Professional mourners at Egyptian funerals were known as "Hawks of Nephthys" and she is one of the four goddesses (along with Isis, Selket, and Neith) whose images were found in the tomb of Tutankhamun as guardians of his canopic vessels. Historian Margaret Bunson notes:


Four canopic jars, four Sons of Horus, and four goddesses

During the New Kingdom, the iconography used for canopic jar stoppers reproduced that of the Four Sons of Horus, deities who protected the internal organs: human-headed Imsety, baboon-headed Hapi, jackal-headed Duamutef, and falcon-headed Qubehsenuf. Each of Horus’s sons, paired with a goddess, was responsible for the protection of a particular organ: Imsety and Isis guarded the liver, Hapi and Nephthys the lungs, Duamutef and Neith the stomach, and finally Qubehsenuf and Selket the intestines.
The formula inscribed on the belly of each canopic jar also associated a son of Horus and a goddess. It quoted the protective words spoken by the goddess on behalf of the Son of Horus with whom the deceased was assimilated.



The Alliance of Four Great Races was an intergalactic alliance composed of the most advanced races known at that time: the Ancients, the Asgard, the Furlings, and the Nox. They would periodically meet to discuss matters of mutual concern and importance. To ensure universal communication, they created a "universal language" composed of representations of the primary elements

  1.  "Other Notable MeSH Changes and Related Impact on Searching: Ethnic Groups and Geographic Origins". NLM Technical Bulletin. 335(Nov–Dec). 2003. The MeSH term Racial Stocks and its four children (Australoid Race, Caucasoid Race, Mongoloid Race, and Negroid Race) have been deleted from MeSH in 2004. A new heading, Continental Population Groups, has been created with new identification that emphasize geography.



Czekanowski classified Europe into four pure races. The four pure races were the Nordic, Ibero-Insular, Lapponoid and Armenoid. The Lapponoid included the central and eastern Europeans along Europe longitudely as well as the Sami people of Northern Europe.

17th century theories of racial difference

[edit] Society Must Be Defended: the "race struggle" discourse. In Society Must be Defended ... (Gossett, 1997:32-33). Bernier distinguished four "races": .... [edit] Jan Czekanowski's Racial Definitions for Europe ... Pure Races. α =Nordic race; ε  ...