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CROSS SHAPED

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staurolite

 

Staurolite often occurs twinned in a characteristic cross-shape, called cruciform penetration twinning. In handsamples, macroscopically visible staurolite crystals are of prismatic shape. The mineral often forms porphyroblasts.

HE POINTS OUT THE SODIUM CHLORIDE (SALT) CRYSTAL LOOKS LIKE A CROSS AND WHEN LIGHT SHINES THROUGH IT MAKES CROSS

https://qph.ec.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-a4a4904dfe7537c56c97bc8276310e4c-c

https://www.quora.com/Why-does-sodium-chloride-crystal-has-a-cross-in-the-middle

Why does sodium chloride crystal has a cross in the middle?

Answer

Request

When light shines through this shape of crystal you get the cross effect.

CROSS IN NEON GENESIS

https://wiki.evageeks.org/Cross

The cross (十字架, juujika) is a symbolic religious reference frequently used in Neon Genesis Evangelion, though often particularly loosely. Many of the uses of crosses in the series don't actually have a particularly higher meaning or correlation to narrative events, beyond simply that someone is "sacrificed", etc. Also, many times things such as cross-shaped energy explosions are used, but these instances in particular don't really seem to have a higher meaning.

The creators themselves admitted using the emblems of Christianity simply because they "looked cool," according to Evangelion Assistant Director Kazuya Tsurumaki, who at the Otakon 2001 anime convention said:

"There are a lot of giant robot shows in Japan, and we did want our story to have a religious theme to help distinguish us. Because Christianity is an uncommon religion in Japan we thought it would be mysterious. None of the staff who worked on Eva are Christians. There is no actual Christian meaning to the show, we just thought the visual symbols of Christianity look cool. If we had known the show would get distributed in the US and Europe we might have rethought that choice."

There are 5 types of crosses used in Evangelion:

Latin cross

Inverted Latin cross

Greek cross

Tau cross

Cross of Lorraine

See image on right for examples of crosses from the show.

Contents [hide]

1 List of Appearances

1.1 Opening Credits

1.2 Episode 01

1.3 Episode 02

1.4 Episode 04

1.5 Episode 05

1.6 Episode 12

1.7 Episode 15

1.8 Episode 16

1.9 Episode 18

1.10 Episode 19

1.11 Episode 21

1.12 Episode 22

1.13 Episode 23

1.14 Episode 25'

1.15 Episode 26'

1.16 Evangelion 1.0

1.17 Evangelion 2.0

2 Notes

List of Appearances

 

Opening Credits

OP C003 b.jpg

A starburst of crosses appear just prior to the title Neon Genesis Evangelion appearing on screen.

Episode 01

01 C236g.jpg 01 C266c.jpg

inverted and regular cross-shaped blasts produced by Sachiel's particle beam.

Episode 02

02 C285 b.jpg 02 C308.jpg

more Sachiel related crosses

Episode 04

04 C082.jpg

Shinji walks along a country-path that is in the form of a cross.

Episode 05

Crossplug.jpg

Cross shaped Signal Termination Plug inserted in Unit 00 after Rei's failed activation test.

Note the similarity between this and Gendo's cross in Episode 21.

Episode 12

12 C021f.jpg

Dr. Katsuragi's/Misato Katsuragi's pendant.

This object is effectively crucified during The End of Evangelion

Episode 15

15 C255f.jpg

Deep Undergroud Facility in Central Dogma

15 C281a.jpg

The tau cross Lilith is crucified upon.

Episode 16

16 C144b.jpg

A cross on top of a church is seen when preparing for the attempt to destroy the Angel Leliel.

Episode 18

18 C002c.jpg

Eva-03 is airlifted by a flying-wing transport jet on cross-shaped scaffolding.

Episode 19

19 C109a.jpg

Cross-shaped explosions are produced by Zeruel's particle beam.

19 C320d.jpg

The point of light within the circle when Shinji is absorbed into Eva-01 is in the form of a cross.

Episode 21

The underside of Tokyo-3 as visible from the GeoFront cavern is configured in a large cross formation, this is also discernible from Episode 01.

21 C277c.jpg

The architecture forms a cross behind Kaji where he is shot.

21 C181 path-to-god.jpg

A shadow behind Gendo Ikari makes it appear he is bearing a cross as he speaks about mankind's evolution.

Episode 22

22 C001A dc.jpg

A crucifix is on top of the church next to the graveyard where Kyoko Zeppelin Soryu is being buried.

Episode 23

23 300c.jpg

The "Eva graveyard" is in part in the form of a Cross of Lorraine.

DPP glyph.gif

There are tau crosses within each of the pentagrams in the Dummy Plug Plant.

Tank image 11 bunshin.jpg

Cross-shaped depression is seen where Eva-01 was "born" in Terminal Dogma.

Episode 25'

Eoe eva02 cross shaped explosion.jpg

Eva-02 activating

The architecture forms a cross around the door Misato is heading for when she is shot.

Misato's cross which is passed down to Shinji before she dies.

Eoe eva01 cross shaped explosion.jpg

Shinji and Eva-01 escape from Nerv with a cross shaped explosion

Episode 26'

Temp 26' eva01-eyes big.jpg

Cross-shaped configuration of Eva-01's four wings.

Eva-01 is crucified by the Mass Production Evangelions.

M26 C373 comp.jpg

The souls of disembodied humans are accompanied by crosses of light.

Temp 26' eva01 hair big.jpg

Eva-01 departs for outer space in the form of a cross.

M26 C481 Kimochi Warui.jpg

The Mass Production Evas fall to Earth in the form of crosses.

Crosses2.jpg

Misato's cross crucified

Evangelion 1.0

Evangelion 2.0

Eva2-22 C0075.jpg

Explosion of Third Angel

Eva2-22 C0126.jpg

Attack of Seventh Angel

Eva2-22 C0161.jpg

Explosion of the Seventh Angel

Eva2-22 C0402H.jpg

Misato's cross

Eva2-22 C0582.jpg

Explosion of Sahaquiel

Eva2-22 C0833 therack.jpg

Eva-03's transport

Eva2-22 C1771 niji.jpg

Eva-01's attack

Lilith Cross

https://wiki.evageeks.org/Lilith

Lilith appears to be a vaguely-formed roughly Evangelion-sized humanoid upper torso with blubbery white flesh, of non-distinct gender. Lilith has no legs or hips when it is seen in the year 2015, its torso terminating in blobby masses with dozens of humanoid-sized pairs of legs growing out of it. Lilith is kept restrained in Terminal Dogma, crucified on a giant red cross; large nails are driven through its palms into the cross from which it hangs. Lilith has five fingers on each hand (just like a human). Lilith remains totally immobile and unreactive, simply hanging limp on the cross it's nailed to and unresponsive to events around it.

The Spear of Longinus was impaled through Lilith's chest while it was restrained on the cross in Terminal Dogma, but after Eva Unit-00 removed the Lance in Episode 23, Lilith's lower legs grew back (though its new legs still had dozens of pairs of humanoid legs growing out of them, from the region of its thighs).

 

 

Kaworu stands before Lilith after the Spear is removed and its legs have regrown

LCL is actually Lilith's blood, a steady stream of it pouring down the cross, and it is the true source of the LCL used in Evangelion Entry Plugs. In fact, the "LCL Production Plant" is really just a large artificial lake of LCL formed by it pooling on the level beneath Lilith's red cross. The LCL apparently flows out of the exit wound formed by the Spear of Longinus in Lilith's back (as there is no LCL flowing out of the front of its torso) though Nerv has been collecting LCL from Lilith since long before the Spear was recovered in 2015 (in Episode 12). Several production sketches reveal that there are actually tubes coming out of the back of Lilith's head, labeled "LCL tube A" etc., which may be another means of extracting it.

Perhaps Lilith's most distinctive feature is the purple mask which covers its face. Lilith has seven eyes arranged in two vertical rows on its face, three on the right and four on the left, and the mask contains holes for each of the eyes. Etched onto the mask is a pointed-downwards triangle which intersects all of the eyes (except for the lowest eye on the left). It is not entirely clear if the mask is a natural part of Lilith (some form of bone-plate), or if it is another artificial restraint placed onto it. The symbol of the mysterious Seele organization is the face of Lilith: a pointed down triangle intersecting seven eyes arranged unevenly into two rows of three and four. Whether the mask is a restraint which Seele put its emblem on, or if the mask is part of Lilith's naturally-occurring face and Seele copied it as their symbol, is unknown. The purple mask is roughly oval-shaped, and is somewhat dinged and dented.

Lilith's marshmallowy white flesh forms several blubbery folds around its head (leading to the appearance of almost having two double chins). Lilith also has two ill-defined lumpy and uneven blobs on the sides of its head which are apparently its ears. Lilith's back, visible only when it descends from its cross moments before it physically begins to manifest as Rei (when it merges with her), appears to be very bumpy where vertebrae form large blubbery lumps in a line running down its back.

THE CROSS SHAPED SCAR

http://kenshin.wikia.com/wiki/Himura_Kenshin

The Legendary Scar

Kenshin's cross-shaped scar actually consists of two separate scars--a long one running diagonally down his face from just below the outer corner of his left eye to just above his chin and a slightly shorter scar running diagonally across it in the other direction from just to the left of the bridge of his nose to his left jawbone. In a redesign for the kanzenban, Kenshin's scar has been altered so that the lateral scar is longer, stretching across his nose to just below the inner corner of his right eye.

CROSS SHAPED SCAR

http://galnet.wikia.com/wiki/Ghastly_cross_shaped_scar

Ghastly cross shaped scar

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Cross shaped

Prior to joining the United Stars of the Galaxies, the Golden society was entirely based on trade.

When a Golden was found guilty of performing a fraudulent trade against another Golden, or through their actions closing a market (or potential market) to the rest of their society[1], they would be forbidden from selling or purchasing anything at a Golden Bazaar.

 

To clearly indicate this, a crude cross shaped patch of skin was removed from their head. The location was then cauterized using an hot iron, with the result being a nasty scar.

FOURTH MARK FOUR STEP PROCESS OF MARKING- AND A CROSS SHAPED SCAR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anita_Blake

During the events in First Death she met the vampire hunter Edward and received several of her scars, which includes a cross-shaped brand on her arm.

 

 

Supernatural Experience: Anita holds a bachelor's degree in preternatural biology and is a trained Vampire executioner. She is able to resist the mental influence of Jean-Claude's, a vampire who is also her love interest. In the later books Anita has given Damian, her Vampire servant, the fourth mark. This does not interfere with Jean Claude's marks. It is uncertain if this unconventional fourth mark grants Anita immortality.

 

Vampire Marks: In the Anita Blake world Master Vampires can create mystic link with a human or with an animal to call. The creation of such a link is four-step process; steps are called marks and its understood that a Master Vampire "gives" the marks to subjugate human or wereanimal. Human which received all four marks is a Human Servant to Master Vampire; a wereanimal (or siren, or ghost, or selkie, etc.) which received all four marks is The Animal to Call (as oposed to an animal to call). Each mark gives both sides of marking process new abilities. Without any mental precautions a pair Master Vampire - Human Servant may become one personality in two bodies (Kiss the Dead, Chapter 45). Anita Blake received unknowingly first two marks from Jean-Claude in Guilty Pleasures, then the third mark in Circus of the Damned; then Master Vampire Alejandro took her over with all four marks, which made her capable to kill Alejandro with her bare hands, thus wiping all marks. In Kiling Dance Anita Blake accepted voluntarily the first three marks from Jean-Claude to save his life and Richard Zeeman's life. In Incubus Dreams, Chapter 13 Anita Blake, acting as Master Vampire, accidentally gave all four marks to both Damian and Nathaniel Graison, thus forming her own Triumvirate of Power.

CROSS SHAPED SCAR ON FOREHEAD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hartigan

At the start of That Yellow Bastard, Hartigan is "pushing 60." He has a distinguishing cross-shaped scar on his forehead. He is presented as a muscular and imposing man, capable of holding his own in almost any fight. He also suffers from angina, which consistently affects his work, despite his attempts to ignore and fight through it. He is almost always dressed professionally, most commonly wearing an oxford shirt, tie, and dress slacks, along with his signature trenchcoat.

MULTIPLE DISCOVERY FOUR GROUPS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic_acid

The discovery of 2,4-D as well as the similar hormone herbicides 2,4,5-T, and MCPA occurred during WWII and was a case of multiple discovery by four groups working independently under wartime secrecy in the United Kingdom and the United States: William G. Templeman and associates at Imperial Chemical Industries in the UK; Philip S. Nutman and associates at Rothamsted Research in the UK; Franklin D. Jones and associates at the American Chemical Paint Company; and Ezra Kraus, John W. Mitchell, and associates at the University of Chicago and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. All four groups were subject to wartime secrecy laws and did not follow the usual procedures of publication and patent disclosure. The first scientific publications about these herbicides were by other workers who were not the original discovers, so the exact order of discovery is a matter of some debate.[55]

FOUR FIELD ROTATION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crop_rotation

Farmers in the region of Waasland (in present-day northern Belgium) pioneered a four-field rotation in the early 16th century, and the British agriculturist Charles Townshend (1674-1738) popularised this system in the 18th century. The sequence of four crops (wheat, turnips, barley and clover), included a fodder crop and a grazing crop, allowing livestock to be bred year-round. The four-field crop rotation became a key development in the British Agricultural Revolution. The rotation between arable and ley is sometimes called ley farming.

16 ELECTRONS SPECIAL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/18-electron_rule

16-electron complexes[edit]

An important class of complexes that violate the 18e rule are the 16-electron complexes with metal d8 configurations. All high-spin d8 metal ions are octahedral (or tetrahedral), but the low-spin d8 metal ions are all square planar. Important examples of square-planar low-spin d8 metal Ions are Rh(I), Ir(I), Ni(II), Pd(II), and Pt(II). At picture below is shown the splitting of the d subshell in low-spin square-planar complexes. Examples are especially prevalent for derivatives of the cobalt and nickel triads. Such compounds are typically square-planar. The most famous example is Vaska's complex (IrCl(CO)(PPh3)2), [PtCl4]2−, and Zeise's salt [PtCl3(η2-C2H4)]−. In such complexes, the dz2 orbital is doubly occupied and nonbonding.

 

Chem507f09sqvstet2.png

Many catalytic cycles operate via complexes that alternate between 18-electron and square-planar 16-electron configurations. Examples include Monsanto acetic acid synthesis, hydrogenations, hydroformylations, olefin isomerizations, and some alkene polymerizations.

 

Other violations can be classified according to the kinds of ligands on the metal center.

THE NILE RIVER HAS FOUR MAJOR TRIBUTARIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_politics_in_the_Nile_Basin

Considering the basin area of the Nile, Sudan has the largest size (1.9 million km²) whereas, of the four major tributaries to the Nile, three originate from Ethiopia - the Blue Nile, Sobat and Atbara. The modern history of hydropolitics in the Nile basin is very complex and has had wide ramifications both for regional and global developments.[1]

PEOPLE ARE NOT SURE WHY IT FORMS A CROSS- IT DOES BECAUSE CROSS IS FORM OF BEING

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiastolite

Chiastolite is a variety of the mineral andalusite with the chemical composition Al2SiO5. It is noted for distinctive cross-shaped black inclusions of graphite. In areas around Georgetown, California, metamorphosed sediments contained andalusite and chiastolite in a graphite rich metasediment. The chiastolite crystals have been pseudomorphically altered by a mixture of muscovite, paragonite and margarite. The calcium rich margarite tends to form along the graphite rich crosses or bands within the chiastolite. Mineralogically the occurrence is important because all three white mica phases are present in an equilibrium assemblage.

 

There are several theories regarding the formation of the chiastolite cross, however the most widely accepted theory, proposed by Frondel in 1934, suggests that there is a selective attachment of impurities at the rapidly growing corners of andalusite crystals. As the concentration of these impurities (which consist primarily of graphite) increases, the growth of the crystal is slowed. This concentrated impurity deposit forms a re-entrant as it is absorbed by the growth of the andalusite porphyroblast. The cycle of growth-retardation-growth then repeats itself, creating a featherlike pattern of graphite along four radiating 'arms'.[1]

IN MY CHEMISTRY CLASS AT UCSD THE PROFESSOR DREW THIS FOUR POSSIBLITIES IN FOUR QUADRANTS- I DESCRIBED THAT THERE IS TONS OF EXAMPLES OF QMR THAT I SAW THAT WERE INCREDIBLE LIKE BOOKS ORGANIZED AROUND IT I JUST FORGET THEM NOW BUT IF I REMEMBERED THEM YOUD BE CONVINCED- BOSONS WERE DISCOVERED THROUGH QUADRANT MODEL- HITLER DIVIDED WORLD FOUR PARTS- BOOKS WITH FOURTH PART ENCOMPASSING PREVIOUS THREE JUST AMAZING EXAMPLES I CANT REMEMBER NOW

https://faculty.ncc.edu/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=sSPFB6xEtbM%3D&tabid=1918

We want to know why there is a radioactivity. What makes the nucleus a stable one? There are no concrete theories to explain this, but there are only general observations based on the available stable isotopes. It appears that neutron to proton (n/p) ratio is the dominant factor in nuclear stability. This ratio is close to 1 for atoms of elements with low atomic number and increases as the atomic number increases. Then how do we predict the nuclear stability? One of the simplest ways of predicting the nuclear stability is based on whether nucleus contains odd/even number of protons and neutrons:

Protons Neutrons Number of Stable Nuclides

Odd Odd 4 Odd Even 50 Even Odd 57 Even Even 168

Stability

least stable most stable

THE FOUR POSSIBLITIES- I DESCRIBED IN MY CHEMISTRY 2C CLASS AT UCSD THE PROFESSOR DREW THIS ON THE BOARD AS A QUADRANT DELINEATING THE FOUR POSSIBLITIES AND SHE DESCRIBED SHE DID NOT KNOW WHY IT WAS THE WAY IT WAS BUT IT JUST IS

 

EVEN EVEN ODD ODD EVEN ODD ODD EVEN

 

NOTICE HOW THERE ARE ONLY FOUR STABLE LONG LIVED FOR OO AND EO AND FOR OE THERE ARE FIVE BUT THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT AND FIFTH IS EXTREMELY DIFFERNET ULTRA TRANSCEDNENT

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Even_and_odd_atomic_nuclei

quadrant

ONLY FOUR STABLE ODD ODD NUCLIDES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stable_nuclide

Also, only four naturally occurring, radioactive odd-odd nuclides have a half-life over a billion years: potassium-40, vanadium-50, lanthanum-138, and lutetium-176.

kind of interesting 254 is two away from 256 four to fourth power- ONLY FOUR ODD ODDS (THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH)

https://www.boundless.com/physics/textbooks/boundless-physics-textbook/nuclear-physics-and-radioactivity-30/the-nucleus-189/nuclear-stability-704-5645/

 

Of the 254 known stable nuclides, only four have both an odd number of protons and an odd number of neutrons:

 

hydrogen-2 (deuterium)

lithium-6

boron-10

nitrogen-14

Also, only four naturally occurring, radioactive odd-odd nuclides have a half-life greater than a billion years:

 

potassium-40

vanadium-50

lanthanum-138

tantalum-180m

FOUR STABLE (16 squares qmr)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chalkogene.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chalcogen

The four stable chalcogens at STP

The chalcogens (/ˈkælkədʒᵻnz/) are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table. This group is also known as the oxygen family. It consists of the elements oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), and the radioactive element polonium (Po).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atom
Of the 254 known stable nuclides, only four have both an odd number of protons and odd number of neutrons: hydrogen-2 (deuterium), lithium-6, boron-10 and nitrogen-14. Also, only four naturally occurring, radioactive odd–odd nuclides have a half-life over a billion years: potassium-40, vanadium-50, lanthanum-138 and tantalum-180m. Most odd–odd nuclei are highly unstable with respect to beta decay, because the decay products are even–even, and are therefore more strongly bound, due to nuclear pairing effects.[58][

FOUR ALWAYS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetraneutron

A tetraneutron is a hypothetical stable cluster of four neutrons. The existence of this cluster of particles is not supported by current models of nuclear forces.[1] There is some empirical evidence suggesting that this particle does exist, based on a 2001 experiment by Francisco-Miguel Marqués and co-workers at the Ganil accelerator in Caen using a novel detection method in observations of the disintegration of beryllium and lithium nuclei.[2] However, subsequent attempts to replicate this observation have failed.

 

Contents [hide]

1 Marqués' experiment

2 Since Marqués' experiment

3 See also

4 Notes

5 External links

Marqués' experiment[edit]

As with many particle accelerator experiments, Marques' team fired atomic nuclei at carbon targets and observed the "spray" of particles from the resulting collisions. In this case the experiment involved firing beryllium-14, beryllium-15 and lithium-11 nuclei at a small carbon target, the most successful being beryllium-14. This isotope of beryllium has a nuclear halo that consists of four clustered neutrons; this allows it to be easily separated intact in the high-speed collision with the carbon target. Their approach to the production and detection of bound neutron clusters was new and original[clarify].[2] Current nuclear models suggest that four separate neutrons should result when beryllium-10 is produced, but the single signal detected in the production of beryllium-10 suggested a multineutron cluster in the breakup products; most likely a beryllium-10 nucleus and four neutrons fused together into a tetraneutron.

 

Since Marqués' experiment[edit]

A later analysis of the detection method used in the Marques' experiment suggested that at least part of the original analysis was flawed,[3] and attempts to reproduce these observations with different methods have not successfully detected any neutron clusters.[4] If, however, the existence of stable tetraneutrons were ever independently confirmed, considerable adjustments would have to be made to current nuclear models. Bertulani and Zelevinsky[5] proposed that, if it existed, the tetraneutron could be formed by a bound state of two dineutron molecules. However, attempts to model interactions that might give rise to multineutron clusters have failed,[6][7][8] and it "does not seem possible to change modern nuclear Hamiltonians to bind a tetraneutron without destroying many other successful predictions of those Hamiltonians. This means that, should a recent experimental claim of a bound tetraneutron be confirmed, our understanding of nuclear forces will have to be significantly changed."[9]

 

In 2016 researchers at RIKEN in Wako, Japan observed evidence that the tetraneutron exists briefly as a resonance. They fired a beam of neutron-rich helium-8 nuclei (two protons and six neutrons) at a liquid target composed of helium-4 (two protons and two neutrons). Occasionally, the reaction produced beryllium-8 nuclei with four protons and four neutrons, leaving four neutrons unaccounted for. If a four-neutron nucleus did occur, it lasted for about 10−21 seconds before decaying into other particles.[10][11]

four stable isotopes

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_chromium

Naturally occurring chromium (24Cr) is composed of four stable isotopes; 50Cr, 52Cr, 53Cr, and 54Cr with 52Cr being the most abundant (83.789% natural abundance). 50Cr is suspected of decaying by β+β+ to 50Ti with a half-life of (more than) 1.8x1017 years. Twenty-two radioisotopes, all of which are entirely synthetic, have been characterized with the most stable being 51Cr with a half-life of 27.7 days. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 24 hours and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 1 minute, the least stable being 66Cr with a half-life of 10 milliseconds. This element also has 2 meta states, 45Crm, the more stable one, and 59Crm, the least stable isotope or isomer.

four stable isotopes

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_sulfur

Sulfur (16S) has 24 known isotopes with mass numbers ranging from 26 to 49, four of which are stable: 32S (95.02%), 33S (0.75%), 34S (4.21%), and 36S (0.02%). The preponderance of sulfur-32 is explained by its production from carbon-12 plus successive fusion capture of five helium nuclei, in the so-called alpha process of exploding type II supernovae (see silicon burning).

four stable isotopes

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_strontium

The alkaline earth metal strontium (38Sr) has four stable, naturally occurring isotopes: 84Sr (0.56%), 86Sr (9.86%), 87Sr (7.0%) and 88Sr (82.58%). It's standard atomic weight is 87.62(1).

Four stable isotopes

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strontium

Because strontium is so similar to calcium, it is incorporated in the bone. All four stable isotopes are incorporated, in roughly the same proportions they are found in nature. However, the actual distribution of the isotopes tends to vary greatly from one geographical location to another. Thus, analyzing the bone of an individual can help determine the region it came from.[55][56] This approach helps to identify the ancient migration patterns and the origin of commingled human remains in battlefield burial sites.[57]

FOUR FORMS- FOUR ISOTOPES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron

Iron represents an example of allotropy in a metal. There are at least four allotropic forms of iron, known as α, γ, δ, and ε; at very high pressures and temperatures, some controversial experimental evidence exists for a stable β phase.[11]

 

Naturally occurring iron consists of four stable isotopes: 5.845% of 54Fe, 91.754% of 56Fe, 2.119% of 57Fe and 0.282% of 58Fe. Of these stable isotopes, only 57Fe has a nuclear spin (− 1⁄2). The nuclide 54Fe theoretically can undergo double electron capture to 54Cr, but the process has never been observed and only a lower limit on the half-life of 3.1×1022 years has been established.[17]

Quaternary compound

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quaternary_compound

Quaternary ammonium cation. The R's may be the same or different groups. They may also be connected (cyclic).

In chemistry, a quaternary compound is a cation consisting of a central positively charged nitrogen atom with four substituents, especially organic (alkyl and aryl) groups, discounting hydrogen atoms.[1]

 

The best known quaternary compounds are quaternary ammonium salts, having a nitrogen atom at the centre.[2] For example, in the following reaction, the nitrogen atom is said to be quaternized as it has gone from 3 to 4 substituents:

−{\mathrm {R_{3}N+RCl\longrightarrow R_{4}N^{+}\ Cl^{-}}}

Other examples include substituted phosphonium salts (R4P+), substituted arsonium salts (R4As+) like arsenobetaine, as well as some arsenic containing superconductors.[3] Substituted stibonium (R4Sb+)[4] and bismuthonium salts (R4Bi+) have also been described.[5]

QUATENARY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ammonium

Quaternary ammonium cations have four organic groups attached to the nitrogen atom. They lack a hydrogen atom bonded to the nitrogen atom. These cations, such as the tetra-n-butylammonium cation, are sometimes used to replace sodium or potassium ions to increase the solubility of the associated anion in organic solvents. Primary, secondary, and tertiary ammonium salts serve the same function, but are less lipophilic. They are also used as phase-transfer catalysts and surfactants.

 

The lone electron pair on the nitrogen atom (N) in ammonia, represented as a line above the N, forms the bond with a proton (H+). Thereafter, all four N–H bonds are equivalent, being polar covalent bonds. The ion has a tetrahedral structure and is isoelectronic with methane and borohydride. In terms of size, the ammonium cation (rionic = 175 pm) resembles the caesium cation (rionic = 183 pm).

A 1, 2, 3, 4 DRINK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punch_(drink)

Bajan (Barbadian) Rum Punch is one of the oldest rum punches and has a simple recipe enshrined in a national rhyme: "One of Sour, Two of Sweet, Three of Strong, Four of Weak." That is: one part lime juice, two parts sweetener, three parts rum (preferably Barbados), and four parts water. It is served with a dash or two of Angostura bitters and nutmeg.

A 1,2,3,4 DRINK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punch_(drink)

Planter's Punch was invented at the bar of the Planters' House hotel in St. Louis, Missouri.[8] The first known print reference to Planter's Punch was in the August 8, 1908 edition of The New York Times:

 

 

Gentlemen enjoying punch in about 1765, by William Hogarth

PLANTER'S PUNCH

 

This recipe I give to thee,

 

Dear brother in the heat.

Take two of sour (lime let it be)

To one and a half of sweet,

Of Old Jamaica pour three strong,

And add four parts of weak.

Then mix and drink. I do no wrong —

 

I know whereof I speak.

MARY THE JEWESS STARTED ALCHEMY- HER MOST FAMOUS PHARSE WAS "THE ONE BECOMES TWO THE TWO BECOMES THREE AND OUT OF THE THIRD COMES THE ONE AS THE FOURTH"---- WHAT I REALIZE SHE IS SAYING IS THAT THE FOUR IS ONE- THE FOUR IS A QUADRANT AND THE FOUR IS ONE--- SHE ALSO STARTED THE COLOR SEQUENCE OF ALCHEMY WITH FOUR COLORS

http://tetworld.tripod.com/leonora.html

 

Maria Prophetissa, as she was known, was a key figure in Hellenistic Alchemy. “She was responsible for innovations in the apparatus in the adepts’ laboratory. She is credited with inventing the “tribikos” and seems to have used the “kerotakis”. She was famous for her mystical cry or exclamation: “One becomes two, two becomes three, and out of the third comes the one as the fourth .”

 

“Maria may have originated the whole idea of a color sequence in ancient alchemy: there being four colors to represent stages in Hellenistic times.”2 Maria seems to have excelled in both the mystical philosophical or gnostic approach to Alchemy as well as the experimental aspect or the laboratory science approach to Alchemy. The famous “bain marie” is attributed to Maria’s laboratory science approach to alchemical experimentation. Referred to as a “prophetess”, we are led to assume that she was, in some ways, viewed as a mystical and religious teacher. It is possible that since Alchemy in the west has been associated with the Cabbala, that Maria may have had a knowledge of the Cabbala as well. Later we will examine the way in which Leonora Carrington depicts Maria’s knowledge of both Alchemy and Cabbala.

THE FOUR STAGES OF THE MAGNUM OPUS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albedo_(alchemy)

In alchemy, albedo is one of the four major stages of the magnum opus; along with nigredo, citrinitas and rubedo. It is a Latinicized term meaning "whiteness". Following the chaos or massa confusa of the nigredo stage, the alchemist undertakes a purification in albedo, which is literally referred to as ablutio – the washing away of impurities. In this process, the subject is divided into two opposing principles to be later coagulated to form a unity of opposites or coincidentia oppositorum during rubedo.[1]

LAVOISIER IS CONSIDERED THE FATHER OF MODERN CHEMISTRY AND HE DIVIDED THE ELEMENTS INTO FOUR CATEGORIES

LAVOISIER WAS THE FIRST CHEMIST TO ABANDON THE FOUR ELEMENT MODEL OF CHEMISTRY IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY- SO THE FOUR ELEMENT MODEL WAS DOMINANT UNTIL THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY (STILL THOUGH HE DIVIDED THE ELEMENTS INTO FOUR CATEGORIES)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemistry:_A_Volatile_History

Lavoisier went on to give science its first definition of an element: a substance that cannot be decomposed by existing chemical means. He also set about drawing up a list of all the elements – now 33 elements replaced the ancient four. His list was grouped into four categories: gases, non-metals, metals and earths.

AGAIN THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR- PARACELSUS BELIEVED THAT THE FOUR ASPECTS APPEARED IN OUR BODIES IN THE FORM OF THE THREE PRIMES

http://www.hogwartsishere.com/courses/ALCH-201/lesson/181/

http://static1.squarespace.com/static/53ae7cf8e4b09f75e9efdc6a/t/53e33c32e4b04e3f8fc8c89c/1407401011228/Farbenlehre2.jpg

Notice how they seem to connect to each other when you look at their qualities. Of course, this theory was questioned by alchemists and philosophers after Aristotle. During the Medieval era, a Persian alchemist named Jābir ibn Hayyān created an element system that used the four Aristotelian elements along with two philosophical elements: sulphur and mercury.

 

It wasn't until Paracelsus came along that the three metallic principles came along. He called these tria prima, otherwise known as the three primes. They consisted of sulphur, mercury, and salt. Paracelsus believed that the four aspects appeared in our bodies in the form of the three primes. Imagine how wood burns fire. The smoke represents the volatility in mercury. The actual flames represents the flammability in sulphur. The remaining ashes was the solidarity in salt. Paracelsus used this explanation to justify the three primes.

 

It shows the relationship of the three primes with the four aspects and it incorporates Aristole's theory! Isn't that something! Anyway, I just thought it was cool. This week you have a quiz and an extra credit essay. I hope this lesson was a little eye opening if nothing else. Really, play around with these ideas some; they're pretty interesting. I'll see all of you next week!

QUAT IS FOUR- TETRA IS FOUR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetramethylammonium_chloride
Tetramethylammonium chloride is one of the simplest quaternary ammonium salts, with four methyl groups tetrahedrally attached to the central N. The chemical formula (CH3)4N+Cl− is often abbreviated further as Me4N+Cl−. It is a hygroscopic colourless solid that is soluble in water and polar organic solvents. Tetramethylammonium chloride is a major industrial chemical,[1] being used in such processes as hydrofracking.[2] In the laboratory, it has fewer synthetic chemical applications than quaternary ammonium salts containing longer N-alkyl substituents, which are used extensively as phase-transfer catalysts.

TETRA IS FOUR QUAT IS FOUR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetra-n-butylammonium_bromide
Tetra-n-butylammonium bromide
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"TBAB" redirects here. For t-butylamine borane, see borane tert-butylamine complex.
Tetra-n-butylammonium bromide
Tetrabutylammonium bromide.svg
Names
IUPAC name
Tetra-n-butylammonium bromide
Other names
TBAB
Identifiers
CAS Number
1643-19-2 Yes
3D model (Jmol)
Interactive image
ChEBI 
CHEBI:51993 Yes
ChemSpider 
66843 Yes
ECHA InfoCard 100.015.182
EC Number 216-699-2
PubChem CID
74236
InChI[show]
SMILES[show]
Properties
Chemical formula
C16H36BrN
Molar mass 322.368 g/mol
Appearance White solid
Melting point 103 °C (217 °F; 376 K) Decomposes at 133C[1]
Hazards
Main hazards Harmful
R-phrases R20 R22 R36 R37 R38
S-phrases S26 S36
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Yes verify (what is Yes ?)
Infobox references
Tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB) is a quaternary ammonium salt with a bromide counterion commonly used as a phase transfer catalyst.[2] It is used to prepare many other tetrabutylammonium salts via salt metathesis reactions.

See also[edit]
Tetrabutylammonium tribromide, with an additional Br2 unit
Tetrabutylammonium fluoride
Tetrabutylammonium hydroxide

QUAT IS FOUR USE- TETRA IS FOUR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetramethylammonium_hydroxide
Tetramethylammonium hydroxide
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tetramethylammonium hydroxide
TMAH.svg
Names
IUPAC name
tetramethylazanium hydroxide
Other names
tetramethylammonium hydroxide; N,N,N,-trimethylmethanaminium hydroxide
Identifiers
CAS Number
75-59-2 Yes
10424-66-5 (trihydrate) 
10424-65-4 (pentahydrate) 
3D model (Jmol)
Interactive image
ChemSpider 
54928 Yes
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.803
PubChem CID
60966
InChI[show]
SMILES[show]
Properties
Chemical formula
C4H13NO
Molar mass 91.15 g·mol−1
Density ~ 1.015 g/cm3 (20-25% aqueous solution)
Melting point 67 °C (153 °F; 340 K) (pentahydrate)
Boiling point decomposes
Solubility in water
high
Basicity (pKb) 4.2[1]
Hazards
Safety data sheet Sigma-Aldrich MSDS for TMAH·5H2O
GHS pictograms The corrosion pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The skull-and-crossbones pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
[2]

GHS signal word Danger[2]
GHS hazard statements
H300, H311, H314, H318[2]
GHS precautionary statements
P260, P264, P270, P280, P301+310, P301+330+331, P303+361+353, P304+340, P305+351+338, P310, P322, P361, P363, P405[2]
NFPA 704 
NFPA 704 four-colored diamond
030
Related compounds
Other anions
tetramethylammonium chloride
Other cations
tetraethylammonium hydroxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
verify (what is Yes ?)
Infobox references
Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH or TMAOH) is a quaternary ammonium salt with the molecular formula N(CH3)4+ OH−. It is commonly encountered as concentrated solutions in water or methanol. The solid and solutions are colorless, or yellowish if impure. Although TMAH has virtually no odor when pure, samples often have a strongly fishy smell from the trimethylamine which is a common impurity. TMAH has numerous and diverse industrial and research applications.

QUATENARY- FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carnitine

Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid, 3-hydroxy-4-N,N,N- trimethylaminobutyrate) is a quaternary ammonium compound[1] involved in metabolism in most mammals, plants and some bacteria.[2] Carnitine may exist in two isomers, labeled D-carnitine and L-carnitine, as they are optically active. At room temperature, pure carnitine is a white powder, and a water-soluble zwitterion with low toxicity. Carnitine only exists in animals as the L-enantiomer, and D-carnitine is toxic because it inhibits the activity of L-carnitine.[3] Carnitine was discovered in 1905 as a result of its high concentration in muscle tissue. It was originally labeled vitamin BT; however, because carnitine is synthesized in the human body, it is no longer considered a vitamin.[2] Carnitine is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids, and involved in systemic primary carnitine deficiency. It has been studied for preventing and treating other conditions, and is used as a purported performance enhancing drug.[1]

QUATENARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS- QUAT IS FOUR

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Quaternary_ammonium_compounds

QUATENARY IS FOUR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zwitterion
Many zwitterions contain quaternary ammonium cations. Since it lacks N–H bonds, the ammonium center cannot participate in tautomerization. Zwitterions containing quaternary-ammonium centers are common in biology, a common example are the betaines, which serve as electrolytes in fish. The membrane-forming phospholipids are also commonly zwitterions. The polar head groups in these compounds are zwitterions, resulting from the presence of the anionic phosphate and cationic quaternary ammonium centres.[6]

QUATENARY HAS MANY USES- QUAT IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quaternary_ammonium_cation

As antimicrobials[edit]

Quaternary ammonium compounds have also been shown to have antimicrobial activity.[8] Certain quaternary ammonium compounds, especially those containing long alkyl chains, are used as antimicrobials and disinfectants. Examples are benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, methylbenzethonium chloride, cetalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, cetrimonium, cetrimide, dofanium chloride, tetraethylammonium bromide, didecyldimethylammonium chloride and domiphen bromide. Also good against fungi, amoebas, and enveloped viruses,[9] quaternary ammonium compounds are believed to act by disrupting the cell membrane.[citation needed] Quaternary ammonium compounds are lethal to a wide variety of organisms except endospores, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-enveloped viruses.

 

Quaternary ammonium compounds are cationic detergents, as well as disinfectants, and as such can be used to remove organic material. They are very effective in combination with phenols. Quaternary ammonium compounds are deactivated by anionic detergents (including common soaps). Also, they work best in soft waters.[citation needed] Effective levels are at 200 ppm. They are effective at temperatures up to 100 °C (212 °F).

 

Quaternary ammonium salts are commonly used in the foodservice industry as sanitizing agents.

 

As phase transfer catalysts[edit]

In organic chemistry, quaternary ammonium salts are employed as phase transfer catalysts (PTCs). Such catalysts accelerate reactions between reagents dissolved in immiscible solvents. The highly reactive reagent dichlorocarbene is generated via PTC by reaction of chloroform and aqueous sodium hydroxide.

 

Fabric softeners[edit]

In the 1950s, distearyldimethylammonium chloride (DHTDMAC), was introduced as a fabric softener. This compound was discontinued because the cation biodegrades too slowly. Contemporary fabric softeners are based on salts of quaternary ammonium cations where the fatty acid is linked to the quaternary center via ester linkages; these are commonly referred to as betaine-esters or ester-quats and are susceptible to degradation, e.g., by hydrolysis.[10] Characteristically, the cations contain one or two long alkyl chains derived from fatty acids linked to an ethoxylated ammonium salt.[11] Other cationic compounds can be derived from imidazolium, guanidinium, substituted amine salts, or quaternary alkoxy ammonium salts.[12]

 

Cationic surfactants used as fabric softeners

 

Distearyldimethylammonium chloride, an early generation fabric softener with low biodegradability that was phased out.

 

Another diesterquat, a contemporary fabric softener.

 

Diethyl ester dimethyl ammonium chloride used as a fabric softener.

 

Another diesterquat used as a fabric softener.

Osmolytes[edit]

Quaternary ammonium compounds are present in osmolytes, specifically glycine betaine, which stabilize osmotic pressure in cells.[13]

 

 

Glycine betaine is a naturally occurring quaternary ammonium cation. Its degradation product, trimethylamine, is responsible for the odor of spoiled fish.

Plant growth retardants[edit]

Cycocel (chlormequat chloride) reduces plant height by inhibiting the production of gibberellins, the primary plant hormones responsible for cell elongation. Therefore, their effects are primarily on stem, petiole and flower stalk tissues. Lesser effects are seen in reductions of leaf expansion, resulting in thicker leaves with darker green color.[14]

QUATENARY USED IN COSMETICS- MANY USES

Cetrimonium bromide [(C16H33)N(CH3)3]Br; cetyltrimethylammonium bromide; hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide; CTAB] is a quaternary ammonium surfactant.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cetrimonium_bromide

CTAB along with other quaternary ammonium salts have frequently been used in cosmetics at concentrations up to 10%.

 

Applications of CTAB[edit]

Biological[edit]

Cell lysis is a convenient tool to isolate certain macromolecules that exist primarily inside of the cell. Cell membranes consist of hydrophilic and lipophilic endgroups. Therefore, detergents are often used to dissolve these membranes since they interact with both polar and nonpolar endgroups. CTAB has emerged as the preferred choice for biological use because it maintains the integrity of precipitated DNA during isolation.[4] Cells typically have high concentrations of macromolecules, such as glycoproteins and polysaccharides, that co-precipitate with DNA during the extraction process, causing the extracted DNA to lose purity. The positive charge of the CTAB molecule allows it to denature these molecules that would interfere with this isolation.[5]

 

Medical[edit]

CTAB has been shown to have potential use as an apoptosis-promoting anticancer agent for head and neck cancer (HNC).[6] In vitro, CTAB interacted additively with γ radiation and cisplatin, two standard HNC therapeutic agents. CTAB exhibited anticancer cytotoxicity against several HNC cell lines with minimal effects on normal fibroblasts, a selectivity that exploits cancer-specific metabolic aberrations. In vivo, CTAB ablated tumor-forming capacity of FaDu cells and delayed growth of established tumors. Thus, using this approach, CTAB was identified as a potential apoptogenic quaternary ammonium compound possessing in vitro and in vivo efficacy against HNC models.

 

Protein electrophoresis[edit]

Glycoproteins form broad, fuzzy bands in SDS-PAGE (Laemmli-electrophoresis) because of their broad distribution of negative charges.Using positively charged detergents such as CTAB will avoid issues associated with glycoproteins. Proteins can be blotted from CTAB-gels in analogy to western blots ("eastern blot"), and Myelin-associated high hydrophobic protein can be analyzed using CTAB 2-DE.

 

DNA extraction[edit]

CTAB serves as an important surfactant in the DNA extraction buffer system to remove membrane lipids and promote cell lysis. Separation is also successful when the tissue contains high amounts of polysaccharides.[2] CTAB binds to the polysaccharides when the salt concentration is high, thus removing polysaccharides from solution. A typical recipe can be to combine 100 mL of 1 M Tris HCl (pH 8.0), 280 mL 5 M NaCl, 40 mL of 0.5 M EDTA, and 20 g of CTAB then add double distilled water (ddH2O) to bring total volume to 1 L.

 

Nanoparticle Synthesis[edit]

Surfactants play a key role in nanoparticle synthesis by adsorbing to the surface of the forming nanoparticle and lowering its surface energy.[7][8] Surfactants also help to prevent aggregation (e.g. via DLVO mechanisms).

 

Au Nanoparticle Synthesis[edit]

Gold (Au) nanoparticles are interesting to researchers because of their unique properties that can be used in applications such as catalysis, optics, electronics, sensing, and medicine.[9] Control of nanoparticle size and shape is important in order to tune its properties. CTAB has been a widely used reagent to both impart stability to these nanoparticles as well as control their morphologies. CTAB may play a role in controlling nanoparticle size and shape by selectively or more strongly binding to various emerging crystal facets.

 

Some of this control originates from the reaction of CTAB with other reagents in the gold nanoparticle synthesis. For example, in aqueous gold nanoparticle syntheses, auric acid (HAuCl4) may react with CTAB to create a CTA+-AuCl−

4 complex.[10][11] The gold complex is then reacted with ascorbic acid to produce hydrochloric acid, an ascorbic acid radical, and CTA-AuCl3. The ascorbic acid radical and CTA-AuCl3 react spontaneously to create metallic Au0 nanoparticles and other byproducts. An alternative or simultaneous reaction is the substitution of Cl− with Br− about the Au(III) center. Both complexation with the ammonium cation and/or speciation of the Au(III) precursor influence the kinetics of the nanoparticle formation reaction and therefore influence the size, shape, and (size and shape) distributions of the resulting particles.

 

Mesoporous Materials[edit]

CTAB is used as the template for the first report of ordered mesoporous materials.[12] Microporous and mesoporous inorganic solids (with pore diameters of ≤20 Å and ~20–500 Å respectively) have found great utility as catalysts and sorption media because of their large internal surface area. Typical microporous materials are crystalline framework solids, such as zeolites, but the largest pore dimensions are still below 2 nm which greatly limit application. Examples of mesoporous solids include silicas and modified layered materials, but these are invariably amorphous or paracrystalline, with pores that are irregularly spaced and broadly distributed in size. There is a need to prepare highly ordered mesoporous material with good mesoscale crystallinity. The synthesis of mesoporous solids from the calcination of aluminosilicate gels in the presence of surfactants was reported. The material possesses regular arrays of uniform channels, the dimensions of which can be tailored (in the range of 16 Å to >100 Å) through the choice of surfactant, auxiliary chemicals, and reaction conditions. It was proposed that the formation of these materials takes place by means of a liquid-crystal 'templating' mechanism, in which the silicate material forms inorganic walls between ordered surfactant micelles. CTAB formed micelles in the solution and these micelles further formed a two dimensional hexagonal mesostructure. The silicon precursor began to hydrolyze between the micelles and finally filled the gap with silicon dioxide. The template could be further removed by calcination and left a pore structure behind. These pores mimicked exactly the structure of mesoscale soft template and led to highly ordered mesoporous silica materials.

QUATENARY- ONCE PRIMARY PART OF FABRIC SOFTENERS- QUAT IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimethyldioctadecylammonium_chloride

Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride also commonly distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride is an organic compound classified as quaternary ammonium salt. The nitrogen center substituted with two methyl groups and two stearyl groups. The combination of long-chain hydrocarbon groups and the cationic ammonium confers surfactant- or a detergent-like properties. It was once a major component of fabric softeners, but has been largely phased out because of its low biodegradability.[1] In household products, it may also be found as an ingredient in cosmetics and hair conditioners in which it is added primarily for its antistatic effects.[2] It is also used in organic synthesis as a phase transfer catalyst to increase reaction rates in a two-phase organic-water system.

FABRIC SOFTENERS QUAT IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fabric_softener

Cationic fabric softeners[edit]

In the 1950s, manufactures introduced distearyldimethylammonium chloride (DHTDMAC) as a fabric softener, initially to counteract the harsh feel that the machine washing imparted to nappies (cloth diapers). They had to discontinue using this compound because the cation biodegrades very slowly. Contemporary fabric softeners are most often based on salts of quaternary ammonium cations. Characteristically, the cations contain one or two long alkyl chains derived from fatty acids.[3] Other cationic compounds can be derived from imidazolium, substituted amine salts, or quaternary alkoxy ammonium salts.[2]

QUATENARY- FOUR- USED IN RUBBING ALCOHOL AND STUFF

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denatonium

Structure and physical properties[edit]

Denatonium is a quaternary ammonium cation. It is a compound of a salt with an inert anion like benzoate or saccharide. The structure of denatonium is related to the local anesthetic lidocaine, differing only by the addition of a benzyl group to the amino nitrogen. Other similar compounds are procaine and benzocaine.[5]

 

One of the chemical names for the compound is Lidocaine benzylbenzoate, although denatonium only denotes the quaternary ammonium cation species itself, and does not necessitate the benzoate counterion.

QUATENARY IS FOUR- IMPORTANT IN PHYSIOLOGY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Choline

Choline (/ˈkoʊliːn/)[1][2] is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient.[3][4][5] The term cholines refers to the class of quaternary ammonium salts containing the N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation (X− on the right denotes an undefined counteranion).[3]

 

 

Physiology[edit]

 

Choline metabolism.

Choline and its metabolites are needed for three main physiological purposes: structural integrity and signaling roles for cell membranes, cholinergic neurotransmission (acetylcholine synthesis), and a major source for methyl groups via its metabolite, trimethylglycine (betaine), which participates in the S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) synthesis pathways.[17][18]

QUATENARY IS FOUR- USED IN EYEDROPS AND MANY OTHER STUFF

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benzalkonium_chloride

Benzalkonium chloride, also known as BZK, BKC, BAC, alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride and ADBAC, is a type of cationic surfactant. It is an organic salt classified as a quaternary ammonium compound. It has three main categories of use: as a biocide, a cationic surfactant, and as a phase transfer agent.[2] ADBACs are a mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides, in which the alkyl group has various even-numbered alkyl chain lengths.

 

 

Medicine[edit]

Benzalkonium chloride is a frequently used preservative in eye drops; typical concentrations range from 0.004% to 0.01%. Stronger concentrations can be caustic[6] and cause irreversible damage to the corneal endothelium.[7]

 

Avoiding the use of benzalkonium chloride solutions while contact lenses are in place is discussed in the literature.[8][9]

 

Especially for their antimicrobial activity, benzalkonium chloride is an active ingredient in many consumer products:

 

Pharmaceutical products such as eye, ear and nasal drops or sprays, as a preservative

Personal care products such as hand sanitizers, wet wipes, shampoos, deodorants and cosmetics

Skin antiseptics, such as Bactine and Dettol

Some disinfectant solutions, such as post-piercing ear disinfectants.

Throat lozenges[4] and mouthwashes, as a biocide

Spermicidal creams

Over-the-counter single-application treatments for herpes, cold-sores, and fever blisters, such as RELEEV and Viroxyn

Burn and ulcer treatment

Spray disinfectants for hard surface sanitization

Cleaners for floor and hard surfaces as a disinfectant, such as Lysol

Algaecides for clearing of algae, moss, lichens from paths, roof tiles, swimming pools, masonry, etc.

Benzalkonium chloride is also used in many non-consumer processes and products, including as an active ingredient in surgical disinfection. A comprehensive list of uses includes industrial applications.[5] An advantage of benzalkonium chloride, not shared by ethanol-based antiseptics or hydrogen peroxide antiseptic, is that it does not cause a burning sensation when applied to broken skin.[citation needed],

QUATENARY- FOUR PARTS LOOKS LIKE QUADRANT- USED IN MOUTHWASHES TOILETREES ANTISEPTICS COSMETICS MANY USES- antimicrobial also cationic detergenet

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benzethonium_chloride

Benzethonium chloride, also known as hyamine is a synthetic quaternary ammonium salt. This compound is an odorless white solid, soluble in water. It has surfactant, antiseptic, and anti-infective properties, and it is used as a topical antimicrobial agent in first aid antiseptics. It is also found in cosmetics and toiletries such as mouthwashes, anti-itch ointments, and antibacterial moist towelettes. Benzethonium chloride is also used in the food industry as a hard surface disinfectant.[1]

 

Being a quaternary ammonium salt, it is more toxic than negatively charged surfactants.[3] However, in a two-year study on rats, there was no evidence of carcinogenic activity.[4]

 

It is available under trade names Salanine, BZT, Diapp, Quatrachlor, Polymine D, Phemithyn, Antiseptol, Disilyn, Phermerol, and others.[5] It is also found in several grapefruit seed extract preparations[6] and can be used as a preservative, such as in the anaesthetic Ketamine.[7]

QUATENARY IS FOUR MOUTHWASHING AND OTHER STUFF- TOOTHPASTE THROAT SPRAYS- pesticides

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cetylpyridinium_chloride

OTC products containing cetylpyridinium chloride include oral wash, oral rinse, as well as ingestable products (e.g. CPC lozenges).[8] In addition, cough syrups containing CPC are also available as OTC medications.[9]

 

Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) is a cationic quaternary ammonium compound used in some types of mouthwashes, toothpastes, lozenges, throat sprays, breath sprays, and nasal sprays. It is an antiseptic that kills bacteria and other microorganisms. It has been shown to be effective in preventing dental plaque and reducing gingivitis.[2][3] It has also been used as an ingredient in certain pesticides. Cetylpyridinium chloride may cause brown stains between the teeth and on the surface of teeth.[4][5] However, these stains can be easily removed by a dental hygienist during a routine check-up.[4][5]

IT IS A QUATENARY THAT LOOKS LIKE A QUADRANT0 IT IS USED IN HAIR CONSITIONERS AND SHAMPOOS AND CONDITIONING AGENTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cetrimonium_chloride

Cetrimonium chloride, or cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), is a topical antiseptic and surfactant. It is also commonly used in hair conditioners and shampoos, as a conditioning agent.[1]

 

Categories: AntisepticsChloridesQuaternary ammonium compoundsCationic surfactantsRespiratory system drug stubsDermatologic drug stubs

USED IN SUPERCAPACITORS- QUATENARIES- LOOK LIKE QUADRANTS- TETRA IS FOUR

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetraethylammonium_bromide

 

The principal chemical characteristic of tetraethylammonium salts is their ability to engage in processes involving phase-transfer, such as phase-transfer catalysis.[6] Typically, the four ethyl groups surrounding the nitrogen are too small to facilitate efficient ion transfer between aqueous and organic phases, but tetraethylammonium salts have been found to be effective in a number of such applications, and these are exemplified under the headings of the individual salts.

 

TEA salts such as tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate and tetraethylammonium methylsulfonate are used in supercapacitors as organic electrolytes.[7]

QUATENARY- FOUR ARMS--- HAIR PRODUCT CONDITIONERS COSMETICS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stearalkonium_chloride

Stearalkonium chloride

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Stearalkonium chloride[1]

Stearalkonium chloride.png

Names

IUPAC name

benzyldimethyloctadecylazanium chloride

Other names

Dimethylbenzyloctadecylammonium chloride; Benzyldimethyloctadecylammonium chloride; Benzyldimethylstearylammonium chloride; Benzylstearyldimethylammonium chloride; N,N-dimethyl-n-octadecylbenzenemethanaminium chloride

Identifiers

CAS Number

122-19-0 Yes

3D model (Jmol)

Interactive image

ChemSpider

28945

ECHA InfoCard 100.004.117

EC Number 204-527-9

PubChem CID

31204

InChI[show]

SMILES[show]

Properties

Chemical formula

C27H50ClN

Molar mass 424.15 g·mol−1

Hazards

Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):

LD50 (median dose)

1250 mg/kg (oral, rat)

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

verify (what is Yes ?)

Infobox references

Stearalkonium chloride is a type of benzalkonium chloride which is used as an anti-static agent, a surfactant and an antimicrobial.[1] It is an ingredient in some cosmetics and hair care products, particularly conditioners.[2] It was originally designed by the fabric industry for use as a fabric softener.

 

Toxicology studies have determined that stearalkonium chloride is safe and non-toxic at the concentrations typically used in cosmetic products (0.1 to 5%).[3] At higher concentrations (25% solution), it has been shown to cause minor skin and eye irritation in animals.[3]

QUAT IS FOUR FOUR ARMS- SURFICANT PRESERVATIVE IN INDUSTRIAL SUBSTANCES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quaternium-15

Quaternium-15 (systematic name: hexamethylenetetramine chloroallyl chloride) is a quaternary ammonium salt used as a surfactant and preservative in many cosmetics and industrial substances. It is an anti-microbial agent by virtue of being a formaldehyde releaser,[2][3] however this can also cause contact dermatitis, a symptom of an allergic reaction, especially in those with sensitive skin.

QUATENARY LOOKS LIKE QUADRANT- FLAME RETARDANT FINISH ON TEXTILES- TETRA IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium_chloride

Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC) is an organophosphorus compound with the chemical formula [P(CH2OH)4]Cl. The cation P(CH2OH)4+ is four-coordinate, as is typical for phosphonium salts. THPC has applications as a precursor to fire-retardant materials.[1]

 

Application in textiles[edit]

THPC has industrial importance in the production of crease-resistant and flame-retardant finishes on cotton textiles and other cellulosic fabrics.[3] A flame-retardant finish can be prepared from THPC by the Proban Process,[4] in which THPC is treated with urea. The urea condenses with the hydroxymethyl groups on THPC. The phosphonium structure is converted to phosphine oxide as the result of this reaction.[5]

Tetrahedron Letters- TETRA IS FOUR

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetrahedron_Letters

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tetrahedron Letters

Tetrahedron Letters cover.gif

Tetrahedron Letters is a weekly international journal for rapid publication of full original research papers in the field of organic chemistry. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2014 impact factor of 2.379 and it is ranked 22nd out of 57 journals in the "Organic Chemistry" category.[1]

QUATENARY FOUR ARMS-- MAY TREAT CEREBRAL PALSY- DRY MOUTH USED DURING SURGERY (look how the N has four arms)

Categories: Quaternary ammonium compoundsCholine estersCarbamatesPeripherally selective drugs

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bethanechol

 

Bethanechol alleviates dry mouth[1] and is sometimes given orally or subcutaneously to treat urinary retention resulting from general anesthetic, diabetic neuropathy of the bladder, or a side effect of antidepressants; or to treat gastrointestinal lack of muscular tone. The muscarinic receptors in the bladder and gastrointestinal tract stimulate contraction of the bladder and expulsion of urine, and increased gastrointestinal motility, respectively. Bethanechol should be used to treat these disorders only after mechanical obstruction is ruled out as a possible cause.

 

Its potential benefit in the treatment of cerebral palsy has been investigated.[2] Bethanechol is a powerful cholinergic agent which does not cross the blood - brain barrier and may have powerful nootropic properties in enhancement of neural signaling and processing speed as well.

 

Atropine is given preoperatively to prevent voiding of the bowel/bladder during surgery, Bethanechol is then given postoperatively to revert this action.[3]

QUATENARY- FOUR ARMS (look how the N has four arms)- USED TO DIAGNOSE ASTHMA

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methacholine

 

It is highly active at all of the muscarinic receptors, but has little effect on the nicotinic receptors. Methacholine has a charged quaternary amine structure, rendering it insoluble to lipid cell membranes. Clinically, this means that it will not cross the blood–brain barrier and has poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. It is broken down at a relatively slow rate within the body, due to its relative resistance to acetylcholinesterases.

 

Methacholine has a β-methyl group which provides selectivity towards muscarinic receptors as compared to nicotinic receptors. The quaternary ammonium group is essential for activity. The ester makes it susceptible to the enzyme acetylcholine esterase.[2]

 

Methacholine is primarily used to diagnose bronchial hyperreactivity,[1] which is the hallmark of asthma and also occurs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This is accomplished through the bronchial challenge test, or methacholine challenge, in which a subject inhales aerosolized methacholine, leading to bronchoconstriction. Other therapeutic uses are limited by its adverse cardiovascular effects, such as bradycardia and hypotension, which arise from its function as a cholinomimetic.

MUSCARINE IS QUATENARY LOOK AT FOUR ARMS on the N- makes a kind of quadrant- MUSCARINE AGONISTS TREAT GLAUCOMA URINARY RETENTION- THE FIRST PARASYMPATHETIC SUBSTANCE EVER STUDIED

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muscarine

It was the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound activation of the peripheral parasympathetic nervous system that may end in convulsions and death. Being a quaternary ammonium salt, muscarine is less completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract than tertiary amines, but it does not cross the blood-brain barrier.[3

Drug[edit]

Muscarinic agonists are used as drugs in treating glaucoma, postoperative ileus, congenital megacolon, urinary retention and xerostomia. Muscarine is contraindicated in patients with diseases that make them susceptible to parasympathetic stimulation, patients who have asthma or COPD or patients who have peptic ulcer disease. Also patients with an obstruction in the gastrointestinal or urinary tract are not prescribed muscarine because it will aggravate the obstruction, causing pressure to build up that may lead to perforation.

ANOTHER QUATENARY- look at the four arms on the N- makes it look like a quadrant- HAS A LOT OF BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trimethylglycine

 

Biological function[edit]

TMG is an organic osmolyte that occurs in high concentrations (~10 mM) in many marine invertebrates, such as crustaceans and molluscs. It serves as a potent appetitive attractant to generalist carnivores such as the predatory sea-slug Pleurobranchaea californica.[7]

 

TMG is an important cofactor in methylation, a process that occurs in every cell of mammals to synthesize and donate methyl groups (CH3) for other processes in the body. These processes include the synthesis of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin. Methylation is also required for the biosynthesis of melatonin and the electron transport chain constituent coenzyme Q10.

 

The major step in the methylation cycle is the remethylation of homocysteine, a compound which is naturally generated during deamination of the essential amino acid methionine. Despite its natural formation, homocysteine has been linked to inflammation, depression, specific forms of dementia, and various types of vascular disease. The remethylation process that detoxifies homocysteine and converts it back to methionine can occur via either of two pathways. The major pathway involves the enzyme methionine synthase, which requires vitamin B12 as a cofactor, and also depends indirectly on folate and other B vitamins. The minor pathway involves betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and requires TMG as a cofactor. Betaine is thus involved in the synthesis of many biologically important molecules, and may be even more important in situations where the major pathway for the regeneration of methionine from homocysteine has been compromised by genetic polymorphisms such as mutations in the BHMT gene.

QUATENARY TETRA- USED IN GAS GENERATORS AND OTHER USES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetrafluoroammonium

Applications[edit]

NF+

4 salts are important for solid propellant NF

3–F

2 gas generators. They are also used as reagents for electrophilic fluorination of aromatic compounds in organic chemistry.[5]

 

Applications[edit]

NF+

4 salts are important for solid propellant NF

3–F

2 gas generators. They are also used as reagents for electrophilic fluorination of aromatic compounds in organic chemistry.[5]

QUATENARIES SANITIZERS AND DISINFECTANTS

Alcohols[edit]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disinfectant

Weber DJ, Barbee SL, Sobsey MD, Rutala WA (December 1999). "The effect of blood on the antiviral activity of sodium hypochlorite, a phenolic, and a quaternary ammonium compound". Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 20 (12): 821–7. doi:10.1086/501591. PMID 10614606.

Jump up ^

Alcohol and alcohol plus Quaternary ammonium cation based compounds comprise a class of proven surface sanitizers and disinfectants approved by the EPA and the Centers for Disease Control for use as a hospital grade disinfectant.[11] Alcohols are most effective when combined with distilled water to facilitate diffusion through the cell membrane; 100% alcohol typically denatures only external membrane proteins.[12] A mixture of 70% ethanol or isopropanol diluted in water is effective against a wide spectrum of bacteria, though higher concentrations are often needed to disinfect wet surfaces.[13] Additionally, high-concentration mixtures (such as 80% ethanol + 5% isopropanol) are required to effectively inactivate lipid-enveloped viruses (such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C).[12][13][14][14][15] The efficacy of alcohol is enhanced when in solution with the wetting agent dodecanoic acid (coconut soap). The synergistic effect of 29.4% ethanol with dodecanoic acid is effective against a broad spectrum of bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Further testing is being performed against Clostridium difficile (C.Diff) spores with higher concentrations of ethanol and dodecanoic acid, which proved effective with a contact time of ten minutes.[16]

 

Quaternary ammonium compounds[edit]

Quaternary ammonium compounds ("quats"), such as benzalkonium chloride, are a large group of related compounds. Some concentrated formulations have been shown to be effective low-level disinfectants. Quaternary Ammonia at or above 200ppm plus Alcohol solutions exhibit efficacy against difficult to kill non-enveloped viruses such as norovirus, rotavirus, or polio virus.[11] Newer synergous, low-alcohol formulations are highly effective broad-spectrum disinfectants with quick contact times (3–5 minutes) against bacteria, enveloped viruses, pathogenic fungi, and mycobacteria. Quats are biocides that also kill algae and are used as an additive in large-scale industrial water systems to minimize undesired biological growth.

QUATENARIES AS BIOCIDES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biocide

Biocides can be added to other materials (typically liquids) to protect them against biological infestation and growth. For example, certain types of quaternary ammonium compounds (quats) are added to pool water or industrial water systems to act as an algicide, protecting the water from infestation and growth of algae.

SILICA ITSELF IS QUADRANTS- FOUR GROUPS OF CLAY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil

There are four groups of clay: layer silicates; crystalline chain silicates; metal oxides and hydroxides and oxy-oxides; and amorphous; and allophanes. Most clays are crystalline and most are made up of three or four planes of oxygen held together by planes of aluminium and silicon by way of ionic bonds that together form a single layer of clay. The spatial arrangement of the oxygen atoms determines clay's structure. Half of the weight of clay is oxygen, but on a volume basis oxygen is ninety percent.[169] The layers of clay are sometimes held together through hydrogen bonds or potassium bridges and as a result will swell less in the presence of water. Other clays, such as montmorillonite, have layers that are loosely attached and will swell greatly when water intervenes between the layers.[170]

 

There are four groups of clays:

 

Layer Crystalline alumino-silica clays: montmorillonite, illite, vermiculite, chlorite, kaolinite.

Crystalline Chain carbonate and sulfate minerals: calcite (CaCO3), dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) and gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O).

Amorphous clays: young mixtures of silica (SiO2-OH) and alumina (Al(OH)3) which have not had time to form regular crystals.

Sesquioxide clays: old, highly leached clays which result in oxides of iron, aluminium and titanium.[171]

THE FOURTH - LOAM IS DIFFERENT YET ENCOMPASSES THE PREVIOUS THREE- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT TRANSCENDENT THE QUADRANT PATTERN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_texture

Soil textures are classified by the fractions of each soil separate (sand, silt, and clay) present in a soil. Classifications are typically named for the primary constituent particle size or a combination of the most abundant particles sizes, e.g. "sandy clay" or "silty clay". A fourth term, loam, is used to describe a roughly equal concentration of sand, silt, and clay, and lends to the naming of even more classifications, e.g. "clay loam" or "silt loam".

I HAD A TEACHING COMPANY COURSE THAT I STUDIED THAT HAD SO MANY QUADRANT EXAMPLES AND IT DESCRIBED THE SOIL AND I ALREADY POSTED HOW THE SOIL LAYERS FIT THE QUADRANT PATTERN THE THIRD IS THE MOST PHYSICAL SOLID THE FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT- I JUST FORGET THOSE LECTURES NOW AND HOPEFULLY I CAN GET A DVD PLAYER THAT PLAYS FAST MOTION AND REWATCH

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil

Soil is made of four things.

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil

It has rock pieces and the rocks are made of minerals,

It has dead and living things (organic matter, humus),

It has water,

It has air.

Downer (soil)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Downer_(soil)
Downer is the New Jersey state soil. The Downer has four soil horizons:

Surface Layer: dark grayish brown loamy sand
Subsurface layer: grayish brown sandy loam
Subsoil - upper: yellowish brown gravelly sandy loam
Subsoil - lower: yellowish brown sand and coarse sand

EACH SOIL TYPE USUALLY HAS THREE OR FOUR SOIL HORIZONS- FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT THIRD IS ALWAYS THE MOST SOLID/PHYSICAL I STUDIED COURSES ON THIS IT FITS THE QUADRANT MODEL ID JUST HOPEFULLY HAVE TO REWATCH THE COURSES- I FORGET A TON OF STUFF

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_horizon

A soil horizon is a layer generally parallel to the soil crust, whose physical characteristics differ from the layers above and beneath. Each soil type usually has three or four horizons

THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT- THIRD IS MOST SOLID PHYSICAL- THREE OR FOUR THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR- FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bedrock

 

Most soils have three major horizons: the surface horizon (A), the subsoil (B), and the substratum (C). Some soils have an organic horizon (O) on the surface, but such a horizon can also be buried.

Soils are made up of combinations of four distinct layer types or horizons: O horizon, A horizon, B horizon, and C horizon.

https://www.boundless.com/biology/textbooks/boundless-biology-textbook/soil-and-plant-nutrition-31/the-soil-187/physical-properties-of-soil-714-11938/

Physical Properties of the Soil

 

Soils are named and classified based on their horizons . The soil profile has four distinct layers:

 

 

Soil profile

 

This soil profile shows the different soil layers (O horizon, A horizon, B horizon, and C horizon) found in typical soils.

The O horizon has freshly-decomposing organic matter, humus, at its surface, with decomposed vegetation at its base. Humus enriches the soil with nutrients, enhancing soil moisture retention. Topsoil, the top layer of soil, is usually two to three inches deep, but this depth can vary considerably. For instance, river deltas, such as the Mississippi River delta, have deep layers of topsoil. Topsoil is rich in organic material. Microbial processes occur there; it is responsible for plant production.

The A horizon consists of a mixture of organic material with inorganic products of weathering; it is the beginning of true mineral soil. This horizon is typically darkly colored because of the presence of organic matter. In this area, rainwater percolates through the soil and carries materials from the surface.

The B horizon, or subsoil, is an accumulation of mostly fine material that has moved downward, resulting in a dense layer in the soil. In some soils, the B horizon contains nodules or a layer of calcium carbonate.

The C horizon, or soil base, includes the parent material, plus the organic and inorganic material that is broken down to form soil. The parent material may be either created in its natural place or transported from elsewhere to its present location. Beneath the C horizon lies bedrock.

Some soils may have additional layers, or lack one of these layers. The thickness of the layers is also variable, depending on the factors that influence soil formation. In general, immature soils may have O, A, and C horizons, whereas mature soils may display all of these, plus additional layers .

I DESCRIBED THAT TECHNICALLY ACCORDING TO SCIENTISTS THERE ARE REALLY FOUR OCEANS AND TRULY FOUR CONTINENTS- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Seas

The Four Seas (Chinese: 四海; pinyin: Sìhǎi) were four bodies of water that metaphorically made up the boundaries of ancient China. There is a sea for each for the four cardinal directions. The West Sea is Qinghai Lake, the East Sea is the East China Sea, the North Sea is Lake Baikal, and the South Sea is the South China Sea.[1] Two of the seas were symbolic until they were tied to genuine locations during the Han Dynasty's wars with the Xiongnu. The lands "within the Four Seas", a literary name for China, are alluded to in Chinese literature and poetry.[2]

FOUR TYPES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Littoral_zone

The littoral zone may form a narrow or broad fringing wetland, with extensive areas of aquatic plants sorted by their tolerance to different water depths. Typically, four zones are recognized, from higher to lower on the shore: wooded wetland, wet meadow, marsh and aquatic vegetation.[3] The relative areas of these four types depends not only on the profile of the shoreline, but upon past water levels. The area of wet meadow is particularly dependent upon past water levels;[4] in general, the area of wet meadows along lakes and rivers increases with natural water level fluctuations.[5][6] Many of the animals in lakes and rivers are dependent upon the wetlands of littoral zones, since the rooted plants provide habitat and food. Hence, a large and productive littoral zone is considered an important characteristic of a healthy lake or river.[4]

FOUR ZONES PELAGIC

http://marinebio.org/_n/i/zones.gif

I. Pelagic - (1) Epipelagic (2) Mesopelagic (3) Bathypelagic (4) Abyssopelagic

http://marinebio.org/oceans/marine-zones/

Quadrant

Four zones

http://csmres.jmu.edu/geollab/idls/aquaticbiomes.htm

Like ponds and lakes, the ocean regions are separated into separate zones: intertidal, pelagic, abyssal, and benthic. All four zones have a great diversity of species. Some say that the ocean contains the richest diversity of species even though it contains less species than there are on land.

The intertidal zone

where the ocean meets the land, like the shore or rocky areas, thus it is submerged sometimes, and exposed at other times as waves come in and out of the area.

 

The communities are constantly changing.

 

In the rocky areas, the zone is stratified vertically. On the highest part where only the highest tides reach, there are only a few species of algae and mollusks.

 

In the part where it is usually submerged during high tide, there is more diverse array of algae and small animals, such as herbivorus snails, crabs, sea stars, and small fishes.

 

The bottom of the intertidal zone, which is only exposed during the lowest tides, houses many invertebrates and fishes, along with a lot of seaweed.

 

The intertidal zone on shores are not as stratified as the rocky areas.

Waves cause mud and sand to be constantly moving, thus very few algae and plants can establish themselves there. The fauna there includes worms, clams, predatory crustaceans, crabs, and shorebirds.

 

The pelagic zone

All the water that is not near the shore or land, basically the open ocean.

In the open oceans fish, whales and crustaceans swim actively to pursue food, these animals are called pelagic

floating algae = phytoplankton

since sunlight cannot penetrate to great depths the phytoplankton are located in the upper regions of the oceans

euphotic zone

 

Zooplankton

located at greater depths than phytoplankton but migrate upwards at night to feed

 

Generally cold though it is hard to give a general temperature range since, just like ponds and lakes, there is thermal stratification, and there is always mixing of warm and cold ocean currents.

 

The flora in the pelagic zone include seaweed on the surface of the water. The fauna includes many species of fish and some mammals, such as whales and dolphins. They feed on the plankton that are found all over the water.

 

 

The abyssal zone

very cold (around 3 C), highly pressured, high in oxygen content, but low in nutritional content.

 

The abyssal zone houses many species of invertebrates and fishes.

 

Also in this zone are mid-ocean ridges, which contains hydrothermal vents.

These ridges, according to theory, were lines of former contact between continents. Since large amounts of hydrogen sulfide and other minerals are emitted from these ridges, chemosynthetic bacteria dominant the area in terms of plankton. These bacteria are thus the start of the food web as they are eaten by invertebrates and fishes.

 

The benthic zone

below the pelagic zone, but not at the deepest parts of the ocean, as where the abyssal zone is located.

 

The bottom of the zone consists of sand, slit, wastes, and/or dead organisms.

 

temperature decreases as the depth increases towards the abyssal zone, since light cannot penetrate through the deeper water.

 

The flora in this zone only consists of seaweed while the fauna, since it is very nutrient rich, includes all sorts of bacteria, fungi, sponges, sea anemones, worms, sea stars, and fishes

FOUR MAJOR SUBSYSTEMS

http://www.eartheclipse.com/geography/4-different-spheres-of-earth.html

The earth is the 3rd planet from the sun between Venus and Mars. The earth is made up of several unique properties, characteristics, composition and they all affect the processes of the earth differently. Every of these properties and elements in Earth’s system are largely categorized into one of the four major subsystems including water, living things, land, and the air. These are regarded as the four interlocking “wonders” that create the earth’s diversity. Cumulatively, they are primarily grouped into biological (living things) and physical (non-living things).

 

These four “wonders” of the earth are dependent upon each other and have been used to make the study of biological and physical components of the earth easily comprehendible. They are scientifically called the biophysical elements namely the hydrosphere (‘hydro’ for water), biosphere (‘bio’ for living things), lithosphere (‘litho’ for land), and atmosphere (‘atmo’ for air). These spheres are further divided into various sub-spheres.

I POSTED ARTICLES SAYING THERE ARE REALLY FOUR OCEANS A LONG TIME AGO--- THIS ARTICLE SAYS THAT THERE ARE FOUR PRINCIPAL DIVISIONS- PACIFIC OCEAN, ATLANTIC OCEAN, INDIAN OCEAN, ARCTIC OCEAN, AND ANTARCTIC OCEAN--- BUT I POSTED ARTICLES SHOWING THE FIFTH IS ULTRA TRANSCENDNET AND QUESTIONABLE- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT- THERE IS REALLY FOUR OCEANS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borders_of_the_oceans

 

The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, and other criteria. The principal divisions (in descending order of area) are the: Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Arctic Ocean, and Southern (Antarctic) Ocean. Smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, gulfs, bays, straits, and other names.

FOUR MAJOR WATER MASSES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean consists of four major, upper water masses with distinct temperature and salinity. The Atlantic Subarctic Upper Water in the northern-most North Atlantic is the source for Subarctic Intermediate Water and North Atlantic Intermediate Water. North Atlantic Central Water can be divided into the Eastern and Western North Atlantic central Water since the western part is strongly affected by the Gulf Stream and therefore the upper layer is closer to underlying fresher subpolar intermediate water. The eastern water is saltier because of its proximity to Mediterranean Water. North Atlantic Central Water flows into South Atlantic Central Water at 15°N.[30]

 

The North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) is a complex of four water masses, two that form by deep convection in the open ocean — Classical and Upper Labrador Sea Water — and two that form from the inflow of dense water across the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland sill — Denmark Strait and Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water. Along its path across Earth the composition of the NADW is affected by other water masses, especially Antarctic Bottom Water and Mediterranean Overflow Water.[31] The NADW is fed by a flow of warm shallow water into the northern North Atlantic which is responsible for the anomalous warm climate in Europe. Changes in the formation of NADW have been linked to global climate changes in the past. Since man-made substances were introduced into the environment, the path of the NADW can be traced throughout its course by measuring tritium and radiocarbon from nuclear weapon tests in the 1960s and CFCs.[32]

 

Geologically the South Atlantic can be divided into four segments: Equatorial segment, from 10°N to the Romanche Fracture Zone (RFZ);; Central segment, from RFZ to Florianopolis Fracture Zone (FFZ, north of Walvis Ridge and Rio Grande Rise); Southern segment, from FFZ to the Agulhas-Falkland Fracture Zone (AFFZ); and Falkland segment, south of AFFZ.[50]

THE FOUR THERMODYNAMIC POTENTIAL ARE PRETTY MUCH ALL THAT IS TAUGHT IN THE SECOND YEAR CHEMISTRY COURSE AT UCSD ON CHEMISTRY- THEY ARE A QUADRANT MODEL- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermodynamic_potential

Notice that the set of natural variables for the above four potentials are formed from every combination of the T-S and P-V variables, excluding any pairs of conjugate variables. There is no reason to ignore the Ni − μi conjugate pairs, and in fact we may define four additional potentials for each species.[6] Using IUPAC notation in which the brackets contain the natural variables (other than the main four), we have:

I REMEMBER THE CHEMISTRY TEACHER AT UCSD DREW THIS AS A QUADRANT MODEL- THE FOUR DISTINCT CASES DETERMINING IF A REACTION IS SPONTANEOUS OR NOT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spontaneous_process

This set of rules can be used to determine four distinct cases by examining the signs of the ΔS and ΔH.

 

When ΔS > 0 and ΔH < 0, the process is always spontaneous as written.

When ΔS < 0 and ΔH > 0, the process is never spontaneous, but the reverse process is always spontaneous.

When ΔS > 0 and ΔH > 0, the process will be spontaneous at high temperatures and non-spontaneous at low temperatures.

When ΔS < 0 and ΔH < 0, the process will be spontaneous at low temperatures and non-spontaneous at high temperatures.

FOUR STEREOISOMERS OF LSD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lysergide_stereoisomers_structural_formulae_v.2.png

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lysergic_acid_diethylamide

The four possible stereoisomers of LSD. Only (+)-LSD is psychoactive.

LSD is a chiral compound with two stereocenters at the carbon atoms C-5 and C-8, so that theoretically four different optical isomers of LSD could exist. LSD, also called (+)-D-LSD, has the absolute configuration (5R,8R). The C-5 isomers of lysergamides do not exist in nature and are not formed during the synthesis from D-lysergic acid. Retrosynthetically, the C-5 stereocenter could be analysed as having the same configuration of the alpha carbon of the naturally occurring amino acid L-tryptophan, the precursor to all biosynthetic ergoline compounds.

 

However, LSD and iso-LSD, the two C-8 isomers, rapidly interconvert in the presence of bases, as the alpha proton is acidic and can be deprotonated and reprotonated. Non-psychoactive iso-LSD which has formed during the synthesis can be separated by chromatography and can be isomerized to LSD.

 

Pure salts of LSD are triboluminescent, emitting small flashes of white light when shaken in the dark.[13] LSD is strongly fluorescent and will glow bluish-white under UV light.

BLT IS VERY FAMOUS MY MOM USED TO MAKE IT FOR ME- IT HAS FOUR INGREDIENTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BLT

A BLT (Bacon, Lettuce and Tomato) is a type of bacon sandwich. The standard BLT is made up of four ingredients: bacon, lettuce, tomato and bread. The BLT evolved from the tea sandwiches served before 1900 at a similar time to the club sandwich,[citation needed] although it is unclear when the name BLT became the norm.

FOUR INGREDIENTS BOOKS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rachael_Bermingham

Rachael's first book Read My Lips was written with co-authors Cyndi O'Meara, Jodie McIver, Fleur Whelligan, Kim Morrison, and Allison Mooney, and released 14 February 2006. Rachael's second book 4 Ingredients was co-written with Kim McCosker (Turnbull), as were the following books within the series, 4 Ingredients 2, 4 Ingredients Gluten Free, "4 Ingredients Fast, Fresh & Healthy" and "4 Ingredients Kids". Rachael and Kim celebrated their first title being named bestselling title of 2008 (it was 2nd bestselling title to JK Rowling's Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows in 2007 the year of its release).[3] Rachael's fifth book was a mini-book entitled How To Write Your Own Book & Make It A Bestseller, a bestselling book upon release, it has now been transformed into a home-study program for aspiring authors.

 

Bermingham has also previously appeared on the TV show 4 Ingredients, which aired in 23 countries including Australia, Africa, UK and New Zealand.

 

In 2010, Rachael launched her own book distribution and education company (Bermingham Books) and mentors authors on how to write, publish and promote their own titles.

 

The following year, in 2011, Bermingham revealed she was leaving her association with the 4 Ingredients franchise after being bought out of her 50% stake by Kim McCosker. Bermingham also explained she was leaving her husband, denying suggestions of extra-marital affairs by her husband.[4]

BEER FOUR MAIN INGREDIENTS

http://www.dummies.com/food-drink/drinks/beer/the-main-ingredients-of-beer/

What is beer exactly? By excruciatingly simple definition, beer is any fermented beverage made with a cereal grain. Specifically, beer is made from these four primary ingredients:

 

Grain (mostly malted barley but also other grains)

 

Hops (grown in many different varieties)

 

ADVERTISING

 

Yeast (responsible for fermentation; based on style-specific strains)

 

Water (accounts for up to 95 percent of beer’s content)

WHEN I WENT TO THE SNUS STORE AT ABBOT KINNEY THE WALLS HAD TWO POSTERS BOTH OF THEM ADVERTISING "THE FOUR INGREDIENTS OF SNUS"- ALSO THERES ANOTHER STORE ON ABBOT KINEY THAT SELLS FOUR THINGS HATS GLASSES AND SHOES AND WATCHES I THINK AND EACH OF THE FOUR GOES TO FOUR CHARITIES ALSO THERE IS A PLACE THAT HAS 16 TEAS I FORGET ITS NAME AND A COLOGNE PLACE THAT HAS 16 TYPES OF COLOGNE VEYR FAMOUS PLACE ONE IS SANTAL

https://www.buysnus.com/information/about-snus

Well, Swedish snus originates from the 18th century and consists of four main ingredients: tobacco, water, salt and humectant substance. Snus is a smokeless tobacco product. Different flavors are added to these four ingredients which provide each and every brand with its special character! At our store you’ll find snus with all kinds of flavors - whisky, raspberry, mint ...you name it!

FOUR OF THEM

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ed081p368?src=recsys&journalCode=jceda8

Many students of organic chemistry find it difficult to determine the extent to which substitution and elimination reactions compete to produce distributions of products. Similarly the competition between monomolecular and bimolecular mechanisms can be confusing. By viewing these phenomena as part of a circular E2, E1, SN1, and SN2 mechanistic continuum the student is capable of determining the relative product distribution without memorizing oversimplified tables. In this manuscript a mnemonic device designed to facilitate presentation of the competing SN1, SN2, E1, and E2 mechanisms is presented.

I LEARNED ABOUT THIS IN MY ORGANIC CHEMISTRY CLASS

http://www.practicallyscience.com/category/chemistry/organic/

http://www.practicallyscience.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/spectrum-sn1-e1-sn2-e2-v7.pdf

 

Substitution and elimination reactions (between Lewis-bases and alkyl-halides) are some of the first reactions taught in organic chemistry. The figure above, organizes the main factors that distinquish: SN1, SN2, E1 or E2 mechanisms into a single, 4-quadrant spectrum. We describe the heirarchy of these factors in more detail below.

TETRA IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_tetrachloride

In organic chemistry, carbon tetrachloride serves as a source of chlorine in the Appel reaction.

 

Historic uses[edit]

Prior to the Montreal Protocol, large quantities of carbon tetrachloride were used to produce the chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants R-11 (trichlorofluoromethane) and R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane). However, these refrigerants play a role in ozone depletion and have been phased out. Carbon tetrachloride is still used to manufacture less destructive refrigerants. Carbon tetrachloride has also been used in the detection of neutrinos.

 

Solvent[edit]

It once was a popular solvent in organic chemistry, but, because of its adverse health effects, it is rarely used today.[7] It is sometimes useful as a solvent for infrared spectroscopy, because there are no significant absorption bands > 1600 cm−1. Because carbon tetrachloride does not have any hydrogen atoms, it was historically used in proton NMR spectroscopy. In addition to being toxic, its dissolving power is low.[8] Its use has been largely superseded by deuterated solvents. Use of carbon tetrachloride in determination of oil has been replaced by various other solvents, such as tetrachloroethylene.[7] Because it has no C-H bonds, carbon tetrachloride does not easily undergo free-radical reactions. It is a useful solvent for halogenations either by the elemental halogen or by a halogenation reagent such as N-bromosuccinimide (these conditions are known as Wohl-Ziegler Bromination).

 

Fire suppression[edit]

 

A brass, Pyrene carbon-tetrachloride, fire extinguisher

In 1910, the Pyrene Manufacturing Company of Delaware filed a patent to use carbon tetrachloride to extinguish fires.[9] The liquid was vaporized by the heat of combustion and extinguished flames, an early form of gaseous fire suppression. At the time it was believed the gas simply displaced oxygen in the area near the fire, but later research found that the gas actually inhibits the chemical chain reaction of the combustion process.

 

In 1911, Pyrene patented a small, portable extinguisher that used the chemical.[10] The extinguisher consisted of a brass bottle with an integrated handpump that was used to expel a jet of liquid toward the fire. As the container was unpressurized, it could easily be refilled after use.[11] Carbon tetrachloride was suitable for liquid and electrical fires and the extinguishers were often carried on aircraft or motor vehicles.

 

In the first half of the 20th century, another common fire extinguisher was a single-use, sealed glass globe known as a "fire grenade," filled with either carbon tetrachloride or salt water. The bulb could be thrown at the base of the flames to quench the fire. The carbon tetrachloride type could also be installed in a spring-loaded wall fixture with a solder-based restraint. When the solder melted by high heat, the spring would either break the globe or launch it out of the bracket, allowing the extinguishing agent to be automatically dispersed into the fire. A well-known brand was the "Red Comet," which was variously manufactured with other fire-fighting equipment in the Denver, Colorado area by the Red Comet Manufacturing Company from its founding in 1919 until manufacturing operations were closed in the early 1980s.[12]

 

 

A Red Comet brand, glass globe "fire grenade"

Niche[edit]

Carbon tetrachloride was widely used as a dry cleaning solvent, as a refrigerant, and in lava lamps.[13]

 

One specialty use of carbon tetrachloride is in stamp collecting, to reveal watermarks on postage stamps without damaging them. A small amount of the liquid was placed on the back of a stamp, sitting in a black glass or obsidian tray. The letters or design of the watermark could then be clearly seen.

FOUR ISOMERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tert-Butyl_acetate

Butyl acetate has four isomers: tert-butyl acetate, n-butyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, and sec-butyl acetate.

TETRA IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetrazole

Tetrazoles are a class of synthetic organic heterocyclic compound, consisting of a 5-member ring of four nitrogen atoms and one carbon atom. The simplest is tetrazole itself, CH2N4. They are unknown in nature.[citation needed]

 

There are several pharmaceutical agents which are tetrazoles. The tetrazole ring can act as a bioisostere for the carboxylate group. Angiotensin II receptor blockers - such as losartan and candesartan, often are tetrazoles. A well-known tetrazole is dimethyl thiazolyl diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT). This tetrazole is used in the MTT assay to quantify the respiratory activity of live cells culture, although it generally kills the cells in the process. Some tetrazoles can also be used in DNA assays.[4]

 

Some tetrazole derivatives with high energy have been investigated as high performance explosives as a replacement for TNT and also for use in high performance solid rocket propellant formulations.[5][6]

 

Other tetrazoles are used for their explosive or combustive properties, such as tetrazole itself and 5-aminotetrazole, which are sometimes used as a component of gas generators in automobile airbags. Tetrazole based energetic materials produce high-temperature, non-toxic reaction products such as water and nitrogen gas,[7] and have a high burn rate and relative stability,[8] all of which are desirable properties. The delocalization energy in tetrazole is 209 kJ/mol.

4 Stages of Ecological Succession

http://www.conserve-energy-future.com/types-and-stages-of-ecological-succession.php

When talking about the types of ecological succession it is important to remember that the “types” occur within the stages, but they may not necessarily be unique to that stage. What determines the stage that an ecosystem is in is dependent on its energy balance – which is discussed in the next section. There are four main types of ecological succession:

 

Pioneer – pioneer types are the new lifeforms that enter into a primary succession and begin to take hold. This can be anything from a seed to a bacteria to an insect or to an animal wandering into a new area and bedding down to make it their home. The pioneer has no connection to the environment, but it does find enough present in the new ecosystem to begin to establish its life.

Establishing – the establishing type can be hard to pinpoint because it crosses into the pioneer and sustaining. Establishing is the process in which lifeforms identify elements in an ecosystem that can sustain their basic needs – such as food, water and safe habitat.

Sustaining – Sustaining type means that life in the ecosystem has begun to enter into a pattern that allows for a cycle of life to continue. This means that birth and death are occurring, and there is little migration outside of the ecosystem – this is most common in the climax succession.

Producing – the producing type occurs during the secondary succession. This is when lifeforms are breeding and growing, but there is migration because what is produced is also not capable of being supported within the ecosystem. There are also more areas of overgrowth or overpopulation due to seed levels.

http://habitat.aq.upm.es/boletin/n26/i2eodu.en.jpg

http://habitat.aq.upm.es/boletin/n26/aeodu.en.html

Education, as always, must play a role in increasing man's awareness of his dependence on the natural environment. Perhaps we need to start teaching the principles of ecosystem in the third grade. A grammar school primer on man and his environment could logically consist of four chapters, one for each of the four essential kinds of environment, shown diagrammatically in Figure 2.

 

Successful though they often are, compromise systems are not suitable nor desirable for the whole landscape. More emphasis needs to be placed on compartmentalization, so that growth-type, steady-type, and intermediate-type ecosystems can be linked with urban and industrial areas for mutual benefit. Knowing the transfer cofficients that define the flow of energy and the movement of material and organisms (including man) between compartments, it should be possible to determine, through analog-computer manipulations, rational limits for the size and capacity of each compartment. We might start, for example, with a simplified model shown in Figure 2, consisting of four compartments of equal area, partitioned according to the basic biotic-function criterion --that is, according to whether the area is (i) productive, (ii) protective, (iii) a compromise between (i) and (ii) or (iv), urban-industrial. By continually refining the transfer coefficients on the basis of real world situations, and by increasing and decreasing the size and capacity of each compartment through computer simulation, it would be possible to determine objectively the limits that must eventually be imposed on each compartment in order to maintain regional and global balances in the exchange of vital energy and materials. A system-analysis procedure provides at least one approach to the solution of the basic dilemma posed by the question How do we determine when we are getting too much of a good thing? Also it provides a means of evaluating the energy drains imposed on ecosystems by pollution, radiation, harvest, and other stresses (Odum, 1967a:81; Odum, 1967b:99; Watt, 1968).

IDEAL GAS LAWS FOUR VARIABLES- THIS IS TAUGHT SECOND YEAR CHEMISTRY

 

https://www.wyzant.com/resources/lessons/science/chemistry/gas_laws

In other words, pressure multiplied by volume equals the number of moles multiplied by the gas constant (R = .0821 L*atm/mol*K) multiplied by the temperature. The ideal gas law is used when you are given 3 of the 4 variables (you always have R, so that doesn’t count as a variable). For example, you could use this equation to find pressure if you were given volume, number of moles, and temperature. The equation would look like this:

http://www.chemteam.info/GasLaw/Four-Gas-Variables.html

The Four Gas Law Variables:

Temperature, Pressure, Volume, and Moles

CRUCIFORM SHAPE

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/anie.201109074/abstract

Oligothiophene Cruciform with a Germanium Spiro Center: A Promising Material for Organic Photovoltaics†

 

original image

X marks the spot! A fascinating packing motif is observed in a novel cruciform oligothiophene containing a Ge (violet; see picture) spiro center. Long-range interchain interactions between molecules and strong electronic coherence between orthogonal chains within the molecules are present. Such ordering is advantageous for bulk charge transport, as demonstrated by high short-circuit currents in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells.

he talks about "the 3 plus 1 law" that is. the quadrant pattern. he said the 3 plus 1 law which is the quadrant pattern is the "plan of the atomic nucleus"- everything in existence reflects the quadrant pattern. fourth always different!
http://pkl.net/~node/2RCD/BoW/

After I discovered the 3 + 1 law as the foundation of the Prime Number Cross in 1980, and had thus caused the conditions necessary to cast some light into the dark recesses of the electrons shell, I now found the same (3 + 1) plan in the atomic nucleus. The law thus centres on 4 times (1 + 19). This law would not be fulfilled if two prime number elements had not been barred from taking part in natural existence."

QUATENARY IS FOUR LOOK LIKE QUADRANTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quaternary_ammonium_cation

Quaternary ammonium salts are used as disinfectants, surfactants, fabric softeners, and as antistatic agents (e.g. in shampoos). In liquid fabric softeners, the chloride salts are often used. In dryer anticling strips, the sulfate salts are often used. Spermicidal jellies also contain quaternary ammonium salts.

IT IS A QUADRANT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aliquat_336

Aliquat 336 (Starks' catalyst) is a quaternary ammonium salt used as a phase transfer catalyst and metal extraction reagent. It contains a mixture of C8 (octyl) and C10 (decyl) chains with C8 predominating.

QUATENARY- LOOKS LIKE QUADRANT- four arms- SURFACANT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimethyldioctadecylammonium_bromide

Dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (also dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide or DODAB) is a double-chained quaternary ammonium surfactant that forms unilamellar vesicles (ULVs) in water. Among various preparation methods, the ‘‘hot-water” method offers a simple procedure to prepare DODAB cationic vesicles by simply dissolving the DODAB in hot water above 50 °C, i.e., chain melting (main) transition, Tm. In general, the DSC thermograms of the unsonicated DODAB dispersions are dominated by two endotherms; the pre- (35–36 °C) and main transition (42.7–45 °C) peaks. Moreover, in literature reported the presence of a third endotherm (post transition) at 52.2 °C. The main transition (Tm) is ascribed to gel to liquid-crystalline phase transition in which the alkyl chains transform from solidlike to liquid-like state.

FOUR UPPER GREAT LAKES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Lakes

As the surfaces of Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, and Erie are all approximately the same elevation above sea level, while Lake Ontario is significantly lower, and because the Niagara Escarpment precludes all natural navigation, the four upper lakes are commonly called the "upper great lakes"

FOUR BRANCHES THEOSOPHICAL

https://blavatskytheosophy.com/satan-is-the-only-god-did-blavatsky-really-say-that/

In our article The Four Branches of the Theosophical Movement, we stated:

“It has been more than a century since there was just one Theosophical Society. The first split in the Theosophical Movement occurred in 1895, four years after the death of H.P. Blavatsky. Today there are four main branches of the Theosophical Movement, all of which are organisationally distinct from one another. There is no such thing as THE Theosophical Society, since there are three totally unrelated international organisations all using this name. There is also a fourth worldwide group which does not call itself a Theosophical Society but the “United Lodge of Theosophists”.”

FOUR MAJOR PERIODS OF GLACIATION

http://www.crystalinks.com/iceage.html

There have been four major periods of glaciation in the Earth's past. The first, and possibly most severe, may have occurred from 800 Ma to 600 Ma (million years ago, the late Proterozoic Age) and it has been suggested that it produced a "Snowball Earth" in which the earth iced over completely. It has been suggested also that the end of this cold period was responsible for the subsequent Cambrian Explosion, a time of rapid diversification of multicelled life during the Cambrian era. However, this theory is recent and controversial.

THE FOUR CYCLES

http://www.dummies.com/education/science/discovering-the-biogeochemical-cycles/

There are four biogeochemical cycles, and each of them returns to the earth important elements that are required in living organisms.

GENERALLY THERE IS A MAXIMUM OF FOUR TROPHIC LEVELS

http://www.merkinms.org/ourpages/auto/2015/2/3/44919098/Trophic-Levels.pdf

Trophic Levels

The feeding positions in a food chain or web are called trophic levels. The different trophic levels are defined in the Table 1.1. Examples are also given in the table. All food chains and webs have at least two or three trophic levels. Generally, there are a maximum of four trophic levels.

TABLE 1.1: Trophic Levels

Trophic Level

Where It Gets Food

Example

1st Trophic Level: Producer

Makes its own food

Plants make food

2nd Trophic Level: Primary Con- sumer

Consumes producers

Mice eat plant seeds

3rd Trophic Level: Secondary Con- sumer

Consumes primary consumers

Snakes eat mice

4th Trophic Level: Tertiary Con- sumer

Consumes secondary consumers

Hawks eat snakes

FOUR CATEGORIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effects_of_nuclear_explosions_on_human_health

The medical effects of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima upon humans can be put into the four categories below, with the effects of larger thermonuclear weapons producing blast and thermal effects so large that there would be a negligible number of survivors close enough to the center of the blast who would experience prompt/acute radiation effects, which were observed after the 16 kiloton yield Hiroshima bomb, due to its relatively low yield:[1][2]

 

Initial stage—the first 1–9 weeks, in which are the greatest number of deaths, with 90% due to thermal injury and/or blast effects and 10% due to super-lethal radiation exposure.

Intermediate stage—from 10–12 weeks. The deaths in this period are from ionizing radiation in the median lethal range - LD50

Late period—lasting from 13–20 weeks. This period has some improvement in survivors' condition.

Delayed period—from 20+ weeks. Characterized by numerous complications, mostly related to healing of thermal and mechanical injuries, and if the individual was exposed to a few hundred to a thousand Millisieverts of radiation, it is coupled with infertility, sub-fertility and blood disorders. Furthermore, ionizing radiation above a dose of around 50-100 Millisievert exposure has been shown to statistically begin increasing ones chance of dying of cancer sometime in their lifetime over the normal unexposed rate of c. 25%, in the long term, a heightened rate of cancer, proportional to the dose received, would begin to be observed after c. 5+ years, with lesser problems such as eye cataracts and other more minor effects in other organs and tissue also being observed over the long term.

THE FOUR PROPOSITIONS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sceptical_Chymist

In part one, Carneades (Boyle) lays out four propositions to the gathering, which sets the foundation for the rest of the book. They are as follows:

 

Proposition I.

It seems not absurd to conceive that at the first production of mixt bodies, the universal matter whereof they among other parts of the universe consisted, was actually divided into little particles of several sizes and shapes variously moved.

Proposition II.

Neither is it impossible that of these minute particles divers of the smallest and neighboring ones were here and there associated into minute masses or clusters, and did by their coalitions constitute great store of such little primary concretions or masses as were not easily dissipable into such particles as composed them.[2]

Proposition III.

I shall not peremptorily deny, that from most such mixt bodies as partake either of animals or vegetable nature, there may by the help of the fire be actually obtained a determinate number (whether three, four, or five, or fewer or more) of substances, worthy of differing denominations.

Proposition IV.

It may likewise be granted, that those distinct substances, which concretes generally either afford or are made up of, may without very much inconvenience be called the elements or principles of them.[3]

DISCOVERED THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH D BLOCK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodic_table

In 1945, Glenn Seaborg, an American scientist, made the suggestion that the actinide elements, like the lanthanides, were filling an f sub-level. Before this time the actinides were thought to be forming a fourth d-block row. Seaborg's colleagues advised him not to publish such a radical suggestion as it would most likely ruin his career. As Seaborg considered he did not then have a career to bring into disrepute, he published anyway. Seaborg's suggestion was found to be correct and he subsequently went on to win the 1951 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work in synthesizing actinide elements.[93][94][n 8]

FOUR DIMENSIONAL TABLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodic_table

Most periodic tables are two-dimensional;[3] however, three-dimensional tables are known to as far back as at least 1862 (pre-dating Mendeleev's two-dimensional table of 1869). More recent examples include Courtines' Periodic Classification (1925),[107] Wringley's Lamina System (1949),[108] Giguère's Periodic helix (1965)[109] and Dufour's Periodic Tree (1996).[110

Going one further, Stowe's Physicist's Periodic Table (1989)[111] has been described as being four-dimensional (having three spatial dimensions and one colour dimension).[112]

https://quizlet.com/119319262/chemistry-chapter-6-morgan-flash-cards/

Which scientist classified elements into four categories: gases, metals, nonmetals, and earths? LAVOSIER

THE FOUR CASES POSSIBLITIES REACTIONS- THE PROFESSOR WROTE THIS ON THE BOARD IN MY CHEMISTRY CLASS THERE WAS A LOT OF EXAMPLES FROM THOSE CLASSES I FORGOT NOW OR ID HAVE TO LOOK THROUGH BOOKS AND SOME OF THE STUFF DONT HAVE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spontaneous_process

This set of rules can be used to determine four distinct cases by examining the signs of the ΔS and ΔH.

 

When ΔS > 0 and ΔH < 0, the process is always spontaneous as written.

When ΔS < 0 and ΔH > 0, the process is never spontaneous, but the reverse process is always spontaneous.

When ΔS > 0 and ΔH > 0, the process will be spontaneous at high temperatures and non-spontaneous at low temperatures.

When ΔS < 0 and ΔH < 0, the process will be spontaneous at low temperatures and non-spontaneous at high temperatures.

BIG FOUR NATURAL FIBRES

https://joybileefarm.com/4-big-natural-fibers/

Get to know the Big 4 Natural Fibers

 

This is a quick tutorial to help you understand the differences in the 4 major natural fibers. These are the natural fibers that are raised on farms around the world. They come to us from nature and only require spinning, and weaving or knitting to make them into clothing, adding colour is optional. Chemicals might be involved in the cleaning, dyeing, and laundering processes for the Big 4, but not in the manufacturing of the fiber itself – the exception being genetically modified cotton (gmo cotton). And the processing and the fiber can be done without industrial chemicals.

QUATENARY THE HIGHEST

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quaternary_(chemistry)

Quaternary is a term used in organic chemistry to classify various types of compounds (e. g. amines and ammonium salts).[1]

 

Red highlighted central atoms in various groups of chemical compounds.

Quaternary central atoms compared with primary, secondary and tertiary central atoms.

Amines are organized into four subcategories:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amine

Primary amines—Primary amines arise when one of three hydrogen atoms in ammonia is replaced by an alkyl or aromatic. Important primary alkyl amines include, methylamine, most amino acids, and the buffering agent tris, while primary aromatic amines include aniline.

Secondary amines—Secondary amines have two organic substituents (alkyl, aryl or both) bound to the nitrogen together with one hydrogen. Important representatives include dimethylamine, while an example of an aromatic amine would be diphenylamine.

Tertiary amines—In tertiary amines, nitrogen has three organic substituents. Examples include trimethylamine, which has a distinctively fishy smell, and EDTA.

Cyclic amines—Cyclic amines are either secondary or tertiary amines. Examples of cyclic amines include the 3-membered ring aziridine and the six-membered ring piperidine. N-methylpiperidine and N-phenylpiperidine are examples of cyclic tertiary amines.

It is also possible to have four organic substituents on the nitrogen. These species are not amines but are quaternary ammonium cations and have a charged nitrogen center. Quaternary ammonium salts exist with many kinds of anions.

EARTHS CRUST FOUR TYPES OF ROCKS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale#Terminology

The first serious attempts to formulate a geologic time scale that could be applied anywhere on Earth were made in the late 18th century. The most influential of those early attempts (championed by Werner, among others) divided the rocks of Earth's crust into four types: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary.

GOES UP TO QUATENARY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SubstitutionAtCarbon.svg

Branching is also common in C−C skeletons. Different carbon atoms can be identified with respect to the number of carbon neighbors:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon–carbon_bond

primary carbon atom: one carbon neighbor

secondary carbon atom: two carbon neighbors

tertiary carbon atom: three carbon neighbors

quaternary carbon atom: four carbon neighbors

FOUR MEMBERED RINGS

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Four-membered_rings

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Azetidines

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Cyclobutanes

 

Tetraterpenes contain eight isoprene units and have the molecular formula C40H64. Biologically important tetraterpenoids include the acyclic lycopene, the monocyclic gamma-carotene, and the bicyclic alpha- and beta-carotenes.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terpene

 

Carotenoids belong to the category of tetraterpenoids (i.e., they contain 40 carbon atoms, being built from four terpene units each containing 10 carbon atoms). Structurally, carotenoids take the form of a polyene hydrocarbon chain which is sometimes terminated by rings, and may or may not have additional oxygen atoms attached.

 

The four carbon atoms in cyclobutane are not coplanar, instead the ring typically adopts a folded or "puckered" conformation.[1] One of the carbon atoms makes a 25° angle with the plane formed by the other three carbons. In this way some of the eclipsing interactions are reduced. The conformation is also known as a "butterfly". Equivalent puckered conformations interconvert:

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclobutane

 

Cyclobutanetetrone, also called tetraoxocyclobutane, is an organic compound[1] with formula C4O4 or (-(C=O)-)4, the fourfold ketone of cyclobutane. It would be an oxide of carbon, indeed a tetramer of carbon monoxide. (TETRAMER)

 

(MAKES A QUADRANT)

 

Squaric acid, also called quadratic acid, because its four carbon atoms approximately form a square, is an organic compound with chemical formula C4H2O4.

 

(LOOK LIKE QUADRANTS) Another, quantum mechanical, way of describing the dianion is to assume that the π electrons of the two double-bonded oxygen atoms are shifted to the latter, so that all four oxygens become single-bonded -O− groups and a double positive electric charge is left in the ring of carbon atoms. In this way the ring fits Hückel's rule for aromaticity (2 π-electrons = 4n + 2 with n = 0). The total symmetry of the dianion is a consequence of charge distribution and aromaticity.

Squaramides are amides of squaric acids. They are four membered vinylogously conjugated diamides. Hydrogen bonding occurs at four locations and is aided by delocalisation of electrons on nitrogen's orbitals to the carbonyl group. H-bonding and thus delocalization further increases ring aromaticity.[9]

 

FOUR MEMBERED

Cyclobutanone is an organic compound with molecular formula C4H6O. It is a four-membered cyclic ketone (cycloalkanone). Unlike cyclopropanone, the smallest but extremely volatile cyclic ketone, cyclobutanone is a stable liquid at room temperature and can be distilled.

 

A number of methods were tried in order to construct the strained four-carbon ring. A synthesis of 3,3-diphenylcyclobutanone appeared in the literature.[2] The ketone was prepared in low yield by the reaction of diphenylketene with 2 equiv of diazomethane.[3] The latter synthesis, although low yielding, was used and the desired amines were prepared from 3,3-diphenylcyclobutanone.

 

FOUR MEMBER RING

In chemistry, a ladderane is an organic molecule containing two or more fused cyclobutane rings. The name arises from the resemblance of a series of fused cyclobutane rings to a ladder. Numerous synthetic approaches have been developed for the synthesis of ladderane compounds of various lengths.[1] The mechanisms often involve [2 + 2] photocycloadditions, a useful reaction for creating strained 4-membered rings. Naturally occurring ladderanes have been identified as major components of the anammoxosome membrane of the anammox bacteria, Planctomycetes.[2]

 

Octafluorocyclobutane, or perfluorocyclobutane, C4F8, is an organofluorine compound which enjoys several niche applications. It is related to cyclobutane by replacement of all C–H bonds with C–F bonds. Octafluorocyclobutane is produced by the dimerization of tetrafluoroethylene and the reductive coupling of 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane.[1]

 

Applications[edit]

In the production of semiconductor materials and devices, octafluorocyclobutane serves as a deposition gas and etchant.[2] It has also been investigated as a refrigerant in specialised applications, as a replacement for ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants. Exploiting its volatility and chemical inertness, octafluorocyclobutane may be found in some aerosolized foods. It is listed by the Codex Alimentarius under number 946 (E946 for EU). It is investigated as a possible replacement for sulfur hexafluoride as a dielectric gas.

 

16 carbon central cage  The name pagodane is used more generally for any member of a family of compounds whose molecular skeletons have the same 16-carbon central cage as the basic compound. Each member can be seen as the result of connecting eight atoms of this cage in pairs by four alkane chains. The general member is denoted [m.n.p.q]pagodane where m, n, p and q are the number of carbons of those four chains. The general formula is then C

16+sH

12+2s where s= m+n+p+q. In particular, the basic compound C

20H

20 has those carbons connected by four methylene bridges (m=n=p=q=1), and its name within that family is therefore [1.1.1.1]pagodane.[2]

 

FOUR MEMBER RING

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha-Pinene

α-Pinene is an organic compound of the terpene class, one of two isomers of pinene.[1] It is an alkene and it contains a reactive four-membered ring. It is found in the oils of many species of many coniferous trees, notably the pine. It is also found in the essential oil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Satureja myrtifolia (also known as Zoufa in some regions.)[2][3] Both enantiomers are known in nature; (1S,5S)- or (−)-α-pinene is more common in European pines, whereas the (1R,5R)- or (+)-α-isomer is more common in North America. The racemic mixture is present in some oils such as eucalyptus oil and orange peel oil.

 

Contents  [hide] 

1 Reactivity

2 Atmospheric role

3 Properties and usage

4 References

Reactivity[edit]

Some general reactions of alpha-pinene

The four-membered ring in α-pinene 1 makes it a reactive hydrocarbon, prone to skeletal rearrangements such as the Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement. For example, attempts to perform hydration or hydrogen halide addition with the alkene functionality typically lead to rearranged products. With concentrated sulfuric acid and ethanol the major products are terpineol 2 and its ethyl ether 3, while glacial acetic acid gives the corresponding acetate ester 4. With dilute acids, terpin hydrate 5 becomes the major product.

 

With one molar equivalent of anhydrous HCl, the simple addition product 6a can be formed at low temperature in the presence of ether, but it is very unstable. At normal temperatures, or if no ether is present, the major product is bornyl chloride 6b, along with a small amount of fenchyl chloride 6c.[4] For many years 6b (also called "artificial camphor") was referred to as "pinene hydrochloride", until it was confirmed as identical with bornyl chloride made from camphene. If more HCl is used, achiral 7 (dipentene hydrochloride) is the major product along with some 6b. Nitrosyl chloride followed by base leads to the oxime 8 which can be reduced to "pinylamine" 9. Both 8 and 9 are stable compounds containing an intact four-membered ring, and these compounds helped greatly in identifying this important component of the pinene skeleton.[5]

 

A variety of reagents such as iodine or PCl3 cause aromatisation, leading to p-cymene 10.

 

Under aerobic oxidation conditions, the main oxidation products are pinene oxide, verbenyl hydroperoxide, verbenol and verbenone.[6]

 

[2.2.2]Propellane, formally tricyclo[2.2.2.01,4]octane is an organic compound, a member of the propellane family. It is a hydrocarbon with formula C8H12, or C2(C2H4)3. Its molecule has three rings with four carbon atoms each, sharing one C–C bond.

 

FOUR MEMBER RING

A cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) contains a four membered ring arising from the coupling of the C=C double bonds of pyrimidines.[4][5][6] Such dimers interfere with base pairing during DNA replication, leading to mutations.

TETRA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2,2,4,4-Tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol

2,2,4,4-Tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol (CBDO) is an aliphatic diol. This diol is produced as a mixture of cis- and trans-isomers, depending on the relative stereochemistry of the hydroxyl groups. It is used as a monomer for the synthesis of polymeric materials. CBDO is currently being researched as an alternative to bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is a precursor used in the production of a wide range of polymers including polycarbonates, polyesters, polysulfones, and polyester ketones.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truxinic_acid

These compounds have four chiral carbon atoms, which looks like there should be 16 (24) stereoisomers. However, the symmetry of the molecule allows for only ten possibilities, of which six have been described in literature:[4][5]

 

16 STEREOISOMERS

 

These compounds have four chiral carbon atoms, which looks like there should be 16 (24) stereoisomers. However, the symmetry of the molecule allows for only five possibilities:[4][5]

 

16 STEREOISOMERS 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truxillic_acid

 

Azete is a heterocyclic chemical compound consisting of an unsaturated four-membered ring with three carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom.

 

Ab initio calculations indicate butalene has a planar geometry and, in keeping with a planar structure with 6 π-electron configuration, is aromatic. Thus, the most significant π bonding interactions involve conjugation around the periphery of the whole six-atom structure, similar to benzene, rather than cross-ring resonance along the bridging bond.[2] Significant resonance around one or the other four-membered ring alone would be a less-stable antiaromatic form, as is seen in cyclobutadiene itself.

 

FOUR MEMBER RING https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butalene

 

Cyclobutadiene is the smallest [n]-annulene ([4]-annulene), an extremely unstable hydrocarbon having a lifetime shorter than five seconds in the free state[citation needed]. It has chemical formula C4H4. It is believed to be in equilibrium between a pair of rectangular/nonplanar ground states and a square, excited triplet state based upon theoretical calculations,[1] and through spectroscopic[2] and crystallographic[3] investigation of substituted cyclobutadienes, in an argon matrix[citation needed] and inside carceplexes.[2] Though it has alternating single and double bonds, it is predicted triplet, unstable and antiaromatic by Hückel's rule,[4] because its ring has 4 π-electrons, and 4 is not twice an odd number. Some cyclobutadiene–metal compounds are stable, thought to be caused by the metal atom providing 2 more electrons to the system. Planar, rectangular distortion to a singlet ground state is caused by the Jahn–Teller effect.[5] Tetra-t-butyl substituted cyclobutadiene is sufficiently stable to allow for its X-ray crystal structure to be determined, which reveals a distorted, nonplanar geometry and C-C double bond lengths longer than normal (1.464 vs expected 1.34 A)[3]

 

LOOKS LIKE QUADRANT

Cyclobutyne (C4H4) is a hydrocarbon molecule containing a triple bond within a four carbon atom ring.[1] This cycloalkyne is very unstable due to its high ring strain and has not been isolated in the pure state. However, osmium coordination complexes containing cyclobutyne have been synthesized.[2]

 

 

Quadrant

 

A cyclodiphosphazane is a type of chemical compound and a saturated four membered P2N2 ring and one of the major classes of cyclic phosphazene compounds. Bis(chloro)cyclodiphosphazanes, cis-[ClP(μ-NR)]2 are important starting compounds for synthesizing a variety of cyclodiphosphazane derivatives by nucleophilic substitution reactions; are prepared by reaction of phosphorus trichloride (PCl3) with a primary amine (RNH2) or amine hydrochlorides (RNH3Cl).

 

 FOUR MEMBER

The structure of diorganotin oxides depends on the size of the organic groups. For smaller substituents, the materials are assumed to be polymeric with five-coordinate Sn centers and 3-coordinate oxide centers. The result is a net of interconnected four-membered Sn2O2 and eight-membered Sn4O4 rings. The presence of pentacoordinate Sn centers is deduced from 119Sn NMR spectroscopy and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy.[2]

 

FOUR MEMBER

 

Passing gaseous S4N4 over silver metal wool at 250–300 °C at low pressure (1mm Hg) yields cyclic S2N2. The silver reacts with the sulfur produced by the thermal decomposition of the S4N4 to form Ag2S, and the resulting Ag2S catalyzes the conversion of the S4N4 into the four-membered ring S2N2,[1]

 

FOUR MEMBER https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disulfur_dinitride

 

1,3,2,4-Dithiadiphosphetane 2,4-disulfides are a class of four-membered ring compounds which contain a P2S2 ring, many of these compounds are able to act as sources of the dithiophosphine ylides. The most well known example of this class of compound is Lawesson's reagent.

 

FOUR MEMBER

FOUR MEMBER

 

Lawesson's reagent has a four membered ring of alternating sulfur and phosphorus atoms. With heating, the central phosphorus/sulfur four-membered ring can open to form two reactive dithiophosphine ylides (R-PS2). Much of the chemistry of Lawessons's reagent is in fact the chemistry of these reactive intermediates.

 

FOUR MEMBER

 

Thietane is a heterocyclic compound containing a saturated four-membered ring with three carbon atoms and one sulfur atom.[1][2]

 

Thietane, and its derivative 2-propylthietane, are strong-smelling mouse alarm pheromones and predator scent analogues.[3][4] Both the mouse and human olfactory receptors MOR244-3 and OR2T11, respectively, were found to respond to thietane in the presence of copper.[5]

 

Thiete is a heterocyclic compound containing an unsaturated four-membered ring with three carbon atoms and one sulfur atom.[1][2][3] It is more commonly encountered not on its own, but in anellated derivatives, several of which have been synthesized. Thietes are generally not very stable.[4]