Traditional Hindu Astrology, based the notion of exaltation primarily on the stellar constellations, also called Nakshatras, in which the planet fell. There are 27 Nakshatras present in the Sidereal Zodiac. Taking 360°/27 results in a precise arc of 13° 20′ per Nakshatra, remembering that 60′ constitute 1°. For example, although Jupiter is exalted in Cancer there are 3 different Nakshatras Jupiter could occupy within the 30° arc of Cancer, namely, Punarvasu (20°00′ Gemini to 3°20 Cancer), Pushya (3°20′ to 16°40′ Cancer), and Ashlesha (16°40′ to 29°59′ Cancer).[13] Since Jupiter is exalted at 5° Cancer this placement signifies his true exaltation in Pushya Nakshatra.[14]The Nakshatra Devata of Pushya is Bṛhaspati, the teacher of the Gods.[15] Jupiter will not give his full exaltation effects when he is posited in a Nakshatra besides Pushya although he is still generally exalted in the sign of Cancer. Furthermore, each Nakshatra is divided into four sections, also called pāda, and when taking 13°20′/4 results in a precise arc of 3°20′ per pāda. The four pāda denote the four goals of life according to the Vedic tradition, namely, DharmaArthaKāma, and Mokṣa.[16] Although Jupiter finds strong exaltation in Pushya there are four different pāda Jupiter could occupy within the 13°20′ arc of Pushya, namely, Dharma pāda (3°20′-6°40′ Cancer), Artha pāda (6°40′-10°00′ Cancer), Kāma pāda (10°00′-13°20′ Cancer), and Mokṣa pāda (13°20′-16°40′ Cancer). Since Jupiter is exalted at 5° Cancer this signifies "deep" exaltation in the heart of the Dharma pāda of Pushya Nakshatra in the sign of Cancer which provides the astronomical reasoning of Jupiters exaltation degree. Esoterically speaking, when Jupiter is in Cancer (which signifies the heart), and is being influenced by Bṛhaspati (the teacher of the Gods), and is directed toward righteous action (Dharma pāda) Jupiter is functioning in 100% exaltation, concerning everything Jupiter represents.


The Western and Hindu zodiacs essentially correspond to twelve similar archetypes, despite differences in tone, emphasis, motifs, and right ascension of their constellations, as do the twelve signs of the Chinese zodiac; however, both Western and Hindu astrology are based on four elements: fire, earth, air, water; whereas the Chinese is based on five: metal, water, wood, fire, and earth. Chinese elemental conceptions of the planets clearly correlate to their Western and Hindu counterparts in the case of Mars (Fire), Saturn (Earth), and Jupiter (Wood).[citation needed] The Chinese linkage of Mercury with Water is alien to Western astrology, but this combination shares the water themes, much of what is coined "mercurial" in Western thought, such as intellect, reason and communication.[citation needed]

The Chinese association of Venus to Metal appears at first fundamentally different from Western notions of love and romance. In Babylonian mythology, her equivalent was Ishtar, goddess of both love and war. The Chinese metal representative is unyielding and forceful, set in their ways and taciturn; yet Venus' Western element is air, which is logical and sanguine. Metal is also sophisticated, and enjoys the good things in life. In Western astrology, Venus rules both Libra, which is sophisticated, logical, and romantic, and Taurus, which is reserved, sensual, and unyielding. Some Western astrologers believe that metal is better associated with the qualities of the planet Saturn, arguing that metal equates to air in the western system, and that Saturn is linked to air in Vedic astrology.[45][46]

The cycle of the five Chinese elements operate completely differently from the Western cycle of four. This discrepancy between elements can be clarified by their geomancy, which is locked with Chinese astrology. On the Feng Shui compass, the five elements and the five visible planets are placed on the cardinal directions and center point, with Mercury-Water to the north, Jupiter-Wood to the east, Mars-Fire to the south, Venus-Metal to the west, and Saturn-Earth in the center.[clarification needed]This also suggests that Western air best corresponds to metal, while Venus rules the west in both traditions. Wood in Chinese philosophy describes characteristics found in the Western element of fire.[citation needed]


According to Jain cosmology, in each half of the cosmic time cycle, exactly twenty-four tirthankarasgrace this part of the universe. The first tirthankara was Rishabhanatha, who is credited for formulating and organising humans to live in a society harmoniously. The 24th and last tirthankara of present half-cycle was Mahavira (599-527 BC).[3][4] History records the existence of Mahavira and his predecessor, Parshvanatha, the twenty-third tirthankara.[5]

A tirthankara organises the sangha, a fourfold order of male and female monasticssrāvakas (male followers) and śrāvikās (female followers).[6]


Beyond the above-mentioned forms, Param Pujya Dadashri explained that Lord Krishna was a manifested God living in continuous awareness and an exalted Self-realized stage; He was a Vasudeva Narayan, a Yogeshwar, and one of the 64 Shalaka Purusha (one with super-human abilities and achievements).

Lord Krishna or Shri Krishna is most often worshipped in the forms of:


  • Bal Krishna (An infant)

  • Gopala (A mischievous young boy)

  • Vasudeva (A human-being evolved to the stage of God-hood)

  • Yogeshwar (One who has realized the Ultimate Self) FOUR FORMS


The Manduka Upanishad partitions the symbol Aum in three different morae and adds a fourth mora-less part instructing that the mora-less part alone is ultimately real and not the other three representing "wakefulness", "dream" and the "sleep" states of consciousness. The mora-less part of Aum has correspondence with the fourth dimension of metaphysics, the Atman.[3] Madhavananda in his commentary on the Brahmopanishad belonging to the Atharvaveda, explains that vide Mundaka Upanishad I.7 and II.1-2 the term Aksara signifies Brahman in Its aspect of the manifesting principle who Pippalada says is the thread (Sutram) to be worn instead of the sacrificial thread on the body which should be discarded.[4]






Adiyogi went about describing the intelligence behind it: with just four ingredients, you can cook up such a soup that we call “the cosmos” today. Everything that is physical is largely four elements. You do not experience the fifth one most of the time. If someone can cook up a whole cosmos with four things, that is astounding brilliance.


 Whether you want to know pleasure or you want to know bliss, for both your system has to become willing. If you want to know pleasure, your mind should come to a certain state of willingness and your physical body should be in a certain level of sensitivity. If you want to know the bliss of being one with something larger than yourself, once again your body has to cooperate. Whether it is the individual human body or the larger cosmic body, essentially, they are made of five elements – earth, water, fire, air and space. 
In this, the first four elements are the active participants – space is the catalytic force.


Sadhguru looks at how the process of Bhuta Shuddhi can transform a human being in miraculous ways, by imprinting the right kind of information on each of the elements.


Sadhguru: Every yogic practice, whatever kind it may be, is essentially drawn from the process of bhuta shuddhi. If you do an asanasurya namaskarsurya kriyapranayama or a kriya, in a way, you are doing bhuta shuddhi. In other words, you address life in its most fundamental form, which are the five elements. You can address life just as body. You can address life as prana or life energy. You can address life on the cellular level. You can even address life on the atomic level. Or you can address life on the elemental level, which is most fundamental. Yoga is an attempt towards that.



The table below clarifies the meaning of the four parts of Omkar – a, u, mand half matra.

  • C. The four step (chatushpad) Gayatri: Besides the three Oms of the three step Gayatri, the fourth Om is suffixed to ‘prachodayat (प्रचोदयात्‌)’. Due to this Om, breath holding (kumbhak) also occurs after expiration (rechak).

  • A. Self-realisation itself is Brahman (प्रज्ञानं ब्रह्म ।) – Rugveda.

  • B. I am Brahman (अहं ब्रह्मास्‍मि ।) – Yajurveda.

  • C. You are that Brahman (तत्‌ त्‍वमसि ।) – Samaveda.

  • D. This soul is Brahman (अयं आत्‍मा ब्रह्म ।) – Atharvaveda.

    The above four sentences are called the great quotes. These sentences appear several times in the respective Vedas. The aim is to lay emphasis on that point. Though the two sentences below are not known as the great quotes, they are equally important.


Manikkavasagar's Thiruvasagam and Thirukovayar are compiled as the eighth Thirumurai and is full of visionary experience, divine love and urgent striving for truth.[2] Though he is not counted as one of the 63 Saiva nayanars, he is counted as one of the Nalvars ("The Four") consisting of himself and the first three nayanars namely ApparSambandhar and Sundarar.[3


Among the earliest Shaivite mystics was Karaikkal Amaiyar, who probably lived around the late 5th century AD or perhaps the early 6th century. She was said to be a contemporary of the Vaishnavaite saints Bhuttalwar and Peialwar. Kannapa Nayanar was also an early Shaiva Bhakti saint. But most famous among the Shaiva Bhakti saints were the 'Nalvar' (The Four Eminent Ones), namely Sundarar, Appar, Sambandar and Manikkavasagar. Their devotional hymns are ecstatic, lyrical and moving.


The four great saints of Shaivism who took birth in the world showing us the path of elevating oneself to the Supreme Shiva are the Samayak Kuravarkal or Nalvar. The four saints names are Appar, Manackavasakar, Sundarar and Sambandar.  Appar who is bald with his hands together in the anjali mudra or namaste hand position.  Manackavasakar who is bald and holding the vedas with his right hand held up in the abhaya mudra.  Sundarar with hand crutch and lotus flower.  Sambandar holding 2 cymbals vertically.


Chaturmas (Sanskrit: चातुर्मास, Cāturmāsa) is a holy period of four months (July to October), beginning on Shayani Ekadashi—the eleventh day of the first bright half, Shukla paksha, of Ashadh (fourth month of the Hindu lunar calendar)—until Prabodhini Ekadashi, the eleventh day of the first bright half of Kartik (eighth month of the Hindu lunar calendar) in HinduismBuddhism and Jainism.

Chaturmas literally means "four months", derived from the Sanskrit catur (चतुर्), "four",[2] and māsa (मासः), "month". 

Gautama Buddha stayed at the royal garden of King Bimbisara of Rajgir, whom he had recently converted, for the period of Chaturmas and gave sermons: this practice is followed by monks to this day. Another reason for ascetics to stay in one place during the rainy season is that the tropical climate produces a large number of insects, which would be trampled by travelling monks.


Navratri (Sanskrit: नवरात्रि, literally "nine nights"), also spelled Navaratri or Navarathri, is a multi-day Hindu festival celebrated in the autumn every year. It is observed for different reasons and celebrated differently in various parts of the Indian subcontinent.[2][1] Theoretically, there are four seasonal Navratri. However, in practice, it is the post-monsoon autumn festival called Sharad Navratri that is the most observed in the honor of the divine feminine Devi(Durga). The festival is celebrated in the bright half of the Hindu calendar month Ashvin, which typically falls in the Gregorian months of September and October.[2][3]


Nashik boasts of four major ones celebrated by "prabashi" Bengalis' – like the ones at the Government of India Press grounds organised by Nashik Sarbojanin Durga Puja Committee which is the oldest and biggest, the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (H.A.L)in Ojhar, then the one at Artillery Station,Deolali and one in the industrial area of Satpur-Ambad. In recent years, places such as CIDCO, Rajeevnagar, Panchavati and Mahatmanagar also have set up new mandals.

The organizing committees of each pandal hires a purohita (priest) who performs the services on behalf of the community.[112] For the priests, the Durga Purja is a major time of activity, wherein he pursues the timely completion of a busy Vedic-Puranic-Tantric ritual sequence along timed to various offerings and fire oblations, in full public view, while the social festivities occur in parallel.[113] The complex rituals include periods of accurate and melodic scripture recitation. The third and fourth day of the Puja are increasingly complex, while tens of thousands of people come in for a darsana.[114] On the day of Vijayadashami, the purohita leads the immersion ceremony.[115]

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At night a special khichdi is made and served with its four traditional companions, "char yaar" (four friends) — chokha (roasted vegetable), papadghee and achaar. Since such a rich khichdi is generally made on this festival, the festival is often colloquially referred to as "Khichdi".


Chaar Yaar ("Four Friends") - is used to refer to:

  • Rashidun - The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs who established the Rashidun Caliphate, who ruled after the death of Muhammad are often quoted as the Khulafah Rashidun.

The great pioneers of the 13th century Chisti and Suhrawardiyya Sufi movements and followers of Moinuddin Chishti in South Asia were four friends known as "Chaar Yaar". The original four were:

However, later on, there were more than just four of them in Punjabi Sufi icongraphy. Including Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti himself they include:

Some of these Sufi saints also appear as the Panj_peer (Five saints) in the Heer Waris Shah story by the Punjabi poet and mystic Waris Shah i.e. Moinuddin Chishti, Baba Farid, Baha ud din Zakariya , Jalal ud din Bukhari, along with the addition of Ali_Hujwiri of Lahore (aka Data Ganj Baksh).


Heer is an extremely beautiful woman, born into a wealthy family of the Sial (tribe) Jatt in Jhang, which is now PunjabPakistan. Ranjha (whose first name is Dheedo; Ranjha is the surname), also a Jat of the Ranjha tribe, is the youngest of four brothers and lives in the village of Takht HazaraPakistan by the river Chenab. Being his father's favorite son, unlike his brothers who had to toil in the lands, he led a life of ease, playing the flute ('Wanjhli'/'Bansuri'). After a quarrel with his brothers over land, Ranjha leaves home. In Waris Shah's version of the epic, it is said that Ranjha left his home because his brothers' wives refused to give him food. Eventually he arrives in Heer's village and falls in love with her. Heer's father offers Ranjha a job herding his cattle. Heer becomes mesmerised by the way Ranjha plays his flute and eventually falls in love with him. They meet each other secretly for many years until they are caught by Heer's jealous uncle, Kaido, and her parents Chuchak and Malki. Heer is forced by her family and the local priest or 'Maulvi' to marry another man named Saida Khera.


Ayurveda considers pure un-adulterated ghee to be sāttvik or sattva-guṇi (in the "mode of goodness"), when used as food. It is the main ingredient in some of the Ayurvedic medicines, and is included under catuh mahā sneha (the four main oils: ghṛta, taila, vasā, and majjā) along with sesame oil, muscle fat, and bone marrow. Ghee is used preferentially for diseases caused by Pitta Dosha. Many Ayurvedic formulations contain ghee, for example, Brāhmi ghṛta, Indukānta ghṛta, Phala ghṛta, etc. Though eight types of ghee are mentioned in Ayurvedic classics, ghee made of human breast milk and cow's ghee are claimed to be excellent among them. Further, cow's ghee has medhya (intellect promoting) and rasāyana (vitalizing) properties. Ghee is also used in Ayurvedas for constipation and ulcers.[12] Vechur cow Ghee produced using Vechur cow’s milk, is famous for its high medicinal values due to the presence of A2 beta-lactalbumin protein and higher arginine content which is good for the health of convalescing people.[13]


The construction of Harmandir Sahib was intended to build a place of worship for men and women from all walks of life and all religions to worship God equally.[1][6] Accordingly, as a gesture of this non-sectarian universalness of SikhismGuru Arjan had specially invited the Muslim Sufi saint, Hazrat Mian Mir to lay the foundation stone of the Harmandir Sahib.[7] The four entrances (representing the four directions) to get into the Harmandir Sahib also symbolise the openness of the Sikhs towards all people and religions.[8] Over 100,000 people visit the holy shrine daily for worship, and also partake jointly in the free community kitchen and meal (Langar) regardless of any distinctions, a tradition that is a hallmark of all Sikh Gurdwaras.[9]


Raja (IPA: /ɾɔd͡ʒɔ/ Odia: ରଜ) or Raja Parba (IPA: /ɾɔd͡ʒɔ pɔrbɔ/ Odia: ରଜ ପର୍ବ) or Mithuna Sankranti is a three-day-long festival and the second day signifies beginning of the solar month of Mithuna from, which the season of rains starts.[1] It inaugurates and welcomes the agricultural year all over Odisha, which marks, through biological symbolism, the moistening of the sun dried soil with the first showers of the monsoon in mid June thus making it ready for productivity. Its 2017 date is June 14-16.







idols at Nayagarh,below Jagannath(dark one) there is idol of bhudevi and shridevi

It is believed that the mother goddess Earth or the divine wife of Lord Vishnu undergoes menstruation during the first three days.The fourth day is called as Vasumati gadhua or ceremonial bath of Bhudevi.The term Raja has come from Rajaswala (meaning a menstruating woman) and during medieval period the festival became more popular as an agricultural holiday remarking the worship of Bhudevi, who is the wife of lord Jagannath. A silver idol of Bhudevi is still found in Puri Temple aside Lord Jagannatha.

It falls in mid June,[3] the first day is called Pahili Raja,[4] second day is Mithuna Sankranti,third day is Bhu daaha or Basi Raja. The final fourth day is called Vasumati snan, in which the ladies bath the grinding stone as a symbol of Bhumi with turmeric paste and adore with flower, sindoor etc. All type of seasonal fruits are offered to mother Bhumi. The day before first day is called Sajabaja or preparatory day during which the house, kitchen including grinding stones are cleaned,spices are ground for three days. During these three days women and girls take rest from work and wear new Saree, Alata,and ornaments.It is similar to Ambubachi Mela. The most popular among numerous festivals in Orissa, Raja[5] is celebrated for three consecutive days. Just as the earth prepares itself to quench its thirst by the incoming rain the unmarried girls of the family are groomed for impending matrimony through this festival. They pass these three days in joyous festivity and observe customs like eating only uncooked and nourishing food especially Podapitha, do not take bath or take salt, do not walk barefoot and vow to give birth to healthy children in future. The most vivid and enjoyable memories one has of the Raja gaiety is the rope-swings on big banyan trees and the lyrical folk-songs that one listens from the nubile beauty enjoying the atmosphere.


Time and again, we have come across various infuriating practices and beliefs from all around the country regarding the menstrual taboo. However, there are certain cultural practices in India which believe in the opposite, case in point being this 4-day Odisha festival called Raja Parba

Pronounced as raw-jaw, Raja comes from the word Rajaswala, which means menstruating women. It is believed that during the first three days Bhudevi(Mother Earth), the wife of Lord Jagannath undergoes menstruation- THERE IS A CEREMONIAL BATH ON THE FOURTH DAY

Each day of the festival has its own name and significance - the first day is called Pahili Rajo, second day is Mithuna Sankranti, signifying the beginning of solar month of Mithuna i.e., the rainy season, the third day is Bhu Daaha or Basi Raja and the fourth day is called Vasumati Snana

As per tradition, on the first day of the festival girls rise before dawn, do their hair, anoint their bodies with turmeric paste and oil and take a bath in a river or tank. Bathing for the next two days is however prohibited. The fourth and the last day marks the ceremonial bath of Bhudevi or Vasumati Gadhua which indicates the end of 'menstruation period' of mother Earth



june 14, 2017 by ajay kumar nandy

It falls in mid June, the first day is called Pahili Raja, second day is MithunaSankranti,third day is Bhu daaha or Basi Raja. The final fourth day is called Vasumati snan, in which the ladies bath the grinding stone as a symbol of Bhumiwith turmeric paste and adore with flower, sindoor etc.ରଜ-ପର୍ବ-falls-in-mid-june-of-every-year/



It is based on the belief that Mother Earth menstruates for those three days and she is given a ceremonial bath on the fourth day. For those three days, no agricultural activity like ploughing or sowing takes place as Mother Earth is expected to be going through rejuvenation.

Until the fourth day, which is called Vasumati Snana, the day of the ceremonial bath, women and young girls do not take part in cooking and instead, play games and celebrate. Men also take part in this festival, conducted around the middle of June every year. This year’s festivities concluded recently.

Major point of tourist interest in Nurmahal is the Mughal Serai constructed by Noor Jahan. This historical monument is looked after by the Archaeological Department. The whole structure of the sarai is in the form of quadrangle consisting of 140 cells, spread over the four sides of the structure.


The Nalvars, four of the Nayanars, teachers of Siva, stand with a temple behind. Their songs, writings and lives inspired Saivites through hard times. Left to right: Sambandar, Appar, Sundarar & Manikkavasagar.


The Nalvars are four Saiva saints who lived in Tamil Nadu around 1,200 years ago. Each composed devotional songs that are sung today in satsangs and temples. Their names are Appar, Sundarar, Sambandar and Manikkavasagar. All are deeply revered by Tamil Saivites. Saint Tirunavukkarasar, known as Appar (“father”), traveled from temple to temple worshiping Siva. He chose the humblest of work, sweeping the temple walks and weeding the stone courtyards. Saint Sundarar is known for his deep visions of Lord Siva and for several miraculous events that occurred in his life. A poor man, he often prayed for money or food for his family. His prayers were always answered. The third saint, Sambandar, was just three years old when he was blessed with a vision of Lord Siva, after which he spontaneously sang his first song. He traveled throughout South India, sometimes with Appar, his elder, singing the praises of Siva. At age 16, his family arranged for him to be married. But this was not to be. He was so devoted to Siva that just before the wedding, he disappeared into the sanctum of Tirunallurperuman Siva Temple near Chidambaram and was never seen again. The songs of the first three saints are called Devarams. Manikkavasagar, the fourth Nalvar, was prime minister to the Pandyan king of Madurai. One day he was blessed with enlightenment in a vision of Lord Siva sitting under a banyan tree. After this he left the royal court and traveled about, composing songs and building a temple for Siva at Tiruperunthurai. His poems stress the importance of the Namaḥ Śivāya mantra, developing dispassion and cultivating love of Lord Siva. His highly poetic hymns are found in two collections, Tiruvasagam and Tirukovaiyar.


Markandeya Purana and Brahmanda Purana divide Jambudvipa into four vast regions shaped like four petals of a lotus with Mount Meru being located at the center like a pericarp. The city of Brahmapuri is said to be enclosed by a river, known as Akash Ganga. Akash Ganga is said to issue forth from the foot of Lord Vishnu and after washing the lunar region falls "through the skies" and after encircling the Brahmapuri "splits up into four mighty streams", which are said to flow in four opposite directions from the landscape of Mount Meru and irrigate the vast lands of Jambudvipa.[4]

The common names of the dvīpas, having their varṣas (9 for Jambu-dvīpa, 7 for the other dvīpas) with a mountain and a river in each varṣa, is given in several Purāṇas [1]. There is a distinct set of names provides, however, in other Purāṇas [2]. The most detailed geography is that described in the Vāyu Purāṇa [3].

In Buddhism[edit]

The Buddhist cosmology divides the bhūmaṇḍala (circle of the earth) into three separate levels: Kāmadhātu (Desire realm), Rūpadhātu (Form realm), and Ārūpyadhātu (Formless realm). In the Kāmadhātu is located Mount Sumeru which is said to be surrounded by four island-continents. "The southernmost island is called Jambudvīpa". The other three continents of Buddhist accounts around Sumeru are not accessible to humans from Jambudvīpa. Jambudvīpa is shaped like a triangle with a blunted point facing south. In its center is a gigantic Jambu tree from which the continent takes its name, meaning "Jambu Island".

Jambudipa, one of the four Mahādīpas,or great continents,which are included in the Cakkavāla and are ruled by a Cakkavatti.They are grouped round MountSineru.In Jambudīpa is Himavā with its eighty-four thousand peaks,its lakes,mountain ranges,etc..

This continent derives its name from the Jambu-tree (also called Naga) which grows there,its trunk fifteen yojanas in girth,its outspreading branches fifty yojanas in length,its shade one hundred yojanas in extent and its height one hundred yojanas (Vin.i.30; SNA.ii.443; Vsm.i.205f; Sp.i.119,etc..).On account of this tree,Jambudīpa is also known as Jambusanda (SN.vs.552; SNA.i.121).The continent is ten thousand yojanas in extent; of these ten thousand,four thousand are covered by the ocean,three thousand by the Himālaya mountains,while three thousand are inhabited by men (SNA.ii.437; UdA.300).


Mount Meru or Mount Sumeru (Skt. sumeruparvata; Tib. རི་རབ་Wyl. ri rab) is a mountain square in shape with four sides, larger at the top than at the bottom. It is 80,000 yojanas (450,000 km) high. It lies at the centre of the world. Around it are seven freshwater lakes separated by seven rings of golden mountains. Outside, in a great salty ocean, are the four continents and eight subcontinents (two out at sea, left and right of each of the continents). We humans live on the southern continent called 'Jambudvipa'. This entire world system is surrounded by a ring of iron mountains. The universe is made of many such worlds. For instance, a trichiliocosm is composed of one billion such worlds. 

At the top of Mount Meru is the lowest abode of the gods of the Desire Realm (the terraces of the Four Great Kings). In the space above are the five other abodes of the gods of the Desire Realm and those of the gods of the Form Realm. It rests on the universal golden basis. Usually it is said that the pretas live on its sides, in cavities between the limit of the waters down to the golden basis. 

Its four sides are made of four different precious substances: the south of lapis-lazuli, the west of ruby, the north of gold and the east of crystal (Tib. shel).[1] Since we are living on the southern continent of Jambudvipa and the southern side of Mount Meru is blue, this explains why the seas around and the sky above us are blue. The shine of the blue lapis-lazuli reflects on the marine waters in front. Upon hitting the surface it reflects and appears in the space above. So rather than there being something blue above us, the space appears blue because of the reflection of the lapis-lazuli of Mount Meru's southern side. Similarly the oceans and the sky are respectively red, yellow and white in the West, North and East directions of Mount Meru.


Four Great Kings (Skt. Catur Mahārāja; Tib. རྒྱལ་ཆེན་སྡེ་བཞི་, Gyalchen Dé Shyi Wyl. rgyal chen sde bzhi) or Guardians of the Universe (Skt. Lokapāla; Tib. འཇིག་རྟེན་སྐྱོང་བ་, Jikten Kyongwa Wyl. 'jig rten skyong ba) — four gods or deities who live on the lower slopes (fourth level) of Mount Meru in the Heaven of the Four Great Kings and guard the four cardinal directions. Each of them are leaders of a semi-divine class of beings living in their realm.

As a result of wishes made during the time of the previous Buddha—Kashyapa—the Four Guardian Kings were reborn in the time of Shakyamuni Buddha. Each uphold and teach the Dharma in their own realms, as well as—three times a month—surveying the four directions, protecting all who uphold the Buddha’s teachings. Always ready to protect the Dharma, they are surrounded by fire which represents the dynamism of their spiritual wisdom. 

In the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, representations of the Four Great Kings are placed at the four directions of a closed retreat in order to set the boundaries of the retreat and guard the practitioner(s) from obstacles. They are also often found near the entrances of a temple or monastery.

The Four Great Kings are:

  1. Dhritarashtra (Tib. Yulkhor Sun), 'Defender of the Area' in the east;

  2. Virudhaka (Tib. Pak Kyepo), 'Noble Birth' in the south;

  3. Virupaksha (Tib. Chen Mi Zang), 'Ugly Eyes' in the west; and

  4. Vaishravana (Tib. Namtösé), 'Son of He who has Heard Many Things' in the north.


The Four Heavenly Kings are four Buddhist gods, each of whom watches over one cardinal direction of the world. In Chinese, they are known collectively as the "Fēng Tiáo Yǔ Shùn" (simplified Chinese: 风调雨顺; traditional Chinese: 風調雨順; literally: "Good climate") or "Sì Dà Tiānwáng" (Chinese: 四大天王; literally: "Four Great Heavenly Kings"). The Hall of the Heavenly Kings is a standard component of Chinese Buddhist temples.


The upper terrace is home to the famous "face towers" of the Bayon, each of which supports two, three or (most commonly) four gigantic smiling faces. In addition to the mass of the central tower, smaller towers are located along the inner gallery (at the corners and entrances), and on chapels on the upper terrace. "Wherever one wanders," writes Maurice Glaize, "the faces of Lokesvara follow and dominate with their multiple presence."[21]

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May all become happy
May none fall ill |
May all see auspiciousness everywhere
May none ever feel sorrow |


 saṃgacchadhwaṃ saṃvadadhwaṃ

saṃ vo manāṃsi jānatām

devā bhāgaṃ yathā pūrve

sañjānānā upāsate ||

May you move in harmony, speak in one voice; let your minds be in agreement; just as the ancient gods shared their portion of sacrifice.


The Kulamārga preserves some of the distinctive features of the Kāpālika tradition, from which it is derived.[64] It is subdivided into four subcategories of texts based on the goddesses Kuleśvarī, Kubjikā, Kālī and Tripurasundarī respectively.[65] The Trika texts are closely related to the Kuleśvarī texts and can be considered as part of the Kulamārga.[66]


Some Westerners[who?] believe that many central concepts of Shaktism – including aspects of kundalini yoga as well as goddess worship – were once "common to the Hindu, ChaldeanGreek and Roman civilizations," but were largely superseded in the West, as well as the Near and Middle East, with the rise of the Abrahamic religions:

Of these four great ancient civilizations, working knowledge of the inner forces of enlightenment has survived on a mass scale only in India. Only in India has the inner tradition of the Goddess endured. This is the reason the teachings of India are so precious. They offer us a glimpse of what our own ancient wisdom must have been. The Indians have preserved our lost heritage. [...] Today it is up to us to locate and restore the tradition of the living Goddess. We would do well to begin our search in India, where for not one moment in all of human history have the children of the living Goddess forgotten their Divine Mother.

— Linda Johnsen[147]


Kaula preserves some of the distinctive features of the Kāpālika tradition, from which it is derived.[1] It is subdivided into four subcategories of texts based on the goddesses Kuleśvarī, Kubjikā, Kālī and Tripurasundarī respectively.[2] The Trika texts are closely related to the Kuleśvarī texts and can be considered as part of the Kulamārga.[3]


This Risala also shows quite clearly the interest the Bab had in and his attach- ment to the teachings of Shayl<l1 Al;.mad and Sayyid Kazim. Apart from the explicit mention of the latter, the basic quaternary structure of the discourse reflects Shaykhi teachings. Shaykh Al;.mad al-Al;.sa'i introduced certain changes in Twelver Shi'i belief and practice. Among the more prominent of these was to reduce the number of the traditional pillars of faith from five to Far from being a merely 'doctrinal' matter, the Shaykhiya held that this number was more in harmony with the profound laws of creation and the cosmos. According to the Shayld1is, for example, the realms of lalzut,jabarut, malakut and nasut are, among other things, four worlds which individual souls must traverse in order to reach their ultimate destiny. One sees this concern with the fourness of things, or quaternity, throughout the writings of the Bab. His earliest sustained Qur'an commentary on the Surat al- Baqara (Chapter of the Cow) is full of tetradic structures of various spiritual attributes and qualities. The Qayylim al-asma itself is structured around the number four as far as each of the separate chapters of that work are concerned. There is little doubt that these quaternary structures in ilie writings of the Bab are traceable to the teachings of the first two masters of the Shayld1i school.5 In the work at hand, tl1e four Shaylilii pillars of belief are explicitly mentioned (viz: Tawl;.id, Nubuwwa, Imama, Shi'a) and tacitly correlated with four spiritual 'move- ments' of love, beloved, lover and Beloved. One may also see ilie continuation of tl1e symbolic importance of four in tl1e writings of Baha'u'llah. For example, the passage in the Seven Valleys that speaks of the four kinds of love and the four modes of time6 or the structure itself of the entire work entitled the Four Valleys. Whether this preoccupation witl1 .guaternity is directly connected with the influen- tial work of Mulla$adra (namely his magnum opus, Tlze Four]oume_J1s) has not been established.