Fourth War of the Diadochi, 308–301 BC
Kingdoms of the Diadochi after the Battle of Ipsus, c. 301 BC.
Kingdom of Ptolemy I Soter
Kingdom of Cassander
Kingdom of Lysimachus
Kingdom of Seleucus I Nicator
War soon broke out again. Ptolemy had been expanding his power into the Aegean and to Cyprus, while Seleucus went on a tour of the east to consolidate his control of the vast eastern territories of Alexander's empire. Antigonus resumed the war, sending his son Demetrius to regain control of Greece. In 307 he took Athens, expelling Demetrius of Phaleron, Cassander's governor, and proclaiming the city free again. Demetrius now turned his attention to Ptolemy, invading Cyprus and defeating Ptolemy's fleet at the Battle of Salamis. In the aftermath of this victory, Antigonus and Demetrius both assumed the crown, and they were shortly followed by Ptolemy, Seleucus, Lysimachus, and eventually Cassander.
STRABO WORLD MAP FOUR INHABITED WORLDS QUADRILATERAL
It seems to have been Crates’ idea that the earth’s surface, when represented on a sphere, should appear as divided into four island-like habitable regions. On the one hemisphere, which is formed by a meridional plane cutting the sphere, lies our own oecumeneor habitable world, and that of the Antoecians in corresponding longitude and in opposite latitude; on the other hemisphere lies the oecumene of the Perioecians in our latitude and in opposite longitude, and that of the Antipodes in latitude and longitude opposite to us
In this design Strabo had been influenced not only by Eratosthenes’ measurement of the earth but also by the concept of the four inhabited worlds, known and unknown, expounded by Crates (#113), to whom he refers explicitly. Thus far Strabo had relied on theoretical argument derived from his authorities. But he also adduced good empirical grounds for this cartographic reasoning. He continued:
Let it be taken as hypothesis that the earth together with the sea is spherical . . ., though not as complete a sphere as if turned on a lathe . . . Let the sphere be thought of as having five zones. Let the equator be conceived as a circle on it, and let a second circle be conceived parallel to it, delimiting the frigid zone in the northern hemisphere, and through the poles a circle cutting these at right angles. Then, since the northern hemisphere contains two-fourths of the earth . . ., in each of these fourths a quadrilateral is delimited . . . In one of these two quadrilaterals . . . we say that an inhabited world is settled, surrounded by sea and like an island.
In this task of compilation Strabo seems to have worked systematically. The first stage was to locate the portion of the terrestrial globe that was known to be inhabited. Strabo reasoned that it lay in a northern quadrant of a globe, in a quadrilateral bounded by the frigid zone, the equator, and two meridians on the sides. Strabo locates the frigid zone, or arctic circle, at 54° distance from the equator. The so-called quadrilateral, bounded by half of this arctic circle, half of the equator, and segments of two meridians, is a spherical quadrilateral, a portion of a sphere. In this design Strabo had been influenced not only by Eratosthenes’ measurement of the earth but also by the concept of the four inhabited worlds, known and unknown, expounded by Crates (#113), to whom he refers explicitly. Thus far Strabo had relied on theoretical argument derived from his authorities. But he also adduced good empirical grounds for this cartographic reasoning. He continued:
Crates’ solution was to posit two populations of ‘Ethiopians’ in two separate landmasses. One group lived in a land on the southern side of the equatorial ‘river ocean’, while a second lived in a more westerly southern land separated by the river ocean that ran north-south. There is no principle of symmetry at play, explicit or implied (three landmasses in four quadrants does not a symmetrical globe make). Nor is there any hint of a principle of global balance. Crates’ Antipodes were theorised for purposes of literary criticism. http://www.historytoday.com/avan-judd-stallard/myth-symmetry-and-balance
FOUR BOOKS Hecataeus' other work was a book on mythography in four books. Less than forty fragments remain. He applied a more skeptical approach to the traditions of families who claimed to be descended from gods.
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The Fayum alphabet is an Ancient Greek abecedary inscribed on four copper plates, purportedly from Fayum, Egypt. It may preserve the earliest form of the Greek alphabet. It is the only known Greek abecedary which ends in the letter tau (Τ), as does the ancestral Phoenician alphabet; all other Greek abecedaries have at least the addition of non-Phoenician upsilon (Υ).
Phoenician had three letters, sāmekh, ṣādē and šin, representing three or probably four voiceless sibilant sounds, whereas Greek only required one. The history here is complicated, but basically sāmekh dropped out in certain dialects, and was reused to represent [ks] in others, while usage for the [s] sound varied between ṣādē and šin. The letter now known as sigma took its name from sāmekhbut its form from šin, while the letter San, which occurred in a few dialects only, took its name from šin but its place in the alphabet from ṣādē. A further Greek letter of uncertain origin, sampi, is found occasionally, and may represent an affricate, such as [t͡s].
Teth, also written as Ṭēth or Tet, is the ninth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Ṭēt , Hebrew Ṭēt ט, Aramaic Ṭēth , Syriac Ṭēṯ ܛ, and Arabic Ṭāʾ ط. It is 16th in modern Arabic order. The Persian ṭa is pronounced as a hard "t" sound and is the 19th letter in the modern Persian alphabet. The Phoenician letter also gave rise to the Greektheta (Θ), originally an aspirated voiceless alveolar stop but now used for the voiceless dental fricative.
The Auschwitz Album is a unique photographic record of the Holocaust of the Second World War. A collection of photographs taken inside a Nazi German death camp, it is the only surviving pictorial evidence (with the exception of four surreptitious photographs taken by Sonderkommandos) of the extermination process from inside the Auschwitz-Birkenau Nazi concentration camp.
PRISONER OF WAR CAMP IN BRITAIN IS CROSS
Known as the ‘Norman Cross Depot’ or ‘Norman Cross Barracks for Prisoners of War’, it held foreign troops captured in battles on land and at sea - some for more than 10 years.
The 22-acre prison was bought by the British Government in 1797, to build a barracks capable of holding thousands of troops and a large number of soldiers to guard them.
Revealed: A painting of how the camp, which kept Napoleon's troops, would look
NORMAN CROSS PRISONERS OF WAR NAPOLEONIC WARS
Norman Cross lies near Peterborough, Cambridgeshire. Traditionally in Huntingdonshire, it gave its name to a hundred and, from 1894 to 1974, Norman Cross Rural District. The junction of the A1 and A15roads is here.
The Hill of Crosses: A Monument to Lithuanian Defiance
Saturday 28 November 2015
I never saw the sign, as we entered Lithuania; although I spotted it on the way back out several days later. It was one of those regular road signs, a sheet of stamped metal that bid drivers welcome to the country. No larger than the signs that announced a new town. Driving south from Latvia into Lithuania, on our way to find the famous Hill of Crosses I only realised we’d arrived when the wheels beneath me fell silent. The rattle of gravel against the underside of the car, the rutted, unfinished roads, suddenly gave way to smooth tarmac; it was an immediate indication that there was something very different between these two countries.
CROSSSES ON BACK
Surviving female prisoners gathered when the Red Cross arrived at Ravensbrück in April 1945. The white paint camp crosses show they were prisoners, not civilians.
Margarete Buber-Neumann, Under Two Dictators. Prisoner of Stalin and Hitler, Pimlico, 2008. ISBN 9781845951023. "SS had no fabric for the production of new prison clothing. Instead they drove truckloads of coats, dresses, underwear and shoes that had once belonged to those gassed in the east, to Ravensbrück. / ... / The clothes of the people were sorted, and at first crosses were cut out, and fabric of another colour sewn underneath. The prisoners walked around like sheep marked for slaughter. The crosses would impede escape. Later they spared themselves this cumbersome procedure and painted with oil paint broad, white crosses on the coats." (translated from the Swedish edition: Margarete Buber-Neumann Fånge hos Hitler och Stalin, Stockholm, Natur & Kultur, 1948. Page 176.)
Among the thousands executed by the Germans at Ravensbrück were four female members of the British World War II organization Special Operations Executive: Denise Bloch, Cecily Lefort, Lilian Rolfe and Violette Szabo.
Four such survivors — Jadwiga Dzido, Maria Broel-Plater, Władysława Karolewska, and Maria Kuśmierczuk — testified against Nazi doctors at the Doctors' Trial in 1946.
THE FOUR CREMATORIA
The chief of construction of Auschwitz II-Birkenau was Karl Bischoff. Unlike his predecessor, he was a competent and dynamic bureaucrat who, in spite of the ongoing war, carried out the construction deemed necessary. The Birkenau camp, the four crematoria, a new reception building, and hundreds of other buildings were planned and constructed. Bischoff's plans called for each barrack to have an occupancy of 550 prisoners (one-third of the space allotted in other Nazi concentration camps). He later changed this to 744 prisoners per barrack. The SS designed the barracks not so much to house people as to destroy them.
The first gas chamber at Birkenau was the "red house" (called Bunker 1 by SS staff), a brick cottage converted into a gassing facility by tearing out the inside and bricking up the windows. It was operational by March 1942. A second brick cottage, the "white house" or Bunker 2, was converted some weeks later. These structures were in use for mass killings until early 1943. Himmler visited the camp in person on 17 and 18 July 1942. He was given a demonstration of a mass killing using the gas chamber in Bunker 2 and toured the building site of the new IG Farben plant being constructed at the nearby town of Monowitz.
In early 1943, the Nazis decided to increase greatly the gassing capacity of Birkenau. Crematorium II, which had been designed as a mortuary with morgues in the basement and ground-level incinerators, was converted into a killing factory by installing gas-tight doors, vents for the Zyklon B (a highly lethal cyanide-based pesticide) to be dropped into the chamber, and ventilation equipment to remove the gas thereafter. It went into operation in March. Crematorium III was built using the same design. Crematoria IV and V, designed from the start as gassing centers, were also constructed that spring. By June 1943, all four crematoria were operational. Most of the victims were killed using these four structures.
THE FOUR CREMATORIA
The first gas chamber at Auschwitz II–Birkenau was the "red house" (called Bunker 1 by SS staff), a brick cottage converted to a gassing facility by tearing out the inside and bricking up the windows. It was operational by March 1942. A second brick cottage, the "white house" or Bunker 2, was converted some weeks later. According to Höss, Bunker 1 held 800 victims and Bunker 2 held 1,200 victims. These structures were in use for mass killings until early 1943. At that point, the Nazis decided to greatly increase the gassing capacity of Birkenau. Crematorium II, originally designed as a mortuary, with morgues in the basement and ground-level incinerators, was converted into a killing factory by installing gas-tight doors, vents for the Zyklon B to be dropped into the chamber, and ventilation equipment to remove the gas afterwards.[c]Crematorium III was built using the same design. Crematoria IV and V, designed from the start as gassing centers, were also constructed that spring. By June 1943, all four crematoria were operational. Most of the victims were killed using these four structures.
FOUR DIVISIONS LIBERATE AUSCHWITZ
When Auschwitz was liberated on 26 and 27 January by the 322nd Rifle Division of the Red Army, the soldiers found 7,500 prisoners alive and over 600 corpses. Among items found by the Soviet soldiers were 370,000 men's suits, 837,000 women's garments, and 7.7 tonnes (8.5 short tons) of human hair. The camp's liberation received little press attention at the time. In historian Laurence Rees' opinion, this was due to three factors: the previous discovery of similar crimes at Majdanek concentration camp, competing news from the Allied summit at Yalta, and the Soviet Union's interest, for propaganda purposes, in minimizing attention to Jewish suffering. Due to the vast extent of the camp area, at least four divisions took part in liberating the camp: 100th Rifle Division (established in Vologda, Russia), 322nd Rifle Division (Gorky, Russia), 286th Rifle Division (Leningrad), and 107th Motor Rifle Division (Tambov, Russia).
Block 11 of Auschwitz I was the prison within the prison, where violators of the numerous rules were punished. Some prisoners were made to spend the nights in standing cells. These cells were about 1.5 m2 (16 sq ft), and held four men; they could do nothing but stand, and were forced during the day to work with the other prisoners. Prisoners sentenced to death for attempting to escape were confined in a dark cell and given neither food nor water while being left to die. 
ESCAPE OF FOUR POLISH PRISONERS
A daring escape from Auschwitz was staged on 20 June 1942 by four Polish prisoners: Eugeniusz Bendera (auto mechanic at the camp), Kazimierz Piechowski, Stanisław Gustaw Jaster, and Józef Lempart. After breaking into a warehouse, the four dressed as members of the SS-Totenkopfverbände (the SS units responsible for concentration camps), armed themselves, and stole an SS staff car, which they then drove unchallenged through the main gate.
By April 1938, the SS-TV had four regiments of three storm battalions with three infantry companies, one machine gun company and medical, communication and transportation units. On 17 August 1938 Hitler decreed, at Himmler's request, the SS-TV to be the official reserve for the SS-VT; this would over the course of the war lead to a constant flux of men between the Waffen-SS and the concentration camps. Himmler's intention was simply to expand his private army by using the SS-TV (as well as the police, which he also controlled) as a manpower pool. Himmler sought and obtained a further decree, issued on 18 May 1939, which authorized the expansion of the SS-TV to 50,000 men, and directed the army to provide it with military equipment, something the army had resisted.
During the invasion of Poland, Eicke's SS-TV field forces numbered four infantry regiments and a cavalry regiment, plus two battalions placed in Free City of Danzig. The SS-TV role in the attack on Poland was not military in spite of close proximity to combat.
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For Operation Barbarossa (June 1941), initially four Einsatzgruppen were created, each numbering 500–990 men to comprise a total force of 3,000. Each unit was attached to an army group: Einsatzgruppe A to Army Group North; Einsatzgruppe B to Army Group Center, Einsatzgruppe C to Army Group South, and Einsatzgruppe D to the 11th German Army. Led by SD, Gestapo, and Criminal Police (Kripo) officers, Einsatzgruppen included recruits from the regular police (Orpo), SD and Waffen-SS, augmented by uniformed volunteers from the local auxiliary police force. When occasion demanded, German Army commanders bolstered the strength of the Einsatzgruppen with their own regular-army troops who assisted in rounding up and killing Jews of their own accord.
DIVIDED INTO FOUR SECTORS
The complex of forts and defensive structures was divided into four sectors. The first followed the left bank of the Nemunas to its confluence with the Jiesia River and included the three earliest forts. The second sector extended from the Jiesia to Pažaislis monastery and included two forts. The third extended from the right to the left bank of the Nemunas; this sector also contained two forts. The fourth and last sector stretched from the right bank of the Neris to the left bank of the Nemunas, comprising two forts, including the newest – the Ninth Fort.
GERMANS FOUR DIVISIONS
In 1915, Germany and the Central Powers began an offensive against Russia and advanced towards Lithuania and Kaunas. The German army reached Kaunas Fortress in July 1915. At that time, about 90,000 soldiers, commanded by Vladimir Grigoriev (Russian: Владимир Григорьев), manned the fortress. To attack the fortress, the Germans brought four divisions to the operation, which were placed under the command of Karl Litzmann.
SOUTH PARK CROSS ON FIRE
CROSS LEGS CROSS IN SOCCER
ABRACADABRA AND FOUR
In Hebrew, the word brings a whole new meaning: “Arba” or “four,” “Dak” or “one,” and “Arba.” Four plus one plus four makes 9. I’m sure you are wondering why I said “dak,” not “Kad.” In ancient spells, sometimes the caster would invert a word, this time “dak.” In English it would look like, “fourenofour.” Written in Hebrew, the word becomes a shield against the forces of 9, or darkness: evil spirits or wizards. It would again block evil beings or curses from the wearer.
ABRACADABRA AND FOUR
David Hulse attributes the Hebrew DBRA K ARBA as meaning “the fourfold word” in his encyclopedic books The Eastern and Western Mysteries, and cites the same triangular talisman, though he doesn't attribute it to the Gnostics. He asserts that this Hebrew rendition adds to 432, which is also the gematria value of ChDVDITh, a pyramid or cone and KThIB, spelling or the lettering of a word. Both of these meanings are consonant with the Gnostic talismanic use cited above.
According to an online resource, abracadabra was translated by G. Davidson in his Dictionary of Angels as “I bless the dead”, and as one of the three Holy Names used when blessing a sword. According to this resource, abracadabra is found in several Hebrew magical and mystical texts including The Sword of Moses and The Book of the Angel Raziel, though I have never looked into these assertions.
In my own research, I found that the word also could have been constructed as a contraction from six Hebrew words: Ab, the father, Bar, a word with many meanings including: the son or heir, beloved, or something clean and pure, Barah, to create or to select, Ra’ah, to see or experience, Achad, one, and Arba, four (as in the fourfold YHVH). Another idea is that the word might allude to the Hebrew “ha brachah dabarah” or “Speak the blessing”. My meditations on the word also suggested a possible Egyptian contraction: Ab, the heart, Ra, the Sun, Ka, the soul, and/or Khabs, Star/God, with the Ab and Ra repeated.