XENOPHON CRUCIFIXION GREEK
CHARITONS NOVEL WORD CRUCIFIXION OCCURS 16 TIMES
CRUCIFIXION IAMBLICHUS HELIODRUS CALLISTHENES
CRUCIFIXION MENTIONED PLATOS GORGIAS
DIOGENES CROSS- LAD THROWING STONE AT A CROSS "WELL DONE YOU WILL HIT YOUR MARK"- cross as the mark the sign in the Bible
METHODIUS ON THE CROSS- A pagan tradition objected to crucifixion
PTOLEMY CRUCIFIXION AND ASTROLOGY- CRUCIFIXION ONE OF THE DANGERS OF ARES
PTOLEMY FAMOUS TETRABIBLOS (FOUR BOOKS) AND REFERENCE TO CRUCIFIXION- MARS AND TWO FORMS OF CRUCIFIXION- CROSS IS QUADRANT
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CRUCIFIXION ASTROLOGY- CRUCIFIXION AND MARS MERCURY HOROSCOPES
ASTROLOGY MARS AND CRUCIFIXION
VERBAL CRUCIFIXION AND CRUCIFIXION OF PHOENIX JEDI MIND TRICKS SONG
But how, would you withstand the power of the helix
The crucifixion of the phoenix
The black thesis will burn you
Give to you the darkest of afflictions
Mortal MC's face the verbal crucifixion
VINNIE PAZ JEDI MIND TRICKS "I'M THE ONE WHO HAMMERED THE NAIL IN THE CROSS" and said "I'M THE ONE WHO PUT THE FIRST NAIL IN JESUS
Now back to the topic at hand
Steadily Shine, Shine Steadily with my fam
I'm the one who put the nail in the cross
I'm the one who told the world about an alien corpse
You should try hire a therapist to beat this
I'm being facetious, you should heed this
I'm the one who hammered the first nail in Jesus
JEDI MIND TRICKS SCARS OF THE CRUCIFIX- CRUCIFIX IS CROSS
"FUCK A CRUCIFIX, I'LL USE IT JUST TO STAB A NUN"- Crucifix is quadrant
I'm Kool G Rap, Kaczynski and God wrapped in one
I keep a stupid bitch around me just to stash the gun
Fuck a crucifix, I'll use it just to stab a nun
JEDI MIND TRICKS "MURDERS BY STICKIN A CRUCIFIX THROUGH YOUR CERVIX"- CRUCIFIX IS CROSS- CROSS IS QUADRANT
Hologram burn churches
Murders by stickin' a crucifix through your cervix
Divine purpose, for the Remi that's in my thermos
Greatest evils stick you with needles that's hypodermic
CRUCIFIX AND KILLING VAMPIRES
Traditionally, vampires fear religious symbols. The sacred objects most commonly used for protection are Christian: water blessed by a priest, the cross or crucifix and the holy Eucharist or “Host,”—a consecrated unleavened bread or wafer meant to represent the body of Jesus Christ. These are key items in any vampire killing kit and have been used to great effect by many a fictional slayer, sometimes to kill but mostly to repel or maim.
In Stoker’s Dracula, the crucifix plays a significant role in helping the characters evade vampire attacks. Early in the story, a superstitious gypsy forces a rosary on businessman Jonathan Harker for protection after hearing he is en route to visit Count Dracula at the dreaded Castle Dracula; later, the Count is, in fact, repelled by the sight of it. Professor Van Helsing includes the crucifix in his list of things that vampires hate, claiming it will weaken any powers they may possess, and he wields one several times throughout the novel. There’s no evidence that Stoker got the idea to use the crucifix to ward off his vampires from folklore. Rather, it seems he invented the plot device from the not-then-uncommon concepts that vampires are agents of Satan and that the crucifix has sacred powers.
Horror of Dracula
In the Hammer adaptation Horror of Dracula, Van Helsing spells out in his journal that the crucifix represents the “power of good over evil.” In the film, the professor uses an oversized silver cross from a rosary to repel the vampire Lucy; when pressed against her forehead, it burns her like acid, and she flees. (This has become a prominent use of the crucifix in movies.) He then gives it to the child Tania for protection, and later places one in Dracula’s coffin to prevent him from returning to rest there. In the final confrontation with Dracula, Van Helsing, finding himself in a showdown without any weapons, grabs two nearby candelabras and holds them up in the shape of a cross, which repels the Count. This scene created a visual trope since adopted by many other cinematic slayers: since then, we have seen characters use whatever is at hand from baseball bats to tongue depressors—even two of their own fingers—to form an impromptu cross. Van Helsing points out that the crucifix can also be an investigative tool used to reveal someone who is a vampire, or was recently bitten by one. In the Italian horror classic Black Sunday (1960), the vampire-witch Asa attempts to fool a doctor into slaying the maiden Katia (whom she resembles) by claiming she is a vampire, but when he notices a crucifix resting safely around Katia’s neck, he realizes there is some mistaken identity afoot and stops short of staking the wrong woman.
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GNOSTICS SAY THAT JESUS WAS REPLACED WITH SIMON AND SIMON WAS CRUCIFIED
According to some Gnostic traditions, Simon of Cyrene, by mistaken identity, suffered the events leading up to the crucifixion, and died on the cross instead of Jesus. This is the story presented in the Second Treatise of the Great Seth, although it is unclear whether Simon or another actually died on the cross. This is part of a belief held by some Gnostics that Jesus was not of flesh, but only took on the appearance of flesh (see also Basilides, Irenaeus, and Swoon hypothesis).
Basilides in his gospel of Basilides is reported[by whom?] as having taught a docetic doctrine of Christ's passion. He states the teaching that Christ in Jesus, as a wholly divine being, could not suffer bodily pain and did not die on the cross; but that the person crucified was, in fact, Simon of Cyrene.
He appeared on earth as a man and performed miracles. Thus he himself did not suffer. Rather, a certain Simon of Cyrene was compelled to carry his cross for him. It was he who was ignorantly and erroneously crucified, being transfigured by him, so that he might be thought to be Jesus. Moreover, Jesus assumed the form of Simon, and stood by laughing at them.
Simon of Cyrene /saɪˈriːni/ (Hebrew: שמעון "Hearkening; listening", Standard Hebrew Šimʿon, Tiberian Hebrew Šimʿôn; Greek: Σίμων Κυρηναῖος, Simōn Kyrēnaios) was the man compelled by the Romans to carry the cross of Jesus as Jesus was taken to his crucifixion, according to all three Synoptic Gospels. "And as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name: him they compelled to bear his cross."
After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, Perdiccas appointed Eumenes as governor of Cappadocia; but upon Ariarathes refusing to submit to Eumenes, Perdiccas made war upon him. Ariarathes was defeated, taken prisoner, and crucified, together with many of his relations, in 322 BC. Eumenes then obtained possession of Cappadocia. Ariarathes was 82 years of age at the time of his death: he had adopted as his son Ariarathes II, the eldest son of his brother Holophernes.
PEOPLE EXECUTED BY CRUCIFIXION
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
► Jesus (15 C, 14 P)
► Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan (8 P)
Pages in category "People executed by crucifixion"
The following 39 pages are in this category, out of 39 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
Abdallah ibn Abd al-Malik
Andrew the Apostle
Ariarathes I of Cappadocia
Bartholomew the Apostle
Bomilcar (4th century BC)
The Crucified Soldier
George of Izla
Hannibal (Mercenary War)
Joseph ibn Naghrela
Julia of Corsica
Justus of Jerusalem
Krateros (strategos of the Cibyrrhaeots)
Philip of Jesus
Philip the Apostle
Razhden the Protomartyr
Simeon of Jerusalem
Ten thousand martyrs
Thimbron (fl. 324–322 BC)
Saints Vitalis and Agricola
Categories: Executions by methodCrucifixion
CRUCIFIXION AND ASTROLOGY
Our Christian friends sup to the vestal virgin. When? Every year when the Sun enters the sign Virgo, whose symbol is the Virgin, August 23d to September 23d. Now look at the cut and the central cross, on which the Sun is Crucified every year, and you will see the Sun has passed over the cross on which he is annually crucified, and, like Christ, has his cross on his back — i.e., passed over it.
Our Christian friends lay much stress upon the judgment day. Every year, on the 23d day of September, the Sun enters the sign Libra, symbolized by the balance. Every year after harvest the farmer balances up his books and pays his debts. But there the Sun God presents a parallel to the Son of God on the road to the crucifixion. The Sun begins to retreat, the days to grow shorter. The Sun, like Christ, is bearing his cross toward the crucifixion. Keep the eye on the cut. The Son of God was crucified between the two thieves. The Sun God is crucified between the two heavenly thieves. Scorpio and Sagittarius, October 23d to November 22d — November 22d to December 21st. There is a harvest somewhere every month in the year, except these two months, the heavenly thieves.
THE LEGEND OF THE CROSS FROM ADAM IN THE GARDEN OF EDEN TO SOLOMON WANTING TO USE IT FOR THE TEMPLE- RELATED TO MOSES BURNING BUSH- BECAME WATER OF BATHSHEBA - USED FOR A BRIDGE THE QUEEN OF SHEBA WOULD NOT WALK ON IT- BECAME THE CROSS OF JESUS- THE WHOLE BIBLE CONNECTED BY THE CROSS- THE QUADRANT
ONE of the most interesting legends concerning the cross is that preserved in Aurea Legenda, by Jacobus de Vorgaine. The Story is to the effect that Adam, feeling the end of his life was near, entreated his son Seth to make a pilgrimage to the Garden of Eden and secure from the angel on guard at the entrance the Oil of Mercy which God had promised mankind. Seth did not know the way; but his father told him it was in an eastward direction, and the path would be easy to follow, for when Adam and Eve were banished from the Garden of the Lord, upon the path which their feet had trod the grass had never grown.
Seth, following the directions of his father, discovered the Garden of Eden without difficulty. The angel who guarded the gate permitted him to enter, and in the midst of the garden Seth beheld a great tree, the branches of which reached up to heaven. The tree was in the form of a cross, and stood on the brink of a precipice which led downward into the depths of hell. Among the roots of the tree he saw the body of his brother Cain, held prisoner by the entwining limbs. The angel refused to give Seth the Oil of Mercy, but presented him instead with three seeds from the Tree of Life (some say the Tree of Knowledge). With these Seth returned to his father, who was so overjoyed that he did not desire to live longer. Three days later he died, and the three seeds were buried in his mouth, as the angel had instructed. The seeds became a sapling with three trunks in one, which absorbed into itself the blood of Adam, so that the life of Adam was in the tree. Noah dug up this tree by the roots and took it with him into the Ark. After the waters subsided, he buried the skull of Adam under Mount Calvary, and planted the tree on the summit of Mount Lebanon.
Moses beheld a visionary being in the midst of this tree (the burning bush) and from it cut the magical rod with which he was able to bring water out of a stone. But because he failed to call upon the Lord the second time he struck the rock, he was not permitted to carry the sacred staff into the Promised Land; so he planted it in the hills of Moab. After much searching, King David discovered the tree; and his son, Solomon, tried to use it for a pillar in his Temple, but his carpenters could not cut it so that it would fit; it was always either too long or too short. At last, disgusted, they cast it aside and used it for a bridge to connect Jerusalem with the surrounding hills. When the Queen of Sheba came to visit King Solomon she was expected to walk across this bridge. Instead, when she beheld the tree, she refused to put her foot upon it, but, after kneeling and praying, removed her sandals and forded the stream. This so impressed King Solomon that he ordered the log to be overlaid with golden places and placed above the door of his Temple. There it remained until his covetous grandson stole the gold, and buried the tree so that the crime would not be discovered.
From the ground where the tree was buried there immediately bubbled forth a spring of water, which became known as Bethesda. To it the sick from all Syria came to be healed. The angel of the pool became the guardian of the tree, and it remained undisturbed for many years. Eventually the log floated to the surface and was used as a bridge again, this time between Calvary and Jerusalem; and over it Jesus passed to be crucified. There was no wood on Calvary; so the tree was cut into two parts to serve as the cross upon which the Son of Man was crucified. The cross was set up at the very spot where the skull of Adam had been buried. Later, when the cross was discovered by the Empress Helena, the wood was found to be of four different varieties contained in one tree (representing the elements), and thereafter the cross continued to heal all the sick who were permitted to touch it.
The prevalent idea that the reverence for the cross is limited to the Christian world is disproved by even the most superficial investigation of its place in religious symbolism. The early Christians used every means possible to conceal the pagan origin of their symbols, doctrines, and rituals. They either destroyed the sacred books of other peoples among whom they settled, or made them inaccessible to students of comparative philosophy, apparently believing that in this way they could stamp out all record of the pre-Christian origin of their doctrines. In some cases the writings of various ancient authors were tampered with, passages of a compromising nature being removed or foreign material interpolated. The supposedly spurious passage in Josephus concerning Jesus is an example adduced to illustrate this proclivity.
HISTORY OF THE SACRED CROSS FROM THE GARDEN OF EDEN TO SOLOMONS TEMPLE TO THE CRUCIFIXION- CROSS IS QUADRANT
HISTORY OF THE HOLY CROSS.
From Berjeau's History of the Holy Cross.
(1) Adam directing Seth how to reach the Garden of Eden. (2) Seth placing the three seeds from the Tree of Life under the tongue of the dead Adam. (3) The Queen of Sheba, refusing to place her feet upon the sacred tree, forded the stream. (4) Placing the sacred tree over the door of Solomon's Temple. (5) The crucifixion of Christ upon a cross made from the wood of the holy tree. (6) Distinguishing the true cross from the other two by testing its power to raise a corpse to life.
AZTEC GODDESS OF RAIN HELD CROSS QUETAZLCOATL OF TOLTECS TAUGHT THEM THE SIGN AND RITUAL OF THE CROSS (HE SAID THE CROSS WOULD BE THE SIGN OF HIS RETURN)
Not only is the cross itself a familiar object in the art of all nations, but the veneration for it is an essential part of the religious life of the greater part of humanity. It is a common symbol among the American Indians--North, Central, and South. William W. Seymour states: "The Aztec goddess of rain bore a cross in her hand, and the Toltecs claimed that their deity, Quetzalcoatl, taught them the sign and ritual of the cross, hence his staff, or sceptre of power, resembled a crosier, and his mantle was covered with red crosses." (The Cross in Tradition, History and Art.)
PYTHAGOREANS SACRED NUMBER 10 (WHICH WAS THE TETRACTYS FOUR ROWS OF DOTS)- WAS REPRESENTED BY THE X THE CROSS (ROMAN NUMERALS AS WELL)- JAPANESE CHINESE REPRESENT 10 BY CROSS- bUDDHIST WHEEL OF LIFE IS TWO CROSSES- MANY INDIAN TEMPLES CRUCIFORM
The cross is also highly revered by the Japanese and Chinese. To the Pythagoreans the most sacred of all numbers was the 10, the symbol of which is an X, or cross. In both the Japanese and Chinese languages the character of the number 10 is a cross. The Buddhist wheel of life is composed of two crosses superimposed, and its eight points are still preserved to Christendom in the peculiarly formed cross of the Knights Templars, which is essentially Buddhistic. India has preserved the cross, not only in its carvings and paintings, but also in its architectonics; a great number of its temples--like the churches and cathedrals of Christendom--are raised from cruciform foundations.
MANDALAS TIBETANS CROSS- ISLAND CAVES OF ELEPHANTA CROSS- THE INITIATES OF THE ELEUSINIAN MYSTERIES IN GREECE WERE GIVEN A CROSS TO SUSPEND AROUND NECKS
On the mandalas of the Tibetans, heaven is laid out in the form of a cross, with a demon king at each of the four gates. A remarkable cross of great antiquity was discovered in the island caves of Elephanta in the harbor of Bombay. Crosses of various kinds were favorite motifs in the art of Chaldea, Phœnicia, Egypt, and Assyria. The initiates of the Eleusinian Mysteries of Greece were given a cross which they suspended about their necks on a chain, or cord, at the time of initiation. To the Rosicrucians, Alchemists, and Illuminati, the cross was the symbol of light, because each of the three letters L V X is derived from some part of the cross.
THE CADEUSES OF HERMES (MERKURY)- HAS A CROSS ON IT
In some vase paintings ancient depictions of the Greek kerukeion are somewhat different from the commonly seen modern representation. These representations feature the two snakes atop the staff (or rod), crossed to create a circle with the heads of the snakes resembling horns. This old graphic form, with an additional crossbar to the staff, seems to have provided the basis for the graphical sign of Mercury (☿) used in Greek astrology from Late Antiquity.
DRUID GOD HU CROSS- EGYPTIANS HORNS OF A BULL OR RAM CROSS HAMMER CROSS- QABBALISTIC MASONIC LEGEND CHIRAM ABIFF IS GIVEN HAMMER IN FORM OF CROSS- CROSS INSCRIBED ON FOREHEAD OF EVERY PERSON IN MYSTERIES OF ITHRAS- EGYPTIAN MYSTERIES CROSS PLACED AGAINST LIPS- TATTOOED ON AMERINDIANS IN THEIR MYSTERIES
There are three distinct forms of the cross. The first is called the TAU (more correctly the TAV). It closely resembles the modern letter T, consisting of a horizontal bar resting on a vertical column, the two arms being of equal length. An oak tree cut off some feet above the ground and its upper part laid across the lower in this form was the symbol of the Druid god Hu. It is suspected that this symbol originated among the Egyptians from the spread of the horns of a bull or ram (Taurus or Aries) and the vertical line of its face. This is sometimes designated as the hammer cross, because if held by its vertical base it is not unlike a mallet or gavel. In one of the Qabbalistic Masonic legends, CHiram Abiff is given a hammer in the form of a TAU by his ancestor, Tubal-cain. The TAU cross is preserved to modern Masonry under the symbol of the T square. This appears to be the oldest form of the cross extant.
The TAU cross was inscribed on the forehead of every person admitted into the Mysteries of Mithras. When a king was initiated into the Egyptian Mysteries, the TAU was placed against his lips. It was tattooed upon the bodies of the candidates in some of the American Indian Mysteries. To the Qabbalist, the TAU stood for heaven and the Pythagorean tetractys. The Caduceus of Hermes was an outgrowth of the TAU cross. (See Albert Pike.)
Small round cakes with crosses were consumed during the Mithraic communion.
Small round cakes with crosses were
consumed at the Mithraic communion.
MITHRAIC STONE STANDING ON CROSS
As a result, the celestial equator was often described in ancient popular literature about the stars. Plato, for example, in his dialogue Timaeus said that when the creator of the universe first formed the cosmos, he shaped its substance in the form of the letter X, representing the intersection of the two celestial circles of the zodiac and the celestial equator. This cross-shaped symbol was often depicted in ancient art to indicate the cosmic sphere. In fact, one of the most famous examples of this motif is a Mithraic stone carving showing the so-called "lion-headed god," whose image is often found in Mithraic temples, standing on a globe that is marked with the cross representing the two circles of the zodiac and the celestial equator.
Lion-headed god standing on globe with crossed circles
COEN BROTHERS CRUCIFIX MOVIE
Mannix’s skills are thrown in the grinder. In exchange for the prized actor, the group responsible for Whitlock’s disappearance want what any good character in a Coen Brothers’ film wants: a briefcase full of cash. Fighting a deadline, Mannix only has a day or so to locate Whitlock and bring him back to set; he’s the lead in a new biblical epic that still has one prominent scene to shoot—at the feet of a crucified Jesus no less.
The second prominent image—which relates directly to the first, though rather unusually—is Jesus. Hail, Caesar! opens in a Catholic church, the camera focused squarely on a crucifix. The film, after all, follows the production of a movie similarly dubbed (though with an added subtitle), Hail, Caesar! – A Tale of the Christ. Both the real and fictional Hail, Caesar! films are concerned with the same questions. Namely, what constitutes a religious experience and who ushers this experience to others?
Mannix eventually finds himself praying about his employment decision at the the foot of the cross—Calvary has been recreated as a set for Whitlock’s film. Mannix searches for the spiritual in his work, though sometimes it feels like looking at a temporary title card.
CROSS SHAPE ETCHINGS ON JEWISH OSSUARIES
Finally, returning to the issue of cross-shaped etchings on ancient Jewish ossuaries, these are often more problematic than Dinkier allows. Some scholars have argued that the clearest examples on ossuaries are Christian marks, thus bearing no implications for the study of Judaism.13 And, even when such crossed lines are considered as coming from a Jewish hand, their religious/magical intention has been called into question. This is especially true of the more lightly etched marks, which could instead have provided alignment reference points for use in applying later inscriptions to an unfin ished ossuary.14
PHILO AND THE CRUCIFIXION
1. Philonic Allegory
Philo, a master of word pictures, utilizes crucifixion images in several alle gorical expositions. Earlier (in chapter three) some instances of Philonic allegory were encountered in his treatments of Genesis 40:19 (Som. ii.213; cf. Jos. 156) and Deuteronomy 21:23 (Post. 25-26). A theme in these expositions is that the crucified or suspended man metaphorically represents the person who has centered his life on bodily pleasures. Another instance of this theme in Philo occurs in De Posteritate Caini 61, where Philo comments on the names found in Numbers 13:22.
ερμηνεύεται δέ ό μέν χειμάν αδελφό μου, ό δέ Σεσειν εκτό μου, ό δέ Θαλαμειν κρεμάμενο τι · ανάγκη γαρ ψυχαΐ ταΐ φιλοσωμάτοι άδελφόν μέν νομίζεσθαι τό σώμα, τα δέ έκτο αγαθά διαφερόντω τετιμήσθαν οσαι δέ τούτον διάκεινται τον τρόπον, άψυχων έκκρέμανται και καθάπερ οί άνασκολοπισθέντε άχρι θανάτου φθαρ- ταΐ ύλαι προσήλωνται.
And "Acheiman" is interpreted "my brother"; and "Sesein" [is interpreted] "outside me"; and "Thalamein" [is interpreted] "someone hanging." For it is necessary for souls which love the body that the body be considered a "brother," and that "external" good things have been pre eminently esteemed; and, as many [souls] as are disposed in this condition, these "hang" from soulless things, and, just as those who have been crucified, they are nailed to perishable mate rials until death.
The vivid picture that arises from Post. 61 is that the following of bodily pur suits fastens the soul to perishable realities as to a cross. Crucifixion is indi-
1 See, e.g., Martin Hengel, Crucifixion in the Ancient World and the Folly of the Message of the Cross, trans. John Bowden (London & Philadelphia: SCM Press & Fortress Press, 1977), 66-68; 81-83 (repr. 158-60; 173-75).
PLATO FOUR TYPES MADNESS FOUR MUSES
Capra, Andrea, 2015. Plato's Four Muses: The Phaedrus and the Poetics of Philosophy, Washington DC: Center for Hellenic Studies.
Socrates' speech begins by sorting out mania. Madness comes in two general forms: the diseased state of mental dysfunction, and a divergence from ordinary rationality that a god sometimes brings (see 265a–b). Divine madness subdivides into love, Dionysian frenzy, oracular prophecy, and poetic composition (244b–245a). In all four cases the possessed or inspired person (enthousiazôn: 241e, 249e, 253a, 263d) can accomplish what is impossible for someone in a sane state. All four cases are associated with particular deities and traditionally honored.
PHILO CRUCIFIXION AND HANGING ON A TREE AND GENESIS
Etymological analysis underlies every juncture of Philo's allegorical inter pretation, with the crucifixion connection being based on Θαλαμείν [MT ^bri]4 interpreted as "someone hanging."5 Significantly, Philo moves from bodily "hanging" to crucifixion by nailing to a tree. This, along with his expositions of Genesis 40:19 and Deuteronomy 21:23, strongly indicates that Philo associates "crucifixion" with "hanging [on a tree]."
PHILO OF ALEXANDRIA AND THE SOUL ON THE CROSS THEME IN MANY WORKS- CROSS IS QUADRANT
Philo's allegory here is slightly different than in previous cases. As in Som. ii.213 (see above: chpt. 3, §2.1) Philo equates with the crucified body any soul (or mind) committed to serving bodily pursuits. However, in Som. ii.213 the "tree" (= cross) is "lack of education" (άπαιδευσία), whereas in Post. 61 above it is "perishable materials" (φθαρταΐ ΰλαι ).6 This latter analogy more closely resembles Philo's exposition of Deuteronomy 21:23 in Post. 26-27 (see chpt. 3, §4.4), where the person, who ought to hang on God, hangs instead upon the pleasures of his own body (which is a ξύλικο όγκο , "wooden mass"). However, in Post. 27 the person, rather than being crucified, is suspended on a halter (αγχόνη). In fact, the suspension of the soul (on a halter or on a cross) forms a theme in several Philonic works.7 Probably the foundational analogy for Philo lies in bodily suspension, while the imagery (halter or cross) can vary since both represent bodily suspension. This further testimony confirms that Philo associated crucifixion with other forms of bodily suspension. In this regard, Philo in Alexandria manifests a viewpoint very similar to that of Josephus.
THE CRUCIFIED BRIGAND
2. The Crucified Brigand
A recurring theme in rabbinic narratives is that of the crucified brigand. Rob bers, bandits, and rebels were frequently crucified in the Roman period (and before).8 Such individuals are often designated as ληστή (Hebrew ΟϋΟ*^ [pl. •"'CO''*?]; Aramaic ΠΝφΡ"'ΐ7; cf. Latin latrö)? These terms can designate both individuals who use violence to steal as well as those criminals who band together in groups - perhaps "brigand" is the best English equivalent.1 0 From the clans of brigands frequently come the ranks of rebels, and this added greater impetus to Roman attempts at suppression.11 Crucifixion became a chief tool in these efforts. Thus, where Roman brigand terminology and terms for human bodily suspension coincide, it is highly likely that "crucifixion" is the form of execution intended.1 2
Some instances have already been mentioned in previous chapters. Josephus provides an account of how Felix crucified an "incalculable number" of brigands (λησταί, Bell, ii.253). The Bavli represents Rabbi Eleazar as cooperating with the Roman authorities in trapping such brigands
IN A JEWISH HAGGADIC PASSAGE THE PHAROAH THREATENS TO CRUCIFY MOSES -CRUCIFY IS PUT ON A CROSS- CROSS IS QUADRANT- FOUR ELEMENTS I BRIGANDS BOAST
expect such brigands to be crucified, and because Pharaoh's own analogous destruction was well known. Remarkably, in another later haggadic passage Pharaoh boasts that he will "crucify" Moses.2 2 Of the four elements in the brigand's boast quoted above (seize, slay, crucify, make die most severe deaths), the last two (possibly the last three) appear to escalate the rhetoric beyond a quick means of execution.23 This is reminiscent of some of the hyperbolic language used by Graeco-Roman authors in reference to crucifixion.24 It is also interesting to note that the verb for "threaten" (ffcO) used in the parable can bear, in contexts referring to God, the connotation of "blaspheme."2 5 As mentioned repeatedly above in chapter three, "hanging on a tree" can be associated with the death of blasphemers (via Deut 21:22-23).
MENTION OF CRUCIFIXION OF BRIGANDS BY JEWS- JEWISH STORIES SOURCES
Another parable, from a slightly later source, speaks of the dangers of an evil woman who demands that her husband do things beyond his power (Eccl. Rab. vii.37 [21c] on Eccl 7:26).2 6 The woman in this parable is jealous of the wealth of a neighbouring brigand, and she insists that her husband join with that brigand. The beleaguered husband does so, and the following ensues:
p-m a^aiB Ο Π mm ρ · pmra Kcrprn rpm ΠΚΟΟ^ paj wb*b Kinm paa bwvob wpb vbv ppi · a^cDs^i Τ^ΓΓΚ K^TSB; Ο Π mn vb pi · arnerw
: wybxb T M
He [= the husband] went out in that night, the brigand went out [i.e., with his gang], but the sergeant arranged [to go out] after them. This one [i.e., the brigand] who recognized the paths fled, and he was saved. But this one [who] did not recognize the paths [i.e., the husband] was caught, and he was crucified. And they applied to him [the proverb], "The latest of the brig ands is the first of the crucified."
THE QURAN ALSO SAYS THERE IS CRUCIFIXION IN THE STORY OF JOSEPH WHERE ONE OF THE MEN JOSEPH WAS IN PRISON WITH WAS CRUCIFIED- CRUCIFIX IS QUADRANT
In the story of Joseph, about 400 years earlier we also read of another crucifixion in this passage:
O my two mates of the prison! as for one of you, he shall give his lord to drink wine; and as for the other, he shall be crucified, so that the birds shall eat from his head, the matter is decreed concerning which you inquired. [Surah 12:41]
We have, however, no record that Egyptians used crucifixion as punishment in the time of Moses (1450 BC, conservative date; 1200 BC at the latest) or even Joseph (1880 BC, conservative date). Crucifixion only becomes a punishment much later in history and then first in another culture before it has been taken over by the Egyptians. Such threats by a Pharaoh at these times are historically inaccurate.
IN THE QURAN PHAROAH IS CALLED "THE LORD OF STAKES" AND THE QURAN DESCRIBES THAT PHAROAH TRIES TO "CRUCIFY" MOSES AND OTHERS WHO BELIEVE IN G-- THE REFERENCE LORD OF STAKES IS THOUGHT TO REPRESENT THE STAKES OF CRUCIFIXION (THE CROSS THE QUADRANT)
As for the mention of crucifixion in the time of Moses, when the Pharaoh's magicians believed in the message of Moses, the Pharaoh threatened them by saying:
Be sure I will cut off your hands and your feet on apposite sides, and I will cause you all to die on the cross. [Qur'an 7:124]
(Pharaoh) said: Ye put your faith in him before I give you leave. Lo! he doubtless is your chief who taught you magic! But verily ye shall come to know. Verily I will cut off your hands and your feet alternately, and verily I will crucify you every one. [Qur'an 26:49]
(Pharaoh) said: "Believe ye in Him before I give you permission? Surely this must be your leader, who has taught you magic! be sure I will cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides, and I will have you crucified on trunks of palm-trees: so shall ye know for certain, which of us can give the more severe and the more lasting punishment!" [Qur'an 20:71]
The Qur'an also supplies a very important piece of information concerning the Pharaoh. The Pharaoh is addressed as the Lord of the Stakes.
Before them (were many who) rejected apostles,- the people of Noah, and ‘Ad, and Pharaoh, the Lord of Stakes... [Qur'an 38:12]
Seest thou not how thy Lord dealt with the ‘Ad (people),-Of the (city of) Iram, with lofty pillars, The like of which were not produced in (all) the land? And with the Thamud (people), who cut out (huge) rocks in the valley? And with Pharaoh, Lord of Stakes? (All) these transgressed beyond bounds in the lands, And heaped therein mischief (on mischief). [Qur'an 89:6-12]
A key tool of Qur'anic exegesis is the internal relationships between material in different parts of the Qur'an, expressed by Qur'anic scholars as: al-Qur'an yufassiru baʿduhu baʿdan, i.e., different parts of the Qur'an explain each other. In other words, what is given in a general way in one place is explained in detail in another place. What is given briefly in one place is expanded in another.
Using this principle, we can see that the Pharaoh, who is addressed as the "Lord of Stakes", perhaps used stakes for crucifying people. Also why is the Pharaoh called the "Lord of the Stakes" in the Qur'an? Was it because he was the one who had the supreme authority over who meted out the punishment of crucifixion? Did the mutilation of a person precede his crucifixion? This is something that we would like to investigate in this essay.
CRUCIFIXION IN THE MOST ANCIENT LAW CODE THE CODE OF HAMMURABI
The earliest reference to crucifixion by impalement is found in the Code of Hammurabi (c. 1700 BCE). It says:
153. If a seignoir's wife has brought about the death of her husband because of another man, they shall impale that woman on stakes.
With reference to the Code of Hammurabi, Ford considered this as the first documented instance of the crucifixion of women in antiquity. He said,
Crucifixion (impalement) is found in the Code of Hammurabi. The punishment for breaking through a wall in a house was death followed by impalement. Impalement after death reflects the crime; he pierced the wall, so his body is pierced. But another, even grosser punishment is inflicted upon an adulterous woman who instigated the death of her husband for the sake of her lover. In Code of Hammurabi, 153 we read: “If a woman has procured the death of her husband on account of another man, they shall impale that woman.”
Let us now consider some other examples of crucifixion in antiquity which are invoked in the scholarly literature.
ALLUSION TO CRUCIFIXION
Tolstoy's the Death of Ivan Ilʹich: A Critical Companion
The fourfold witness
The final verses of this chapter, verses 31 to 47 refer to what the New King James Version calls the "fourfold witness". Jesus states that he does not bear witness (Greek: η μαρτυρια) to himself, for such witness would not be true or valid. Instead he calls on the testimony of four other witnesses:
John the Baptist (John 5:33-35)
Jesus' own works (John 5:36)
The Father, speaking through the scriptures (John 5:37-40)
Moses (John 5:45-47).
GNOSTICS BARBELO "IN FOUR IS GOD" THE TETRAD
JUNG TALKING ABOUT THE THREE PLUS ONE AND THE 12 AS THE FOUR TIMES THREE (Jung and many mythologists noticed that in myths the sevens are usually four plus threes the twelves are four times threes)- FOUR DOMINANT
FOUR ELEMENTS ON HAND THAT THE CREATOR GOD HAD
PROVERBS LADY WISDOM PRESENTS A FOUR PARTS INSTRUCTION- TETRAGRAM
LADY WISDOM IN PROVERBS DESCRIBES HOW SHE MEDIATES BETWEEN THE TETRAGRAMMATON AND HUMANKIND AND THIS IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR PARTS
EACH OF THE FOUR SECTIONS OF LADY WISDOM IN PROVERBS HAS ITS OWN LINGUISTIC PROFILE (four distinct parts)
Irenæus (c. 115 to 202) was born in Smyrna (in present day Turkey), studied in Rome before going to Lyons and served as bishop. His main work is Against Heresies or Adversus hareses in five volumes, an analytical refutation against Gnosticism. He did not give us list of New Testament books but from Against Heresies we know that he quoted or alluded to four Gospels, Acts, Paul’s epistles (except Philemon), Hebrews, 1 Peter, 1 & 2 John, James, Jude and Revelation (based on scriptural reference in footnotes of Philip Schaff: Anti Nicene Fathers). He was the first to limit Gospel only to four we know today: Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.
It is not possible that the Gospels can be either more or fewer in number than they are. For, since there are four zones of the world in which we live, and four principal winds, while the Church is scattered throughout all the world, and the “pillar and ground” of the Church is the Gospel and the spirit of life; it is fitting that she should have four pillars, breathing out immortality on every side, and vivifying men afresh. From which fact, it is evident that the Word, the Artificer of all, He that sitteth upon the cherubim, and contains all things, He who was manifested to men, has given us the Gospel under four aspects, but bound together by one Spirit. As also David says, when entreating His manifestation, “Thou that sittest between the cherubim, shine forth.” For the cherubim, too, were four-faced, and their faces were images of the dispensation of the Son of God. For, [as the Scripture] says, “The first living creature was like a lion,” symbolizing His effectual working, His leadership, and royal power; the second [living creature] was like a calf, signifying [His] sacrificial and sacerdotal order; but “the third had, as it were, the face as of a man,”-an evident description of His advent as a human being; “the fourth was like a flying eagle,” pointing out the gift of the Spirit hovering with His wings over the Church.
DEMIURGE QUATERNITY AND TETRAD
308 The primordial image of the quaternity coalesces, for the
Gnostics, with the figure of the demiurge or Anthropos. He is,
as it were, the victim of his own creative act, for, when he
sexual act, they could recharge Barbelo with the pneuma that was lost in the
world. In Simon Magus it is Helen, the ii^r-qp and Iwoia, who "descended to the
lower regions . . . and generated the inferior powers, angels, and firmaments."
She was forcibly held captive by the lower powers (Irenaeus, I, 27, 1-4). She
corresponds to the much later alchemical idea of the "soul in fetters" (cf. Dorn,
Theatr. chem., I, pp. 298, 497; Mylius, Phil, ref., p. 262; Rosarium philosophorum
in Art. aurif., II, p. 284; "Platonis liber quartorum," Theatr. chem., V, pp.
i85f.; Vigenere, Theatr. chem., VI, p. 19). The idea derives from Greek alchemy
and can be found in Zosimos (Berthelot, Alch. grecs, III, xlix, 7; trans, in Psy-
chology and Alchemy, pars. 456ft. ). In the "Liber quartorum" it is of Sabaean
origin. See Chwolsohn, Die Ssabier und der Ssabismus (II, p. 494): "The soul
once turned towards matter, fell in love with it, and, burning with desire to
experience bodily pleasures, was no longer willing to tear herself away from it.
So was the world born." Among the Valentinians, Sophia Achamoth is the
Ogdoad. In Pistis Sophia (trans, by Mead, p. 362) she is the daughter of Barbelo.
Deluded by the false light of the demon Authades, she falls into imprisonment
in chaos. Irenaeus (I, 5, 2) calls the demiurge the Heptad, but Achamoth the
Ogdoad. In I, 7, 2 he says that the Saviour is compounded of four things in
repetition of the first Tetrad. A copy of the Four is the quaternity of elements
(I, 17, 1), and so are the four lights that stand round the Autogenes of Barbelo-
Gnosis (I, 29, 2). 34 Adv. haer., I, 24, 1.
The Naassenes, as Hippolytus says, 91 derived all things from
a triad, which consists firstly of the "blessed nature of the
blessed Man on high, Adamas," secondly of the mortal nature of
the lower man, and thirdly of the "kingless race begotten from
above," to which belong "Mariam the sought-for one, and
Jothor 92 the great wise one, and Sephora 93 the seer, and Moses
whose generation was not in Egypt." 94 Together these four form
a marriage quaternio 95 of the classic type:
89 Ancoratus, 40. Cf. Daniel 2 : 35: "But the stone that struck the statue became
a great mountain and filled the whole earth" (DV).
90 Elenchos, V, 7, 37 (Legge trans., I, p. 130). Cf. Psalm 82 (Vulg. 81) : 6, to which
reference is made in Luke 6 : 35 and John 10 : 34.
91V, 8, 2 (ibid., p. 131).
92 'Io0o>p = Jethro, the priest-king of Midian and the father-in-law of Moses.
93 Zipporah, the wife of Moses.
94 This is probably an allusion to the pneumatic nature of the "generation" pro-
duced by Moses, for, according to Elenchos, V, 7, 41, "Egypt is the body" (Legge
trans., I, p. 130).
95 The marriage quaternio is the archetype to which the cross-cousin marriage
corresponds on a primitive level. I have given a detailed account of it in "The
Psychology of the Transference," pars. 425ff.
Their synonyms are:
THE UNKNOWN WOMAN
THE DISTANT LOVER
329 Moses corresponds to the husband, Sephora to the wife;
Mariam (Miriam) is the sister of Moses; Jothor (Jethro) is the
archetype of the wise old man and corresponds to the father-
animus, if the quaternio is that of a woman. But the fact that
Jothor is called "the great wise one" suggests that the quaternio
is a man's. In the case of a woman the accent that falls here on
the wise man would fall on Mariam, who would then have the
significance of the Great Mother. At all events our quaternio
lacks the incestuous brother-sister relationship, otherwise very
common. Instead, Miriam has something of a mother signif-
icance for Moses (cf. Exodus 2 : 4fL). As a prophetess (Exodus
15 : 20L) she is a "magical" personality. When Moses took a
Moor to wife— the "Ethiopian woman"— this incensed Miriam
so much that she was smitten with leprosy and became "as white
as snow" (Numbers 12 : 10). Miriam is therefore not altogether
unsuited to play the role of the anima. The best-known anima-
figure in the Old Testament, the Shulamite, says: "I am black,
but comely" (Song of Songs 1 : 5). In the Chymical Wedding of
Christian Rosenkreutz, the royal bride is the concubine of the
Moorish king. Negroes, and especially Ethiopians, play a con-
siderable role in alchemy as synonyms of the caput corvi and
the nigredo. 96 They appear in the Passion of St. Perpetua 97 as
representatives of the sinful pagan world.
33° The triad is characterized by various names that may be
onomatopoetic: Kaulakau, Saulasau, Zeesar. 98 Kaulakau means
the higher Adam, Saulasau the lower, mortal man, and Zeesar
is named the "upwards-flowing Jordan." The Jordan was caused
96 Cf. Psychology and Alchemy, par. 484.
97 See the study by Marie-Louise von Franz.
98 These words occur in the Hebrew of Isaiah 28 : 10, where they describe what
"men with stammering lips and alien tongue" speak to the people. [The Hebrew
runs: "tsaw latsaw, tsaw latsaw, kaw lakaw, kaw lakaw, zeer sham, zeer sham."—
Editors.] AV: "For precept must be upon precept, precept upon precept, line
upon line, line upon line; here a little and there a little."
GNOSTIC SYMBOLS OF THE SELF
by Jesus to flow up-stream; it is the rising flood and this, as
already mentioned, is the begetter of gods. "This, they say, is the
human hermaphrodite in all creatures, whom the ignorant call
'Geryon of the threefold body' [that is, d>s h yijs frkovra, 'flowing
from the earth']; but the Greeks name it the celestial horn of
the moon." The text defines the above-mentioned quaternio,
which is identical with Zeesar, the upwards-flowing Jordan, the
hermaphrodite, Geryon of the threefold body, and the horn
of the moon, as the cosmogonic Logos (John 1 : iff.), and the
"life that was in him" (John 1 : 4) as a "generation of perfect
men" (reXeioi avdp&TOL). 99
This Logos or quaternity is "the cup from which the king,
drinking, draws his omens," 10 ° or the beaker of Anacreon. The
cup leads Hippolytus on to the wine miracle at Cana, which, he
says, "showed forth the kingdom of heaven"; for the kingdom
of heaven lies within us, like the wine in the cup. Further paral-
lels of the cup are the ithyphallic gods of Samothrace and the
Kyllenic Hermes, who signify the Original Man as well as the
spiritual man who is reborn. This last is "in every respect con-
substantial" with the Original Man symbolized by Hermes. For
this reason, says Hippolytus, Christ said that one must eat of his
flesh and drink of his blood, for he was conscious of the individ-
ual nature of each of his disciples, and also of the need of each
"to come to his own special nature." 101
Another synonym is Korybas, who was descended from the
crown of the head and from the unformed (axapaKTVp'^rov) brain,
like the Euphrates from Eden, and permeates all things. His
image exists — unrecognized — "in earthly form." He is the god
who dwells in the flood. I need not describe this symbol here, as
I have already discussed it at some length in one of my Para-
celsus studies. 102 So far as Korybas is concerned, the parallel
between him and the Protanthropos is explained by the ancient
view that the corybants were the original men. 103 The name
"Korybas" does not denote a particular personality, but rather
the anonymous member of a collectivity, such as the Curetes,
99 Cf. Psychology and Alchemy, pars. 55of. [Cf. Legge trans., I, p. 131.]
100 cf. Genesis 44 : 5.
101 Elenchos, V, 8, 12 (Legge trans., I, p. 133).
102 "Paracelsus as a Spiritual Phenomenon," pars. i8iff.
103 Roscher, Lexikon, II, part 1, col. 1608, s.v. "Kuretes."
Cabiri, Dactyls, etc. Etymologically, it has been brought into
connection with Kopv<f>ri (crown of the head), though this is not
certain. 104 Korybas seems in our text to be the name of a single
personality — the Kyllenian Hermes, who appears here as syn-
onymous with the Cabiri of Samothrace. With reference to this
Hermes the text says: "Him the Thracians . . . call Kory-
bas." 105 I have suggested in an earlier publication 106 that this
unusual single personality may perhaps be a product of con-
tamination with Korybas, known to us from the Dionysus
legend, because he too seems to have been a phallic being, as we
learn from a scholium to Lucian's De dea Syria. 101
333 From the centre of the "perfect man" flows the ocean (where,
as we have said, the god dwells). The "perfect" man is, as Jesus
says, the "true door," through which the "perfect" man must go
in order to be reborn. Here the problem of how to translate
"teleios" becomes crucial; for— we must ask— why should anyone
who is "perfect" need renewal through rebirth? 108 One can
only conclude that the perfect man was not so perfected that
no further improvement was possible. We encounter a similar
difficulty in Philippians 3:12, where Paul says: "Not that I
. . . am already perfect" (rereAd'co^ai). But three verses further on
he writes: "Let us then, as many as are perfect (re'Aeioi) be of this
mind." The Gnostic use of rcAeios obviously agrees with Paul's.
The word has only an approximate meaning and amounts to
much the same thing as Tn/o^ariKos, 'spiritual,' 109 which is not
connected with any conception of a definite degree of perfection
or spirituality. The word "perfect" gives the sense of the Greek
reAetos correctly only when it refers to God. But when it applies
to a man, who in addition is in need of rebirth, it can at most
mean "whole" or "complete," especially if, as our text says, the
104 Ibid., col. 1607. The descent from the brain may be an allusion to the ancient
idea that the sperm was conducted down from the head to the genitals, through
the spinal cord. [Cf. Onians, The Origins of European Thought, p. 234. — Editors.]
105 Elenchos, V, 8, 13 (Legge trans., I, p. 133).
106 "The Spirit Mercurius," par. 278.
107 Roscher, col. 1392, s.v. "Korybos," where the text is given in full.
108 The alchemists say very aptly: "Perfectum non perficitur" (that which is per-
fect is not perfected).
109 Elenchos, V, 8, 22, describes the irpev/xariKol as "perfect men endowed with
reason," from which it is clear that the possession of an anima rationalis is what
makes the "spiritual" man.
JUNG DESCRIBES THAT THE QUATERNIO DOMINATES ALCHEMY HE SAYS TRIADIC SYMBOLS OCCUR BUT ARE RARER- FOUR QUATERNIOS AND GNOSTICISM
The four quaternios depicted above are first and foremost an
attempt to arrange systematically the almost limitless wealth of
symbols in Gnosticism and its continuation, alchemy. But such
an arrangement of principles also proves useful for understand-
ing the individual symbolism of modern dreams. The images we
encounter in this field are even more varied, and so confusing
in their complexity that some kind of organizing schema is abso-
lutely essential. As it is advisable to proceed historically, I have
taken the Moses Quaternio as a starting point, because it derives
directly from the primitive schema of the cross-cousin marriage.
Naturally this quaternio has only a paradigmatic significance.
One could base the system just as easily on any other marriage
quaternio, but not on any other quaternity, such as, for instance,
Horus and his four sons. This quaternity is not aboriginal
enough, for it misses out the antagonistic, feminine element. 71
69 "Psychology of the Transference," par. 438.
70 Case material in Psychology and Alchemy, part II. Triadic symbols also occur,
but they are rarer.
71 The Gnostic quaternio is naturally later than the Horus quaternity in point of
time, but psychologically it is older, because in it the feminine element reassumes
its rightful place, as is not the case with the patriarchal Horus quaternio.
SPACEIME SESQUITERTIAN 3:4
The phlogiston theory adumbrated by the alchemists did
not get as far as that, but it points unmistakably in that direc-
tion. Moreover, all the mathematical and physical elements
from which a theory of energy could have been constructed were
known in the seventeenth century. Energy is an abstract con-
cept which is indispensable for exact description of the be-
haviour of bodies in motion. In the same way bodies in motion
can only be apprehended with the help of the system of space-
time co-ordinates. Wherever movement is established, it is done
by means of the space-time quaternio, which can be expressed
either by the axiom of Maria, 3 -f- 1, or by the sesquitertian pro-
portion, 3 : 4. This quaternio could therefore replace that of the
four elements, where the unit that corresponds to the time-co-
ordinate, or the fourth in the alchemical series of elements, is
characterized by the fact that one element has an exceptional
position, like fire or earth. 89
The exceptional position of one of the factors in a quater-
nity can also be expressed by its duplex nature. For instance,
the fourth of the rivers of Paradise, the Euphrates, signifies the
mouth through which food goes in and prayers go out, as well
as the Logos. In the Moses Quaternio, the wife of Moses plays
the double role of Zipporah and of the Ethiopian woman. If
we construct a quaternity from the divine equivalents of Maier's
16 VISIONS OF CHRIST- 16 SQUARES QMR- RITUAL WITH A CRUCIFIX
As part of the ritual, he held a crucifix in the air above the foot of her bed. Julian reported that she was losing her sight and felt physically numb, but as she gazed on the crucifix she saw the figure of Jesus begin to bleed. Over the next several hours, she had a series of sixteen visions of Jesus Christ, which ended by the time she recovered from her illness on 13 May 1373
I POSTED THIS BEFORE ABOUT HER 16 VISIONS AFTER GAZING AT CROSS- 16 SQUARES QMR
In 1372 Saint Julian of Norwich was on her deathbed and had been given her last rites when she reported a series of visions of Jesus, followed by a sudden recovery. Almost twenty years later she wrote about these visions in her book "Revelations of Divine Love” perhaps the first book in the English language written by a woman, presumably because she was unfamiliar with Latin. Her book mentions her illness and her recovery as she saw the shining image of Christ. The sixteen revelations start with the crown of thorns and proceed through the death of Jesus, ending with his resurrection and how Christ still dwells in the souls of those who love him. She is celebrated in the Anglican Church.
SIXTEEN VISIONS- THIS STUFF IS IN MY OVER 60 QMR BOOKS
The Revelations of Divine Love (which also bears the title A Revelation of Love — in Sixteen Shewings above the first chapter) is a 14th-century book of Christian mystical devotions written by Julian of Norwich. It includes her sixteen mystical visions and contemplations on universal love and hope in a time of plague, religious schism, uprisings and war. Published in 1395, it is the first published book in the English language to be written by a woman.
The globus cruciger (Latin, "cross-bearing orb"), also known as the orb and cross, an orb (Latin globus) topped (Latin gerere, to wear) by a cross (Latin crux), has been a Christian symbol of authority since the Middle Ages, used on coins, in iconography, and with the sceptre as royal regalia. The cross represents Christ's dominion over the orb of the world, literally held in the hand of an earthly ruler (or sometimes it is held by an angel). In the iconography of Western art, when Christ himself holds the globe, he is called Salvator Mundi, (Latin for the "Saviour of the World"); his statue is the Infant Jesus of Prague.
The globus cruciger was used in the Byzantine Empire, as shown in this coin of Emperor Leontius (d. 705).
The Ball and the Cross is a novel by G. K. Chesterton. The title refers to a more worldly and rationalist worldview, represented by a ball or sphere, and the cross representing Christianity.
The Holy Hand Grenade of Antioch is a visual satire of the Sovereign's Orb of the United Kingdom, and may refer to the mythical Holy Spear of Antioch. The Holy Hand Grenade is described as one of the "sacred relics" carried by Brother Maynard (Idle). Despite its ornate appearance and long-winded instructions, it functions much the same as any other hand grenade. At King Arthur's prompting, instructions for its use are read aloud (by Michael Palin) from the fictitious Book of Armaments, Chapter 2, verses 9–21, parodying the King James Bible and the Athanasian Creed:
The Sovereign's Orb of the United Kingdom, which The Holy Hand Grenade of Antioch satirises
CROSS ON TOP
St. Edward's Crown (England)
A monde, meaning "world" in French, is an orb located near the top of a crown. It represents, as the name suggests, the world that the king rules. It is the point at which a crown's half arches meet. It is usually topped off either with a national or religious symbol, for example a cross in Christian countries.
ST EDWARDS CROWN FOUR CROSSES
The British monarchy was eventually restored in 1661, and in preparation for the coronation of Charles II, a new St Edward's Crown was made by Sir Robert Vyner. It is 30 cm (12 in) tall and weighs 2.23 kg (4.9 lb), and has four fleurs-de-lis and four crosses pattée, supporting two dipped arches topped by a monde and cross pattée. Its purple velvet cap is trimmed with ermine.
CROWN WAS SET WITH 444 STONES- REPETITION OF FOURS
Jewels would be hired for use in the crown and removed after the coronation until 1911, when it was permanently set with 444 semi-precious stones, including 345 rose-cut aquamarines, 37 white topazes, 27 tourmalines, 12 rubies, 7 amethysts, 6 sapphires, 2 jargoons, 1 garnet, 1 spinel and 1 carbuncle. Imitation pearls on the arches and base were replaced with golden beads. It was also made smaller to fit George V, the first monarch to be crowned with St Edward's Crown in over 200 years.
CROSS ON TOP
Crown of Bolesław I (replica made in 2001-2003 after original was stolen in 1794 by Prussian soldiers) used to crown Polish Kings
CROSS ON TOP
Crown of St. Stephen used to crown Hungarian Kings
CROSS ON TOP
Crown of Saint Wenceslas made in 1347
Crown of Christian V (Denmark)
HOLY CROWN AND THE QUADRANT
Sketch of the enamel icons of the Saints on the Holy Crown (top view, the crown front is on the bottom of the picture)
THE CROSS OF THE CROWN AND THE TRUE CROSS
The cross is attached to the crown in a rough manner, rising from the midriff of Christ in the central enamel plaque at the top of the crown. This addition might have taken place during the 16th century. The cross was knocked crooked in the 17th century when the crown was damaged, possibly by the top of the iron chest housing the insignia being hastily closed without the crown having been placed in it properly. The cross has since been left in this slanted position, and is now always depicted as such.
Engraving of Matthias II of Hungary, showing the cross in vertical position
Éva Kovács suggests that the present plain cross on the top of the crown is a replacement of an original double-barred reliquary cross containing three pieces of the True Cross and that it was this presence of the True Cross in the Holy Crown which made it holy. She states that “Szabolcs Vajay, called to my attention a strange incident in the crown’s history which had completely escaped everybody’s attention. Before Queen Isabella handed over the regalia to Ferdinand in 1551, she broke the cross off the crown’s peak for her son, John Sigismund. According to a contemporary Polish chronicler, John Sigismund wore this cross on his chest till the end of his life, “...because he who possess this cross will again come into possession of the missing parts which, subjected to the power of the cross, had belonged to it”.[this quote needs a citation]
Later, the cross became the property of Sigismund Bathory who, persuaded by his confessor, bestowed it on Emperor Rudolf II. This was reported by an Italian envoy in Prague who also told the Isabella-John Sigismund story.” She also notes that “Several small fragments of the True Cross were in possession of the Arpad dynasty. As a point of interest, it is precisely the smallest ones, those set into the cross on the chest, that are attributed to St. Stephen. About a tiny fragment of the True Cross, a Russian chronicler recording King Geza II’s campaigns wrote that it had been the holy king’s property and, despite its small size, it was a relic of great force. We are, perhaps, not off the track when surmising that the Hungarian crown was holy because it had once been reinforced with a fragment of the victory-bringing relic. . . . we know quite few reliquary crowns. To mention but the most obvious example, let us cite Charles IV’s crown provided with a cross containing a thorn relic.”
Later, it was the Crown itself, rather than St. Stephen's cross reliquary that came to be regarded as holy through its traditional association with St. Stephen. Éva Kovács further notes in this regard the early use of the patriarchal or double-barred cross and crown in the ancient Hungarian royal coat of arms. Since reliquary crosses frequently take such a double-barred form, the use of a patriarchal cross in the royal arms would be a direct reference to and representation of this royal relic. This association between the crown and this royal relic would also help to substantiate the theory that the Holy Crown was always intended to serve its historical role of legitimatizing the position of its wearer as the true divinely appointed king of Hungary.
FOUR CROSSES ON TOP
The Steel Crown of King Carol I of Romania was forged at the Army Arsenal (Arsenalul Armatei) in Bucharest of the steel of a cannon captured by the Romanian Army from the Ottomans during the War of Independence (1877-1878).
COAT OF ARMS- FOUR QUARTERS QUADRANT LIKE MOST COAT OF ARMS ALSO CROSS ON TOP QUADRANT
The shield is divided into four quarters, blazoned as follows:
1st, gules a castle or, triple-embattled and voided gate and windows, with three towers each triple-turreted, of the field, masoned sable and ajoure azure, which is for Castile;
2nd, argent a lion rampant purpure crowned or, langued and armed, of the second, which is for León;
3rd, or, four pallets gules, which is for Aragon;
4th, gules a cross, saltire and orle of chains linked together or, a centre point vert, which is for Navarre;
It is adorned with pearls and surmounted by a cross on a globe, which is the royal crown of Spain.
FOUR TIERS SURPASSING THREE TIERS DYNAMIC THREE AND FOUR
Agostino Veneziano's engraving of Suleiman the Magnificent. Note the four tiers on the helmet (which he had commissioned from Venice), symbolizing his imperial power, surpassing the 3-tiered papal tiara.
FOUR TIERS SURPASSING THE THREE TRIPLE TIERRA OF THE FOUR- FOUR ALWAYS TRANSCENDENT- DYNAMIC THREE AND FOUR
The 16th-century Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent commissioned Venetian craftsmen to make a 4-tiered tiara modeled on the papal design, to demonstrate that his power and authority exceeded that of the Pope. This was a most atypical piece of headgear for an Ottoman sultan, which he probably never normally wore, but which he placed beside him when receiving visitors, especially ambassadors. It was crowned with an enormous feather.
CROSSED KEYS OF PETER
A representation of the triregnum combined with two crossed keys of Saint Peter continues to be used as a symbol of the papacy and appears on papal documents, buildings and insignia.
The first years of the 16th century saw the addition of a little globe and cross to top the tiara.
"Benedict XVI decided not to include the tiara in his official personal coat of arms. He replaced it with a simple mitre which is not, therefore, surmounted by a small globe and cross as was the tiara". Unofficially, the tiara was embroidered in the vestments he wore during the Mass in the Cathedral of Sydney during World Youth Day 2008 and in a gift tapestry hung from the window at which he recited the Angelus in October 2010.[37
Only one other Catholic see uses the triple tiara in its coat of arms: the Patriarchate of Lisbon. The title of Patriarch of Lisbon was created in 1716 and is held by the archbishop of Lisbon since 1740. The coat of arms of the Holy See combines the tiara with the crossed keys of St. Peter, while that of the Lisbon Patriarchate combines it with a processional cross and a pastoral staff. Also the Archbishop of Benevento uses the tiara in its coat of arms.
THE CROSSED KEYS THE KEYS OF PETER ARE CALLED THE KEYS OF HEAVEN AND THEY THEMSELVES HAVE CROSSES (QUADRANTS) WITHIN THEM- tHE CROSSED KEYS OF PETER MAKE A QUADRANT
In ecclesiastical heraldry, papal coats of arms (those of individual popes) and those of the Holy See and Vatican City State include an image of crossed keys to represent the metaphorical keys of the office of Saint Peter, the keys of heaven, or the keys of the kingdom of Heaven, that, according to Roman Catholic teaching, Jesus promised to Saint Peter, empowering him to take binding actions. In the Gospel of Matthew 16:19, Jesus says to Peter, "I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on Earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on Earth shall be loosed in heaven."
THE CROSSED KEYS OF SAINT PETER AND THE CROSS ON THE TOP
The crossed keys in the coat of arms of the Holy See symbolise the keys of heaven entrusted to Simon Peter. The gold cross on a monde (globe) surmounting the tiara symbolizes the sovereignty of Jesus.
PETER WEARING CROSSES AND KEYS CROSSES
Saint Peter depicted (by Peter Paul Rubens) holding the Keys of Heaven.
FOUR WORDS GOD SPOKE TO MOSES ON MT SINAI
Abla - one of the four names that God spoke aloud to Moses while he was on Mt. Sinai.
Ablati - In Waite's The Book of Ceremonial Magic, this angel is invoked in rites used to conjure to Uriel. His name is one of the four words God spoke to Moses. The other words were Josta, Agla (one of God's names), and Caila.
16 FACES 16 SQUARES QMR
Affafniel - in The Book of the Angel Raziel he is one of the angels of God's divine anger (a wrathful angel). He has sixteen faces, four on each side of his head, that are perpetually changing.
MOSES CLIMBS THE MOUNTAIN FOUR TIMES (saying four law codes)
In what has been preserved of the first part of this story, Moses climbs the mountain four times:
(1) to report the people’s words (whatever they may have been) to the Lord,
(2) to warn the people to prepare for the theophany,
(3) to receive (on the day of the theophany) God’s instruction to warn the people again, and
(4) to view the Lord, along with Aaron, the priests and the elders. He also descends four times, each time carrying out the task assigned.
ELIJAH EXPERIENCES FOUR THINGS THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT IT IS GOD- FIRST A WIND THEN AN EARTHQUAKE THEN A FIRE, THEN THE FOURTH TIME HE HEARS A STILL SMALL VOICE - THE FOURTH WAS DIFFERENT
11 And he said, Go forth, and stand upon the mount before the Lord. And, behold, the Lord passed by, and a great and strong wind rent the mountains, and brake in pieces the rocks before the Lord; but the Lord was not in the wind: and after the wind an earthquake; but the Lord was not in the earthquake:
12 And after the earthquake a fire; but the Lord was not in the fire: and after the fire a still small voice.
13 And it was so, when Elijah heard it, that he wrapped his face in his mantle, and went out, and stood in the entering in of the cave. And, behold, there came a voice unto him, and said, What doest thou here, Elijah?
CRUX ANSATA IS AN ANKH
Crux Ansata, subtitled 'An Indictment of the Roman Catholic Church' by H. G. Wells is a (96 page) wartime book first published in 1943 by Penguin Books, Hammonsworth (Great Britain): Penguin Special No. 129. The U. S. edition was copyrighted and published in 1944 by Agora Publishing Company, New York, with a portrait frontispiece and an appendix of an interview with Wells recorded by John Rowland. The U.S. edition of 144 pages went into a third printing in August 1946.
In this Monday, Dec. 7, 2009 picture, Dairy farmer Brad Davis carries Moses, a Jersey Holstein calf mix at the farm of Brad Davis and Megan Johnson, right, in Sterling, Conn. Born the previous week, the calf has a white marking on its forehead in the approximate shape of a cross. (AP Photo/The Norwich Bulletin, Aaron Flaum)
HEN LAYED AN EGG WITH CROSS ON IT
Also this month, a couple in the Fort Worth, Texas, area said one of their hens laid an egg bearing the image of a cross on it. The egg was unusual — not smooth like all the others — and it had an indentation on one end with what appeared to be a cross. The couple, Pam and Tracy Norrell, said they believe it’s a sign of encouragement during the holiday season. (They added that eating the egg is not an option.)
A FOURTH ELEMENT
Penance (also called Confession and Reconciliation) - the first of the two sacraments of healing. It is also called the sacrament of conversion, of forgiveness, and of absolution. It is the sacrament of spiritual healing of a baptized person from the distancing from God involved in actual sins committed. It involves the penitent's contrition for sin (without which the rite does not have its effect), confession (which in highly exceptional circumstances can take the form of a corporate general confession) to a minister who has the faculty to exercise the power to absolve the penitent, and absolution by the minister. In some traditions (such as the Roman Catholic), the rite involves a fourth element – satisfaction – which is defined as signs of repentance imposed by the minister. In early Christian centuries, the fourth element was quite onerous and generally preceded absolution, but now it usually involves a simple task (in some traditions called a "penance") for the penitent to perform, to make some reparation and as a medicinal means of strengthening against further sinning.
The Four Marks of the Church is a term describing four distinctive adjectives—one, holy, catholic and apostolic— of traditional Christian ecclesiology as expressed in the Nicene Creed of the First Council of Constantinople in 381: "[I believe] in one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church." In Protestant theology these are sometimes called the attributes of the Church. They are still professed today in the Nicene Creed, recited in the liturgy of the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, as well as in Anglicanism, and multiple other Protestant denominations' worship services.
CONTROVERSY IMAGES OF KRISHNA CRUCIFIED
...regarding the cross and the image of a god in cruciform - or the crucifix - William Williamson states: "The cross...is a symbol of the highest antiquity, but the representation of a figure with the hands and feet pierced with nails belongs to a later period. The most ancient delineation of the cruciform attitude is the figure of the god in the vault of heaven, with outstretched arms, blessing the universe - ibid
OSIRIS FORM OF CRUCIFIX (QUADRANT)
The ritual lamentation of the divine sisters, Isis and Nephthys, for Osiris...is found in the temple remains of the island of Philae expressly connected with the representation of Osiris in the form of a crucifix, the God's head standing on top of a four-barred Nilometer, faced by the mourning female figures - John M. Robertson (Christianity and Mythology)
TERTULLIAN TOLD THE PAGANS "ALL THE GODS YOU WORSHIP ARE CROSSES"-
Tertullian, a Christian Father of the second and third centuries, writing to the Pagans, says: "The origin of your gods is derived from figures moulded on a cross. All those rows of images on your standards are the appendages of crosses; those hangings on your standards and banners are the robes of crosses" – ibid
Shu, the Egyptian god of life. His arms are cruciform as he divides the heavens from the earth. He was the original "Crucified Savior." This god was based on the Aryan (Irish) Esus who was depicted in a similar fashion. The name Shu turns up in the Hebrew Joshua, which becomes Yeshua, the Hebrew rendition of Jeshua or Jesus. This is comprehendible once we realize that the original Jews or Judites were Druids. It is Druidic or Aryan gods and ways that were adopted by Eastern races and nations. Shu was known as "the firstborn" and "the Lion." Jesus was known as the "Lion of Judah." Esoterically, this simply means "Jesus of the Judites or Druids," and not "Jesus the Jew," as we would normally think. In fact, the Welsh title for the Druids is Shaau, Suw or Shew. This is where the modern name "Shaw" originates. Shu is equivalent with the Christian "Holy Spirit."
THE FOURFOLD DIVISION AND EGYPTIAN GODS
The cyclic nature in the four-fold division of the world of the gods is well developed in northern Egypt (Heliopolis), and particularly in the later dynasties (GOFF, 1979; WOLDERING, 1981). The framework of the supra-natural universe is a combination of two- and fourfold units adding up to a nine-fold unity, the so-called ‘Ennead of Heliopolis’ (fig. 80). The creation-myth starts with Atum (generated from his own)(I), begetting Sjoe and Tefnoet as female and male children (II). This couple begets Geb (earth) and Noet (heaven)(III). They, in turn, have four children: Osiris, Isis, Seth en Nepthys (IV). In a later stage a differentiation of the four-fold division takes place: Isis and Horus are a holy nine-fold and Nepthys and Osiris create Anubis. The basic division is, however, as follows:
Fig. 80 – The ennead of Heliopolis represented as a possible development of division thinking.
The division of Creation is a combination of two pairs of opposites, made up by the top-members of the ennead (1 – 4; 2 – 3):
1. Re (sun and heaven),
2. Shu (the air),
3. Geb (the earth)
4. Osiris (the underworld),
The scheme in Memphis (Sakkara), south of Cairo, is different, although there are also nine gods involved. The southern influence of (the eight gods of) Hermopolis is joined here with Ptah (the creating god) into a unit of nine. The text which describes this event is engraved into the ‘Shabaka Stone‘, around 700 BC. and now in the British Museum. The sources of this text are much older and go back from the First to the Fourth Dynasty (2925 – 2450 BC.).
The suggestion in fig. 81 is an effort to visualize the spiritual development of the gods of Memphis, who reached a strong presence in the Nineteenth Dynasty (1307 – 1196 BC.), under pharaohs like Seti I and Ramses II.
The primal unity, the god Horus (I), generates a primary four-fold division, represented by his sons (II). The two-fold division of Ptah and Sechmet (III) makes up the visible part of the spectrum and is – later – jointed by Nefertum to form a trinity, sometimes expanded by Imhotep, the builder of the step pyramid of Zoser (2630 BC.), into a tetradic pluriformity. The third quadrant (III), as the position of the physical observations and creations, remains the most important. Pta, ‘the very great one’, is historically the centre-point, who joins with the local goddess Sechmet, shaped as a lion.
Fig. 81 – The different gods of Memphis are given here in a quadralectic reconstruction based on the associated numbers in the various stages. The creation-theory of Memphis is, more then the spiritual-physical orientated one of Heliopolis, put forward as an intellectual system, nurtured by a human point of view. Thinking and saying (‘sia’ and ‘hoe‘) are the real creative powers. The alternation between unity and multitude is another characteristic.
The city of Hermopolis, situated in Middle Egypt, had a particular worship of the gods based on eight basic powers (KEES, 1956). They are divided in four pairs, the so-called ‘ogdoade‘ of Hermopolis:
Noen + Naoenet (the primal water)
Hoeh + Haoehet (the endless space)
Koek + Kaoeket (the darkness)
Amoen + Amaoenet (the unknown)
The male powers are figured as frogs and the female gods as snakes (fig. 82). The four pairs are the synthesis of a two- and a fourfold way of thinking, which is typical for the Egyptian cultural period.
SHU WAS THE CROSS
He symbolized the element Air (Holy Spirit) and the space between heaven and earth. He is commonly depicted with his arms raised or spread in the shape of a cross. In pre-Christian times, the crucified god was himself the cross. He was the "quartered one."
He is cryptically referred to in the Book of Genesis. When we hear of Jehovah putting enmity between the serpent and the woman, this relates to the Egyptian god Ra who sent Shu to separate the lovers Geb and Nut. Most of the Book of Genesis is based on Sumerian and Egyptian antetypes. The Heliopolitan mystery schools had a plurality of gods and goddesses, a Tree of Life, sacred river, paradisaical garden, and so on. The supreme deity of Heliopolis was Atum, from which we derive the name Adam.
CRUCIFIXION DONE IN LAKOTA RITUAL SUN DANCE
Instead of ending at the circle, the vertical and horizontal lines extend beyond in the shape of a cross (similar to a Celtic Cross) showing Christ’s sacrifice and lordship over all the universe.
A rabbit fur is attached to the horizontal line at two points, and to the vertical line at one bottom point. It is pierced and secured. This represents both the piercing that the Lakota did as a part of the Sun Dance, and the ultimate piercing which took place once for all mankind, as Christ was nailed to the cross. Rabbit fur is chosen because the rabbit is the symbol of humility in Lakota tradition.
"... the rabbit represents humility, because he is quiet and soft and not self-asserting — a quality which we must all possess when we go to the center of the world."
– Black Elk (The Sacred Pipe)
Five feathers are dangling from the rabbit fur, symbolic of the sacrificial blood in both the Lakota Sun Dance, and the crucifixion of Christ. When added to the other eight feathers, the total comes to 13, representing Jesus and the twelve apostles, as well as the 13 moons of a calendar year. These are the things, and reasons, that I saw in my vision — which I share with you.
PROMETHEUS ON CROSS
Graves further relates that the "New American Cyclopedia" (i. 157) states that Prometheus was "crucified." Lundy apparently concurs with this perspective that the Prometheus story was censored. In his remarks concerning the widely used solar symbol, the swastika, he says:
Dr. Schliemann found it on terracotta disks at Troy, in the fourth or lowest stratum of his excavations, indicating an Aryan civilization long anterior to the Greeks, say from two to three thousand years before Christ. Burnouf agrees with other archaeologists in saying that this is the oldest form of the cross known; and affirms that it is found personified in the ancient religion of the Greeks under the figure of Prometheus, the bearer of fire; the god is extended on the cross on Caucasus, while the celestial bird, which is the Cyena of the Vedic hymns, every day devours his immortal breast. The modification of this Vedic symbol became the instrument of torture and death to other nations, and was that on which Jesus Christ suffered death at the hands of the Jews and Romans.
ANKH CROSS ON MARS
NASA images reveal ‘The Ankh Cross’ on the surface of Mars
I posted a long time ago the article about how Quetzalcoatl shot an arrow through a tree making a cross and he told the people the cross would be the sign of his second coming but I can't find the article now
Regarding the Syrian god Tammuz, who was also worshipped by Israelites/Jews (Ezek. 8:14), Graves claims he was crucified around 1160 BCE, asserting that Higgins relates this story, and that Julius Firmicus writes about Tammuz (Thammuz) "rising from the dead for the salvation of the world." Titcomb relates the same information regarding Tammuz, as well as others, giving the solar meaning of this pervasive mythical motif:
The crucified Iao ("Divine Love" personified) is the crucified Adonis, or Tammuz (the Jewish Adonai), the Sun, who was put to death by the wild boar of Aries--one of the twelve signs of the zodiac. The crucifixion of "Divine Love" is often found among the Greeks. Hera or Juno, according to the Iliad, was bound with fetters and suspended in space, between heaven and earth. Ixion, Prometheus, and Apollo of Miletus were all crucified.
Moreover, the rites of the "crucified Adonis," the dying and rising savior god, were celebrated in Syria at Easter time. As Frazer says:
It describes the woman of zaepath saying "behold i am gathering two sticks" (creating a cross)- and then ber food being mulitplied
elijah and widow of zarepath widow held up two pieces of wood in form of cross and her food was multiplied because of making the sign- quadrant
the paschal lamb was roasted in form of cross and blood on door posts sign form
of cross- cross is quadrant
romans quotes isaiah when isaiah says "all day i have stretched forth my hands to you rebellious people" it is said that isaiah stretching forth his hands symbolizes and prefigures the crucifixion- cross is quadrant. the pole of the serpent translated cruce in cross
300 represents cross abraham corcumcising 318 represents cross
issac carried wood of cross moses carried cross his staff four corners of noahs arc cross (moses made sign of cross to beat amalekites) jacobs ladder jacobs staff transposition jacobs hands during blessing aarons rod cross on it david armed with a staff like a cross
http://www.adelcathparish.org/__files/f/17814/Children%2010%20Ord%20Time%20C%202016%20Parent%20and%20Leader%20Sheet.pdfWe sign our forehead with the sign of the cross, open our minds and our understanding to your Word.We sign our lips with the sign of the cross, help us to speak your truth. We sign our hearts with the sign of the cross, may we carry the Good News of Jesus and share it with everyone we meet.
saint dominic prayed in a cruciform position and it was said miracles occured like a boy was brought back to life and st dominic levitated. he was emulating elijah who also stretched his arms out cruciform
HILDEGARD ON FOURS- FOURTH FEMALE DOCTOR OF THE CHURCH- IT SAYS THAT SHE "OFTEN FOCUSES ON INTERRELATED PATTERNS OF FOUR"- I POSTED ALL THIS BEFORE IT IS IN MY OVER 60 QMR BOOKS
As Hildegard elaborates the medical and scientific relationship between the human microcosm and the macrocosm of the universe, she often focuses on interrelated patterns of four: “the four elements (fire, air, water, and earth), the four seasons, the four humors, the four zones of the earth, and the four major winds.” Although she inherited the basic framework of humoral theory from ancient medicine, Hildegard’s conception of the hierarchical inter-balance of the four humors (blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile) was unique, based on their correspondence to “superior” and “inferior” elements—blood and phlegm corresponding to the “celestial” elements of fire and air, and the two biles corresponding to the “terrestrial” elements of water and earth. Hildegard understood the disease-causing imbalance of these humors to result from the improper dominance of the subordinate humors. This disharmony reflects that introduced by Adam and Eve in the Fall, which for Hildegard marked the indelible entrance of disease and humoral imbalance into humankind. As she writes in Causae et Curae c. 42:
On 10 May 2012, Pope Benedict XVI extended the liturgical cult of St. Hildegard to the entire Catholic Church in a process known as "equivalent canonization," thus laying the groundwork for naming her a Doctor of the Church. On 7 October 2012, the feast of the Holy Rosary, the pope named her a Doctor of the Church, the fourth woman of 35 saints given that title by the Roman Catholic Church. He called her "perennially relevant" and "an authentic teacher of theology and a profound scholar of natural science and music."
ACCORDING TO THE WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE HILDEGARD (THE FOURTH OF THE FOUR WOMEN DOCTORS OF THE CHURCH) "OFTEN FOCUSES ON PATTERNS OF FOUR"
[paragraph continues] Earth itself was composed of the four elements, which are represented, curiously unequal in proportion and shape. Their arrangement is not orderly, and this very disorder illustrates one of Hildegard's fundamental doctrines regarding the relation of this world to the universe. Before man's fall, the elements were united in an harmonious combination, and Earth was Paradise; after that catastrophe, the harmony of the universe was disturbed, with the centre of all the trouble on this planet which has ever since remained in its now familiar state of chaotic confusion or mistio, as Hildegard's age called it. This mistio she represents vigorously enough by the irregular distribution of the elements over the Earth. "Thus mingled will they remain until subjected to the melting pot of the Lord Judgment, when they will emerge in a new and eternal harmony, no longer mixed as matter, but separate and pure, parts of a new heaven and a new Earth."
Around this world, says Singer, 1 is spread the atmosphere, the aer lucidus or alba pellis, also circular. Through this alba pellis no Earth creature can penetrate. Later Hildegard seems to have divided this first zone of air into two, the aer tenuis or atmosphere whose outer part is the inner zone of the clouds, and the fortis et albus lucidusque aer, where certain fixed stars are placed.
Beyond this are four outer zones belonging to the four winds, indicated by the breath of supernatural beings.
PLATE XXXVII. <i>Nous pervaded by the Godhead embracing the Macrocosm with the Microcosm</i>.<br> From ''The Scientific Views and Visions of Saint Hildegard,'' by Charles Singer. In <i>Studies in the History and Method of Science</i>, ed. by Charles Singer, 1917, Vol. I, Plate VII.
Click to enlarge
PLATE XXXVII. Nous pervaded by the Godhead embracing the Macrocosm with the Microcosm.
From ''The Scientific Views and Visions of Saint Hildegard,'' by Charles Singer. In Studies in the History and Method of Science, ed. by Charles Singer, 1917, Vol. I, Plate VII.
HILDEGARD TALKS ABOUT THE FOUR OUTER ZONES AND THE FOUR HEADS THEN SHE TALKS ABOUT THE "16 PRINCIPAL STARS FOUR IN EACH QUADRANT BETWEEN THE HEADS"- 16 SQUARES QMR
The movements of the four outer zones about each other, which carry the heavenly bodies, are caused by the four winds; and the elements peculiar to each zone are here comparatively pure. Each zone has also its own special mental character, and has a specific influence on the mind and the body of man. For, says Hildegard, "And
"In the middle of the disk [of the universe] there appeared the form of a man, the crown of whose head and the soles of whose feet extended to the fortis et albus lucidusque aer, and his hands were outstretched right and left to the same circle. . . . Towards these parts there was an appearance of four heads, a leopard, a wolf, a lion, and a bear. Above the head of the figure, in the zone of the purus aether, I saw the head of the leopard emitting a blast from its mouth, and on the right side of the mouth the blast, curving itself somewhat backwards, was formed into a crab's head . . . while on the left side of the mouth a blast similarly curved ended in a stag's head. From the mouth of the crab's head, another blast went to the middle of the space between the leopard and the lion, and from the stag's head a similar blast to the middle of the space between the leopard and the bear . . . and all the heads were breathing towards the figure of the man. Under his feet in the aer aquosus there appeared as it were the head of a wolf, sending forth to the right a blast extending to the middle of the half space between its head and that of the bear, where it assumed the form of the stag's head; and from the stag's mouth there came as it were another breath which ended in the middle line. From the left of the wolf's mouth arose a breath which went to the middle of the half space between the wolf and the lion, where was depicted another crab's head . . . from whose mouth another breath ended in the same middle line . . . And the breath of all the heads extended sideways from
one to another. . . . Moreover, on the right hand of the figure in the lucidus igni, from the head of the lion, issued a breath which passed laterally on the right into a serpent's head and on the left into a lamb's head . . . similarly on the figure's left in the ignis niger, there issued a breath from the bear's head ending on its right in the head of [another] lamb, and on its left in another serpent's head . . . And above the head of the figure the seven planets were ranged in order, three in the lucidus ignis, one projecting into the ignis niger, and three into the purus aether. . . . And in the circumference of the circle of the lucidus ignis there appeared the sixteen principal stars, four in each quadrant between the heads. . . . Also the purus aether and the fortis et albus lucidusque aer seemed to be full of stars which sent forth their rays towards the clouds, whence . . . tongues like rivers descended to the disk and towards the figure, which was thus surrounded and influenced by these signs."
The originality of Teilhard de Chardin is rooted in the conflict of his two professions: science and religion. He merged two domains usually considered opposed. The breadth of his thought—
He saw all matter as part of an evolutionary process toward higher consciousness. Teilhard articulated this thesis in his magnus opus, The Phenomenon of Man, in four parts: Pre-Life, Life, Thought, and Survival.
FOUR PARTS STAGES OF LAW
CHARDIN FOUR STAGE LAW
CHARDIN FOUR ACTIONS OF LIFE
OF THE FOUR MODES OF PERCEPTION
 (1) Reflection shows that all modes of perception or knowledge may be reduced to four:—I. (2) Perception arising from hearsay or from some sign which everyone may name as he please.
II. (3) Perception arising from mere experience—that is, form experience not yet classified by the intellect, and only so called because the given event has happened to take place, and we have no contradictory fact to set against it, so that it therefore remains unassailed in our minds.
III. (19:4) Perception arising when the essence of one thing is inferred from another thing, but not adequately; this comes when [f] from some effect we gather its cause, or when it is inferred from some general proposition that some property is always present.
IV. (5) Lastly, there is the perception arising when a thing is perceived solely through its essence, or through the knowledge of its proximate cause.
 (1) In order that the whole matter may be put in a clearer light, I will make use of a single illustration as follows. (2) Three numbers are given—it is required to find a fourth, which shall be to the third as the second is to the first. (23:3) Tradesmen will at once tell us that they know what is required to find the fourth number, for they have not yet forgotten the rule which was given to them arbitrarily without proof by their masters; others construct a universal axiom from their experience with simple numbers, where the fourth number is self-evident, as in the case of 2, 4, 3, 6; here it is evident that if the second number be multiplied by the third, and the product divided by the first, the quotient is 6; when they see that by this process the number is produced which they knew beforehand to be the proportional, they infer that the process always holds good for finding a fourth number proportional.
 (1) Mathematicians, however, know by the proof of the nineteenth proposition of the seventh book of Euclid, what numbers are proportionals, namely, from the nature and property of proportion it follows that the product of the first and fourth will be equal to the product of the second and third: still they do not see the adequate proportionality of the given numbers, or, if they do see it, they see it not by virtue of Euclid's proposition, but intuitively, without going through any process.
GNOSTICS EDEN WAS FOUR QUADRANT
SECUNDUS SAID THERE WAS A RIGHT TETRAD AND A LEFT TETRAD IN THE BEGINNING-
ANOTHER FAMOUS GNOSTIC TEACHER TAUGHT THAT THERE WERE FOUR POWERS AT THE BEGINNING. ONE WAS CALLED SINGLENESS THE OTHER ONENESS THE OTHER MONAD AND THE FOURTH THE ONE- THESE FOUR POWERS SENT FORTH THE REMAINING EMISSION OF THE AEONS- AGAIN A TETRAD
AGAIN THE GNOSTICS TAUGHT THAT IN THE BEGINNING THERE WERE TWO TETRADS--- THE OGDOAD (THE EGYPTIANS SAID IN THE BEGINNING WAS FOUR PARIS OF GODS)- ONE GNOSTIC TEACHING WAS THAT THERE WERE FOUR NAMES OR THE OGDOAD FOREBEGINNING INCONCEIABLE UNSPEAKABLE AND INVISIBLE- FROM THESE FOUR WAS MADE THE OTHER FOUR
MARCUS SAID THE TETRAD CAME TO HIM IN THE FORM OF A WOMAN BECAUSE AS HE SAID THE WORLD COULD NOT BEAR THE MALE FORM OF THE TETRAD
THE FOUR CLASSES OF NUMBER- IT SAYS THE TETRAD IS OVER ALL OF THEM- GNOSTICS
ACCORDING TO THE GNOSTICS "OVER ALL THE NUMBERS IS THE TETRAD" AND THE TETRAD MAKES THE DECAD ONE PLUS TWO PLUS THRE PLUS FOUR THE TETRACKTYS- ALL NUMBER AROSE STEMMING FROM FOUR CLASSES
THE GNOSTIC SAW THE DECAD AS THE "PERFECT NUMBER" 10 BECAUSE IT AROSE FROM THE TETRACTYS ONE PLUS TWO PLUS THREE PLUS FOUR--- THE GNOSTICS SAID THAT THERE WERE FOUR COMPONENTS FO THE DECAD
ACCORDING TO THE GNOSTICS ALL NUMBER STEMMED FROM FOUR CLASSES OF NUMBER AND THE TETRAD WAS OVER ALL NUMBERS (THE FOUR) AND FROM ONE TWO THREE FOUR WAS COMPOSED WHAT THEY CALLED THE PERFECT NUMBER 10 THE TETRACKTYS- CENTRALITY AND DOMINANCE OF FOUR
THE ESSENES SPLIT INTO FOUR CAMPS
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PROPHECY OF THE CROSS JUSTIN MARTYR- CROSS IS THE QUADRANT
Unto us a child is born, and unto us a young man is given, and the government shall be upon His shoulders; Isaiah 9:6 which is significant of the power of the cross, for to it, when He was crucified, He applied His shoulders, as shall be more clearly made out in the ensuing discourse.
JUSTIN MARTYR THE CROSS/QUADRANT IMBEDDED ON THE HUMAN FACE
And the human form differs from that of the irrational animals in nothing else than in its being erect and having the hands extended, and having on the face extending from the forehead what is called the nose, through which there is respiration for the living creature; and this shows no other form than that of the cross.
PROPHECY OF THE CROSS JUSTIN MARTYR- CROSS IS THE QUADRANT
Unto us a child is born, and unto us a young man is given, and the government shall be upon His shoulders; Isaiah 9:6 which is significant of the power of the cross, for to it, when He was crucified, He applied His shoulders, as shall be more clearly made out in the ensuing discourse.
the fourth is see. as differebt orifinally there were only three types neglectful added later or disorganized
There isn’t a “one size fits all” approach to parenting but it’s also true that not all parenting styles are as equally effective. My favorite way to think about parenting styles is with a simple 4-quadrant graph that describes the relationship between the level of nurture and structure we give our kids.
Augustine, arguably the most influential theologian in all of Christian history, pointed to the cross in baptism as a seal. He stated that since it was placed on the head of the baptised it should be the lense through which the life of the baptised is lived. This life hermeneutic of the cross should lead people to submit to the life and passion of Jesus. Augustine states that having the cross on your forehead means you have just as high of a call on your life to holiness as any priest or bishop.
Ambrose of Milan, the fourth century bishop of Milan who became one of the original doctors of the church, connected the cross to baptism in such a way that he didn’t believe baptism was possible without the explicit connection. In his work De mysteriis he argues that the baptism is only consecrated as a result of the preaching of the cross. He compares the action of Moses casting the wood into the water in Exodus 15:25 to the declaration of the cross by the priest over the waters makes them “sweet for the purpose of grace.” This was likely a reference to the making of the sign of the cross over the waters before a baptism as a form of exorcism. Abrose also reflects on the role of the cross durring the second (of three) emissions. This immersion reflects on the work of the son and Ambrose sates that this action unites the baptised to the “sacrament of the cross.”
AUGUSTINE AND THE CROSS AS THE HIDDEN LAMPSTAND
Augustine also read Matthew 5:15 allegorically, teaching that the lampstand that Jesus talked about that would not be hidden was the cross itself. The house that contained the lamp stand was the world, and the cross has the power to fill the whole world with light so that even those who killed Jesus would be able to become friends of God through the cross.
JUSTIN MARTYR AND THE CROSS/QUDRANT
Another early christian thinker was a philosopher named Justin Martyr. He drew connections to the cross from all over the Hebrew scriptures. He saw the cross in the form that Moses took as he held out his hands while the Israelites fought in Exodus chapter seventeen. He connected it to the blessing of Joseph in Deuteronomy for he saw in the horn of the beast described a picture of the cross. He saw the serpent of bronze raised up to save the Israelites as a type and a sign that pointed to the cross as well. He sees the cross in the stance of the prophet Isaiah, in the cry of dereliction from the psalmist and wood of Noah’s ark.
AUGUSTINE THE CROSS AS A BOAT
The cross also becomes a Boat in Augustine’s thought. Although he acknowledges that philosophers are capable of knowing a great deal about God by observation of God’s creation, he believes they will never be able to reach God because of their pride. He says of them,
“They were able to see that which is, but they saw it from afar: they were unwilling to hold the lowliness of Christ, in which ship they might have arrived in safety at that which they were able to see from afar and the cross of Christ appeared vile to them. The sea has to be crossed, and do you despise the wood?”
AUGUSTINE AND THE CROSS
Only through the humility of Christ are men able to seek God in the humility required to approach Him.
One final image of the cross employed by Augustine draws on a word play in Latin. In the story of Zacchaeus found in Luke 19:1-10 we learn of a tax collector so short that he needed to climb up a sycamore tree in order to see Jesus as he passed by one day. Jesus sees him in the tree and calls to him. Zacchaeus comes down, meets with Jesus, and is converted. Augustine exhorts all people to be humble like Zacchaeus and climb up the tree of the cross. Then Christ can pick His followers like fruit from the tree. All people must love the cross and fit it on their foreheads. The Latin word for the fruit of the sycamore is translated “silly figs”. Augustine calls all christians to be “silly figs” that are found on the cross of Christ.
FIGURES OF THE WOOD OF THE CROSS
CHAPTER LXXXVI -- THERE ARE VARIOUS FIGURES IN THE OLD TESTAMENT OF THE WOOD OF THE CROSS BY WHICH CHRIST REIGNED.
And when I had quoted this, I added, "Hear, then, how this Man, of whom the Scriptures declare that He will come again in glory after His crucifixion, was symbolized both by the tree of life, which was said to have been planted in paradise, and by those events which should happen to all the just. Moses was sent with a rod to effect the redemption of the people; and with this in his hands at the head of the people, he divided the sea. By this he saw the water gushing out of the rock; and when he cast a tree into the waters of Marah, which were bitter, he made them sweet. Jacob, by putting rods into the water-troughs, caused the sheep of his uncle to conceive, so that he should obtain their young. With his rod the same Jacob boasts that he had crossed the river. He said he had seen a ladder, and the Scripture has declared that God stood above it. But that this was not the Father, we have proved from the Scriptures. And Jacob, having poured oil on a stone in the same place, is testified to by the very God who appeared to him, that he had anointed a pillar to the God who appeared to him. And that the stone symbolically proclaimed Christ, we have also proved by many Scriptures; and that the unguent, whether it was of oil, or of stacte, or of any other compounded sweet balsams, had reference to Him, we have also proved, inasmuch as the word says: 'Therefore God, even Thy God, hath anointed Thee with the oil of gladness above Thy fellows.' For indeed all kings and anointed persons obtained from Him their share in the names of kings and anointed: just as He Himself received from the Father the titles of King, and Christ, and Priest, and Angel, and such like other titles which He bears or did bear. Aaron's rod, which blossomed, declared him to be the high priest. Isaiah prophesied that a rod would come forth from the root of Jesse,[and this was] Christ. And David says that the righteous man is 'like the tree that is planted by the channels of waters, which should yield its fruit in its season, and whose leaf should not fade.' Again, the righteous is said to flourish like the palm-tree. God appeared from a tree to Abraham, as it is written, near the oak in Mature. The people found seventy willows and twelve springs after crossing the Jordan. David affirms that God comforted him with a rod and staff. Elisha, by casting a stick into the river Jordan, recovered the iron part of the axe with which the sons of the prophets had gone to cut down trees to build the house in which they wished to read and study the law and commandments of God; even as our Christ, by being crucified on the tree, and by purifying with water, has redeemed us, though plunged in the direst offences which we have committed, and has made a house of prayer and adoration. Moreover, it was a rod that pointed out Judah to be the father of Tamar's sons by a great mystery."
MOSES AND THE SIGN OF THE CROSS/QUADRANTG
CHAPTER XC -- THE STRETCHED-OUT HANDS OF MOSES SIGNIFIED BEFOREHAND THE CROSS.
"Bring us on, then," said [Trypho], "by the Scriptures, that we may also be persuaded by you; for we know that He should suffer and be led as a sheep. But prove to us whether He must be crucified and die so disgracefully and so dishonourably by the death cursed in the law. For we cannot bring ourselves even to think of this."
"You know," said I, "that what the prophets said and did they veiled by parables and types, as you admitted to us; so that it was not easy for all to understand the most [of what they said], since they concealed the truth by these means, that those who are eager to find out and learn it might do so with much labour."
They answered, "We admitted this."
"Listen, therefore," say I, "to what follows; for Moses first exhibited this seeming curse of Christ's by the signs which he made."
"Of what [signs] do you speak?" said he.
"When the people," replied I, "waged war with Amalek, and the son of Nave (Nun) by name Jesus (Joshua), led the fight, Moses himself prayed to God, stretching out both hands, and Hur with Aaron supported them during the whole day, so that they might not hang down when he got wearied. For if he gave up any part of this sign, which was an imitation of the cross, the people were beaten, as is recorded in the writings of Moses; but if he remained in this form, Amalek was proportionally defeated, and he who prevailed prevailed by the cross. For it was not because Moses so prayed that the people were stronger, but because, while one who bore the name of Jesus (Joshua) was in the forefront of the battle, he himself made the sign of the cross. For who of you knows not that the prayer of one who accompanies it with lamentation and tears, with the body prostrate, or with bended knees, propitiates God most of all? But in such a manner neither he nor any other one, while sitting on a stone, prayed. Nor even the stone symbolized Christ, as I have shown.
THE CROSS/QUADRANT AND THE BLESSING OF JOSEPH
CHAPTER XCI -- THE CROSS WAS FORETOLD IN THE BLESSINGS OF JOSEPH, AND IN THE SERPENT THAT WAS LIFTED UP..
"And God by Moses shows in another way the force of the mystery of the cross, when He said in the blessing wherewith Joseph was blessed, 'From the blessing of the Lord is his land; for the seasons of heaven, and for the dews, and for the deep springs from beneath, and for the seasonable fruits of the sun, and for the coming together of the months, and for the heights of the everlasting mountains, and for the heights of the hills, and for the ever-flowing rivers, and for the fruits of the fatness of the earth; and let the things accepted by Him who appeared in the bush come on the head and crown of Joseph. Let him be glorified among his brethren; his beauty is [like] the firstling of a bullock; his horns the horns of an unicorn: with these shall he push the nations from one end of the earth to another.' Now, no one could say or prove that the horns of an unicorn represent any other fact or figure than the type which portrays the cross. For the one beam is placed upright, from which the highest extremity is raised up into a horn, when the other beam is fitted on to it, and the ends appear on both sides as horns joined on to the one horn. And the part which is fixed in the centre, on which are suspended those who are crucified, also stands out like a horn; and it also looks like a horn conjoined and fixed with the other horns. And the expression, 'With these shall he push as with horns the nations from one end of the earth to another,' is indicative of what is now the fact among all the nations. For some out of all the nations, through the power of this mystery, having been so pushed, that is, pricked in their hearts, have turned from vain idols and demons to serve God. But the same figure is revealed for the destruction and condemnation of the unbelievers; even as Amalek was defeated and Israel victorious when the people came out of Egypt, by means of the type of the stretching out of Moses' hands, and the name of Jesus (Joshua), by which the son of Nave (Nun) was called. And it seems that the type and sign, which was erected to counteract the serpents which bit Israel, was intended for the salvation of those who believe that death was declared to come thereafter on the serpent through Him that would be crucified, but salvation to those who had been bitten by him and had betaken themselves to Him that sent His Son into the world to be crucified. For the Spirit of prophecy by Moses did not teach us to believe in the serpent, since it shows us that he was cursed by God from the beginning; and in Isaiah tells us that he shall be put to death as an enemy by the mighty sword, which is Christ.
DAVID AND ISAIAH AND THE CROSS/QUADRANT
CHAPTER XCVII -- OTHER PREDICTIONS OF THE CROSS OF CHRIST.
"For it was not without design that the prophet Moses, when Hur and Aaron upheld his hands, remained in this form until evening. For indeed the Lord remained upon the tree almost until evening, and they buried Him at eventide; then on the third day He rose again. This was declared by David thus: 'With my voice I cried to the Lord, and He heard me out of His holy hill. I laid me down, and slept; I awaked, for the Lord sustained me.' And Isaiah likewise mentions concerning Him the manner in which He would die, thus: 'I have spread out My hands unto a people disobedient, and gainsaying, that walk in a way which is not good.' And that He would rise again, Isaiah himself said: 'His burial has been taken away from the midst, and I will give the rich for His death.' And again, in other words, David in the twenty-first Psalm thus refers to the suffering and to the cross in a parable of mystery: 'They pierced my hands and my feet; they counted all my bones. They considered and gazed on me; they parted my garments among themselves, and cast lots upon my vesture.' For when they crucified Him, driving in the nails, they pierced His hands and feet; and those who crucified Him parted His garments among themselves, each casting lots for what he chose to have, and receiving according to the decision of the lot. And this very Psalm you maintain does not refer to Christ; for you are in all respects blind, and do not understand that no one in your nation who has been called King or Christ has ever had his hands or feet pierced while alive, or has died in this mysterious fashion--to wit, by the cross--save this Jesus alone.
HORNS OF THE UNICORN AND CROSS
Moreover, it is similarly foretold that He would die by crucifixion. For the passage, 'Deliver my soul from the sword, and my only-begotten from the hand of the dog; save me from the lion's mouth, and my humility from the horns of the unicorns,' is indicative of the suffering by which He should die, i.e., by crucifixion. For the 'horns of the, unicorns,' I have already explained to you, are the figure of the cross only.
PASSOVER LAMB ROASTED IN FORM OF CROSS
God does not permit the lamb of the passover to be sacrificed in any other place than where His name was named; knowing that the days will come, after the suffering of Christ, when even the place in Jerusalem shall be given over to your enemies, and all the offerings, in short, shall cease; and that lamb which was commanded to be wholly roasted was a symbol of the suffering of the cross which Christ would undergo. For the lamb, which is roasted, is roasted and dressed up in the form of the cross. For one spit is transfixed right through from the lower parts up to the head, and one across the back, to which are attached the legs of the lamb. And the two goats which were ordered to be offered during the fast, of which one was sent away as the scape [goat], and the other sacrificed, were similarly declarative of the two appearances of Christ: the first, in which the elders of your people, and the priests, having laid hands on Him and put Him to death, sent Him away as the scope [goat]; and His second appearance, because in the same place in Jerusalem you shall recognise Him whom you have dishonoured, and who was an offering for all sinners willing to repent, and keeping the fast which Isaiah speaks of, loosening the terms of the violent contracts, and keeping the other precepts, likewise enumerated by him, and which I have quoted, which those believing in Jesus do. And further, you are aware that the offering of the two goats, which were enjoined to be sacrificed at the fast, was not permitted to take place similarly anywhere else, but only in Jerusalem.
GREGORY OF NYASSA THE CROSS PENETRATES ALL THINGS- JUSTIN THE MARTYR -THE CROSS IS GODS GREATEST SYMBOL OF POWER AND RULE- CROSS IS QUADRANT-JUSTIN SAYS THE MAST THE TOOLS FOR DIGGING EVERYTHING POWERUL IS THE CROSS
JUSTIN SAYS THE GLOBE THE BIRDS THE CROSS/QUADRANT IS EVERYWHERE
THE CROSSING OF JOSEPHS HANDS WAS SEEN AS AN ALLUSION TO THE CROSS BY CHURCH FATHERS BUT REMBRANDT AND LATER ARTISTS OMITTED THE CHRISTIAN ALLEGORIES
CROSS IS QUADRANT
New International Version
but we preach Christ crucified: a stumbling block to Jews and foolishness to Gentiles,
CROSS IS THE QUADRANT
Now, brothers, if I am still preaching circumcision, why am I still being persecuted? In that case the offense of the cross has been abolished.
THE CROSS IS THE QUADRANT
Let us fix our eyes on Jesus, the pioneer and perfecter of our faith, who for the joy set before Him endured the cross, scorning its shame, and sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.
CROSS IS QUADRANT
Unity in the Church
…12What I mean is this: Individuals among you are saying, “I follow Paul,” “I follow Apollos,” “I follow Cephas,” or “I follow Christ.” 13Is Christ divided? Was Paul crucified for you? Were you baptized into the name of Paul? 14I thank God that I did not baptize any of you except Crispus and Gaius,…
JUSTIN THE MARTYR AND THE HORNS OF THE OX AND THE CROSS AND OTHER PREFIGURATIONS OF THE CROSS- "all things held together by the form of the cross"- the rod Noahs Arc
THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT
Two British scholars, Paul Higgs and Chris Gilleard, have added a "fourth age" sub-group. In British English, the "third age" is "the period in life of active retirement, following middle age". Higgs and Gilleard describe the fourth age as "an arena of inactive, unhealthy, unproductive, and ultimately unsuccessful ageing."
Dimensions of old age
Key Concepts in Social Gerontology lists four dimensions: chronological, biological, psychological, and social. Wattis and Curran add a fifth dimension: developmental. Chronological age may differ considerably from a person's functional age. The distinguishing marks of old age normally occur in all five senses at different times and different rates for different persons. In addition to chronological age, people can be considered old because of the other dimensions of old age. For example, people may be considered old when they become grandparents or when they begin to do less or different work in retirement.
Four sections avesta http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Ahriman+and+Ormuzd
The Avesta consists of fragmentary and much-corrupted texts; it is written in old Iranian, a language similar to Vedic Sanskrit. The major sections of the Avesta are four—the Yasna, a liturgical work that includes the Gathas ("songs"), probably the oldest part of the Avesta and perhaps in part written by Zoroaster himself; the Vispered, a supplement to the Yasna; the Yashts, hymns of praise, including the Khurda ("little") Avesta; and the Videvdat, a detailed code of ritual purification, often erroneously called the Vendidad. Other sources of information on Zoroastrianism are Achaemenid inscriptions, the writings of Herodotus, Strabo, and Plutarch, and the commentaries on the Avesta written (6th cent. A.D.) in Pahlavi, a Persian dialect used as a priestly language, under the Sassanids.
The entire history of the universe, past, present, and future, the religion teaches, is divided into four periods, each of 3,000 years. In the first period there was no matter; the second preceded the coming of Zoroaster; and in the third his faith is propagated. The struggle between good and evil rages during the first nine millennia, and humans help Ahura Mazdah or Ahriman according to whether their conduct is good or evil. Each person after death crosses the Chinvato Peretav [bridge of the separator], which spans hell. If he is reprobate, the bridge narrows and he tumbles to perdition, but if he is worthy of salvation he finds a wide road to the realm of light. In the fourth period of the universe a savior, Saoshyant, will appear, the dead will rise for their final reward or punishment, and good will reign eternally.
FOUR GROUPS SERAPHIM
Four groups within cherubim
GNOSTIC NAG HAMADI TEXTS FOUR CATEGORIES
Basilides, Cyrinus, Nabor and Nazarius are saints of the Roman Catholic Church, mentioned in the Martyrology of Bede and earlier editions of the Roman Martyrology for 12 June as four Roman martyrs who suffered death under Diocletian.
In the Tridentine Calendar, the four have a joint commemoration on 12 June, which was removed from the General Roman Calendar in 1969 because of the completely fabulous character of their Passio. The 12 June celebration was in reality a conflation of three distinct commemorations on the same day: the burial of Saint Basilides, a Roman martyr, on the Via Aurelia, the transfer on the Via Appia of the relics of Saint Quirinus of Sescia, and the dedication of the Basilica of the Milanese martyrs Nabor and Nazarius on the Via Aurelia.
Of the four named, the Roman Martyrology now mentions only Basilides among the saints honoured on 12 June. In an ancient itinerary to the graves of the Roman martyrs, mention is made of a mortuary chapel of this martyr Basilides on the Via Aurelia.
The Christian Church recognises 4 great Councils, those of Nicæa in A.D. 325; Constantinople, 381; Ephesus, 431; and Chalcedon in 451.
Soils have four main constituents: mineral and organic matter, air and water (Figure 2). Mineral matter includes all minerals inherited from the parent material as well as those formed by recombination from substances in the soil solution. Organic matter is derived mostly from decaying plant material broken down and decomposed by the actions of animals and microorganisms living in the soil. Normally, both air and water fill the voids in soil.
THE THREE PLUS ONE PATTERN- THE QUADRANT PATTERN- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT
Quadrant- ELIJAH SAMSON SAMUEL-I PUT THESE BEFORE
THE THREE PLUS ONE PATTERN IN SAMSON BIBLE
PSALM 91 FOUR IMAGES OF GOD
"THE ONE STORY MOTIF FOUR PHASES"
FOUR SECTIONS BOOK OF AMOS
The Book of Amos can be divided structurally into four sections, which I have listed on the board over here. You first have a set of brief oracles of doom. These are in the first two chapters, Amos 1 and 2. And then you have a series of three short oracles, oracles to the women of Samaria, an oracle to the wealthy of Samaria and Jerusalem, and then an oracle to Israel as a whole. These are in chapters 3-6. This is followed then by five symbolic visions which receive interpretation. These are visions of judgment, first locusts, then a fire, then a plumb line that one uses in building a building, a basket of fruit, and then a vision of God standing by the altar at Bethel. This happens [in] chapters 7-9, about verse 8 and 9 [of chapter 7 for the plumb line version]. This section, besides the five visions, also has a little narrative account of Amos' conflict with a priest at Bethel, the priest Amaziah who accuses Amos of treason. And then there is a concluding epilogue in the ninth chapter that runs for about seven or eight verses to the end of the book.
Paul’s epistles may be divided into four groups:
1 and 2 Thes. (A.D. 50, 51)
1 and 2 Cor., Gal., Rom. (A.D. 55, 57)
Philip., Col., Eph., Philem., Heb. (A.D. 60, 62)
Titus, 1 and 2 Tim. (A.D. 64, 65)
FOUR GROUPS EPISTLES OF PAUL
Arranged according to the order of time the thirteen epistles which bear the name of Paul naturally fall into four groups: (1) the two epistles to the Thessalonians, written during the apostle's second missionary journey recorded Acts 15:36-18:22; (2) the epistles to the Galatians, Corinthians, and Romans, written during his third missionary journey, Acts 18:23-21:15; (3) the epistles to the Ephesians, Colossians, Philemon, and Philippians, written during Paul's imprisonment in Rome, Acts 28:16-31 (some suppose the first three to have been written during his imprisonment at Cesarea, Acts 23:35-26:32); (4) the pastoral epistles, the first and third probably written after his recorded imprisonment in Rome, and the second during a second imprisonment after the publication of the Acts of the Apostles, and which ended in his martyrdom A.D.67 or 68.
FOUR IN THIRD GROUP OF FOUR GROUPS
(c) Third group (Philippians, Philemon, Colossians, Ephesians):
Philippians, Philemon, Colossians, Ephesians. Date 61-63, unless Paul reached Rome several years earlier. This matter depends on the date of the coming of Festus to succeed Felix (Ac 24:27). It was once thought to be 60 AD beyond any doubt, but the whole matter is now uncertain. See "Chronology,"III , 2, (2), below. At any rate these four epistles were written during the first Roman imprisonment, assuming that he was set free.
FOURTH PHILEMON DIFFERENT PAUL
But even so, the order of these epistles is by no means certain. It is clear that Philemon, Colossians and Ephesians were sent together. Tychicus was the bearer of Colossians (4:7 f) and Ephesians (6:21 f). Onesimus carried the letter to Philemon (1:10,13) and was also the companion of Tychicus to Colosse (Col 4:9). So these three epistles went together from Rome. It is commonly assumed that Phil was the last of the group of four, and hence later than the other three, because Paul is balancing life and death (Php 1:21 ff) and is expecting to be set free (Php 1:25), but he has the same expectation of freedom when he writes Philemon (Php 1:22)
FOURTH GROUP DIFFERENT
The point to note here is that the four groups of Paul's Epistles fit into the historical background of the Acts as recorded by Luke, barring the fourth group which is later than the events in Acts.
Bruce (St. Paul's Conception of Christianity) conceives that Paul gives us his entire conception of Christianity in the four great epistles of the second group, while B. Weiss (Biblical Theology of the New Testament) sees a more developed doctrine in the third group. He is in his prime in both groups
COVERING OF TABERNACLE FOUR PARTS
The covering of the tabernacle was in four parts:
1. Embroidery – ten curtains of blue, purple, scarlet and white, fine twined linen
2. Goats’ hair
3. Rams’ skins
4. Badgers’ skins
The top covering of the tabernacle, made of embroidery work, was the work of the women, which before God, was just as much an offering as the other coverings.
The coverings of 2, 3 and 4 are the skins of dead animals. This is symbolic of the fact that the only men who can cover another are dead men. The embroidery covering represents the work of the church which is motivated of God.
BALAAMS ORACLES FOUR OF THESE
We are going to speak about Balaam's parables or oracles. There are four of these. The circumstances surrounding these parables are very strange. There is a king scared out of his wits! There were vast armies just about to invade his country, as he thought. Whatever was he to do? His description of these invaders was very graphic; this is how he describes them: 'Now shall this company lick up all that are round about us, as the ox licketh up the grass of the field' (Numbers 22:4).
CHURCH FATHERS SAY THAT WHEN BALAAM SAW THE FOUR CAMPS OF ISRAEL ARRANGED AS A CROSS/QUADRANT THAT WAS WHEN HE DECIDED TO BLESS ISRAEL AS OPPOSED TO CURSE THEM
The twelve tribes, 'all that were able to go forth to war' (Numbers 1:3), were on different sides of the camp. There were four camps, each one comprising three tribes. One was on the east side toward the rising of the sun. Another on the south side, another on the west side and another on the north side. Their positions were far off from the tabernacle. They were for the protection of the whole camp. Where God had put them, there they must stay.
THERE ARE FOUR DESCRIPTIONS OF THE CAMP OF ISRAEL
Four descriptions of the camp
Let us think now about the four descriptions of the camp given in Numbers chapter 24:6. The first of these is: 'As the valleys are they spread forth'. A valley is very attractive, usually running between hills on each side. When the sun is shining and the various shades of green present themselves, it makes a very beautiful picture. However, nothing is said about water, it is the valley itself we are to notice.
Fourth description of the camp
The fourth of these descriptions is: 'As cedar trees beside the waters'. The cedar tree is very tall and stately. When Solomon built the temple in Jerusalem, most of the trees used were cedars from Lebanon. They seemed to be more suitable for the magnificent house being built as God's dwelling place.
FOUR ORACLES OF BALAAM THE MAN WHO THE DONKEY TALKED TO (I READ THE BIBLE AND SAW THE WHOLE BIBLE WAS THE QUADRANT MODEL EVERYWHERE NOT JUST THE BIBLE EVERY HOLY TEXT- and not just holy texts everywhere in everything that was important
In each of the four oracles we have seen that the nation, which Balaam had been hired to curse, is addressed as both Jacob and Israel. The first oracle put it plainly. Balak's commission to Balaam was: 'Come, curse me Jacob, and come, defy Israel' (Numbers 23:7).
IT DESCRIBES HOW THE FOURTH ORACLE OF BALAAM IS DIFFERENT FROM THE OTHER THREE
FOUR QUADRANT MAZE
This was an eleven-circuit design divided into four quadrants. It was often found in Gothic Cathedrals but over time many of these eleven-circuit designs were destroyed or intentionally removed.
The most famous of these remaining labyrinths is at Chartres Cathedral near Paris, France. The labyrinth at Chartres was built around 1200 and is laid into the floor in a style sometimes referred to as a pavement maze. The original center piece has been removed and other areas of the labyrinth have been restored.
In walking the Chartres style labyrinth the walker meanders through each of the four quadrants several times before reaching the goal. An expectancy is created as to when the center will be reached. At the center is a rosette design which has a rich symbolic value including that of enlightenment. The four arms of the cross are readily visible and provide significant Christian symbolism.
THE SEED PATTERN FOR LABARYNTHS WAS THE QUADRANT
The simplest one is for the Classical Three Circuit Labyrinth, which is constructed from a cross and four dots in the resultant quadrants. To make a labyrinth from this seed pattern, always start at the top of the cross. Draw an arc from the top of the cross to the dot in the upper left-hand quadrant. Go the dot in the upper right-hand quadrant and make an arc around to the left arm of the cross, and so on as shown below.
3 path construction
This is a right-handed Classical Three Circuit Labyrinth
(The first turn upon entering the mouth of the labyrinthis to the right)
You can make a left-handed classical three circuit labyrinth by mirroring what you did with the right hand one. Start at the top of the cross, go to the right to the dot in the upper right-hand quadrant. You will encoiunter mirrors frequently when you work with these magical single path tools.
Notice how these two labyrinths mirror each other
Sometimes left becomes right and right becomes left. You'll notice the similarity between these classical labyrinths and the left and right hemispheres of the human brain. Labyrinths are tools that bring these hemispheres together. This is called gnowing.
The Classical Seven Circuit Labyrinth
The seed pattern of the Classical Seven Circuit Labyrinth is made by adding a right angle in each of the quadrants:
3 Seed pattern 7 seed pattern
Classical Three Circuit Labyrinth
Seed Pattern Classical Seven Circuit Labyrinth
To make a left-hand classical labyrinth from this seed pattern, start at the top of the cross. Draw an arc from the top of the cross to the top of the 'L' in the upper right-hand quadrant. Then lift your pencil, and go the top of the 'L' in the upper left-hand quadrant and make an arc around to the dot in the upper right-hand quadrant, and so on as shown below.
JESUS FOUR BROTHERS AS QUATERNIO- THE FOURTH DIFFERENT
THE THREE PLUS ONE FOUR HOLLOW PLACES OF ENOCH
THE SEVEN PLUS ONE PATTERN AGAIN THE EIGHTH TRANSCENDENT ONE COMPLETES THE QUADRANT LIKE THE THREE PLUS ONE PATTERN
THE SEVEN PLUS ONE (LIKE THE THREE PLUS ONE COMPLETES THE QUADRANT)- THE OGOADAD WAS FOUR PAIRS OF GODS
THE THREE PLUS ONE AND THE SEVEN PLUS ONE PATTERNS (BOTH COMPLETING QUADRANTS)- King David seven plus one
THE AXE AND THE CROSS
In the story of Elisha, the ax head is located, and the offender is therefore exculpated of moral liability. That is, the River Jordan was the agent through which the wood had reversed the moral culpability of the offender, since Elisha had first to throw wood (the stick) into the water. The wood of the tree was therefore the key to making the water effective (Exodus 15:25).
In other words, Elisha used wood to remove moral liability through water -- thus the idea of baptism "emerges" from the water of the River Jordan (which is the entrance to the Promised Land).
In the Christian New Testament, the wood of the tree corresponds to the cross (removal of sins); and the water corresponds to eternal life (exculpatory removal of Adam's original sin, which is spiritual death--that is to say, the "ax head" is Adam's original sin, which eventuated spiritual death per Romans 5:12). Eternal life reverses or removes this spiritual death.
WHEN CHURCH FATHERS LOOKED AT THIS VERSE OF THE WOMAN GATHERING WOOD THEY SAW THE WOOD AS CROSSED AS A SYMBOL OF THE CROSS AND THE RESURRECTION ELIJAH - I POINTED OUT THE CHURCH FATHERS SAW THE CROSS EVERYWHERE FROM WHEN SAMSON SPREAD OUT HIS ARMS AND KILLED THE PHILISTINES TO JONAH IN THE WHALE CHURCH FATHERS SAY HE STRETCHED OUT ARMS IN THE CROSS
The Widow of Zarephath
The Widow of Zarephath
…11As she was going to get it, he called to her and said, "Please bring me a piece of bread in your hand." 12But she said, "As the LORD your God lives, I have no bread, only a handful of flour in the bowl and a little oil in the jar; and behold, I am gathering a few sticks that I may go in and prepare for me and my son, that we may eat it and die." 13Then Elijah said to her, "Do not fear; go, do as you have said, but make me a little bread cake from it first and bring it out to me, and afterward you may make one for yourself and for your son.…
CHURCH FATHERS SAW THE TWO STICKS AS THE CROSS
1 Kings 17:12-15
And she said, As the LORD your God lives, I have not a cake, but an handful of meal in a barrel, and a little oil in a cruse: and, behold, I am gathering two sticks, that I may go in and dress it for me and my son, that we may eat it, and die.
As we have already observed in popular hymns, literary typology frequently parallels the organization of stained-glass programs in employing an additive structure to place one type in the presence of others. Other defining devices appear in "The Cross" by Horatius Bonar (1808-90), a popular devotional poet. Bonar, who makes frequent use of typological symbolism, ends "The Cross" with the recognition that
Here the living water welleth,
Here the rock, now smitten, telleth
Of salvation freely given.
This is the fount of love and pity,
This is the pathway to the City;
This is the very gate of Heaven."11
The previous four stanzas have emphasized the calm and peace that the Cross represents for the true believer, and, using a Tennysonian poetic structure, Bonar has them build towards a moment of vision or recognition. Appropriately, the type provides the core of this rhetorical and spiritual climax, to which the last three lines add the idea that the stricken rock, which prefigures the crucified Christ, is the source of the new dispensation's "love and pity," the way to Heaven, and, finally, our entrance into it. The very mention of "Heaven" signals the reader that the Old Testament event is being understood within a Christian context, since in the original narrative Moses saves the Israelites" bodies and not souls with his act. Furthermore, the poem's title, which also informs us immediately that the smitten rock must be understood typologically, directs the reader to the proper interpretation of the type — that is, as adumbrating the Crucifixion and not the sacraments of baptism or Holy communion.
CHURCH FATHERS SAY THAT WHEN MOSES STRUCK THE ROCK TO BRING FOURTH THE WATER HE RAISED HIS ARM IN A CRUCIFIX (quadrant) POSITION
The rock symbolizes Jesus Christ who is to be crucified once. Striking the rock symbolizes crucifying Jesus Christ. After crucifying Jesus Christ (striking the rock), we ought to speak (pray) for solutions. However, Moses did strike (crucify) again and again! No one can ever or should never try to change the plans of God!
CHURCH FATHERS SAY THAT WHEN MOSES TURNED THE WATER FROM BITTER TO SWEET WITH THE WOOD THAT WAS AN ALLUSION TO THE CROSS/QUADRANT
Like myrrh, cassia, the fourth spice, is in the quantity of five hundred shekels. These three complete units of five hundred shekels signify the Triune God, and the hin of olive oil signifies the unique God who “is Spirit” (John 4:24). Hence, in this compound we see the three in one.
The second of the three complete units of five hundred shekels was split. This points to the fact that the Son, the second of the Godhead, was split on the cross. The splitting of the second unit of five hundred shekels thus implies the death of Christ.
The number “four” (four spices) indicates ‘Christ’s humanity.’ Jesus is God who is 3, plus 1for man. “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was God, and the Word became flesh (man)” (John 1:1, 14). When the Word became flesh, the Triune God became involved with humanity. The Triune God was involved with the man Jesus. At a certain time, Christ, the second of the Trinity, was crucified, split, put to death as noted by the “half so much” of the cinnamon and calamus in the Holy Ointment.
THE CRUCIFIXION AND THE ORION (RYAN) QUADRANT- THE CRUCIFIXION DEPICTED IN THE STARS
‘Be not far from me, for trouble is near; For there is none to help. Many Bulls have surrounded me; Strong Bulls of Bashan have encircled me. They open wide their mouth at me, As a ravening and a roaring lion. My strength is dried up like a potsherd, And my tongue cleaves to my jaws; And You lay me in the dust of death. For Dogs have surrounded me; A band of evildoers has encompassed me; They pierced my hands and my feet. I can count all my bone.’ - Psalm 22:11-17
The purpose of this study is to show and suggest that the Psalm 22 in which is depicted the sufferings and crucifixion of the Messiah is also directly correlating to the Orion quadrant with the Silver Gate, or Gate of Man. The clues of who would be the witnesses of this suffering Messiah and torturing would be at least 2 companies of malefactors. One company would the Bulls of Basham. These would correlate to the religious rulers of Israel that rejected Jesus Christ as the Messiah. They preferred a rebel instigator named Barabbas and pledged their allegiance to an alternate ‘Son of God’, the King of Rome, or Caesar. This will be precisely how it will occur in the Last Days as Israel instead receives the AntiChrist, ‘he who comes in his own Name’.
The other company are the ‘Dogs’ that witnessed the crucifixion of the Messiah, as the Lamb of YHVH. This is in reference to the unclean and Gentile Romans that were given the legal authority to carry out capital punishment and executed Jesus Christ on a cross, on behalf of the Sanhedrin. This depiction of the crucifixion on Earth below is mirrored as above in the constellation or Mazzaroth storyline whose central theme is Christ. The ‘Dogs’ are in reference to the Dog Stars of Sirius and Procyon. The Bull of Basham is in reference astronomically to Taurus. It is Orion that is the architype of the Redeemer and victorious champion at Calvary that defeats such companies that seek His destruction, demise and death. Currently, this same evil force of the Spirit of AntiChrist is aimed against the Church Age in this present time.
CRUCIFIXION IN THE STARS IN THE ROMAN LANCE- THE QUADRANT
Orion is associated cosmologically with the Shepherd Auriga that is pierced by the horns of Taurus. Orion speaks prophetically of the crucifixion in how Jesus was pierced by a lance through the heart. As a type of Orion, this ‘Sentinel’ of the Silver Gate is thus as type of the Shepherd of the Sheep. Jesus gave His Blood life for the sheep as the Good Shepherd. The Silver Gate is outside the gates of Jerusalem. It is on the top of the Mt. of Olives where the Dome of the Ascension is presently, opposite side of Mt. Calvary. It is rather interesting in how Jesus was crucified in-between 2 malefactors. These 2 entities could also be represented by the ‘Twins’ of Gemini as this constellation is configure with Orion suggesting to be in the ‘midst’ of them.
Jesus was crucified in-between 2 criminals. It is a depiction of a ‘Gemini’ typology on 1 level of interpretation. It is also interesting how a lamb was prepared and consumed for the Passover meal and oblations. The lamb was skinned and totally exposed as Jesus in similar fashion was stripped of this clothing. It is believed that as part of the public humiliation, the Romans actually crucified ‘offenders’ totally naked on a cross as it was their custom. The lamb was impaled much like crucified man was on a ‘cross’ beam. A cross beam was inserted across the ribcage of the lamb. This has the inference of how the Roman lance, as a ‘cross beam’ was thrust across the ribcage to pierce the heart of Jesus. These wooden beams were as a ‘cross’ that all the Passover lambs experienced as did Jesus also on the cross. This has the inference of how the Roman lance, as a ‘cross beam’ was thrust across the ribcage to pierce the heart of Jesus.
THE FOUR LETTERS AND THE CRUCIFIXION IN THE CONSTELLATIONS- CROSS IS QUADRANT- I DESCRIBED THAT CHURCH FATHERS SAY THAT THE BLOOD ON TEH DOORPOST OF PASSOVER WAS THE CROSS AND ALSO THE LAMB WAS SACRIFICED ON PASSOVER IN A CROSS FORMATION
The Sanhedrin and the ‘Teachers’ of Israel did recognize this setting as being prophetic. For example they demanded Pilot revise the public notice of Jesus’ supposed offence. Such notices of the infraction or crime of those being crucified were nailed also to the cross of the offender. In this case it has been suggested that the acronym of the phrase that Pilot inscribed nearly spelled-out the unspoken Name of the GOD of Israel, YHVH. This is the Tetragrammaton or Greek for ‘The 4 Letters’. The ‘office’ was written as follows. Of note, there is no ‘W’ letter in Hebrew and a U or V is instead used.
‘And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS. This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin.’
1 2 3 4
Jesus Nazarite A King of Jews
Yeshua Ha-Notzri U’Melekh Ha-Yehudim
To reiterate, this study suggests that the physical crucifixion of Jesus Christ on Mt. Calvary just outside the present day Damascus Gate mirrored the cosmological depiction surrounding Orion in the Silver Gate quadrant of the Mazzaroth or Zodiac. Both the earthly and heavenly occurrences refer prophetically to this key time in the redemptive work of the Son of God to save Adam’s race from Eternal Death as the substitutionary Passover Lamb of YHVH.
FOUR MAJOR HAWAIIAN GODS
The 4 Major Gods of Hawaii
Kane: Father of living creatures. Kane is the highest of the four major gods.
Ku: God of war. Human sacrifices were made to Ku in ancient times.
Kanaloa: God of the underworld and a teacher of magic. Ruler of the ocean. Complementary power and close companion of Kane.
Lono: God of agriculture. Associated with fertility, rainfall, music and peace.
re to edit.
FOUR MAJOR HAWAIAAN GODS
Na Wahine and Kane mated spiritually to produce a royal family, who became additional primary gods worshipped by the Hawaiian people. In ancient chants and rituals, three sons: Ku, Lono, and Kanaloa, along with Kane are the four major Hawaiian gods. Keawe made Kane the ruler of natural phenomena, such as the earth, stones, fresh water. Most importantly, Ku as Kukailimoku was god of war, but he also reigned over woodlands and crops, and in various forms was worshipped by craftsmen. Bird catchers and feather workers appealed to Kuhuluhulumanu, fishermen to Ku'ula, sorcerers to Kukoae, for example.
16 SECTIONS- 16 SQUARES QMR
The Kumulipo is divided into sixteen wā, sections. The first seven wā fall under the section of pō (darkness), the age of spirit. The Earth may or may not exist, but the events described do not take place in a physical universe. The words show the development of life as it goes through similar stages as a human child. All plants and animals of sea and land, earth and sky, male and female are created. Eventually, it leads to early mammals.
These are the first four lines of the Kumulipo:
Hawaiian language English
O ke au i kahuli wela ka honua
O ke au i kahuli lole ka lani
O ke au i kukaʻiaka ka la
O ke au o Makali'i ka po
O ka malamalama ho'okumu honua
O ka walewale O ka walewale
E hoeʻomalamalama i ka malama
At the time when the earth became hot
At the time when the heavens turned about
At the time when the sun was darkened
To cause the moon to shine
SIXTEEN DIVISIONS 16 SQUARES QMR
SIXTEEN FOUR BY FOUR BY FOUR BY FOUR A QUADRANT MODEL
ITS A QUADRANT
George Bit Atanus first designed the flag in 1968. The Assyrian Universal Alliance, Assyrian National Federation and Bet-Nahrain Democratic Party all adopted it in 1971. The flag has a white background with a golden circle at the center, surrounded by a four-pointed star in blue. Four triple-colored (red-white-blue), widening, wavy stripes connect the center to the four corners of the flag. The figure of pre-Christian Assyrian god Assur, known from Iron Age iconography, features above the center.
ASSYRIAN CITY CALLED ARBELA (CITY OF THE FOUR GODS OR FOURFOLD GOD)
PLATO ON THE LOGOS BEING THE CROSS- ACCORDING TO JOHN JESUS WAS THE WORD/LOGOS MADE FLESH--- PHILO SAW THE LOGOS AS THE CROSS- IN OTHER WORDS IT COULD BE ARGUED HE SAW GOD AS THE CROSS
ROMANI THE CROSS IS THE TRISHUL (TRIDENT OF SHIVA)
The Romani (Gypsy) word for cross is trishul. The word “Gypsy” comes from a mistaken belief that the Romani originally came from Egypt, and “Romani” because of the large of these people settling in Romania. It is now accepted (on genetic and linguistic evidence) that they originally came from Northern India. It appears that though they took up a Christian religion they maintained the word trishul for a holy symbol.
JUSTIN THE CROSS BEING EVERYWHERE
POET THE CROSS/QUADRANT AS THE TREE OF LIFE
AMBROSE SAYS WATER WITHOUT THE CROSS IS AN ELEMENT
PAULINE EPISTLE THE CROSS AND THE BAPTISM ARE UNIFIED AS THE WOOD AND THE WATER
THE CROSS AND THE WATER OF THE JORDAN RIVER
THE CROSS AND WATER AND BAPTISM
THE PLANETS FORMING THE CROSS ON JESUS CRUCIFIXION
A historical researcher has observed that the planets Saturn, Uranus, Jupiter, Earth and Venus aligned in an orrery model to form what can be seen as a man on a crucifix on the day associated by some with Jesus Christ's crucifixion, namely April 3, 33 A.D.
The Crucifixion is a life sized painting by the Venetian artist Titian, completed in 1558 and presently hanging in the sanctuary of the church of San Domenico, Ancona. Jesus Christ is shown crucified, with Saint Mary and Saint John standing either side of the cross in the Stabat Mater tradition. The kneeling figure is of Saint Dominic. The canvas was completed during Titian’s fifth decade of painting, and is one of the works marking a shift toward his extensive exploration of tragedy and human suffering.
Blac Youngsta put himself on a cross, and now he's actually getting $10,000 offers ... to delete the damn photo.
The rapper/master s**t stirrer posted the pic Monday of himself fully mocking the crucifixion with Tupac's lyrics, "HAIL MARY COME WITH ME." He also said "R.I.P. TUPAC."
It appears he was shooting a music video, and not necessarily pulling one of his usual attention-grabbing stunts. Still, most of the nearly 15k people who've commented on the pic have called him everything from corny to disrespectful to ... "about the dumbest mf."
Atlanta rapper Ralo was pissed enough to offer Youngsta $10k if he removed the post. All we know for sure at this point is the pic's still up -- and Youngsta definitely will NOT be invited to teach Sunday School this week.
CRUCIFIXION OF VENUS
Detail of Norman Lindsay’s Crucifixion of Venus (left) and detail of Félicien Rops’s Temptation of Saint Anthony (right).
Lindsay was a real artist, known for his depictions of naked women in semi-mythical settings. In the movie, Reverend Campion is asked to visit him and to convince him not to include the painting “Venus Crucified” (1912) in an upcoming group show at a museum. The work, which shows a woman being nailed to a cross, is similar to Félicien Rops’s “Temptation of St Anthony” (1878), which depicts a woman tied to a cross, the letters “E.R.O.S.” written above her heard.
SAILOR MOON NEPTUNE CRUCIFIED
JESUS ASTROLOGY CRUCIFIXION AND THE FOUR SIGNS
Besides the lion, the animal most often associated with Jesus is the lamb. The choice of this animal, along with nearly all other Christian symbolism, comes from constellation mythology. Jesus’ role as the sacrificial lamb is linked to an astrological phenomenon known as the precession of the equinoxes. As the sun passes through the twelve zodiac signs, the four signs that govern the four cardinal events in the sun’s journey are the most significant. Of supreme importance is the sign under which the sun crosses the celestial equator on the spring equinox.
Astrological ages are named after this sign; today we are somewhere at the end of the age of Pisces, because Pisces is the sign behind the sun when it crosses its midway point in the spring. Due to a slight imbalance in the earth’s wobble, these four signs change roughly every 2,200 years, in a gradual process called the precession of the equinoxes. It takes an entire 26,000 years for all twelve signs of the zodiac to pass behind the place where the sun crosses the celestial equator during the spring equinox. Every 72 years we slip backwards 1 degree of the zodiac, meaning that soon we will be entering the age of Aquarius.
Precession of the Equinoxes
Before the present age of Pisces was the age of Aries from about 2400 to 200BC, and before that was the age of Taurus from 4600 to 2400BC. During that period, the spring equinox was in Taurus, the summer solstice in Leo, the winter solstice in Aquarius, and the fall equinox in Scorpio. Although Scorpio is today represented by the Scorpion, that part of the sky used to be represented by another constellation, the Eagle or Phoenix. The symbols which represent these signs, the Lion, Eagle, Bull and Man, are often found in religious and mythological texts which developed during the age of Taurus.
Age of Taurus
Age of Taurus, 4600BC - 2400BC
Fall Equinox: Scorpio
Summer Solstice: Leo
Winter Solstice: Aquarius
Spring Equinox: Taurus
There are several references to these four animals in the Old Testament, which were later copied into the New Testament book of Revelations. These four symbols, which represented the four seasons and the four elements, were later assigned to four specific apostles whose names were given to the four books of the gospels. (Matthew=Human, Mark=Lion, Luke=Ox, John=Eagle.)
“The first living creature was like a lion, the second like a bull, the third living creature had a human face, and the fourth living creature was like a flying eagle.” Rev. 4:7
The four elements, (fire, earth, water, air), were seen as the basic substance upholding the physical universe, and are often put into the corners of religious iconography. Among other things, they correlate to the four houses at Hogwarts, the four children of Narnia, the four horsemen of the apocalypse, and the four suits of a deck of poker cards. During times of persecution, some societies developed a non-verbal language of symbols to preserve ancient wisdom. The same four animals from the book of revelations are also shown in the esoteric Tarot tradition of A.E. Waite, a mystic who developed illustrations for his Tarot deck based on the writings of 19th century occultist, Eliphas Levi. In the “Wheel of Fortune” card, the Bull, Eagle, Man and Lion surround a wheel, which is ruled over by another lion with a sword that represents the sun controlling the universe. The dog-headed man is the constellation Orion, who has ties to the Egyptian god Osiris. The three stars of Orion’s belt point to and follow the bright star Sirius, which is found in Canis Major, or the “big dog” constellation. The snake is Hydra, which appears to chase Orion around the world.
During the age of Taurus, (4600BC to 2400BC), bulls were sacred animals that figured prominently in religious worship and mythology. Sumerians regarded a bull as the bringer of spring, and the bull cult of Minoan Crete arose during this time. For Egyptians this was the period of Montu,
THE X SWORD CRUCIFIXION OF BULL ON CROSS
During this period the sun was also transformed into many bull-slaying deities like Mithras, whose great victory during the spring equinox depended on him defeating or passing through the bull. In ancient murals and sculptures, Mithras was often shown driving his sword deep into a bull, clenching it like a massive lever, surrounded by the zodiac wheel. It is possible that besides representing the sun meeting the celestial cross under the sign of Taurus, Mithras was also seen as the divine force causing the precession of the equinoxes. His great act of slaying the bull would then also include ending the age of Taurus and rotating the zodiac wheel into the next sign. Mithras slew the bull with a sword, and it was this symbol, identical to an upright cross, that his followers imprinted on the round buns they used for their communion. To further clarify matters, sometimes the sword symbol was combined with an X shaped figure to show the cross of the celestial equator and ecliptic. Symbolically, the act of slaying a bull with a sword is identical to crucifying it on a cross.
PASSOVER LAMB PLACED ON A CROSS SHAPED SPIT
The Passover Lamb became an integral feature of Judaism, and many Jews along with Orthodox Christians in Italy and Greece, continue to slaughter a lamb every year. Muslims follow similar procedures to prepare lambs for their own festival of sacrifice, Eidul-Adha, which is a commemoration of Abraham and Isaac. In fact, despite passages in the Old Testament that claim God does not need or want burnt offerings, tens of millions of lambs are sacrificed to him every year. The lamb had to be carefully prepared. It was placed on a cross-shaped spit made by the intersection of two sticks. Early Christians continued this practice, as recorded in the following passage by Justin Martyr.
JUSTIN MARTYR ON THE SPIT OF THE PASSOVER LAMB AND THE CROSS
“For the lamb, which is roasted, is roasted and dressed up in the form of the cross. For one spit is transfixed right through from the lower parts up to the head, and one across the back, to which are attached the legs of the lamb.” Justin Martyr, Dialog with Trypho, 11
This unusual amulet dates from the third century AD. It is intended as a magical charm, and depicts a crucified figure of the wine god Bacchus. Above the figure is a crescent moon, and seven stars, the meaning of which is unknown. It is unusual as it depicts a crucified figure other than Christ at a time when similar images of Jesus were rare.
MELITO OF SARDIS SAID THAT THE BUSH THAT THE LAMB WAS CAUGHT IN REPRESENTED THE CROSS
The slaughter of this animal redeemed Isaac from death. In like manner, the Lord, being slain, saved us; being bound, He loosed us; being sacrificed, He redeemed us…For the Lord was a lamb, like the ram which Abraham saw caught in the bush Sabec. But this bush represented the cross, and that place Jerusalem, and the ram the Lord bound for slaughter.
JAMES THE WOOD ISSAC CARRIES REPRESENTS THE CROSS
TERTULLIAN HORNS AND THE CROSS (I posted a long time ago another Church Father saw horns in different passage swiping away Israels enemies as the cross so on)
“His glory is that of a bullock; his horns are the horns of a unicorn; with them shall he push the nations to the very ends of the earth,” 3351 —he was not, of course, designated as a mere unicorn with its one horn, or a minotaur with two; but Christ was indicated in him—a bullock in respect of both His characteristics: to some as severe as a Judge, to others gentle as a Saviour, whose horns were the extremities of His cross. For of the antenna, which is a part of a cross, the ends are called horns; while the midway stake of the whole frame is the unicorn. By this virtue, then, of His cross, and in this manner “horned,” He is both now pushing all nations through faith, bearing them away from earth to heaven; and will then push them through judgment, casting them down from heaven to earth. He will also, according to another passage in the same scripture, be a bullock, when He is spiritually interpreted to be Jacob against Simeon and Levi, which means against the scribes and the Pharisees; for it was from them that these last derived their origin. 3352 Like Simeon and Levi, they consummated their wickedness by their heresy, with which they persecuted Christ. “Into their counsel let not my soul enter; to their assembly let not my heart be united: for in their anger they slew men,” that is, the prophets; “and in their self-will they hacked the sinews of a bullock,” 3353 that is, of Christ. For against Him did they wreak their fury after they p. 337 had slain His prophets, even by affixing Him with nails to the cross. Otherwise, it is an idle thing 3354 when, after slaying men, he inveighs against them for the torture of a bullock! Again, in the case of Moses, wherefore did he at that moment particularly, when Joshua was fighting Amalek, pray in a sitting posture with outstretched hands, when in such a conflict it would surely have been more seemly to have bent the knee, and smitten the breast, and to have fallen on the face to the ground, and in such prostration to have offered prayer? Wherefore, but because in a battle fought in the name of that Lord who was one day to fight against the devil, the shape was necessary of that very cross through which Jesus was to win the victory? Why, once more, did the same Moses, after prohibiting the likeness of everything, set up the golden serpent on the pole; and as it hung there, propose it as an object to be looked at for a cure? 3355 Did he not here also intend to show the power of our Lord’s cross, whereby that old serpent the devil was vanquished,—whereby also to every man who was bitten by spiritual serpents, but who yet turned with an eye of faith to it, was proclaimed a cure from the bite of sin, and health for evermore?
FOUR MAJOR THEMES PASSOVER FOURTEEN WAS SEEN AS SIGNIFICANT BY CHURCH FATHERS AS THE TETRACTYS 10 PLUS FOUR
In his study The Eucharistic Words of Jesus, the Lutheran scriptural scholar Joachim Jeremias made a compelling argument that the Quartodecimans preserved the original understanding and character of the Christian Easter (Passover) celebration. He states that in Jewish tradition four major themes are associated with Passover, i.e., the creation of the world, the Akedah or binding of Isaac, the redemption of Israel from Egypt (both the passing over of the First-born during the Passover meal and Israel's passagethrough the Red Sea) and the coming of the Messiah (announced by the Prophet Elijah). For Christians, the central events of the Paschal Mystery of Christ, i.e., his passion, death and resurrection, also are obviously associated with Passover. Thus it was inevitable that the very earliest Christians expected the imminent return of Christ to also occur during their Passover celebrations. Jeremias notes that Quartodecimans began their Christian Passover celebrations by reading the appropriate readings from the Hebrew Scriptures, i.e., the twelve readings from the Hebrew Scriptures that still are read at the Easter Vigil in the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Armenian traditions. At midnight, when Christ had not reappeared to inaugurate the great eschatological banquet, the Christians would celebrate the Paschal Eucharist in anticipation of that final act of the drama of the redemption of Christ.
LUKE FOUR SECTIONS
FOUR SECTIONS OF LUKE
THE FOUR SECTIONS FOURTH DIFFERENT AND FOUR COUPLES
THE EIGHT SEQUENCES OF SECTION A FOUR SUBSECTIONS
BALAAM POEM IN FOUR PARTS
THE THREE PLUS ONE- FOUR PATTERN- I BROUGHT YOU ALL THROUGH THE BIBLE AND OTHER TEXTS AND SHOWED THERE REALLY ARE NO OTHER PATTERNS THE QUADRANT PATTERN ONLY PATTERN THAT DOMINATED
Proverbs 30:29-31King James Version (KJV)
29 There be three things which go well, yea, four are comely in going:
30 A lion which is strongest among beasts, and turneth not away for any;
31 A greyhound; an he goat also; and a king, against whom there is no rising up.
AGUR REPETITIONS OF THE THREE PLUS ONE PATTERN
“There are three things that are never satisfied,
four that never say, ‘Enough!’:
16 the grave, the barren womb,
land, which is never satisfied with water,
and fire, which never says, ‘Enough!’
17 “The eye that mocks a father,
that scorns an aged mother,
will be pecked out by the ravens of the valley,
will be eaten by the vultures.
18 “There are three things that are too amazing for me,
four that I do not understand:
19 the way of an eagle in the sky,
the way of a snake on a rock,
the way of a ship on the high seas,
and the way of a man with a young woman.
20 “This is the way of an adulterous woman:
She eats and wipes her mouth
and says, ‘I’ve done nothing wrong.’
21 “Under three things the earth trembles,
under four it cannot bear up:
22 a servant who becomes king,
a godless fool who gets plenty to eat,
23 a contemptible woman who gets married,
and a servant who displaces her mistress.
24 “Four things on earth are small,
yet they are extremely wise:
25 Ants are creatures of little strength,
yet they store up their food in the summer;
26 hyraxes are creatures of little power,
yet they make their home in the crags;
27 locusts have no king,
yet they advance together in ranks;
28 a lizard can be caught with the hand,
yet it is found in kings’ palaces.
29 “There are three things that are stately in their stride,
four that move with stately bearing:
30 a lion, mighty among beasts,
who retreats before nothing;
31 a strutting rooster, a he-goat,
and a king secure against revolt.[b]
32 “If you play the fool and exalt yourself,
or if you plan evil,
clap your hand over your mouth!
33 For as churning cream produces butter,
and as twisting the nose produces blood,
so stirring up anger produces strife.”
THE FOURTH ADDED TO THE THREE TRADITIONAL THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH
The "Fourth vow" is a religious solemn vow that is taken by members of various religious institutes of the Catholic Church, after the three traditional vows of poverty, chastity and obedience. It usually is an expression of the congregation's charism and particular insertion in the apostolic field of the Church.
In addition to his labours in connection with the new version of the Bible and various translations, he composed several works, the principal of which is his remarkable treatise "Against the Sects" or "On God". It was written between 441 and 449, and contains four books or chapters.
In the first, against the heathens, Eznik combats the eternity of matter and the substantial existence of evil.
In the second he refutes the chief doctrines of Parseeism/Zoroastrianism.
The third is directed against the Greek philosophers (Pythagoreans, Platonists, Peripatetics, Stoics and Epicureans), taking his arguments from the Bible rather than from reason.
The fourth book is an exposition and refutation of Marcionism as a dualist heresy.
DIVISION BOOK OF RUTH INTO FOUR CHAPTERS
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CHIASMUS (CROSS) AND FOUR PARTS OF BOOK OF RUTH https://books.google.com/books?id=eeCSyiTV_QgC&pg=PA27&lpg=PA27&dq=zakovitch+three-four&source=bl&ots=2CGt6ikvgc&sig=_3SVsZW3UPxFKzLjUbIsK0JZzEQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj2xenN8I7VAhUK2GMKHWzZB08Q6AEIPzAI#v=onepage&q=four&f=false
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Archetypal genres correspond to the four seasons: the mythos of spring or comedy, the mythos of summer or romance, the mythos of fall or tragedy, and the mythos of winter or irony (Guerin 231). These archetypal genres are most closely associated with Frye, who is considered the foremost archetypal critic of the twentieth century (Bressler 132).
ZAKOVITCH'S TOPPED TRIAD WHERE IT IS DIFFERENT ON THE FOURTH- THE THREE PLUS ONE PATTERN- AS I DESCRIBED I STUDIED LITERATURE EVERYTHING THAT PATTERN WAS DOMINANT EVERYWHERE JUST A LOT OF IT I FORGOT
KOGI FOUR QUADRANtS FOUR OFFERINGS
The two hemispheres are then divided into four segments: North/South/East/West. Within these four points of reference, the Kogi have associated the orientation of their religious framework into South/East as good/light and North/West as evil/dark. This cosmic structure has influenced four entrances to each village, four principal clans, and has divided the Sierra Nevada into four sections. Following this concept, the Kogi have structured the ceremonial houses and sacred offering sites into four quadrants. In the ceremonial house, a line is drawn down the middle of a circle, which divides the men into a left side where men “know more”, and a complementary right side of men who “know less.”
In a system of four quadrants, the four lines inevitably meet in the center creating a fifth dimension to the cosmic universe. The central point holds great significance to the Kogi people. It represents the center of the universe, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. During the ceremony, this is the point where the mama buries the four sacred offerings and “speaks with god.” In the center of the circle, he places a tiny stool upon the spot where he receives and answers questions of the cosmic universe.
In Kogi cosmology, they have added three dimensions to the standard N/S/E/W: Zenith, Nadir and the Center. This fixed system of points resembles an egg and is formulated into nine stages/layers of development. Mother Goddess, the creator of the universe and mankind, created the cosmic egg. The horizontal layers of the egg are divided into two sections of 4 four worlds with mankind (the 5th layer) residing in the center. The cosmic egg also represents the uterus of Mother Goddess and the Sierra Nevada. Because of this, the Kogi have built the structure of the ceremonial house as a replica of the cosmos.
THE FOUR SEVEN FOLD JUDGEMENTS IN LEVITICUS AND RELATION TO STRUCTURE OF REVELATIONS
I would go to synagogues or Hindu places like Hare Krishna and all the stuff they talked about was based aroudn the fours and the quadrants the rabbi would talk about "the four most beatufiul women according to rabbis" so on so fourth always around four and the quadrant model same with Hindus. I just forgot a lot of the stuff now and don't know how to find it
FOUR DESTROYED AND FOUR SAVEDFive cities: Four saved while only one is destroyed.
There were five cities at the center of the Canaanite culture in the circle of the Jordan, a place like the Garden of Eden, like the land of Egypt, before it became the Dead Sea at the destruction of the cities (Genesis 13:10). Genesis 14:2 tells us their names: Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim, and Bela (or Zoar). God destroyed four of these cities, but spared Zoar, where evidently the corruption of the Canaanites had not yet matured to its fullness (Genesis 15:16).
Five cities: One spared while the other four are destroyed.
As our essay on Lot notes, Lot in the land of Sodom and Zoar parallels Abraham in the land of Gerar. Gerar was Philistine, a branch of the Egyptians according to Genesis 10:13-14. The exoduses of Abraham and Isaac from Philistine Gerar (Genesis 20-21; 26) parallel the earlier exodus of Abraham from Egypt (Genesis 12), and anticipate the later exodus from Egypt under Moses. Later there were five Philistine cities also: Ekron, Ashkelon, Amnon, Gaza, and Gath. The exodus of Israel from Philistine rule in the days of the Judges and early Kings parallels the exodus from Egypt under Moses. In this case also, four cities were eventually destroyed and one was saved (Zephaniah 2:4). The city of Gath was saved because it allied itself with David, and evidently became a converted city-state (1 Samuel 27; 2 Samuel 15:18).
Five cities: One spared while the other four are destroyed.
PALESTINE DIVIDED FOUR PROVINCES
At the eastern end of Asia is found the Garden of Eden, a paradisical territory where it is never cold or hot, and where trees and wood of all kinds grow. In its center stands the Tree of Life, and next to it there is a fountain from which the four rivers of Paradise: Tigris, Euphrates, Pishon and Gihon flow. The entrance to Paradise is protected by a Cherub who brandishes a sword of fire.
In the latter they preached so much that the prophet Elias was Jesus Christ. Further south was located Palestine, which was subdivided into four different provinces: Galilee, where they nailed Jesus of Nazareth, the sea of Tiberiades, where a good part of the apostles worked as fishermen, and Monte Tabor, the place where the Transfiguration occurred.
JESUS CRUCIFIED BY FOUR SOLIDERS
FOUR SOLDIERS PARTED JESUS FOUR PIECES OF GARMENT AND FOUR CRUCIFIED HIM