infants gain knowledge of the world from the physical actions they perform within it.[23] They progress from reflexive, instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought toward the end of the stage.[23]

THERE ARE 16 SQUARES IN THE QUADRANT MODEL- THE MHC MODEL OF HIERARCHICAL COMPLEXITY SPECIFIES 16 ORDERS OF COMPLEXITY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model_of_hierarchical_complexity

The MHC specifies 16 orders of hierarchical complexity and their corresponding stages, positing that each of Piaget's substages, in fact, are robustly hard stages.[14] The MHC adds five postformal stages to Piaget's developmental trajectory: systematic stage 12, metasystematic stage 13, paradigmatic stage 14, cross-paradigmatic stage 15, and meta-cross-paradigmatic stage 16. It may be the Piaget's consolidate formal stage is the same as the systematic stage. The sequence is as follows: (0) calculatory, (1) automatic, (2) sensory & motor, (3) circular sensory-motor, (4) sensory-motor, (5) nominal, (6) sentential, (7) preoperational, (8) primary, (9) concrete, (10) abstract, (11) formal, and the five postformal: (12) systematic, (13) metasystematic, (14) paradigmatic, (15) cross-paradigmatic, and (16) meta-cross-paradigmatic. The first four stages (0–3) correspond to Piaget's sensorimotor stage at which infants and very young children perform. Adolescents and adults can perform at any of the subsequent stages. MHC stages 4 through 5 correspond to Piaget's pre-operational stage; 6 through 8 correspond to his concrete operational stage; and 9 through 11 correspond to his formal operational stage.

 

Four story problem (Commons, Richards & Kuhn, 1982; Kallio & Helkama, 1991)

 

The MHC is a non-mentalistic model of developmental stages.[2] It specifies 16 orders of hierarchical complexity and their corresponding stages. It is different from previous proposals about developmental stage applied to humans;[10] instead of attributing behavioral changes across a person's age to the development of mental structures or schema, this model posits that task sequences of task behaviors form hierarchies that become increasingly complex. Because less complex tasks must be completed and practiced before more complex tasks can be acquired, this accounts for the developmental changes seen, for example, in individual persons' performance of complex tasks. (For example, a person cannot perform arithmetic until the numeral representations of numbers are learned. A person cannot operationally multiply the sums of numbers until addition is learned).

MICHAEL COMMONS ADDS FOUR POST FORMAL STAGES TO PIAGETS FOUR COGNITIVE STAGES- BUT MANY THEORISTS DO NOT AGREE WITH THE FOUR POST FORMAL STAGES AND ADHERE TO PIAGETS FOUR STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piaget%27s_theory_of_cognitive_development

Piaget's theory stops at the formal operational stage, but other researchers have observed the thinking of adults is more nuanced than formal operational thought. This fifth stage has been named post formal thought or operation.[72][73] Post formal stages have been proposed. Michael Commons presented evidence for four post formal stages in the model of hierarchical complexity: systematic, meta-systematic, paradigmatic, and cross-paradigmatic (Commons & Richards, 2003, p. 206–208; Oliver, 2004, p. 31).[74][75][76] There are many theorists, however, who have criticized "post formal thinking," because the concept lacks both theoretical and empirical verification. The term "integrative thinking" has been suggested for use instead.[77][78][79][80][81]

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

PECK'S FOUR STAGES OF SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M._Scott_Peck

The four stages of spiritual development[edit]

Peck postulates that there are four stages of human spiritual development:[15][16]

 

Stage I is chaotic, disordered, and reckless. Very young children are in Stage I. They tend to defy and disobey, and are unwilling to accept a will greater than their own. They are extremely egoistic and lack empathy for others. Many criminals are people who have never grown out of Stage I.

Stage II is the stage at which a person has blind faith in authority figures and sees the world as divided simply into good and evil, right and wrong, us and them. Once children learn to obey their parents and other authority figures, often out of fear or shame, they reach Stage II. Many so-called religious people are essentially Stage II people, in the sense that they have blind faith in God, and do not question His existence. With blind faith comes humility and a willingness to obey and serve. The majority of good, law-abiding citizens never move out of Stage II.

Stage III is the stage of scientific skepticism and questioning. A Stage III person does not accept things on faith but only accepts them if convinced logically. Many people working in scientific and technological research are in Stage III. They often reject the existence of spiritual or supernatural forces since these are difficult to measure or prove scientifically. Those who do retain their spiritual beliefs, move away from the simple, official doctrines of fundamentalism.

Stage IV is the stage where an individual starts enjoying the mystery and beauty of nature and existence. While retaining skepticism, he starts perceiving grand patterns in nature and develops a deeper understanding of good and evil, forgiveness and mercy, compassion and love. His religiousness and spirituality differ significantly from that of a Stage II person, in the sense that he does not accept things through blind faith or out of fear, but does so because of genuine belief, and he does not judge people harshly or seek to inflict punishment on them for their transgressions. This is the stage of loving others as yourself, losing your attachment to your ego, and forgiving your enemies. Stage IV people are labeled as Mystics.

Peck argues that while transitions from Stage I to Stage II are sharp, transitions from Stage III to Stage IV are gradual. Nonetheless, these changes are very noticeable and mark a significant difference in the personality of the individual.

PECK FOUR STAGES IN COMMUNITY BUILDING

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M._Scott_Peck

Based on his experience with community building workshops, Peck says that community building typically goes through four stages:

 

Pseudocommunity: In the first stage, well-intentioned people try to demonstrate their ability to be friendly and sociable, but they do not really delve beneath the surface of each other's ideas or emotions. They use obvious generalities and mutually established stereotypes in speech. Instead of conflict resolution, pseudocommunity involves conflict avoidance, which maintains the appearance or facade of true community. It also serves only to maintain positive emotions, instead of creating a safe space for honesty and love through bad emotions as well. While they still remain in this phase, members will never really obtain evolution or change, as individuals or as a bunch.

Chaos: The first step towards real positivity is, paradoxically, a period of negativity. Once the mutually sustained facade of bonhomie is shed, negative emotions flood through: Members start to vent their mutual frustrations, annoyances, and differences. It is a chaotic stage, but Peck describes it as a "beautiful chaos" because it is a sign of healthy growth. (This relates closely to Dabrowski's concept of disintegration).

Emptiness: In order to transcend the stage of "Chaos", members are forced to shed that which prevents real communication. Biases and prejudices, need for power and control, self-superiority, and other similar motives which are only mechanisms of self-validation and/or ego-protection, must yield to empathy, openness to vulnerability, attention, and trust. Hence this stage does not mean people should be "empty" of thoughts, desires, ideas or opinions. Rather, it refers to emptiness of all mental and emotional distortions which reduce one's ability to really share, listen to, and build on those thoughts, ideas, etc. It is often the hardest step in the four-level process, as it necessitates the release of patterns which people develop over time in a subconscious attempt to maintain self-worth and positive emotion. While this is therefore a stage of "Fana (Sufism)" in a certain sense, it should be viewed not merely as a "death" but as a rebirth—of one's true self at the individual level, and at the social level of the genuine and true Community.

True community: Having worked through emptiness, the people in the community enter a place of complete empathy with one another. There is a great level of tacit understanding. People are able to relate to each other's feelings. Discussions, even when heated, never get sour, and motives are not questioned. A deeper and more sustainable level of happiness obtains between the members, which does not have to be forced. Even and perhaps especially when conflicts arise, it is understood that they are part of positive change.

SCIENTISTS ARGUE IF THERE IS THREE STAGES OF SLEEP AND REM SLEEP OR FOUR STAGES OF SLEEP AND REM SLEEP- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT

http://www.howsleepworks.com/types_nonrem.html

Non-REM sleep, which is perhaps best defined negatively as any sleep not recognizable as REM sleep, consists of three separate stages (stage1, stage 2 and stage 3), which are followed in order upwards and downwards as sleep cycles progress. Formerly, four stages of non-REM sleep were distinguished, and most older hypnograms therefore usually show four stages of non-REM sleep, rather than three; the distinction can be quite useful at times, and is still quite widely used, even though three stages is now the "official" categorization. It should be noted that the distinctions between these sleep stages are somewhat arbitrary anyway, and the physiological boundaries between them are necessarily blurred and continuous.

16 STYLES

http://communicationstyles.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/matrix-of-communication-styles-4.png

http://communicationstyles.org/lesson-6-the-matrix-of-communication-styles/

The Matrix is a very helpful tool because it lets you see the relationship between all sixteen styles at a glance. You can see how the styles at the top of the Matrix are the most assertive, while those at the bottom are the least so. How those on the left side are most analytical, while those on the right are the most intuitive. Take the survey!

http://communicationstyles.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/matrix-of-communication-styles-6.png

http://communicationstyles.org/lesson-6-the-matrix-of-communication-styles/

Using filters and frames, you can distill the four basic communication styles to these terms:

 

Directors: Filter for facts and respond assertively.

Expressers: Filter for feelings and respond assertively.

Thinkers: Filter for facts and respond by probing.

Harmonizers: Filter for feelings and respond by probing.

 

This is not to say that the only thing that distinguishes Directors from Expressers is that one filters for facts and the other for feelings. The behaviors of each communication style are more complex and varied than that. But certain behaviors are “markers” for each style, and these markers can help us identify a person’s style. A marker is simply a specific behavior we look for in another person – and in ourselves.

 

For example, one marker would be sensitivity to people’s feelings. That’s a clue that the person filters are set for feelings. A second marker is how often someone cites specific facts. A third marker is one’s level of assertiveness. And a fourth marker is the extent to which one probes and inquires for more information. Each marker is a clue to help you determine a person’s style. Understanding these markers is the first step to interpreting the styles of people around you.

KEIRSEYS FOUR TEMPERAMENTS- MAKING 16 PERSONALITY TYPES- 16 SQUARES QMR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keirsey_Temperament_Sorter

 

David Keirsey expanded on the ancient study of temperament by Hippocrates and Plato. In his works, Keirsey used the names suggested by Plato: Artisan (iconic), Guardian (pistic), Idealist (noetic), and Rational (dianoetic). Keirsey divided the four temperaments into two categories (roles), each with two types (role variants). The resulting 16 types correlate with the 16 personality types described by Briggs and Myers.[1]

 

Artisans are concrete and adaptable. Seeking stimulation and virtuosity, they are concerned with making an impact. Their greatest strength is tactics. They excel at troubleshooting, agility, and the manipulation of tools, instruments, and equipment.[2] The two roles are as follows:

Operators are the directive (proactive) Artisans. Their most developed intelligence operation is expediting. The attentive Crafters and the expressive Promoters are the two role variants.

Entertainers are the informative (reactive) Artisans. Their most developed intelligence operation is improvising. The attentive Composers and the expressive Performers are the two role variants.

Guardians are concrete and organized (scheduled). Seeking security and belonging, they are concerned with responsibility and duty. Their greatest strength is logistics. They excel at organizing, facilitating, checking, and supporting. The two roles are as follows:

Administrators are the directive (proactive) Guardians. Their most developed intelligence operation is regulating. The attentive Inspectors and the expressive Supervisors are the two role variants.

Conservators are the informative (reactive) Guardians. Their most developed intelligence operation is supporting. The attentive Protectors and the expressive Providers are the two role variants.

Idealists are abstract and compassionate. Seeking meaning and significance, they are concerned with personal growth and finding their own unique identity. Their greatest strength is diplomacy. They excel at clarifying, individualizing, unifying, and inspiring. The two roles are as follows:

Mentors are the directive (proactive) Idealists. Their most developed intelligence operation is developing. The attentive Counselors and the expressive Teachers are the two role variants.

Advocates are the informative (reactive) Idealists. Their most developed intelligence operation is mediating. The attentive Healers and the expressive Champions are the two role variants.

Rationals are abstract and objective. Seeking mastery and self-control, they are concerned with their own knowledge and competence. Their greatest strength is strategy. They excel in any kind of logical investigation such as engineering, conceptualizing, theorizing, and coordinating. The two roles are as follows:

Coordinators are the directive (proactive) Rationals. Their most developed intelligence operation is arranging. The attentive Masterminds and the expressive Fieldmarshals are the two role variants.

Engineers are the informative (reactive) Rationals. Their most developed intelligence operation is constructing. The attentive Architects and the expressive Inventors are the two role variants.

FOUR RINGS OF PERSONALITY KEIRSEY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keirsey_Temperament_Sorter

Although the descriptions of the individual temperaments and role variants were written as a whole, temperament itself can be understood by comparing it to the rings of a tree:[3]

 

The inner ring: abstract versus concrete

According to Keirsey, everyone can engage in both observation and introspection. When people touch objects, watch a basketball game, taste food, or otherwise perceive the world through their senses, they are observant. When people reflect and focus on their internal world, they are introspective. However, individuals cannot engage in observation and introspection at the same time. The extent to which people are more observant or introspective directly affects their behavior.

People who are generally observant are more 'down to earth.' They are more concrete in their worldview and tend to focus on practical matters such as food, shelter, and their immediate relationships. However, Carl Jung used the word sensation when describing people who prefer irrational perception of the sensory experience, whether abstract or concrete. People who are generally introspective are more 'head in the clouds.' They are more abstract in their world view and tend to focus on global or theoretical issues such as equality or engineering. Carl Jung used the word intuition when describing people who prefer abstract conception.

The second ring: cooperative versus pragmatic (utilitarian)

Keirsey uses the words cooperative (complying) and pragmatic (adaptive) when comparing the differing temperaments. People who are cooperative pay more attention to other people's opinions and are more concerned with doing the right thing. People who are pragmatic (utilitarian) pay more attention to their own thoughts or feelings and are more concerned with doing what works. There is no comparable idea of Myers or Jung that corresponds to this dichotomy, so this is a significant difference between Keirsey's work and that of Myers and Jung.

This ring, in combination with the inner ring, determines a person's temperament. The pragmatic temperaments are Rationals (pragmatic and abstract) and Artisans (pragmatic and concrete). The cooperative temperaments are Idealists (cooperative and abstract), and Guardians (cooperative and concrete). Neither Myers nor Jung included the concept of temperament in their work. Jung's psychological functions are hard to relate to Keirsey's concepts.

The third ring: directive (proactive) versus informative (reactive)

The third ring distinguishes between people who generally communicate by informing others versus people who generally communicate by directing others. Each of the four temperaments is subdivided by this distinction for a result of eight roles.

The directive roles are Operators (directive Artisans), Administrators (directive Guardians), Mentors (directive Idealists), and Coordinators (directive Rationals). The informative roles are Entertainers (informative Artisans), Conservators (informative Guardians), Advocates (informative Idealists), and Engineers (informative Rationals).

The fourth ring: expressive versus attentive

The fourth ring describes how people interact with their environment. Individuals who prefer more overt action [saying and doing] during covert acting [conception and perception] (observing or introspecting) are described as expressive, whereas people who prefer more covert acting during overt [or inactive] action are described as attentive. Some associative words for "expressive": active, chatty, conversant, effusive, fluent, profuse, verbose. Some associative words for "attentive": alert, all eyes, all ears, aware, chary, circumspect, heedful, wary, watchful. The expressive versus attentive dichotomy is the most contextual. In other words, overt action and covert reaction is more dictated by the environmental circumstance at the moment.

Each of the eight categories can be subdivided by this distinction, for a total of 16 role variants. These 16 role variants correlate but do not correspond to the 16 Myers-Briggs types.

 

The expressive role variants are Promoters (expressive Operators), Performers (expressive Entertainers), Supervisors (expressive Administrators), Providers (expressive Conservators), Teachers (expressive Mentors), Champions (expressive Advocates), Fieldmarshals (expressive Coordinators), and Inventors (expressive Engineers).

The attentive role variants are Crafters (attentive Operators), Composers (attentive Entertainers), Inspectors (attentive Administrators), Protectors (attentive Conservators), Counselors (attentive Mentors), Healers (attentive Advocates), Masterminds (attentive Coordinators), and Architects (attentive Engineers).

KEIRSEY FOUR INTERACTION ROLES- BASED ON TWO DICHOTOMIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keirsey_Temperament_Sorter

Four interaction roles[edit]

In his book Brains and Careers (2008), Keirsey divided the role variants into groupings that he called "four differing roles that people play in face-to-face interaction with one another." [4]

 

There are two Proactive Enterprising Roles:

 

Initiators (expressive and directive): Field Marshal (ENTJ), Supervisor (ESTJ), Promoter (ESTP), Teacher (ENFJ)—Preemptive

Contenders (attentive and directive): Mastermind (INTJ), Inspector (ISTJ), Crafter (ISTP), Counselor (INFJ)—Competitive

There are two Reactive Inquiring Roles:

 

Coworkers (expressive and informative): Inventor (ENTP), Provider (ESFJ), Performer (ESFP), Champion (ENFP)—Collaborative

Responders (attentive and informative): Architect (INTP), Protector (ISFJ), Composer (ISFP), Healer (INFP)—Accommodative

The roles were implied in the informing/directing factor introduced in Portraits of Temperament.[4] In his 2010 follow-up book, Personology, "Coworkers" is renamed "Collaborators", and "Responders" is renamed "Accomodators"

SOME OTHER EXAMPLES OF FOUR QUADRANT PERSONALITY MODELS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keirsey_Temperament_Sorter

Keirsey became familiar with the work of Ernst Kretschmer and William Sheldon after WWII in the late 1940s. Keirsey developed the Temperament Sorter after being introduced to the MBTI in 1956.[1] Tracing the idea of temperament back to the ancient Greeks, Keirsey developed a modern temperament theory in his books Please Understand Me (1978), Portraits of Temperament (1988), Presidential Temperament (1992), Please Understand Me II (1998), Brains and Careers (2008), and Personology (2010). The table below shows how Myers' and Keirsey's types correspond to other temperament theories or constructs, dating from ancient times to the present day.

 

Date Author Artisan temperament Guardian temperament Idealist temperament Rational temperament

c. 590 BC Ezekiel's four living creatures lion (bold) ox (sturdy) man (independent) eagle (far-seeing)

c. 400 BC Hippocrates' four humours cheerful (blood) somber (black bile) enthusiastic (yellow bile) calm (phlegm)

c. 340 BC Plato's four characters artistic (iconic) sensible (pistic) intuitive (noetic) reasoning (dianoetic)

c. 325 BC Aristotle's four sources of happiness sensual (hedone) material (propraietari) ethical (ethikos) logical (dialogike)

c. 185 AD Irenaeus' four temperaments spontaneous historical spiritual scholarly

c. 190 Galen's four temperaments sanguine melancholic choleric phlegmatic

c. 1550 Paracelsus' four totem spirits changeable salamanders industrious gnomes inspired nymphs curious sylphs

c. 1905 Adickes' four world views innovative traditional doctrinaire skeptical

c. 1912 Dreikurs'/Adler's four mistaken goals retaliation service recognition power

c. 1914 Spränger's four* value attitudes artistic economic religious theoretic

c. 1920 Kretschmer's four character styles manic (hypomanic) depressive oversensitive (hyperesthetic) insensitive (anesthetic)

c. 1947 Fromm's four orientations exploitative hoarding receptive marketing

c. 1958 Myers' Jungian types SP (sensing perceiving) SJ (sensing judging) NF (intuitive feeling) NT (intuitive thinking)

c. 1978 Keirsey/Bates four temperaments (old) Dionysian (artful) Epimethean (dutiful) Apollonian (soulful) Promethean (technological)

c. 1988 Keirsey's four temperaments Artisan Guardian Idealist Rational

c. 2004 Gordon-Bull Nexus Model[5] Gamma Beta Delta Alpha

THERE IS EQUIVALENCE BETWEEN MYERS BRIGGS FOUR TYPES AND MARTINEZ LEARNING MODEL FOUR KINDS OF LEARNERS

http://www.academia.edu/5246193/The_Nexus_Explored_A_Generalised_Model_of_Learning_Styles

 

The Equivalence between the MBTI and the Martinez Learning Orientations Model

In Gordon and Bull (2003), we demonstrated how the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator can be used to inform the type of instructional materials a learner would like to interact with, in particular, both the

Sensor

/

Intuitor

(S/N) dimensionand

Thinker

/

Feeler

(T/F) dimension allow an instructor to determine the appropriate combination of theoretical and practical work that the learner would be most comfortable with in their learning environment. Based on thedescription of their dimensions, the

Sensor

is most comfortable understanding the theories behind a concept, whereasthe

Intuitor

will be more comfortable taking a practical approach to learning, using case studies or real-worldexamples. Similarly, the

Thinker

likes a theoretical approach and the

Feeler

likes a practical approach. Therefore thefour possible combinations of these dimensions are ST, SF, NT and NF, which result in preferences for Theory/Theory, Theory/Practicals, Practicals/Theory and Practicals/Practicals. These four combinations boil downto the following: based on the type of learner as categorised by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, one should instructthem using either a mostly theoretical approach, a mostly practical-based, or an equal combination of both.The Martinez Learning Orientations (Martinez 00) describes four kinds of learners:

Transforming

,

Performing

,

Conforming

and

Resistant

. The

Transforming

learner assumes learning responsibility and self-manages goals, enjoys practical-based learning. The

Performing

learner will assume learning responsibility in areas of interest but willinglygives up control in areas of less interest, enjoys a combination of practical-based and theoretical learning. The

Conforming

learner assumes little responsibility, wants continual guidance and is most comfortable with theoreticalknowledge. Finally, the

Resistant

learner chronically avoids learning. It is clear that the first three types of learners inthe Martinez Model can be identified also through use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, since they bothrecommend an equivalent combination of theory-based and practice-based teaching (see Fig. 1).

HERE THE AUTHOR COMPARES AND CONTRSTS 6 different FOUR QUADRANT MODELS OF LEARNING

http://www.academia.edu/5246193/The_Nexus_Explored_A_Generalised_Model_of_Learning_Styles

4. The Four Dimensional Learning Styles Models

The four quadrant models under review are; the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II (Keirsey 88), the Kolb Model (Kolb95), Hermann Brain Dominance (Dew 96), the Honey-Mumford Model (Honey 82), the 4MAT Model (McCarthy87) and the Gregorc Model (Gregorc 82).

 

Keirsey Temperament Sorter II

Guardians

are conformity-oriented, and prefer systematic,structured learning

Idealists

are interpersonal-oriented, and prefer to learnthrough discussion

Artisans

are play-oriented, andare free-wheeling and creative

Rationals

are learning-oriented,and prefer to learn by theorising,analysing and creating models

The Kolb Model

Converging

learners like to learn bysolving problems and doing technicaltasks, good at finding practical uses for ideas

Accomadating

learners are people-oriented, hands on learners, who rely onfeelings more than logical analysis

Diverging

learners prefer to learn byobservation, brainstorming andgathering information, are imaginativeand sensitive

Assimilating

learners prefer to learn by putting information in concise logicalorder, and using reflective observation

Hermann Brain Dominance

Quadrant B

likes to learn in a sequentialand organised way, and wheninstructional exercises are structured anddetailed

Quadrant C

has an interpersonal preference, is emotional and kinaesthetic.

Quadrant D

prefers to takes a holisticapproach, is a very innovative learner andis strongly visual

Quadrant A

is a factually-orientedlearner, takes a logical, analytical,quantitative approach to learning tasks

The Gregorc Model

Concrete Sequential

arehardworking, conventionallearners, who are alwaysdependable and organised

Abstract Random

are sensitive,and compassionate learners,who are spontaneous andflexible

Concrete Random

are quick,curious and intuitive learners,who combine a creative streak with a realistic outlook

Abstract Sequential

areanalytical, objective learners,who are thorough, structuredand logical

The 4MAT Model

Type 3 (Common Sense Learners)

interested in how things work, prefer concrete experiential learning activities

Type 1 (Innovative Learners)

interestedin personal meaning, prefers co-operative learning, likes brainstorming

Type 4 (Dynamic Learners)

interested inself-directed discovery, they rely heavilyon their own intuition, like roles-playingand games

Type 2 (Analytic Learners)

interested inacquiring facts in order to deepen their understanding of concepts and processes, likes lectures and analysis of data

The Honey-Mumford Model

Pragmatists

prefers when the topic under study has an obvious link to the realworld, and like to be given immediateopportunities to implement what theyhave learned

Activists

enjoy new experiences andchallenges, like teamwork and problem-solving, and enjoy leading discussions

Reflectors

prefer to watch, think and ponder on activities, can carry out carefuldetailed research, and don't like pressureor tight deadlines

Theorists

like to learn from models,concepts and theories, like to analyse andevaluate, and use logic

Table 1 – A description and comparison of six four quadrant learning styles models.

From Table 1 it is clear that the models share a great deal in common, particularly in the order they have been presented here and the descriptions used. It is clear that the dimensions of each of these models have strongoverlapping characteristics. Indeed it is clear that whereas the dimensions are not exactly the same from model tomodel, they do have strong equivalencies. It is equally clear that the dimensions in each model do have specificdifferences. By deriving a learning styles model which omits these specific differences and one which focuses on thecommonality it is our hope to create a more general model that will be more inclusive.

THE GORDON-BULL MODEL IS A METAMODEL FOR LEARNING TYPES WITH FOUR TYPES- A QUADRANT MODEL

http://www.academia.edu/5246193/The_Nexus_Explored_A_Generalised_Model_of_Learning_Styles

5. A Metamodel of Four Quadrant Learning Styles Models: The Gordon-Bull Model

The characteristics which could be considered to form the 'core' dimensions fundamental to all four quadrant modelsare now presented in a generalised model as follows:

Alpha (

!

) Style

- these are the practical learners, they like to understand how topics being taught relate tothe real world. They also like topics which are clearly structured.

Beta (

"

) style

- these are the discussion-oriented learners, they like to work in groups, and derive most benefit from intrapersonal learning.

 

Gamma (

#

) style

- these are the holistic learners, they prefer an overview of topic before delving intospecific detail. They are also highly imaginative individuals and bring this resource to the learning process.

Delta (

$

) style

- these are the analytical learners, they are dispassionate learners who like to focus onconcepts, theories and logic.Whereas this may seem to be sufficient to address the possible range of learners, the above model is lacking twoaspects without which it cannot be considered a well-rounded model: Resistant Learners, and an Evolutionary View of Learning Styles

FOUR DIFFERENT BEHAVIOR TRAITS IT IS A QUADRANT IN A CIRCLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DISC_assessment

DISC is a behavior assessment tool based on the DISC theory of psychologist William Moulton Marston, which centers on four different behavioral traits: dominance, inducement, submission, and compliance. This theory was then developed into a behavioral assessment tool by industrial psychologist Walter Vernon Clarke.

 

Marston, after conducting research on human emotions, published his findings in his 1928 book called Emotions of Normal People in which he explained that people illustrate their emotions using four behavior types: Dominance (D), Inducement (I), Submission (S), and Compliance (C).

 

In the more recent versions of DISC, the model is represented with a circle or circumplex, illustrating the four styles as four areas in the circle. This representation of the disc model links to the original, which was also represented in a circle. With colors and the right explanations, it is easier to view and understand the effort and adapting it takes for a particular style to reach common ground with another style. By doing so getting on the same wavelength between two people becomes easier.

MASLOW THE FOUR KEY DIMENSIONS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personality_psychology

Maslow spent much of his time studying what he called "self-actualizing persons", those who are "fulfilling themselves and doing the best they are capable of doing". Maslow believes all who are interested in growth move towards self-actualizing (growth, happiness, satisfaction) views. Many of these people demonstrate a trend in dimensions of their personalities. Characteristics of self-actualizers according to Maslow include the four key dimensions:[40]

 

Awareness – maintaining constant enjoyment and awe of life. These individuals often experienced a "peak experience". He defined a peak experience as an "intensification of any experience to the degree there is a loss or transcendence of self". A peak experience is one in which an individual perceives an expansion of themselves, and detects a unity and meaningfulness in life. Intense concentration on an activity one is involved in, such as running a marathon, may invoke a peak experience.

Reality and problem centered – having a tendency to be concerned with "problems" in surroundings.

Acceptance/Spontaneity – accepting surroundings and what cannot be changed.

Unhostile sense of humor/democratic – do not take kindly to joking about others, which can be viewed as offensive. They have friends of all backgrounds and religions and hold very close friendships.

FOUR LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT- EVERY STATISTICS AND POLITICAL CLASS AND ALL THAT I WENT TO AT UCSD TAUGTH THE FOUR LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT- first thing and all they taught was quadrant models it was incredible like in political class talking about quadrants going on in the world I forget them now though but I had tons of notebooks full of examples

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Level_of_measurement

Level of measurement or scale of measure is a classification that describes the nature of information within the numbers assigned to variables.[1] Psychologist Stanley Smith Stevens developed the best known classification with four levels, or scales, of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.[1][2] This framework of distinguishing levels of measurement originated in psychology and is widely criticized by scholars in other disciplines.[3] Other classifications include those by Mosteller and Tukey,[4] and by Chrisman.[5]

FOUR FUNDAMENTAL CATEGORIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychometrics

Each publication presents and elaborates a set of standards for use in a variety of educational settings. The standards provide guidelines for designing, implementing, assessing and improving the identified form of evaluation.[25] Each of the standards has been placed in one of four fundamental categories to promote educational evaluations that are proper, useful, feasible, and accurate. In these sets of standards, validity and reliability considerations are covered under the accuracy topic. For example, the student accuracy standards help ensure that student evaluations will provide sound, accurate, and credible information about student learning and performance.

FOUR COLORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hartman_Personality_Profile

I POSTED THIS AND TONS OF EXAMPLES BACK IN THE DAY AMAZING STUFF- IF GO BACK ON MY TIMELINE HAVE ALL THIS STUFF BUT ALSO STUFF FROM JANUARY TO MARCH OF LAST YEAR IS HIDDEN AND DURING THAT PERIOD I DID QUADRANT MODEL ALL DAY EVERY DAY

COLOR CODE PERSONALITY PROFILE- FOUR COLORS- FOUR DRIVING CORE MOTIVES

 

The Color Code Personality Profile also known as The Color Code or The People Code, created by Dr. Taylor Hartman, divides personalities into four colors: Red (motivated by power), Blue (motivated by intimacy), White (motivated by peace), and Yellow (motivated by fun). Although different groups of people have different demographics, the general breakdown suggests that Reds comprise 25% of the population; Blues 35%; Whites 20%; and Yellows 20%.[1] A 45-question test assesses one's color, based on whether you answer A, B, C, or D.

 

The main idea behind the Hartman Personality Profile is that all people possess one of four driving "core motives."[2] The driving core motives are classified into four colors: Red, motivated by power; Blue, motivated by intimacy; White, motivated by peace; and Yellow, motivated by fun.[3] Hartman believes the system is simple and at the same time profound.[citation needed]

THE FOUR DICHOTOMIES OF MYERS BRIGGS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myers–Briggs_Type_Indicator

Four dichotomies[edit]

Carl Jung

Subjective Objective

Perception Intuition/Sensing Introversion/Extraversion 1

Judging Feeling/Thinking Introversion/Extraversion 2

Myers–Briggs

Subjective Objective

Deductive Intuition/Sensing Introversion/Extraversion

Inductive Feeling/Thinking Perception/Judging

The four pairs of preferences or dichotomies are shown in the adjacent table.

 

Note that the terms used for each dichotomy have specific technical meanings relating to the MBTI which differ from their everyday usage. For example, people who prefer judgment over perception are not necessarily more judgmental or less perceptive. Nor does the MBTI instrument measure aptitude; it simply indicates for one preference over another.[17]:3 Someone reporting a high score for extraversion over introversion cannot be correctly described as more extraverted: they simply have a clear preference.

 

Point scores on each of the dichotomies can vary considerably from person to person, even among those with the same type. However, Isabel Myers considered the direction of the preference (for example, E vs. I) to be more important than the degree of the preference (for example, very clear vs. slight).[14] The expression of a person's psychological type is more than the sum of the four individual preferences. The preferences interact through type dynamics and type development.

HANS EYENSCK HAS FOUR TRAITS IN HIS MODEL OF PERSOANLITY- THE FOURTH PSYCHOTICISM IS DIFFERENT- HE PUTS THEM IN A QUADRANT PATTERN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trait_theory

Psychoticism is a personality pattern typified by aggressiveness and interpersonal hostility, one of four traits in Hans Eysenck's model of personality. High levels of this trait were believed by Eysenck to be linked to increased vulnerability to psychosis such as schizophrenia. He also believed that blood relatives of psychotics would show high levels of this trait, suggesting a genetic basis to the trait.[67][68]

FOUR WHOLE DRIVES
https://en.wikipedia.org/…/File:Szondi_Schema_Triebsystem_(…
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Szondi_test
The four whole drives correspond to the four independent hereditary circles of mental illness established by the psychiatric genetics of the time:[9][10] the schizoform drive (containing the paranoid and the catatonic drive needs), the manic-depressive drive, the paroxysmal drive (including the epileptic and hysteric drive needs), and the sexual drive (including the hermaprodite and the sadomasochist drive needs).[11]

Szondi further broke down the results into four different vectors: a homosexual/sadistic, epileptic/hysterical, catatonic/paranoid and depressive/manic.

Sex (S) and Contact (C) vectors represent pulsions at the border with the outer world, while the Paroximal (P, representing affects) and Schizoform (Sch, representing the ego) vectors at the inner part of the psyche.

EACH OF THE SIX CONTAIN FOUR FACETS MAKING 24 IN ALL- WHERE THERE IS OTHER NUMBERS- (the 6) THE FOUR STILL PRESENTS ITSELF AND IS DOMINANT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HEXACO_model_of_personality_structure

The HEXACO-PI-R assesses the six broad HEXACO personality factors, each of which contains four "facets", or narrower personality characteristics. (An additional 25th narrow facet, called Altruism, is also included and represents a blend of the Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, and Agreeableness factors.) The four facets within each factor are as follows:

 

Honesty-Humility (H): Sincerity, Fairness, Greed Avoidance, Modesty

Emotionality (E): Fearfulness, Anxiety, Dependence, Sentimentality

Extraversion (X): Social Self-Esteem, Social Boldness, Sociability, Liveliness

Agreeableness (A): Forgivingness, Gentleness, Flexibility, Patience

Conscientiousness (C): Organization, Diligence, Perfectionism, Prudence

Openness to Experience (O): Aesthetic Appreciation, Inquisitiveness, Creativity, Unconventionality

ORIGINALLY THE BIG FIVE WAS THE BIG FOUR AND THERE ARE RESEARCHERS WHO SAY THE BIG FIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS ACTUALLY SHOULD BE THE BIG FOUR THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT THE FIFTH IS QUESTIOANBLE- fourth always points to fifth

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3482158/

Recently, integrative, hierarchical models of personality and personality disorder (PD)—such as the Big Three, Big Four and Big Five trait models—have gained support as a unifying dimensional framework for describing PD. However, no measures to date can simultaneously represent each of these potentially interesting levels of the personality hierarchy. To unify these measurement models psychometrically, we sought to develop Big Five trait scales within the Schedule for Adaptive and Nonadaptive Personality–2nd Edition (SNAP-2). Through structural and content analyses, we examined relations between the SNAP-2, Big Five Inventory (BFI), and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) ratings in a large data set (N = 8,690), including clinical, military, college, and community participants. Results yielded scales consistent with the Big Four model of personality (i.e., Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Introversion, and Antagonism) and not the Big Five as there were insufficient items related to Openness. Resulting scale scores demonstrated strong internal consistency and temporal stability. Structural and external validity was supported by strong convergent and discriminant validity patterns between Big Four scale scores and other personality trait scores and expectable patterns of self-peer agreement. Descriptive statistics and community-based norms are provided. The SNAP-2 Big Four Scales enable researchers and clinicians to assess personality at multiple levels of the trait hierarchy and facilitate comparisons among competing “Big Trait” models.

THERAPY FOUR AREAS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_factors_theory

In 1992, Michael J. Lambert summarized psychotherapy outcome research and grouped the factors of successful therapy into four areas, ordered by hypothesized percent of change in clients as a function of therapeutic factors: first, extratherapeutic change (40%), those factors that are qualities of the client or qualities of his or her environment and that aid in recovery regardless of his or her participation in therapy; second, common factors (30%) that are found in a variety of therapy approaches, such as empathy and the therapeutic relationship; third, expectancy (15%), the portion of improvement that results from the client's expectation of help or belief in the rationale or effectiveness of therapy; fourth, techniques (15%), those factors unique to specific therapies and tailored to treatment of specific problems.[24] Lambert's research later inspired a book on common factors theory in the practice of therapy titled The Heart and Soul of Change.[25]

THE BIG FOUR MUSIC GROUPS 70 PERCENT- FOURTH DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Record_label

Record labels are often under the control of a corporate umbrella organization called a "music group". A music group is typically owned by an international conglomerate "holding company", which often has non-music divisions as well. A music group controls and consists of music publishing companies, record (sound recording) manufacturers, record distributors, and record labels. As of 2007, the "big four" music groups control about 70% of the world music market, and about 80% of the United States music market.[16][17] Record companies (manufacturers, distributors, and labels) may also constitute a "record group" which is, in turn, controlled by a music group. The constituent companies in a music group or record group are sometimes marketed as being "divisions" of the group.

CREATED 16 COUNTER TYPES- 16 SQUARES QMR- 16 COMPONENT MODEL OF TIM AND SOCIONICS

 

Other systems[edit]

Gulenko has proposed other extensions to socionics beyond DCNH. In a 1990 paper, Gulenko proposed the existence of 16 "counter-types" opposite the sixteen identified by Augustinaviciute.[4] Gulenko argues that the functions of these types process information differently and have different behavior and thinking from the other 16. In 1989, Alexander Bukalov cited the human shadow or inner function circuit as being describable using the counter-types paradigm.[5]

 

Boukalov, A.V. (2004). 16-component model of TIM and Socionics. Socionics, Mentology, and Personality Psychology, 3.

Jump up ^ Gulenko, V. Quantity of Types in Socioanalysis. (Russian title: Количество типов в социоанализе) November 1990. accessed from: http://socionics.kiev.ua/articles/methodology/numsoctip/

Jump up ^ Boukalov, A.V. (2004). 16-component model of TIM and Socionics. Socionics, Mentology, and Personality Psychology, 3.

Jump up ^

16 BRAIN TYPES FOUR GROUPS FOUR BASIC MOTOR SKILLS- 16 SQUARES QMR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_types

What separates Brain typing from Jungian typology and its offshoots, such as the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Socionics, is its emphasis on motor skills. Each of the sixteen brain types is said to specialize in certain regions of the brain responsible for varying degrees of mental and motor skills. Niednagel believes the types are inherited, possessing a genetic basis. The brain types website and books also explain how it differs from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in that it believes the ENTP/FCIR type is by far the most common of the sixteen types, whereas some other types presumed as common in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, such as the ISTJ/BEIL, are actually only about 3% of the populace according to their estimates.

 

 

Niednagel divides the types into four basic motor skill groupings using his own terminology (originally derived from Jung/Myers) which he believes is more precise: EA, EI, CA, and CI. EA, or 'Empirical-Animate' types (FEAL, FEAR, BEAL, BEAR), are said to excel in the region of the brain responsible for gross motor skills. EI, or 'Empirical-Inanimate' types (FEIL, FEIR, BEIL, BEIR) are thought to possess the best fine motor skills of the four groups. CA, or 'Conceptual-Animate' types (FCAL, FCAR, BCAL, BCAR), excel in the auditory cortex, which is responsible for controlling the mouth and various hearing/language skills. CI, or 'Conceptual-Inanimate' types (FCIL, FCIR, BCIL, BCIR), are believed to excel in the cerebral cortex, where abstract levels of reasoning occur, along with the diaphragm region, responsible for voice production and breathing.

DEAL SHADOW FOUR WAYS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analytical_psychology

The shadow is an unconscious complex defined as the repressed, suppressed or disowned qualities of the conscious self. According to Jung, the human being deals with the reality of the shadow in four ways: denial, projection, integration and/or transmutation

FOUR BASIC FUNCTIONS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analytical_psychology

According to Jung, the psyche is an apparatus for adaptation and orientation, and consists of a number of different psychic functions. Among these he distinguishes four basic functions:[7]

 

Sensation – Perception by means of the sense organs

Intuition – Perceiving in unconscious way or perception of unconscious contents

Thinking – Function of intellectual cognition; the forming of logical conclusions

Feeling – Function of subjective estimation

ALTERNATIVE TO MYERS BRIGGS- JUNGIAN TYPE INDEX- FOUR CATEGORIES 16 TYPES QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jungian_Type_Index

Similar to the MBTI, the JTI identifies 4 categories from which the 16 types are formed: Extraversion/Introversion, Intuiting/Sensing, Thinking/Feeling, Perceiving/Judging. A personality type is reached through an examination or introspection about these categories. For example, an Intuiting, Thinking, Judging Extrovert would be classified as an ENTJ. However, further complexity lies below this surface-level classification. Each personality types has its associated Jungian cognitive functions, which aim to further explain the ways in which each type perceives and interacts with reality. Each type has all 4 of the cognitive functions (Thinking, Feeling, Intuiting, and Sensing) arranged in a different order and with different levels of introversion/extroversion. Of the two middle letters of any type, one will be the primary function with which they interact with the world, and one will be the auxiliary. For example, an ENTJ's primary function is (extraverted) Thinking, and their secondary function is (introverted) Intuiting.[2]

FOUR CLASSES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California_Psychological_Inventory

The inventory contains 434 items which can be scored to yield 18 scales. The 18 scales are further grouped into four classes: (1) measures of poise, ascendancy, self-assurance, and interpersonal adequacy; (2) measures of socialization, responsibility, intrapersonal values, and character; (3) measures of achievement potential and intellectual efficiency; (4) measures of intellectual modes and interest modes.[4]

THE FIVE TEMPERAMENT THEORY IS A QUADRANT MODEL BASED ON GALEN WHERE HE USES THE TWO DICHOTOMIES- BUT IT ADDS AN ULTRA TRANSCENDENT FIFTH TEMPERAMENT THAT EVEN MEANS (FACE TO GOD) ULTRA TRANSCENDENCE- IT IS RELATED TO THE TWO FACTOR FIRO- B THAT ALSO HAS FIVE TEMPERAMENTS BUT IT USES TWO FACTORS CREATING A QUADRANT MODEL AND ADDING AN ULTRA TRANSCENDENT FIFTH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_Temperaments

Development of related "two factor" models and the regaining popularity of the ancient temperaments[edit]

 

Simple emoticons of the five temperaments: Sanguine (top right), Choleric (bottom right), Melancholy (bottom left), and Phlegmatic (centre), with the new temperament Supine (top left) and Phlegmatic blends in between.

From the beginning, with Galen's ancient temperaments, it was observed that pairs of temperaments shared certain traits in common.

 

sanguine quick, impulsive, and relatively short-lived reactions. (hot/wet)

phlegmatic a longer response-delay, but short-lived response. (cold/wet)

choleric short response time-delay, but response sustained for a relatively long time. (hot/dry)

melancholic (Also called "Melancholy") long response time-delay, response sustained at length, if not, seemingly, permanently. (cold/dry)[6]

Therefore, it was evident that the sanguine and choleric shared a common trait: quickness of response, while the melancholy and phlegmatic shared the opposite, a longer response. The melancholy and choleric, however, shared a sustained response, and the sanguine and phlegmatic shared a short-lived response. That meant that the Choleric and melancholy both would tend to hang on to emotions like anger, and thus appear more serious and critical than the fun-loving sanguine, and the peaceful phlegmatic. However, the choleric would be characterized by quick expressions of anger, while the melancholy would build up anger slowly, silently, before exploding. Also, the melancholy and sanguine would be sort of "opposites", as the choleric and phlegmatic, since they have opposite traits.

 

As the twentieth century progressed, numerous other instruments were devised measuring not only temperament, but also various individual aspects of personality and behavior, and several began using factors that would correspond to the delay and sustain behaviors; usually, forms of Extroversion and a developing category of people versus task focus (eventually embodied as "Agreeableness").

 

Examples include DiSC assessment system and Social styles. In both of these, the four behaviors or styles resembled the key characteristics of the ancient four temperaments: the Choleric's extroversion and seriousness; the Melancholy's introversion and seriousness; the Sanguine's extroversion and sociability, and the Phlegmatic's peacefulness.

 

As personality typing increased, Christian writer and speaker Tim LaHaye helped repopularize the ancient temperaments beginning in his books.[7][8][9]

 

Another addition to the two factor models was the creation of a 10 by 10 square grid developed by Robert R. Blake and Jane Mouton in their Managerial Grid Model introduced in 1964. This matrix graded from 0 to 9, the factors of "Concern for People" and "Concern for Production", allowing a moderate range of scores, which yielded five "leadership styles". The Thomas Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI) used a version of this with "Assertiveness" and "Cooperativeness" as the two factors, and an intermediate score in both scales likewise resulting in a fifth mode directly in the center of the grid.

 

The FIRO-B connection[edit]

FIRO-B was another such two-factor system, originally created by Dr. Schutz in 1958, using the same scales corresponding to extroversion/introversion and people/task focus. The difference now was that there were three such matrices. These three areas of interaction are Inclusion, Control, and Affection. Note that these areas include the two familiar scales: how you want to relate to others (called "expressed behavior"), and how you want them to relate to you (called "wanted behavior"). Scores in these scales range from 0 to 9. In 1977, "locator charts" were produced for each area by Leo Ryan, providing a map of the various scores, following the Managerial Grid model; with unofficial names assigned to different score ranges.

 

Schutz was emphatic that all FIRO scores in themselves "Are not terminal — they can and do change", and that they "Do not encourage typology" [10] (and thus contradicted the notion of inborn temperament). However, the four ancient temperaments were eventually mapped to the FIRO-B scales, including the three separate temperament grids for individuals' scores in each area.

 

A Melancholy tends to be an introverted loner, and in the area of "control" such a person would exhibit a low need to control others, and also have a low tolerance of control by others (i.e. "dependency"). In the areas of inclusion and affection, such people would display a low need to include or be close to others, and a low need to be included by others.

 

A Choleric, however, is an extroverted "leader"-type who, in the area of control, has a high need to control others, but a low tolerance of others controlling him. He also has a high need to include or be close to others, but a low level of "responsiveness" (used as another term for "wanted" behavior) to them. He tends to be a "user", and only relates to people according to his own terms, which are usually goal-oriented.

 

A Sanguine is an extrovert who has a high need to include and be close to others, but unlike the Choleric, the Sanguine genuinely likes being around people just for the sake of socialization. The Sanguine also "swings" between both control and dependency.

 

From four to five[edit]

The low scores in both "wanted" and "expressed" would correspond to the Melancholy. A high score in "expressed" with a low score in "wanted" corresponds to Choleric. A high score on both scales corresponds to the Sanguine.

 

So the temperaments were divided between introverts, extroverts, and in the other dimension, "relationship-oriented", and "task-oriented". In the older model, the fourth temperament, Phlegmatic, had generally been regarded as "introverted" like the Melancholy, yet more "agreeable", like the Sanguine. For example, the "slow response/short-lived sustain" of the original conception, where it shares one factor with the Sanguine, and the other with the Melancholy. In the other instruments using people/task-orientation, the type that holds the corresponding place in respect to the other types (such as Social Styles' "Amiable" or Adler's "Leaning") is also generally correlated with the Phlegmatic in comparisons.

 

However, while the Phlegmatic is not as extroverted as the Sanguine and Choleric, nor as serious as the Melancholy and Choleric; he is neither as introverted as the Melancholy, nor as relationship-oriented as the Sanguine. This created a problem whereby a "middle-of-the-road" temperament was needed to complete the list of temperaments. A new temperament was created as a neutral, balanced temperament. However, the new temperament's lack of expression and personality was similar to the Phlegmatic, so the traits the Phlegmatic and the fifth temperament shared were removed from the Phlegmatic, and the remaining traits were renamed to Supine while the fifth temperament became known as the Phlegmatic.

 

Comparison of fifth temperament to the phlegmatic[edit]

The Phlegmatic also is peaceful at heart, and is one reason the Phlegmatic had held the place in the older four temperament model the Supine holds in the five temperament model. The difference is that the Supine is more "needy" for acceptance (or control) from people, yet less able to initiate and express this need to them than the Phlegmatic. Supines are often frustrated because they expect people to know they want interaction, while the Phlegmatic expresses a moderate need, and wants only the same moderate amount in return.

 

Four temperament theories such as LaHaye's often depict the Phlegmatic as being very fearful (according to LaHaye, "he is a worrier by nature", which is what "keeps him from venturing out on his own to make full use of his potential)."[11]

 

Driving needs[edit]

Each of the four corner temperaments has a driving need that energizes its behavior.

 

For the Melancholic, the motivation is fear of rejection and/or the unknown. They have a low self-esteem and, figuring that others do not like them, they reject others first.[12]

 

The Supine also has low self-esteem, but is driven to try to gain acceptance by liking and serving others.[13]

 

The Sanguine is driven by the need for attention, and tries to sell themselves through their charm, and accepts others before those others can reject them. Their self-esteem crashes if they are nevertheless rejected. Yet, they will regain the confidence to keep trying to impress others.

 

The Choleric is motivated by their goals, in which other people are tools to be used.[14]

 

The Phlegmatic's lack of a motivation becomes their driving need: to protect their low energy reserve.[15]

PAVLOVS FOUR TYPES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-factor_models_of_personality

In the last few centuries, various psychologists would begin expressing the four temperaments in terms of pairs of behaviors that were held in common by two temperaments each.

 

Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936), from his work with dogs, came up with the factors of "passivity" (active or passive) and "extremeness" (extreme response or moderate response). His view of the temperaments in dogs was:

 

The Melancholic type (Weak inhibitory): categorized as "weak" dogs;

Choleric type (Strong excitatory): strong, unbalanced, easily aroused (excitable);

Sanguine type (Lively): strong, balanced, mobile;

Phlegmatic type (Calm imperturbable): strong, balanced, sluggish.

ADLERS FOUR TYPES BASED ON TWO DICHOTOMIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-factor_models_of_personality

Alfred Adler (1879–1937) measured "activity" (connected with "energy") against "social interest", yielding the four "styles of life":[3]

 

Ruling or Dominant type: high activity, low social interest

Getting or Leaning type: low activity, high social interest

Avoiding type: low activity, low social interest

Socially Useful type: high activity, high social interest

ERICH FROMM'S FOUR CHARACTERS BASED ON TWO DICHOTOMIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-factor_models_of_personality

Erich Fromm's (1900–1980) factors were acquiring and assimilating things ("assimilation"), and reacting to people ("socialization"). These two factors form four types of character, which he calls Receptive, Exploitative, Hoarding and Marketing.

KAREN HORNEY ANOTHER VERY FAMOUS PSYCHOLOGIST ALL OF THESE PSYCHOLOGISTS ARE VERY FAMOUS AND THERE WORKS WERE BASED AROUND THE QUADRANT MODEL- SHE HAD THREE NERUOTIC TYPES AND ONE HEALTHY TYPE THE FOURTH WAS TRANSCENDENT AND IT WAS BASED ON TWO DICHOTOMIES QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-factor_models_of_personality

Also deserving mention is a single scale invented in the 1940s by Karen Horney (1885–1952). This one dimension measured "movement" towards, against and away from people. This would result in the coping strategies, in which these three "neurotic" patterns would be paired with a fourth, "healthy" one called "movement with people". These would describe behaviors associated with both extroversion and reacting to people, in which people attempt to avoid getting hurt, by either distancing themselves from others or maintaining self-sufficiency and independence on one hand; or approaching others, attempting to control or exploit them, and otherwise gain power and recognition; or "give in" to them to gain acceptance and approval, on the other.

FOUR PRIMARY EMOTIONS TWO DICHOTOMIES QUADRANT MODEL- FOUR BEHAVIOR PATTERNS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-factor_models_of_personality

In 1928, William Moulton Marston identified four primary emotions, each with an initial feeling tone of either pleasantness or unpleasantness. This led to his viewing people's behavior along two axes, with their attention being either "passive" or "active", depending on the individual's perception of his or her environment as either "favorable" or "antagonistic". By placing the axes at right angles, four quadrants form with each describing a behavioral pattern:

 

Dominance, which produces activity in an antagonistic environment; with a feeling of unpleasantness until stimulus is acted upon

Compliance, which produces passivity in an antagonistic environment; with a feeling of unpleasantness until stimulus is reconciled

Inducement, which produces activity in a favorable environment; with a feeling of pleasantness increasing as interaction increases

Submission, which produces passivity in a favorable environment; with a feeling of pleasantness increasing as yielding increases

FOUR TYPES CALIFORNIA PERSONALITY INVENTORY- TWO DICHOTOMIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-factor_models_of_personality

This would be further developed in the 1970s by John G. Geier[5] into the DiSC assessment System, which grades individual scales of "Dominance", "Influence", "Steadiness", and "Conscientiousness". By now, it would be classified in terms of the two factors; consisting of pairs of Extroverted or "Assertive" aspects (D, I), Introverted or "Passive" aspects (S, C), Task-oriented or "Controlled" aspects (D, C) and social or "Open" aspects (I, S).

 

The California Psychological Inventory's CPI 260 Instrument also has similar scales, of "Initiates action, Confident in social situations" versus "Focuses on inner life, Values own privacy"; and "Rule-favoring, Likes stability, Agrees with others" versus "Rule-questioning, Has personal value system, Often disagrees with others" and the four "lifestyles": Leader, Supporter, Innovator, and Visualizer.

THE MANAGERIAL GRID IS A QUADRANT MODEL BASED ON TWO DICHOTOMIES BUT IT ADDS AN ULTRA TRANSCENDENT FIFTH - FOURTH IS DIFFERENT- FIFTH ULTRA TRANSCENDENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-factor_models_of_personality

Another addition to the two factor models was the creation of a 10 by 10 square grid developed by Robert R. Blake and Jane Mouton in their Managerial Grid Model introduced in 1964. This matrix graded, from 0-9, the factors of "Concern for Production" (X-axis) and "Concern for People" (Y-axis), allowing a moderate range of scores, which yielded five "leadership styles":

 

Impoverished (low X, Y)

Produce or Perish (high X low Y)

Country Club (low X high Y)

Team (high X and Y)

Middle of the Road (moderate X, Y)

THOMAS KILMAN FIRO B AND THE FIVE TEMPERAMENT THEORY ARE ALSO QUADRANT MODELS BASED ON TWO DICHOTOMIES (TWO FACTORS) THAT HAVE A TRANSCENDENT FOURTH AND THEN ADD AN ULTRA TRASNCENDENT FIFTH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-factor_models_of_personality

The Thomas Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI) used a version of this with "Assertiveness" and "Cooperativeness" as the two factors, also leading to a fifth mode:

 

Competing, (assertive, uncooperative)

Avoiding (unassertive, uncooperative)

Accommodating (unassertive, cooperative)

Collaborating (assertive, cooperative)

Compromising (intermediate assertiveness and cooperativeness).

FIRO-B would call the two dimensions Expressed Behavior and Wanted Behavior, and use three separate matrices for the respective areas of Inclusion (social skills) Control (leadership and responsibility-taking) and Affection (deep personal relationships). In 1977, "locator charts" were produced for each area by Dr. Leo Ryan, providing a map of the various scores, following the Managerial Grid model, with unofficial names assigned to different score ranges. They were generally grouped into five main types for each area, in the vein of the Managerial Grid and TKI, except that moderate scores (generally 4, 5) in only one dimension (with the other dimension being high or low) were given separate names, creating nine basic groups for each area (low e/w, low e/high w, low e/moderate w, etc.). In the control area, there is a tenth group created by a further division of the low e/high w range.

 

This would form the basis of the Five Temperaments theory by Dr. Richard G. and Phyllis Arno, in which the ancient temperaments were mapped to the FIRO-B scales (in all three areas), with Phlegmatic becoming the moderate e/w instead of low e/high w, which was now taken to constitute a fifth temperament called "Supine", which has many of the "introverted and relationship oriented" traits of the other types defined as such, above. (The "Wanted behavior" scale is generally renamed "Responsive behavior"). The moderate scores mixed with high or low are designated "Phlegmatic blends" and divided with 4 being a blend of Phlegmatic with the lower adjacent temperament, and 5 being a blend with the higher adjacent temperament. This results in 13 separate ranges in each area.

IT IS A QUADRANT MODEL USING TWO AXES CREATING FOUR TYPES THE FOURTH DIFFERENT- AND IT ADDS AN ULTRA TRANSCENDENT FIFTH

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas–Kilmann_Conflict_Mode_Instrument

 

The TKI uses two axes (influenced by the Mouton and Blake axes) called "assertiveness" and "cooperativeness." The TKI identifies five different styles of conflict: Competing (assertive, uncooperative), Avoiding (unassertive, uncooperative), Accommodating (unassertive, cooperative), Collaborating (assertive, cooperative), and Compromising (intermediate assertiveness and cooperativeness). There are some seemingly obvious, but difficult to support, similarities between anger resolution-management style ideas with other tools and theories, such as DISC assessment, Social styles, and even the theory of Five Temperaments, which is based in the theories of ancient Greece.

FIVE TEMPERMANETS IS A TWO FACTOR MODEL CREATING FOUR TYPES- IT IS A QUADRANT MODEL- BUT IT ADDS THE ULTRA TRANSCENDENT FIFTH TO THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_Temperaments

 

Five temperaments is a theory in psychology, that expands upon the Four Temperaments proposed in ancient medical theory.

 

The development of a theory of five temperaments begins with the two-factor models of personality and the work of the late William Schutz, and his FIRO-B program. It is a measure of interpersonal relations orientations that calculates a person's behavior patterns based on the scoring of a questionnaire. Although FIRO-B does not speak in terms of "temperament", this system of analysis graded questionnaires on two scales in three dimensions of interpersonal relations. When paired with temperament theory, a measurement of five temperaments resulted.[1]

THE FOUR QUADRANTS BASED ON TWO DICHOTOMIES DISC

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Moulton_Marston

Marston was also a writer of essays in popular psychology. In 1928, he published Emotions of Normal People, which elaborated the DISC Theory. Marston viewed people behaving along two axes, with their attention being either passive or active; depending on the individual's perception of his or her environment as either favorable or antagonistic. By placing the axes at right angles, four quadrants form with each describing a behavioral pattern:

 

Dominance produces activity in an antagonistic environment

Inducement produces activity in a favorable environment

Submission produces passivity in a favorable environment

Compliance produces passivity in an antagonistic environment.

IN THE ART OF LOVING FROMM ARGUES TRUE LOVE REQUIRES FOUR ELEMENTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Art_of_Loving

The Art of Loving argues that the active character of true love involves four basic elements: care, responsibility, respect, and knowledge (p. 24). Each of these is difficult to define and can differ markedly depending on the people involved and their circumstances. Seen in these terms, love is hard work, but it is also the most rewarding kind of work.

FROMMS FOUR TYPES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erich_Fromm

Fromm lists four types of nonproductive character orientation, which he called receptive, exploitative, hoarding, and marketing, and one positive character orientation, which he called productive. Receptive and exploitative orientations are basically how an individual may relate to other people and are socialization attributes of character. A hoarding orientation is an acquiring and assimilating materials/valuables character trait. The marketing orientation arises in response to the human situation in the modern era. The current needs of the market determine value. It is a relativistic ethic. In contrast, the productive orientation is an objective ethic. Despite the existential struggles of humanity, each human has the potential for love, reason and productive work in life. Fromm writes, "It is the paradox of human existence that man must simultaneously seek for closeness and for independence; for oneness with others and at the same time for the preservation of his uniqueness and particularity. ...the answer to this paradox – and to the moral problems of man – is productiveness."

FOUR WORKS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Untimely_Meditations

Untimely Meditations (German: Unzeitgemässe Betrachtungen), also translated as Unfashionable Observations[1] and Thoughts Out Of Season[2]) consists of four works by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, started in 1873 and completed in 1876.

 

The work comprises a collection of four (out of a projected 13) essays concerning the contemporary condition of European, especially German, culture. A fifth essay, published posthumously, had the title "We Philologists", and gave as a "Task for philology: disappearance".[3] Nietzsche here began to discuss the limitations of empirical knowledge, and presented what would appear compressed in later aphorisms. It combines the naivete of The Birth of Tragedy with the beginnings of his more mature polemical style. It was Nietzsche's most humorous work, especially for "David Strauss: the confessor and the writer."

COLLECTION FOUR ESSAYS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/On_Disobedience_and_Other_Essays

On Disobedience and Other Essays is a 1981 book by psychoanalyst Erich Fromm, published by Harper & Row. It is a collection of four previously published essays.

 

"Let Man Prevail" and "Humanist Socialism" originally appeared in Erich Fromm, Let Man Prevail: A Socialist Manifesto and Program, 1960

"Disobedience as a Psychological and Moral Problem" originally appeared in Clara Urquhart, A matter of Life, 1963

"Prophets and Priest" originally appeared in Ralph Schoenman, Bertrand Russell, Philosopher of the Century: Essays in His Honour, 1967

FOUR TYPES OF COPING STRATEGIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coping_(psychology)

Hundreds of coping strategies have been identified.[6] Classification of these strategies into a broader architecture has not been agreed upon. Common distinctions are often made between various contrasting strategies, for example: problem-focused versus emotion-focused; engagement versus disengagement; cognitive versus behavioral. Weiten for instance, identifies four types of coping strategies:[1]

 

Appraisal-Focused (adaptive cognitive): directed towards challenging personal assumptions.

Problem-Focused (adaptive behavioral): reducing or eliminating stressors.

Emotion-Focused: changing personal emotional reactions.

Occupation-Focused: directed towards lasting occupation(s), which generates positive feedback

HORNEY FOUR COPING STRATEGIES FOURTH DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coping_(psychology)

In the 1940s, the German Freudian psychoanalyst Karen Horney "developed her mature theory in which individuals cope with the anxiety produced by feeling unsafe, unloved, and undervalued by disowning their spontaneous feelings and developing elaborate strategies of defence."[31] She defined four so-called coping strategies to define interpersonal relations, one describing psychologically healthy individuals, the others describing neurotic states.

ADLER FOUR TASKS OF LIFE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_Adlerian_psychology

A concept reflecting the organization of the personality, including the meaning individuals give to the world and to themselves, their fictional final goal, and the affective, cognitive, and behavioral strategies they employ to reach the goal: it may be normal or neurotic.[10] This style is also viewed in the context of the individual's approach to or avoidance of the four tasks of life: other people, work, love and sex.

HE IS KNOWN FOR "THE FOUR MISTAKEN GOALS"

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudolf_Dreikurs

Rudolf Dreikurs (February 8, 1897, Vienna – May 25, 1972, Chicago) was an Austrian psychiatrist and educator who developed psychologist Alfred Adler's system of individual psychology into a pragmatic method for understanding the purposes of reprehensible behaviour in children and for stimulating cooperative behaviour without punishment or reward.

 

He suggested that human misbehavior is the result of feeling a lack of belonging to one's social group. When this happens the child acts from one of four "mistaken goals": undue attention, power, revenge or avoidance (inadequacy). His overall goal was that students would learn to cooperate reasonably without being penalized or rewarded because they would feel that they are valuable contributors to the classroom.

ADLER DESCRIBED FOUR PRIMARY TYPES OF STYLE THE FOURTH WAS DIFFERENT HE SAID IT WAS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Style_of_life

Types of style[edit]

Adler felt he could distinguish four primary types of style. Three of them he said to be "mistaken styles".

 

These include:

 

the ruling type: aggressive, dominating people who don't have much social interest or cultural perception;

the getting type: dependent people who take rather than give;

the avoiding type: people who try to escape life's problems and take little part in socially constructive activity.

The fourth life style considered by Adler is the socially useful type: people with a great deal of social interest and activity.[8]

FOUR BASIC PREMISES

https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Classroom_Management_Theorists_and_Theories/Rudolf_Dreikurs

Dreikurs' Social Discipline model is based on the four basic premises of Adler's social theory. These premises are (http://wik.ed.uiuc.edu/index.php/Dreikurs%2C_Rudolf):

 

1. Humans are social beings and their basic motivation is to belong

 

2. All behavior has a purpose

 

3. Humans are decision-making organisms

 

4. Humans only perceive reality and this perception may be mistaken or biased

THE FAMOUS FOUR GOALS OF MISBEHAVIOR

https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Classroom_Management_Theorists_and_Theories/Rudolf_Dreikurs

Dreikurs believed it was possible to understand children's misbehaviors by recognizing the four main purposes or goals of the child. The four goals of misbehavior are attention getting, the contest for power, seeking revenge, and displaying inadequacy. Dreikurs promoted the use of encouragement and logical (and natural) consequences rather than reward and punishment.

 

Essentially, every action of the child is grounded in the idea that he is seeking his place in the group. A well-adjusted child will conform to the requirements of the group by making valuable contributions. A child who misbehaves, on the other hand, will defy the needs of the group situation in order to maintain social status. Whichever of the aforementioned goals he chooses to employ, the child believes that this is the only way he can function within the group dynamic successfully. Dreikurs states that "his goal may occasionally vary with the circumstances: he may act to attract attention at one moment, and assert his power or seek revenge at another" (Dreikurs, 1968, p.27). Regardless if the child is well-adjusted or is misbehaving, his main purpose will be social acceptance.

 

The following are techniques that can be used to address the four goals of misbehavior:

 

A. Attention Getting

 

Minimize the Attention - Ignore the behavior, stand close by, write a note

Legitimize the Behavior - Create a lesson out of the behavior, have the class join in the behaviors

Do the Unexpected - Turn out the lights, play a musical instrument, talk to the wall

Distract the Student - Ask a question or a favor, change the activity

Recognize Appropriate Behavior - Thanks students, give the a written note of congratulations

Move the Student - Ask the student to sit at another seat, send the student to a "thinking chair"

B. Seeking Power and Control

 

Make a Graceful Exit - Acknowledge student's power, remove audience, table matter for later discussion,

Use a Time-Out

Apply the Consequence

C. Seeking Revenge

 

Same as for "Contest for Power"

D. Displaying Inadequacy

 

Modify Instructional Methods

Use Concrete Learning Materials and Computer-Enhanced Instruction

Teach One Step at a Time (or break instruction into smaller parts)

Provide Tutoring

Teach Positive Self-Talk and Speech

Teach that Mistakes are Okay

Build Student's Confidence

Focus on Past Successes

Make Learning Tangible

Recognize Achievement

YOU LEARN ABOUT THE FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR IN PSYCHOLOGY IN INTRODUCTION OF PSYCHOLOGY AT UCSD- IN A LATER PSYCHOLOGY CLASS AT UCSD THE QUADRANT MODEL OF ATTRIBUTION FOUR TYPES  BASED ON TWO DICHOTOMIES

 

http://study.com/cimages/multimages/16/weiner-locus-of-control-matrix.jpg

http://study.com/academy/lesson/attribution-theory-and-the-principle-of-locus-of-control.html

Ability effort chance and task difficulty- based on dichotomies of internally perceived locus v external and attribution of no control and attribution of control

I LEARNED ABOUT THIS IN ONE OF MY CLASSES AT UCSD THE TEACHER LITERALLY HAD THE QUADRANT MODEL BUT I FORGET A LOT OF WHAT I LEARNED

 

http://www.burns-stat.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/fourfold.png

http://www.burns-stat.com/review-thinking-fast-slow-daniel-kahneman/

 

Figure 4 shows what Kahneman calls the fourfold pattern: how do we act when facing gains or losses with either high or low probability?

 

Figure 4: The fourfold pattern.

fourfold

 

We are most used to thinking about the low probability items. Faced with a low probability of a gain, people buy lottery tickets. Faced with a low probability of a loss, we buy insurance.

 

We are risk averse when we have a high probability of a gain — we would rather accept a slightly low salary than risk not getting (or continuing) a job.

 

The top right is what I find most interesting (as does Kahneman). This is the basis of a whole lot of Hollywood movies. When there are no good options, go for broke. If you are being chased by three sets of bad guys, then jump the river in your car.

 

Our nonlinear attitude towards risk (see the Portfolio Probe review for more on this) means that we are subject to being overly risk averse. We can reject gambles that have a positive expected payoff. That’s okay if there really is only one gamble. But if there is a whole series of gambles, then we need to try to look at the whole set of gambles rather than look at each one in sequence.

IMMANUEL KANT FOUR TYPES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-factor_models_of_personality

Quadrant

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) defined his typology by a duality of the beautiful and sublime, and concluded it was possible to represent the four temperaments with a square of opposition using the presence or absence of the two attributes. He determined that the phlegmatic type has no interest in either the beautiful or the sublime, so there was an absence of both (sb). The melancholic had a feeling for both (SB), and the sanguine had a predominating feeling for the beautiful (sB), while the choleric, he determined after comparing with the melancholic, lacked a sense of beauty and had only a sense of the sublime (Sb).[9]

ULTIMATELY EYENSCK ACTUALLY CREATED FOUR FACTORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-factor_models_of_personality

Hans Eysenck (1916–1997) was one of the first psychologists to analyze personality differences using a psycho-statistical method (factor analysis), and his research led him to believe that temperament is biologically based. In his book Dimensions of Personality (1947) he paired Extraversion (E), which was "the tendency to enjoy positive events", especially social ones, with Neuroticism (N), which was the tendency to experience negative emotions. By pairing the two dimensions, Eysenck noted how the results were similar to the four ancient temperaments.

 

High N, High E = Choleric

High N, Low E = Melancholy (also called "Melancholic")

Low N, High E = Sanguine

Low N, Low E = Phlegmatic

KRETSCHMER FOUR TYPES- BASED ON TWO DUALITIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-factor_models_of_personality

Ernst Kretschmer (1888–1964) divided personality into two "constitutional groups": Schizothymic, which contain a "Psychaesthetic proportion" between sensitive and cold poles, and Cyclothymic which contain a "Diathetic" proportion between gay and sad. The Schizoids consist of the Hyperesthetic (sensitive) and Anesthetic (Cold) characters, and the Cycloids consist of the Depressive (or "melancholic") and Hypomanic characters.

16 TYPES 16 SQUARES QMR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interaction_Styles

Interaction Styles are groupings of the 16 types of the MBTI instrument of psychometrics and Jungian psychology. The Interaction Styles model was developed by Linda Berens, PhD, founder of the Temperament Research Institute. This model builds on David Keirsey's Temperament model and its subcategories, and is based on observable behavior patterns that are quite similar to David Merrill's "Social Styles" and William Moulton Marston's DiSC theory.

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IS BASED ON A QUADRANT MODEL (in fact there are four intelligences)

https://i1.wp.com/coachingleaders.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2006/06/eqquadrant.png

http://coachingleaders.co.uk/coaching-for-emotional-intelligence/

We can use the Goleman/Boyatzis Emotional Competence Inventory’s ‘four-quadrant’ model of emotional intelligence as a guide for bringing emotional intelligence to bear on any problem. You can use it for yourself, or as a coaching model with others.

The model is very simple – it divides emotional intelligence along the axes of ‘self and other’ and ‘awareness and action’ to arrive at four quadrants: Self-Awareness, Self-Management, Social Awareness (understanding other people’s emotions) and Relationship Management (being able to handle and inspire emotions in others). We can ask questions to find out what is going on in each quadrant:

NB this was inspired by the ‘Emotional Blueprint’ process outlined in the book The Emotionally Intelligent Manager by David Caruso and Peter Salovey, which uses the four branches of the Mayer and Salovey model of emotional intelligence as the basis for asking coaching questions.

EI FOUR AREAS- FOUR PART HIERARCHY- FOUR STEP PROCESS

https://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/0787970719/ref=as_li_ss_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1634&creative=19450&creativeASIN=0787970719&linkCode=as2&tag=anintrodutostres

 

The authors of "The Emotionally Intelligent Manager" are some of the leading researchers and developers of EI, and this book is as essential reading as anything by Daniel Goleman. Unlike Goleman, the authors define emotional intelligence as the ability to reason with and about emotions. They split EI split into four related areas:

 

• Perceiving Emotions - the ability to accurately recognise how you and those around you are feeling.

 

• Using Emotions - the ability to use emotions in cognitive tasks such as problem-solving and creativity.

 

• Understanding Emotions - the ability to understand how emotions transition from one stage to another.

 

• Managing Emotions - the ability use emotional information to devise effective strategies that help you achieve positive outcomes.

 

This book covers each of the four areas in turn, exploring them more fully and providing exercises to help you develop your own skills. The skills are also linked into the organisational context.

 

 

David R. Caruso and Peter Salovey believe that this view of emotion is not correct. The emotion centers of the brain, they argue, are not relegated to a secondary place in our thinking and reasoning, but instead are an integral part of what it means to think, reason, and to be intelligent. In The Emotionally Intelligent Manager, they show that emotion is not just important, but absolutely necessary for us to make good decisions, take action to solve problems, cope with change, and succeed. The authors detail a practical four–part hierarchy of emotional skills: identifying emotions, using emotions to facilitate thinking, understanding emotions, and managing emotions 212;and show how we can measure, learn, and develop each skill and employ them in an integrated way to solve our most difficult work–related problems.

 

In "The Emotionally Intelligent Manager," David Caruso and Peter Salovey suggest that emotions add an entirely separate layer to intelligence, providing a set of data beyond the purely cognitive. When leaders and managers are able to effectively utilize their emotional intelligence, they make better decisions and provide better leadership of people and organizations. Caruso and Salovey provide a four-step process to allow leaders to harness their emotional intelligence to its greatest potential.

FOUR DIMENSIONS FOUR COMPONENTS MENTAL TOUGHNESS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mental_toughness

These same researchers published a second paper in 2007, which provided four dimensions (categories) for mental toughness attributes. One general dimension was outlined: a performer's attitude or mindset (specifically, the performer's focus and self-belief). Three time-specific dimensions were outlined: training, competition, and post-competition. These time-specific dimensions contain attributes of mental toughness (such as handling pressure, handling failure and pushing yourself to your physical limit in training) that pertain to their use at these times.[3]

 

Clough and Earle[edit]

Peter Clough et al. (2002) [4] proposed a model of mental toughness, conceptualising it more like a personality trait. Their model has four components: confidence; challenge; control and commitment. In initially conceptualising mental toughness and developing the MTQ48[5] questionnaire measurement tool, the approach taken by Clough et al. (2002) was to combine existing psychological theory and applied sport psychology in an attempt to bridge the gap between research and practice. Clough et al. saw clear comparisons between their emerging mental toughness data and the concept of hardiness, a key individual difference and resistance resource that helps buffer stress and has become an accepted concept in health psychology within the study of the stress-illness relationship. Clough et al. are clear that mental toughness is concept with broad application and should not be limited to the sports domain. They feel that sports specific measures are unlikely to move the field forward in any meaningful ways. The development work relating to their model is fully described and discussed in their book on mental toughness.[6]

16 SQUARES QMR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/16PF_Questionnaire

The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), is a self-report personality test developed over several decades of empirical research by Raymond B. Cattell, Maurice Tatsuoka and Herbert Eber. The 16PF provides a measure of normal personality and can also be used by psychologists, and other mental health professionals, as a clinical instrument to help diagnose psychiatric disorders, as well as help with prognosis and therapy planning. The 16PF instrument provides clinicians with a normal-range measurement of anxiety, adjustment, emotional stability and behavioral problems.[1][2] It can also be used within other areas of psychology, such as career and occupational selection.[3]

16 ITEM TEST- 16 SQUARES QMR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini–Mental_State_Examination

PAR have also asserted their copyright against an alternative diagnostic test, "Sweet 16," which was designed to avoid the copyright issues surrounding the MMSE. Sweet 16 was a 16-item assessment developed and validated by Tamara Fong and published in March 2011; like the MMSE it included orientation and three-object recall. Assertion of copyright forced the removal of this test from the Internet.[34]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BVRT.JPG

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benton_Visual_Retention_Test

A sample design used in Administration M of the Benton Test. The original design is shown at the top, and after a delay, the four design choices are shown and the subject is asked to choose the one that best matches the original design.

FOUR DIMENSIONS- BASE 16 16 TYPES- 16 SQUARES QMR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socionics

The second concept is so called functional dimensions. It was introduced by Aleksandr Bukalov.[148] He define the first dimension as the personal experience (Ex), the second dimension as social norms (Nr), the third dimension as the current situation (St), and the fourth dimension as the globality, or time perspective (Tm). This concept is useful because it best illustrates the difference in cognitive power (imagine measuring capability of 2D v. 3D measuring tool) and roughly describes abilities of each function to process and generate information. Still, definitions of dimensions require further research and clarification. For example, the vulnerable function tends to lose knowledge which haven't been used.

 

Mathematics[edit]

Socionics, being Base-16, can be used with bitwise operations after Base-2 reduction

Relation Base 16 Base 10 Base 2 Type

Ident. 0 0 0000 ENTp

Quas. 1 1 0001 ENTj

Cong. 2 2 0010 ENFp

Requ. 3 3 0011 ENFj

Coop. 4 4 0100 ESTp

Requ. 5 5 0101 ESTj

Sego. 6 6 0110 ESFp

Actv. 7 7 0111 ESFj

Extn. 8 8 1000 INTp

Mirr. 9 9 1001 INTj

Mira. A 10 1010 INFp

Supr. B 11 1011 INFj

Semi. C 12 1100 ISTp

Supr. D 13 1101 ISTj

Dual. E 14 1110 ISFp

Conf. F 15 1111 ISFj

Since socionics is mathematically Base-16 and also a psychology of personality in the same way as the typology of Carl Jung and Myers–Briggs, it shares a similar degree of mathematical consistency, while enduring the same serious shortcomings in the experimental justification of these theories.[citation needed]

 

Taking this, socionics also differs from other typologies in that it also includes a complementary Base-16 relationship set, with the intent of penning to paper the key social dynamic traits between grouped combinations of socionic types. Therefore, socionics could be considered to be within the realm of the science of social dynamics, intended to describe social behavior according to mathematical applications of Base-16, group theory, set logic, and reduction of the Gulenko-Jungian notation for socionics types to hexadecimal and Base-2 bitwise operation. While this mathematical approach is strictly theoretical and has been criticized for lack of empirical testing,[149] systems theory has been the tool of socionics theorist, such as Gregory Reinin to derive theorical dichotomies within socionics theory. In 1985 Aušra Augustinavičiūtė acknowledged the mathematical theories of Reinin and wrote a book titled The Theory of Reinin's Traits to describe the mathematical processes of socionics theory. Mathematical methods have been a standard part of socionics theory since this time.

 

Studies of Elena Udalova show that at least three of Reinin's Traits are distinguishable and can be used for detection of a sociotype.[citation needed] Those include: statics/dynamics (having appropriate functions in their mental track), questims/declatims (tending to raise questions or declare opinions), and aristocrats/democrats (understanding inequality or equality of people). Not all names of Reinin's Traits reflect their actual meaning very well, but they were defined historically and now seem to be fixed.[citation needed]

 

The methodology of deriving socionic relationships from two socionic types is similar to the enumeration of 16 possible boolean algebraic functions from two binary output and input variable types, with truth tables and during construction of logic gates in electronics.[150]

16 TYPES OF RELATIONSHIPS- 16 SQUARES QMR- 16 TYPES PEOPLE

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socionics

 

Socionics allocates 16 types of the relations — from most attractive and comfortable up to disputed. The understanding of a nature of these relations helps to solve a number of problems of the interpersonal relations, including aspects of psychological and sexual compatibility. The researches of married couples by Aleksandr Bukalov, Olga Karpenko, and Galina Chykyrysova, have shown that the family relations submit to the laws, which are opened by socionics. The study of socionic type allocation in casually selected married couples confirmed the main rules of the theory of intertype relations in socionics.[106][107] So, the dual relations (full addition) make 45% and the intraquadral relations make 64% of investigated couples.

 

The 16 types[edit]

Socionics divides people into 16 different types, called sociotypes. They are most commonly referred to by their two strongest functions, which in socionics are called the leading function (Jung's dominant) and the creative function (Jung's auxiliary). The creative function is opposite to the leading function in extraversion and rationality. For example, if the dominant function is introverted logic (a rational and introverted function), the secondary function must be irrational and extraverted, which means it must be either extraverted sensing or extraverted intuition.[citation needed]

FOUR BLOCKS

 

The Model A is the standard for showing the socionics structure of the psyche. You can find the particular model for the type on each type page. Socionics theory teaches that types have different personalities due to both structural differences as well as upbringing, nuture, etc. Depending on which function you have in the places in the model, you should be able to see why you are good at some things, why you avoid certain things, what you need help with, and what you give advice on.

http://www.the16types.info/info/models.htm

block area

1 2 ego conscious

4 3 superego

6 5 superid subconscious

7 8 id

Block Pairs

 

Socionics uses psychological groupings of blocks that most people are already understand with a minimal knowledge of psychology. The ego, superego, and id are used, as well as the superid.

 

1. Ego

This is your "I". Your most conscious and used block of personality. This is your most active and conscious part of your personality.

 

2. Superego

This is your zone of social uncertainty and doubt.

 

3. Superid

This block is the origin of your childishness and suggestability. You follow others in this area, you have no confidence but you feel this is not your fault.

 

4. Id

Your aggressive, instinctive, self.

FOUR FACTORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activity_vector_analysis

Activity vector analysis (AVA) is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure four personality factors or vectors: aggressiveness, sociability, emotional control and social adaptability.[1] It is used as an employment test.

 

The AVA was developed by the psychologist Walter V. Clarke in 1942, based on work by Prescott Lecky, William Marston and others.[2]

FOUR TYPES- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bem_Sex-Role_Inventory

The Bem Sex-Role Inventory offers four different possible resulting categorizations: masculine, feminine, androgynous and undifferentiated. Previously, an androgynous score was thought to be the result of equal masculine and feminine traits, while a sex-typed masculine or feminine score is the result of more traits belonging in one or the other category.The fourth type of score, undifferentiated, was seen as the result of extremely low masculine and feminine traits.

THE FOURTH FACTOR IS DIFFERENT WAS ADDED LATER- FOUR FACTOR MODEL NOW- ORIGINALLY WAS THREE FACTORS- THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN FOUR AND THREE

 

I PUT ALL THIS STUFF IN MY OVER 60 QMR BOOKS BUT NOW IVE BEEN PUTTING THE LINKS

 

Vitacco, M. J.; Neumann, C. S.; Jackson, R. (2005). "Testing a four-factor model of psychopathy and its association with ethnicity, gender, intelligence, and violence". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 73 (3): 466–76. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.73.3.466. PMID 15982144.

Vitacco, M. J.; Rogers, R.; Neumann, C. S.; Harrison, K.; Vincent, G. (2005). "A comparison of factor models on the PCL-R with mentally disordered offenders: The development of a four factor model". Criminal Justice and Behavior. 32 (5): 526–545. doi:10.1177/0093854805278414.

 

 

In the most recent edition of the PCL-R, Hare adds a fourth antisocial behavior factor, consisting of those factor-2 items excluded in the previous model.[2] Again, these models are presumed to be hierarchical with a single, unified psychopathy disorder underlying the distinct but correlated factors.[21]

 

The Cooke & Michie hierarchical three-factor model has severe statistical problems—i.e., it actually contains ten factors and results in impossible parameters (negative variances)—as well as conceptual problems. Hare and colleagues have published detailed critiques of the Cooke & Michie model.[22] New evidence, across a range of samples and diverse measures, now supports a four-factor model of the psychopathy construct,[23] which represents the interpersonal, affective, lifestyle, and overt antisocial features of the personality disorder.

FOURTH EDITION AND FOUR CATEGORIES OF SCALES

 

The fourth edition is composed of 195 true-false questions that take approximately 25–30 minutes to complete. It was created by Theodore Millon, Seth Grossman, and Carrie Millon.[1]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millon_Clinical_Multiaxial_Inventory

The test is modeled on four categories of scales:

 

15 Personality Pattern Scales

10 Clinical Syndrome Scales

5 Validity Scales: 3 Modifying Indices; 2 Random Response Indicators

45 Grossman Personality Facet Scales (based on Seth Grossman's theories of personality and psychopathology)[4]

VERY FAMOUS THE FOUR LIFE POSITIONS- based on two dichotomies

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I%27m_OK_–_You%27re_OK

I'm OK – You're OK[1] is a 1969 self-help book by Thomas Anthony Harris. It is a practical guide to transactional analysis as a method for solving problems in life.

 

Four life positions[edit]

The phrase I'm OK, You're OK is one of four "life positions" that each of us may take. The four positions are:

 

I'm Not OK, You're OK

I'm Not OK, You're Not OK

I'm OK, You're Not OK

I'm OK, You're OK

FOUR LIFE POSITIONS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transactional_analysis#The_ego-state_.28or_Parent.E2.80.93Adult.E2.80.93Child_.28PAC.29.29_models

As Berne set his Psychology up, there are four life positions that a person can hold, and holding a particular psychological position has profound implications for how an individual operationalizes his or her life. The positions are stated as:

I'm OK and you are OK. This is the healthiest position about life and it means that I feel good about myself and that I feel good about others and their competence.

I'm OK and you are not OK. In this position I feel good about myself but I see others as damaged or less than and it is usually not healthy,

I'm not OK and you are OK. In this position the person sees him/herself as the weak partner in relationships as the others in life are definitely better than the self. The person who holds this position will unconsciously accept abuse as OK.

I'm not OK and you are not OK. This is the worst position to be in as it means that I believe that I am in a terrible state and the rest of the world is as bad. Consequently, there is no hope for any ultimate supports.[8]

FOUR TYPES OF DIAGNOSIS OF EGO STATES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transactional_analysis#The_ego-state_.28or_Parent.E2.80.93Adult.E2.80.93Child_.28PAC.29.29_models

Berne states that there are four types of diagnosis of ego states. They are: "behavioural" diagnosis, "social" diagnosis, "historical" diagnosis, and "phenomenological" diagnosis. A complete diagnosis would include all four types. It has subsequently been demonstrated that there is a fifth type of diagnosis, namely "contextual", because the same behaviour will be diagnosed differently according to the context of the behaviour.[11]

FOUR BLACKMAIL TYPES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transactional_analysis#The_ego-state_.28or_Parent.E2.80.93Adult.E2.80.93Child_.28PAC.29.29_models

Forward and Frazier identify four blackmail types each with their own mental manipulation style:[13]

 

Type Example

Punisher's threat Eat the food I cooked for you or I'll hurt you.

Self-punisher's threat Eat the food I cooked for you or I'll hurt myself.

Sufferer's threat Eat the food I cooked for you. I was saving it for myself. I wonder what will happen now.

Tantalizer's threat Eat the food I cooked for you and you just may get a really yummy dessert.

https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/11/22/four-degrees-of-separation/?_r=0

 

Perhaps the saying should be four degrees of separation, rather than six?

 

Using data on the links among 721 million Facebook users, a team of scientists discovered that the average number of acquaintances separating any two people in the United States was 4.37, and that the number separating any two people in the world was 4.74. As John Markoff and Somini Sengupta report in today’s New York Times, the findings highlight the growing power of the emerging science of social networks:

JUNG AND QUATERNITY

https://archive.org/stream/ThePortableJung/The%20Portable%20Jung_djvu.txt

Whereas in Ezekiel and Daniel

we find only vague hints about the quaternity and the Son

of Man, Enoch gives us clear and detailed information on

these points. The underworld, a sort of Hades, is divided

into four hollow places which serve as abodes for the spirits

of the dead until the Last Judgment. Three of these hollow

places are dark, but one is bright and contains a "fountain

of water." 98 This is the abode of the righteous.

 

With statements of this type we enter into a definitely

psychological realm, namely that of mandala symbolism,

to which also belong the ratios I : 3 and 3 : 4." The quad*

ripartite Hades of Enoch corresponds to a chthonic qua-

ternity, which presumably stands in everlasting contrast to

a pneumatic or heavenly one. The former corresponds in

alchemy to the quaternio of the elements, the latter to a

fourfold, or total, aspect of the deity, as for instance Bar-

belo, Kolorbas, Mercurius quadrants, and the fourfaced

gods all indicate.

JUNG FOUR PARTS

https://archive.org/stream/ThePortableJung/The%20Portable%20Jung_djvu.txt

In conclusion I would like to come back for a moment

to the comparison with the sun. The one hundred and

eighty degrees of the arc of life are divisible into four

parts. The first quarter, lying to the east, is childhood,

that state in which we are a problem for others but are

not yet conscious of any problems of our own. Conscious

problems fill out the second and third quarters; while in

the last, in extreme old a^e, we descend a^ain into that

condition where, regardless of our state of consciousness,

we once more become something of a problem for others.

Childhood and extreme old age are, of course, utterly

ditTerent, and yet they have one thing in common: sub-

mersion in unconscious psychic happenings. Since the mind

ot a child grows out of the unconscious its psychic proc-

esses, though not easily accessible, are not as difficult to

discern as those of a very old person who is sinking again

into the unconscious, and who progressively vanishes within

it. Childhood and old age are the stages of life without any

conscious problems, for which reason I have not taken

them into consideration here.

WROTE OF FOUR CLASSES OF SPIRITS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elemental

In his influential De Occulta Philosophia, published in 1531-33,[8] several decades before the publication of Paracelsus' Philosophia Magna, Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa also wrote of four classes of spirits corresponding to the four elements. However, he did not give special names for the classes: "In like manner they distribute these into more orders, so as some are fiery, some watery, some aerial, some terrestrial." Agrippa did however give an extensive list of various mythological beings of this type, although without clarifying which belongs to which elemental class.[9] Like Paracelsus, he did not use the term "elemental spirit" per se.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erich_Adickes

Adickes is also known for introducing, in 1907, his concept of Four World-Views: Dogmatic (or Doctrinaire), Agnostic (or skeptical), Traditional, and Innovative, which would help shape personality theory in the 20th century.

FOUR FACTORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chamberlain%27s_Theory_of_Strategy

Geoffrey P. Chamberlain’s theory of strategy [1] was first published in 2010. The theory draws on the work of Alfred D. Chandler, Jr.,[2] Kenneth R. Andrews,[3] Henry Mintzberg [4] and James Brian Quinn [5] but is more specific and attempts to cover the main areas they did not address. Chamberlain analyzes the strategy construct by treating it as a combination of four factors.

FOUR CATEGORIES QUADRANT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SVO_Ring.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_value_orientations

When people seek to maximize their gains, they are said to be proself. But when people are also concerned with other's gains and losses, they are said to be prosocial. There are four categories within SVO. Individualistic and competitive SVOs are proself while cooperative and altruistic SVOs are prosocial:[3]

 

Individualistic orientation: Members of this category are concerned only with their own outcomes. They make decisions based on what they think they will personally achieve, without concern for others outcomes. They are focused only on their own outcomes and therefore do not get involved with other group members. they neither assist nor interfere. However their actions may indirectly impact other members of the group but such impact is not their goal.

Competitive orientation: Competitors much like individualists strive to maximize their own outcomes, but in addition they seek to minimize others outcomes. disagreements and arguments are viewed as win-lose situations and competitors find satisfaction in forcing their ideas upon others. A competitor has the belief that each person should get the most they can in each situation and play to win every time. Those with competitive SVOs are more likely to find themselves in conflicts.[4] Competitors cause cooperators to react with criticism to their abrasive styles. However, competitors rarely modify their behavior in response to these complaints because they are relatively unconcerned with maintaining interpersonal relations.

Cooperative orientation: Cooperators tend to maximize their own outcomes as well as other's outcomes. They prefer strategies that generate win-win situations. When dealing with other people they believe that it is better if everyone comes out even in a situation.

Altruistic orientation: altruists are motivated to help other who are in need. Members of this category are low in self-interest. They willingly sacrifice their own outcomes in the hopes of helping others achieve gain.

BASED OFF TWO DICHOTOMIES- QUADRANT FOUR FACTORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achievement_Orientation

Four-Factor Model of Achievement Orientation[edit]

More recent conceptualizations of achievement orientation have added an additional element. The traditional mastery and performance orientations are broken down to include approach and avoidance components,[16][17] resulting in four distinct achievement profiles: mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance.

 

A mastery-approach orientation describes individuals who are focused on learning as much as possible, overcoming challenges through hard work, or increasing their competence at a task.[18]

 

A mastery-avoidance orientation describes individuals who want to avoid doing worse than they have done before or failing to learn as much as possible.[18]

 

A performance-approach orientation describes individuals who want to demonstrate and prove to others their high ability.[18]

 

A performance-avoidance orientation describes individuals who strive to avoid looking incompetent, or less able than their peers by cultivating an appearance of effortless achievement.[18][19][20]

Four glasses puzzle

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_glasses_puzzle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The four glasses puzzle, also known as the blind bartender's problem,[1] is a logic puzzle first publicised by Martin Gardner in his "Mathematical Games" column in the February 1979 edition of Scientific American.[2]

FOUR MAIN SCHOOLS CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clinical_psychology

Clinical psychologists are expert in providing psychotherapy, and generally train within four primary theoretical orientations—psychodynamic, humanistic, behavior therapy/ cognitive behavioral, and systems or family therapy.

 

Four main schools[edit]

Many clinical psychologists are integrative or eclectic and draw from the evidence base across different models of therapy in an integrative way, rather than using a single specific model.

 

In the UK, clinical psychologists have to show competence in at least two models of therapy, including CBT, to gain their doctorate. The British Psychological Society Division of Clinical Psychology has been vocal about the need to follow the evidence base rather than being wedded to a single model of therapy.

 

In the USA, intervention applications and research are dominated in training and practice by essentially four major schools of practice: psychodynamic, humanistic, behavioral/cognitive behavioral, and systems or family therapy.[2]

FOUR ZONES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Personal_Space.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proxemics

Interpersonal distance[edit]

Hall described the interpersonal distances of man (the relative distances between people) in four zones: intimate space, personal space, social space, and public space.

 

Horizontal[edit]

 

A chart depicting Edward T. Hall's interpersonal distances of man, showing radius in feet and meters

Intimate distance for embracing, touching or whispering

Close phase – less than 6 inches (15 cm)

Far phase – 6 to 18 inches (15 to 46 cm)

Personal distance for interactions among good friends or family

Close phase – 1.5 to 2.5 feet (46 to 76 cm)

Far phase – 2.5 to 4 feet (76 to 122 cm)

Social distance for interactions among acquaintances

Close phase – 4 to 7 feet (1.2 to 2.1 m)

Far phase – 7 to 12 feet (2.1 to 3.7 m)

Public distance used for public speaking

Close phase – 12 to 25 feet (3.7 to 7.6 m)

Far phase – 25 feet (7.6 m) or more.

JUNG AND THE FOUR ARCHETYPES AND THE "HUMAN PREOCCUPATION WITH QUDRATION" AND HIS QUATERNIO DESCRIBED IN THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE SELF

https://sites.google.com/a/jeffcoschools.us/archetypes/periodic-table-of-archetypes

Reasons for Having Four of Each

 

Carl Jung believed that "human preoccupation with quadration" came from a four-sided structure in the collective unconscious[10]. This is reflected in a pyramid-like structure (called a "Quaternio") and a double-pyramid or octohedron (called a "Double-Quaternio") that appear in his Structure and Dynamics of the Self[7]. These structures show (according to Jung) commonalities seen in the symbolism of "various philosophies and religions" including Gnostic and Christian cultures. The quaternio diagrams were adapted by Moore and Gillette (e.g. in [9]) and are now better known in that form.

 

I consider the symbolism used to illustrate these structures, and the somewhat simplified and modernized appproach of Moore and Gillette, to be too closely bound to non-elemental archetypal concepts (proper-named icons and generic archetypes). Instead, I classify all 48 archetypes by the aspects of ability that they belong to. These are four broad categories of human ability and activity/behaviour. The four aspects are described in more detail here: primordial aspect component.

 

Here are the four mature-adult archetypes of each side arranged by the four aspects:

 

Aspect Task Relationship

Physical Warrior Maiden

Emotional Lover Mother

Mental/Intellectual Magician Crone

Spiritual & Integrative King Queen

This categorization brings a strong new clarity to the many of the details in discussions of what the archetypes are. For example, the classification between physical skills, emotional skills and mental skills helps illustrate how a person applies his/her experience and abilities to the many aspects of a romantic-sexual relationship. In most of the literature (notably in [9]), the entire area of romantic-sexual functioning is lumped into the Lover archetype.

FOUR ASPECTS OF ABILITY AND A TOTAL OF 16 ARCHETYPES 16 SQUARES QMR

http://mrob.com/pub/std/arch-prim.html#aspects

2. The Four Aspects of Ability

In the human world there is a succession of four types of phenomena:

physical

emotional

mental/intellectual

spiritual and integrative

I sometimes call these four "aspects of existence", based on the observation that:

All (living and inanimate) things are physical,

Animals also have emotion,

Human beings also have intellect, and

Some but not all human beings experience spirituality, and/or manifest an ability to integrate the other three types of skills.

Matthew Kelly[3] describes the very similar "four aspects of the human person" and uses them to classify needs in a similar way to the Maslow hierarchy; also alo refers to "four areas"; in each case that are each named by a single word (physical, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual).

This is an evolution that occurred through time: living things came first, then animals with emotion, then intellectial (human) beings, and then the human experience of spirituality. (Animals do integrate their limited physical and emotional abilities, but humans have arguably brought this to a much greater level of sophistication and effectiveness).

When viewed independently from this evolutionary progression, the four aspects can also be called dimensions of existence.

In some of my other writing (such as my article on gaining trust) I refer to these as levels, with the physical being the "lowest" and spiritual "highest". The interpretation as "levels" is tied to the following assertions, which are not definitively true:

All things that have or experience emotion, have a physical existence, but the reverse is not true.

All things that have or experience intellect also have emotions, but the reverse is not true.

All things that have spiritual experience also have mental/intellectual ability, but the reverse is not true.

If you do not believe or agree with these, then you should not use the label "levels" to refer to the four aspects of ability. I have mostly avoided the use of the word "levels" in my archetype discussions.

4. Balanced versus Shadow

Now we have 16 archetypes that are differentiated on three dimensions. All 16 represent positive, desirable and beneficial abilities and behaviours.

Human psychology also includes phenomena that undesirable, ineffective, counterproductive and harmful. The archetypes in mythology and literature reflect this; in fact, most of the popular myths and stories derive their value from their handling of these negative, "shadow" aspects of personality.

So, we add a 4th dimension, and create another 16 archetypes. Each of these existing 16 represents skills, abilities, and faculties that can be put to use in various ways, some of them productive and some harmful. The new dimension distinguishes the desirable manifestation of each of these abilities from the undesirable manifestations. The desirable manifestations are the BALANCED archetypes, and the undesirable manifestations are called SHADOW archetypes.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthew_Kelly_(speaker)

The Four Signs of a Dynamic Catholic, Beacon Publishing, 2013. ISBN 978-1937509668[34]

JUNGS QUATERNIO SERIES- I DISCOVERED TEH QUADRANT MODEL INDEPENDENT OF THIS I ONLY DISCOVERED AFTER DISCOVERING THE QUADRANT MODEL THAT JUNG SAW THE THREE PLUS ONE PATTERN IN MYTHOLOGY

https://stottilien.com/2013/01/15/c-g-jungs-self-in-quaternio-series-of-aion-jesus-or-abraxas/

It is true that C.G. Jung saw in Quaternity a divine concept and welcomed the proclamation by the Pope Pius XII in the year 1950 adding the Catholic Holy Virgin Mary, expanding so the Christian Trinity. Neoplatonic philosophy ( and many other metaphysics e.g. Mayan) contained what Jung has called the element of “fourness,” or quaternity, that seems to be so prominent an aspect of the life of the unconscious collective landscape across various cultures. This quaternity is – as the one of the Christian cross – a (3+1) structure, meaning that three parts are equal and the fourth is the “totally different”. One of the most important ramifications, however, unacceptable to some Christians, of the Jungian quaternal recipe is bringing back the original nature of evil and its personification in the real or mythological being of the evil.

 

Highly interesting are Jung’s diagrams in Aion (CW 9ii, penultimate chapter) in which Jung summarizes his researches into the phenomenology of the Self. In those diagrams Jung works his way through 2000 Years of Christian (and Gnostic) symbols of the Self. Using four octahedrons (double pyramids, i.e. one the platonic solids), he clearly tries to enhance the trinity of religion (Christianity) and science (space, time, causality) with a fourth dimension (his concept of synchronicity).

 

The snake symbol brings us to the images of Paradise, trees and earth. This amounts to an evolutionary regression from the animal Kingdom back to plants and inorganic nature, epitomized in alchemy by the secret of matter, the lapis. Here lapis is not to be understood as the end product of the opus but rather as its initial material. This arcane substance was also called lapis by the alchemists.” Lapis–a unity, often stands for the prima materia in general, consists of four elements or has to be put together from them.

 

In the hierarchical series of those four, Good and evil are clearly shown to arise from a deintegration of the central Serpens node, “the point of maximal tension in the psyche.” In the Serpens node itself, these extreme opposites presumably coexist without contradictions. In these Aion diagrams, Jung shows two distinct forms of the archetypal Self. Evil (Diabolos) and Good (Christos) arise only in the first hierarchical form of the Self. They do not occur at all in the circular forms of the Self—the ouroboric, rotational.

 

The hierarchical Quaternio series shows the highest central node, the Anthropos, evolving in four deintegrations and reintegrations from the lowest central node, the rotundum. In doing so, it passes through four quaternios. A quaternio is a structure composed of two pyramids sharing a common base. If the apex of one pyramid points upward, the apex of the other necessarily points downward. It might be possible to construct a fifth quaternio above the Anthropos. It might deintegrate into God-Shekinah and Jesus-Mary, his mother. The reintegration would occur in the next higher central node which could be named simply “God.” But here the upward progression seems to end. What is beyond God? Jung addresses this particular problem by asking, rhetorically, what his diagram would be if its hierarchical nature were destroyed by bending it around so that the lowest node, rotundum, lay next to the highest node, Anthropos?

JUNG ON THE QUATERNITY WITH THE FOURTH DIFFERENT

https://archive.org/stream/collectedworksof92cgju/collectedworksof92cgju_djvu.txt

42 Recapitulating, I should like to emphasize that the integra-

tion of the shadow, or the realization of the personal uncon-

scious, marks the first stage in the analytic process, and that with-

out it a recognition of anima and animus is impossible. The

shadow can be realized only through a relation to a partner, and

anima and animus only through a relation to a partner of the

opposite sex, because only in such a relation do their projec-

tions become operative. The recognition of the anima gives rise,

in a man, to a triad, one third of which is transcendent: the

masculine subject, the opposing feminine subject, and the tran-

scendent anima. With a woman the situation is reversed. The

missing fourth element that would make the triad a quaternity

is, in a man, the archetype of the Wise Old Man, which I have

not discussed here, and in a woman the Chthonic Mother.

These four constitute a half immanent and half transcendent

quaternity, an archetype which I have called the marriage

quaternio. 7 The marriage quaternio provides a schema not

only for the self but also for the structure of primitive society

with its cross-cousin marriage, marriage classes, and division of

settlements into quarters. The self, on the other hand, is a God-

image, or at least cannot be distinguished from one. Of this the

early Christian spirit was not ignorant, otherwise Clement of

Alexandria could never have said that he who knows himself

knows God. 8

JUNG QUATERNIO OF OPPOSITES

https://archive.org/stream/collectedworksof92cgju/collectedworksof92cgju_djvu.txt

CHRIST, A SYMBOL OF THE SELF

 

 

 

can only be described in antinomial terms; 76 that is, the above

attributes must be supplemented by their opposites if the tran-

scendental situation is to be characterized correctly. We can do

this most simply in the form of a quaternion of opposites:

 

UNITEMPORAL

 

 

 

UNIQUE

 

 

 

UNIVERSAL

 

 

 

ETERNAL

JUNG AND QUATERNITY

https://archive.org/stream/collectedworksof92cgju/collectedworksof92cgju_djvu.txt

the unidentified Set-animal with long ears. There are paintings

showing the heads of Heru-ur and Set growing out of the same

body, from which we may infer the identity of the opposites

they represent. Budge says: "The attributes of Heru-ur changed

somewhat in early dynastic times, but they were always the

opposite of those of Set, whether we regard the two gods as per-

sonifications of two powers of nature, i.e., Light and Darkness,

Day and Night, or as Kosmos and Chaos, or as Life and Death,

or as Good and Evil." 24

 

188 This pair of gods represent the latent opposites contained in

Osiris, the higher divinity, just as Behemoth and Leviathan do

in relation to Yahweh. It is significant that the opposites have

to work together for a common purpose when it comes to help-

ing the one god, Osiris, to reach the heavenly quaternity. This

quaternity is also personified by the four sons of Horus: Mestha,

Hapi, Tuamutef, and Qebhsennuf, who are said to dwell "be-

hind the thigh of the northern heaven," that is, behind the

thigh of Set, whose seat is in the constellation of the Great Bear.

The four sons of Horus are Set's enemies, but on the other hand

they are closely connected with him. They are an analogy of the

four pillars of heaven which support the four-cornered iron

plate. Since three of the sons are often shown with animal heads,

and one with a human head, we may point to a similar state of

affairs in the visions of Ezekiel, from whose cherubim-figures the

well-known symbols of the evangelists (three animals, one angel)

are derived. 25 Ezekiel says, furthermore (1 : 22): "Over the heads

of the living creatures [the cherubim] there was the likeness of

a solid plate, shining like terrible crystal, spread out above their

heads," and (1 : 26, RSV): "And above the solid plate that was

over their heads there was the likeness of a throne, in appear-

ance like sapphire; and seated above the likeness of a throne was

a likeness as it were of a human form."

ABOUT THE FOUR TENDENCIES

http://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/556724/the-four-tendencies-by-gretchen-rubin/9781524760915/

Bestselling author Gretchen Rubin (The Happiness Project; Better Than Before) reveals the surprising truth about the four hidden personality types that drive everything we do. Learn how to understand yourself better—and also how to influence others more effectively.

NAASENES THREE RIVERS OF PARADISE SENSORY FUNCTIONS FOURHT RIVER THE MOUTH- THE FOURHT ALWAYS DIFFERENT- THEY WORSHIPPED THE SNAKE AND BELIEVED THE SNAKE HAD FOUR PARTS- THEY SAW THE FOURTH PART AS DIFFERENT/TRANSCENDENT

https://books.google.com/books?id=_84eAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA66&lpg=PA66&dq=kolorbas+all+four+jung&source=bl&ots=wFQEguxFz6&sig=thCKdBdyYvipoBvuUowx7m6FDEA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjv_5adnP7TAhVP7WMKHbx1AgYQ6AEIJTAA#v=onepage&q=kolorbas%20all%20four%20jung&f=false

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I POSTED ALL OF THIS YEARS AGO- BUT BARBELO MEANT "THE DEITY IN FOUR"

Barbēlō (Greek: Βαρβηλώ)[1] refers to the first emanation of God in several forms of Gnostic cosmogony

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbelo

William Wigan Harvey (on Irenaeus), and Richard Adelbert Lipsius (Gnosticismus, p. 115; Ophit. Syst. in Hilgenfeld's Zeitschrift for 1863, p. 445) have proposed Barba-Elo, 'The Deity-in Four', with reference to the tetrad, which by the report of Irenaeus proceeds from her. Her relation to this tetrad bears however no true analogy to the Col-Arba of Marcus; it forms only the earliest group of her progeny; and it is mentioned but once.

 

She is obscurely described by Irenaeus as "a never-aging aeon in a virginal spirit", to whom, according to certain "Gnostici", the Innominable Father wished to manifest Himself, and who, when four successive beings, whose names express thought and life, had come forth from Him, was quickened with joy at the sight, and herself gave birth to three (or four) other like beings.

WOLFGANG PAULI (FAMOUS PHYSICIST) SAW THE WORLDCLOCK AS DIVIDED INTO 32 PORTIONS (AN EIGHT TIMES FOUR)- AND PAULI AND JUNG DISCUSSED THE QUATERNITY- JUNG ANALYZED DREAMS AND FOUND THE QUATERNITY DOMINATED DREAMS - ST THERESA OF AVILAS INNER CASTLE WAS A FOUR SQUARE (A QUADRANT)- FOUR KARAMAZOV BROTHERS FOUR GENERATIONS- ADAM TO NOAH NOAH TO ABRAHAM ABRAHAM TO MOSES AND MOSES TO CHRIST

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=c8cABAAAQBAJ&pg=PA475&lpg=PA475&dq=wolfgang+pauli+jung+quaternity&source=bl&ots=ngrRQ3_Feq&sig=cvdBny9w2FQZL-XQGQ0oECT___s&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiB1sr_34LUAhWKllQKHYXKAFQQ6AEIRTAF#v=onepage&q=wolfgang%20pauli%20jung%20quaternity&f=false

 

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"THE KERNAL OF ST TERESAS THOUGHT IN ALL OF HER MYSTICAL WRITINGS IS THE ASCENT OF THE SOUL THROUGH FOUR PHASES"

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teresa_of_Ávila

The kernel of Teresa's mystical thought throughout all her writings is the ascent of the soul in four stages (The Autobiography Chs. 10-22):

 

The first: Devotion of Heart, is mental prayer of devout concentration/contemplation. It is the withdrawal of the soul from without and especially the devout observance of the passion of Christ and penitence (Autobiography 11.20).

 

The second: Devotion of Peace, is where human will is surrendered to God. This is by virtue of a charismatic, supernatural state given by God, while the other faculties, such as memory, reason, and imagination, are not yet secure from worldly distraction. While a partial distraction is due to outer performances such as repetition of prayers and writing down spiritual things, yet the prevailing state is one of quietude (Autobiography 14.1).

 

The third: Devotion of Union, is absorption in God. It is not only a supernatural but an essentially ecstatic state. Here there is also an absorption of the reason in God, and only the memory and imagination are left to ramble. This state is characterized by a blissful peace, a sweet slumber of at least the higher soul faculties, or a conscious rapture in the love of God.

 

The fourth, Devotion of Ecstasy, is where the consciousness of being in the body disappears. Sense activity ceases; memory and imagination are also absorbed in God or intoxicated. Body and spirit are in the throes of a sweet, happy pain, alternating between a fearful fiery glow, a complete impotence and unconsciousness, and a spell of strangulation, sometimes by such an ecstatic flight that the body is literally lifted into space.[citation needed] This after half an hour is followed by a reactionary relaxation of a few hours in a swoon-like weakness, attended by a negation of all the faculties in the union with God. The subject awakens from this in tears; it is the climax of mystical experience, producing a trance. Indeed, she was said to have been observed levitating during Mass on more than one occasion.[citation needed]

JUNG SAW THE FOUR BROTHERS OF DOSTOEVSKY AS A QUATERNITY

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Brothers_Karamazov

There are four brothers in the Karamazov family: Ivan, the atheist intellectual; Dmitry, the emotional lover of women; Alyosha, the "hero" and Christian; and twisted, cunning Smerdyakov, the illegitimate child, who is treated as the family servant.[2] Fyodor Pavlovich Karamazov is a very careless father and woman-lover. Dmitry comes to hate him because his father loves the same woman as he does, Grushenka, and because of this, he often threatens that he will kill his father.[2] When Fyodor Pavlovich is killed by Smerdyakov, he is accused of killing his father.

I POSTED ALL THIS STUFF BEFORE OLIVER SACKS IS EXTREMELY FAMOUS I was just listening to a lecture on him on crashcourse psychology. I LEARNED ABOUT HIS BOOK THE MAN WHO MISTOOK HIS WIFE FOR A HAT IN MY PSYCHOLOGY CLASSES AT UCSD--- IT WAS TALKED ABOUT A LOT THAT ONE BOOK IT IS EXTREMELY FAMOUS- IT IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR SECTIONS FOUR ESSAYS

 

https://youtu.be/unWnZvXJH2o

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Man_Who_Mistook_His_Wife_for_a_Hat

 

The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat and Other Clinical Tales is a 1985 book by neurologist Oliver Sacks describing the case histories of some of his patients. The title of the book comes from the case study of a man with visual agnosia.[1] The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat became the basis of an opera of the same name by Michael Nyman, which premiered in 1986.

 

The book comprises twenty-four essays split into four sections, each dealing with a particular aspect of brain function. In the first two sections discuss deficits and excesses (with particular emphasis on the right hemisphere of the brain). While the third and fourth sections describe phenomenological manifestations with reference to spontaneous reminiscences, altered perceptions, and extraordinary qualities of mind found in mentally handicapped people.[2]

 

 

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