mozarts magic flute and the quaternity

 All four of these characters can be seen as aspects of the Self, with each couple providing the compensatory function for their mates’ dominant function: Tamino’s Thinking is balanced by Pamina’s Feeling; Papageno’s Sensation is balanced by Papagena’s Intuition. Together, this foursome creates the quaternity that Jung saw as the symbol of “structural wholeness, completion- something static and eternal” (Edinger Ego 188).

   The study of alchemy occupied Jung for much of the later part of his life. Part of this process of alchemy involved a search for the missing  “fourth”, the missing aspect of the psyche that would lead to the Transcendent Function. “Jung over and over again in his writings returns to the alchemical question: ‘Three are here but where is the fourth?’ ” (Edinger Ego 189).

quaternic magic flute and woman without shadow richard strauss

For examples of such quaternic couples in myth I have often mentioned the operas The Magic Flute by Mozart and The Woman without a Shadow by Richard Strauss.  Probably any modern romantic comedy involving a pair of friends who are both looking for love with one friend being more principled while the other is more self-serving would evoke this motif.

walt whitman quaternity whitman divides poem four parts four parts self

 Walt Whitman deeply believes in the idea of self and this searching for his self drives his poems and gives meaning to them. Whitman's struggle to find his self is exposing the true person that he is and not the person he pretends to be or who others think he is. Whitman divides his poem into four parts which is part of Whitman's self. "Chanting the Square Deific" is divided into this four part to describe the different parts of his Holy Trinity instead of three he has four. Each part of this poem is told from the point of view of the speaker who is a part of Whitman's quaternity. Walt Whitman's quaternity is made up of God, Christ, Satan, and the Soul (Oliver). Each of these speakers present a part of Whitman's "Square Deific".

moby dick quaternity

Additionally, I believe that Melville imbued his own beliefs in each character while exploring his psyche.  The duality of the human psyche, in the form of the conscious and subconscious, plays a powerful role in the characterization of each personality in Moby Dick. I think they are all aspects of Melville’s projection of humanity and are archetypes of the human subconscious. Perhaps the most fascinating aspect of this is what Edinger calls the “quaternity” - that is - Ishmael and Queequeg (conscious and subconscious, respectively) are complimentary opposites as are Ahab and Fedallah (conscious and subconscious respectively as well). Further, Fedallah and Queequeg are complementary opposites (the “noble savage” and the “evil savage” respectively) as well and therein lies the quaternity. I use the word “savage” here because Melville refers to them as such in the book, but if you look deeper into his exploration of their character, I think you will find that he is, in reality, showing us our own ignorance - or at least the ignorance of people of that time period. I do not believe that Melville considers Queequeg a savage.



raphael stanza della segnatura quaternity three paintings wall fourthdiggerent on ceiling tetrad of allegorival figures says number four not accidental borrowing from pythagoras and plato fourfold division of ceiling

four sets of four 16 the quadrant model four allegories four rectangular figures four hostories four mythologies and the four elements

the author points out that cervantes intentionally employs the number four like raphael and the quaternity and quotes he inger who says that there is nothing in existence whose root and foundation is not the quatenary-  he points out that raphaels for paintings and the school of athens the number four is not accidental and he shows that pythagoras in the painting has a tetractys showing Raphaels intentional use of four


cervantes divides his plays into four acts represeting the four elements and imitating four classical authors quaternity


quixote also divided into four parts


cervantes uses series of tetrads empedocles raphael pythagoras knoght creates fictive universe four elemebts and needs four elements ride into countryside cervantes develops thepythagorean tetrads



The basic organization of the Fourth Essay derives from what Frye, following Coleridge, calls “initiative,” or the “controlling and coordinating power” which “assimilates every thing to itself, and finally reveals itself to be the containing form of the work.”2 The initiative is comprised of four separate categories: the theme; the unity of mood which determines imagery; the meter, or integrating rhythm; and the genre. This complex of factors, Frye asserts, governs the process of poetic composition. He has treated the first two initiatives in his discussion of archetypal images and narratives in the Third Essay. The remaining two, rhythm and genre, are the controlling ideas of the Fourth.

Although within the larger diagrammatic framework Frye’s definition of rhetoric is general, it has a more specialized and traditional reference as it relates to the fourth factor of a writer’s initiative (the genre). “The basis of generic criticism.” he says “is rhetorical, in the

four genres

Contemporary discussions of literature commonly divide texts into four primary genres: Poetry, Prose Fiction, Plays, and Nonfiction Prose. These categories reflect the Greek divisions in form, while allowing for the creation of additional classifications reflecting new literary techniques. In 1957, the critic Northrop Frye suggested that texts were categorized not only by form and structure, but also according to the responses they produced in a reader. Frye classified literature according to the genres of comedy, romance, tragedy, and satire.

frye four forms ph


Northrop Frye, in his Anatomy of Criticism (1957), tries to bring some precision to the analysis of fictional forms. In that book's Fourth Essay, "Theory of Genres," he identifies four continuous forms of prose fiction: the novel, the romance, the confession, and the Menippean satire (a/k/a the anatomy).


 Joyce's Ulysses Frye calls "a complete prose epic with all four forms employed in it, all of practically equal importance, and all essential to one another, so that the book is a unity and not an aggregate." (314).

it is said frye used the four women of the novel by atwood as an allegory of his four mythoi a three plus one


During one outing, the three friends see Zenia, a long-dead university classmate who had stolen, one by one, their respective beaux. The novel alternates between the present and flashbacks featuring the points of view of Tony, Charis, and Roz, respectively. Zenia has given each woman a different version of her biography, tailor-made to insinuate herself into their lives. No one version of Zenia is the truth, and the reader knows no more than the characters.

blake four levels of vision frye five

The influence of Blake on Frye’s entire conception of archetypal imagery should be noted. His essay on Blake’s Milton is strikingly similar to the first section of the Third Essay. In charting the structure of Blake’s symbolism, Frye relies on the same matrix of categories as in the Anatomy. The one difference is that Blake conceives of only four levels of vision (Eden or Paradise, Beulah or Innocence, Generation or Experience, and Ulro or Hell), whereas in the Anatomy there are five. It is perhaps significant that Frye attaches no name to his additional category. He says, in fact, that he will devote little attention to it “in order to preserve the simpler undisplaced structures,” that is, the apocalyptic and demonic ones (AC, 151). The inference seems to be that in Blake’s conception of the four levels of vision we have the source for the horizontal categories of Frye’s archetypal matrix. Certainly the seven vertical categories do not derive from Blake; they are much older than that. But Frye puts them to extensive use in outlining the symbolism in each of Blake’s four “worlds.” See “Notes for a Commentary on Milton,” pp. 108–29.

frye adds transcendent fourth character type

To these Frye adds the “character whom Aristotle calls agroikos, [one we] may reasonably accept . . . as a fourth character type” (AC, 172). We are most familiar with these kinds of stock characters in comedy, yet in each of the other mythoi Frye locates types which correspond generally to the two basic oppositions: alazon (impostor) versus eiron (self-deprecator), bomolochos (buffoon) versus agroikos (churl, rustic).9

swedenborg four conjunction

Jung’s insistence on worldly fulfilment and his rejection of the spiritual path of the reclusive, mirrors Swedenborg’s views. Jung’s self ideal is worldly-oriented, a view associated with the quaternity (cf. Winther, 2013a, here). Interestingly, Swedenborg said that the number four signifies conjunction (cf. AC n.9103). To Jung, the mysterium coniunctionis is the central mystery of life. He makes frequent use of the term coniunctio oppositorum and related terms, in his books. Both thinkers rejected the trinitarian view of God and both are strongly focused on achieving unity of mind. “The mind ought to be one, and not divided; and to this state they are reduced in the other life” (AC Index n.13)

not three aspects but four

An important qualification enters Frye’s argument at this point. “If the leviathan,” he says, “is the whole fallen world of sin and death and tyranny into which Adam fell, it follows that Adam’s children are born, live, and die inside his belly. . . . If we are inside the dragon, and the hero comes to help us, the image is suggested of the hero going down the monster’s open throat, like Jonah” (AC, 190). The hero, in other words, disappears. Jesus, like his prototype Jonah, descends into hell. Theseus disappears into the labyrinth. Moses gets lost in the desert. Or, to take a more displaced version, Tom Sawyer climbs down into the cave. This disappearance of the hero is what leads to the qualification of Frye’s three-stage romantic plot; for there are not three distinguishable aspects of the quest-myth after all, bur four. Thus to the agon, the pathos, and the anagnorisis Frye now adds the sparagmos or the tearing to pieces of the hero—which is the form his disappearance frequently takes (AC, 190–92).

We have seen how the comic plot is but one aspect of the total mythos of comedy. In a similar though more expansive way the conflict of romance is but a part of a larger mythos which neatly binds together all the mythoi. It is not insignificant that Frye’s own version of the “monomyth” is presented in connection with his theory of romance:

The four mythoi that we are dealing with, comedy, romance, tragedy, and irony, may . . . be seen as four aspects of a central unifying myth. Agon or conflict is the basis or archetypal theme of romance, the radical of romance being a sequence of marvellous adventures. Pathos or catastrophe, whether in triumph or in defeat, is the archetypal theme of tragedy. Sparagmos, or the sense that heroism and effective action are absent, disorganized or foredoomed to defeat, and that confusion and anarchy reign over the world, is the archetypal theme of irony and satire. Anagnorisis, or the recognition of a newborn society rising in triumph around a still somewhat mysterious hero and his bride, is the archetypal theme of comedy. (AC, 192)

That each of these four aspects of the “central unifying myth” appears also in the quest-myth, which has a romantic structure, indicates that Frye conceives of romance, formally speaking, as the fullest or most comprehensive literary type.7 We shall return to Frye’s predilection for romance later in this study. What is important to observe now is that {73} the definition of the structure of a given mythos depends essentially on isolating one part of its narrative movement: in comedy it is the discovery; in romance the conflict. While these are elements of the structure of plot, Frye also refers to them as “themes.” The two words are in fact synonymous at one level, the action of a comedy, for example, being embodied in the thematic movement from illusion to reality. In another context Frye says that “narrative in literature may also be seen as theme, and theme is narrative, but narrative seen as a simultaneous unity. At a certain point in the narrative, the point which Aristotle called anagnorisis or recognition, the sense of linear continuity or participation in the action changes perspective, and what we now see is a total design or unifying structure in the narrative” (SS, 164). This appears to be very close to what Aristotle means by plot, though Frye himself often uses the word in the un-Aristotelian sense of a typical scenario (e.g., AC, 163).

quadrisect periods western culture


Moreover, within the several cycles, Frye observes four main phases:

Seasons of the year: Spring Summer Fall Winter

Periods of the day: Morning Noon Evening Night

Aspects of water: Rains Fountains Rivers Sea, snow

Periods of life: Youth Maturity Old age Death

It is even possible to quadrisect the periods of Western culture into the Medieval Age, the Renaissance, the Eighteenth Century, and the Modern Period (AC, 160). The fourfold division has important consequences for the subsequent structure of Frye’s argument. Schematically, the cyclical paradigm is located within the order of nature, whereas the dialectical one moves from the order of nature toward or into the higher apocalyptic realm.

{67} The existence of these broad cyclical and dialectical movements within mythos leads Frye to conclude that there are “narrative categories of literature broader than, or logically prior to, the ordinary literary genres” (AC, 162). He calls these pregeneric elements mythoi, another fundamental distinction in Frye’s master design, for the cyclical and dialectical movements of mythoi underlie the entire second half of Anatomy of Criticism. In terms of the origin of his most basic categories, mythoi derive ultimately from poetic imagery or, more accurately, from the movement of poetic imagery which is a part of our experience of literature.

Frye’s method of argument at this point is based upon the similarities of “movement” between the seven categories of reality and the cyclical and dialectical processes of archetypes. Cyclically, the analogy produces four mythoi: comedy, romance, tragedy, and irony or satire (this latter also called “realism”). Dialectically, it produces an upward and downward movement between innocence and experience, apocalypse and nature, the ideal and the actual, the comic and the tragic. A {68} diagrammatic representation of these movements is found in Figure 10. We have already encountered a rudimentary form of the dialectical part of this design in the First Essay, where Frye uses “comic” and “tragic” in a similar pregeneric sense to describe aspects of mythos in general.

frye four elements of literature

We have thus answered the question: are there narrative categories of literature broader than, or logically prior to, the ordinary literary genres? There are four such categories: the romantic, the tragic, the comic, and the ironic or satiric. We get the same answer by inspection if we look at the ordinary meanings of these terms. Tragedy and comedy may have been originally names for two species of drama, but we also employ the terms to describe general characteristics of literary fictions, without regard to genre. It would be silly to insist that comedy can refer only to a certain type of stage play, and must never be employed in connection with Chaucer or Jane Austen. Chaucer himself would certainly have defined comedy, as his monk defines tragedy, much more broadly than that. If we are told that what we are about to read is tragic or comic, we expect a certain kind of structure and mood, but not necessarily a certain genre. The same is true of the word romance, and also of the words irony and satire, which are, as generally employed, elements of the literature of experience, and which we shall here adopt in place of "realism." We thus have four narrative pregeneric elements of literature which I shall call mythoi or generic plots.

frye four mythical movements

The top half of the natural cycle is the world of romance and the analogy of innocence; the lower half is the world of "realism" and the analogy of experience. There are thus four main types of mythical movement: within romance, within experience, down, and up. The downward movement is the tragic movement, the wheel of fortune falling from innocence toward hamartia, and from hamartia to catastrophe. The upward movement is the comic movement, from threatening complications to a happy ending and a general assumption of post-dated innocence in which everyone lives happily ever after. In Dante the upward movement is through purgatory.

transcendent fourth character type

With regard to the characterization of comedy, the Tractatus lists three types of comic characters: the alazons or impostors, the eirons or self-deprecators, and the buffoons (bomolochoi). This list is closely related to a passage in the Ethics which contrasts the first two, and then goes on to contrast the buffoon with a character whom Aristotle calls agroikos or churlish, literally rustic. We may reasonably accept the churl as a fourth character type, and so we have two opposed pairs. The contest of eiron and alazon forms the basis of the comic action, and the buffoon and the churl polarize the comic mood.

frye four genres four historical modes four essays four mythoi four seasons

The radical of presentation—the relation (or idealized relation) between author and audience—is a further consideration. Difference in genre relies not on topical considerations (science fiction, romance, mystery), nor in length (e.g. epics are long, lyrics are short), but in the radical of presentation. As such, Frye proposes a total of four distinct genres:


epos - Author speaks directly to audience (e.g. story telling, formal speech).

fiction - Author and audience are hidden from each other (e.g. most novels).

drama - Author is hidden from the audience; audience experiences content directly.

lyric - Audience is "hidden" from author; that is, the speaker is "overheard" by hearers.

These four genres form the organizing principle of the essay, first examining the distinctive kind of rhythm of each, then looking at specific forms of each more closely. As Frye describes each genre, he explains the function of melos and opsis in each. To understand Frye's melos, it is important to note[according to whom?] his counter-intuitive usage of the term "musical". He contends that the common usage of the term is inaccurate for purposes of criticism, drawn from analogy with harmony, a stable relationship. Music, however, does not consist of a plastic, static, continuously stable relationship, but rather a series of dissonances resolving at the end into a stable relationship. Poetry containing little dissonance, then, has more in common with the plastic arts than with music.


Frye's four essays are sandwiched between a "Polemical Introduction" and a "Tentative Conclusion." The four essays are titled "Historical Criticism: A Theory of Modes", "Ethical Criticism: a Theory of Symbols", "Archetypal Criticism: A Theory of myths", and "Rhetorical Criticism: A Theory of Genres."


These phases are based on the four levels of medieval allegory (the first two phases constituting the first level). 


Frye then identifies the mythical mode with the apocalyptic, the ironic with the demonic, and the romantic and low mimetic with their respective analogies. The high mimetic, then, occupies the center of all four. This ordering allows Frye to place the modes in a circular structure and point to the cyclical nature of myth and archetypes. In this setting, literature represents the natural cycle of birth, growth, maturity, decline, death, resurrection, rebirth, and the repetition of the cycle. The remainder of the chapter deals with the cycle of the four seasons as embodied by four mythoi: comedy, romance, tragedy, and irony or satire.

four tiered

IV. Phenomenal period of population growth from 2600

BC-2000 BC in Indus region resulting in 4-tiered

settlement hierarchy with 4 true cities, including

Mohenjo-Daro and Harrappa. Sequence at Harappa,

based on recent excavations:

A. Settlement on natural plain ca. 3200 B.C., covered

adaptations of shakespeares tetralogy tetra is four,_Part_1
In 2001, Tom Markus directed an adaptation of the tetralogy at the Colorado Shakespeare Festival. Condensing all fours plays into one, Markus named the play Queen Margaret, doing much the same with the character of Margaret as Merivale had done with York. Margaret was played by Gloria Biegler, Henry by Richard Haratine, York by Lars Tatom and Gloucester by Charles Wilcox. The only scene from 1 Henry VI was the meeting between Margaret and Suffolk.

Poster from the 2001 Shakespeare's Rugby Wars
Another unusual 2001 adaptation of the tetralogy was entitled Shakespeare's Rugby Wars. Written by Matt Toner and Chris Coculuzzi, and directed by Coculuzzi, the play was acted by the Upstart Crow Theatre Group and staged outdoors at the Robert Street Playing Field as part of the Toronto Fringe Festival. Presented as if it were a live rugby match between York and Lancaster, the 'play' featured commentary from Falstaff (Stephen Flett), which was broadcast live for the audience. The 'match' itself was refereed by 'Bill Shakespeare' (played by Coculuzzi), and the actors (whose characters names all appeared on their jerseys) had microphones attached and would recite dialogue from all four plays at key moments.[79]


shakespeares minor and major tetralogy
Henriad is a common title used by scholars for Shakespeare's second historical tetralogy, comprising Richard II; Henry IV, Part 1; Henry IV, Part 2; and Henry V.[1][2] The plays depict the destabilising effects of the violation of political continuity with the overthrow of Richard II of England followed by the growth of Henry V of England from a wild youth to a great war leader in Henry V. Although it was the second tetralogy to be written and performed, the subject matter comes chronologically before the first tetralogy comprising the three Henry VI plays and Richard III. The term "Henriad" derives from the Classical epics the Iliad and Aeneid.

References to these four plays as the Henriad can be found widely in literature on them.[3][4][5][6] The scope of the term Henriad, however, is up for debate; that is, some scholars include Shakespeare's first tetralogy, comprising plays Henry VI, Part 1; Henry VI, Part 2; Henry VI, Part 3; and Richard III in the Henriad. Though The Merry Wives of Windsor is set in the same period of history and includes many of the Henriad characters, it does not include Henry himself, and is typically seen as a separate work.[7] The first four that Shakespeare wrote are sometimes called the minor tetralogy, and the second the major tetralogy.

four note phrase bach opens tetracts art of fugue ballet

The fundamentally sensationalist nature of Mr. McGregor’s dance idiom (he doesn’t do small, delicate, gentle or subtle) is on one side; on the other is his strenuous braininess. The word “Tetractys” means “fourness”; this refers to the meeting of Bach, Mr. McGregor, Mr. Berkeley and Ms. Auerbach; to the four-note phrase with which Bach opens his fugue; and to complex aspects of Bach’s musical patterning.

it is said frye used the four women of the novel by atwood as an allegory of his four mythoi a three plus one


During one outing, the three friends see Zenia, a long-dead university classmate who had stolen, one by one, their respective beaux. The novel alternates between the present and flashbacks featuring the points of view of Tony, Charis, and Roz, respectively. Zenia has given each woman a different version of her biography, tailor-made to insinuate herself into their lives. No one version of Zenia is the truth, and the reader knows no more than the characters.

“Borges said there are only four stories to tell: a love story between two people, a love story between three people, the struggle for power and the voyage. All of us writers rewrite these same stories ad infinitum.”


“There are four obstacles.


First: we are told from childhood onward that everything we want to do is impossible.


The second obstacle: love. We know what we want to do, but are afraid of hurting those around us by abandoning everything in order to pursue our dream.


The third obstacle: fear of the defeats we will meet on the path.


The fourth obstacle: the fear of realizing the dream for which we fought all our lives.”



― Paulo Coelho, The Alchemist



The first tempter offers the prospect of physical safety.


Take a friend's advice. Leave well alone,

Or your goose may be cooked and eaten to the bone.

The second offers power, riches and fame in serving the King.


To set down the great, protect the poor,

Beneath the throne of God can man do more?

The third tempter suggests a coalition with the barons and a chance to resist the King.


For us, Church favour would be an advantage,

Blessing of Pope powerful protection

In the fight for liberty. You, my Lord,

In being with us, would fight a good stroke

Finally, a fourth tempter urges him to seek the glory of martyrdom.


You hold the keys of heaven and hell.

Power to bind and loose: bind, Thomas, bind,

King and bishop under your heel.

King, emperor, bishop, baron, king:

Part II of the play takes place in the Archbishop's Hall and in the Cathedral, 29 December 1170. Four knights arrive with "Urgent business" from the king


The play was later made into a black and white film with the same title. It was directed by the Austrian director George Hoellering with music by the Hungarian composer Laszlo Lajtha and won the Grand Prix at the Venice Film Festival in 1951. It was released in the UK in 1952.[10][11] In the film the fourth tempter is not seen. His voice was that of Eliot himself.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.


Father John Groser as Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury

Alexander Gauge as King Henry II

David Ward as First Tempter

George Woodbridge as Second Tempter

Basil Burton as Third Tempter

T. S. Eliot as Voice of Fourth Tempter

Donald Bisset as First Priest

Clement McCallin as First Knight

Michael Aldridge as Second Knight

Leo McKern as Third Knight

Paul Rogers as Fourth Knight

Alban Blakelock as Bishop Foliot

Niall MacGinnis as Herald



Critics classify Little Gidding as a poem of fire with an emphasis on purgation and the Pentecostal fire. The beginning of the poem discusses time and winter, with attention paid to the arrival of summer. The images of snow, which provoke desires for a spiritual life, transition into an analysis of the four classical elements of fire, earth, air and water and how fire is the primary element of the four. Following this is a discussion on death and destruction, things unaccomplished, and regret for past events.[6]

The final stanza may be the most quoted of all of Eliot's poetry:

This is the way the world ends

This is the way the world ends

This is the way the world ends

Not with a bang but a whimper.


The Hollow Men has had a profound effect on the Anglo-American cultural lexicon—and by a relatively recent extension, world culture—since it was published in 1925. One source states that the last four lines of the poem are "probably the most quoted lines of any 20th-century poet writing in English."[2][6] The sheer variety of references moves some of the questions concerning the poem's significance outside the traditional domain of literary criticism and into the much broader category of cultural studies. Examples of such influences include:


The story deals with the discovery of an artifact on Earth's Moon left behind eons ago by ancient aliens. The object is made of a polished mineral, is tetrahedral in shape, and is surrounded by a spherical forcefield. The narrator speculates at one point that the mysterious aliens who left this structure on the Moon may have used mechanisms belonging "to a technology that lies beyond our horizons, perhaps to the technology of para-physical forces."


The movie takes place in three possibly four different stages/parts. Beginning with the "Dawn of Man" where humanoid ape men discover a monolith and learn from, which we can infer from the editing of the shot, to use tools.


The Little Iliad (Greek: Ἰλιὰς μικρά, Ilias mikra; Latin: parva Illias) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. It was one of the Epic Cycle, that is, the "Trojan" cycle, which told the entire history of the Trojan War in epic verse. The story of the Little Iliad comes chronologically after that of the Aethiopis, and is followed by that of the Iliou persis ("Sack of Troy"). The Little Iliad was variously attributed by ancient writers to Lesches of Pyrrha, Cinaethon of Sparta, Diodorus of Erythrae, Thestorides of Phocaea, or Homer himself (see Cyclic poets). The poem comprised four books of verse in dactylic hexameter, the heroic meter.

The cardinal qualities of the style of Homer are well articulated by Matthew Arnold:

[T]he translator of Homer should above all be penetrated by a sense of four qualities of his author:—that he is eminently rapid; that he is eminently plain and direct, both in the evolution of his thought and in the expression of it, that is, both in his syntax and in his words; that he is eminently plain and direct in the substance of his thought, that is, in his matter and ideas; and finally, that he is eminently noble.[95]


Rapidity or ease of movement, plainness of expression, and plainness of thought are not distinguishing qualities of the great epic poets Virgil, Dante,[96] and Milton. On the contrary, they belong rather to the humbler epico-lyrical school for which Homer has been so often claimed. The proof that Homer does not belong to that school—and that his poetry is not in any true sense ballad poetry—is furnished by the higher artistic structure of his poems and, as regards style, by the fourth of the qualities distinguished by Arnold: the quality of nobleness. It is his noble and powerful style, sustained through every change of idea and subject, that finally separates Homer from all forms of ballad poetry and popular epic.


The realm of Oz very closely resembles America. It contains four countries, the Land of the North, East, West, and South, and the national capital, the Emerald City. America and its inhabitants are often divided into similar categories such as Midwestern, Southern, etc. These locations are also separated by an American color scheme that was relevant to America during the 19th century.[37] The color blue represents the industrial East known for the blue-collar jobs. The South is red for the red earth it contains or the "redneck" inhabitants. Yellow describes the West, denoting the California gold rush. Finally, the Emerald City as Washington D. C., denoting greenbacks and money of the country.


Political interpretations of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz include treatments of the modern fairy tale (written by L. Frank Baum and first published in 1900) as an allegory or metaphor for the political, economic, and social events of America in the 1890s. Scholars have examined four quite different versions of Oz: the novel of 1900,[1] the Broadway play of 1901,[2] the Hollywood film of 1939,[3] and the numerous follow-up Oz novels written after 1900 by Baum and others.[4]


The book is divided into four parts:


The Sword in the Stone (1938), detailing the youth of Arthur

The Queen of Air and Darkness (1939), published separately in somewhat different form as The Witch in the Wood

The Ill-Made Knight (1940), dealing mainly with the character of Lancelot

The Candle in the Wind, first published in the composite edition, 1958


A tetralogy (from Greek τετρα- tetra-, "four" and -λογία -logia, "discourse") is a compound work that is made up of four distinct works. The name comes from the Attic theater, in which a tetralogy was a group of three tragedies followed by a satyr play, all by one author, to be played in one sitting at the Dionysia as part of a competition.[1]


Contents [hide]

1 Known Tetralogies

2 Other information

3 See also

4 References

Known Tetralogies[edit]

"Tintitives" by Antiphon of Rhamnus - The author was an orator who taught his students with ', each one consisting of four speeches: the prosecutor's opening speech, the first speech for the defense, the prosecutor's reply, and the defendant's conclusion. Three of his tetralogies are known to have survived.[2]

"Der Ring des Nibelungen" by Richard Wagner [3]

"Inheritance Cycle" by Christopher Paolini

The Buru Quartet by Pramoedya Ananta Toer

"Magic Zero"[4] (previously titled "Outcast") by Christopher Golden and Thomas Sniegoski

"Menagerie" by Christopher Golden and Thomas Sniegoski

"The Sea of Fertility" (豊饒の海 Hōjō no Umi?) by Yukio Mishima

"The Once and Future King By T.H. White

Other information[edit]

In the early modern period of literature, Shakespeare drafted a pair of tetralogies, the first consisting of the three Henry VI plays and Richard III, and the second, what we now call a prequel because it is set earlier, consisting of Richard II, the two Henry IV plays, and Henry V.[5]


As an alternative to "tetralogy", "quartet" is sometimes used, particularly for series of four books. The term "quadrilogy", using the Latin prefix quadri- instead of the Greek, and first recorded in 1865,[6] has also been used for marketing cinematic series, such as the Alien movies.


Who is Euphorion? Some myths say he was the child born of the spirits of Achilles and Helen on the White Isle, which is interesting, since it creates a parallel between Faust and Achilles. However, in conversation Goethe described Euphorion as the "spirit of poesy," and the chorus later calls him "poesy pure" (9863), so we must also consider him from this perspective (and recall that the Boy Charioteer was called "Poetry"). Indeed, he represents Byronic Romantic poetry born of the classicism of Helen and and Germanic striving of Faust. Finally, we must recognize him as the fourth of the child-like figures that appear in Faust (Gretchen's infant, the Boy Charioteer, Homunculus, Euphorion), all of whom are soon destroyed.


According to Jung, in alchemy the spirit Mercury (whom Mephisto regularly represents) is necessary for the conjunction of the king and queen, often symbolized by the sun and moon or by gold and silver. From a different perspective, Mercury (the soul) operates as a mediator to join the sun/king (incorporeal spirit) and moon/queen (corporeal body and its appetites). Therefore it is interesting (at least to me!) to ponder, from a psychological perspective, in what sense the faculty represented by Mephisto is required in order to transcend the opposites represented by Faust and Helen. From these three a fourth is born, who is the child Euphorion.


In the final part of the scene, the chorus of the spirits of the Trojan women splits into four parts, each of which transforms into a particular kind of nature spirit and enchants its own domain of nature. As the act ends, Mephistopheles, who has stage-managed the entire Helena episode, removes his Phorcyas mask and reveals himself.


Many Dutch (and Flemish) painters worked abroad or exported their work; printmaking was also an important export market, by which Rembrandt became known across Europe. The Dutch Gift to Charles II of England was a diplomatic gift which included four contemporary Dutch paintings. English painting was heavily reliant on Dutch painters, with Sir Peter Lely followed by Sir Godfrey Kneller, developing the English portrait style established by the Flemish Anthony van Dyck before the English Civil War. The marine painters van der Velde, father and son, were among several artists who left Holland at the French invasion of 1672, which brought a collapse in the art market. They also moved to London, and the beginnings of English landscape painting were established by several less distinguished Dutch painters, such as Hendrick Danckerts.


Four gray crones approach the door of Faust's palace; their names are Want, Debt, Need, and Care. Want, Debt, and Need observe that a wealthy man dwells inside, and so entry is blocked to them, but Care says she can enter even a rich man's house. Care enters through the keyhole while the other three depart, remarking that they see their brother Death approaching from afar.


To understand the role of Care (Ger., Sorge) in Faust, it's useful to reread the first mention of her, in Part I, "Night," lines 634-55. There F lamented that a person, no matter how great their accomplishment, no matter how high their thoughts or aspirations, is still a mortal creature of flesh and blood, and therefore vulnerable to injury, disease, old age, and inevitable death. "I'm of the earthworm's dust-engendered brood, / Which, blindly burrowing, by dust is fed, / And crushed and buried by the wanderer's tread." (653-5)


Back to Pt. II, Act V. From inside his palace, F has observed the approach of the four gray crones and has noted that only three left. He has heard only muffled snatches of their conversation, including the word "Death," and the entire situation has left him spooked. His feelings of anxiety show him that he is not free of care ("I have not fought my way to freedom yet" -- 11403). He considers what life might have been like without magic, satisfied by accomplishments achieved by natural means: "oh, if I stood / Before you, Nature, human without guile, / The toil of being man might be worthwhile." (11406-7, Kaufmann tr.) However, this does not seem to be a renunciation of magic (as some critics have read it), but merely a moment of reflection, for he continues to depend on magical power (see your text, pp. 477-8, for a discussion). Nevertheless, he is upset that every night the air seems to be choked with bogeys of his own creation (11408-20). "Abashed we stand, alone but with our fear" (11418). In this frame of mind, he hears the door creak open.


According to Edinger, the first four acts of Part II correspond to the material elements: fire, water, air, and earth. These are the elements from which our world was supposed to be made (but also corresponding to the four functions of consciousness -- intuition, feeling, thinking, sensation — but also many other quaternities, such as the seasons). According to this scheme, Act V corresponds to the fifth element, called ether, the Quintessence or fifth essence (quinta essentia). This was supposed to be the substance of the celestial bodies (the planets and stars). According to the traditional Aristotelian-Thomistic physics, the four material elements exhibit rectilinear (straight-line) motion, whereas the quintessence exhibits circular motion. Therefore motion on earth always comes to an end (because eventually you run into something), whereas celestial motion goes on in eternal cycles. Therefore, since all earthly motion must come to an end, everything on earth is subject to "coming-to-be and passing-away," to "generation and corruption." Life, too, is a kind of motion, so earthly life must come to an end; all earthly beings are mortal. On the other hand, cyclic motion can continue forever, and so eternal life is found in the heavens, where all things are eternal and incorruptible. Thus the traditional cosmology.


From this perspective you can see also why the alchemists were interested in making the quintessence, for it was the essence of immortality and incorruptibility. The key to creating the quintessence was a cyclic rotation through the four elements (in part a kind of distillation process), which would eventually converge on the quintessence by transcending and unifying the oppositions among the elements (warm and cold, wet and dry).


Next we hear from four "anchorite fathers," who are engaged in contemplative practices in various stations on the mountain side. They seem to represent progressively higher degrees of spiritual attainment.


The drama ends with eight-lines from a Chorus Mysticus; no one is quite sure who this mystic chorus is; perhaps they are ethereal voices from off stage, perhaps they are the entire ensemble. These lines comprise four two-line statements, each of which is significant (and the subject of debate, so try to reach your own conclusions). I will offer hear a few thoughts of my own as a starting point. I might also add that translations can differ quite a bit.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

Four Ways to Forgiveness is a collection of four short stories and novellas by American writer Ursula K. Le Guin. All four stories are set in the future and deal with the planets Yeowe and Werel, both members of the Ekumen, a collective of planets used by Le Guin as part of the background for many novels and short stories in her Hainish Cycle.


Describe the main conflict: The main conflict is that the four men are survivors of a war, and that they are trying to adapt to how they need to start living. The musician misses his old life so much that he actually wanted to steal Dr. Jenkins’ portable phonograph. The writer is also in a desperate need for paper so he can write. They all just want to go back to how things used to be, where it wasn’t every man for himself.


Describe the climax of the story: The climax of the story is when Dr. Jenkins takes out the phonograph and starts playing the music. The four men have emotional changes when the music is played, especially the musician. I think this is the turning point because they all become really vulnerable when they hear something from the past.


Edited and digitally reengineered by Jon Carlson and Chris Hanzsek at Hanzsek Audio in Seattle. With Paul Bowles' essay commissioned by Cadmus Editions for this work and Brion Gysin's painting of the Djmaa al Fnaa in Marrakech. This classic suite of four interconnected kif tales is the only full-length work ever recorded by Paul Bowles. A joint Cadmus Editions/Dom America production. Double audio CD with printed insert.


A Hundred Camels in the Courtyard consists of only four stories, each revolving around the world of the kif smoker. Though the stories are entrancing in and of themselves, Bowles, also a composer, seems to have written the quartet as a unified suite, so mellifluous are the interrelationships between the tales. This musical aspect becomes even more evident while listening to the recording of the work Bowles made, originally released in 1981 by Cadmus Editions as a limited edition double album, and now available on CD.


In 1960 Bowles began to experiment with the idea of constructing stories “whose subject matter would consist of disparate elements and unrelated characters taken directly from life and fitted together as in a mosaic.” Bowles made a list of incidents and situations he had either seen or heard that year, and divided these into four groups. By providing “kif directed motivations, [he] was able to use cannabis both as solvent and solder in the construction” of four stories, which are collected in A Hundred Camels in the Courtyard. Bowles, of course reads from his own work.


— Christopher Cox





The old proverb “A pipe of kif before breakfast gives a man the strength of a hundred camels in the courtyard” set Bowles off on a four-story sequence that delineated a land where cannabis, rather than alcohol, provided a way out of the phenomenological world. Camels was a window into a world where kif dreams proved the existence of magic and served as a valid means of communication.

Ahmad ibn Umar ibn Alī, known as Nizamī-i Arūzī-i Samarqandī (Persian: نظامی عروضی‎‎) and also Arudi ("The Prosodist"), was a Persian poet and prose writer who flourished between 1110 and 1161 AD. He is particularly famous for his Chahar Maghaleh ("Four Discourses"), his only work to fully survive. While living in Samarqand, Abu’l-Rajaʾ Ahmad b. ʿAbd-Al-Ṣamad, a dehqan in Transoxiana, told Nezami of how the poet Rudaki was given compensation for his poem extolling the virtues of Samanid Amir Nasr b. Ahmad.[1]

Born in Samarqand, Aruzi spent most of his time in Khorasan and Transoxiana.[2] He served as a court-poet to the Ghaznavids for many years. All that is known of his personal life is gleaned from the Chahar Maqala itself.[3] Nizámí-i'Arúdí’s The Chahár Maqála, or Four Discourses, is a book consisting of four discourses on four different professionals that Nizami believed a king needs to have in his palace; in the preface of the book, Nizami discusses the philosophical or religious ideology of the creation of the world and the order of things. While he was primarily a courtier, he noted in his book that he was an astronomer and physician as well.[4] He reports in the work that he spent time not only in his native Samarqand, but also in Herat, Tus (where he visited Ferdowsi's tomb and gathered material on the great poet), Balkh, and Nishapur, where he lived for perhaps five years.[5] He also claimed to have studied under the astronomer-poet Omar Khayyám, a native of Nishapour.[6]


He builds a fenced-in habitat near a cave which he excavates. By making marks in a wooden cross, he creates a calendar.


Early critics, such as Robert Louis Stevenson, admired it, saying that the footprint scene in Crusoe was one of the four greatest in English literature and most unforgettable; more prosaically, Dr. Wesley Vernon has seen the origins of forensic podiatry in this episode.[


Before the end of 1719, the book had already run through four editions, and it has gone on to become one of the most widely published books in history, spawning numerous imitations in film, television and radio that its name was used to define a genre, Robinsonade.


Into Polish literature anapestic tetrameter was introduced by Adam Mickiewicz. As Polish language lacks masculine endings, anapestic tetrameter is usually a fourteener (7+7) with feminine endings at both half-lines: ssSssSs||ssSssSs.[7] Mickiewicz probably took it from Walter Scott's The Eve of Saint John. In the 20th century the form was used by Bruno Jasieński and Julian Tuwim. Anapestic tetrameter with masculine ending (ssSssSssSssS) is rare. In Jasieński's But w butonierce lines are shaped according to the pattern ssSssSs||ssSssSs or ssSssSs||ssSssS.


Zmarnowałem podeszwy w całodziennych spieszeniach,

Teraz jestem słoneczny, siebiepewny i rad.

Idę młody, genialny, trzymam ręce w kieszeniach,

Stawiam kroki milowe, zamaszyste, jak świat.


Rubaiyat Stanza, Iambic Tetrameter, and bears, oh my

You may or may not have noticed that "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening" has a nice ring to it, almost like a song. There's rhythm and there's reason, and even some rhyming in this poem. Composed of four four-lined stanzas, this poem is a classic example of the Rubaiyat Stanza. Do not be scared by the number of vowels in that word. "Rubaiyat" is a beautiful Persian word for "quatrain," which means a stanza composed of four lines. The Rubaiyat Stanza has a rhyme scheme of AABA. Let's take a look:

The Clan MacLeod is featured prominently in the Highlander franchise, with four major characters - Connor, Duncan, Colin and Quentin MacLeod - all being members.

Malcolm was succeeded by his eldest child, Iain Ciar, as fourth chief of the clan. R.C. MacLeod dated this event to about 1330

The Four Horsemen are a fictional group from Highlander: The Series based on the Biblical Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.

They were four Immortals that murdered and looted across two continents in the Bronze Age.

The horsemen consisted of:

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.




Since to our knowledge no one has proposed a sign composed of either five of our terms or all six, we will finish our presentation of sign structures with the tetradic sign. The only tetradic sign we know of that incorporates four of the terms we have presented is Klinkenberg's (1996). According to Klinkenberg, the sign is composed of the stimulus (it was from his work that we adopted the name of this term), the signifier, the signified and the referent. (The iconic visual sign has a slightly different structure, as we will see.) This tetradic model is represented visually as a rectangle, shown below.


Visual representation of Klinkenberg's tetradic sign

Klinkenberg's tetradic sign



The dotted line between the stimulus and the referent indicates that the relation between them is not as direct as the relations between the other terms of the sign. The relation between the two terms is arbitrary, in fact. The stimulus {apple} is no more appropriate for designating an APPLE than any other combination of vocal sounds. For evidence, we have a different stimulus, {pomme}, associated with the same referent in French. But non-arbitrary signs do exist (we say they are motivated), like the iconic visual signs that we will discuss below.

[5]The quadripod, described in Lacan’s 3rd Feb 1972 unpublished seminar XIX: Le Savoir du Psychanalyste:

has the topology of the Klein bottle with a handle. This is related to the graph of desire (footnote [2] above) in the March 21st 1962 ‘Identification’ seminar (Lacan, J. (2002[1961-62]). Book IX: Identification. London, Karnac):

The following diagram is used by the blog on the plus-one process to distinguish two axes, the speaking-and-listening axis (2-3) and the ‘impossible’ axis (1-4):


Using Foucault’s formulation of a discursive/non-discursive practices, (1) are the ontically defined (i.e. pre-existing) ‘objects’ implied by the ‘concepts’ forming the content of the narrative in (2). This narrative is formed through the use of ‘concepts’, which are ways of operating on ‘objects’. (3) are then the ‘enunciative modalities’ from which (2) can be made sense of, with its implicit relation to 1). The way in which both (2) and (3) are taken up is subject to (4), the unifying theme guaranteeing two things: that way of making sense between (2) and (3); and that way of being in relation to ‘objects’. (4) thus defines the framing axiomatics under which the account of process and outcome are narrated to (3) from (2) in relation to a wigo in a (1) ontically defined by its ‘objects’.


Foucault also speaks of unifying themes (4) as covering over ‘points of diffraction’ – places where the efficacy of the unifying theme breaks down. The effects of these ‘points of diffraction’ are what is picked up by the ‘consequence 2’ flipping the narrative into ‘other’ frames. What is ‘Really’ going on (wiRgo), then, is what is glimpsed in the liminal spaces between these frames. To understand this, we need to look more closely at the two triangles in the diagram above – 2-3-4 and 1-4-2 – in order to understand what is meant by the ‘impossible’ axis and by the ‘impossibilities’ underlying dilemmas.


Being in relation to the ‘impossible’ axis and to the ‘impossibilities’ underlying dilemmas

It is worth re-examining the diagram above through a Lacanese understanding of discourse. In this understanding, shown in the diagram below, the subject is doubly subjected to two kinds of structuration:


the structuring imposed in order to create inter-subjectively shared meaning – the kind of structuring described by Foucault. In the above diagram, this is the 2-3-4 triangle, corresponding in the diagram below to the work-truth-agency triangle, the wigo ‘objects’ being implied.

the structuring imposed by the structure of the unconscious, including the effects of the lack of the unconscious on the subject’s relation to being. This is the 1-4-2 triangle above, corresponding to the production-agency-work triangle below, except this time the ‘production’ position is wiRgo, the lack of the wigo ‘objects’ with their relation to the plus-de-jouir.[6]


In the Athenian Dionysia, each playwright customarily entered four plays into the competition: three tragedies and one satyr play


Desperation drives four inner-city women (Queen Latifah, Jada Pinkett Smith, Vivica A. Fox, Kimberly Elise) to bank robbery in Los Angeles, then they start mistrusting one another.


Cynegeticus (Greek: Κυνηγετικός, Kynegetikos "related to hunting" from κυνηγέω "I hunt"), is a treatise by the ancient Greek philosopher and military leader Xenophon, usually translated as "On Hunting" or "Hunting with Dogs." [1]


It is one of the four works by Xenophon on arts or skills (each ends with -ikos/-icus). The other three are: Hipparchicus ("The Skilled Cavalry Commander") Peri Hippikes ("On Horsemanship"), Oeconomicus ("On Estate Management").


It is unknown how long the Cynegetica originally was. Williams cites the length of Oppian's four volume Cynegetica as a precedent for a reasonably long work - although notes that there is no evidence that Nemesianus' Cynegetica was as long.[13] Toohey estimates that Nemesianus' poem was at least 400 lines long, on the basis of the length of its proem.[16]

Four schools of philosophy were founded about the time of Alexander: Stoics, Epicureans, Cynics, Skeptics.


Like other writers, Ernest Hemingway used chiasmus in his writings without being familiar with the term "chiasmus." Instead, Hemingway created his own term to describe the rhetorical figure. A. E. Hotchner, in his biography of Ernest Hemingway, describes a conversation he had with him, after first reading the manuscript for The Old Man and the Sea, when Hemingway introduced him to the "double dicho."

"There is at the heart of it [the manuscript] the oldest double dicho I know."
"What's a double dicho?" I asked.
"It's a saying that makes a statement forward or backward. Now this dicho is: Man can be destroyed but not defeated."
"Man can be defeated but not destroyed."
"Yes, that's its inversion, but I've always preferred to believe that man is undefeated."

(Papa Hemingway, 73)

In order to understand chiasmus as a rhetorical figure, it helps to understand how individual authors use chiasmus in their writings. Each differs in style and application.

Below is an example of chiasmus in the writings of Ernest Hemingway, the celebrated American author, from his short story, "Cat in the Rain." This diagram is found in the article: "Hemingway Under The Hood" (

The article describes how Hemingway's use of chiasmus was "more restrained" than James Joyce's "eye-rollingly complex" use in Finnegans Wake. This chiasm, in its beautiful simplicity, "mimics the back and forth motion of the surf along a beach."

Check out the article for additional examples of chiasmus in Hemingway's writings.

The time has arrived! We're heading to Scotland next week to present a paper at the international "Robert Louis Stevenson: New Perspectives" conference. We'll post pictures and updates from time to time to keep you informed. Below is a chiasm RLS used in an essay in 1882 to emphasize the dramatic change that came into an illiterate man's life when he heard "Robinson Crusoe" read aloud.


Stephen Pepper identified four basic worldviews - formism, mechanism, contextualism and organicism, each with its own distinctive 'root metaphor' - respectively, similarity, simple machine, historic event and organism (Pepper 1942, 84ff). Meyer Abrams has identified Pepper's scheme as an application of synecdoche, since each worldview presents the whole of reality in terms of one of its parts (Abrams 1971, 31).


Here, for convenience, is a brief summary of the four tropes with some linguistic examples:


Trope Basis Linguistic example Intended meaning

Metaphor Similarity despite difference (explicit in the case of simile) I work at the coalface I do the hard work here

Metonymy Relatedness through direct association I'm one of the suits I'm one of the managers

Synecdoche Relatedness through categorical hierarchy I deal with the general public I deal with customers

Irony Inexplicit direct opposite (more explicit in sarcasm) I love working here I hate working here

Giambattista Vico (1668-1744) is usually credited with being the first to identify metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche and irony as the four basic tropes (to which all others are reducible), although this distinction can be seen as having its roots in the Rhetorica of Peter Ramus (1515-1572) (Vico 1968, 129-131). This reduction was popularized in the twentieth century by the American rhetorician Kenneth Burke (1897-1993), who referred to the four 'master tropes' (Burke 1969, 503-17). Each of these four tropes represents a different relationship between the signifier and the signified; Hayden White suggests that these relationships consist of: resemblance (metaphor), adjacency (metonymy), essentiality (synecdoche) and 'doubling' (irony) (White 1979, 97). These tropes seem to be so ubiquitous that Jonathan Culler (following Hans Kellner) suggests that they may constitute 'a system, indeed the system, by which the mind comes to grasp the world conceptually in language' (Culler 1981, 65). Fredric Jameson's use of the semiotic square provides a useful mapping of these tropes (Jameson in Greimas 1987, xix). Note that such frameworks depend on a distinction being made between metonymy and synecdoche, but that such terms are often either defined variously or not defined at all. In his book Metahistory, White saw the four 'master tropes' as part of the 'deep structure' underlying different historiographical styles (White 1973, ix). In what is, of course, a rhetorical act of analogy itself, White also linked metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche and irony with four literary genres, Pepper's worldviews and four basic ideologies. In Lévi-Straussian rhetoric, he saw these various systems of classification as 'structurally homologous with one another' (White 1978, 70).


In World Hypotheses, Pepper demonstrates the error of logical positivism, that there is no such thing as data free from interpretation, and that root metaphors are necessary in epistemology. In other words, objectivity is a myth because there is no such thing as pure, objective fact. Consequently, an analysis is necessary to understand how to interpret these 'facts.' Pepper does so by developing the "[root metaphor method, ...] and outlines what he considers to be four basically adequate world hypotheses (world views or conceptual systems): formism, mechanism, contextualism, and organicism." He identifies the strengths and weaknesses of each of the world hypotheses as well as the paradoxical and sometimes mystifying effects of the effort to synthesize them.[1]


Pepper identifies only four "relatively adequate" world hypotheses, with adequacy determined by the world view’s degree of precision and scope. Precision refers to the number of ways a particular phenomenon can be explained by a world view’s concepts (the fewer, the better), and scope refers to the number of phenomena that can be explained using those concepts (the more, the better). All world hypotheses strive to achieve complete scope with absolute precision, but none fully reach this ideal. These four world views, however, come the closest: formism, mechanism, contextualism, and organicism.


Giambattista Vico's Four Principle Tropes

1) Metaphor:

— Metaphor is the most Luminous and Frequent of the Principle Tropes

— Metaphor gives Sense [Sensation] and Passion [Emotion] to "insensate things"

— Every Metaphor is a "fable in brief"

— In all languages, most Metaphors for Inanimate Objects are Anthropmorphic


2) Metonymy:

— Metonymy of Agent for Act

— Metonymy of Subject for Form and Accident

— Metonymy of Cause for Effect


3) Synecdoche: Developed into Metaphor as Parts united to form Wholes


4) Irony: Falsehood that wears the mask of Truth



Vico on the Principle Tropes:

"From all this it follows that all the tropes (and they are all reducible to the four types above), which have hitherto been considered ingenious inventions of writers, were necessary modes of expression of all the first poetic nations, and had originally their full native propriety. But these expression of the first nations later became figurative when, with the further development of the human mind, words were invented which signified abstract forms or genera comprising their species or relating parts to their wholes."

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.


there are four types of forms from which the historian can choose :

Emplotment -- "every history, even the most 'synchronic' of them, will be emplotted in some way"


The four types of emplotment are romance, satire, comedy, and tragedy.


Romance = drama of self-identification, including a hero's triumph over evil

Satire = the opposite of romance -- people are captives in the world until they die

Comedy = harmony between the natural and the social; causes for celebration

Tragedy = a hero, through a fall or test, learns through resignation to work within the limitations of the world, and the audience learns as well

Romance and comedy typically represent forms emerging in the world; satire and tragedy the return of the same forms in a different situation

Argument = the historian's view of what history ought to be


The four types of argument are formalist, organicist, mechanistic, and contextualist.


Formalist = identification of objects by classifying, labelling, categorizing:


"any historiography in which the depiction of the variety, color, and vividness of the historical field is taken as the central aim of the work" (White, 14)


Organicist = individual part of the whole is more than the sum of the parts; goal oriented, the principles are not laws but are an integral part of human freedom

Mechanistic = finding laws that govern the operations of human activities

Contextualism = events explained by their relationships to similar events; traces threads back to origins

Ideology: reflects ethics and assumptions the historian has about life, how past events effect the present, and how we ought to act in the present; claims the authority of "science" or "realism"

(There were ideologies which didn't claim science as an authority before the Enlightenment; they are authoritarian. According to White, there is no possibility of authoritarian ideology now.)

Conservative = history evolves; we can hope for utopia, but change occurs slowly as part of the natural rhythm

Liberal = progression of social hisotry is the result of changes in law and government

Radical = utopia is imminent and must be effected by revolutionary means

Anarchist= the state is corrupt and therefore it must be destroyed and a new community must be started


The historian also "prefigures" the act of writing history by writing within a particular trope, one of four deep poetic structures: metaphor, synecdoche, metonymy, and irony.


"[Tropes] are especially useful for understanding the operations by which the contents of experience which resist description in unambiguous prose representations can be prefiguratively grasped and prepared for conscious apprehension." (White, 34)


metaphor = means "transfer"-- one phenomena is compared or contrasted to another in the manner of analogy or simile

synecdoche = use a part of something to symbolize the quality of the whole; for example, "He is all heart"

metonymy = substitution of the name of a thing for the whole, eg., "sail" for "ship"

irony = literal meaning makes no sense figuratively--examples are paradox (oxymoron) or the "manifestly absurd expression" (catachresis)


Metaphor is representational, metonymy is reductionist, synecdoche is integrative, and irony is negational.


This is not as confusing as it seems. White has broken down each of the four modes into four categories. All we have to do is fill in the slots when we want to determine the structure of a particular history.


To try to understand a particular phenomenon, one must not only describe the actions of its participants but "interpret" them as well. But interpretation poses a problem for the investigator who has to attempt to classify behavior as belonging to some prior "ideal type". Weber described four categories of "Ideal Types" of behavior: zweckrational (goal-rationality), wertrational (value-rationality), affektual (emotional-rationality) and traditional (custom, unconscious habit).


The prince's descent into madness is conventional in many ways. Typical for this kind of narrative poem, according to Linden, is the opposition between culture and nature, and the prince's madness follows a conventional plot: he moves away from culture and into the moral and physical wilderness (Gewilde) of the forest, where chaos reigns; as he does so, he loses, one by one, the qualities which characterize him as a human of high birth—by scratching and hitting himself he destroys his beauty, he tears his clothes off, and finally he begins walking on all fours. He shares this particular development toward insanity with such characters as Ywain and Lancelot.[6] According to John Twyning, this descent into madness in Der Busant inspired the plot in which four lovers are lost in the woods in William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream; he describes the latter as an intended "riff" on the German poem.[21]


Volume Four (1995)[edit]

Originally written by Tom Peyer and Rachel Pollack, and pencilled by Luke Ross, volume four of New Gods ran from October 1995 until February 1997.[24] It was taken over by John Byrne for issues #12–15 at the end of the series, this title would be renamed as Jack Kirby's Fourth World, also by Byrne, with numbering reset to issue #1, and covers provided by Walt Simonson. Walt Simonson's Orion series, which continued to host the backup feature "Tales of the New Gods", began in Byrne's Jack Kirby's Fourth World and served as an extension of it. Simonson wished to simply title his series "New Gods", but DC had felt the name had been used too recently.[25]


Augustine Cross is a fictional character in Marvel Comics. He is the son of Darren Cross and the second cousin of Crossfire.

NAME CROSS  Crossfire (William Cross) is a fictional character, a supervillain appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Crossfire is the cousin of Darren Cross and the second cousin of Augustine Cross.


"The Four Skillful Brothers" is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, tale number 129. It is Aarne-Thompson type 653.


Contents [hide]

1 Synopsis

2 In popular culture

3 See also

4 External links


A poor old father sent his sons out to learn trades. Each one met a man and was persuaded to learn the trade of the man whom he had met. In this manner, the oldest son became a thief, the second an astronomer, the third a huntsman, the fourth a tailor. When they returned, their father put them to the test. He asked his second son how many eggs there were in a nest, high on the tree, and the second son used his telescope to tell him five. Next, the eldest son climbed the tree and stole the eggs without the birds even being aware, and the third son shot all five eggs with one shot. The fourth son sewed both the shattered eggs and the chicks inside them back together, so that when the eldest put the eggs back in the nest, again without the mother bird noticing, they hatched with the only sign being some red thread about their necks.


Not long after, the King's Daughter was stolen by a Dragon. The brothers set out to rescue her. The astronomer used his telescope to find her, and asked for a ship to reach where she was held captive. The huntsman at first did not dare shoot the dragon, for fear of killing the princess as well. The thief instead stole her away, and they all set out to return to the king. The dragon followed, and this time the huntsman killed him - but when the dragon fell into the ocean, the resulting wave swamped the boat and smashed it to pieces. Finally, the tailor saved them all by sewing the boat back together.


The king did not know which man to give his daughter to, because each one had played an essential part in the rescue. He instead gave them a quarter of the kingdom each, and they agreed that that was better than their quarreling.


In 1920, H. G. Wells referred to the Mediterranean race as the Iberian race. He regarded it as a fourth subrace of the Caucasian race, along with the Aryan, Semitic, and Hamitic subraces. He stated that the main ethnic group that most purely represented the racial stock of the Iberian race was the Basques, and that the Basques were the descendants of the Cro-Magnons.[36] In 1994, in his book The History and Geography of Human Genes, population geneticist L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza stated that "there is support from many sides" for the hypothesis that the Basques are the descendants of the original Cro-Magnons.[37]


The guide in the lives of sorcerers is called “the nagual.” The nagual is a man or a woman with extraordinary energy, a teacher who has sobriety, endurance, stability; someone seers see as a luminous sphere having four compartments, as if four luminous balls have been compressed together. Naguals are responsible for supplying what sorcerers call “the minimal chance”: the awareness of one’s connection with intent.


To the eye of the seer, a Nagual man or Nagual woman appears as a luminous egg with four compartments. Unlike the average human being, who has two sides only, a left and a right, the Nagual has a left side divided into two long sections, and a right side equally divided in two.

The Eagle created the first Nagual man and Nagual woman as seers and immediately put them in the world to see. It provided them with four female warriors who were stalkers, three male warriors, and one male courier, whom they were to nourish, enhance, and lead to freedom.

The female warriors are called the four directions, the four corners of a square, the four moods, the four winds, the four different female personalities that exist in the human race.

The first is the east. She is called order. She is optimistic, lighthearted, smooth, persistent like a steady breeze.

The second is the north. She is called strength. She is resourceful, blunt, direct, tenacious like a hard wind.

The third is the west. She is called feeling. She is introspective, remorseful, cunning, sly, like a cold gust of wind.

The fourth is the south. She is called growth. She is nurturing, loud, shy, warm, like a hot wind.

The three male warriors and the courier are representative of the four types of male activity and temperament.

The first type is the knowledgeable man, the scholar; a noble, dependable, serene man, fully dedicated to accomplishing his task, whatever it may be.

The second type is the man of action, highly volatile, a great humorous fickle companion.

The third type is the organizer behind the scenes, the mysterious, unknowable man. Nothing can be said about him because he allows nothing about himself to slip out.

The courier is the fourth type. He is the assistant, a taciturn, somber man who does very well if properly directed but who cannot stand on his own.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.


The Tale of Despereaux is a 2003 fantasy book written by Kate DiCamillo. The main plot follows the adventures of a mouse named Despereaux Tilling, as he sets out on his quest to rescue a beautiful human princess from the rats. The novel is divided into four "books" and ends with a coda. Each "book" tells the story from a different character's or group of characters' perspective: Despereaux, Roscuro, Miggery Sow, and finally all of them combined. The book won the 2004 Newbery Medal award.

This story looks at friendship and how good friends help and look out for each other. Crow, Deer, Rat, and Turtle are friends. One day, Deer is caught in a hunter’s trap. Crow, Rat, and Turtle find her, but just after they rescue her, the hunter returns and captures Turtle. Deer, Crow, and Rat refuse to abandon their friend. They trick the hunter and are able to free Turtle. In the end, the four animals realise the value of good friends. Features of the Text – The information contained in the illustrations – Content words for discussion – friend, rescue, thank – Phonics and phonemic awareness: consonant blends – sh, st; long vowel sounds – arrived/behind/hiding/high/idea/nice/tied; short vowel sounds – hid/it/in/is/limped/tricking/until/vanished/whispered; word endings – ed Purpose The Four Friends introduces and reinforces the following strategies: – making predictions; – forming opinions; – determining author’s purpose.


But things get tricky quick. Some chapters are not told by Ai, and some take on different narrative voices. For example, Chapters 6, 11, and 14 come from Estraven's journal. They too are told in first-person central narrative, but the person telling the story is Estraven, not Ai. Same with Chapter 7, only it's the Investigator, not Estraven or Ai speaking.


Chapter 4 is a Karhidish story told in third-person omniscient. Take a look:


It was not the answer Herbor had hoped, but it was the answer he got, and having a patient heart he went home to Charuthe with it. (4.17)


Clearly, someone other than Herbor is telling this story since the narrator uses "he" (the third-person tell) and not "I" (your first-person give away). But even though the narrator isn't Herbor, he still has access to Herbor's emotions and thoughts. Notice how Herbor didn't say it wasn't the answer he wanted, but the narrator knew anyway. So, we call this third-person omniscient narration. In other words, the narrator knows all and sees all. Same goes for chapters 9, 12, and 17.


Paul Auster’s Novel of Chance

In “4 3 2 1,” one man’s life unfolds along four diverging narrative arcs.

By Laura Miller


Auster’s summarizing style of narration closes like a fist around the proceedings.Illustration by Sébastien Plassard

According to a currently popular line of philosophy, a self is merely the sum of all the stories we tell about a particular human body. It’s an idea that resonates through the work of the writer Paul Auster, in whose fiction both selves and stories are precarious constructions, fascinating but unstable, more illusion than reality. In “4 3 2 1” (Holt), Auster’s first novel in seven years and, at eight hundred and sixty-six pages, the longest by far of any book he has published, a single man’s life unfolds along four narrative arcs, from birth to early adulthood. “Clearly you’ve read Borges by now,” the faculty adviser remarks to one of these iterations of Archie Ferguson, a character who, like most of Auster’s heroes, is fanatically bookish. “4 3 2 1” is indeed a doorstop of forking paths.

All four Archie Fergusons share the same origin story, one that has much in common with Auster’s: a paternal grandfather who arrives in the United States with a Jewish name, which gets converted to something more Gentile-friendly on Ellis Island; a family history marred by murder; an emotionally remote, entrepreneurial father; a childhood in suburban New Jersey, a place that Archie, in all his incarnations, comes to detest. Archie’s father, Stanley, at first adores his young bride, Rose, but as the novel’s four plots diverge after Archie’s birth, in 1947, the marriage survives in only one of them. Archie himself doesn’t make it past Chapter 2 in one version of his story, killed when lightning shears off a branch as the boy romps beneath the trees at summer camp.

Sudden death has been a preoccupation of Auster’s since his own summer-camp days. At the age of fourteen, while hiking during a storm, he was part of a line of boys crawling under barbed wire when lightning struck the fence, killing the boy in front of him. Chance, understandably, became a recurring theme in his fiction, and in “4 3 2 1” it contributes to the four distinct paths of Archie’s life. So, too, does character. In one story line, his father’s furniture store burns down, his father collects the insurance for it, and life goes on relatively undisturbed. In another, Stanley’s brother confesses that he’s run up big gambling debts that can be paid off only if Stanley allows an arsonist to burn down the store. Stanley waits in the building to thwart this plan but falls asleep and dies in the fire. In yet another, Stanley’s warehouse is burglarized, but he refuses to file an insurance claim, because he knows that an investigation will reveal that his other brother was behind the crime. In the fourth, Stanley ends up a rich man after ejecting both of his ne’er-do-well brothers from the business long before they can cause any serious trouble. As a result, one Archie—let’s call him the Manhattan variation—grows up fatherless, and clings fiercely to his mother when the two move to the city. The Montclair variation grows up in straitened circumstances but with an intact family. The Maplewood Archie lives in bourgeois affluence as his father becomes obsessed with money and his parents become increasingly estranged.


Rabinowitz' main focus is the status of fictional discourse in opposition to factuality. He debates the issues of truth in fiction, bringing forward four types of audience who serve as receptors of any given literary work:


"Actual audience" (= the flesh-and-blood people who read the book)

"Authorial audience" (= hypothetical audience to whom the author addresses his text)

"Narrative audience" (= imitation audience which also possesses particular knowledge)

"Ideal narrative audience" (= uncritical audience who accepts what the narrator is saying)

Rabinowitz suggests that "In the proper reading of a novel, then, events which are portrayed must be treated as both 'true' and 'untrue' at the same time. Although there are many ways to understand this duality, I propose to analyze the four audiences which it generates."[5] Similarly, Tamar Yacobi has proposed a model of five criteria ('integrating mechanisms') which determine if a narrator is unreliable.[6] Instead of relying on the device of the implied author and a text-centered analysis of unreliable narration, Ansgar Nünning gives evidence that narrative unreliability can be reconceptualized in the context of frame theory and of readers' cognitive strategies.


In the US, the novel was serialised in four parts in Flynn's Detective Weekly from 19 June (Volume 16, Number 2) to 10 July 1926 (Volume 16, Number 5). The text was heavily abridged and each instalment carried an uncredited illustration.


There can also be multiple co-principal characters as narrator, such as in Robert A. Heinlein's The Number of the Beast. The first chapter introduces four characters, including the initial narrator, who is named at the beginning of the chapter. The narrative continues in subsequent chapters with a different character explicitly identified as the narrator for that chapter. Other characters later introduced in the book also have their "own" chapters where they narrate the story for that chapter. The story proceeds in linear fashion, and no event occurs more than once, i.e. no two narrators speak "live" about the same event.


The book is a series of diary entries by each of the four main characters: Zebadiah John Carter, programmer Dejah Thoris "Deety" Burroughs Carter, her mathematics professor father Jacob Burroughs, and an off-campus socialite Hilda Corners. The names "Dejah Thoris", "Burroughs", and "Carter" are overt references to John Carter and Dejah Thoris, the protagonists of the Barsoom novels of Edgar Rice Burroughs.


The four travel in Zebadiah's modified air car Gay Deceiver, which is equipped with the professor's "continua" device and armed by the Australian Defence Force.

The Lisbon parents begin to watch their four remaining daughters more closely, which isolates the family from their community. Cecilia's death also heightens the air of mystery about the Lisbon sisters to the neighborhood boys, who long for more insight into the girls' lives.


A variant of this device is a flashback within a flashback, which was notably used in the Japanese film Rashomon (1950), based on the Japanese short story "In a Grove" (1921). The story unfolds in flashback as the four witnesses in the story—the bandit, the murdered samurai, his wife, and the nameless woodcutter—recount the events of one afternoon in a grove. But it is also a flashback within a flashback, because the accounts of the witnesses are being retold by a woodcutter and a priest to a ribald commoner as they wait out a rainstorm in a ruined gatehouse.


This literary device also dates back to ancient Sanskrit literature. In Vishnu Sarma's Panchatantra, an inter-woven series of colorful animal tales are told with one narrative opening within another, sometimes three or four layers deep, and then unexpectedly snapping shut in irregular rhythms to sustain attention. In Ugrasrava's epic Mahabharata, the Kurukshetra War is narrated by a character in Vyasa's Jaya, which itself is narrated by a character in Vaisampayana's Bharata, which itself is narrated by a character in Ugrasrava's Mahabharata.



The film "Grand Budapest Hotel" has four layers of narration; starting with a young girl at the Author's memorial reading his book, it cuts to the old author in 1985 telling of an incident in 1968 when he, as a young author, stayed at the hotel and met the owner, old Zero. He was then told the story of young Zero and M Gustave, from 1932, which makes up most of the narrative. There are brief epilogues from the young author in 1968, and the old author in 1985, before ending with the girl finishing her book in the cemetery.


These plot points naturally split a story into four parts. For fans of Aristotle, the first part is the Beginning, the second two are the Middle and the third is the Ending. There is a meaningful reason why there are four parts. In short, for every problem there are four basic contexts from which you can explore the way to solve a problem. Once you have explored all four contexts, the story is over. Any continuation would simply be a rehash of something that has already been investigated.


Structurally, Dramatica calls for four Acts, or Signposts, in every complete story. Experientially (from the audience’s viewpoint), the Journeys between these Signposts are the Three Acts that most people (Aristotle included) feel when they watch or read a story. The Inciting Incident and First Act Turn surround that First Signpost on either side. Dramatica smartly calls these plot points Story Drivers.


Faust First speak the Words of the Four

The Foursome of Nine Dragon Island (Chinese: 九龙岛四圣) a set of four fictional characters featured within the famed classic Chinese novel Investiture of the Gods. These four individuals are Wang Magus, Yang Forest, High Amiable, and Li Resounding; each of them are renowned as superiormen. These four superior men would later be personally recruited by Grand Old Master Wen Zhong in an attempt to put an end to the threat of King Wu.



On August 11, 1999, Kiss was inducted into the Hollywood Walk of Fame, in the "Recording Industry" category. August 13 saw the release of the film Detroit Rock City, starring Edward Furlong. The film takes place in 1978, and focuses on four teenagers willing to do anything to score tickets for a sold-out Kiss show in Detroit.


The A scholia, for which Venetus A is by far the most important source, derive from the so-called "VMK" (Viermännerkommentar, "four-man commentary"), named for the four ancient scholars Aristonicus, Didymus, Herodian, and Nicanor. The main source for the A scholia was probably a compilation of their work, rather than each of the four men's work individually. Because all four of these scholars worked in the tradition of the Alexandrian scholar Aristarchus, much of the A scholia can be traced back to Aristarchus himself.

Buell, Lawrence. "The Dream of the Great American Novel". Retrieved October 14, 2015. "There are, Buell says, four main types of potential Great American Novels. Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter epitomises the first – a cultural “master narrative”, identified as such by the number of reinterpretations and imitations that follow in its wake."

Jump up ^

The Four Great Chronicles:

Llibre dels fets by James I of Aragon

Crònica by Bernat Desclot

Crònica de Ramon Muntaner

Crònica de Pere el Cerimoniós by Peter IV of Aragon


The Llibre dels fets (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈʎiβɾə ðəls ˈfets]. Original spelling: Libre dels feyts (literally in English: "Book of Deeds"), is the autobiographical chronicle of the reign of James I of Aragon (1213 – 1276). It is written in the Catalan language[2] in the first person and is the first chronologically of the four works classified as the Grand Catalan Chronicles (fr),[3][4] all belonging to the early medieval Crown of Aragon (in the northeastern part of what is now Spain), and its first royal dynasty, the House of Barcelona. James I inherited as a child the titles of King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier, but also became by conquest King of Majorca and King of Valencia. James emphasises in his chronicles his conquest of Majorca (1229) and of Valencia (1238).


The content of the Llibre dels fets, the chronicles of James I, can be divided into four parts:


1208–1228: Some chapters dedicated to his ancestors and parents, his mother (Maria of Montpellier) by whom he was Lord of Montpellier, and to his father (Peter II of Aragon "The Catholic"), by whom he was King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona and Count of Urgell. James' quite unexpected birth. Chapters dedicated to his father's death, known as Peter “The Catholic” (title of “Rex Catholicissimus” given to him by the Pope, after the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa against the Moors), and his death at the battle of Muret, while defending his vassal Lords of Occitania against the invading crusader troops, mostly Frankish, commanded by Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester in the context of the Cathar Crusade (or Albigensian Crusade, as it started at the southern city of Albi, while casually the Regent Queen of the Franks at that time was Blanche of Castile). James' captivity at the age of 5 after his father's death, and how Simon de Montfort wanted to marry him to his daughter (failed plan that would have brought the De Montfort family into the Crown of Aragon). Finally James was returned to Aragon, where the Templar Knights, a powerful military religious order within the medieval Crown of Aragon), guarded and raised him. James' childhood at Monzon Castle, (the Templars' main castle).[8] He also explains his further marriage to Eleanor of Castile.

1229–1240: The most detailed part of the "Llibre dels fets”. The conquest of Majorca (1229). This would be the first step in the history of the Crown of Aragon. Shortly after that would come the conquest of Valencia in 1238. The book tries to prove how King James accomplishments were Divine Will.

1240–1265: Describes the conflicts with the Saracen rebels from Valencia.

1265–1276: Again a narrative describing the battles against the Moors. The conquest of Murcia. Also a lot of political episodes which claim to justify his actions. The last chapters, which explain the king's illness and death were written and included to the Chronicle presumably after James' death.


The origin of Coat of arms of the Crown of Aragon is the familiar coat of the Counts of Barcelona and Kings of Aragon.[25] The Pennon was used exclusively by the monarchs of the Crown and was expressive of their sovereignty.[26] James III of Majorca, vassal of the Kingdom of Aragon, used a coat of arms with four bars, as seen on the Leges Palatinae miniatures.


A Buddhist, primary wife of Jia Zheng. Daughter of one of the four most prominent families of Jinling. Because of her purported ill-health, she hands over the running of the household to her niece, Xifeng, as soon as the latter marries into the Jia household, although she retains overall control over Xifeng's affairs so that the latter always has to report to her. Although Lady Wang appears to be a kind mistress and a doting mother, she can in fact be cruel and ruthless when her authority is challenged. She pays a great deal of attention to Baoyu's maids to make sure that Baoyu does not develop romantic relationships with them.


Song Jiang himself is eventually poisoned to death by the "Four Treacherous Ministers" – Gao Qiu, Yang Jian (楊戩), Tong Guan and Cai Jing.


Between 1978 and 1988, the Italian artist Magnus published four acts of his work I Briganti, which places the Water Margin story in a setting that mixes Chinese, Western and science fiction (in Flash Gordon style) elements. Before his death in 1996, the four completed "acts" were published in volume by Granata Press; two following "acts" were planned but never completed.

Thinking of this month’s topic of Carnival of Aces, Non-binary People and Asexuality, I remembered that the celebrated Storms binary model of sexual orientation (Storms, 1980) is based, as he states in the article, on a previous bidimensional model of what he calls “sex role” and yields four categories: undifferentiated, masculine, feminine and androgynous. Applied to sexual orientation, the model yields the four categories well known in the asexual community: asexual, heterosexual, homosexual and bisexual. One could naively try to harmonize the terminology and rename Storms’s “sex role” categories as agender, masculine, feminine and bigender, but I think this goes astray of the established terminology. For instance, if I’m not wrong, a bigender person has two gender identities, in different regions of the bidimensional spectrum, contrary to an androgyne, who has one gender identity in the androgynous sector. Thus, gender is (a priori) more complicated than sexual orientation, since one can have a different number of gender identities, from none to a continuum, in the Storms-like spectrum.


The first part also gives a harsh criticism of determinism and intellectual attempts at dictating human action and behavior by logic which the Underground Man mentions in terms of a simple math problem two times two makes four (see also necessitarianism). He states that despite humanity's attempt to create the "Crystal Palace," a reference to a famous symbol of utopianism in Nikolai Chernyshevsky's What Is to Be Done?, one cannot avoid the simple fact that anyone, at any time, can decide to act in a way that might not be considered to be in self-interest; some will do so simply to validate their existence and to protest and confirm that they exist as individuals. The Underground Man ridicules the type of enlightened self-interest (egoism, selfishness) that Chernyshevsky proposes as the foundation of Utopian society. The concept of cultural and legislative systems relying on this rational egoism is what the protagonist despises. The Underground embraces this ideal in praxis, and he seems to blame it for his current state of unhappiness.[7] This type of rebellion is critical to later works of Dostoevsky as it is used by adolescents to validate their own existence, uniqueness and independence (see Dostoevsky's The Adolescent); rebellion in the face of the dysfunction and disorder of adult experience that one inherits when reaching adulthood under the understanding of tradition and society.



Will Smith on Two Plus Two

Will Smith is in charge of his reality ...

"I want to represent magic, that you're in a Universe and ... 2+2 only equals 4 if you accept that 2+2 equals 4. 2+2's gonna be what I want it to be."


"You just decide what it's gonna be, who you're gonna be ... just decide and from that point Universe is gonna get out of your way."


"We are who we choose to be."



Alternate Presidents contains four stories with wildly differing hypothetical US Civil War scenarios: "Chickasaw Slave" by Judith Moffett, "How the South Preserved the Union" by Ralph Roberts, "Now Falls the Cold, Cold Night" by Jack L. Chalker, and "Lincoln's Charge" by Bill Fawcett. In Roberts' and Chalker's entries, the Northern states seek to secede from the Southern-dominated Union.


In Underground Airlines, by Ben H. Winters (2016), President-elect Abraham Lincoln is assassinated in 1861, and a version of the Crittenden Compromise is adopted; as a result, slavery continues to the present in four states (the "Hard Four"); the title refers to the secret network assisting escaping slaves, updated from "Underground Railroad"; the protagonist is a black U.S. Marshal who is forced to work tracking down runaway slaves.


Underground Airlines is a 2016 novel by Ben Winters which is set in a contemporary alternate-history United States where the American Civil War never occurred because Abraham Lincoln was assassinated prior to his 1861 inauguration and a version of the Crittenden Compromise was adopted instead. As a result, slavery has remained legal in the "Hard Four" (a group of southern states which have kept slavery): Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi and a unified Carolina. The novel attracted praise for exploring racism through the alternate-history mechanism, but also engendered criticism for coverage that seemingly ignored similar contributions by Octavia Butler.


The novel is narrated by Victor, a former Person Bound to Labor (nicknamed 'peeb' in the alternate history) who, after escaping life in a Hard Four state, has been forced to work as an undercover agent for a mysterious federal marshal named Mr. Bridge, infiltrating and gathering evidence to prosecute fellow escapees and the people and organizations helping peebs escape slavery. If Victor refuses to help, the agent has threatened to return him to the plantation from which he escaped; and he can be tracked by a device implanted in his spine if he tries to run.[1]


Victor deduces something larger is at play and gets Martha to play his 'Missus' through the deeply racist Hard Four (by promising her access to TorchLight through GGSI's network, a centralized registry of every Person Bound to Labor in the U.S. and their vital statistics, so that she could find out what happened to her son's (briefly-escaped peeb) father) to investigate GGSI. Marshal Bridge is compelled to play along after Victor bluffs that he 'knows' that there is something in the evidence that Kevin collected that would be potentially damaging to the Marshal Service. They pass through the Alabama border with no tsuris with papers furnished by Bridge, and make their way to Green Hollow, Alabama.

Gabriel García Márquez was one of the four Latin American novelists first included in the literary Latin American Boom of the 1960s and 1970s; the other three writers were the Peruvian Mario Vargas Llosa, the Argentine Julio Cortázar, and the Mexican Carlos Fuentes. One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967) earned García Márquez international fame as a novelist of the magical realism movement within the literature of Latin America.[6]

Perhaps the most dominant theme in the book is that of solitude. Macondo was founded in the remote jungles of the Colombian rainforest. The solitude of the town is representative of the colonial period in Latin American history, where outposts and colonies were, for all intents and purposes, not interconnected.[3] Isolated from the rest of the world, the Buendías grow to be increasingly solitary and selfish. With every member of the family living only for him or her self, the Buendías become representative of the aristocratic, land-owning elite who came to dominate Latin America in keeping with the sense of Latin American history symbolized in the novel.[3] This egocentricity is embodied, especially, in the characters of Aureliano, who lives in a private world of his own, and Remedios the Beauty, who innocently destroys the lives of four men enamored by her unbelievable beauty, because she is living in a different reality due to her autism. [3] Throughout the novel it seems as if no character can find true love or escape the destructiveness of their own egocentricity.[3]


Where we are looking from are the four points of view represented by the four throughlines (Objective Story, Main Character, Obstacle Character, and Subjective Story). In stories, what we are looking at is the problem that the Story Mind is considering. So, to truly understand perspective (and therefore theme) we must be able to accurately describe the nature of the story's problem, and then see how its appearance changes when seen from each different point of view.


Having identified four categories by which we might classify the nature of the Story Mind's problem, we can arrange them in a quad pattern, much as we did earlier with the Character Elements.


Since these four categories classify the problem, Dramatica refers to them as CLASSES.


More Resolution



So far, we have been able to roughly determine that a problem might be an external or internal state or process, represented by the four Classes. Already we can get a more refined view of the problem we will be describing in our story. We need only consider which of these four Classes best describes the problem about which we want to write.


For example, if we have an idea for a story about people trapped underwater in a sunken ship, that would be an external problem, best described as a state of things. An external state is the definition of a Universe problem, so this story idea takes place in the Universe Class.


If we wish to write about a harrowing trek through the jungle to a lost city, we are describing a Physics problem: an external activity from which difficulties arise.


A story exploring a father who will not let his daughter marry below her station in life is best described as a Mind problem, for it stems from a fixed attitude.


And finally, an author who wishes to comment thematically on a group of friends manipulating each other would select Psychology as his Class of problem, for the thematic issue at hand is changing one's manner of thinking. Again, this differs from changing one's Mind (about something).


It is important to note that ALL FOUR Classes will ultimately play a role in every complete Grand Argument Story. As we shall explore a bit later, each Class will describe the problem as it appears from a different throughline.


Earlier we illustrated how one could see four throughlines of Star Wars. Below are illustrations of how Star Wars' four throughlines would be seen in terms of Domains.


Star Wars


Objective Story Domain: Physics (the Class of Activities) -- Star Wars is about a war between the Empire and the Rebellion. There is not any set location where this needs to take place, rather it is an exploration of the feints, attacks, and battles that occur between the two forces.


Main Character Domain: Universe (the Class of Situations)-- Luke Skywalker is a whiny farm-boy from a small desert planet. He has a tremendous amount of unrealized talent because his father was a Jedi, but everyone sees him as a kid from the edge of the galaxy.


Obstacle Character Domain: Mind (the Class of Fixed Attitudes) -- Obi Wan Kenobi lives in the world of the Force. His attitude about the Force's power and impact, the existence of the Light and Dark sides of the Force, and the importance of the Force is unshakable.


Subjective Story Domain: Psychology (the Class of Ways of Thinking) -- Obi Wan clearly manipulates Luke through psychological means. He attempts to coerce Luke to help him get to Alderaan, which Luke resists; Obi Wan does not reveal the fate of Luke's aunt and uncle to Luke even though Obi Wan is clearly not surprised when he hears the news; Obi Wan purposely keeps Luke in the dark about his resources while bartering with Han Solo, hushing him up when Luke can barely contain himself; Obi Wan keeps Luke under his thumb by doling out information about the Force, the Empire, the Past, and everything else; and it's Obi Wan who whispers into Luke's head at several critical moments... "Run, Luke, run!" and "Trust your feelings, Luke."


When we sub-divide the Types, we can establish four different VARIATIONS of each. This creates the extended chart below:

We still have one final level of the thematic chart of a story's problem to encounter. In fact, we have already encountered it. It is the very same chess set of sixty four Character Elements we created earlier:


There are four Classes containing all the possible kinds of problems that can be felt in those throughlines (one Class to each throughline): Situation (Universe), Fixed Attitude (Mind), Activity (Physics), and Manipulation (Psychology). These Classes suggest different areas to explore in the story.




In Dramatica, a story will contain all four areas to explore (Classes) and all four points of view (throughlines). Each Class is explored from one of the throughlines. Combining Class and point of view into a Throughline is the broadest way to describe the meaning in a story. For example, exploring a Main Character in terms of his situation is different from exploring a Main Character in terms of his attitude, the activities that occupy his attentions, or how he is being manipulated. Which is right for your story?


Devon recently collaborated with Michael Parets on an essay that proposes a framework to categorize VR stories into four distinct categories. Their original Medium piece was recently expanded upon in Techcrunch, and I had a chance to catch up with Devon at Sundance where we further elucidated and simplified their 4-quadrant framework for VR storytelling.


These were some of the questions that Devon Dolan sought out to answer with his thought-piece on “Redefining the Axiom of Story” co-written with FilmNation Entertainment’s Michael Parets. They propose a four-quadrant system that categorizes stories told within VR on two different axes.


Here’s our updated grid detailing the four different types of story in VR:


We go into more detail about each quadrant within the interview, and unpack some different examples and insights in trying to figure out the boundaries and differentiations within each category.


We start with the least amount of agency, which is the “Observant Passive” / “Ghost without Impact” quadrant. This is where most of our existing media and many of the current 360-degree videos exist. Then we move towards the quadrant with the most agency, the “Participant Active” / “Character with Impact” quadrant, which is where pure interactive fiction experiences like Facade or perhaps open world games like Grand Theft Auto might fit.


The level of impact can be confusing at first. For example, what does it really mean to be a ghost but to still have impact on the story? One way that I found it helpful to differentiate between these quadrants is to determine whether you have either local or global agency within the experience. Local agency is where you could control the outcomes of your own experience in small ways, but these small actions many have no real impact on the overall outcome of the story. In order to really change the course of the story, then you’d need to also have global agency. Most interactive VR experiences will probably have a dimension of local agency, but that doesn’t mean that you’re actions will necessarily have any consequence to the overall story that’s unfolding.


In order to help explain the different between local and global agency, then I’d highly recommend watching this excellent talk by Nicky Case from the 2015 XOXO Festival where he talks about the different small decisions that end up “flavoring” his life experience versus what end up being huge decisions that completely change the course of his life sending him a completely new branch. The amazing thing is that we often have no idea whether or not we’re making a big or small decision in any given moment, and I think Nicky’s story and how he structured the Coming Out Simulator 2014 is a great example of this concept:




Let’s apply this concept of local and global agency to this grid of four different types of VR stories. In an “Observant Passive” / “Ghost without Impact” experience, then you would not have either local or global agency. You may be able to look anywhere around within a 360-degree video, but where you look has no impact as to how the story ultimately unfolds. It’s completely on rails, and none of your actions can really change anything about your experience.


Adding gaze-based triggers within an experience could turn it into an “Observant Active” / “Ghost with Impact” experience. Or perhaps you might have limited interactivity with being able to explore an environment, but your interactivity has no real consequence to the story that’s unfolding. Exploring an environment would impact how you personally experience the story within the constraints of your local agency, but if this doesn’t change the story at all then you have no real global agency as to how the overall story unfolds.


The immersive theater piece Sleep No More is a really good example of a “Observant Active” / “Ghost with Impact” story since you are able to explore 100 different rooms and choose which of the 21 parallel stories to follow, but your choices aren’t really impacting the overall arc of what the actors are doing. While some characters may have some limited one-on-one interactions with participants, for the most part the audience is ignored as invisible ghosts within the realm of telling the story of MacBeth through interpretive dance.


On the extreme end of interactivity is a “Participant Active” / “Character with Impact” experience where each of your small actions would both cause something within story to respond to you, but also your participation would be crucial to how the overall story ultimately unfolds. The holy grail of VR experiences might eventually be where you’re interacting with convincing artificially intelligent characters, and the nature of these small interactions would be contributing in some way to a range of vastly different outcomes.


I think that the interactive fiction game of Facade is probably the best example of an experience that has a true combination of both local and global agency. Tomorrow I’ll be featuring an interview with Facade co-creator Andrew Stern and one of his current collaborators Larry LeBron. Here’s a trailer for Facade that gives you a taste of a “Participant Active” / “Character with Impact” experience:

Transformation entails changing an organisation's culture. It is a fundamental change that cannot be handled within the existing organisational paradigm.

Realignment does not involve a fundamental reappraisal of the central assumptions and beliefs.

Incremental change can take a long period of time, but results in a fundamentally different organisation once completed.

Big Bang change is likely to be a forced, reactive transformation using simultaneous initiatives on many fronts, and often in a relatively short space of time.


Four Types of Projects


Eddie Obeng, a British educator, author, and motivational speaker, reckons there are four types of projects. I’d agree with him.


In All Change! The Project Leader’s Secret Handbook, Obeng also describes how our feelings about a change project help us to identify with the idea behind the project.


Understanding the four types of projects can help you to predict problems and put measures in place to avoid them. And the leadership styles needed to deliver organisational change are closely related to each type of project.


1. Walking in the Fog


If you don’t know what you want or how to achieve it you are likely to have a "walking in the fog" type of project.


Typically, the organisation is attempting to do something different. Something that hasn’t been attempted before. These projects are started because of a change in circumstances.


For instance, introducing a new business strategy in response to political, legislative, or socio-economic organisational change. As such, this type of change project calls for certain leadership styles: tight control, strong communication, and innovation and creativity.


These projects require teamwork and a desire to work and learn together.


Walking in the fog projects should proceed cautiously. If not, you risk delivering nothing of benefit to the organisation.


2. Making a Movie


If you know how but not what you need to do you have a "making a movie" type of project.


In this situation your stakeholders are very certain about how the project should proceed but not what needs to be done.


Your organisation has built up significant expertise and capability in the area the project will tackle and has many people committed to the methods needed to deliver the change.


During the early stages of this type of project you need to focus your attention on solving the what―preparing a robust business case―not the how.


That is, mobilise problem solvers from within your organisation or use external sources to develop and generate ideas. Once you have your script, the movie will make itself.


"Vision is the art of seeing things invisible." – Jonathan Swift

Making a movie type of project evokes positive emotions and a sense of purpose and openness.


3. Going On a Quest


In contrast, the "going on a quest" type of project is where you and most of your stakeholders are very sure of what should be done. However, you are unsure how you will achieve it.


Long-range purposes keep you from being frustrated by short-term failures.

If you are involved in this type of project you will no doubt feel challenged, excited, or single-minded. Projects involving information technology tend to fall into this category and are often criticised for cost overruns, being late, or not delivering the expected benefits.


Consequently, your leadership style needs to balance strict control of time and cost with the freedom to innovate and solve problems.


Above all you need a team of self-motivated people―“knights”―who work tirelessly to seek out and then deliver the solution.


4. Painting By Numbers


The "painting by numbers" type of project is where you always want to be by the time you start investing lots of time and money in the change project.


You and most of your stakeholders are sure of what to do and how it is to be done. These change projects tend to have clear goals plus a clearly defined set of activities needed to complete the project.


"A rock pile ceases to be a rock pile the moment a single man contemplates it, bearing within him the image of a cathedral." – Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

What’s more, this type of project is characterised by the organisation’s project management maturity; written methods, procedures, and systems describing what and how things are done are evident.


By the time you start a painting by numbers project you will feel confident. You will probably want to demonstrate your competence by delivering the project early or under budget.


If you reach this stage of your project and your gut feeling tells you something different, take note. You really don’t want to commit serious resources to it until you are very clear about the what and how.

The model or map also suggests a four-way categorization of the appropriate fate of existing activities in a future pattern of sustainable human development:

activities which produce welfare in environmentally benign ways (NE quadrant) should be maintained, as should activities which produce necessary welfare by environmentally damaging means (NW quadrant) but for which no other method of production yet exists;

activities necessary to produce an adequate level of welfare for deprived people (some of which might necessarily be in the NW quadrant), also new, environmentally friendly, welfare-creating activities in the NE quadrant and perhaps some environmental repair measures in the SE quadrant should be initiated; such activities might even include some which have in the past been abandoned but which now can be seen to have positive effects according to both criteria (for instance, forms of public transport and diet discarded in favour of the cars and beef);

activities which produce no welfare and damage the environment (SE quadrant) should be suppressed, as should those NW quadrant whose welfare contribution is low or which could be carried out in other less damaging ways. The task of identifying activities which reduce welfare is often said to be too subjective to be possible; almost certainly, however, many activities would be condemned on these criteria with virtual unanimity;

finally many activities should be transformed (almost entirely in the NW quadrant) so that their positive welfare contribution is not lost but they are carried out with less environmental damage; the role of new or neglected environmentally friendly technologies will be important in many of these cases.


I am currently working on the documentation for the whole project, but I want to share some data I gathered from the work. A the beginning of the team collaboration, I administered a survey to get an understanding of the team’s competence in innovation. I then administered the same survey afterward to see if there was a difference in how comfortable the team felt about employing innovative thinking. The data is divided by how the organization describes innovation in four components (gaining insights, defining the problem, exploring solutions, and rapid validation). The results are below.


To start this off, think of a waltz. You might count it out like this: One two three one two three (and so on). That's 3/4 time; each measure is three quarter-notes long (or the equivalent number of notes of other lengths).


Most music is in 4/4, also known as common time, where measures are four quarter-notes long. One two three four one two three four (and so on), or perhaps : One two three four (etc), or any other such variation; which beats are stressed doesn't change the time signature, but how many notes you can fit into a measure will.