Jain texts propound that a special type of karma, the tīrthaṅkara nama-karma, raises a soul to the supreme status of a Tīrthaṅkara. Tattvartha Sutra, a major Jain text, list down sixteen observances which lead to the bandha (bondage) of this karma-[14]

  • Purity of right faith

  • Reverence

  • Observance of vows and supplementary vows without transgressions

  • Ceaseless pursuit of knowledge

  • Perpetual fear of the cycle of existence

  • Giving gifts (charity)

  • Practising austerities according to one’s capacity

  • Removal of obstacles that threaten the equanimity of ascetics

  • Serving the meritorious by warding off evil or suffering

  • Devotion to omniscient lords, chief preceptors, preceptors, and the scriptures

  • Practice of the six essential daily duties

  • Propagation of the teachings of the omniscient

  • Fervent affection for one’s brethren following the same path.



When you say Thai food when you're in Thailand, you are referring to the center of Thailand; that's where the ethnically Thai people live.

But Thailand really is broken down into four distinct regions: the South, the Center, the Northeastern Isan and Northern Thailand. They all have different ethno-linguistic backgrounds, different food traditions, terroir and different ingredients that they have access to that have formed the cuisine.


Originally, the arhats were composed of only 10 disciples of Gautama Buddha, although the earliest Indian sutras indicate that only 4 of them, Pindola, Kundadhana, Panthaka and Nakula, were instructed to await the coming of Maitreya.[1] Earliest Chinese representations of the arhats can be traced back to as early as the fourth century,[2] and mainly focused on Pindola who was popularized in art by the book Method for Inviting Pindola (Chinese: 請賓度羅法; pinyin: Qǐng Bīndùluó Fǎ).

Later this number increased to sixteen to include patriarchs and other spiritual adepts. Teachings about the Arhats eventually made their way to China where they were called Luohan (羅漢, shortened from a-luo-han a Chinese transcription for Arhat), but it wasn't until 654 AD when the Nandimitrāvadāna (Chinese: 法住記; pinyin: Fǎzhùjì), Record on the Duration of the Law, spoken by the Great arhat Nadimitra, was translated by Xuanzang into Chinese that the names of these arhats were known. For some reason Kundadhana was dropped from this list.[3]

Somewhere between the late Tang Dynasty and early Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of China two other Luohans were added to the roster increasing the number to 18.[4] But this depiction of 18 Luohans only gained a foothold in China, whereas other areas like Japan continued to revere only sixteen and their roster differs somewhat. This depiction of having 18 instead of 16 Luohans continues into modern Chinese Buddhist traditions. A cult built around the Luohans as guardians of Buddhist faith gained momentum amongst Chinese Buddhists at the end of the ninth century for they had just been through a period a great persecution under the reign of Emperor Tang Wuzong. In fact the last two additions to this roster, Taming Dragon and Taming Tiger, are thinly veiled swipes against Taoism.

In Chinese art[edit]

Because no historical records detailing what the Luohans looked like existed, there were no distinguishing features to tell the Luohans apart in early Chinese depictions.[5] The first portraits of the 16 Luohans were painted by the monk Guan Xiu (Chinese: 貫休; pinyin: Guànxiū) in 891 AD, who at the time was residing in Chengdu. Legend has it that the 16 Luohans knew of Guan Xiu's expert calligraphy and painting skills, so they appeared to the monk in a dream to make a request that he paint their portraits.[6] The paintings depicted them as foreigners having bushy eyebrows, large eyes, hanging cheeks and high noses. They were seated in landscapes, leaning against pine trees and stones. An additional theme in these paintings was that they were portrayed as being unkempt and "eccentric," which emphasizes that they were vagabonds and beggars who have left all worldly desires behind. When Guan Xiu was asked how he came up with the depictions, he answered: "It was in a dream that I saw these Gods and Buddhas. After I woke up, I painted what I saw in the dream. So, I guess I can refer to these Luohans as 'Luohans in a dream'." These portraits painted by Guan Xiu have become the definitive images for the 18 Luohans in Chinese Buddhist iconography, although in modern depictions they bear more Sinitic features and at the same time have lost their exaggerated foreign features in exchange for more exaggerated expressions. The paintings were donated by Guan Xiu to the Shengyin Temple in Qiantang (present day Hangzhou) where they are preserved with great care and ceremonious respect.[7] Many prominent artists such as Wu Bin and Ding Guanpeng would later try to faithfully imitate the original paintings.


Phra Phrom (Thai: พระพรหม; from SanskritPara Brahma, परब्रह्म) is the Thai representation of the Hindu god Brahma (the god of the manifested world),[1] who is regarded in Thai culture as a deity of good fortune and protection. According to puranasBrahma has four faces representing four Vedas or knowledge coming from four directions: north, south, east and west [2]. Phra Phrom is colloquially known outside Thailand as the Four-Faced Awakening (四面佛, Sìmiànfó) or Four-Faced God (四面神 Simianshen). Among Chinese folk religiousworshipers, among whom the faith of this god has spread in the latest decades by assimilating Brahma as Buddist deva Brahma.ā_(Buddhism)

In the sense of "a being of the Rūpadhātu", the term Brahmā may be related to Brahmavihāra, a term referring to the meditative states achieved through the four Rūpajhānas, which are shared by the inhabitants of the Rūpadhātu. Prior to the advent of the Buddha, according to Martin Wiltshire, the pre-Buddhist traditions of Brahma-loka, meditation and these four virtues are evidenced in both early Buddhist and non-Buddhist literature.[32] The early Buddhist texts assert that pre-Buddha ancient Indian sages who taught these virtues were earlier incarnations of the Buddha.[32] Post-Buddha, these same virtues are found in the Hindu texts such as verse 1.33 of the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali.[33] According to Peter Harvey, the Buddhist scriptures acknowledge that the four Brahmavihara meditation practices "did not originate within the Buddhist tradition".[34] The Buddha never claimed that the "four immeasurables" were his unique ideas, in a manner similar to "cessation, quieting, nirvana".[35] These meditation practices are named after Brahma, a god also found in Hinduism texts as well as Jainism text wherein he is equated with Rishabhanatha – the first Tirthankara in Jaina tradition.[2]

Four Kings of the Underworld

  • Bao Zheng

  • Han Qinhu

  • Fan Zhongyan

  • Kou Zhun