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CATFISH CALLED A CRUCIFIX CATFISH SKULL LOOKS LIKE A CRUCIFIED MAN

http://eol.org/pages/5115/details

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Crucifix_catfish_skull_with_and_without_man.jpg

 

Ariid catfish have sometimes been called crucifix catfish because their skulls resemble a cruciform man. This is an example of pareidolia.[6]

CRUCIFORM QUADRANTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Неподвижная_структура_Холлидея_(англ.).svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holliday_junction

 

They are additionally involved in repair of double-strand breaks.[1] In addition, cruciform structures involving Holliday junctions can arise to relieve helical strain in symmetrical sequences in DNA supercoils.[2]

A Holliday junction is a branched nucleic acid structure that contains four double-stranded arms joined together. These arms may adopt one of several conformations depending on buffer salt concentrations and the sequence of nucleobases closest to the junction. The structure is named after the molecular biologist Robin Holliday, who proposed its existence in 1964.

 

In biology, Holliday junctions are a key intermediate in many types of genetic recombination, as well as in double-strand break repair. These junctions usually have a symmetrical sequence and are thus mobile, meaning that the four individual arms may slide through the junction in a specific pattern that largely preserves base pairing. Additionally, four-arm junctions similar to Holliday junctions appear in some functional RNA molecules.

 

Immobile Holliday junctions, with asymmetrical sequences that lock the strands in a specific position, were artificially created by scientists to study their structure as a model for natural Holliday junctions. These junctions also later found use as basic structural building blocks in DNA nanotechnology, where multiple Holliday junctions can be combined into specific designed geometries that provide molecules with a high degree of structural rigidity.

 

Molecular structure of a stacked Holliday junction, in which the four arms stack into two double-helical domains. Note how the blue and red strands remain roughly helical, while the green and yellow strands cross over between the two domains.

THE FOUR STAGES OF SLEEP- FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT THIRD RELATED TO ACTION

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sleep_Hypnogram.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rapid_eye_movement_sleep

QUADRANT

FOUR GENERATIONS IN CYCLE OF MONARCH BUTTERFLY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarch_butterfly_migration

Halpern, Sue (2002). Four Wings and a Prayer. Kindle edition. New York, New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-307-78720-0.

Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) perform annual migrations across North America which have been called "one of the most spectacular natural phenomena in the world".[1]

 

Starting in September and October, eastern/northeastern populations migrate from southern Canada and the United States to overwintering sites in central Mexico where they arrive around November. They start the return trip in March, arriving around July. No individual butterfly completes the entire round trip; female monarchs lay eggs for the next generation during the northward migration[2] and at least four generations are involved in the annual cycle.

GALEN IS CONSIDERED THE FATHER OF MEDICINE AND THE ARABS AND EVERYBODY USED HIS TEACHINGS FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS AS THE BASIS OF MEDICINE- HE TAUGHT THROUGH THE QUADRANT PATTERN- THE FOUR FACULTIES

http://www.greekmedicine.net/b_p/Four_Faculties.html

The Basic Functions of Life

Galen was a brilliant physician and anatomist who contributed much to Greek Medicine's understanding of the organs and systems of the human body and how they function. His chief contribution in this area was his doctrine of the Four Faculties.

According to Galen, the human body and all living organisms have to be able to do four basic things for themselves in order to live and survive:

1) They have to be able to vitalize themselves with the basic Life Energy necessary to function.

2) They have to be able to feed themselves and nourish, grow and regenerate their physical structure.

3) They must have consciousness and cognition, perception and awareness to be able to respond to their environment in an intelligent and timely manner in the interest of self preservation.

4) They must be able to reproduce themselves to further the continuity of Life and the propagation of their species.

These four seminal ideas became the basis for his doctrine of the Four Faculties of the organism, which perform these four basic functions. Each of these faculties has a principal organ, which is its central control or processing unit, which in turn is served by subsidiary organs and vessels of the faculty.

GALEN LITERALLY TAUGHT THE FOURTH WAS DIFFERENT- GALEN TAUGHT THE FOURTH FACULTY WAS SECONDARY- THAT IS THE QUADRANT PATTERN THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

http://www.greekmedicine.net/b_p/Four_Faculties.html

These four seminal ideas became the basis for his doctrine of the Four Faculties of the organism, which perform these four basic functions. Each of these faculties has a principal organ, which is its central control or processing unit, which in turn is served by subsidiary organs and vessels of the faculty.

the_four_faculties The Four Faculties of the organism, and their principal functions and organs, are as follows:

Vital Faculty - Vitalizes the organism, enabling it to function; coordinates whole body responses. Governs respiration, circulation, cellular metabolism and the immune response.

Principal Organ - Heart

Natural Faculty - Feeds the organism, enabling it to grow and regenerate its physical structure. Governs digestion, metabolism, nutrition and growth.

Principal Organ - Liver

Psychic Faculty - Intelligence, awareness, perception. Stimulus and response. Enables the organism to respond to its environment in the interests of self preservation.

Principal Organ - Brain

Generative Faculty - Reproduction, procreation. Propagates the species in service of the continuance of Life.

Principal Organ - Gonads

The first three faculties are primary, because they're needed on a daily basis. The fourth faculty, the Generative Faculty, serves the purpose of procreation, which is not needed on a daily basis.

To demonstrate the importance of the three primary faculties, let's consider a limb of the body, like a leg, for example:

The Vital Faculty vitalizes that leg, giving it life. Without the Vital Faculty and its lifegiving blood supply, that leg would necrose and die within minutes.

The Natural Faculty feeds that leg, nourishing it and regenerating its structure. Without the humors and nutrients it supplies, that leg would gradually atrophy and wither away over a period of days, weeks or months.

The Psychic Faculty enables that leg to perform specialized movements like kicking and walking, and take us where we want to go. Through the Psychic Faculty, that leg becomes a useful instrument for the indwelling soul, or psyche.

GALEN LINKED THE FOUR FACULTIES TO "THE FOUR NOBLE ORGANS"

http://www.greekmedicine.net/b_p/Four_Faculties.html

Principal Organs and Attendant Vessels

The principal organs are the master organs, the central control and processing units, which are served by various subsidiary organs and attendant vessels. Those which come before the principal organ in functional order are called afferent vessels, whereas those that come after it are called efferent vessels.

A chart of the Four Faculties, their principal organs, and the afferent and efferent vessels to them, would be as follows:

Vital Faculty

Principal Organ Heart

Afferent Vessels Lungs and respiratory tract; diaphragm

Veins and pulmonary vessels; lymphatics

Efferent Vessels Arteries and capillaries

Natural Faculty

Principal Organ Liver

Afferent Vessels Stomach and digestive tract

Veins of hepatic portal system

Efferent Vessels Inferior vena cava, gall bladder, spleen

Psychic Faculty

Principal Organ Brain

Afferent Vessels Sense organs, sensory nerves

Efferent Vessels Motor nerves, effector organs and muscles

Generative Faculty

Principal Organ Gonads - testes (male) ovaries (female)

Afferent Vessels male - epididymus, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, urethra, penis

female - fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina, vulvae

Efferent Vessels Arteries and capillaries

The Noble Organs

Besides the principal organs of the Four Faculties, there are other important organs, which are also served by their subsidiary organs and vessels; these are called the Noble Organs. Some of the Noble Organs clearly pertain to one faculty, whereas others interface between multiple faculties.

The main Noble Organs, the faculties they serve, and the organs and vessels that serve them, are as follows:

Vital Faculty

Lungs - served by the ribs, diaphragm and upper respiratory tract.

Thymus Gland - served by the lymphatic system and lymphocytes.

Natural Faculty

Spleen - served by the stomach, colon, lymphatic and circulatory systems.

Pancreas - served by the circulatory system, digestive tract.

Kidneys - served by bladder, lower urinary tract; also interfaces with Vital Faculty.

Psychic Faculty

Sense Organs - eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin - served by their sensory nerves.

Generative Faculty

Uterus - served by all the other organs and vessels of the female reproductive system; grows the foetus into the newborn.

Breasts - The female breasts produce milk.

 

The endocrine glands, which produce important hormones that regulate and govern important whole body responses, are also noble organs; most of them interface between multiple faculties and systems. Every organ, vessel or gland in the human body serves at least one of the Four Faculties.

THE FOUR BASIC QUALITIES GALEN GREEK MEDICINE

http://www.greekmedicine.net/b_p/Four_basic_qualities.html

THE FOUR BASIC QUALITIES

 

Yin and Yang, Greek Style

A strong dualism runs through classical Greek science and medicine, which sees all cycles, manifestation and phenomena in the natural world as resulting from the dynamic interplay of opposite yet complementary forces and qualities. Although many such qualities may be observed interacting in Nature, Aristotle concluded that four of them, or two pairs of opposites, were more central and important than all the others: Hot, Cold, Dry and Wet. These he called the Four Basic Qualities.

The Hot / Cold polarity is called active or primary because it drives all change and manifestation and causes or produces the other two qualities.

scales The Dry / Wet polarity is called passive or secondary because they are usually caused by the active, primary qualities.

Both Hot and Dry are qualities that the Chinese would call Yang. They are closely associated with each other because heat evaporates moisture, producing dryness.

Both Cold and Wet are qualities that the Chinese would call Yin. They are closely associated with each other because cold condenses moisture, producing wetness.

Understanding the Four Basic Qualities.

The ancient Greeks had a different understanding of the Four Basic Qualities than we do today. It was less literal, and more figurative and poetic.

The primary, active polarity of Hot / Cold is the easiest to understand, and refers to the relative level of energy or activity present in a system or entity.

Hot denotes a high level of energy or activity. Hot activates, excites, expands, disperses, moves and circulates.

Cold denotes a low level of energy or activity. Cold slows down, sedates, contracts, congeals and obstructs.

The secondary, passive polarity of Dry / Wet is a bit more complex, and has both literal and figurative interpretations.

Literally, Dry / Wet refers to the relative level of moisture present in a system or entity, with Dry denoting a low level or absence of moisture and Wet a high level or abundance of moisture.

When flour is dry, it is a powder that easily disperses. Add water to it, and it sticks together as dough. Therefore:

Dry also means separate, objective, discrete.

Wet also means coherent, subjective, indiscrete.

When a rawhide drumhead is Wet, it gets soft, malleable, flexible and lax in tone. When that drumhead is Dry, it gets hard, stiff, rigid, tight in tone, and withers, or shrinks.

Mix a spoonful of salt into enough water, and it will completely dissolve. When the water evaporates under the hot sun, the salt will start to crystallize and come out of solution. And so, Wet is liquid or fluidic in its behavior, whereas Dry is solid and discrete.

Temperament and the Four Basic Qualities

Greek Medicine is based on the concept of temperament. Temperament is defined as the prevailing balance or makeup of qualities and attributes within a substance, system or entity. Greek Medicine measures conditions of temperament primarily in terms of the Four Basic Qualities.

Greek Medicine defines eight possible conditions of temperament, four of them simple and four compound. In addition, there is a ninth, called balanced or equable temperament.

The four simple conditions of temperament each involve only one of the Four Basic Qualities, as follows:

Hot - Hotter than normal, but neither Wetter nor Dryer.

Cold - Colder than normal, but neither Wetter nor Dryer.

Dry - Dryer than normal, but neither Hotter nor Colder.

Wet - Wetter than normal, but neither Hotter nor Colder.

The four compound conditions of temperament each involve two of the Four Basic Qualities, as follows:

Hot and Dry - Both Hotter and Dryer than normal.

Hot and Wet - Both Hotter and Wetter than normal.

Cold and Dry - Both Colder and Dryer than normal.

Cold and Wet - Both Colder and Wetter than normal.

Conditions of both Hot and Cold can't exist simultaneously, since these two qualities are polar opposites. For the same reason, neither can conditions of Dry and Wet coexist.

Each of the four compound temperaments has associations with a certain element, humor and temperament, or constitutional type.

GALEN THE FOUR ELEMENTS AND THE BODY

http://www.greekmedicine.net/b_p/Four_elements.html

The Four Elements in the Human Body

Each of the constituent parts of the human body is composed of the Four Elements, in varying proportions. Here is where each of the Four Elements is primarily found in the human body:

Fire: The digestive enzymes and secretions, and all enzymes. Yellow Bile. The Innate Heat of metabolism and the Digestive Fire. The heart, liver and stomach. All active, muscular heat generating tissues; the muscles. The Fire of spirit and intelligence, and the sparkle in the eyes.

Air: The lungs, chest and thorax. All the cavities and open spaces, which allow for movement and function. The blood and the Vital Force it carries. The arteries, which pulsate with Air, or pneuma. All hollow or porous tissues and structures, which are lightened, rarefied and refined by Air: the bones, connective tissue, and membranous structures. Points of exchange and contact: the lungs, kidneys and digestive mucosa.

Water: All the vital fluids of the body, especially the clear fluids: phlegm, mucus, plasma, lymph and serous and interstitial fluids. The kidneys, bladder and urinary tract, which pass superfluous Water from the body. The mucosa of the digestive, respiratory and genitourinary tracts. The lymphatic system. The brain and spinal cord.

Earth: All the dense, solid, deeper, more permanent parts of the body. Bones, joints and structural connective tissue. Nerves, bone marrow and nervous tissue. Teeth and gums. The hair and nails.

FOUR ADMINSTERING VIRTUES

http://www.greekmedicine.net/b_p/Pneuma_and_Ignis.html

In the liver, the Vital Force is changed into Pneuma physicon, or the Natural Force, which is the basic form of pneuma for the Natural Faculty. When the liver infuses this Natural Force into the Four Humors upon their generation, this Natural Force is then differentiated into four different subforms, called the Four Administering Virtues, which animate the humors and give them their respective functions and actions:

Blood, or the Sanguine humor, is infused with the Attractive Virtue, or force.

Yellow Bile, or the Choleric humor, is infused with the Digestive Virtue, or force.

Black Bile, or the Melancholic humor, is infused with the Retentive Virtue, or force.

Phlegm, or the Phlegmatic humor, is infused with the Expulsive Virtue, or force.

SEE HE SAYS SEVEN FACTORS AND SOMEBODY LOOKS AND SAYS "SEE SEVEN THATS NOT FOUR"- NO BUT FOUR IS DOMINANT- EACH OF THE FACTORS IS A FOUR- THE FOUR ELEMENTS FOUR HUMOUR SFOUR TEMPERAMENTS FOUR FACULTIES FOUR PRIMARY ORGANS AND FOUR PRINCIPAL VECTORS OF ALL BODILY FLUIDS- THOSE ARE THE SEVEN VECTORS- GALEN

http://www.greekmedicine.net/b_p/Standards_of_Health.html     

Before we can begin to understand and treat disease, which is a deviation from the normal, healthy state of the body, we must first have a clear and definite picture of exactly what constitutes its healthy, normal state.  And so, Greek Medicine begins with a study of the Seven Natural Factors, which constitute the standards of health and normalcy for the human organism. 

 

These are:

     The Four Elements - what the body is made of.

     The Four Humors - the metabolic agents of the Four Elements, the proper balance and confluence of which constitutes health, and the imbalance of which constitutes disease.

     The Four Temperaments - the qualitative yardsticks by which health and homeostasis, or deviation therefrom, are measured; the basis of constitutional medicine.

     The Four Faculties - the basic functions of the organism, and the essential functions of Life.

     The Vital Principles - the energies and essences that give life to the organism.

     The Organs and Parts - the basic units or components of the body, and how they function.

     The Forces, or Administering Virtues - the four principal vectors of all bodily functions.

 

     When all the Seven Natural Factors are working together in a balanced, harmonious manner, there is health and homeostasis.  When they aren't working together properly, there is dysfunction and disease.  When any one of these Seven Natural Factors or their essential components ceases to function, there is death.

THE GREEK MEDICINE WHEEL IS A QUADRANT BASED ON THE FOUR SEASONS THE FOUR STAGES OF LIFE THE FOUR HUMOURS THE FOUR TEMPERAMENTS AND THE FOUR QUALITIES

http://www.greekmedicine.net/b_p/The_greek_medicine_wheel.html

THE GREEK MEDICINE WHEEL

Many traditional healing systems have some kind of medicine wheel teaching, which relates the life and health of the individual to the universal life forces and cycles of the natural world. Greek Medicine also has a medicine wheel, through which its most basic and fundamental correspondences may be known.

Greek Medicine Wheel

The Seasons of the Year

The Greek Medicine Wheel starts in Winter, whose Cold, Wet weather produces excessive Phlegm, causing, colds, coughs and lung congestion.

In Spring, the weather gets moderately Hot, or Warm, but still remains Wet, or Moist. Sap, the lifeblood of the trees, rises up to the leaves and branches; in our bodies, Blood also gets lively and exuberant, and rises to the surface.

In Summer, the increasing heat evaporates the remaining moisture, making the weather Hot and Dry. The hot, dry conditions aggravate Yellow Bile, making us feverish and irritable.

In Fall, the weather cools off but the dryness remains, making Fall Cold and Dry. These climactic concitions aggravate Black Bile, which has similar qualities.

Then, increasing Cold as Fall moves back into Winter condenses the atmospheric moisture, making Winter again Cold and Wet. The wheel has come full circle.

The Times of Day

The waxing and waning light and heat of the 24 hour daily circadian cycle mimicks the seasonal changes of the year. And so, each quarter of the circadian cycle corresponds to a certain season of the year, with similar associations of humor and temperament.

Winter corresponds to Midnight of the circadian cycle. And so, the six hour period surrounding midnight, from 9:00 PM to 3:00 AM, is Cold, Wet, and Phlegmatic in temperament.

Spring corresponds to Sunrise of the circadian cycle. And so, the six hour period surrounding sunrise, from 3:00 AM to 9:00 AM, is Warm, Moist and Sanguine in temperament.

Summer corresponds to Noon of the circadian cycle. And so, the six hour period surrounding noon, from 9:00 AM to 3:00 PM, is Hot, Dry and Choleric in temperament.

Fall corresponds to Sunset of the circadian cycle. And so, the six hour period surrounding sunset, from 3:00 PM to 9:00 PM, is Cold, Dry, and Melancholic in temperament.

The Stages of Life

Poetic or metaphoric analogies can be drawn between the seasons of the year and the stages of life, which have corresponding affinities of humor and temperament.

Spring corresponds to Youth. Youthful bodies are Warm and Moist, are full of good, exuberant blood, and are constantly growing.

Summer corresponds to Adulthood. These are the peak, full throttle years of life's zenith, with lots of Choleric drive and ambition.

Fall corresponds to Maturity, or Middle Age. The light and heat of the sun have begun to wane, and so has the Life Force within us. A Melancholy, philosophical realization of the transitoriness of life dawns.

Winter corresponds to Old Age which is Cold, Wet and Phlegmatic in temperament. The light and heat of the sun are at their lowest ebb, and so is the Life Force in our bodies. Finally, all light and life are extinguished. Then, some say that this cycle also repeats with the youthful rebirth of a new Spring.

FOUR POSSIBILITIES

http://www.greekmedicine.net/images/Individual%20Temperament.jpg

http://www.greekmedicine.net/b_p/Individual_Temperament.html

To recapitulate, there are four basic possibilities for individual constitutional temperament according to Greek Medicine: simple temperament; dual temperament - primary and secondary; dual temperament - roughly equal; and triple temperament, with the remaining one weak.

FOUR QUADRANTS

http://www.greekmedicine.net/images/Inherent%20Temperament-tb.jpg

http://www.greekmedicine.net/b_p/Inherent_Temperament.html

Parameters of Inherent Temperament

The Hot / Cold polarity refers to the relative level of heat and metabolic activity occurring in a body part. Parts with a Hot or Warm inherent temperament are either hot or warm to the touch or have a high level of metabolic activity. Parts with a Cold inherent temperament will either feel cool or cold to the touch or have a low level of metabolic activity.

The Dry / Wet polarity refers to a part's relative moisture level. It also refers to a part's level of hardness or firmness versus softness, squishiness or laxness. Organs and parts that distill, extract, digest or refine need a certain dryness to be able to function. Organs and parts that mix, unite, dissolve, secrete, or generate things need a certain wetness to be able to function.

Of all the body parts, Greek Medicine considers the skin to be the most inherently neutral and balanced in temperament. All the other organs, tissues and body parts are either Hotter or Colder, Wetter or Dryer than the skin.

Now, let's look at the various body parts exhibiting extremes of temperament. They are as follows:

Hot - the exhalation or outbreath is the hottest, being obviously hot to the touch. The heart is considered to be the hottest internal organ, since it constantly beats, or pulsates. In heat, the heart is closely followed by the blood, which carries the Innate Heat. Close behind is the liver, a real hotbed of metabolic activity.

Cold - The Phlegmatic humor, being the body's main coolant, is considered to be the coldest substance in the body. The hair comes next, since it consists of dead protein filaments, devoid of all metabolic activity. Next come the bones, with a very low level of metabolic activity, followed by the cartilage, which is softer, warmer, and more mechanically and metabolically active.

Dry - Our Cold friends, the hair and bones, are also the dryest parts of the organism, being very hard and dense as well. The phrase "bone dry" is a common expression. The bones are followed by the cartilage, which is slightly smoother and softer, and therefore more moist. Next come the tendons and ligaments, which, as connective tissues, need a certain hardness, stiffness and durability to perform their functions.

Wet - The coldest substance in the body, the Phlegmatic humor, is also the wettest, since it's the body's main lubricant. Slightly dryer, and therefore thicker and less dilute, but still quite wet, is blood, or the Sanguine humor. The liver is the wettest internal organ, because it has to generate the blood and the other humors.

Also, the basic vulnerabilities of an organ or body part tell a lot about its inherent temperament. For example, the throat, which is constantly being bathed in the outbreath, is one of the warmest parts of the organism; therefore, it's very vulnerable to cold drafts and chills. The brain, besides being one of the wettest internal organs, is also one of the coldest; therefore, fevers and excessive heat, as well as dehydration, can seriously impair its functioning. Generally, a body part is most vulnerable to qualities that run counter to those it needs for optimal functioning.

Temperament and the Four Humors

Besides having their own inherent compound temperaments, the Four Humors also perform an important homeostatic function for the organism. All the Four Humors, working harmoniously together, give considerable stability and balance to the inherent temperaments of the organs, tissues and body parts with which they come into contact. In other words, the Four Humors hold the qualities and temperaments in place.

The humors with which a body part constantly comes into contact also exert a great influence on its inherent temperament. For example, the walls of the arteries are hotter than those of the viens because arterial blood is hotter than veinous blood, which has been depleted of its metabolic energy.

In Greek Medicine, every part of the body, including the Four Humors themselves, is subject to conditions of being either in temperament or in dystemperament. For example, a Hot dystemperament of the blood would be a fever or inflammation affecting the blood.

A Chart of the Body Parts and Their Inherent Temperaments

 

click to zoom

What follows is a comprehensive chart of the various organs, tissues and body parts and their degrees of inherent temperament. The best way to present this is spatially, with the four cardinal directions corresponding to the Four Basic Qualities. Each quadrant of the chart represents one of the four compound temperaments: Choleric, Sanguine, etc...

In the center is the skin. At the bottom is Hot, at the top Cold. At the left is Wet, at the right is Dry.

The idea for such a chart is not my own. It comes from Graeme Tobyn's excellent book, Culpeper's Medicine. I have merely adapted it, adding a few extra organs, tissues and body parts.

GALEN - FOUR CIRCULATORY NETWORKS FOUR GATEWAYS

http://www.greekmedicine.net/b_p/Vital_Faculty.html

The circulatory network has four gateways, or portals of entry and exit. These are the lungs, liver, kidneys and skin.

GALEN THE FOUR WASTES

http://www.greekmedicine.net/b_p/Natural_Faculty.html

The Four Wastes

Pepsis isn't complete until the final excretion of waste from the body. The elimination of wastes is usually the last step in a long chain of metabolic events in which many byproducts are reused and recycled. Finally, what can no longer be used is eliminated as waste.

There are four major waste products of the body in Greek Medicine, which correspond to the Four Elements. Each is produced via the thermal energies and eliminated via the kinetic energies of its respective eliminative organ.

Exhalation is the waste product of the Air element and the Vital Faculty. It's the exhaust of cellular metabolism and is eliminated via the lungs, through the process of gas exchange.

Sweat is the waste product of the Fire element, and is eliminated through the skin, which is the largest eliminative organ of the body. Sweat is the body's main vehicle for eliminating excess heat; many fevers are broken by releasing a sweat.

Urine is the waste product of the Water element, and is eliminated by the kidneys and urinary tract. Urine is the main liquid waste of the body.

Feces, also called the stool or Alvine Discharge, is the waste product of the Earth element, and is eliminated via the colon. Feces are the main solid waste of the body.

Since elimination is the end result of the metabolic process, the waste products can yield many valuable clues about the condition of one's metabolism. Humorally, the organism will try to eliminate escesses and superfluities, whatever they may be, through the wastes.

Analysis of the urine and stool are important diagnostic procedures in Greek Medicine. The right balance between the retention and evacuation of wastes is important to proper hygiene.

GALEN THE LAMP OF LIFE FOUR STAGES

http://www.greekmedicine.net/b_p/Radical_Moisture.html

Metaphor:  The Lamp of Life  oil_lamp

     The Radical Moisture is the oil, and the Innate Heat is the flame.  These two complementary vital principles form the basis for an important metaphor in Greek Medicine: the Lamp of Life.  The burning of the lamp's flame is analogous to the basic evolution and progression of a man's life, which happens in four basic stages, as follows:

     When the lamp is first lit at conception, the flame is small but disproportionately bright for its size.  It grows quickly and steadily, most quickly at first but more slowly later on, until the flame reaches its peak of heat and light.  This stage is analogous to the Sanguine growing years of gestation, infancy, childhood and youth.  The flame is small because it's dampened by a lot of Radical Moisture, or oil, and is only warm, not hot.  The growth rate of the flame is most rapid at first, during gestation, but gradually slows down in its growth rate as the full flame of adulthood draws closer.

     In adulthood, the lamp's flame has reached its maximum size and peak output of light and heat.  The flame and its oil are both abundant, and in equilibrium.  These are the Choleric full throttle years of life's zenith, full of ambition and drive.  The strength and vigor of the body are at their maximum.

     In maturity, or middle age, the lamp's flame begins to dwindle, and its light and heat output aren't what they used to be.  Neither is the oil supply, or vital reserves of Radical Moisture that the flame feeds on, what it used to be.  The flame starts to crackle with dryness.  These are the years of declining strength, vigor and resiliency, when a Melancholic, philosophical sense of the transitoriness of life dawns.

     In old age, the end draws near, and the lamp's flame begins to flicker and sputter as the oil levels get critically low.  The flame's light and heat output are negligible and inconsistent.  The Phlegmatic years of old age are coldest and lowest in life energy.  When the oil supply is totally exhausted, the lamp runs dry and its flame is finally extinguished.

     So now, when some senile, decrepit character in a Shakespearean play gasps on his deathbed,  "Alas!  The lamp of my life has almost run dry!", you'll know that he wasn't just picking his poetic allusions at random.  He was merely using the prevailing medical metaphor of his time.

GALEN TALKED ABOUT FOUR VITAL PRINCIPALS- AGAIN- THE FOURTH WAS DIFFERENT HE LITERLALY DESCRIBED IT AS DIFFERENT- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS TRANSCENDENT

http://www.greekmedicine.net/b_p/Radical_Moisture.html

And the Lamp of Life

Greek Medicine recognizes four basic vital principles that give life and health to the whole organism. The first three have already been discussed, and are products of the Vital Faculty:

The Vital Force

The Innate Heat

Thymos

The fourth vital principle is the quintessence or distillate of the Natural Faculty and its Four Humors. In many ways, it's the complement or counterpart of the first three vital principles. It's called the Radical Moisture. It could also be called the nutritive, hormonal essence of the organism.

GALEN (THE FATHER OF MEDICINE)- FOUR TYPES OF IGNIS

http://www.greekmedicine.net/b_p/Pepsis.html

Ignis and the Four Temperaments

Just as there are Four Temperaments, there are also four basic types of Ignis that one can have. Each of the four temperaments has its own type of Ignis, which governs its basic patterns of appetite and digestion.

Each type of Ignis tends to produce an overabundance of the humor associated with its temperament. Each type also has its own particular problematic foods, which tend to aggravate and unbalance the Ignis even further. Often, these problematic foods are the very ones craved by the Ignis type in question, which tends to create a vicious circle of aggravation and imbalance.

The practitioner of Greek Medicine should familiarize himself well with these four basic types of Ignis. Not only will they help him to better understand and treat digestive and metabolic disorders, but they're also very good indicators of constitutional nature and temperament.

Besides indicating the constitutional type of the individual, these four Ignis types also indicate acquired disorders or imbalances of digestion associated with aggravations of the type's associated humor and its temperament. The manifestations of Ignis associated with these acquired conditions will tend to be more transitory in nature, and emphasize the dysfunctional patterns of the respective Ignis type.

IGNIS AND THE FOUR STAGES OF LIFE (BASED ON TWO DICHOTOMIES)

http://www.greekmedicine.net/b_p/Pepsis.html

Ignis and the Four Stages of Life

In the metaphor of the Lamp of Life, we saw that the flame of Ignis does not remain constant throughout the lifespan of the individual, but changes in its quality and intensity. Therefore, it must be fed differently in the different stages of life.

In the Sanguine growing years of childhood and youth, which are Warm and Moist, we must eat a more moistening, nutritious diet to feed the demands of rapid growth. Still, the stomach and digestion have some delicacy to them, and should not be overwhelmed. Children and youths endure fasting with the most difficulty, especially long fasts.

In the Hot, Dry Choleric years of adulthood, the stomach and digestion are usually at their strongest and most vigorous, and able to handle most anything. Because the body has stopped growing, short fasts are OK, but long ones are borne with difficulty, and not recommended.

In the Cold, Dry Melancholic years of maturity and middle age, the metabolic rate slows down, and our caloric needs decline. The digestion generally gets more fussy and delicate, and food allergies and sensitivities may develop. Food should be modest in quantity but high in quality, and in micronutrients. Middle aged people generally tolerate fasting the best, and benefit from it the most.

In the Cold, Wet Phlegmatic years of old age, a light, easy to digest diet is essential. Meals should be sensibly planned and regular. The overall health of old people is generally too delicate to endure long fasts, although short ones are OK.

AGAIN THERE ARE FOUR DOSHAS-- THERE IS THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THE THREE AND THE FOUR- THE AUTHOR DESCRIBES THAT THE GREEKS HAD FOUR HUMOURS BASED ON THE TWO DICHOTOMIES- BUT THE HINDUS ONLY HAD THREE HUMOURS CALLED THE THREE DOSHAS-- BUT THE AUTHOR DESCRIBES THAT THE HINDUS ACTUALLY DID HAVE A FOURTH DOSHA THAT WAS DIFFERENT AND TRANSCENDENT- SO HINDUS WILL OFTEN SAY "THERE ARE THREE DOSHAS THREE HUMOURS WITHOUT REALIZING THAT THERE ACTUALLY IS A FOURTH TRANSCENDENT DOSHA IN THEIR DOCTRINE" THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT

He then compares the Hindu three vital principals and the Greeks four vital principals and he suggests that it is possible that the Hindus had a fourth as well

http://www.greekmedicine.net/b_p/Greek_Medicine_and_Ayurveda.html

Humors and Doshas

The first big problem we confront in comparing Greek Medicine to Ayurveda is that there are four Greek humors , but only three doshas in Ayurveda. Which is which, and what about the fourth humor?

The first key involves the definition of the Ayurvedic term, dosha, which literally means, "fault". The three doshas, or pathophysiological principles of Ayurveda, primarily describe three basic ways in which a perfectly balanced constitution may be "tipped" and predisposed towards certain kinds of pathologies.

The second key comes from Galen, who considered blood, or the Sanguine humor, to be the most inherently faultless and perfect, being made from perfect nourishment perfectly digested. In Greek Medicine, blood is considered to be the very essence of health, youth and vitality.

The third key comes from Sushruta, an ancient Ayurvedic authority on medicine and surgery. In the Sushruta Samhita, he states that blood, which is usually considered to be a dhatu, or tissue type in Ayurveda, could be called the fourth dosha.

 

Vital Principles, Ayurvedic and Greek

There's also a great similarity between the various vital principles in both the Greek and Ayurvedic systems:

Pneuma, or the Breath of Life and its Vital Force, are clearly the equivalents of prana and vayu in Ayurveda. They form the basis of all kinetic function in the organism.

Ignis, or the Innate Heat of metabolism also clearly corresponds to Agni in Ayurveda. They provide the basic thermal energy behind all pepsis, or digestion, metabolism and transformation in the organism.

Similarly, the Radical Moisture corresponds to Ojas. Both give nutritive integrity, finish and polish to the organs and tissues, and underly humoral immunity and the nonspecific immune resistance of the organism. Both are contained in the procreative seed of both sexes in very concentrated form. And both are the distilled endproduct of digestion, nutrition and metabolism.

The only vital principle remaining is Thymos, or the immune force that powers the immune response. My best guess is that its functions would come under the dominion of prana in Ayurveda. What can I say, except that the Greeks loved the number four, and the Hindus the number three!

HINDUS OFTEN SAY THAT THERE ARE THREE DOSHAS AND NOT FOUR WHERAS THE GREEKS SAY THERE ARE FOUR DOSHAS - (THEY SAY FOUR HUMOURS BASED ON A QUADRANT MODEL)--- BUT ACCORDING TO THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA BLOOD COULD BE CONSIDERED THE FOURTH DOSHA--- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS TRANSCENDENT- THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR

http://www.greekmedicine.net/b_p/Greek_Medicine_and_Ayurveda.html

The third key comes from Sushruta, an ancient Ayurvedic authority on medicine and surgery. In the Sushruta Samhita, he states that blood, which is usually considered to be a dhatu, or tissue type in Ayurveda, could be called the fourth dosha.

AGAIN IN GREEK MEDICINE THE SAME QUADRANT PATTERN HELD--- THERE WERE ORIGINALLY THREE HUMOURS- BUT THALES PROPOSED ADDING A FOURTH HUMOUR BLACK BILE- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT- GALEN USED THIS FOUR HUMOUR MODEL WITH TWO DICHOTOMIES AS THE BASIS FOR HIS SYSTEM AND HE IS CONSIDERED THE FAHTER OF MEDICINE AND THE ARABS USED HIS MODEL AND HIS MODEL WAS THE MAIN MODEL FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS

http://www.greekmedicine.net/history/Pre_Hipocratic_Physicians.html

Another Four Element theorist was Thales, who had a theory of biogenesis. Reasoning that everything that now exists had to come from something, he tried to figure out what was the original source element for all life. After some thought, he concluded that it must have been Water. This is more than just wild speculation; biologists now agree that all biochemical reactions essential to life must take place in water, and that all life evolved out of the primordial oceans.

As a physician, Thales received his medical training in Egypt. In order to bring Greek medical theory more into line with that of Egyptian Medicine, Thales proposed adding a fourth humor, black bile. This brought the humors into line with the Four Elements.

EMPEDOCLES DESCRIBED THE QUADRANT PATTERN- HE TAUGHT THE FIRST THREE ELEMENTS AIR WATER AND EARTH WERE SIMILAR BUT HE TAUGHT THAT FIRE WAS DIFFERENT AND TRANSCENDENT- HE ALSO LINKED THE FOUR ELEMENTS TO FOUR GODS AND HE SAID THE FOUR ELEMENTS PREDATED THE GODS- THE FOUR WERE THE PRIMORDIAL GODS- I DESCRIBED THAT IT IS SEEN IN MOST CULTURES THEY HAVE FOUR PRIMARY GODS- THE FOURTH DIFFERENT

http://www.greekmedicine.net/history/Pre_Hipocratic_Physicians.html

 

The theory of the Four Elements is generally attributed to Empedocles. According to this theory, everything in the universe, including the human body, is composed of the Four Elements: Fire, Air, Earth and Water - in varying proportions.

Empedocles had a theory of building up, or synthesis (anabolism) versus breaking down, or analysis (catabolism). The physician's job was to assess the patient to see which aspect of metabolism predominated, and then bring them back into balance.

PLANTS OF THE MUSTARD FAMILY ARE CALLED CRUCIFERAE- CROSS FORMING- BECAUSE THEY MAKE FOURFOLD BRANCHES FORMING A CROSS

http://www.greekmedicine.net/history/Medicine_in_Medieval_Europe.html

 

Plants of the Mustard family are called Cruciferae, or "cross-forming" because, when viewed from the bottom end of the stalk, their fourfold branches form a cross, the symbol of Christianity.

WOW LOOK AT THIS NOAH THE FOUR PRINCIPALS ONE OF THEM SAYS THAT PATIENTS ARE ALLOWED TO REFUSE TREATEMENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_ethics- AND LOOK HOW THE TEXT OF THE HIPPOCRATIC OATH WAS WRITTEN IN CRUCIFORM

It is important to note that these four values are of equal worth.[1]

 

 

A common framework used in the analysis of medical ethics is the "four principles" approach postulated by Tom Beauchamp and James Childress in their textbook Principles of biomedical ethics. It recognizes four basic moral principles, which are to be judged and weighed against each other, with attention given to the scope of their application. The four principles are:[12]

 

Respect for autonomy – the patient has the right to refuse or choose their treatment. (Voluntas aegroti suprema lex.)

Beneficence – a practitioner should act in the best interest of the patient. (Salus aegroti suprema lex.)

Non-maleficence – to not be the cause of harm. Also, "Utility" - to promote more good than harm

Justice – concerns the distribution of scarce health resources, and the decision of who gets what treatment (fairness and equality). (Iustitia.)

 

Gillon, R (1994). "Medical ethics: four principles plus attention to scope". British Medical Journal. 309 (184). doi:10.1136/bmj.309.6948.184.

Jump up ^

FOUR DRUGS- I MENTIONED HOW I STUDIED THE ACUPUTNCTURE CHINESE MEDICINE AND THE MAIN CONCOCTIONS WERE THE FOUR INGREDIENTS- THIS IS THE FOUR PART CURE AND FOUR PART REMEDY- TETRA IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetrapharmakos

The Tetrapharmakos (τετραφάρμακος) "four-part remedy" is a summary of the first four of the Κύριαι Δόξαι (Kuriai Doxai, the forty Epicurean Principal Doctrines given by Diogenes Laertius in his Life of Epicurus) in Epicureanism, a recipe for leading the happiest possible life. They are recommendations to avoid anxiety or existential dread.[1]

 

The "tetrapharmakos" was originally a compound of four drugs (wax, tallow, pitch and resin); the word has been used metaphorically by Roman-era Epicureans.[2] to refer to the four remedies for healing the soul.[3]

THE FOUR PART CURE BASED AROUND THE FORTY EPICUREAN PRINCIPAL DOCTRINES- NOTICE THE REPETITION OF FOURS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetrapharmakos

 

The four-part cure[edit]

Part of a series on

Hedonism

Thinkers[show]

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As expressed by Philodemos, and preserved in a Herculaneum Papyrus (1005, 4.9–14), the tetrapharmakos reads:[4]

 

Don't fear god,

Don't worry about death;

What is good is easy to get,

What is terrible is easy to endure

 

Ἄφοβον ὁ θεός,

ἀνύποπτον ὁ θάνατος

καὶ τἀγαθὸν μὲν εὔκτητον,

τὸ δὲ δεινὸν εὐεκκαρτέρητον

 

This is a summary of the first four of the forty Epicurean Principal Doctrines (Sovran Maxims) given by Diogenes Laertius, which in the translation by Robert Drew Hicks (1925) read as follows:

 

1. A happy and eternal being has no trouble himself and brings no trouble upon any other being; hence he is exempt from movements of anger and partiality, for every such movement implies weakness

2. Death is nothing to us; for the body, when it has been resolved into its elements, has no feeling, and that which has no feeling is nothing to us.

3. The magnitude of pleasure reaches its limit in the removal of all pain. When pleasure is present, so long as it is uninterrupted, there is no pain either of body or of mind or of both together.

4. Continuous pain does not last long in the body; on the contrary, pain, if extreme, is present a short time, and even that degree of pain which barely outweighs pleasure in the body does not last for many days together. Illnesses of long duration even permit of an excess of pleasure over pain in the body.

THE EIGHT PRINCIPALS OF CHINESE MEDICINE ARE FOUR PAIRS- FOUR DICHOTOMIES--- WHEN I WENT TO AN ACUPUNCTURE PLACE FOR HELP WITH MY LEG THEY DID IT BASED AROUND THESE "FOUR PAIRS"

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traditional_Chinese_medicine

Eight principles of diagnosis[edit]

The process of determining which actual pattern is on hand is called 辩证 (pinyin: biàn zhèng, usually translated as "pattern diagnosis",[22] "pattern identification"[27] or "pattern discrimination"[65]). Generally, the first and most important step in pattern diagnosis is an evaluation of the present signs and symptoms on the basis of the "Eight Principles" (八纲, pinyin: bā gāng).[22][27] These eight principles refer to four pairs of fundamental qualities of a disease: exterior/interior, heat/cold, vacuity/repletion, and yin/yang.[27] Out of these, heat/cold and vacuity/repletion have the biggest clinical importance.[27] The yin/yang quality, on the other side, has the smallest importance and is somewhat seen aside from the other three pairs, since it merely presents a general and vague conclusion regarding what other qualities are found.[27] In detail, the Eight Principles refer to the following:

 

Yin and yang are universal aspects all things can be classified under, this includes diseases in general as well as the Eight Principles' first three couples.[27] For example, cold is identified to be a yin aspect, while heat is attributed to yang.[27] Since descriptions of patterns in terms of yin and yang lack complexity and clinical practicality, though, patterns are usually not labelled this way anymore.[27] Exceptions are vacuity-cold and repletion-heat patterns, who are sometimes referred to as "yin patterns" and "yang patterns" respectively.[27]

Exterior (表, pinyin: biǎo) refers to a disease manifesting in the superficial layers of the body – skin, hair, flesh, and meridians.[27] It is characterized by aversion to cold and/or wind, headache, muscle ache, mild fever, a "floating" pulse, and a normal tongue appearance.[27]

Interior (里, pinyin: lǐ) refers to disease manifestation in the zàng-fǔ, or (in a wider sense) to any disease that can not be counted as exterior.[30] There are no generalized characteristic symptoms of interior patterns, since they'll be determined by the affected zàng or fǔ entity.[27]

Cold (寒, pinyin: hán) is generally characterized by aversion to cold, absence of thirst, and a white tongue fur.[27] More detailed characterization depends on whether cold is coupled with vacuity or repletion.[27]

Heat (热, pinyin: rè) is characterized by absence of aversion to cold, a red and painful throat, a dry tongue fur and a rapid and floating pulse, if it falls together with an exterior pattern.[27] In all other cases, symptoms depend on whether heat is coupled with vacuity or repletion.[27]

Deficiency (虚, pinyin: xū), can be further differentiated into deficiency of qi, xuě, yin and yang, with all their respective characteristic symptoms.[27] Yin deficiency can also cause "empty-heat".[28]

Excess (实, pinyin: shí) generally refers to any disease that can't be identified as a deficient pattern, and usually indicates the presence of one of the Six Excesses,[30] or a pattern of stagnation (of qi, xuě, etc.).[72] In a concurrent exterior pattern, excess is characterized by the absence of sweating.[27]

GALEN SAID THERIACS HAVE 64 ELEMENTS- 64 IS FOUR 16S FOUR QUADRANT MODELS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Materia_medica

Galen was a philosopher, physician, pharmacist and prolific medical writer. He compiled an extensive record of the medical knowledge of his day and added his own observations. He wrote on the structure of organs, but not their uses; the pulse and its association with respiration; the arteries and the movement of blood; and the uses of theriacs. "In treatises such as On Theriac to Piso, On Theriac to Pamphilius, and On Antidotes, Galen identified theriac as a sixty-four-ingredient compound, able to cure any ill known".[4] His work was rediscovered in the 15th century and became the authority on medicine and healing for the next two centuries. His medicine was based on the regulation of the four humors (blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile) and their properties (wet, dry, hot, and cold).[5]

FOUR COPIES FOUR COVERS-- has cross on it

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Materia_medica

One of the four covers( Arnoullet) of the "Lyons printers' tribute edition to Michel de Villeneuve"[24] edition of the Materia Medica. By Michel de Villeneuve & Pietro Andrea Mattioli, printed by Balthazar Arnoullet in 1554, in Lyons.

 

It is a very strange edition because there exist four different kinds of copies with different covers, one per editor: Jean Frellon, Guillaume Rouillé, Antoine Vicent and Balthazar Arnoullet, who was also the printer of this unique edition, in Lyons.[21] For developing a bigger work and to blur the mark of Michel de Villeneuve, they hired the expert on De Materia Medica, Pietro Andrea Mattioli.[26]

FOUR INSTITUTIONS IN CHINA MEDICINE
https://en.wikipedia.org/…/Guangzhou_University_of_Chinese_…
In 1956, it became Guangzhou Traditional Chinese Medicine College, with the approval of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, and is one of four earliest established institutions in China specializing in Chinese traditional medicine.

THE FOUR MAJOR CUISINES CHINA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_cuisine

The most praised "Four Major Cuisines" are Chuan, Lu, Yue and Huaiyang, represents West, North, South and East China cuisine correspondingly.[2] Modern "Eight Cuisines" of China[3] are Anhui, Cantonese, Fujian, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shandong, Sichuan, and Zhejiang cuisines.[4]

"THE FOUR GREAT TRADITIONS" DOMINATE CULINARY HERITAGE OF CHINA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huaiyang_cuisine

Although it is one of several sub-regional styles within Jiangsu cuisine, Huaiyang cuisine is widely seen in Chinese culinary circles[1] as the most popular and prestigious style of Jiangsu cuisine—to a point where it is considered to be amongst one of the Four Great Traditions (四大菜系; Sì dà càixì) that dominate the culinary heritage of China, along with Cantonese cuisine, Shandong cuisine and Sichuan cuisine.

FOUR INFLUENTIAL REGIONAL SCHOOLS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jiangsu_cuisine

Jiangsu cuisine is sometimes simply called Su cuisine, and one of its major styles is Huaiyang cuisine. Although Huaiyang cuisine is one of several sub-regional styles within Jiangsu cuisine, it is widely seen in Chinese culinary circles as the most popular and prestigious style of the Jiangsu cuisine – to a point where it is considered to be amongst one of the four most influential regional schools (四大菜系) that dominate the culinary heritage of China, along with Cantonese cuisine, Shandong cuisine and Sichuan cuisine.

 

Jiangsu cuisine actually consists of several other styles, including:

 

Cuisine Description

Nanjing Its dishes emphasize an even taste and matching colour, with dishes incorporating river fish/shrimp and duck.

Suzhou Emphasis on the selection of material, stronger taste than Nanjing cuisine, and with a tendency to be sweeter than the other varieties of the cuisine.

Wuxi Its proximity to Lake Tai means it is notable for wide variety of freshwater produce, such as the "Three Whites" – white bait (simplified Chinese: 银鱼; traditional Chinese: 銀魚; pinyin: yín yú), white fish (simplified Chinese: 白鱼; traditional Chinese: 白魚; pinyin: bái yú) and white shrimp (simplified Chinese: 白虾; traditional Chinese: 白蝦; pinyin: bái xiā).

Nantong The dishes emphasize a flavor of freshness on the ingredients which cover a variety of fish, shrimp, mussels, et al, as Nantong serves as an intersection of the local river Hao He, the Changjiang River and the Yellow Sea.

ITS CALLED CRUCIFERAE- THAT MEANS CROSS LIKE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brassicaceae

Brassicaceae or Cruciferae is a medium-sized and economically important family of flowering plants commonly known as the mustards, the crucifers, or the cabbage family.

 

The name Brassicaceae is derived from the included genus Brassica. The alternative older name, Cruciferae (English /kruːˈsɪfəri/), meaning "cross-bearing", describes the four petals of mustard flowers, which resemble a cross. Cruciferae is one of eight plant family names without the suffix -aceae that are authorized alternative names (according to ICBN Art. 18.5 and 18.6 Vienna Code).

 

The structure of the flowers is extremely uniform throughout the family. They have four free saccate sepals and four clawed free petals, staggered. They can be disymmetric or slightly zygomorphic, with a typical cross-like arrangement (hence the name Cruciferae). They have six stamens, four of which are longer (as long as the petals) and are arranged in a cross like the petals and the other two are shorter (tetradynamous flower). The pistil is made up of two fused carpels and the style is very short, with two lobes. The ovary is superior. The flowers form ebracteate racemose inflorescences, often apically corymb-like.[clarification needed]

CRUCIFEROUS MEANS CROSS BEARING- THEY RESEMBLE THE CROSS- four petals

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cruciferous_vegetables

Cruciferous vegetables are vegetables of the family Brassicaceae (also called Cruciferae) with many genera, species, and cultivars being raised for food production such as cauliflower, cabbage, garden cress, bok choy, broccoli, brussels sprouts and similar green leaf vegetables. The family takes its alternate name (Cruciferae, New Latin for "cross-bearing") from the shape of their flowers, whose four petals resemble a cross.

 

List of cruciferous vegetables[edit]

Extensive selective breeding has produced a large variety of cultivars, especially within the genus Brassica. One description of genetic factors involved in the breeding of Brassica species is the Triangle of U.

 

The taxonomy of common cruciferous vegetables

common name genus specific epithet Cultivar group

Horseradish Armoracia rusticana

Land cress Barbarea verna

Ethiopian mustard Brassica carinata

Kale Brassica oleracea Acephala group

collard greens Brassica oleracea Acephala group

Chinese broccoli (gai-lan) Brassica oleracea Alboglabra group

Cabbage Brassica oleracea Capitata group

Savoy cabbage Brassica oleracea Savoy Cabbage group

Brussels sprouts Brassica oleracea Gemmifera group

Kohlrabi Brassica oleracea Gongylodes group

Broccoli Brassica oleracea Italica group

Broccoflower Brassica oleracea Italica group × Botrytis group

Broccoli romanesco Brassica oleracea Botrytis group / Italica group

Cauliflower Brassica oleracea Botrytis group

wild broccoli Brassica oleracea Oleracea group

bok choy Brassica rapa chinensis

Komatsuna Brassica rapa pervidis or komatsuna

Mizuna Brassica rapa nipposinica

Rapini (broccoli rabe) Brassica rapa parachinensis

Choy sum (Flowering cabbage) Brassica rapa parachinensis

Chinese cabbage, napa cabbage Brassica rapa pekinensis

Turnip root; greens Brassica rapa rapifera

Rutabaga (swede) Brassica napus napobrassica

Siberian kale Brassica napus pabularia

Canola/rapeseed Brassica rapa/napus oleifera

Wrapped heart mustard cabbage Brassica juncea rugosa

Mustard seeds, brown; greens Brassica juncea

White mustard seeds Brassica (or Sinapis) hirta

Black mustard seeds Brassica nigra

Tatsoi Brassica rosularis

Wild arugula Diplotaxis tenuifolia

Arugula (rocket) Eruca vesicaria

Field pepperweed Lepidium campestre

Maca Lepidium meyenii

Garden cress Lepidium sativum

Watercress Nasturtium officinale

Radish Raphanus sativus

Daikon Raphanus sativus longipinnatus

Wasabi Wasabia japonica

CRUCIFERAE MEANS CROSS BEARING- THEY HAVE FOUR PETALS AND FOUR SEPALS

https://www.britannica.com/plant/Brassicaceae

Brassicaceae, formerly Cruciferae , the mustard family of flowering plants (order Brassicales), composed of 338 genera and some 3,700 species. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans, especially those of the genus Brassica, which includes cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, kale, kohlrabi, napa cabbage, turnip, and rutabaga. Other important agricultural crops in the family include horseradish, radish, and white mustard. A number of species—such as basket-of-gold, candytuft, and honesty—are grown as ornamentals, and some members of the family are considered invasive species in regions outside their native range.

 

Head cabbage (Brassica oleracea, variety capitata), one of many domesticated forms of the cabbage plant.

Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana). The pungent root is commonly grated and mixed with vinegar to form horseradish sauce, and can be used as a substitute for true wasabi (Eutrema japonicum).

Head cabbage (Brassica oleracea, variety capitata), one of many domesticated forms of …

Eric Crichton/Corbis

Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana). The pungent root is commonly grated and mixed with …

Pethan

Plants in the mustard family are usually herbs and can be annuals, biennials, or perennials. The leaves are mostly simple and alternately arranged, and many are peppery-flavoured. The flowers are cruciform (e.g., in the form of a cross) with four petals and four sepals; the plants are commonly referred to as “crucifers” or “cruciferous” for that reason. The flowers are usually white, yellow, or lavender and characteristically feature four long and two short stamens and a two-chambered ovary positioned above the other flower parts. The seeds are produced in dry podlike fruits, often with a partition between the halves; long thin fruits are known as siliques, and short rounded fruits are known as silicles.

 

Charlock (Sinapis arvensis), a member of the mustard family (Bassicaceae).

Dry silvery fruit partitions of the honesty (Lunaria annua) plant. Honesty produces disc-shaped fruits with a translucent partition between the halves; only the partition remains on the plant after the seeds have been dispersed.

Charlock (Sinapis arvensis), a member of the mustard family (Bassicaceae).

TeunSpaans

Dry silvery fruit partitions of the honesty (Lunaria annua) plant. Honesty produces …

© asgeros/Fotolia

LEARN MORE in these related articles:

CRUCIFORM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lobularia_(plant)

Lobularia is a genus of five species of flowering plants in the family Brassicaceae, closely related to (and formerly often included in) the genus Alyssum. The genus is native to Macaronesia and the Mediterranean region, and comprises annuals and perennials growing to 10–40 cm (4–16 in) tall, with hairy oblong-oval leaves and clusters of cross-shaped (cruciform), fragrant white flowers.[1]

THE NUCLEI HAVE A CROSS LIKE APPEARANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phytomyxea

The vegetative form is a multinucleate cell, called a plasmodium. This ultimately divides to form new spores, which are released when the host's cells burst. Both resting spores and motile zoospores, which generally have two smooth flagella, are produced at different stages. Within the plasmodium, dividing nuclei have a distinctive cross-like appearance.

THE MOTHS ARE SPLIT INTO TWO VEIN THREE VEIN AND FOUR VEIN QUADRIFINE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erebidae

Among the Noctuoidea, the Erebidae can be broadly defined by the wing characteristics of the adults with support from phylogenetic studies. The cubital forewing vein, which runs outward from the base of a wing to the outer margin, splits into two (bifid), three (trifid), or four (quadrifid) veins from the wikt:medial area to the outer margin. These split veins are named M2, M3, CuA1, and CuA2 in order toward the inner margin. A trifid forewing has either a reduced or vestigial M2 vein or the M2 vein does not connect to the cubital veins, while M2 is as thick as M3 and connects or nearly connects to M3 in a quadrifid forewing. The same splitting of the hindwing cubital vein has analogous terms bifine, trifine, and quadrifine. The Erebidae typically have quadrifid forewings and quadrifine hindwings, though the Micronoctuini are exceptional with their bifine hindwings. Among the related families, most Erebidae are quadrifid moths like the Euteliidae, Nolidae, and Noctuidae and unlike the trifid Oenosandridae and Notodontidae. And among the quadrifid moths, the Erebidae have quadrifine hindwings like the typical Nolidae and Euteliidae and unlike the typical Noctuidae.[1][2][3]

FOUR SUBGROUPS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noctuoidea

More recent evidence from nuclear genes (Zahiri et al. 2010) confirms that the quadrifid (forewing) noctuoids form a monophyletic group, but also that this group can be further arranged into four monophyletic subgroups: 1) the quadrifine subfamilies; 2) the trifine subfamilies; 3) the Nolinae; and 4) the Euteliinae. Considering the massive size of the family, and the large number of subfamilies, tribes, and subtribes to arrange into a classification, Zahiri et al. (2010) chose the option of recognizing these four groups as families, namely Erebidae, Noctuidae, Nolidae, and Euteliidae, in addition to the basal trifid families.

QUADRIFID VEINATION- QUADRIFID IS THE HIGHEST- THERE ARE TWO MAIN GROUPS THE TRIFID (THREE VEINS) AND THE QUADRIFID (FOUR VEINS)- THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR- FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noctuoidea

The Noctuoidea can be divided into two broad groups, those with a trifid forewing venation (Oenosandridae, Notodontidae and Doidae), and those with a quadrifid forewing venation (e.g., Arctiidae, Lymantriidae, Nolidae, Noctuidae). What has emerged from these investigations is that the quadrifid Noctuoidea form a monophyletic group. In 2005, Fibiger and Lafontaine arranged the quadrifid (forewing) group into several families, including the quadrifine (hindwing) Erebidae and trifine (hindwing) Noctuidae, based on evidence that suggested that the trifine noctuid subfamilies were derived from within the quadrifine subfamilies, so the family Erebidae would not be strictly monophyletic.

 

Lafontaine and Fibiger in 2006 then redefined the Noctuidae to include the entire quadrifid group, believing the Arctiidae, Lymantriidae, and Nolidae to be derived from within this expanded concept of Noctuidae (and closely related to the subfamily Catocalinae). In essence, groups such as the Arctiidae, which had previously been treated as a separate family, were more closely related to groups within the Noctuidae than to non-noctuid families. In order to address this, a revised classification would have meant either recognizing over 20 (often weakly defined) families, or a single well-defined family with numerous subfamilies. The latter was adopted (Lafontaine and Fibiger 2006).

 

More recent evidence from nuclear genes (Zahiri et al. 2010) confirms that the quadrifid (forewing) noctuoids form a monophyletic group, but also that this group can be further arranged into four monophyletic subgroups: 1) the quadrifine subfamilies; 2) the trifine subfamilies; 3) the Nolinae; and 4) the Euteliinae. Considering the massive size of the family, and the large number of subfamilies, tribes, and subtribes to arrange into a classification, Zahiri et al. (2010) chose the option of recognizing these four groups as families, namely Erebidae, Noctuidae, Nolidae, and Euteliidae, in addition to the basal trifid families.

FOUR TUFTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lophocampa_caryae

Larva[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lophocampa caryae.

The larva, a caterpillar, is completely covered in long, hairlike setae arranged in spreading tufts. Most are white, but there are black tufts along the middle of the back, and four long black hair pencils, two near the front, and two near the back

QUADRIFINE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypenodinae

The Hypenodinae are a subfamily of moths in the Erebidae family. Adult moths of most species of this subfamily lack small, simple eyes near the large, compound eyes and have quadrifine (four-veined) hindwing cells. The micronoctuid moths are an exception because they possess simple eyes and bifine (two-veined) hindwing cells.

FOUR COMMUNITY TYPES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_seep

Tube worms are among the dominant species in one of four cold seep community types in the Gulf of Mexico.

 

MacDonald et al. (1990) has described four general community types.[12] These are communities dominated by Vestimentiferan tube worms (Lamellibrachia c.f. barhami and Escarpia spp.), mytilid mussels (Seep Mytilid Ia, Ib, and III, and others), vesicomyid clams (Vesicomya cordata and Calyptogena ponderosa), and infaunal lucinid or thyasirid clams (Lucinoma sp. or Thyasira sp.).[12] Bacterial mats are present at all sites visited to date.[12] These faunal groups tend to display distinctive characteristics in terms of how they aggregate, the size of aggregations, the geological and chemical properties of the habitats in which they occur and, to some degree, the heterotrophic fauna that occur with them.[12] Many of the species found at these cold seep communities in the Gulf of Mexico are new to science and remain undescribed.[12]

TUNA HAVE FOUR MIGRATION PLANS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pelagic_fish#Bathypelagic_fish

In a 2001 study, the movements of Atlantic bluefin tuna from an area off North Carolina were studied with the help of special popup tags. When attached to a tuna, these tags monitored the movements of the tuna for about a year, then freed themselves, and floated to the surface where they transmitted their information to a satellite. The study found that the tuna had four different migration patterns. One group confined itself to the western Atlantic for a year. Another group also stayed mainly in the western Atlantic, but migrated to the Gulf of Mexico for spawning. A third group moved across the Atlantic Ocean and back again. The fourth group crossed to the eastern Atlantic and then moved into the Mediterranean Sea for spawning. The study indicates that, while there is some differentiation by spawning areas, there is essentially only one population of Atlantic bluefin tuna, intermixing groups that between them use all of the north Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea.[78]

FOUR LAYERS EARTH

https://www.forbes.com/sites/trevornace/2016/01/16/layers-of-the-earth-lies-beneath-earths-crust/#6fec4667441d

The Earth has layers not unlike an onion and can be dissected to understand the physical and chemical properties of each layer and its influence on the rest of the Earth. Generally speaking, Earth has 4 layers: the outer crust that we live on, the plastic-like mantle, the liquid outer core, and the solid inner core.

FOUR FAMILIES
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_habitats
Seagrasses are flowering plants from one of four plant families which grow in marine environments. They are called seagrasses because the leaves are long and narrow and are very often green, and because the plants often grow in large meadows which look like grassland. Since seagrasses photosynthesize and are submerged, they must grow submerged in the photic zone, where there is enough sunlight. For this reason, most occur in shallow and sheltered coastal waters anchored in sand or mud bottoms.

FOUR FAMILIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seagrass

Seagrasses are flowering plants (angiosperms) belonging to four families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae and Cymodoceaceae), all in the order Alismatales (in the class of monocotyledons), which grow in marine, fully saline environments. There are 12 genera with some 60 species known.

16 GENERA- 16 SQUARES QMR- FOUR SUBFAMILIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrocharitaceae

Hydrocharitaceae is a flowering plant family including 16 known genera with a total of ca 135 known species (Christenhusz & Byng 2016 [2]), that including a number of species of aquatic plant, for instance the tape-grasses, the well known Canadian waterweed and frogbit Hydrocharis morsus-ranae.

 

The most recent phylogenetic treatment of the family recognizes four subfamilies – Hydrocharitoideae (Hydrocharis, Limnobium), Stratiotoideae (Stratiotes), Anacharidoideae (Apalanthe, Appertiella, Blyxa, Egeria, Elodea, Lagarosiphon and Ottelia) and Hydrilloideae (Enhalus, Halophila, Hydrilla, Maidenia, Najas, Nechamandra, Thalassia and Vallisneria).[4]

THE MOST COMMON CLASSIFICATION OF EUKARYOTES IS FOUR KINGDOMS PLANTS (weird sensation perception) FUNGI (order homeostaiss) ANIMALS (doers) AND PROTISTS (the transcendent fourth there are plant fungi and animal like proitists literally that is what they are called)--- THE FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT YET CONTAINS PREVIOUS THREE

http://www.shmoop.com/eukaryotes/eukaryote-kingdom.html

Eukaryotes represent a domain of life, but within this domain there are multiple kingdoms. The most common classification creates four kingdoms in this domain: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. These domains are further divided into a lot of smaller categories: phyla (singular: phylum), classes, orders, families, genera (singular: genus), and species.

I POSTED THE WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE THAT SAYS THAT THERE IS ACTUALLY FOUR DOMAINS OF LIFE VIRUS IS THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH ALSO THERE IS FOUR KINGDOMS- THE MOST COMMON CLASSIFICATION IS FOUR KINGDOMS- FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk%3AKingdom_(biology)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk%3AKingdom_(biology)

How many kingdoms are there?[edit]

There are actually only four kingdoms -animalia, plantea, Protesta and Fungi

 

Sometimes, but often they are simply left as four or five kingdoms, and I'm not convinced that's not the more typical approach. The introduction of additional eukaryotic kingdoms is already discussed, and it should be obvious that they'd go in the Eukarya.

THE FOUR KINGDOMS OF THE EUKARYOTE- PLANTS FUNGUS ANIMALS (the third square doers) AND THE TRANSCENDENT PROTISTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain_(biology)

Eukarya[edit]

Members of the domain Eukarya have membrane-bound organelles (including a nucleus containing genetic material) and are represented by four kingdoms: Plantae, Protista, Animalia, and Fungi.

THE FIRST THREE ARE ALWAYS SIMILAR FOURTH TRANSCENDENT- BIOLOGISTS SAY THAT THERE IS A FOURTH KINGDOM OF LIFE--- THE VIRUS THAT IS TRANSCENDENT- DIFFERENT- FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT AND POINTS TO ULTRA TRANSCENDENT QUESTIONABLE FIFTH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain_(biology)

None of the three systems currently include non-cellular life. As of 2011 there is talk about Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses possibly being a fourth branch domain of life, a view supported by researchers in 2012.[6]

I JUST WATCHED A DOCUMENTARY ON MEDICINE WHERE THEY MENTIONED KOCH AND HAD A HUGE PART ON HIM SAYING HE WAS THE REVOLUTIONIZER AND I TOLD MY GRANDPA- HE WAS KNOW FOUR THE FOUR POSTULATES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Koch

His research led to the creation of Koch’s postulates, a series of four generalized principles linking specific microorganisms to specific diseases that remain today the "gold standard" in medical microbiology.[5] As a result of his groundbreaking research on tuberculosis, Koch received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1905.[5]

 

Koch's four postulates[edit]

Main article: Koch's postulates

During his time as government advisor, Koch published a report, in which he stated the importance of pure cultures in isolating disease-causing organisms and explained the necessary steps to obtain these cultures, methods which are summarized in Koch’s four postulates.[12] Koch’s discovery of the causative agent of anthrax led to the formation of a generic set of postulates which can be used in the determination of the cause of most infectious diseases.[13] These postulates, which not only outlined a method for linking cause and effect of an infectious disease but also established the significance of laboratory culture of infectious agents, are listed here:[13]

 

The organism must always be present, in every case of the disease.

The organism must be isolated from a host containing the disease and grown in pure culture.

Samples of the organism taken from pure culture must cause the same disease when inoculated into a healthy, susceptible animal in the laboratory.

The organism must be isolated from the inoculated animal and must be identified as the same original organism first isolated from the originally diseased host.

During his time as the government advisor with the Imperial Department of Health in Berlin in the 1880s, Robert Koch became interested in tuberculosis research.[4] At the time, it was widely believed that tuberculosis was an inherited disease.[4] However, Koch was convinced that the disease was caused by a bacterium and was infectious, and tested his four postulates using guinea pigs.[4] Through these experiments, he found that his experiments with tuberculosis satisfied all four of his postulates.[4] In 1882, he published his findings on tuberculosis, in which he reported the causative agent of the disease to be the slow-growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis.[9]

KOCHS FAMOUS FOUR POSTULATES THAT REVOLUTIONIZED MEDICINE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germ_theory_of_disease

Robert Koch[edit]

Robert Koch is known for developing four basic criteria (known as Koch's postulates) for demonstrating, in a scientifically sound manner, that a disease is caused by a particular organism. These postulates grew out of his seminal work with anthrax using purified cultures of the pathogen that had been isolated from diseased animals.

 

Koch's postulates were developed in the 19th century as general guidelines to identify pathogens that could be isolated with the techniques of the day.[23] Even in Koch's time, it was recognized that some infectious agents were clearly responsible for disease even though they did not fulfill all of the postulates.[24][25] Attempts to rigidly apply Koch's postulates to the diagnosis of viral diseases in the late 19th century, at a time when viruses could not be seen or isolated in culture, may have impeded the early development of the field of virology.[26][27] Currently, a number of infectious agents are accepted as the cause of disease despite their not fulfilling all of Koch's postulates.[28] Therefore, while Koch's postulates retain historical importance and continue to inform the approach to microbiologic diagnosis, fulfillment of all four postulates is not required to demonstrate causality.

 

Koch's postulates have also influenced scientists who examine microbial pathogenesis from a molecular point of view. In the 1980s, a molecular version of Koch's postulates was developed to guide the identification of microbial genes encoding virulence factors.[29]

 

Koch's postulates:

 

The microorganism must be found in abundance in all organisms suffering from the disease, but should not be found in healthy organisms.

The microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure culture.

The cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy organism.

The microorganism must be reisolated from the inoculated, diseased experimental host and identified as being identical to the original specific causative agent.

FOUR MAJOR TYPES OF GEMRS- I DISCUSSED THERE ARE FOUR TYPES OF CELLS IN STOMACH AND IN THE PANCREAS AND ALL THAT- LOOK AT MY BOOKS

http://kidshealth.org/en/kids/germs.html

Germs are found all over the world, in all kinds of places. The four major types of germs are: bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. They can invade plants, animals, and people, and sometimes they make us sick.

I HAD A PSYCHOLOGY CLASS AT UCSD ON ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND THE WHOLE CLASS WAS LITERALLY JUST TINBERGENS FOUR QUESTIONS EVEN THE FINAL- BASED ON TWO DICHOTOMIES

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niko_Tinbergen

Four Questions[change | change source]

He is well known for originating the four questions he believed should be asked of any animal behaviour,[3] which were:

 

Proximate mechanisms:

 

1. Causation (Mechanism): what are the stimuli that elicit the response, and how has it been modified by recent learning?

2. Development (Ontogeny): how does the behaviour change with age, and what early experiences are necessary for the behaviour to be shown?

Ultimate mechanisms:

 

3. Evolution (Phylogeny): how does the behaviour compare with similar behaviour in related species, and how might it have arisen?

4. Function (Adaptation): how does the behaviour impact on the animal's chances of survival and reproduction?

TINBERGENS FOUR QUESTIONS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tinbergen%27s_four_questions

When asked about the purpose of sight in humans and animals, even elementary school children can answer that animals have vision to help them find food and avoid danger (function/adaptation). Biologists have three additional explanations: sight is caused by a particular series of evolutionary steps (phylogeny), the mechanics of the eye (mechanism/causation), and even the process of an individual's development (ontogeny). Although these answers may be very different, they are consistent with each other. This idea was formulated in the 1960s when Tinbergen delineated the four questions based on Aristotle's four causes.[3]

 

This schema constitutes a basic framework of the overlapping behavioural fields of ethology, behavioural ecology, comparative psychology, sociobiology, evolutionary psychology, and anthropology. It was in fact Julian Huxley who identified the first three questions, Niko Tinbergen gave only the fourth question, but Julian Huxley's questions failed to distinguish between survival value and evolutionary history, so Tinbergen's fourth question helped resolve this problem.[4]

 

Table of categories[edit]

Diachronic versus synchronic perspective

Dynamic view

Explanation of current form in terms of a historical sequence Static view

Explanation of the current form of species

How vs. why questions Proximate view

How an individual organism's structures function Ontogeny (development)

Developmental explanations for changes in individuals, from DNA to their current form Mechanism (causation)

Mechanistic explanations for how an organism's structures work

Ultimate (evolutionary) view

Why a species evolved the structures (adaptations) it has Phylogeny (evolution)

The history of the evolution of sequential changes in a species over many generations Function (adaptation)

A species trait that solves a reproductive or survival problem in the current environment

COOPERATIVE GAME THEORY- 16 TYPES AND FOUR AXIOMS- 16 SQUARES QMR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooperative_game_theory

Modified from Table 1 in Kumabe and Mihara (2011). The sixteen types are defined by the four conventional axioms (monotonicity, properness, strongness, and non-weakness). For example, type 1110 indicates monotonic (1), proper (1), strong (1), weak (0, because not nonweak) games. Among type 1110 games, there exist no finite non-computable ones, there exist finite computable ones, there exist no infinite non-computable ones, and there exist no infinite computable ones. Observe that except for type 1110, the last three columns are identical.

Jump up ^

 

More generally, a complete investigation of the relation among the four conventional axioms (monotonicity, properness, strongness, and non-weakness), finiteness, and algorithmic computability[6] has been made (Kumabe and Mihara, 2011[7]), whose results are summarized in the Table "Existence of Simple Games" below.

 

Existence of Simple Games[8]

Type Finite Non-comp Finite Computable Infinite Non-comp Infinite Computable

1111 no yes yes yes

1110 no yes no no

1101 no yes yes yes

1100 no yes yes yes

1011 no yes yes yes

1010 no no no no

1001 no yes yes yes

1000 no no no no

0111 no yes yes yes

0110 no no no no

0101 no yes yes yes

0100 no yes yes yes

0011 no yes yes yes

0010 no no no no

0001 no yes yes yes

0000 no no no no

The restrictions that various axioms for simple games impose on their Nakamura number are also studied extensively.[9] In particular, a computable simple game without a veto player has a Nakamura number greater than 3 only if it is proper and non-strong.

64 POSSIBILITIES- THAT IS FOUR 16S

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooperative_game_theory

Kumabe, M.; Mihara, H. R. (2011). "Computability of simple games: A complete investigation of the sixty-four possibilities" (PDF). Journal of Mathematical Economics. 47 (2): 150–158. doi:10.1016/j.jmateco.2010.12.003.

Jump up ^

16 TYPES AND 64 CLASSES AND 4 AXIOMS- QUADRANT NUMBERS

https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/29000/1/MPRA_paper_29000.pdf

Abstract

Classify simple games into sixteen “types” in terms of the four conventional axioms: monotonicity, properness, strongness, and non- weakness. Further classify them into sixty-four classes in terms of finiteness (existence of a finite carrier) and algorithmic computability. For each such class, we either show that it is empty or give an example of a game belonging to it. We observe that if a type contains an infi- nite game, then it contains both computable ones and noncomputable ones. This strongly suggests that computability is logically, as well as conceptually, unrelated to the conventional axioms.

 

1 Introduction

Shortly after proposing four “independent” axioms characterizing simple majority rule (May, 1952), May (1953) made a complete investigation of the axioms. By a “complete investigation of the four axioms,” we mean an investigation of all the sixteen (24) classes (of rules), formed by classifying all the rules in terms of whether they satisfy each axiom.1 In particular, May showed that the four axioms are “completely independent” in the sense that each of the sixteen classes is nonempty.

In this paper, we provide a complete investigation of six axioms for sim- ple games. A (simple) game2 is a coalitional game that assigns either 1 or 0 to each coalition—those assigned 1 are winning coalitions and those as- signed 0 are losing coalitions. Among the six axioms, four are conventional: monotonicity, properness, strongness, and nonweakness. These axioms clas- sify games into sixteen (24) classes, which we call (conventional) types. The other two are finiteness (existence of a finite carrier) and computability, which is the focus of this paper. The results of the investigation (of all the 24 × 22 = 64 classes) are summarized in Table 1 in Section 3.3

FOUR EVOLUTIONARY PROCESSES

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution

The four most widely recognized evolutionary processes are natural selection (including sexual selection), genetic drift, mutation and gene migration.[26] Natural selection and genetic drift sort variation; mutation and gene migration create variation.[26]

THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT- THERE ARE THREE CONES FOR COLOR VISION AND ONE ROD FOR DARK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution

The human eye uses four genes to make structures that sense light: three for colour vision and one for night vision; all four are descended from a single ancestral gene

THE FOUR MECHANISMS OF SPECIATION- FOURTH IS DIFFERENT OFTEN ONLY THREE ARE TAUGHT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Speciation_modes_edit.svg

The four mechanisms of speciation

Speciation has been observed multiple times under both controlled laboratory conditions and in nature.[253] In sexually reproducing organisms, speciation results from reproductive isolation followed by genealogical divergence. There are four mechanisms for speciation. The most common in animals is allopatric speciation, which occurs in populations initially isolated geographically, such as by habitat fragmentation or migration. Selection under these conditions can produce very rapid changes in the appearance and behaviour of organisms.[254][255] As selection and drift act independently on populations isolated from the rest of their species, separation may eventually produce organisms that cannot interbreed.[256]

HOMINIDAE FOUR GENERA- FOURTH HUMANS HOMO DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hominidae

The Hominidae (/hɒˈmɪnᵻdiː/), whose members are known as great apes[note 1] or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes seven extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean and Sumatran orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, the human (and though not extant, the near-human ancestors and relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal)).[1]

FAMOUS FOUR PIECES OF A FRAGMENTED SKULL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_hominids_in_Southeast_Asia

Since the discovery of hominid fossils by Dubois and van Koenigswald during the late 1800s and early 1900s which identified as homo Erectus, there is a small number of later evidence of homo Erectus that found as old as those fossils. Nevertheless, in local scale, one human fossil was found in the region of northern Thailand in 1999 by one villager in which some archaeologists suggest that it might be a fragmental piece of the skull of homo Erectus (c. 500 Ka)[7] the four pieces of the fragmented skull are believed to be the right “frontal region of a calvaria with a very thick tabula externa, a thick dipole and very thin tabula interna” (Marwick 2009:54). However, this evidence is still debated by scholars and no research has been conducted regarding the age of the piece and the fauna that comes with it.

BATTLE OF THE SEXES GAME THEORY IS A QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_sexes_(game_theory)

Let us calculate the four probabilities for the actions of the individuals (Man and Woman), which depend on their expectations of the behaviour of the other, and the relative payoff from each action. These four probabilities are:

 

The Man goes to the Football (resp. Opera), denoted by MF (resp. MO).

The Woman goes to the Football (resp. Opera), denoted by WF (resp. WO).

 

Interesting strategic changes can take place in this game if one allows one player the option of "burning money" – that is, allowing that player to destroy some of her utility. Consider the version of Battle of the Sexes pictured here (called Unburned). Before making the decision the row player can, in view of the column player, choose to set fire to 2 points making the game Burned pictured to the right. This results in a game with four strategies for each player. The row player can choose to burn or not burn the money and also choose to play Opera or Football. The column player observes whether or not the row player burns and then chooses either to play Opera or Football.

FOUR STAGES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sociocultural_evolution

In "conjectural histories", authors such as Adam Ferguson (1723–1816), John Millar (1735–1801) and Adam Smith (1723–1790) argued that societies all pass through a series of four stages: hunting and gathering, pastoralism and nomadism, agriculture, and finally a stage of commerce.

EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS FOUR STAGES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sociocultural_evolution

Ward agreed with Spencer that authoritarian governments repress the talents of the individual, but he believed that modern democratic societies, which minimized the role of religion and maximized that of science, could effectively support the individual in his or her attempt to fully utilize their talents and achieve happiness. He believed that the evolutionary processes have four stages:

 

First comes cosmogenesis, creation and evolution of the world.

Then, when life arises, there is biogenesis.[13]

Development of humanity leads to anthropogenesis, which is influenced by the human mind.[13]

Finally there arrives sociogenesis, which is the science of shaping the evolutionary process itself to optimize progress, human happiness and individual self-actualization.[13]

LENSKI FOUR STAGES HUMAN EVOLUTION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sociocultural_evolution

Lenski focuses on information—its amount and uses.[22] The more information and knowledge (especially allowing the shaping of natural environment) a given society has, the more advanced it is.[22] He distinguishes four stages of human development, based on advances in the history of communication.[22] In the first stage, information is passed by genes.[22] In the second, when humans gain sentience, they can learn and pass information through by experience.[22] In the third, humans start using signs and develop logic.[22] In the fourth, they can create symbols and develop language and writing.[22] Advancements in the technology of communication translate into advancements in the economic system and political system, distribution of goods, social inequality and other spheres of social life. He also differentiates societies based on their level of technology, communication and economy: (1) hunters and gatherers, (2) agricultural, (3) industrial, and (4) special (like fishing societies).[22]

PARSONS FOUR SUBPROCESSES FOUR STAGES EVOLUTION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sociocultural_evolution

Talcott Parsons, author of Societies: Evolutionary and Comparative Perspectives (1966) and The System of Modern Societies (1971) divided evolution into four subprocesses: (1) division, which creates functional subsystems from the main system; (2) adaptation, where those systems evolve into more efficient versions; (3) inclusion of elements previously excluded from the given systems; and (4) generalization of values, increasing the legitimization of the ever more complex system.[23] He shows those processes on 4 stages of evolution: (I) primitive or foraging, (II) archaic agricultural, (III) classical or "historic" in his terminology, using formalized and universalizing theories about reality and (IV) modern empirical cultures. However, these divisions in Parsons’ theory are the more formal ways in which the evolutionary process is conceptualized, and should not be mistaken for Parsons’ actual theory. Parsons develops a theory where he tries to reveal the complexity of the processes which take form between two points of necessity, the first being the cultural "necessity," which is given through the values-system of each evolving community; the other is the environmental necessities, which most directly is reflected in the material realities of the basic production system and in the relative capacity of each industrial-economical level at each window of time. Generally, Parsons highlights that the dynamics and directions of these processes is shaped by the cultural imperative embodied in the cultural heritage, and more secondarily, an outcome of sheer "economic" conditions.

16 SQUARE GARDENING- 16 SQUARES QMR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SquareFootGardening.gif

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Square_foot_gardening

The phrase "square foot gardening" was popularized by Mel Bartholomew in a 1981 Rodale Press book and subsequent PBS television series.[citation needed] Bartholomew used a 12’ by 12’ square with a grid that divided it into 9 squares with equal lengths of 4 feet on each side. Each of these 4’ by 4’ squares was then invisibly divided into sixteen one foot squares that were each planted with a different species. In smaller square gardens the grids may simply serve as a way to divide the garden but in larger gardens the grids can be made wide enough to be used as narrow walkways. Bartholomew recommends careful spacing of seeds rather than planting the entire seed packet so that fewer but stronger plants will grow.

 

To encourage a variety of different crops over time, each square would be used for a different kind of plant, the number of plants per square depending on an individual plant's size. For example, a single tomato plant might take a full square, as might herbs such as oregano, basil or mint, while most strawberry plants could be planted four per square, and up to sixteen per square of plants such as radish. Tall or climbing plants such as maize or pole beans might be planted in a northern row (south in the southern hemisphere) so as not to shade other plants, and supported with lattice or netting.[citation needed]

 

A basic, 4x4, 16-unit "square-foot garden."

THERE ARE FOUR TYPES OF ANIMAL TISSUE (I WENT TO A BIOLOGY CLASS AT UCSD AND THE PROFESSOR SAID "WE DO NOT KNOW WHY THERE IS FOUR TYPES OF TISSUE IN HUMAS"- ITS BECAUSE OF THE QUADRANT MODEL- THE FOURTH NERVOUS IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epithelium

 

Epithelial (epi- + thele + -ium) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissues line the cavities and surfaces of blood vessels and organs throughout the body.

Four types

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epithelium

In general, simple epithelial tissues are classified by the shape of their cells. The four major classes of simple epithelium are: (1) simple squamous; (2) simple cuboidal; (3) simple columnar; (4) pseudostratified.[3]

 

(1) simple squamous; which is found lining areas where passive diffusion of gases occur. e.g. skin, walls of capillaries, linings of the pericardial, pleural,and peritoneal cavities, as well as the linings of the alveoli of the lungs.

(2) simple cuboidal: these cells may have secretory, absorptive, or excretory functions. examples include small collecting ducts of kidney,pancreas and salivary gland.

(3) simple columnar; cells can be secretory, absorptive, or excretory; Simple columnar epithelium can be ciliated or non-ciliated; ciliated columnar is found in the female reproductive tract and uterus. Non-ciliated epithelium can also possess microvilli.

(4) pseudostratified columnar epithelium; can be ciliated or non-ciliated. The ciliated type is also called respiratory epithelium as it is almost exclusively confined to the larger respiratory airways of the nasal cavity, trachea and bronchi.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olfactory_bulb_mitral_cell

Mitral cells are a key part of the olfactory bulb microcircuit. Mitral cells receive input from at least four cell types: olfactory sensory neurons, periglomerular neurons, external tufted cells and granule cells.

FOUR ASPECTS OF STIMULUS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensory_nervous_system

Sensory systems code for four aspects of a stimulus; type (modality), intensity, location, and duration

RECEPTORS FOUR DISTINCT CATEGORIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensory_nervous_system

The initialization of sensation stems from the response of a specific receptor to a physical stimulus. The receptors which react to the stimulus and initiate the process of sensation are commonly characterized in four distinct categories: chemoreceptors, photoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, and thermoreceptors

THERE ARE FOUR TASTES THE FOURTH SALTY IS TRANSCENDENT NACL UMAMA MONO SODIUM GLUAMATE (HAS AN NA-sodium THE FOURTH POINTS TO THE FIFTH)- IS QUESTIONABLE- salty and umami have sodium the fourth points to fifth- which is questionable a lot of scientists still say four

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taste

However, it was only recently recognized in modern science as a basic taste; well after the other basic tastes have been recognized by scientists, in part due to their correspondence with the four tastes of ancient Greek philosophy.[

ACCORDING TO MEDICAL TEXTBOOK SAYS FOUR PRIMARY TASTES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taste

a. ^ It has been known for some time that these categories may not be comprehensive. In Guyton's 1976 edition of Textbook of Medical Physiology, he wrote:

On the basis of physiologic studies, there are generally believed to be at least four primary sensations of taste: sour, salty, sweet, and bitter. Yet we know that a person can perceive literally hundreds of different tastes. These are all supposed to be combinations of the four primary sensations...However, there might be other less conspicuous classes or subclasses of primary sensations",[121]

IT IS USED TO PRODUCE TEA- FOUR VARIETIES ARE RECOGNIZED

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camellia_sinensis

Four varieties of Camellia sinensis are recognized.[1] Of these, C. sinensis var. sinensis and C. sinensis var. assamica (JW Masters) Kitamura are most commonly used for tea, and C. sinensis var. pubilimba Hung T. Chang and C. sinensis var. dehungensis (Hung T. Chang & BH Chen) TL Ming are sometimes used locally.[1]

FOUR DISTINCT LAYERS AND FOUR CELL TYPES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subventricular_zone

The adult SVZ is a paired brain structure situated throughout the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles.[4] It is composed of four distinct layers[5] of variable thickness and cell density, as well as cellular composition. Along with the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, the SVZ is one of two places where neurogenesis has been found to occur in the adult mammalian brain.[6]

 

Layer IV[edit]

The fourth and final layer (Layer IV) serves as a transition zone between Layer III with its ribbon of astrocytes and the brain parenchyma. It is identified by a high presence of myelin in the region.[5]

 

Cell types[edit]

Four cell types are described in the SVZ:[7]

 

1. Ciliated Ependymal Cells (Type E): are positioned facing the lumen of the ventricle, and function to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid.

 

2. Proliferating Neuroblasts (Type A): express PSA-NCAM (NCAM1), Tuj1 (TUBB3), and Hu, and migrate in line order to the Olfactory Bulb

 

3. Slow Proliferating Cells (Type B): express Nestin and GFAP, and function to ensheathe migrating Type A Neuroblasts[8]

 

4. Actively Proliferating Cells or Transit Amplifying Progenitors (Type C): express Nestin, and form clusters interspaced among chains throughout region[9]

MAMMALS HAVE FOUR NOTCH RECEPTORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notch_signaling_pathway

The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved cell signaling system present in most multicellular organisms.[1] Mammals possess four different notch receptors, referred to as NOTCH1, NOTCH2, NOTCH3, and NOTCH4. The notch receptor is a single-pass transmembrane receptor protein. It is a hetero-oligomer composed of a large extracellular portion, which associates in a calcium-dependent, non-covalent interaction with a smaller piece of the notch protein composed of a short extracellular region, a single transmembrane-pass, and a small intracellular region.[2]

CELL CYCLE FOUR PHASES- FOURTH DIFFERNET

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cell_Cycle_2-2.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_cycle

The cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G1 phase, S phase (synthesis), G2 phase (collectively known as interphase) and M phase (mitosis)

FOUR CHROMATIDS- LOOK LIKE CROSSES- CHROMOSOMES LOOK LIKE CROSSES WITH THE FOUR ARMS (and they CROSS over)

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meiosis

At this stage each chromosome is split into two sister chromatids, held together by the centromeres. The paired chromosomes now have four chromatids (2 sets of 'sisters') pressed together. Crossing over takes place between two of the non-sister chromatids; the other two remain uncrossed. The crossover results in the exchange of segments of each of the participating chromatids, DNA and associated chromatin protein. Genetically, the process is called recombination.

THIS IS THE QUADRANT MODEL- IN MALES TELOPHASE MEIOSIS CREATES FOUR SPERMS--- IN FEMALES IT CREATES FOUR EGGS AS WELL- BUT THREE ARE ABSORBED BY THE BODY- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT- SO I THE END OF MEIOSIS MEN MAKE FOUR SPERM WOMEN MAKE FOUR EGGS--- ONLY ONE OF THE FOUR GETS A CHANCE TO BE FERTILIZED THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meiosis

Telophase II

The cells are completely divided. The nucleic envelope reforms and four new cells with different DNA are created.

In males, all four cells become sperm. In females, only one becomes a mature egg, while the remaining three become re-absorbed into the body.

ULTIMATELY FOUR SPERM CREATED

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nondisjunction

Meiosis II[edit]

Ovulated eggs become arrested in metaphase II until fertilization triggers the second meiotic division.[5] Similar to the segregation events of mitosis, the pairs of sister chromatids resulting from the separation of bivalents in meiosis I are further separated in anaphase of meiosis II. In oocytes, one sister chromatid is segregated into the second polar body, while the other stays inside the egg. During spermatogenesis, each meiotic division is symmetric such that each primary spermatocyte gives rise to 2 secondary spermatocytes after meiosis I, and eventually 4 spermatids after meiosis II.

ON THE RIGHT IS A DIAGRAM OF THE FOUR SPERM CREATED BY MEN- ON THE LEFT IS THE DIAGRAM OF THE FOUR EGGS CREATED BY WOMEN- BUT THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT THE TRANSCENDENT DIFFERENT FOURTH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gametogenesis

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gray%27s_7_(ovum_maturation).svg

Quadrant

FOUR PHASES OF ESTROUS CYCLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estrous_cycle

Buffaloes have an estrous cycle of about 22–24 days. Buffaloes are known for difficult estrous detection. This is one major reason for being less productive than cows. During four phases of its estrous cycle, mean weight of corpus luteum has been found to be 1.23±0.22 (metestrus), 3.15±0.10 (early diestrus), 2.25±0.32 (late diestrus) and 1.89±0.31g (proestrus/estrus), respectively. The plasma progesterone concentration was 1.68±0.37, 4.29±0.22, 3.89±0.33 and 0.34±0.14 ng/ml while mean vascular density (mean number of vessels/10 microscopic fields at 400x) in corpus luteum was 6.33±0.99, 18.00±0.86, 11.50±0.76 and 2.83±0.60 during the metestrus, early diestrus, late diestrus and proestrus/estrus, respectively.[16]

FOUR PHASES ESTROUS CYCLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estrous_cycle

Four phases

3.1 Proestrus

3.2 Estrus

3.3 Metestrus or diestrus

FOUR MAJOR HORMONES CONTROL THE WOMAN'S MENSTRAL CYCLE- YOU CAN SEE THE FOUR HORMONES AND THEIR INTERACTIONS IN THE DIAGRAM

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MenstrualCycle2_en.svg

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menstrual_cycle

The menstrual cycle process is controlled by four major hormones: FSH (follicle stimulating hormone); LH (luteinising hormone); estrogen; and progesterone. These hormones prepare the uterus to receive a fertilized egg and control its development.[2]

SOMETIMES THE MENSTRAL CYCLE IS DIVIDED INTO THREE PHASES SOMETIMES FOUR

https://www.menstrupedia.com/articles/physiology/cycle-phases

The day count for menstrual cycle begins on the first day of menstruation when blood starts to come out of the vagina. In this section, the length of menstrual cycle has been assumed to be 28 days (which is the average among women). The entire duration of a Menstrual cycle can be divided into four main phases:

 

Menstrual phase (From day 1 to 5)

Follicular phase (From day 1 to 13)

Ovulation phase (Day 14)

Luteal phase (From day 15 to 28)

Three or four small vessels

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anterior_cardiac_veins

The anterior cardiac veins (or anterior veins of right ventricle), comprising three or four small vessels which collect blood from the front of the right ventricle and open into the right atrium; the right marginal vein frequently opens into the right atrium, and is therefore sometimes regarded as belonging to this group.

Four pairs of lymph trunks
https://www.boundless.com/…/lymph-trunks-and-ducts-960-5983/
There are four pairs of lymph trunks: jugular lymph trunks, subclavian lymph trunks, bronchomediastinal lymph trunks, and lumbar lymph trunks. In addition, the intestinal lymph trunk is unpaired.

FOUR STYLES BARBECUE TEXAS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbecue_in_Texas

Texas barbecue traditions can be divided into four general styles: East Texas, Central Texas, South Texas, and West Texas.[1] The Central and East Texas varieties are generally the most well-known.[2] In a 1973 Texas Monthly article, Author Griffin Smith, Jr., described the dividing line between the two styles as "a line running from Columbus and Hearne northward between Dallas and Fort Worth".[3]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muscles_of_mastication

There are four classical muscles of mastication. During mastication, three muscles of mastication (musculi masticatorii) are responsible for adduction of the jaw, and one (the lateral pterygoid) helps to abduct it. All four move the jaw laterally. Other muscles, usually associated with the hyoid such as the sternohyomastoid, are responsible for opening the jaw in addition to the lateral pterygoid.

FOUR PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ciliary_ganglion

It is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck. (The others are the submandibular ganglion, pterygopalatine ganglion, and otic ganglion).

CALLED CRUCIFORM

CROSS/QUADRANT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occipital_bone

The inner surface of the occipital bone is marked by dividing lines as shallow ridges, that form four fossae or depressions. The lines are called the cruciform (cross-shaped) eminence.

SHAPE OF A CROSS- CRUCIATE MEANS CROSS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cruciate_ligament_of_atlas

Cruciate ligament of atlas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cruciate ligament of atlas

Gray307.png

Membrana tectoria, transverse, and alar ligaments. ("Transverse ligament" and "vertical portion" visible intersecting at center.)

The cruciform ligament of atlas (cruciate may substitute for cruciform) is a cruciate ligament in the neck forming part of the atlanto-axial joint. The ligament is named as such because it is in the shape of a cross.

FOUR PARTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temporal_bone

The temporal bone consists of four parts[1][2]— the squamous, mastoid, petrous and tympanic parts

THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH OF THE FOUR MAJOR LOBES OF THE BRAIN- four theories function

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frontal_lobe

The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.

 

Theories of function[edit]

Theories of frontal lobe function can be separated into four categories:

 

Single-process theories, which propose that "damage to a single process or system is responsible for a number of different dysexecutive symptoms” [11]

Multi-process theories, which propose "that the frontal lobe executive system consists of a number of components that typically work together in everyday actions (heterogeneity of function)" [12]

Construct-led theories, which propose that "most if not all frontal functions can be explained by one construct (homogeneity of function) such as working memory or inhibition" [13]

Single-symptom theories, which propose that a specific dysexecutive symptom (e.g., confabulation) is related to the processes and construct of the underlying structures.[14]

Four species
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dira_(butterfly)
Dira is a genus of butterflies from the subfamily Satyrinae in the family Nymphalidae.

Species[edit]
Dira clytus (Linnaeus, 1764)
Dira jansei (Swierstra, 1911)
Dira oxylus (Trimen, 1881)
Dira swanepoeli (van Son, 1939)

THE FOURTH CLASS IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutamate_(neurotransmitter)

Chemical receptors for glutamate fall into three major classes, known as AMPA receptors, NMDA receptors, and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Many synapses use multiple types of glutamate receptors. AMPA receptors are ionotropic receptors specialized for fast excitation: in many synapses they produce excitatory electrical responses in their targets a fraction of a millisecond after being stimulated. NMDA receptors are also ionotropic, but they differ from AMPA receptors in being permeable, when activated, to calcium. Their properties make them particularly important for learning and memory. Metabotropic receptors act through second messenger systems to create slow, sustained effects on their targets. A fourth class, known as kainate receptors, are similar in many respects to AMPA receptors, but much less abundant.

FOUR FAMILIES OF GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS IN MAMMALS- THE FOURTH FAMILY IS DIFFERENT METABOTROPIC INSTEAD OF IONOTROPIC FIRST THREE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutamate_(neurotransmitter)

Glutamate exerts its effects by binding to and activating cell surface receptors. In mammals, four families of glutamate receptors have been identified, known as AMPA receptors, kainate receptors, NMDA receptors, and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The first three families are ionotropic, meaning that when activated they open membrane channels that allow ions to pass through. The metabotropic family are G protein-coupled receptors, meaning that they exert their effects via a complex second messenger system.

THERE ARE FOUR MAJOR DOPAMINERGIC PATHWAYS IN THE BRAIN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuberoinfundibular_pathway

The tuberoinfundibular pathway refers to a population of dopamine neurons that project from the arcuate nucleus (a.k.a. the "infundibular nucleus") in the tuberal region of the hypothalamus to the median eminence.[1] It is one of the four major dopamine pathways in the brain. Dopamine released at this site regulates the secretion of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland.

FOUR MAJOR DOPAMINERGIC PATHWAYS IN THE BRAIN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesocortical_pathway

The mesocortical pathway is a dopaminergic pathway that connects the ventral tegmentum to the prefrontal cortex. It is one of the four major dopamine pathways in the brain. It is essential to the normal cognitive function of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (part of the frontal lobe), and is thought to be involved in cognitive control, motivation, and emotional response.[1][2]

 

Other dopamine pathways[edit]

Other major dopamine pathways include:

 

mesolimbic pathway

nigrostriatal pathway

tuberoinfundibular pathway

ONE OF THE FOUR MAJOR DOPAMINERGIC PATHEWAYS OF THE BRAIN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nigrostriatal_pathway

The nigrostriatal pathway or the nigrostriatal bundle (NSB), is a dopaminergic pathway that connects the substantia nigra with the dorsal striatum (i.e., the caudate nucleus and putamen). It is one of the four major dopamine pathways in the brain, and is particularly involved in the production of movement, as part of a system called the basal ganglia motor loop. Dopaminergic neurons of this pathway synapse onto GABAergic neurons.[1]

 

The nigrostriatal pathway connects the substantia nigra with the dorsal striatum. It is one of the four major dopamine pathways in the brain, and is particularly involved in modulation of the extrapyramidal system. Dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway synapse onto GABAergic neurons in the basal ganglia.[1] and in part make up the basal ganglia motor loop. Along with the other dopaminergic pathways, it is also partially involved in reward and in the reinforcement of memory consolidation.[3]

FOUR PRIMARY NUCLEI 0 DIVIDES FOUR ZONES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ventral_tegmental_area

In 1987, Oades identified four primary nuclei in the VTA A10 group of cells: the nucleus paranigralis (Npn), the nucleus parabrachialis pigmentosus (Npbp), the nucleus interfascicularis (Nif), and the nucleus linearis (Nln) caudalis and rostralis. Presently, scientists divide the VTA up into four similar zones that are called the paranigral nucleus (PN), the parabrachial pigmented area (PBP), the parafasciculus retroflexus area (PFR), and the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which approximately adhere to the previous divisions. Some definitions of the VTA also include the midline nuclei (i.e. the interfascicular nucleus, rostral linear nucleus, and central linear nucleus).

http://psychopharmacologyinstitute.com/antipsychotics-videos/dopamine-pathways-antipsychotics-pharmacology/

 

ANTIPSSYCHOTICS DISRUPT THE FOUR MAJOR DOPAMINE PATHWAYS IN THE BRAIN (thats why they cause movement disorders and physically disable people and make them zombies)

The four pathways relevant to the pharmacology of antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia are:

– The mesolimbic pathway (positive symptoms)

– The mesocortical pathway (negative symptoms)

– The nigrostriatal pathway (extrapyramidal symptoms and tardive dyskinesia)

– The tuberoinfundibular pathway (hyperprolactinemia)

SHE ASSOCIATES THE FOUR PERSONALITY STYLES WITH THE FOUR NEUROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helen_Fisher_(anthropologist)

Four broad personality styles[edit]

Fisher distinguishes between four broad biologically based styles of thinking and behaving which she associates with four broad neurochemical systems. Fisher emphasizes that these are not “types” and that we are all a unique combination of all of them.

 

The corresponding Platonic thinking style, Keirsey temperament type, according to some readers, not Fisher herself, and color:

 

Character Attribute Temperament Color Chemical

Explorer creative Artisan yellow dopamine

Builder sensible Guardian blue serotonin

Director reasoning Rational red testosterone

Negotiator intuitive Idealist green estrogen/oxytocin

FOUR LAYERS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parvocellular_cell
The parvocellular neurons of the visual system receive their input from midget cells, a type of retinal ganglion cell, whose axons are exiting the optic tract. These synapses occur in one of the four dorsal parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus. The information from each eye is kept separate at this point, and continues to be segregated until processing in the visual cortex. The electrically-encoded visual information leaves the parvocellular cells via relay cells in the optic radiations, traveling to the primary visual cortex layer 4C-β. The parvocellular neurons are sensitive to colour,[1] and are more capable of discriminating fine details than their magnocellular counterparts. Parvocellular cells have greater spatial resolution, but lower temporal resolution, than the magnocellular cells.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_transport_chain

 

COMPLEX ONE REPETITION OF FOUR PROTONS- THERE ARE FOUR COMPLEXES

 

During this process, four protons are translocated from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space. [4] As the electrons become continuously oxidized and reduced throughout the complex an electron current is produced along the 180 Angstrom width of the complex within the membrane. This current powers the active transport of four protons to the intermembrane space per two electrons from NADH.[5]

THERE ARE FOUR COMPLEXES - COMPLEX TWO CONSISTS OF FOUR PROTEIN SUBUNITS- EVEN WITHIN THE FOUR THE FOUR IS BEING EMPHASIZED

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_transport_chain

Complex II consists of four protein subunits: succinate dehydrogenase, (SDHA); succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit, mitochondrial, (SDHB); succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit C, (SDHC) and succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit D, (SDHD

THERE ARE FOUR MITOCHONDRIAL COMPLEXES- IN COMPLEX THREE FOUR PROTONS ARE TRANSLOCATED-

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_transport_chain

(in total four protons are translocated: two protons reduce quinone to quinol and two protons are released from two ubiquinol molecules).

COMPLEX FOUR OF THE FOUR MITOCHONDRIAL COMPLEXES--- LOOK AT REPETITION OF FOURS- FOUR ELECTRONS FOUR MOLECULES OF COTOCHROME C FOUR PROTONS ARE TRANSLOCATED ACROSS THE MEMBRANE THE OTHER FOUR PROTONS ARE NOT- THE REPETITON OF FOURS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_transport_chain

Complex IV[edit]

In Complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase; EC 1.9.3.1), sometimes called cytochrome AA3, four electrons are removed from four molecules of cytochrome c and transferred to molecular oxygen (O2), producing two molecules of water. At the same time, eight protons are removed from the mitochondrial matrix (although only four are translocated across the membrane), contributing to the proton gradient. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase is inhibited by cyanide.

FOUR PROTONS- THE ULTIMATE PRODUCT IS FOUR PROTONS ENTERING THE INTERMEMBRANE SPACE IN TEH Q CYCLE- AGAIN REPETITION OF FOURS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Q_cycle

 

Operation of the modified Q cycle in Complex III results in the reduction of Cytochrome c, oxidation of ubiquinol to ubiquinone, and the transfer of four protons into the intermembrane space, per two-cycle process.

 

The ultimate products of the Q cycle are four protons entering the intermembrane space, two from the matrix and two from the reduction of two molecules of cytochrome c. The reduced cytochrome c is eventually reoxidized by complex IV. The process is cyclic as the ubiquinone created at the Qi site can be reused by binding to the Qo site of complex III.

THIS IS THE FOURTH AND FINAL MITOCHONDRIAL COMPLEX- LOOK AT THE REPETITION OF FOURS WITHIN IT (THE FOURTH COMPLEX IS TRANSCENDENT)- IT RECEIVES FOUR ELECTRONS FROM FOUR CYTOCHROME C MOLECULES- IT BINDS FOUR PROTONS AND TRANSLOCATES FOUR PROTONS ACROSS THE MEMBRANE- IT ACCEPTS FOUR ELECTRONS AND INVOLVES A FOUR ELECTRON REDUCTION- THE FOURTH ELECTRON FLOWS THROUGH- THE NET PROCESS IS FOUR REDUCES CYTOCHROME CS ALONG WITH FOUR PROTONS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytochrome_c_oxidase

It is the last enzyme in the respiratory electron transport chain of mitochondria (or bacteria) located in the mitochondrial (or bacterial) membrane. It receives an electron from each of four cytochrome c molecules, and transfers them to one oxygen molecule, converting molecular oxygen to two molecules of water. In the process, it binds four protons from the inner aqueous phase to make water, and in addition translocates four protons across the membrane, helping to establish a transmembrane difference of proton electrochemical potential that the ATP synthase then uses to synthesize ATP.

 

Crystallographic studies of cytochrome c oxidase show an unusual post-translational modification, linking C6 of Tyr(244) and the ε-N of His(240) (bovine enzyme numbering). It plays a vital role in enabling the cytochrome a3- CuB binuclear center to accept four electrons in reducing molecular oxygen to water. The mechanism of reduction was formerly thought to involve a peroxide intermediate, which was believed to lead to superoxide production. However, the currently accepted mechanism involves a rapid four-electron reduction involving immediate oxygen-oxygen bond cleavage, avoiding any intermediate likely to form superoxide.[3]

 

The fourth electron from another cytochrome c flows through CuA and cytochrome a to the cytochrome a3- CuB binuclear center, reducing the Fe4+=O to Fe3+, with the oxygen atom picking up a proton simultaneously, regenerating this oxygen as a hydroxide ion coordinated in the middle of the cytochrome a3- CuB center as it was at the start of this cycle. The net process is that four reduced cytochrome c's are used, along with 4 protons, to reduce O2 to two water molecules.[16]

HAS THREE TO FOUR SUBUNITS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytochrome_c_oxidase_subunit_I

The enzyme complex consists of 3-4 subunits (prokaryotes) up to 13 polypeptides (mammals) of which only the catalytic subunit (equivalent to mammalian subunit I (COI)) is found in all heme-copper respiratory oxidases

THE FOURTH AND FINAL COMPLEX OF THE MITOCHONDRIAL COMPLEXES HAS THREE TO FOUR SUBUNITS--- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT- THE REACTION IS COUPLED TO THE PUMPING OF FOUR ADDITIONAL PROTONS ACROSS THE MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytochrome_c_oxidase_subunit_III

Cytochrome c oxidase (EC 1.9.3.1) is the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain of mitochondria and many aerobic bacteria. It catalyzes the transfer of electrons from reduced cytochrome c to molecular oxygen:

 

4 cytochrome c+2 + 4 H+ + O2

⇌\rightleftharpoons 4 cytochrome c+3 + 2 H2O

This reaction is coupled to the pumping of four additional protons across the mitochondrial or bacterial membrane.[5][6]

 

Cytochrome c oxidase is an oligomeric enzymatic complex that is located in the mitochondrial inner membrane of eukaryotes and in the plasma membrane of aerobic prokaryotes. The core structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cytochrome c oxidase contains three common subunits, I, II and III. In prokaryotes, subunits I and III can be fused and a fourth subunit is sometimes found, whereas in eukaryotes there are a variable number of additional small subunits.[7]

HEMOGLOBIN MAKES UP BLOOD- IT HAS FOUR SUBUNITS ALLOWING FOUR OXYGEN TO ATTACH TO IT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemeprotein

The same is true for hemoglobin; however, being a protein with four subunits, hemoglobin contains four heme units in total, allowing four oxygen molecules in total to bind to the protein.

FOUR COFACTORS- PUMPING FOUR PROTONS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coenzyme_Q_–_cytochrome_c_reductase

This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on diphenols and related substances as donor with a cytochrome as acceptor. This enzyme participates in oxidative phosphorylation. It has four cofactors: cytochrome c1, cytochrome b-562, cytochrome b-566, and a 2-Iron ferredoxin of the Rieske type.

 

It catalyzes the reduction of cytochrome c by oxidation of coenzyme Q (CoQ) and the concomitant pumping of 4 protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space:

 

QH2 + 2 cytochrome c (FeIII) + 2 H+

in → Q + 2 cytochrome c (FeII) + 4 H+

out

In the process called Q cycle,[6][7] two protons are consumed from the matrix (M), four protons are released into the inter membrane space (IM) and two electrons are passed to cytochrome c.

FOUR DIFFERENT STATES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavin_adenine_dinucleotide

FAD can exist in four different redox states, which are the flavin-N(5)-oxide, quinone, semiquinone, and hydroquinone.

FOUR CYSTEINE RESIDUES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_potential_iron-sulfur_protein

High potential iron-sulfur proteins (HIPIP)[2] are a specific class of high-redox potential 4Fe-4S ferredoxins that functions in anaerobic electron transport and which occurs in photosynthetic bacteria and in Paracoccus denitrificans. The HiPIPs are small proteins which show significant variation in their sequences, their sizes (from 63 to 85 amino acids), and in their oxidation- reduction potentials. As shown in the following schematic representation the iron-sulfur cluster is bound by four conserved cysteine residues.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxidative_phosphorylation
The second kind, called [4Fe–4S], contains a cube of four iron atoms and four sulfur atoms.

FOUR PROTONS- FOUR PROTEIN SUBUNITS- LOOK AT ALL THE FOURS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Complex_IV.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxidative_phosphorylation

 

As the electrons pass through this complex, four protons are pumped from the matrix into the intermembrane space

 

Complex II consists of four protein subunits and contains a bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor, iron–sulfur clusters, and a heme group that does not participate in electron transfer to coenzyme Q, but is believed to be important in decreasing production of reactive oxygen species.[24][25] It oxidizes succinate to fumarate and reduces ubiquinone.

HUMAN CELLS EXPRESS FOUR ADP/QTP TRANSLOCASES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ADP/ATP_translocase

 

Human cells express four ADP/ATP translocases: SLC25A4, SLC25A5, SLC25A6 and SLC25A31, which constitute more than 10% of the protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane.[3] These proteins are classified under the mitochondrial carrier superfamily.

THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SLC25A31

Dolce V, Scarcia P, Iacopetta D, Palmieri F (Jan 2005). "A fourth ADP/ATP carrier isoform in man: identification, bacterial expression, functional characterization and tissue distribution". FEBS Letters. 579 (3): 633–7. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2004.12.034. PMID 15670820.

^ Jump up to: a b c "Entrez Gene: SLC25A31 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 31".

^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Gallerne C, Touat Z, Chen ZX, Martel C, Mayola E, Sharaf el dein O, Buron N, Le Bras M, Jacotot E, Borgne-Sanchez A, Lemoine A, Lemaire C, Pervaiz S, Brenner C (May 2010). "The fourth isoform of the adenine nucleotide translocator inhibits mitochondrial apoptosis in cancer cells". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 42 (5): 623–9. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2009.12.024. PMID 20060930.

^ Jump up to: a b c

FOUR KINGDOMS OF EUKARYOTES- FOURTH PROTISTS ARE TRANSCENDENT BECAUSE THERE ARE PLANT LIKE FUNGI LIKE AND ANIMAL LIKE PROTISTS TRANSCEND YET INCLUDE PREVIOUS THREE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eukaryote#Origin_of_eukaryotes

The eukaryotes thus came to be composed of four kingdoms:

 

Kingdom Protista

Kingdom Plantae

Kingdom Fungi

Kingdom Animalia

FOUR MAJOR GROUPS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_Haeckel

Developmental series were used to show stages within a species, but inconsistent views and stages made it even more difficult to compare different species. It was agreed by all European evolutionists that all vertebrates looked very similar at an early stage, in what was thought of as a common ideal type, but there was a continuing debate from the 1820s between the Romantic recapitulation theory that human embryos developed through stages of the forms of all the major groups of adult animals, literally manifesting a sequence of organisms on a linear chain of being, and Karl Ernst von Baer's opposing view, stated in von Baer's laws of embryology, that the early general forms diverged into four major groups of specialised forms without ever resembling the adult of another species, showing affinity to an archetype but no relation to other types or any transmutation of species.

FOUR RULES THE FOUR LAWS OF EMBRYOLOGY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_Haeckel

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Von_Baer%27s_laws_(embryology)

von Baer's laws of embryology (or laws of development) is a set of four rules discovered by Karl Ernst von Baer to explain the observed pattern of embryonic development in different species.[1]

 

von Baer's law is a series of statements generally summarised into four points. As translated by Thomas Henry Huxley in his Scientific Memoirs:[5]

 

The more general characters of a large group appear earlier in the embryo than the more special characters.

From the most general forms the less general are developed, and so on, until finally the most special arises.

Every embryo of a given animal form, instead of passing through the other forms, rather becomes separated from them.

The embryo of a higher form never resembles any other form, but only its embryo.

VON BAUER FOUR DISTINCT ARCHETYPES ANIMAL KINGDOM

https://diggingupthefuture.com/2016/05/04/darcy-wentworth-thompson-on-scaling-laws-in-biology/

 

von Baer held that the animal kingdom could be separated into four distinct archetypes: the radiata (e.g., starfish and sea urchins), the mollusca (e.g., clams and octopus), the articulata (e.g., insects and crabs), and the vertebrata (e.g., fish and human beings). He denied recapitulation theory—the idea that the embryos of more complex animals passed through morphological stages comparable to those of the adult forms of organisms lower in the hierarchy of life. He maintained that the embryo of an animal exemplified from the beginning of its gestation only the archetype or Urform of that particular organism “The embryo of the vertebrate,” he asserted, “is already at the beginning a vertebrate” (1828-1837, 1: 220).

BAERS FOUR FUNDAMENTAL GROUPS EMBRYOLOGY RECAPITUALTION THEORY- VERY FAMOUS

https://diggingupthefuture.com/2016/05/04/darcy-wentworth-thompson-on-scaling-laws-in-biology/

 

Von Baer proposed four main fundamental groups from which all modifications and divergence arose within the group as described below:

BRAIN ENLARGEMENT OCURRED FOUR TIMES INDEPENDENTLY

https://diggingupthefuture.com/2016/05/04/darcy-wentworth-thompson-on-scaling-laws-in-biology/

…That brain enlargement and elaboration has occurred four times independently presents a very different reality of how brain evolution has operated than is perceived in the widely held folk-belief…

 

Butler (2009, 57)

FOUR STAGES

https://www.purerecoveryca.com/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-wikipedia/

Signs and symptoms[edit] Symptoms of CTE generally begin 8–10 years after experiencing repetitive mild traumatic brain injury.[2] First stage symptoms include deterioration in attention as well as disorientation, dizziness, and headaches. Further disabilities appear with progressive deterioration, including memory loss, social instability, erratic behavior, and poor judgment. Third and fourth stages include progressive dementia, slowing of muscular movements, hypomimia, impeded speech, tremors, vertigo, deafness, and suicidality. Additional symptoms include dysarthria, dysphagia, and ocular abnormalities – such as ptosis.[3]

 

Currently, CTE can only be definitively diagnosed by direct tissue examination, including full autopsies and immunohistochemical brain analyses.[4]

 

The neuropathological appearance of CTE is distinguished from other tauopathies, such as Alzheimer’s disease. The four clinical stages of observable CTE disability have been correlated with tau pathology in brain tissue, ranging in severity from focal perivascular epicentres of neurofibrillary tangles in the frontal neocortex to severe tauopathy affecting widespread brain regions.[5]

THE FOUR ARCHETYPES AND EMBRYOLOGY

https://embryo.asu.edu/pages/meckel-serres-conception-recapitulation

Von Baer opposed the strict linearity that Meckel and Serres embraced, which saw all organisms placed on a single chain of life. Instead, von Baer embraced the separation of the animal kingdom into four distinct archetypes, or fundamental body plans: the radiate, like the starfish; the mollusca, like clams and octopus; the articulate, like insects and lobsters; and the vertebrata, like fish and humans. He classified organisms into each of the four archetypes according to how those organisms developed from embryos. Von Baer reasoned that because animals could be divided into four archetypes, embryos could not recapitulate all lower forms throughout their development. Instead, von Baer argued that embryos appeared similar to their archetype at the beginning of development, and grew more specialized over time. Von Baer’s account of the relationship between development and the natural hierarchy of animals, articulated in his 1828 text, formed the basis of what later scientists called von Baer’s Laws.

DARWIN ORIGINALLY PROPOSED THREE BRANCHES THEN HE WROTE HIS EXTREMELY FAMOUS "I THINK" (thinking is the ninth square of the quadrant model of transpersonal reality) AND THEN HE ADDED A FOURTH BRANCH- THE FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT- THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN FOUR AND THREE- FOUR GROUPS AND FOUR ELEMENTS INSTEAD OF THREE

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=ESFo2r9CvtIC&pg=PT122&lpg=PT122&dq=von+Baer+four+archetypes&source=bl&ots=TlK6g3X1lb&sig=Dautig629XcATk91EYlueqx6CZs&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwivkvDCvPHTAhUN9GMKHdy7B5UQ6AEITDAH#v=onepage&q=von%20Baer%20four%20archetypes&f=false

Quadrant

FOUR HORSES AVESTA'S DIVINITY

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_horse_(mythology)

 

White horses are also said to draw divine chariots, such as that of Aredvi Sura Anahita, who is the Avesta's divinity of the waters. Representing various forms of water, her four horses are named "wind", "rain", "clouds" and "sleet" (Yasht 5.120).

SERRES HAD A BOOK CALLED "THE FOUR CLASSES OF VERTEBRATES"

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Étienne_Serres

 

Anatomie comparée du cerveau, dans les quatre classes des animaux vertébrés, appliquée à la physiologie et à la pathologie du système nerveux, 1824-1827 - Comparative anatomy of the brain, in the four classes of vertebrates, as it applies to the physiology and pathology of the nervous system.

FOUR GROUPS OF FISH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Agassiz

Agassiz found that his palaeontological labors made necessary a new basis of ichthyological classification. The fossils rarely exhibited any traces of the soft tissues of fish. They consisted chiefly of the teeth, scales and fins, with the bones being perfectly preserved in comparatively few instances. He therefore adopted a classification which divided fish into four groups: Ganoids, Placoids, Cycloids and Ctenoids, based on the nature of the scales and other dermal appendages. While Agassiz did much to improve fish taxonomy, his classification has been superseded by later work.[2]

THIS WASNT WHAT I WAS LOOKING FOUR BUT FOUR LINEAGES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theropoda

Thus, during the late Jurassic, there were no fewer than four distinct lineages of theropods—ceratosaurs, megalosaurs, allosaurs, and coelurosaurs—preying on the abundance of small and large herbivorous dinosaurs. All four groups survived into the Cretaceous, and three of those—the ceratosaurs, coelurosaurs, and allosaurs—survived to end of the period, where they were geographically separate, the ceratosaurs and allosaurs in Gondwana, and the coelurosaurs in Laurasia.

FOUR WINGS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microraptor

Microraptor (Greek, μικρός, mīkros: "small"; Latin, raptor: "one who seizes") was a genus of small, four-winged paravian dinosaurs. Numerous well-preserved fossil specimens have been recovered from Liaoning, China. They date from the early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation (Aptian stage), 120 million years ago. Three species have been named (M. zhaoianus, M. gui, and M. hanqingi), though further study has suggested that all of them represent variation in a single species, which is properly called M. zhaoianus. Cryptovolans, initially described as another four-winged dinosaur, is usually considered to be a synonym of Microraptor.[1]

 

Like Archaeopteryx, well-preserved fossils of Microraptor provide important evidence about the evolutionary relationship between birds and dinosaurs. Microraptor had long pennaceous feathers that formed aerodynamic surfaces on the arms and tail but also on the legs. This led paleontologist Xu Xing in 2003 to describe the first specimen to preserve this feature as a "four-winged dinosaur" and to speculate that it may have glided using all four limbs for lift. Subsequent studies have suggested that Microraptor was capable of powered flight as well.

FOUR WINGS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Changyuraptor

Changyuraptor is a genus of "four-winged", predatory dinosaurs. It is known from a single fossil specimen representing the species Changyuraptor yangi, which was discovered from Early Cretaceous (125 million year old) deposits in Liaoning Province, China.[1] C. yangi belongs to the group of dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaurs called the Microraptorinae.[1]

 

At the time of its discovery, C. yangi was the largest four-winged dinosaur known.[1][2]

FOUR WINGS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atriplex_canescens

Atriplex canescens, chamiso, chamiza, four wing saltbush, four-wing saltbush, and fourwing saltbush, is a species of evergreen shrub in the Amaranthaceae family, which is native to the western and mid-western United States.

 

It is most readily identified by its fruits, which have four wings at roughly 90 degree angles and are densely packed on long stems.

FOUR GROUPS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vetigastropoda

Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this taxon is one of the four natural groups within the Gastropoda: Vetigastropoda, Caenogastropoda, Patellogastropoda, and Heterobranchia. Research on the mitochondrial genome arrangement has shown that the Vetigastropoda (and Caenogastropoda) mostly retain the ancestral gene arrangement.[10]

FOUR TYPES OF FLOWER PARTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ABC_flower_developement.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homology_(biology)

The four types of flower parts, namely carpels, stamens, petals, and sepals, are homologous with and derived from leaves, as Goethe correctly noted in 1790. The development of these parts through a pattern of gene expression in the growing zones (meristems) is described by the ABC model of flower development. Each of the four types of flower parts is serially repeated in concentric whorls, controlled by a small number of genes acting in various combinations. Thus, A genes working alone result in sepal formation; A and B together produce petals; B and C together create stamens; C alone produces carpels. When none of the genes are active, leaves are formed. Two more groups of genes, D to form ovules and E for the floral whorls, complete the model. The genes are evidently ancient, as old as the flowering plants themselves.[3]

BLOOD IS MADE OF HEMOGLOBIN- HEMOGLOBIN HAS FOUR PARTS- ALSO FOUR CLASSES OF HEMOGLOBIN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sequence_homology

Another example are the globin genes which encode myoglobin and hemoglobin are considered to be ancient paralogs. Similarly, the four known classes of hemoglobins (hemoglobin A, hemoglobin A2, hemoglobin B, and hemoglobin F) are paralogs of each other. While each of these proteins serves the same basic function of oxygen transport, they have already diverged slightly in function: fetal hemoglobin (hemoglobin F) has a higher affinity for oxygen than adult hemoglobin. Function is not always conserved, however. Human angiogenin diverged from ribonuclease, for example, and while the two paralogs remain similar in tertiary structure, their functions within the cell are now quite different.[citation needed]

IN HUMANS THE MOST COMMON HEMOGLOBIN TYPE IS TYPE A WHICH IS A TETRAMER- TETRA IS FOUR- HEMOGLOBIN IS BLOOD- TETRAHEDRAL ARRANGEMENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemoglobin

In adult humans, the most common hemoglobin type is a tetramer (which contains four subunit proteins) called hemoglobin A, consisting of two α and two β subunits non-covalently bound, each made of 141 and 146 amino acid residues, respectively. This is denoted as α2β2. The subunits are structurally similar and about the same size. Each subunit has a molecular weight of about 16,000 daltons,[39] for a total molecular weight of the tetramer of about 64,000 daltons (64,458 g/mol).[40] Thus, 1 g/dL = 0.1551 mmol/L. Hemoglobin A is the most intensively studied of the hemoglobin molecules.

 

Variant forms that cause disease:

 

Hemoglobin D-Punjab – (α2βD2) – A variant form of hemoglobin.

Hemoglobin H (β4) – A variant form of hemoglobin, formed by a tetramer of β chains, which may be present in variants of α thalassemia.

Hemoglobin Barts (γ4) – A variant form of hemoglobin, formed by a tetramer of γ chains, which may be present in variants of α thalassemia

 

Hemoglobin's quaternary structure comes from its four subunits in roughly a tetrahedral arrangement.[32

TETRA IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hopeaphenol

Hopeaphenol is a stilbenoid. It is a resveratrol tetramer. It has been first isolated from Dipterocarpaceae[1] like Shorea ovalis.[2] It has also been isolated from wines from North Africa.[3]

 

It shows an opposite effect to vitisin A on apoptosis of myocytes isolated from adult rat heart.[4]

TETRAMER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metaldehyde

Metaldehyde is an organic compound with the formula (CH3CHO)4. It is commonly used as a pesticide against slugs, snails, and other gastropods. It is the cyclic tetramer of acetaldehyde.[1]

THE HEXAGONAL ARRANGEMENT IS FORMED BY TETRAMERS- TETRA IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectrin

The hexagonal arrangements are formed by tetramers of spectrin subunits associating with short actin filaments at either end of the tetramer.

 

Dimeric spectrin is formed by the lateral association of αI and βI monomers to form a dimer. Dimers then associate in a head-to-head formation to produce the tetramer. End-to-end association of these tetramers with short actin filaments produces the hexagonal complexes observed.

TETRAMERS- TETRA IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD1D

CD1d tetramers are protein constructs composed of four CD1d molecules joined together and usually fluorescently labelled, used to identify NKT cells or other CD1d-reactive cells. In particular, type I NKT cells and some type II NKT cells are stained by them. A differentiation of these two types can be obtained in human by using an antibody against the TCR Vα24 chain, which is specific of type I NKT cells.[8]

HIV DEPLETES CD4 CD4 HAS FOUR DOMAINS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD4

CD4+ T helper cells are white blood cells that are an essential part of the human immune system. They are often referred to as CD4 cells, T-helper cells or T4 cells. They are called helper cells because one of their main roles is to send signals to other types of immune cells, including CD8 killer cells, which then destroy the infectious particle. If CD4 cells become depleted, for example in untreated HIV infection, or following immune suppression prior to a transplant, the body is left vulnerable to a wide range of infections that it would otherwise have been able to fight.

 

It has four immunoglobulin domains (D1 to D4) that are exposed on the extracellular surface of the cell:

 

D1 and D3 resemble immunoglobulin variable (IgV) domains.

D2 and D4 resemble immunoglobulin constant (IgC) domains.

AGAIN THERE IS THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THE THREE AND FOUR- IN THE IMMUNE SYSTEM THERE IS CD3 CELLS AND CD4 CELLS--- THE CD4 IS TRANSCENDENT AND HIV ATTACKS CD4- BUT STILL FOUR IS DOMINANT CD3 IS COMPOSED OF FOUR DISTINCT CHAINS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD3_(immunology)

In immunology, the CD3 (cluster of differentiation 3) T-cell co-receptor helps to activate both the cytotoxic T-Cell (CD8+ naive T cells) and also T helper cells (CD4+ naive T cells). It consists of a protein complex and is composed of four distinct chains. In mammals, the complex contains a CD3γ chain, a CD3δ chain, and two CD3ε chains. These chains associate with a molecule known as the T-cell receptor (TCR) and the ζ-chain (zeta-chain) to generate an activation signal in T lymphocytes. The TCR, ζ-chain, and CD3 molecules together constitute the TCR complex.

FOUR PEPTIDES FORM CD3

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD3G

T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 gamma chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD3G gene.

 

T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is associated on the T cell surface with a complex of protein called CD3. CD3G (gamma chain) is one of the four peptides (gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta) that form CD3. Defects in CD3G are associated with T cell immunodeficiency.[3]

AGAIN THERE IS THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THE THREE AND THE FOUR- THE THYROID HORMONES ARE T3 AND T4- T4 IS TRANSCENDENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thyroid_hormones

The thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and its prohormone, thyroxine (T4), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are primarily responsible for regulation of metabolism. T3 and T4 are partially composed of iodine (see molecular model). A deficiency of iodine leads to decreased production of T3 and T4, enlarges the thyroid tissue and will cause the disease known as simple goitre. The major form of thyroid hormone in the blood is thyroxine (T4), which has a longer half-life than T3.[1] In humans, the ratio of T4 to T3 released into the blood is between 14:1 and 20:1. T4 is converted to the active T3 (three to four times more potent than T4) within cells by deiodinases (5'-iodinase). These are further processed by decarboxylation and deiodination to produce iodothyronamine (T1a) and thyronamine (T0a). All three isoforms of the deiodinases are selenium-containing enzymes, thus dietary selenium is essential for T3 production. Edward Calvin Kendall was responsible for the isolation of thyroxine in 1915.[2]

THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THE FOUR AND THE THREE- THE FOUR IS TRANSCENDENT T4 AND T3

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Follicular_cell

Follicular cells (also called thyroid epithelial cells or thyrocytes) are cells in the thyroid gland that are responsible for the production and secretion of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).

Four books ARISTOTLE PARTS OF ANIMALS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Parts_of_Animals

Contents[edit]

Book I

Book II

Book III

Book IV

ARISTOTLES GENERATION OF ANIMALS HAS FOUR PARTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generation_of_Animals

The Generation of Animals (or On the Generation of Animals; Greek Περὶ ζῴων γενέσεως; Latin De Generatione Animalium) is one of Aristotle's major texts on biology. It describes the means by which animals reproduce.

 

Part I: overview - the generative organs - generative secretions - theory of sex-generation

Part II: generation in different animals

Part III: causes of sex - heredity - teratology - altricial & precocial young - milk - gestation

Part IV: development after birth

THE FOUR COURSE SYSTEM REPLACED THE THREE COURSE SYSTEM- THE DIALECTIC BETWEEN FOUR AND THREE- THE FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crop_yield

Historically speaking, a major increase in crop yield took place in the early eighteenth century with the end of the ancient, wasteful cycle of the three-course system of crop rotation whereby a third of the land lay fallow every year and hence taken out of human food, and animal feed, production.

 

It was to be replaced by the four-course system of crop rotation, devised in England in 1730 by Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend or "Turnip" Townshend during the British Agricultural Revolution,[2] as he was called by early detractors.

 

In the first year wheat or oats were planted; in the second year barley or oats; in the third year clover, rye, rutabaga and/or kale were planted; in the fourth year turnips were planted but not harvested. Instead, sheep were driven on to the turnip fields to eat the crop, trample the leavings under their feet into the soil, and by doing all this, fertilize the land with their droppings. In the fifth year (or first year of the new rotation), the cycle began once more with a planting of wheat or oats, in an average, a thirty percent increased yield.[citation needed]

FOUR COMPONENTS INCENSE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incense_offering

The four components from the book of Exodus are

 

stacte (נָטָף nataf)

onycha (שְׁחֵלֶת shekheleth)

galbanum (חֶלְבְּנָה khelbanah)

pure frankincense (לְבוֹנָה זָךְ levonah zach

FOUR POSSIBLE COLORS FOUR SISTERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygala_vulgaris

Common Milkwort is quite similar to the Heath Milkwort (Polygala serpyllifolia), but in this species the inner sepals are usually longer than the petals. The Heath Milkwort Polygala serpyllifolia can be all the same colours except for white. These four possible colours account for the milkworts' Irish folk-name of 'four sisters'.

MONTESSORI FAMOUS FOR MONTESSORI SCHOOLS TALKED ABOUT FOUR PLANES CHILD DEVELOPMENT- ALL OF THIS IN MY OVER 6- QMR BOOKS

http://iqmontessori.ca/about-montessori/the-four-planes-of-development/

Dr. Montessori described four planes (or stages) of development, each of which last six years:

 

Birth to six (infancy)

Six to twelve (childhood)

Twelve to eighteen (adolescence)

Eighteen to twenty-four (transition to adulthood)

QUADRIGEN SERIES OF FOUR VACCINES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parke-Davis

A combination of the DPT and polio vaccines, called Quadrigen, was developed in 1954 and approved in 1959.

QUADRIGEN NOT WORK WELL FOURTH ALWAYS DIFFERENT- IT EXPANDED ON THE TRIPLE ANTIGEN PRODUCT MAKING A QUADRUPLE- THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN FOUR AND THREE THE FOURTH ALWAYS TRANCENDENT- IT DIDNT WORK WELL- FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT

https://books.google.com/books?id=m7gaeXC-aTgC&pg=PA782&lpg=PA782&dq=quadrigen+four+vaccines&source=bl&ots=DnE7KaVWWP&sig=2DpNOoAZg-gTTiNMVHRluH8fW0I&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj9i4qxtYXUAhVFyVQKHaJ3ACQQ6AEIJzAA#v=onepage&q=quadrigen%20four%20vaccines&f=false

Quadrant

QUINCUNCIAL PLANT- CROSS OF FIVE PART
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aestivation_(botany)
quincuncial – with five parts, where two petals or sepals are outside all others, two are inside all others, and the fifth is outside on one margin and inside on the other

QUINCUNX IS QUADRANT MADE OF FIVE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peirce_quincuncial_projection

The Peirce quincuncial projection[1] is a conformal map projection developed by Charles Sanders Peirce in 1879. The projection has the distinctive property that it can be tiled ad infinitum on the plane, with edge-crossings being completely smooth except for four singular points per tile. The projection has seen use in digital photography for portraying 360° views. The description quincuncial refers to the arrangement of four quadrants of the globe around the center hemisphere in an overall square pattern. Typically the projection is oriented such that the north pole lies at the center.

FOUR SPECIES TETRA IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetragraptus

Tetragraptus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tetragraptus

Temporal range: Ordovician

~478–455 Ma

PreЄЄOSDCPTJKPgN

Graptolite tetragraptus.jpg

Tetragraptus fruticosus

Tetragraptus approximatus (Nicholson).jpg

Tetragraptus approximatus

Scientific classification e

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Hemichordata

Class: †Graptolithina

Order: †Graptoloidea

Family: †Dichograptidae

Genus: †Tetragraptus

Salter, 1863

Species

T. akzharensis

T. approximatus

T. fruticosus

T. insuetus

Tetragraptus is an extinct genus of graptolites from the Ordovician period.

 

Contents [hide]

1 Species[1]

2 Distribution

3 References

4 Further reading

Species[1][edit]

T. akzharensis

T. approximatus

T. fruticosus

T. insuetus

Distribution[edit]

Fossils of Tetragraptus have been found in Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Canada (Quebec, Yukon, Newfoundland and Labrador and Northwest Terrorities), Chile, China, Colombia (near Caño Cristales, Meta), the Czech Republic, France, Morocco, New Zealand, Norway, the Russian Federation, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States (Alaska, Idaho, Nevada, Utah).[1]

TETRA IS FOUR- IT IS AN IMPORTANT INDEX FOSSIL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetragraptus_approximatus

Tetragraptus approximatus is a species of dichograptid graptolite belonging to the genus Tetragraptus. It existed during the Floian Age (477.7 million years ago) of the Ordovician. It is an important index fossil in biostratigraphy.

THERE ARE FOUR TYPES OF PAPILLAE THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT DOESNT CONTAIN TASTE BUDS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taste_bud

The taste buds on the tongue sit on raised protrusions of the tongue surface called papillae. There are three types of lingual papillae that contain taste buds present on the human tongue:

 

Fungiform papillae - as the name suggests, these are slightly mushroom-shaped if looked at in longitudinal section. These are present mostly at the dorsal surface of the tongue, as well as at the sides. Innervated by facial nerve.

Foliate papillae - these are ridges and grooves towards the posterior part of the tongue found at the lateral borders. Innervated by facial nerve (anterior papillae) and glossopharyngeal nerve (posterior papillae).

Circumvallate papillae - there are only about 10 to 14 of these papillae on most people, and they are present at the back of the oral part of the tongue. They are arranged in a circular-shaped row just in front of the sulcus terminalis of the tongue. They are associated with ducts of Von Ebner's glands, and are innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve.

The fourth type of papillae the filiform papillae are the most numerous but do not contain taste buds.[4][5] They are characterized by increased keratinisation and are involved in the mechanical aspect of providing abrasion.

FOUR TYPES FOURTH DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lingual_papillae#Filiform_papillae

Lingual papillae (singular papilla) are the small, nipple-like structures on the upper surface of the tongue that give the tongue its characteristic rough texture. The four types of papillae on the human tongue have different structures and are named accordingly.

 

These are the: circumvallate papillae (vallate papillae), fungiform papillae, filiform papillae and foliate papillae. All except the filiform papillae are associated with taste buds.[1]

FOUR LAYERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oral_mucosa

Oral mucosa consists of two layers, the surface stratified squamous epithelium and the deeper lamina propria. In keratinized oral mucosa, the epithelium consists of four layers:

 

Stratum basale (basal layer)

Stratum spinosum (prickle layer)

Stratum granulosum (granular layer)

Stratum corneum (keratinized layer)

THERE ARE FOUR MECHANORECPTORS FOURTH DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somatosensory_system

The four mechanoreceptors in the skin each respond to different stimuli for short or long periods.

 

Merkel cell nerve endings are found in the basal epidermis and hair follicles; they react to low vibrations (5–15 Hz) and deep static touch such as shapes and edges. Due to a small receptive field (extremely detailed info) they are used in areas like fingertips the most; they are not covered (shelled) and thus respond to pressures over long periods.

 

Tactile corpuscles react to moderate vibration (10–50 Hz) and light touch. They are located in the dermal papillae; due to their reactivity they are primarily located in fingertips and lips. They respond in quick action potentials, unlike Merkel. They are responsible for the ability to read Braille and feel gentle stimuli.

 

Lamellar corpuscles determine gross touch and distinguish rough and soft substances. They react in quick action potentials, especially to vibrations around 250 Hz (even up to centimeters away). They are the most sensitive to vibrations, and have large receptor fields. Pacinian reacts only to sudden stimuli so pressures like clothes that are always compressing their shape are quickly ignored.

 

Bulbous corpuscles react slowly and respond to sustained skin stretch. They are responsible for the feeling of object slippage and play a major role in the kinesthetic sense and control of finger position and movement. Merkel and bulbous cells (slow-response) are myelinated; the rest (fast-response) are not. All of these receptors are activated upon pressures that squish their shape causing an action potential.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9]

FOUR CATEGORIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensory_nervous_system

The receptors which react to the stimulus and initiate the process of sensation are commonly characterized in four distinct categories: chemoreceptors, photoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, and thermoreceptors

FOUR ASPECTS STIMULUS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensory_nervous_system

Sensory systems code for four aspects of a stimulus; type (modality), intensity, location, and duration.

SKIN NOCIORECEPTORS FOUR TYPES

http://nba.uth.tmc.edu/neuroscience/s2/chapter06.html

Skin Nociceptors. Skin nociceptors may be divided into four categories based on function. The first type is termed high threshold mechanonociceptors or specific nociceptors. These nociceptors respond only to intense mechanical stimulation such as pinching, cutting or stretching. The second type is the thermal nociceptors, which respond to the above stimuli as well as to thermal stimuli. The third type is chemical nociceptors, which respond only to chemical substances (Figure 6.2). A fourth type is known as polymodal nociceptors, which respond to high intensity stimuli such as mechanical, thermal and to chemical substances like the previous three types. A characteristic feature of nociceptors is their tendency to be sensitized by prolonged stimulation, making them respond to other sensations as well.

FOUR CORE SUBUNITS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cohesin

Cohesin is a multi-subunit protein complex, made up of four core subunits: two SMC proteins (SMC1 and 3), an alpha-kleisin (orthologues of yeast Scc1), and an orthologue of the yeast Scc3 protein (e.g. STAG1-3 in humans and SA1-3 in mice).

Four subunits

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Succinate_dehydrogenase_complex_subunit_C

Succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit C, also known as succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome b560 subunit, mitochondrial, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SDHC gene.[3] This gene encodes one of four nuclear-encoded subunits that comprise succinate dehydrogenase, also known as mitochondrial complex II, a key enzyme complex of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and aerobic respiratory chains of mitochondria.

 

The SDHC protein is one of the two transmembrane subunits of the four-subunit succinate dehydrogenase (Complex II) protein complex that resides in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The other transmembrane subunit is SDHD. The SDHC/SDHD dimer is connected to the SDHB electron transport subunit which, in turn, is connected to the SDHA subunit.[7]

 

The SDHC protein is one of four nuclear-encoded subunits that comprise succinate dehydrogenase, also known as Complex II of the electron transport chain, a key enzyme complex of the citric acid cycle and aerobic respiratory chains of mitochondria. The encoded protein is one of two integral membrane proteins that anchor other subunits of the complex, which form the catalytic core, to the inner mitochondrial membrane

TETRAMERS FOUR SUBUNITS FOUR TYPES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionotropic_glutamate_receptor

Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by the neurotransmitter glutamate.[1] They mediate the majority of excitatory synaptic transmission throughout the central nervous system and are key players in synaptic plasticity, which is important for learning and memory. iGluRs have been divided into four subtypes on the basis of their ligand binding properties (pharmacology) and sequence similarity: AMPA receptors, kainate receptors, NMDA receptors and delta receptors (see below).[2]

 

iGluRs are tetramers (they are formed of four subunits). All subunits have a shared architecture with four domain layers: two extracellular clamshell domains called the N-terminal domain (NTD) and ligand-binding domain (LBD; which binds glutamate), the transmembrane domain (TMD) that forms the ion channel, and an intracellular C-terminal domain (CTD).[5]

TETRAMER TETRA IS FOUR- FOUR HETEROTETRAMERS FOUR SUBUNITS- FOURTH DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphorylase_kinase

The protein is a hexadecameric holoenzyme—that is, a homotetramer in which each subunit is itself a tetramer—arranged in an approximate “butterfly” shape. Each of the subunits is composed of an α, β, γ and δ subunit. The γ subunit is the site of the enzyme's catalytic activity while the other three subunits serve regulatory functions.

 

Phosphorylase kinase is a 1.3 MDa hexadecameric holoenzyme, though its size can vary somewhat due to substitution of different subunit isoforms via mRNA splicing.[14][15][16] It consists of four homotetramers each comprised four subunits (α,β,δ,γ). Only the γ subunit is known to possess catalytic activity, while the others serve regulatory functions. Due to the instability of the regulatory subunits in solution, only the γ subunit has been crystallized individually:

 

Cohen P, Burchell A, Foulkes JG, Cohen PT (1978). "Identification of the Ca2+-dependent modulator protein as the fourth subunit of rabbit skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase". FEBS Lett. 92 (2): 287–293. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(78)80772-8. PMID 212300.

^ Jump up to: a b

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_pressure

Along with body temperature, respiratory rate, and pulse rate, blood pressure is one of the four main vital signs routinely monitored by medical professionals and healthcare providers.[51]

FOUR MEMBERS FAMILY- TETRAMERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SK_channel

The SK channel family contains 4 members - SK1, SK2, SK3, and SK4. SK4 is often referred to as IK (Intermediate conductance) due to its higher conductance 20 - 80 pS.[13]

 

Channel Gene Aliases Associated subunits

SK1 KCNN1 Kca2.1 calmodulin, PP2A, CK2

SK2 KCNN2 Kca2.2 calmodulin, PP2A, CK2

SK3 KCNN3 Kca2.3 calmodulin, PP2A, CK2

SK4 KCNN4 Kca3.1 calmodulin, PP2A, CK2

SK potassium channels share the same basic architecture with Shaker-like voltage-gated potassium channels.[7] Four subunits associate to form a tetramer

 

When each of the four CaM-binding domain subunits is bound to calmodulin, the SK channel changes conformation.

FOUR DOMAINS- YES EACH OF THE FOUR DOMAINS HAS SIX SUBUNITS OTHER NUMBERS CAN BE MENTIONED THE FOUR ALREADY ESTABLISHED ITSELF AS DOMINANT THE QUADRANT ALREADY EXPRESSED

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TPCN1

Two pore segment channel 1 (TPC1) is a human protein encoded by the TPCN1 gene.[3] The protein encoded by this gene is an ion channel. In contrast to other calcium and sodium channels which have four homologous domains

FOUR DOMAINS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:VDCC_alpha_subunit.png

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cav1.3

The α1 subunit has four homologous domains, each with six transmembrane segments. Within each homologous domain, the fourth transmembrane segment (S4) is positively charged, as opposed to the other five hydrophobic segments. This characteristic enables S4 to function as the voltage-sensor. Alpha-1D subunits belong to the Cav1 family, which is characterised by L-type calcium currents. Specifically, α1D subunits confer low-voltage activation and slowly inactivating Ca2+ currents, ideal for particular physiological functions such as neurotransmitter release in cochlea inner hair cells.

 

Schematic representation of the alpha subunit of VDCCs showing the four homologous domains, each with six transmembrane subunits. P-loops are highlighted red, S4 subunits are marked with a plus indicative of positive charge.

FOUR SUBUNITS- TETRAMERS FORMING TETRAMERS TETRA IS FOUR

 

 

A CNG channel consists of four subunits around a central pore

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclic_nucleotide–gated_ion_channel

Alpha subunits[edit]

Cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha-subunits include

 

Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 1

Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 2

Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 3

Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 4

In the open state, four identical subunits contribute a single P-loop region, which forms a selectivity filter.[6]

 

Since each subunit contains a single cNMP-binding site, and homomeric and heteromeric channels most likely form a tetrameric complex, a maximum of four ligand molecules can bind to the channel. Selectivity can be achieved by differential control of the affinity for binding of the ligand, efficacy of gating, or a combination of both.

 

C-linker[edit]

The C-linker is a region that connects the CNBD to the S6 segment. The C-linker region contributes to the contact between channel subunits as well as promotes tetramerization, the forming of tetramers

 

CNG channels form tetramers, and recent studies indicate that native rod channels consist of three CNGA1 subunits and one CNGB1 subunit

FOUR PROTEINS IN FAMILY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CatSper3

CatSper3, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CATSPER3 gene.[3][4][5][6] CatSper3 is a member of the cation channels of sperm family of proteins. The four proteins in this family together form a Ca2+-permeant ion channel specific essential for the correct function of sperm cells.[7]

http://conceptmap.cfapps.io/wikipage?lang=en&name=File:Sodium-channel.svg

http://conceptmap.cfapps.io/wikipage?lang=en&name=Voltage-gated_sodium_channel

http://conceptmap.cfapps.io/wikipage?lang=en&name=Voltage-gated_sodium_channel

SODIUM CHANNELS- THE FOUR DOMAINS- ONE MIGHT SAY "BUT THERE IS SIX SUBUNITS THAT IS NOT FOUR"- WHEN THE FOUR ESTABLISHED ITS DOMINANCE OTHER NUMBERS SHOW UP BECAUSE THE QUADRANT HAS ALREADY BEEN EXPRESED

The α-subunit has four repeat domains, labeled I through IV, each containing six membrane-spanning segments, labeled S1 through S6. The highly conserved S4 segment acts as the channel's voltage sensor. The voltage sensitivity of this channel is due to positive amino acids located at every third position.[5] When stimulated by a change in transmembrane voltage, this segment moves toward the extracellular side of the cell membrane, allowing the channel to become permeable to ions. The ions are conducted through a pore, which can be broken into two regions. The more external (i.e., more extracellular) portion of the pore is formed by the "P-loops" (the region between S5 and S6) of the four domains. This region is the most narrow part of the pore and is responsible for its ion selectivity. The inner portion (i.e., more cytoplasmic) of the pore is formed by the combined S5 and S6 segments of the four domains. The region linking domains III and IV is also important for channel function. This region plugs the channel after prolonged activation, inactivating it.

FOUR A HELIXES - FOUR ALPHA HELIX BUNDLES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SNARE_(protein)

Molecular machinery driving vesicle fusion in neuromediator release. The core SNARE complex is formed by four α-helices contributed by synaptobrevin, syntaxin and SNAP-25, synaptotagmin serves as a calcium sensor and regulates intimately the SNARE zipping.[1]

 

-SNAREs include syntaxin and SNAP-25. Q-SNAREs are further classified as Qa, Qb, or Qc depending on their location in the four-helix bundle.

 

 

Although SNAREs vary considerably in structure and size, all share a segment in their cytosolic domain called a SNARE motif that consists of 60-70 amino acids and contains heptad repeats that have the ability to form coiled-coil structures. V- and t-SNAREs are capable of reversible assembly into tight, four-helix bundles called "trans"-SNARE complexes. In synaptic vesicles, the readily-formed metastable "trans" complexes are composed of three SNAREs: syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 resident in cell membrane and synaptobrevin (also referred to as vesicle-associated membrane protein or VAMP) anchored in the vesicle membrane.

 

In neuronal exocytosis, syntaxin and synaptobrevin are anchored in respective membranes by their C-terminal domains, whereas SNAP-25 is tethered to the plasma membrane via several cysteine-linked palmitoyl chains. The core trans-SNARE complex is a four-

α\alpha -helix bundle, where one

α\alpha -helix is contributed by syntaxin 1, one

α\alpha -helix by synaptobrevin and two

 

SNARE proteins must assemble into trans-SNARE complexes so that they can provide the force that is necessary for vesicle fusion. The four α-helix domains (1 each from synaptobrevin and syntaxin, and 2 from SNAP-25) come together to form a coiled-coil motif. The rate-limiting step in the assembly process is the association of the syntaxin SNARE domain, since it is usually found in a "closed" state where it is incapable of interacting with other SNARE proteins.[10] When syntaxin is in an open state, trans-SNARE complex formation begins with the association of the four SNARE domains at their N-termini. The SNARE domains proceed in forming a coiled-coil motif in the direction of the C-termini of their respective domains.

 

The SM protein Munc18 is thought to play a role in assembly of the SNARE complex, although the exact mechanism by which it acts is still under debate. It is known that the clasp of Munc18 locks syntaxin in a closed conformation by binding to its α-helical SNARE domains, which inhibits syntaxin from entering SNARE complexes (thereby inhibiting fusion).[10] The clasp is also capable, however, of binding the entire four-helix bundle of the trans-SNARE complex. One hypothesis suggests that, during SNARE-complex assembly, the Munc18 clasp releases closed syntaxin, remains associated with the N-terminal peptide of syntaxin (allowing association of the syntaxin SNARE domain with other SNARE proteins), and then reattaches to the newly formed four-helix SNARE complex.[11] This possible mechanism of dissociation and subsequent re-association with the SNARE domains could be calcium-dependent.[12] This supports the idea that Munc18 plays a key regulatory role in vesicle fusion; under normal conditions the SNARE complex will be prevented from forming by Munc18, but when triggered the Munc18 will actually assist in SNARE-complex assembly and thereby act as a fusion catalyst.[11]

FOUR STAGES COAL FORMATION

 

There are four stages in coal formation: peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite. The stage depends upon the conditions to which the plant remains are subjected after they were buried – the greater the pressure and heat, the higher the rank of coal. Higher-ranking coal is denser and contains less moisture and gases and has a higher heat value than lower-ranking coal.

http://www.minersmuseum.com/history-of-mining/coal-formation/

Peat – Stage One

Peat is the first stage in the formation of coal. Normally, vegetable matter is oxidized to water and carbon dioxide. However, if plant material accumulates underwater, oxygen is not present and so only partial decomposition occurs. This incomplete destruction leads to the accumulation of an organic substance called peat.

 

Peat is a fibrous, soft, spongy substance in which plant remains are easily recognizable. It contains a large amount of water and must be dried before use. Therefore, it is seldom used as a source of heat. Peat burns with a long flame and considerable smoke.

 

Lignite – Stage Two

Lignite, the second stage, is formed when peat is subjected to increased vertical pressure from accumulating sediments. Lignite is dark brown in colour and, like peat, contains traces of plants. It is found in many places but is used only when more efficient fuel is not available. It crumbles easily and should not be shipped or handled before use.

 

Bituminous Coal – Stage Three

Bituminous Coal is the third stage. Added pressure has made it compact and virtually all traces of plant life have disappeared. Also known as “soft coal”, bituminous coal is the type found in Cape Breton and is our most abundant fuel. It is greatly used in industry as a source of heat energy.

 

Anthracite – Stage Four

Anthracite, the fourth stage in coal formation, is also known as “hard coal” because it is hard and has a high lustre. It appears to have been formed as a result of combined pressure and high temperature. Anthracite burns with a short flame and little smoke.

Just now

FOUR STAGES COAL FORMATION

There are four stages in coal formation: peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite. The stage depends upon the conditions to which the plant remains are subjected after they were buried – the greater the pressure and heat, the higher the rank of coal. Higher-ranking coal is denser and contains less moisture and gases and has a higher heat value than lower-ranking coal.
http://www.minersmuseum.com/history-of-mini…/coal-formation/
Peat – Stage One
Peat is the first stage in the formation of coal. Normally, vegetable matter is oxidized to water and carbon dioxide. However, if plant material accumulates underwater, oxygen is not present and so only partial decomposition occurs. This incomplete destruction leads to the accumulation of an organic substance called peat.

Peat is a fibrous, soft, spongy substance in which plant remains are easily recognizable. It contains a large amount of water and must be dried before use. Therefore, it is seldom used as a source of heat. Peat burns with a long flame and considerable smoke.

Lignite – Stage Two
Lignite, the second stage, is formed when peat is subjected to increased vertical pressure from accumulating sediments. Lignite is dark brown in colour and, like peat, contains traces of plants. It is found in many places but is used only when more efficient fuel is not available. It crumbles easily and should not be shipped or handled before use.

Bituminous Coal – Stage Three
Bituminous Coal is the third stage. Added pressure has made it compact and virtually all traces of plant life have disappeared. Also known as “soft coal”, bituminous coal is the type found in Cape Breton and is our most abundant fuel. It is greatly used in industry as a source of heat energy.

Anthracite – Stage Four
Anthracite, the fourth stage in coal formation, is also known as “hard coal” because it is hard and has a high lustre. It appears to have been formed as a result of combined pressure and high temperature. Anthracite burns with a short flame and little smoke.

THE FOURTH SUBUNIT IS DIFFERENT

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3073298/

Functional SNARE complexes are composed of four sub-units: three constituting the t-SNARE (target-SNARE), and one constituting the v-SNARE (vesicular-SNARE).20 These proteins, present on the surface of most intra-cellular compartments, interact to form a stable complex, bringing two membranes into close apposition and triggering their fusion (Fig. 1A). Structural data shows that this complex forms a very characteristic rod-shaped coiled-coil of four α-helices aligned in parallel [one v-SNARE and three t-SNAREs21–23] and highlights the importance of heptad repeat motifs to manipulate biological membranes.

FOUR CYSTEINE RESIDUES

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3065388/

SNAP25 is a peripheral membrane protein, and palmitoylation of a cluster of four cysteine residues mediates its stable association with the membrane

Four-step models[edit]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transportation_forecasting
Within the rational planning framework, transportation forecasts have traditionally followed the sequential four-step model or urban transportation planning (UTP) procedure, first implemented on mainframe computers in the 1950s at the Detroit Metropolitan Area Traffic Study and Chicago Area Transportation Study (CATS).

Land-use forecasting starts the process. Typically, forecasts are made for the region as a whole, e.g., of population growth. Such forecasts provide control totals for the local land use analysis. Typically, the region is divided into zones and by trend or regression analysis, the population and employment are determined for each.

The four steps of the classical urban transportation planning system model are:

Trip generation determines the frequency of origins or destinations of trips in each zone by trip purpose, as a function of land uses and household demographics, and other socio-economic factors.
Trip distribution matches origins with destinations, often using a gravity model function, equivalent to an entropy maximizing model. Older models include the fratar model.
Mode choice computes the proportion of trips between each origin and destination that use a particular transportation mode. (This modal model may be of the logit form, developed by Nobel Prize winner Daniel McFadden.)
Route assignment allocates trips between an origin and destination by a particular mode to a route. Often (for highway route assignment) Wardrop's principle of user equilibrium is applied (equivalent to a Nash equilibrium), wherein each driver (or group) chooses the shortest (travel time) path, subject to every other driver doing the same. The difficulty is that travel times are a function of demand, while demand is a function of travel time, the so-called bi-level problem. Another approach is to use the Stackelberg competition model, where users ("followers") respond to the actions of a "leader", in this case for example a traffic manager. This leader anticipates on the response of the followers.

FOUR EP RECEPTORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostaglandin_EP4_receptor

Prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 (EP4) is a prostaglandin receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) encoded by the PTGER4 gene in humans;[3] it is one of four identified EP receptors, the others being EP1, EP2, and EP3, all of which bind with and mediate cellular responses to PGE2 and also, but generally with lesser affinity and responsiveness, certain other prostanoids (see Prostaglandin receptors). EP4 has been implicated in various physiological and pathological responses in animal models and humans.[4]

FOUR UNITS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steroid_hormone_receptor

Intracellular steroid hormone receptors share a common structure of four units that are functionally homologous, so-called "domains":

 

Variable domain: It begins at the N-terminal and is the most variable domain between the different receptors.

DNA binding domain: This centrally located highly conserved DNA binding domain (DBD) consists of two non-repetitive globular motifs[3] where zinc is coordinated with four cysteine and no histidine residues. Their secondary and tertiary structure is distinct from that of classic zinc fingers.[4] This region controls which gene will be activated. On DNA it interacts with the hormone response element (HRE).

Hinge region: This area controls the movement of the receptor to the nucleus.

Hormone binding domain: The moderately conserved ligand-binding domain (LBD) can include a nuclear localization signal, amino-acid sequences capable of binding chaperones and parts of dimerization interfaces. Such receptors are closely related to chaperones (namely heat shock proteins hsp90 and hsp56), which are required to maintain their inactive (but receptive) cytoplasmic conformation. At the end of this domain is the C-terminal. The terminal connects the molecule to its pair in the homodimer or heterodimer. It may affect the magnitude of the response.

 

At least four different GPCR-linked proteins are known to respond to steroid hormones. G Protein-Coupled Receptor 30 (GPR30) binds estrogen, Membrane Progestin Receptor (mPR) binds progesterone, G Protein-Coupled Receptor Family C Group 6 Member A (GPRC6A) binds androgens, and Thyroid Hormone and Trace Amine Associated Receptor 1 (TAAR1) binds Thyroid hormone (though not technically steroid hormones, thyroid hormones can be grouped here because their receptors belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily). As an example of the effects of these GPCR-linked proteins consider GPR30. GPR30 binds estrogen, and upon binding estrogen this pathway activates adenylyl cyclase and epidermal growth factor receptor. It results in vasodilation, renoprotection, mammary gland development, etc.[10]

FOUR COMPLEMENT RECEPTORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complement_receptor

All four complement receptors bind to complement component 3 or complement component 4 fragments on pathogen surface, but they are different in functions. Complement receptor (CR) 1, 3, and 4 work as opsonin. On the other hand, CR2 is a kind of B cell co-receptor.

FOUR ADENOSINE RECEPTORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_receptor

In humans, there are four types of adenosine receptors. Each is encoded by a separate gene and has different functions, although with some overlap.[3] For instance, both A1 receptors and A2A play roles in the heart, regulating myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood flow, while the A2A receptor also has broader anti-inflammatory effects throughout the body.[4] These two receptors also have important roles in the brain,[5] regulating the release of other neurotransmitters such as dopamine and glutamate,[6][7][8] while the A2B and A3 receptors are located mainly peripherally and are involved in processes such as inflammation and immune responses.

FOUR RECEPTOR KINASES

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ErbB

The ErbB family of proteins contains four receptor tyrosine kinases, structurally related to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), its first discovered member. In humans, the family includes Her1 (EGFR, ErbB1), Her2 (Neu, ErbB2), Her3 (ErbB3), and Her4 (ErbB4). The gene symbol, ErbB, is derived from the name of a viral oncogene to which these receptors are homologous: erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene. Insufficient ErbB signaling in humans is associated with the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's Disease,[1] while excessive ErbB signaling is associated with the development of a wide variety of types of solid tumor.[2]

 

All four ErbB receptor family members are nearly same in the structure having single-chain of modular glycoproteins.[3] This structure is made up of an extracellular region or ectodomain or ligand binding region that contains approximately 620 amino acids, a single transmembrane-spanning region containing approximately 23 residues, and an intracellular cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain containing up to around 540 residues.[3][4][5] The extracellular region of each family member is made up of four subdomains, L1, CR1, L2, and CR2, where "L" signifies a leucine-rich repeat domain and "CR" a cysteine-rich region and these CR domains contain disulfide modules in their structure as 8 disulfide modules in CR1 domain, whereas 7 modules in CR2 domain.[3] These subdomains are shown in blue (L1), green (CR1), yellow (L2), and red (CR2) in the figure below. These subdomains are also referred to as domains I-IV, respectively.[4][6][7] The intracellular/cytoplasmic region of the ErbB receptor comprises of mainly three subdomains: A juxtamembrane with approximately 40 residues, a kinase domain containing approximately 260 residues and a C-terminal regulatory region with around 232 residues.[3]

 

The four members of the ErbB protein family are capable of forming homodimers, heterodimers, and possibly higher-order oligomers upon activation by a subset of potential growth factor ligands.[12] There are 11 growth factors that activate ErbB receptors.

FOUR SUBTYPES OPOID RECEPTORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opioid_receptor

There are four major subtypes of opioid receptors.[12] OGFr was originally discovered and named as a new opioid receptor zeta (ζ). However it was subsequently found that it shares little sequence similarity with the other opioid receptors, and has quite different function.

FOUR SUBTYPES OF NEUROPEPTIDE Y IN HUMANS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuropeptide_Y_receptor

Four neuropeptide Y receptors each encoded by a different gene have been identified in humans, all of which may represent therapeutic targets for obesity and other disorders.[9][10][11]

 

Y1 - NPY1R

Y2 - NPY2R

Y4 - PPYR1

Y5 - NPY5R

FOUR PROTEINS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galanin

The galanin family of protein consists of four proteins, of which GAL was the first to be identified. The second was galanin message-associated protein (GMAP), a 59- or 60-amino acid peptide also formed from the cleavage of prepro galanin.[12] The other two peptides, galanin-like peptide (GALP) and alarin, were identified relatively recently and are both encoded for in the same gene, the prepro GALP gene. GALP and alarin are produced by different post-transcriptional splicing of this gene.[15]

Four groups

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BotIT6

BotIT6 belongs to the Buthidae neurotoxin family. The toxins can be divided into groups based on their target animal. BotIT6 is targeted at insects. Toxins directed against insects, the main target being the sodium channels, can be divided into four groups, namely excitatory toxins, depressant toxins, α-type toxins and a group affecting both mammals and insects.[1][3] Each group causes paralysis, albeit via different mechanisms. The BotIT6 has characteristics of depressant, excitatory and α subgroups.[1]

http://cyndidale.com/product/advanced-chakra-healing-cancer-the-four-pathways-approach

In ADVANCED CHAKRA HEALING: CANCER, best-selling author Cyndi Dale introduces her revolutionary Four Pathways chakric method and goes where no alternative healer has gone before. Using the chakras, the points of light energy in our bodies that act as doors to different layers of awareness, she describes how to approach cancer through material, supernatural, magical, and love pathways. Followed one at a time or all at once, these pathways offer an alternative to a solely physical application of traditional Western medicine. In this book about shifting the way we think about and live with illness, Cyndi Dale presents an entirely new process of healing by embracing wholeness.

FOUR TRANSMEMBRAE DOMAINS-4 MEMBRANE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cys-loop_receptors

All subunits consist of a conserved extracellular large N-terminal domain, three highly conserved transmembrane domains, a cytoplasmic loop of variable size and amino acid sequence, and a fourth transmembrane domain with a relatively short and variable extracellular C terminal. The neurotransmitters bind at the interface between subunits in the extracellular domain.

 

Each subunit contains 4-membrane-spanning alpha helices (M1, M2, M3, M4). The pore is formed primarily by the M2 helices.[3]

The ionotropic glutamate receptors are multimeric assemblies of four

 

http://www.bristol.ac.uk/media-library/sites/synaptic/migrated/images/iglur-structure.gif

 

Like other ligand gated ion channels, such as the GABAA receptor, the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits possess four hydrophobic regions within the central portion of the sequence (TMI - IV; Figure 1). However, in contrast to other receptor subunits, the TMII domain forms a re-entrant loop giving these receptor subunits an extracellular N-terminus and intracellular C-terminus (Figure 1).

FOUR TRANSMEMBRANE DOMAINS (THERE IS OTHER NUMBERS IN THIS BUT THE FOUR ALSO THERE)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicotinic_acetylcholine_receptor

Each subunit comprises four transmembrane domains with both the N- and C-terminus located extracellularly.

 

The nAChR subunits have been divided into 4 subfamilies (I-IV) based on similarities in protein sequence.[31] In addition, subfamily III has been further divided into 3 types.

 

Neuronal-type Muscle-type

I II III IV

α9, α10 α7, α8 1 2 3 α1, β1, δ, γ, ε

FOURTH IS DIFFERENT FIRST TWO DUALITY

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10895/

Four major types of encapsulated mechanoreceptors are specialized to provide information to the central nervous system about touch, pressure, vibration, and cutaneous tension: Meissner's corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles, Merkel's disks, and Ruffini's corpuscles (Figure 9.3 and Table 9.1). These receptors are referred to collectively as low-threshold (or high-sensitivity) mechanoreceptors because even weak mechanical stimulation of the skin induces them to produce action potentials. All low-threshold mechanoreceptors are innervated by relatively large myelinated axons (type Aβ; see Table 9.1), ensuring the rapid central transmission of tactile information.

https://www.homesciencetools.com/a/skin-touch

Within the somatosensory system, there are four main types of receptors: mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, pain receptors, and proprioceptors.

FOUR GROUPS ARTHROPODS

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Arthropod_head_problem_02.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthropod

The most conspicuous specialization of segments is in the head. The four major groups of arthropods – Chelicerata (includes spiders and scorpions), Crustacea (shrimps, lobsters, crabs, etc.), Tracheata (arthropods that breathe via channels into their bodies; includes insects and myriapods), and the extinct trilobites – have heads formed of various combinations of segments, with appendages that are missing or specialized in different ways.[9] In addition, some extinct arthropods, such as Marrella, belong to none of these groups, as their heads are formed by their own particular combinations of segments and specialized appendages.[15]

FOUR GROUPS OF HEXAPODA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diplura

The order Diplura is one of the four groups of hexapods, alongside insects, springtails and Protura. They are sometimes called "two-pronged bristletails".[3] Around 800 species have been described, of which around 70 occur in North America,[2] 12 in Great Britain[4] and two in Australia.[5]

FOUR CLASSES OF MYRIAPODA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myriapoda

There are four classes of extant myriapods, Chilopoda (centipedes), Diplopoda, Pauropoda and Symphyla, containing a total of around 12,000 species.[16] While each of these groups of myriapods is believed to be monophyletic, relationships among them are less certain

 

Representatives of the four extant myriapod classes. Clockwise from top left: Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Symphyla, and Pauropoda.

FOUR GROUPS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flatworm

Early classification divided the flatworms into four groups: Turbellaria, Trematoda, Monogenea and Cestoda. This classification had long been recognized to be artificial, and in 1985, Ehlers[9] proposed a phylogenetically more correct classification, where the massively polyphyletic "Turbellaria" was split into a dozen orders, and Trematoda, Monogenea and Cestoda were joined in the new order Neodermata. However, the classification presented here is the early, traditional, classification, as it still is the one used everywhere except in scientific articles.[3]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cestoda

Cyclophyllid cestodes can be identified by the presence of four suckers on their scolices

FOUR SUCKERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclophyllidea

Tapeworms of the order Cyclophyllidea (the cyclophyllid cestodes) are the most important cestode parasites of humans and domesticated animals. All have multiple proglottid "segments", and all have four suckers on their scolices (heads), though some may have other structures, as well

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xiphosura

The Xiphosura are an order of marine merostome chelicerates that includes a large number of extinct lineages and only four extant species in the family Limulidae, which includes the horseshoe crabs. The group has hardly changed in millions of years; the modern horseshoe crabs look almost identical to prehistoric genera such as the Jurassic Mesolimulus, and are considered to be living fossils. The most notable difference between ancient and modern forms is that the abdominal segments in present species are fused into a single unit in adults.

THE FOURTH PAIR DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arachnid

The larvae of mites and Ricinulei have only six legs; a fourth pair usually appears when they moult into nymphs. However, mites are variable: as well as eight, there are adult mites with six or even four legs.[3]

CRUCIFORM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staurolite

Staurolite often occurs twinned in a characteristic cross-shape, called cruciform penetration twinning. In handsamples, macroscopically visible staurolite crystals are of prismatic shape. The mineral often forms porphyroblasts.

CUT GARMENT FOUR PARTS

http://gnosticteachings.org/courses/gnostic-mysteries/3347-gnostic-mysteries-of-the-cross.html

“Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout. They said therefore among themselves: Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be: that the scripture might be fulfilled, which said, ‘they parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots.’ These things therefore the soldiers did.” – John 19: 23, 24

FOUR ORDERS OF REPTILES

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Alexandre-Brongniart#ref6929

Among Brongniart’s early papers is the “Essai d’une classification naturelle des reptiles” (1800; “Essay on the Natural Classification of Reptiles”), in which he divided the class Reptilia into four orders: Batrachia (now a separate class, Amphibia), Chelonia, Ophidia, and Sauria. He made the first systematic study of trilobites, an extinct group of arthropods that became important in determining the chronology of Paleozoic strata (from 540 to 245 million years ago).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diapsid

Diapsids were originally classified as one of four subclasses of the class Reptilia, all of which were based on the number and arrangement of openings in the skull. The other three subclasses were Synapsida (one opening low on the skull, for the "mammal-like reptiles"), Anapsida (no skull opening, including turtles and their relatives), and Euryapsida (one opening high on the skull, including many prehistoric marine reptiles).

FOUR ORDERS DINOSAURS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saurischia

He preferred one that had been put forward by Othniel Charles Marsh in 1878, which divided dinosaurs into four orders: Sauropoda, Theropoda, Ornithopoda, and Stegosauria (these names are still used today in much the same way to refer to suborders or clades within Saurischia and Ornithischia).[2]

 

Seeley, however, wanted to formulate a classification that would take into account a single primary difference between major dinosaurian groups based on a characteristic that also differentiated them from other reptiles. He found this in the configuration of the hip bones, and found that all four of Marsh's orders could be divided neatly into two major groups based on this feature

In the Colorado Plateau region, the Morrison Formation is further broken into four sub-divisions, or members. From the oldest to the most recent, they are:

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morrison_Formation

Reddish mudstones of the Tidwell Member underlying the whitish sandstones of the Saltwash Member, south of Cisco, Utah.

 

Brushy Basin Member on the Colorado Plateau

 

"Popcorn" texture due to bentonite, formed from volcanic ash, characterizes the Brushy Basin Member.

Windy Hill Member: The oldest member. At the time, the Morrison basin was characterized by shallow marine and tidal flat deposition along the southern shore of the Sundance Sea.

Tidwell Member: The Sundance Sea receded to Wyoming during this member and was replaced by lakes and mudflats.

Salt Wash Member: The first purely terrestrial member. The basin was a semi-arid alluvial plain, with seasonal mudflats.

Brushy Basin Member: Much finer-grained than the Salt Wash Member, the Brushy Basin Member is dominated by mudstone rich in volcanic ash. Rivers flowed from the west into a basin that contained a giant, saline alkaline lake called Lake T'oo'dichi' and extensive wetlands that were located just west of the modern Uncompahgre Plateau.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niobrara_Formation

Mosasaurs are the most common marine reptiles in the Niobrara Chalk and the most successful ones in the sea at the time. Four different genera representing the four different subfamilies of Mosasauridae: the Tylosaurinae, Plioplatecarpinae, Mosasaurinae, and Halisaurinae, were present in Niobrara. They were the dominant carnivorous marine reptiles and ate cephalopods, fish, turtles, pterosaurs, birds, and even plesiosaurs.[4] There is evidence of them consuming other smaller mosasaurs. Despite this, mosasaurs often fell prey to some of the large sharks at the time, such as Cretoxyrhina.[5]

 

Between two and four genera of pterosaurs are present in the formation, depending on the taxonomy. All but Nyctosaurus belong to the Pteranodontidae family of the suborder Pterodactyloidea, though even Nyctosaurus has occasionally been included in that family, and is at least a close relative of the pteranodonts. All are large pterosaurs with elongated cranial crests in male specimens. The pterosaurs of Niobrara probably spent most of their time at sea and rarely went on land. Nyctosaurus lacked all but the fourth phalanx of the hand, which is the extended finger that supports the wing membrane, meaning that quadrupedal locomotion on the ground would have been limited compared to other pterosaurs that were proficient at walking based on fossilized trackways that show both limbs in use on the ground.

THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolichorhynchops

Dolichorhynchops is an extinct genus of polycotylid plesiosaur from the Late Cretaceous (early Turonian to late Campanian stage) of North America, containing three species, D. osborni, D. bonneri and D. tropicensis,[1] as well as a questionably referred fourth species, D. herschelensis.[2] Dolichorhynchops was an oceangoing prehistoric reptile. Its Greek generic name means "long-nosed face".

THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pteranodon

Miller further expanded the concept of Pteranodon to include Nyctosaurus as a fourth subgenus

Four groups humans headings

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Henry_Huxley

Perhaps less productive was his work on physical anthropology, a topic which fascinated the Victorians. Huxley classified the human races into nine categories, and discussed them under four headings as: Australoid, Negroid, Xanthocroic and Mongoloid types.[72] Such classifications depended mainly on appearance and anatomical characteristics.

LACTEALS THE FOURTH DIFFERENT KIND OF VESSEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymphatic_system

The lacteals were termed the fourth kind of vessels (the other three being the artery, vein and nerve, which was then believed to be a type of vessel), and disproved Galen's assertion that chyle was carried by the veins. But, he still believed that the lacteals carried the chyle to the liver (as taught by Galen)

THE FOUR CA FIELDS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippocampus_anatomy

Starting at the dentate gyrus and working inward along the S-curve of the hippocampus means traversing a series of narrow zones. The first of these, the dentate gyrus (DG), is actually a separate structure, a tightly packed layer of small granule cells wrapped around the end of the hippocampus proper, forming a pointed wedge in some cross-sections, a semicircle in others. Next come a series of Cornu Ammonis areas: first CA4 (which underlies the dentate gyrus), then CA3, then a very small zone called CA2, then CA1. The CA areas are all filled with densely packed Pyramidal cells similar to those found in the neocortex. After CA1 comes an area called the subiculum. After this comes a pair of ill-defined areas called the presubiculum and parasubiculum, then a transition to the cortex proper (mostly the entorhinal area of the cortex). Most anatomists use the term "hippocampus proper" to refer to the four CA fields, and hippocampal formation to refer to the hippocampus proper plus dentate gyrus and subiculum.[1]

FOUR REGIONS CINGULATE CORTEX

http://www.thehumanbrain.org/Vogt.htm

We present a four-region model of the cingulate gyrus and a modified Brodmann map

FOUR CINGULATE REGIONS

http://www.cingulumneurosciences.org/functional.shtml

Figure 1 presents the neurobiological model in the morphological context of four cingulate regions.

FOUR VENTRICLES

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1923254-overview

The ventricles of the brain are a communicating network of cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and located within the brain parenchyma. The ventricular system is composed of 2 lateral ventricles, the third ventricle, the cerebral aqueduct, and the fourth ventricle (see the images below). The choroid plexuses are located in the ventricles produce CSF, which fills the ventricles and subarachnoid space, following a cycle of constant production and reabsorption.

CRUCIATE MEANS CROSS

http://webs.wofford.edu/pittmandw/psy230/week1.htm

4. The cruciate fissure runs laterally from the longitudinal fissure so as to divide the hemisphere into an anterior third and a posterior two-thirds. (This fissure is analogous to the central sulcus of the human brain.) The cruciate / central fissure marks the posterior boundary of the frontal lobe and the anterior boundary of the temporal lobe.

CRUCIFORM IS CROSS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cruciform_eminence

The cruciform eminence (or cruciate eminence), divides the deeply concave internal surface of the occipital bone into four fossae:

MAKES A QUADRANT

http://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/optic-chiasm

The optic chiasm or optic chiasma is an X-shaped space, located in the forebrain, directly in front of the hypothalamus. Crucial to vision, the left and right optic nerves intersect at the chiasm, thus creating the hallmark X-shape. One-half of each nerve's axons (their long, threadlike portions) enters the opposite tract at this location, making it a partial decussation (crossing).

QUAD IS FOUR

http://www.innerbody.com/image_nerv02/nerv92-new.html

The quadrigeminal lamina (or lamina of mesencephalic tectum) form the superior surface of the corpora quadrigemina.

QUADRIVALENT VACCINE (dont go beyond four and four usually not work for vaccines four different)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nasal_administration

The live attenuated influenza vaccine sold under the brand names FluMist (US) or Fluenz (Europe) is delivered intranasally. Flumist is a Quadrivalent Vaccine which contains four vaccine virus strains: an A/H1N1 strain, an A/H3N2 strain and two B strains. FluMist Quadrivalent contains B strains from both the B/Yamagata/16/88 and the B/Victoria/2/87 lineages. It has been approved by the CDC for vaccinating all eligible people between 2 and 49 years of age.

THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR

https://www.cover-tek.com/trivalent-vs-quadrivalent-your-guide-to-the-flu-vaccine/

Trivalent

There are hundreds of A-strains that are mutating constantly and hard to predict, while there are only two B-strains. The trivalent vaccine protects against three different flu viruses: the two most common A strains (H1N1 and H3N2) and one B strain (either Massachusetts or Brisbane), whichever is predicted to affect citizens most strongly in a given year.

 

Quadrivalent

This form offers the same benefits as the trivalent vaccine, with the added bonus of covering both B-strains, so four strains total. Experts see this as beneficial since both B-strains have been detected within the United States in the past 10 years.

 

Overall, both types protect against the flu, and the CDC does not currently recommend one over the other. Eventually, the quadrivalent vaccine will phase out the trivalent form. Right now, the quadrivalent vaccine can cost almost double the trivalent form and some insurance companies won’t cover both (we offer both shots by the way, at or lower the cost of most providers).

 

Be sure to check with your insurance provider to determine what you’re covered for. If you’re not sure which type is right for you, or if you’re pregnant, be sure to consult a physician prior to receiving a flu vaccination. When you’re ready to get your annual shot out of the way, give Cover-Tek a call to schedule a clinic or get your individual immunization taken care of!

FOURTH ALWAYS TRANSCENDENT

http://www.everydayhealth.com/cold-and-flu/is-the-new-quadrivalent-flu-shot-better-5681.aspx

Everyday Health Cold & Flu

 

Is The New Quadrivalent Flu Shot Better?

 

The new quadrivalent vaccine is another option alongside the trivalent shot for flu prevention. Find out what it is and why it may be a better choice.

TETRA IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetrabrachiidae

Tetrabrachiidae, the four-armed frogfishes, is a family of anglerfishes found in relatively shallow waters of the eastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean from Indonesia and New Guinea to Australia. They prefer living in regions with the ocean floor composed of soft sediments.

FOUR TYPES CELLS

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pancreas

Approximately 3 million cell clusters called pancreatic islets are present in the pancreas.[10] Within these islets are four types of cells which are involved in the regulation of blood glucose levels. Each type of cell secretes a different type of hormone: α alpha cells secrete glucagon (increase glucose in blood), β beta cells secrete insulin (decrease glucose in blood), δ delta cells secrete somatostatin (regulates/stops α and β cells) and PP cells, or γ (gamma) cells, secrete pancreatic polypeptide.[11] These act to control blood glucose through secreting glucagon to increase the levels of glucose, and insulin to decrease it.

THE FOUR TYPES OF CELLS IN THE STOMACH I LEARNED THE FOUR TYPES OF CELLS IN STOMACH AT UCSD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digestive_enzyme

Of note is the division of function between the cells covering the stomach. There are four types of cells in the stomach:

 

Parietal cells: Produce hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor.

Gastric chief cells: Produce pepsinogen. Chief cells are mainly found in the body of stomach, which is the middle or superior anatomic portion of the stomach.

Mucous neck and pit cells: Produce mucin and bicarbonate to create a "neutral zone" to protect the stomach lining from the acid or irritants in the stomach chyme.

G cells: Produce the hormone gastrin in response to distention of the stomach mucosa or protein, and stimulate parietal cells production of their secretion. G cells are located in the antrum of the stomach, which is the most inferior region of the stomach.

DUODENUM FOUR PARTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duodenum

In humans, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25–38 cm (10–15 inches) long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. It begins with the duodenal bulb and ends at the suspensory muscle of duodenum.[7] It can be divided into four parts.

FOUR POINTS OF CONSTRICTION AT UCSD AND ONLINE TALKS ABOUT THE FOUR STAGES OF DIGESTION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esophagus

Constrictions

Diagram showing the four constrictions of the esophagus.

The esophagus is constricted in three places.

The esophagus has four points of constriction. When a corrosive substance, or a solid object is swallowed, it is most likely to lodge and damage one of these four points. These constrictions arise from particular structures that compress the esophagus. These constrictions are:[7]

https://www.routledgehandbooks.com/assets/9780203891629/graphics/fig3_1.jpg

https://www.routledgehandbooks.com/doi/10.4324/9780203891629.ch3

 

From these two variables, the four possible forms of social environments in Figure 3.1 can be drawn. The labels attached to the four social environments have been a cause of some confusion. While individualism implies atomism, coordinated activity is perfectly feasible in a low group, low grid context, indeed a shared language and shared symbols of value are precursors to even the most rudimentary market. Under these conditions, coordinated activity assumes a predictable form that is distinctly different to that which occurs in a high grid, high group context.

Rayner’s (1992) intensive study uses a range of methodologies to explore the different institutional contexts that operate in one complex organisation—a hospital—and the manner in which they mediate the construction of radiological risks. The culture within which surgeons interact was found to be competitive and individualistic and to foster cavalier attitudes towards the risks to which they and their patients were exposed. In contrast, the Radiological Protection Officers were responsible and accountable to the hospital management for the regulation of occupational exposures to radiation. Rayner identifies contexts that corresponded to each of the four quadrants of the typology and describes the manner in which these mediated attitudes to risk. The point was not to demonstrate how individuals were ‘hierarchical’ or ‘individualist’ but to demonstrate that the culture within which social actors operate both enables some forms of behavior and constrains others.

Traditional surveys were first used by Dake and Thompson (see Dake, 1992) in a study of households, but this data collection was accompanied by detailed ethnographic research. Dake and Wildavsky (1990) then focused on the use of surveys to examine the relationship between individual values or biases and risk perception. Their quantitative scale employs a series of statements to which the interviewee responds using a Likert scale. The statements are based on predictions from the four idealized types derived from the typology and the scales measure the extent to which interviewees agree or disagree with them. This approach has become the most popular and has ultimately subverted the central message of cultural theory to such an extent that it appears inconsistent and contradictory (Boholm, 1996). The error has been to focus on the grid/group typology at the expense of other elements of the theory in which it is grounded (see, for instance, Grendstad & Selle, 1997). The four institutional forms described by the typology are taken to refer to four idealised personality types of which the world is composed. In one step the theory is converted into a psychological theory of risk perception and the origins of the individual’s bias becomes a sacred private affair. A series of studies have reproduced this error including research by cultural theorists, but the work of Sjöberg (1997, 1998) has received the most attention and so is focus of this section.

FOUR TYPES OF HORMONE- STEROIDS HAVE FOUR PARTS THE FOURTH DIFFERENT

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormone

There are four types of hormones in most vertebrates. They are grouped by the chemicals from which they are made.

 

Steroid hormones – these are made from cholesterol. Examples of steroid hormones include the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone as well as the stress hormone cortisol.[3]

Eicosanoids: these are lipid hormones – hormones made from lipids, kinds of fats. These are mostly hormones that send messages near the cell that makes the hormones.

Amino acid derived. Melatonin works on the brain, and thyroxine acts on almost all cells in the body. Many of these hormones are neurotransmitters, hormones that one nerve cell sends to another nerve cell.

Peptides, polypeptides and proteins – small peptide hormones include TRH and vasopressin. Peptides composed of scores or hundreds of amino acids are referred to as proteins. Examples of protein hormones include insulin and growth hormone. More complex protein hormones bear carbohydrate side-chains and are called glycoprotein hormones. Luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone are examples of glycoprotein hormones.

NOTICE THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1416_Color_Sensitivity.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photoreceptor_cell

Normalized human photoreceptor absorbances for different wavelengths of light[10]

http://www.histology.leeds.ac.uk/skin/epidermis_layers.php

This diagram shows schematically, the four different layers found in the epidermis of most skin (thin skin).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zones_of_the_lung

The zones of the lung divide the lung into four vertical regions, based upon the relationship between the pressure in the alveoli (PA), in the arteries (Pa), in the veins (Pv) and the pulmonary interstitial pressure (Pi) :

 

Zone 1: PA > Pa > Pv

Zone 2: Pa > PA > Pv

Zone 3: Pa > Pv > PA

Zone 4: Pa > Pi > Pv > PA

A LOT OF PEOPLE SAY THERE IS THREE TYPES BUT THERE IS A FOURTH THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroglia

Illustration of the four different types of glial cells found in the central nervous system: ependymal cells (light pink), astrocytes (green), microglial cells (dark red), and oligodendrocytes (light blue).

Peters A (May 2004). "A fourth type of neuroglial cell in the adult central nervous system". Journal of Neurocytology. 33 (3): 345–57. PMID 15475689. doi:10.1023/B:NEUR.0000044195.64009.27.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10869/ THIS ARTICLE ARGUES THREE BUT FOURTH DIFFERENT

AIDS: The Four H’s

http://ccs.org.es/2010/07/30/the-four-h’s/

People used to call it the 4-H disease because the people who acquired it were heroine addicts, homosexuals, those who needed hemo-derivatives for blood transfusions and, the worst, Haitians.

FOURTH IS DIFFERENT- I posted stuff on this a long time ago originally Aids started from four populations

https://www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-science/types-strains

The strains of HIV-1 can be classified into four groups.4 The most important group, M, is the ‘major’ group and is responsible for the majority of the global HIV epidemic.

 

The other three groups are N, O and P. They are quite uncommon and only occur in Cameroon, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea.

FOURTH GROUP DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subtypes_of_HIV

HIV-1[edit]

HIV-1 is the most common and pathogenic strain of the virus. Scientists divide HIV-1 into a major group (Group M) and two or more minor groups, namely Group N, O and possibly a group P.

FOUR SPECIES CHLAMYDIA- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT I STUDIED A LOT OF OTHER DISEASES THE SAME QUADRANT PATTERN LOOK BACK AT MY OTHER QUADRANT BIOLOGY PAGES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlamydia_trachomatis

Chlamydia trachomatis (/kləˌmɪdiə/ /trəˈkoʊmətᵻs/), commonly known as chlamydia,[2] is one of four bacterial species in the genus Chlamydia

TETRA IS FOUR- FOUR RINGS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetracycline

It is also used to produce several semisynthetic derivatives, which together are known as the tetracycline antibiotics. The term "tetracycline" is also used to denote the four-ring system of this compound; "tetracyclines" are related substances that contain the same four-ring system.

 

 

 

Tetracycline, sold under the brand name Sumycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of infections. This includes acne, cholera, brucellosis, plague, malaria, and syphilis. It is taken by mouth.[1]

FOUR MEMBERED RING

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penicillin

Bacteria constantly remodel their peptidoglycan cell walls, simultaneously building and breaking down portions of the cell wall as they grow and divide. β-Lactam antibiotics inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan cross-links in the bacterial cell wall; this is achieved through binding of the four-membered β-lactam ring of penicillin to the enzyme DD-transpeptidase. As a consequence, DD-transpeptidase cannot catalyze formation of these cross-links, and an imbalance between cell wall production and degradation develops, causing the cell to rapidly die.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasmodium_malariae

P. malariae is the only human malaria parasite that causes fevers that recur at approximately three-day intervals (therefore occurring every fourth day, a quartan fever), longer than the two-day (tertian) intervals of the other malarial parasites.[9]

MALARIA FOUR SPECIES OF PLASMODIUM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasmodium_malariae

 

Failure to detect some P. malariae infections has led to modifications of the species-specific primers and to efforts towards the development of real-time PCR assays.[2] The development of such an assay has included the use of generic primers that target a highly conserved region of the 18S rRNA genes of the four human-infecting species of Plasmodium

FOUR LINEAGES OF CHLOROPLASTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chloroplast

All primary chloroplasts belong to one of four chloroplast lineages—the glaucophyte chloroplast lineage, the amoeboid Paulinella chromatophora lineage, the rhodophyte (red algal) chloroplast lineage, or the chloroplastidan (green) chloroplast lineage.[27] The rhodophyte and chloroplastidan lineages are the largest,[16] with chloroplastidan (green) being the one that contains the land plants

THERE IS C4 AND C3 THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN FOUR AND THREE- FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chloroplast

They store CO2 in a four-carbon compound, which is why the process is called C4 photosynthesis. The four-carbon compound is then transported to the bundle sheath chloroplasts, where it drops off CO2 and returns to the mesophyll.

THE FOUR MAJOR PROTEIN COMPLEXES THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-dependent_reactions

There are four major protein complexes in the thylakoid membrane: Photosystem II (PSII), Cytochrome b6f complex, Photosystem I (PSI), and ATP synthase. These four complexes work together to ultimately create the products ATP and NADPH.

AGAIN THERE IS T3 AND THE TRANSCENDENT T4 THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR- THERE IS ALSO FOUR PARATHYROID GLANDS IN THE FORM OF QUADRANT

https://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/thyroid/how-your-thyroid-works

https://www.endocrineweb.com/images2/T3.gif

The function of the thyroid gland is to take iodine, found in many foods, and convert it into thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Thyroid cells are the only cells in the body which can absorb iodine. These cells combine iodine and the amino acid tyrosine to make T3 and T4. T3 and T4 are then released into the blood stream and are transported throughout the body where they control metabolism (conversion of oxygen and calories to energy).

 

Every cell in the body depends upon thyroid hormones for regulation of their metabolism. The normal thyroid gland produces about 80% T4 and about 20% T3, however, T3 possesses about four times the hormone "strength" as T4.

FOUR GLANDS

http://endocrinediseases.org/parathyroid/parathyroid_background.shtml

What are the parathyroid glands, and what do they do?

 

The parathyroid glands are four tiny glands, located in the neck, that control the body's calcium levels. Each gland is about the size of a grain of rice (weighs approximately 30 milligrams and is 3-4 millimeters in diameter). The parathyroids produce a hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH raises the blood calcium level by:

FOUR SUBSPECIES CHIMPANZEES

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3234451/

Chimpanzees are classified into two species, the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). Common chimpanzees have traditionally been further subdivided into a number of geographically differentiated subspecies (Groves 2001). Four subspecies were defined on the basis of mitochondrial DNA sequences (Gagneux et al. 1999), namely western (P. t. verus), Nigeria-Cameroonian (P. t. ellioti, formerly termed P. t. vellerosus), central (P. t. troglodytes), and eastern (P. t. schweinfurthii) chimpanzees.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simian_immunodeficiency_virus

Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are retroviruses that cause persistent infections in at least 45 species of African non-human primates.[1][2] Based on analysis of strains found in four species of monkeys from Bioko Island, which was isolated from the mainland by rising sea levels about 11,000 years ago, it has been concluded that SIV has been present in monkeys and apes for at least 32,000 years, and probably much longer.[3][4]

FOURTH GROUP DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIV

Most HIV-1 research is focused on subtype B; few laboratories focus on the other subtypes.[94] The existence of a fourth group, "P", has been hypothesised based on a virus isolated in 2009.[95] The strain is apparently derived from gorilla SIV (SIVgor), first isolated from western lowland gorillas in 2006.[95]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Gallo

On May 4, 1984, Gallo and his collaborators published a series of four papers in the scientific journal Science[14] demonstrating that a retrovirus they had isolated, called HTLV-III in the belief that the virus was related to the leukemia viruses of Gallo's earlier work, was the cause of AIDS.[15] A French team at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, France, led by Luc Montagnier, had published a paper in Science in 1983, describing a retrovirus they called LAV (lymphadenopathy associated virus), isolated from a patient at risk for AIDS.[16]

 

The four papers are,

Popovic M, Sarngadharan MG, Read E, Gallo RC (May 1984). "Detection, isolation, and continuous production of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and pre-AIDS". Science. 224 (4648): 497–500. Bibcode:1984Sci...224..497P. PMID 6200935. doi:10.1126/science.6200935.

Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M, Shearer GM, Kaplan M, Haynes BF, Palker TJ, Redfield R, Oleske J, Safai B, et al. (May 1984). "Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS". Science. 224 (4648): 500–3. Bibcode:1984Sci...224..500G. PMID 6200936. doi:10.1126/science.6200936.

Schüpbach J, Popovic M, Gilden RV, Gonda MA, Sarngadharan MG, Gallo RC (May 1984). "Serological analysis of a subgroup of human T-lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV-III) associated with AIDS". Science. 224 (4648): 503–5. Bibcode:1984Sci...224..503S. PMID 6200937. doi:10.1126/science.6200937.

Sarngadharan MG, Popovic M, Bruch L, Schüpbach J, Gallo RC (May 1984). "Antibodies reactive with human T-lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV-III) in the serum of patients with AIDS". Science. 224 (4648): 506–8. Bibcode:1984Sci...224..506S. PMID 6324345. doi:10.1126/science.6324345.

^ Jump up to: a b c

THE FOUR PAPERS OF EINSTEINS MIRACLE YEAR THE FOURTH WAS DIFFERENT

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/the-year-of-albert-einstein-75841381/

Over four months, March through June 1905, Albert Einstein produced four papers that revolutionized science. One explained how to measure the size of molecules in a liquid, a second posited how to determine their movement, and a third described how light comes in packets called photons—the foundation of quantum physics and the idea that eventually won him the Nobel Prize. A fourth paper introduced special relativity, leading physicists to reconsider notions of space and time that had sufficed since the dawn of civilization. Then, a few months later, almost as an afterthought, Einstein pointed out in a fifth paper that matter and energy can be interchangeable at the atomic level specifically, that E=mc2, the scientific basis of nuclear energy and the most famous mathematical equation in history.

 

 

Read more: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/the-year-of-albert-einstein-75841381/#BWUWEmk1BG3IJTAV.99

Give the gift of Smithsonian magazine for only $12! http://bit.ly/1cGUiGv

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http://www.savyondiagnostics.com/chlamydia

 

Chlamydia is composed of four species: C.trachomatis, C.pneumoniae (TWAR), C.psittaci and C.pecorum.

http://www.biologyreference.com/Bl-Ce/Body-Cavities.html

Humans have four body cavities: (1) the dorsal body cavity that encloses the brain and spinal cord; (2) the thoracic cavity that encloses the heart and lungs; (3) the abdominal cavity that encloses most of the digestive organs and kidneys; and (4) the pelvic cavity that encloses the bladder and reproductive organs

 

Read more: http://www.biologyreference.com/Bl-Ce/Body-Cavities.html#ixzz4l3dwnnGe

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution_of_reptiles

The four orders of Reptilia[edit]

I LEARNED ABOUT THESE FOUR PATTERNS IN A TEACHING COMPANY COURSE AND AT UCSD I SAW SO MUCH STUFF A TON OF IT I FROGET AND DONT KNOW HOW TO EXPLAIN BUT IN MATH IN EVERY SUBJECT THE MAIN THING TAUGHT EVERYTHING TAUGHT WAS QUADRANT MODEL- fourth is different many say three

http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Fossilgroups/Reptilia/characters.html

 

Amniotes show four skull patterns:

Anapsid: Probably the primitive form of the amniote skill. It lacks any temporal fenestrae and is thought to be common to all early reptiles such as Hylonomus.

Synapsid: This form of skull has one temporal fenestra in a low position. It is seen in the 'mammal-like' reptiles, such as the cynodonts, and in mammals.

Diapsid: The skull type seen in the majority of reptiles both modern and fossil, including lizards, crocodiles, birds, dinosaurs and pterosaurs. There are two temporal fenestrae.

Euryapsid: Probably derived from the diapsid skull type, and perhaps more than once. It has one temporal fenestra, but its position is higher in the skull suggesting the loss on the lower fenestra of diapsids. Seen in extinct marine reptiles such as nothosaurs, plesiosaurs and ichthyosaurs.

FOUR EXTRAEMBRYONIC MEMBRANES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chorion

In reptiles, birds, and monotremes, the chorion is one of the four extraembryonic membranes that make up the amniotic egg that provide for the nutrients and protection needed for the embryo's survival. It is located inside the albumin, which is the white of the egg. It encloses the embryo and the rest of the embryonic system. The chorion is also present in insects. During growth and development of the embryo, there is an increased need for oxygen. To compensate for this, the chorion and the allantois fuse together to form the chorioallantoic membrane. Together these form a double membrane, which functions to remove carbon dioxide and to replenish oxygen through the porous shell. At the time of hatching, the fetus becomes detached from the chorion as it emerges from the shell.

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/the-female-reproductive-system

There are four major hormones (chemicals that stimulate or regulate the activity of cells or organs) involved in the menstrual cycle: follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estrogen, and progesterone.

OOGENESIS DEVELOPS FOUR OVUM FOR THE WOMAN AND THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT SPERMATOGENESIS FOR MEN FORMS FOUR SPERM CELLS

https://www.fastbleep.com/biology-notes/32/859

Oogenesis will produce one mature egg cell from one germ cell which contains nutrients and other substances for early development. Spermatogenesis can generate four sperm cells from every germ cell and these will essentially be a motile nucleus.

BOTH PRODUCE FOUR

https://quizlet.com/31262518/meiosis-and-sexual-reproduction-flash-cards/

spermatogenesis creates

four haploid daughter cells which are all viable sperm

 

oogenesis creates

four haploid daughter cells but only one is viable egg (other three are polar bodies which will disintegrate, as they have less cytoplasm and organelles than egg, though same DNA)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abiogenesis

Formamide produces all four ribonucleotides and other biological molecules when warmed in the presence of various terrestrial minerals. Formamide is ubiquitous in the Universe, produced by the reaction of water and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). It has several advantages as a biotic precursor, including the ability to easily become concentrated through the evaporation of water.[125][126] Although HCN is poisonous, it only affects aerobic organisms (eukaryotes and aerobic bacteria), which did not yet exist. It can play roles in other chemical processes as well, such as the synthesis of the amino acid glycine.[47]

CODONS OFTEN FOUND IN TRIPLETS BUT THERE IS ALSO QUADRUPLET CODES FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

http://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biology-and-genetics/genetics-and-genetic-engineering/genetic-code

Any single set of three nucleotides is called a codon , and the set of all possible three-nucleotide combinations is called "the genetic code" or "triplet code." There are sixty-four different combinations or codons (4 × 4 × 4 = 64).

FOUR ROWS ONE OF THE ROWS IS THE QUARTETS

http://post.queensu.ca/~forsdyke/granth01.htm

Fig. 1. Degeneracy of the genetic code. Codons are read vertically. Each of the four rows represents a different level of degeneracy (number of codons per amino acid). The 61 amino acid codons are grouped in 20 sets of 1-6 synonymous members. Each six-membered set (sextet) is composed of a quartet and a duet. Thus the code includes 8 quartets and 12 duets, the isoleucine trio and the single codons of methionine and tryptophane, plus the three terminators. With quartet codons, changing the third base cannot affect the amino acid coded.

To eliminate the influence of amino acid frequency on codon frequency, consider only the eight sets of codons called "quartets" (see Fig. 1). Each of these 32 codons belongs to a set of four synonymous triplets in which only the third base varies. Thus a complete choice of bases exists for filling codon position III without changing the resultant amino acid. This simplified approach gives only a partial view of the functioning of the code since there are 29 other amino acid codons, but we have found that the pattern is quite similar to that obtained with all 61 codons (7-9).

QUARTET FOUR

http://post.queensu.ca/~forsdyke/granth01.htm

 

Table 4 Percentage (G+C) in total sequence and in third position of quartet codons of human and mouse Ig V and C regions

Man Mouse

C (8) V (9) C (11) V (59)

%(G+C) total 60.6 53.8 52.6 50.3

%(G+C) QIII 76.0 57.1 55.7 46.4

Number of sequences studied appear in parenthesis. 'Quartet' codons are the four-fold degenerate sets of Arg, Leu, Ser, Thr, Pro, Ala, Gly, and Val (Grantham 1980). QIII indicates the third position of such codons. C, constant region; V, variable region.

MOST COMMON CLASSIFICATION FOUR KINGDOMS OF EUKARYOTES FOURTH PROTISTS TRANSCENDENT

http://www.shmoop.com/eukaryotes/eukaryote-kingdom.html

 

Eukaryotes represent a domain of life, but within this domain there are multiple kingdoms. The most common classification creates four kingdoms in this domain: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. These domains are further divided into a lot of smaller categories: phyla (singular: phylum), classes, orders, families, genera (singular: genus), and species.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK19417/

gag

 

The first of four coding domains found in the genomes of all known replication-competent retroviruses; encodes a polyprotein (Gag) whose cleavage products are the major structural proteins (matrix [MA], capsid [CA], and nucleocapsid [NC]) of the virus core. Spumaviruses are an exception to this general rule: Their Gag proteins are not extensively cleaved.

 

pro

 

The second of four coding domains found in the genomes of all known replication-competent retroviruses encoding part of a polyprotein (Gag-Pro or Gag-Pro-Pol) whose cleavage products always include protease (PR) and sometimes dUTPase (DU) (in B-type and D-type viruses).

 

pol

 

The third of four coding domains found in all known replication-competent genomes encoding part of a polyprotein (Gag-Pro-Pol), whose cleavage products always include reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase (IN) and, in some lentiviruses, dUTPase (DU). In spumaviruses, pol is expressed via a spliced mRNA as Pol-Pol polyprotein.

 

env

 

The last of four coding domains found in the genomes of all known replication-competent retroviruses, encoding a polyprotein (Env) whose cleavage products SU (surface) and TM (transmembrane) are the structural proteins of the viral envelope.

FOUR CODING DOMAINS

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK19417/

 

All replication-competent retroviruses identified to date contain four coding domains termed gag, pro, pol, and env. These genes are designated based on functional homology and may not always display strong sequence similarity (relatedness) when different viral groups (genera) are compared. A standardized nomenclature for gag, pro, pol, and env gene products originally proposed by Leis et al. (1988) has been generally accepted and supplies the basic rules governing usage. Virion proteins of defined function or location are assigned the two-letter abbreviations discussed above. This convention is used preferentially to any others. Precursors and less well-defined genes are designated according to their apparent molecular weights in thousands (August et al. 1974).

EMBRYOLOGY TALKING ABOUT THE QUARTETS AND MOVING TO 16 CELLS- 16 SQUARES QMR- FROMS A MERKABA- THE QUARTET OF MICROMERES DIVIDE AND FORM ANOTHER QUARTET OF MICROMERES AGAIN THE TETRADS

https://books.google.com/books?id=L0IbAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA248&lpg=PA248&dq=embryology+quartets&source=bl&ots=7HvA_Dp4sY&sig=A_EUmLWaw_Vq_rdZvJZ-ogOXTzI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi0o-Kl_9rUAhVBTmMKHWJVBBQQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=embryology%20quartets&f=false

Quadrant

16 CELLS 16 SQUARES QMR

http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/fert/cleavage.html

The one cell embryo undergoes a series of cleavage divisions, progressing through 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell and 16 cell stages. A four cell embryo is shown here. The cells in cleavage stage embryos are known as blastomeres. Note that the blastomeres in this embryo, and the eight-cell embryo below, are distinctly round.

 

 

Early on, cleavage divisions occur quite synchronously. In other words, both blastomeres in a two-cell undergo mitosis and cytokinesis almost simultaneously. For this reason, recovered embryos are most commonly observed at the two, four or, and seen here, eight-cell stage. Embryos with an odd number of cells (e.g. 3, 5, 7) are less commonly observed, simply because those states last for a relatively short time.

 

 

Soon after development of the 8-cell or 16-cell embryo (depending on the species), the blastomeres begin to form tight junctions with one another, leading to deformation of their round shape and formation of a mulberry-shaped mass of cells called a morula

16 CELLS 16 SQUARES QMR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morula

A morula is distinct from a blastocyst in that a morula (3–4 days post fertilization) is a 16-cell mass in a spherical shape whereas a blastocyst (4–5 days post fertilization) has a cavity inside the zona pellucida along with an inner cell mass. A morula, if untouched and allowed to remain implanted, will eventually develop into a blastocyst.[3]

 

The morula is produced by a series of cleavage divisions of the early embryo, starting with the single-celled zygote. Once the embryo has divided into 16 cells, it begins to resemble a mulberry, hence the name morula (Latin, morus: mulberry).

First stages of segmentation of a fertilized mammalian ovum. Semidiagrammatic. z.p. Zona pellucida. p.gl. Polar bodies. a. Two-cell stage. b. Four-cell stage. c. Eight-cell stage. d, e. Morula stage.

FOUR SPECIFIC GENES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Induced_pluripotent_stem_cell

Induced pluripotent stem cells (also known as iPS cells or iPSCs) are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from adult cells. The iPSC technology was pioneered by Shinya Yamanaka’s lab in Kyoto, Japan, who showed in 2006 that the introduction of four specific genes encoding transcription factors could convert adult cells into pluripotent stem cells.[1] He was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize along with Sir John Gurdon "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent." [2]

 

By this process, they identified four factors, Oct4, Sox2, cMyc, and Klf4, which were each necessary and together sufficient to generate ESC-like colonies under selection for reactivation of Fbx15

64 is four 16s

https://www.78stepshealth.us/human-physiology/cleavage-and-blastocyst-formation.html

Continued cleavage produces a morula consisting of thirty-two to sixty-four cells by the fourth day following fertilization.

THE FOUR GENES

http://genesdev.cshlp.org/content/24/20/2239.full

Successive rounds of elimination of individual factors then led to the identification of the minimally required core set of four genes, comprising Klf4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Oct4.

THERE ARE FOUR STAGES- THE MORULA IS 16 CELLS- 16 SQUARES QMR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morula

Some cells, however, will remain trapped in the interior and will become the inner cell mass (ICM), and are pluripotent. In mammals (except monotremes), the ICM will ultimately form the "embryo proper", while the trophectoderm will form the placenta and extra-embryonic tissues. However, reptiles have a different ICM. The stages are prolonged and divided in 4 parts.[9][10][11][12

FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zona_pellucida

There are four major zona pellucida glycoproteins, termed ZP1-4. ZP1, ZP3 and ZP4 bind to capacitated spermatozoa and induce the acrosome reaction. Successful fertilization depends on the ability of sperm to penetrate the extracellular matrix that surrounds the egg. In the mouse:

 

ZP3 allows species-specific sperm binding

ZP2 mediates subsequent sperm binding

ZP1 cross-links ZP2 and ZP3.

THREE OR FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZP4

The zona pellucida is an extracellular matrix that surrounds the oocyte and early embryo. It is composed primarily of three or four glycoproteins with various functions during fertilization and preimplantation development

QUAT IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disinfectant

Quaternary ammonium compounds[edit]

Quaternary ammonium compounds ("quats"), such as benzalkonium chloride, are a large group of related compounds. Some concentrated formulations have been shown to be effective low-level disinfectants. Quaternary Ammonia at or above 200ppm plus Alcohol solutions exhibit efficacy against difficult to kill non-enveloped viruses such as norovirus, rotavirus, or polio virus.[11] Newer synergous, low-alcohol formulations are highly effective broad-spectrum disinfectants with quick contact times (3–5 minutes) against bacteria, enveloped viruses, pathogenic fungi, and mycobacteria. Quats are biocides that also kill algae and are used as an additive in large-scale industrial water systems to minimize undesired biological growth.

QUAT IS FOUR LOOKS LIKE QUADRANT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimethyldioctadecylammonium_chloride

Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride also commonly distearyl dimethyl ammonium chloride is an organic compound classified as quaternary ammonium salt

MY FRIEND AT UCSD TOLD ME ABOUT THIS BACTERIUM AND HE DIDNT EVEN KNOW ABOUT THE QUADRANT MODEL BUT IT HAS FOUR CELLS AND IS A QUADRANT IT IS THE MOST POWERFUL IN THE WORLD AND SCIENTISTS USING TO TRY TO CREATE LIFE BUT THINK IT IS SO POWERFUL COULD DESTROY ALL LIFE- CONAN THE BACTERIUM

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deinococcus_radiodurans

D. radiodurans is a rather large, spherical bacterium, with a diameter of 1.5 to 3.5 µm. Four cells normally stick together, forming a tetrad. The bacteria are easily cultured and do not appear to cause disease.[3] Colonies are smooth, convex, and pink to red in color. The cells stain Gram positive, although its cell envelope is unusual and is reminiscent of the cell walls of Gram negative bacteria.[8]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penicillium

In a 1979 monograph, John I. Pitt divided Penicillium into four subgenera based on conidiophore morphology and branching pattern: Aspergilloides, Biverticillium, Furcatum, and Penicillium.[6]

FOUR TYPES CELL WALL ARCHAEA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_wall

Although not truly unique, the cell walls of Archaea are unusual. Whereas peptidoglycan is a standard component of all bacterial cell walls, all archaeal cell walls lack peptidoglycan,[39] with the exception of one group of methanogens.[12] In that group, the peptidoglycan is a modified form very different from the kind found in bacteria.[39] There are four types of cell wall currently known among the Archaea.

Four groups

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypersensitivity

Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) is a set of undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity. They are usually referred to as an over- reaction of the immune system and these reactions may be damaging, uncomfortable, or occasionally fatal. Hypersensitivity reactions require a pre-sensitized (immune) state of the host.They are classified in four groups after the proposal of P. G. H. Gell and Robin Coombs in 1963.[1]

FOUR STAGES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Bulliet

Hunters, Herders, and Hamburgers: The Past and Future of Human-Animal Relationships presents the four stages of human-animal relationship history: separation (when humans began to consider themselves as fundamentally separate from animals), pre-domestication (rich in symbolic expression of animals), domestication (exploiting and taming animals for human use), and post-domestication (our current industrialized consumption and separation from domestic animals).[2]

http://www.avasflowers.net/rhe-stages-of-the-flower-life-cycle

The female part of the flower is called the pistil and it has four parts-- the stigma, style, ovary, and ovules. The male part of the flower is called the stamen and it consists of the long filament and the anther, where pollen is made. In the center of the flower, there is a long slender tube that ends in a rounded oval. The tube is called the style. On the top of the style is the stigma-its job is to catch pollen. It may be sticky, hairy, or shaped in a way that helps it to better trap pollen. Sometimes several stamens surround the pistil. Once the pollen is trapped it travels down the style to the rounded part at the end, called the ovary, where eggs are waiting to be fertilized. The fertilized eggs become seeds in this stage of the flower life cycle. In fruit producing plants, the ovary ripens and becomes fruit.

CRUCIFER CROSS FLOWERS

https://www.quora.com/Do-four-petal-flower-exist

Yes. There is a whole botanic family of flowering plants which, in their wild forms, possess four petals on each flower. Once called the “crucifers” (because the 4 petals form a cross like the one Christians say Jesus was nailed to) now they are called the “brassicas” or the Cabbage Family. Some examples: dame’s rocket (Hesperis); stocks (Matthiola); money plant (Lunaria); wallflower (Erysimum); cabbages, broccoli, mustard, Brussels sprouts, and kale.

THE FOUR PARTS OF THE FLOWER

http://sciencing.com/describe-parts-flowers-8164008.html

Perfect flowers have both stamens and pistils – male and female parts. Imperfect flowers have either stamens or pistils. They are either male or female flowers. Perfect and imperfect flowers may or may not have sepals or petals. Complete flowers have stamens, pistils, petals and sepals. Incomplete flowers are missing one or more of those four parts. Plant species that contain both male and female flowers on the same plant are monoecious. Species that contain male and female flowers on separate plants are dioecious.

https://www.hunker.com/12211013/four-main-parts-of-a-plant

Every plant is made up of four essential parts that scientifically classify it as a plant. Each of these four parts plays an important role in helping the plant to grow and thrive. While you may have learned about the four parts of a plant back in elementary school, a refresher course on those parts can help you remember how to nourish your plant so that it grows stronger with the proper care and TLC.

FOUR PARTS OF TREE

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree

A tree is a tall plant with a trunk and branches made of wood. Trees can live for many years. The oldest tree ever discovered is approximately 5,000 years old. The four main parts of a tree are the roots, the trunk, the branches, and the leaves.

CRUCIFEROUS (CROSS) PLANTS (MUSTARD HAS HEALING PROPERTIES)

https://www.quora.com/Do-four-petal-flower-exist

Yes. Actually, there are quite a number of flowers that have four petals. For one, the flower of the mustard plant have four bright yellow petals. Hydrangeas also have four petals.

FOUR CHAMBERS

https://messageboard.4hcm.org/forum/lifestyle-forums/diet-and-exercise/15040-eating-more-grapes-and-tomatoes-for-a-healthy-heart

A Tomato has four chambers and is red. The heart has four chambers and

is red. All of the research shows tomatoes are loaded with lycopine and

are indeed pure heart and blood food.

GADV SAYS THAT LIFE EMERGED FROM ORIGINALLY FOUR AMINO ACIDS

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11084-014-9383-4

Successively, GNC primeval genetic code and (GNC)n genes would be invented, in order to compensate for the difficulties in joining directly the [GADV]-amino acids. Where G, C and N in GNC mean guanine, cytosine and either of four bases (G, C, A (adenine) and U (uracil)), respectively. So, GNC represents four genetic codes encoding four kinds of [GADV]-amino acids. It is supposed that the first life could emerge when the GNC code and (GNC)n genes were casually invented.

ONE OF THE MOST POPULAR IF NOT THE MOST POPULAR THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF LIFE (with RNA hypothesis) I LEARNED ABOUT IT ON TEACHING COMPANY COURSE BY FAMOUS PROFESSOR- SAYS ORIGINALLY FOUR AMINO ACIDS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GADV-protein_world_hypothesis

GADV-protein world is a hypothetical stage of abiogenesis. GADV stands for the 1-letter codes of four amino acids, namely, glycine (G), alanine (A), aspartic acid (D) and valine (V), the main components of GADV proteins. In the GADV-protein world hypothesis, it is argued that the prebiotic chemistry before the emergence of genes involved a stage where GADV-proteins were able to pseudo-replicate. This hypothesis is contrary to RNA world hypothesis, which is the most accepted theory of abiogenesis.[1]

 

Analysis on present proteins and simulation using chemical factors of amino acid shows GADV-proteins that contains almost the same amount of the four amino acids can form four basic structures of protein, namely, hydrophobic and hydrophilic structures, α-helices and β-sheets.

Therefore, GADV-proteins polymerized from randomly chosen amino acids from the four choices, probably becoming globular and water-soluble like some present proteins.

TETRA IS FOUR TETRAPEPTIDE USED IN COSMETICS

https://www.truthinaging.com/ingredients/palmitoyl-tetrapeptide-7

Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7 is a synthetic peptide comprised of four amino acids that is used in beauty products and cosmetics to suppress the production of excess interleukins, the chemical messengers which trigger the body’s acute inflammatory response. This can lead to glycation damage, or the process by which glucose links with proteins and causes them to bind together, stiffening tissues. This negatively affects the skin's support system, comprised of collagen, elastin and other proteins, and leads to wrinkles, sagging, and uneven skin tone (Source).

 

Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7 is a synthetic peptide comprised of four amino acids that is used in beauty products and cosmetics to suppress the production of excess interleukins, the chemical messengers which trigger the body’s acute inflammatory response. This can lead to glycation damage, or the process by which glucose links with proteins and causes them to bind together, stiffening tissues. This negatively affects the skin's support system, comprised of collagen, elastin and other proteins, and leads to wrinkles, sagging, and uneven skin tone (Source).

FOUR CLASSES OF AMINO ACIDS

http://chemistry.elmhurst.edu/vchembook/561aminostructure.html

There are basically four different classes of amino acids determined by different side chains: (1) non-polar and neutral, (2) polar and neutral, (3) acidic and polar, (4) basic and polar.

THE GNC HYPOTHESIS SAYS THAT FIRST THERE WAS FOUR CODONS AND FOUR AMINO ACIDS AND NEXT THERE WAS 16 CODONS (16 SQUARES QMR)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNC_hypothesis

GNC hypothesis or GNC-SNS primeval genetic code hypothesis refers to a hypothesis about the origin of genes. While almost all of the organisms on present Earth shares the universal genetic code, in GNC hypothesis it is argued that two primeval genetic codes preceded the present genetic code as follows.

 

First, there emerged GNC primeval genetic codes involving 4 codons (GGC, GCC, GAC and GUC), which code 4 GADV-amino acids (glycine, alanine, aspartic acid and valine).

Second, GNC code evolved to SNS primeval genetic codes involving 16 codons (GGC, GGG, GCC, GCG, GAC, GAG, GUC, GUG, CUC, GUG, CCC, CCG, CAC, CAG, CGC and CGG), which code 10 amino acides (glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, valine, glutamic acid, leucine, proline, histidine, glutamine, arginine).

THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT FROM THE PREVIOUS THREE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Anthrax_toxin_protein_key_motif.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta_sheet

The Greek key motif consists of four adjacent antiparallel strands and their linking loops. It consists of three antiparallel strands connected by hairpins, while the fourth is adjacent to the first and linked to the third by a longer loop. This type of structure forms easily during the protein folding process.[3][4] It was named after a pattern common to Greek ornamental artwork (see meander).

FOUR POSSIBLE STRAND TYPOLOGIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta_sheet

The psi-loop (Ψ-loop) motif consists of two antiparallel strands with one strand in between that is connected to both by hydrogen bonds.[8] There are four possible strand topologies for single Ψ-loops.[9] This motif is rare as the process resulting in its formation seems unlikely to occur during protein folding. The Ψ-loop was first identified in the aspartic protease family.[9]

FOUR KH DOMAINS

 

All four KH domains are needed for PSI-KH03 high-affinity RNA substrate recognition

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1370908/

To determine the effect of the I-to-N mutation on substrate binding affinity of each KH domain of PSI-KH03, native gel mobility shift assays were performed on proteins mutated in KH0 (I145N), KH1 (I234N), KH2 (I338N), and KH3 (I449N). The data reveal that mutation of any one of the four KH domains leads to reduced binding affinity for the PSI29 substrate (Table 3 ▶). However, mutations of the internal domains (I234N and I338N) cause a much more pronounced reduction in binding affinity than mutation of the N- (I145N) or C-terminal (I449N) domains. While mutation of KH0 or KH3 leads to a five- or sevenfold decrease in RNA binding affinity, respectively, mutation of KH1 or KH2 causes a corresponding 59- or 23-fold reduction. The diminished binding affinity of I234N (in KH1), in particular, is consistent with its reduced Tm as determined from CD measurements. This suggests that the second KH domain of KH03 has a greater impact on overall protein stability and binding affinity than the other three domains.

FOUR BETA STRANDS- fourth different

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8506258

The Greek key is a very common structural motif in proteins. It has been traditionally defined as four beta-strands with '+3,-1,-1' topology. This definition encompasses motifs with several different three-dimensional structures.

FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0070336

Interestingly, none of these above mutations affect the Greek key topology in any significant manner,and they all are mostly associated with peripheral cataracts. On the other hand, other mutations that we study here, e. g., A36P (distorting the first Greek key motif) and Y134X, R140X, W157X and G165fs (each of which disturbs the fourth Greek key motif through truncation of the chain or frame shift). And all these mutations are associated with nuclear cataract. We have cloned, expressed and isolated each of these proteins and compared their structural and aggregation properties with those of the wild type. We have also revisited P24T, R77S and E107A and collected some more relevant data for comparison. In addition, we have prepared two (not reported in nature) full length chain mutants: Y134A (which is a mutation in the fourth Greek key motif, but one that still keeps all the 4 motifs intact, which has also been prepared and studied contemporaneously by Kong and King [24]) and the double mutant L45PL54P (which disrupts the second Greek key motif in the N-terminal half), and compared their properties with the others. Based on these results, we extend our discussion to the reported mutations in other γ- and β-crystallins present in the human infant lens (Tables S1 in File S1).

TETRA IS FOUR TETRAHEDRAL ARRANGEMENT OF GENETIC CODE-16 SQUARES QMR

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3445437/

The number of codons (64) divided by the number of faces of the tetrahedron (4) is sixteen. In considering how best to represent sixteen codons per face, we note that equilateral triangles (such as those forming the faces) can be divided into rows of smaller equilateral triangles, with the top row always consisting of one small triangle and subsequent rows each having two more than the prior row. By dividing the tetrahedral faces into four rows of triangular ‘cells’, we have therefore 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 = 16 triangular cells per face for a total of 64 cells. Each cell can therefore represent one of the codons. Equivalently, we can think of dividing each face of the tetrahedron into four triangular sections (1 + 3 = 4), and then repeating that division for each of these sections (Fig. 3).

FOUR GROUPS OF FOUR A QUADRANT MODEL

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3445437/

For tetrahedral face a:

1 codon for: Met (M), Start

3 codons for: Arg (R)

4 codons for: Val (V)

2 codons for: Gly (G), Ala (A), Ser (S), and Pro (P)

For tetrahedral face b:

1 codon for: Trp (W)

3 codons for: Ile (I)

4 codons for: Ser (S)

2 codons for: Glu (E), Gln (Q), Cys (C), and Pro (P)

For tetrahedral face c:

1 codon for: Lys (K)

3 codons for: Arg (R)

4 codons for: Thr (T)

2 codons for: Asp (D), Asn (N), Leu (L), and Phe (F)

For tetrahedral face d (the base):

1 codon for: Lys (K)

3 codons for: Stop

4 codons for: Leu (L)

2 codons for: His (H), Gly (G), Ala (A), and Tyr(Y)

THERE ARE FOUR MACROMOLECULES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macromolecule

Usage of the term to describe large molecules varies among the disciplines. For example, while biology refers to macromolecules as the four large molecules comprising living things, in chemistry, the term may refer to aggregates of two or more molecules held together by intermolecular forces rather than covalent bonds but which do not readily dissociate.[7]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hierarchical_Editing_Language_for_Macromolecules

In HELM, molecules are represented at a four levels in a hierarchy:[4]

 

Complex Polymer

Simple Polymer

Monomer

Atom

four genera of lesser apes
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ape
Speciation of gibbons: Later DNA comparisons disclosed previously unknown speciation of genus Hylobates (gibbons) into four genera: Hylobates, Hoolock, Nomascus, and Symphalangus.[4][16] See Human evolutionary genetics re the speciation of humans and great apes.

four genera hominidae (great apes) four hylobatidae (lesser apes)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ape
Today, there are eight extant genera of hominoids. They are the four genera in the family Hominidae, namely Homo, Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo; plus four genera in the family Hylobatidae (gibbons): Hylobates, Hoolock, Nomascus and Symphalangus.[4] (The two subspecies of hoolock gibbons were recently moved from the genus Bunopithecus to the new genus Hoolock and re-ranked as species; a third species was described in January 2017).[16])

The four big cats
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_cat
The informal term "big cat" is typically used to refer to any of the four largest (living) members of the entire Panthera genus me. It's easy.

FOUR CHOROID PLEXUSES IN THE BRAIN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Choroid_plexus

There are four choroid plexuses in the brain, one in each of the ventricles.

 

Choroid plexus is present in all components of the ventricular system except for the cerebral aqueduct, the frontal horn and the occipital horn of the lateral ventricles.[1]

 

 

Choroid plexus

Choroid plexus is found in the superior part of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle. It follows up along this boundary, continuous with the inferior of the body of the lateral ventricles. It passes into the interventricular foramen, and is present at the top of the third ventricle.

 

There is also choroid plexus in the fourth ventricle, in the section closest to the bottom half of the cerebellum.

ANTIBIOTICS WORK BECAUSE OF FOUR MEMBER LACTAM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta-lactam

A beta-lactam (β-lactam) ring is a four-membered lactam.[1] (A lactam is a cyclic amide.) It is named as such because the nitrogen atom is attached to the β-carbon atom relative to the carbonyl. The simplest β-lactam possible is 2-azetidinone.

 

Contents [hide]

1 Clinical significance

2 History

3 Synthesis

4 Reactivity

5 Other applications

6 See also

7 References

8 External links

Clinical significance[edit]

 

Penicillin core structure

The β-lactam ring is part of the core structure of several antibiotic families, the principal ones being the penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams, which are, therefore, also called β-lactam antibiotics. Nearly all of these antibiotics work by inhibiting bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. This has a lethal effect on bacteria, although any given bacteria population will typically contain a subgroup that is resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. Bacterial resistance occurs as a result of the expression of one of many β-lactamase genes. More than 1,800 different β-lactamase enzymes have been documented in various species of bacteria.[2] These enzymes vary widely in their chemical structure and catalytic efficiencies.[3] When bacterial populations have these resistant subgroups, treatment with β-lactam can result in the resistant strain becoming more prevalent and therefore more virulent.

FOUR MEMBER RING

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azetidine-2-carboxylic_acid

Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (abbreviated Aze) is a plant non-protein amino acid homologue of proline with the molecular formula C4H7NO2. Aze is a heterocyclic, 4 membered ring with nitrogen as its heteroatom (an azetidine), and a carboxylic acid group substituted on one of the ring carbon atoms. The main difference between Aze and proline is the ring of Aze has four members and the ring of proline has five.[2] Aze has the ability to act as an analog of proline and can be incorporated into proteins in place of proline.