Psychologist and Philosopher William James described four characteristics of mystical experience in The Varieties of Religious Experience. According to James, such an experience is:


Transient – the experience is temporary; the individual soon returns to a "normal" frame of mind. It is outside our normal perception of space and time.

Ineffable – the experience cannot be adequately put into words.

Noetic – the individual feels that he or she has learned something valuable from the experience. Gives us knowledge that is normally hidden from human understanding.

Passive – the experience happens to the individual, largely without conscious control. Although there are activities, such as meditation (see below), that can make religious experience more likely, it is not something that can be turned on and off at will.



Classification of social behaviours

Type of behaviour Effect on the donor Effect on the receiver

Egoistic Increases fitness Decreases fitness

Cooperative Increases fitness Increases fitness

Altruistic Decreases fitness Increases fitness

Revengeful Decreases fitness Decreases fitness



Porphyry tells us that on four occasions during the six years of their intercourse Plotinus attained to this ecstatic union with God



Like Plato, Plotinus accepted that our world was a mere shadow of the world of the ideas, which was in turn -and this was a novel idea- a shadow of an even higher world, which was again a shadow of the One God. In other words, the world has four levels of reality: God was the highest level, and then there were the levels of the intellect, the soul, and matter. (That matter is more real than the speculative levels of existence, as we think, was an unusual idea in Antiquity.)



Maslow, born of uneducated Jewish immigrant parents from Russia, grew up in Brooklyn before going on to attend City University of New York, then graduate school in psychology at Univ. of Wisconsin and Columbia University. He became a very original thinker, interested in taking psychology beyond its first "two forces," Freudian theory and Behaviorism, and their obsession with psycho-pathology. He thus called his Humanistic Psychology the "third force" and Transpersonal Psychology the "fourth force" in the field of psychology.



Put differently, my belief is that psychology as a discipline—referring to any of the four traditional major forces (behavioristic, psychoanalytic, humanistic/existential, and transpersonal)—is slowly decaying and will never again, in any of its four major forms, be a dominant influence in culture or academia.



After collecting case studies on the re-experience and re-consolidation of perinatal traumas (often organized around COEX roots), Grof proposed four separate perinatal matrices corresponding roughly to the stages of development and birth recognized by the medical industry. These are Basic Perinatal Matrix I, Basic Perinatal Matrix II, Basic Perinatal Matrix III, and Basic Perinatal Matrix IV. These matrices correspond roughly to the different stages of the child’s development in the uterus, and its birth through the birth canal. The first Basic Perinatal Matrix corresponds from the time of conception up until the first intrauterine contraction. The second Basic Perinatal Matrix lasts during the time of intrauterine contractions to the entering into the birth canal. The third Basic Perinatal Matrix is completed at the time of passage of the fetus through the birth canal. Finally, the forth Basic Perinatal Matrix is represented from the beginning of birth as an independent body.



According to the theories of some Socionists these Grof's Perinatal Matrices correspond to the four Quadras in Socionics. Thus the basic values of every Quadra are defined by the way the newborn child reacts to the different stages of the process of birth. This was one short but fairly representative source I found by Googling:


Grof's Basic Perinatal Matrices, summarized in his own words


The biological basis of this matrix is the experience of the original symbiotic unity of the fetus with the [mother].... Archetypal images from the collective unconscious that can be selectively reached in this state involve the heavens or paradises of different cultures of the world. The experience of the first matrix also involves elements of cosmic unity or mystical union.


This experiential pattern is related to the very onset of biological delivery....the original equilibrium of the intrauterine existence is disturbed....Very characteristic for this stage is the experience of a three-dimensional spiral, funnel, or whirlpool, sucking the subject relentlessly towards its center....The corresponding mythological theme seems to be the beginning of the hero's journey....Agonizing feelings of metaphysical loneliness, helplessness, inferiority, existential despair, and guilt are standard constituents of this matrix.


Many important aspects of this complex experiential matrix can be understood from its association with the second clinical stage of biological delivery....This involves an enormous struggle for survival, crushing mechanical pressure, and often a high degree of anoxia and suffocation....[Themes of BPM III include the] titanic fight, sadomasochistic experiences, intense sexual arousal, demonic episodes, scatalogical involvement, and encounter with fire. All these occur in the context of a determined death-rebirth struggle....Related archetypal themes are images of the Last Judgement, the extraordinary feats of superheroes, and mythological battles of cosmic proportions involving demons and angels or gods and Titans....[BPM III experiences] combine sex with death, danger, biological material, aggression, self-destructive impulses, physical pain, and spirituality.


This perinatal matrix is meaningfully related to the third clinical stage of delivery, the actual birth of the child. In this final stage, the agonizing process of the birth struggle comes to an end....The symbolic counterpart of this final stage of delivery is the death-rebirth experience....The transition from BPM III to BPM IV involves a sense of annihilation on all imaginable levels--physical destruction, emotional debacle, intellectual defeat, ultimate moral failure, and absolute damnation of transcendental proportions.This experience of "ego death" seems to entail an instant merciless destruction all previous reference points in the life of the individual....[after which]The subject experiences a deep sense of spiritual liberation, redemption, and salvation.



The sexual response cycle has four phases: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. Both men and women experience these phases, although the timing usually is different. For example, it is unlikely that both partners will reach orgasm at the same time. In addition, the intensity of the response and the time spent in each phase varies from person to person. Understanding these differences may help partners better understand one another's bodies and responses, and enhance the sexual experience.

THE FIRST SEXUAL ADDICTION CYCLE FOUR STAGES (third is the action one)- fantasy firt that is like idealist ritualization second that is the homeostasis - despair transcendent fourth


Dr. Patrick Carnes provided the first of these in his book, Out of the Shadows.[i] Carnes broke the cycle into the following four stages:


Fantasy (Preoccupation)

Ritualization (The Bubble)

Compulsive Sexual Behavior (Acting Out)

Despair (Shame)



Carnes (2001) uses the Addiction Cycle to model the addictive experience of a sex addict, the four phases of which are: (1) Preoccupation, (2) Ritualization, (3) Compulsive Sexual Behavior, and (4) Despair. Preoccupation is the mental state that fuels the obsessive search for sex. This is then followed by ritualistic and patterned behavior that leads up to the sexual behavior itself, which then becomes difficult to control or stop due to its compulsive quality. It is the feeling of despair about their behavior and their powerlessness that both ends and begins the Addiction Cycle (ch. 1, The Addiction Cycle).

https://svetlogike.files.wordpress.com/2014/02/rethinking-popper-boston-studies-in-the-philosophy-of-science.pdf ---- BASED OFF TWO DICHOTOMIES QUADRANT

Is anybody a logomaniac? Donald Davidson insists that “nothing can count as a reason for holding a belief other than another belief” (Davidson 2001, p. 141). What is Davidson saying, given the act/content distinction? There are four possibilities:

1. “Nothing can count as a reason for a belief-content other than another belief- content”. This is true – it expresses anti-psychologism.

2. “Nothing can count as a reason for a belief-act other than another belief- content”. This is nonsense – a belief-content may be the premise of an argument, but a belief-act cannot be its conclusion. Reasons for actions are causes, and belief-contents or propositions are not causes.

3. “Nothing can count as a reason for a belief-content other than another belief- act”. This is nonsense – a belief-act cannot be the premise of an argument whose conclusion is a belief-content.

4. “Nothing can count as a reason for a belief-act other than another belief-act”. This makes sense, and is probably what Davidson meant to say. (What he actually wrote was “Nothing can count as a reason for holding a belief other than another belief” – which here turns into “Nothing can count as a reason for holding a belief other than holding another belief”).



Gary Thomas Smalley (September 16, 1940 – March 6, 2016) was a family counselor, president and founder of the Smalley Relationship Center and author of books on family relationships from a Christian perspective. Among other issues, he taught about the four temperaments in a format based on well known animals, the otter, lion, golden retriever, and beaver.[1]



Daniel Denison[edit]

Daniel Denison's model (1990) asserts that organizational culture can be described by four general dimensions – Mission, Adaptability, Involvement and Consistency. Each of these general dimensions is further described by the following three sub-dimensions:


Mission – Strategic Direction and Intent, Goals and Objectives and Vision

Adaptability – Creating Change, Customer Focus and Organizational Learning

Involvement – Empowerment, Team Orientation and Capability Development

Consistency – Core Values, Agreement, Coordination/Integration

Denison's model also allows cultures to be described broadly as externally or internally focused as well as flexible versus stable. The model has been typically used to diagnose cultural problems in organizations.



Drawing on records of behaviors discrepant with the A, B and C classifications, a fourth classification was added by Ainsworth's graduate student Mary Main.[12] In the Strange Situation, the attachment system is expected to be activated by the departure and return of the caregiver. If the behaviour of the infant does not appear to the observer to be coordinated in a smooth way across episodes to achieve either proximity or some relative proximity with the caregiver, then it is considered "disorganised" as it indicates a disruption or flooding of the attachment system (e.g. by fear). Infant behaviours in the Strange Situation Protocol coded as disorganised/disoriented include overt displays of fear; contradictory behaviours or affects occurring simultaneously or sequentially; stereotypic, asymmetric, misdirected or jerky movements; or freezing and apparent dissociation. However, despite initial symptoms of disorganized/disoriented behaviors, Lyons-Ruth widely "recognized that 52% of disorganized infants continue to approach the caregiver, seek comfort, and cease their distress without clear ambivalent or avoidant behavior."[13]


Four aspects of the child's behavior are observed:


The amount of exploration (e.g. playing with new toys) the child engages in throughout.

The child's reactions to the departure of its caregiver.

The stranger anxiety (when the baby is alone with the stranger).

The child's reunion behavior with its caregiver.

On the basis of their behaviors, the children were categorized into three groups, with a fourth added later. Each of these groups reflects a different kind of attachment relationship with the caregiver.



Throughout the procedure, the child is observed on four aspects: play behavior, reactions to departure and to the mother's return, and behavior when the stranger is around. Ainsworth categorized the nature of the children's attachment into three groups based on their behaviors.



The “learner” (Mr. Wallace) was strapped to a chair with electrodes. After he has learned a list of word pairs given him to learn, the "teacher" tests him by naming a word and asking the learner to recall its partner/pair from a list of four possible choices.


Did Milgram give participants an opportunity to withdraw? The experimenter gave four verbal prods which essentially discouraged withdrawal from the experiment:


Please continue.

The experiment requires that you continue.

It is absolutely essential that you continue.

You have no other choice, you must go on.




The way in which these diagnostic dimensions should be constructed has been under debate, particularly in the run up to the publication of the DSM-5. A number of dimensional models have been produced, differing in the way in which they are constructed and the way in which they are intended to be interpreted. There are four broad types of dimensional representation, although others also exist:[1]


Dimensional representation of the original DSM categories of personality disorders;

Dimensional representation based on identification of latent traits with the DSM disorders;

Dimensional representation based on the traits from normal personality research;

Representation based on integration of dimensional modals, e.g. by using network analysis.


Szondi drive theory[edit]

Main article: Szondi test

Hungarian psychiatryst Léopold Szondi formulated in 1935 a dimensional model of personality comprising four dimensions and eight drives ("facets" in DSM V terminology). It was based on a drive theory, in which the four dimensions correspond to the independent hereditary circular mental diseases established by the psychiatric genetics of the time:[26] the schizoform (containing the paranoid and the catatonic drives), the manic-depressive (for the "contact" dimension), the paroxysmal (including the epileptic and hysteric drives), and the sexual drive disorder (including the hermaprodite and the sadomasochist drives).[27] The Sex (S) and Contact (C) dimensions can be further grouped as representing pulsions at the border with the outer world, while the Paroximal (P) and Schizoform (Sch) dimensions at the inner part of the psyche.



In the intensification of emotion, an individual's attention in a situation is on cues that intensify emotion. Intensification of emotion is facilitated by temperamental low reactivity, parental socialization, transitory state, and anticipation of emotional confrontation (Pulkkinen, 1995). In behavioral suppression, an emotional state, such as anxiety, is bound to situational cues but behavior for changing the situation is suppressed. The activation of behavior is seen in the lower threshold and latency and in the higher intensity of reaction. Combinations of these inhibitory and enhancing processes define four behavioral prototypes (A to D): (1) externalizing problem behavior, characterized by intense emotions and active behavior (Type A); (2) internalizing problem behavior, characterized by intense emotions and suppressed behavior (Type D), which is often referred to as emotional suppression in the literature; (3) constructive behavior, characterized by neutralized emotions and active behavior (Type B); and (4) compliant behavior, characterized by neutralized emotions and suppressed behavior (Type C). According to the model, internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors depict low self-control of emotions, and constructive and compliant behaviors depict high self-control of emotions. This interpretation has been confirmed by several studies. For example, the self-control rating scale (Kendall & Wilcox, 1979) correlates highly positively with teacher-rated constructive and compliant behaviors and highly negatively with hyperactivity-impulsivity, aggression, and anxiety (Lehto, Pulkkinen, & Juujärvi, 2000). Another study demonstrates continuity in low self-control of emotion from childhood to adulthood (Kokkonen & Pulkkinen, 1999). Low self-control of emotions in childhood was also related to long-term unemployment in adulthood (Kokko, Pulkkinen, & Puustinen, 2000) and to the lowered use of cognitive emotion-regulation strategies in adulthood (Kokkonen & Pulkkinen, 1999). Main components of low self-control of emotions are inattentiveness and moodiness (Calkins, 1994; Gross, 1998, 1999b; Eisenberg, Fabes, Guthrie, & Reiser, 2000; Pope & Bierman, 1999; Pulkkinen, Kooistra, Tolvanen, & Mäkiaho, 2001; Rothbart & Putnam, in press). Low self-control of emotions in childhood has also been linked to self-reported physical symptoms, such as gastrointestinal problems, in adulthood (Kokkonen et al., 2001).


The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration

of mental storage capacity



The second system for representation of numerosity is the parallel individuation system which supports the exact representation of numbers from 1 to 4. In addition, humans can represent numbers through symbolic systems, such as language.



The distinction between the approximate number system and the parallel individuation system is, however, still disputed, and some experiments[9] record behavior that can be fully explained with the approximate number system, without the need to assume another separate system for smaller numbers. For example, New Zealand robins repeatedly selected larger quantities of cached food with a precision that correlated with the total number of cache pieces. However, there was no significant discontinuity in their performance between small (1 to 4) and larger (above 4) sets, which would be predicted by the parallel individuation system. On the other hand, other experiments only report knowledge of numbers up to 4, supporting the existence of the parallel individuation system and not the approximate number system[1]



Rhesus monkeys seem to have an innate understanding of numbers up to 4. This is shown by the study on semi-free-ranging rhesus monkeys in their natural environment[1] in which the monkeys spontaneously discriminated numbers from 1 to 3 but did not demonstrate a numerical ability beyond this number.

Jade Mirror of the Four Unknowns[edit]


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Facsimile of Zhu Shijie's Jade Mirror of Four Unknowns

Si-yüan yü-jian (《四元玉鑒》), or Jade Mirror of the Four Unknowns, was written by Zhu Shijie in 1303 AD and it marks the peak in the development of Chinese algebra. The four elements, called heaven, earth, man and matter, represented the four unknown quantities in his algebraic equations. The Ssy-yüan yü-chien deals with simultaneous equations and with equations of degrees as high as fourteen. The author uses the method of fan fa, today called Horner's method, to solve these equations.(Boyer 1991, "China and India" p. 203) "The last and greatest of the Sung mathematicians was Chu Chih-chieh (fl. 1280–1303), yet we know little about him-, [...]Of greater historical and mathematical interest is the Ssy-yüan yü-chien(Precious Mirror of the Four Elements) of 1303. In the eighteenth century this, too, disappeared in China, only to be rediscovered in the next century. The four elements, called heaven, earth, man, and matter, are the representations of four unknown quantities in the same equation. The book marks the peak in the development of Chinese algebra, for it deals with simultaneous equations and with equations of degrees as high as fourteen. In it the author describes a transformation method that he calls fan fa, the elements of which to have arisen long before in China, but which generally bears the name of Horner, who lived half a millennium later."


The Jade Mirror opens with a diagram of the arithmetic triangle (Pascal's triangle) using a round zero symbol, but Chu Shih-chieh denies credit for it. A similar triangle appears in Yang Hui's work, but without the zero symbol.[41]


There are many summation series equations given without proof in the Precious mirror. A few of the summation series are:[42]






The book consists of four parts. In the first part Peck examines the notion of discipline, which he considers essential for emotional, spiritual, and psychological health, and which he describes as "the means of spiritual evolution". The elements of discipline that make for such health include the ability to delay gratification, accepting responsibility for oneself and one's actions, a dedication to truth, and "balancing". "Balancing" refers to the problem of reconciling multiple, complex, possibly conflicting factors that impact on an important decision—on one's own behalf or on behalf of another.



In The Road Less Traveled,[9] Peck wrote of the importance of discipline. He described four aspects of discipline:


Delaying gratification: Sacrificing present comfort for future gains.

Acceptance of responsibility: Accepting responsibility for one's own decisions.

Dedication to truth: Honesty, both in word and deed.

Balancing: Handling conflicting requirements. Scott Peck writes of an important skill to prioritize between different requirements – bracketing.



The four stages of spiritual development[edit]

Peck postulates that there are four stages of human spiritual development:[15][16]


Stage I is chaotic, disordered, and reckless. Very young children are in Stage I. They tend to defy and disobey, and are unwilling to accept a will greater than their own. They are extremely egoistic and lack empathy for others. Many criminals are people who have never grown out of Stage I.

Stage II is the stage at which a person has blind faith in authority figures and sees the world as divided simply into good and evil, right and wrong, us and them. Once children learn to obey their parents and other authority figures, often out of fear or shame, they reach Stage II. Many so-called religious people are essentially Stage II people, in the sense that they have blind faith in God, and do not question His existence. With blind faith comes humility and a willingness to obey and serve. The majority of good, law-abiding citizens never move out of Stage II.

Stage III is the stage of scientific skepticism and questioning. A Stage III person does not accept things on faith but only accepts them if convinced logically. Many people working in scientific and technological research are in Stage III. They often reject the existence of spiritual or supernatural forces since these are difficult to measure or prove scientifically. Those who do retain their spiritual beliefs, move away from the simple, official doctrines of fundamentalism.

Stage IV is the stage where an individual starts enjoying the mystery and beauty of nature and existence. While retaining skepticism, he starts perceiving grand patterns in nature and develops a deeper understanding of good and evil, forgiveness and mercy, compassion and love. His religiousness and spirituality differ significantly from that of a Stage II person, in the sense that he does not accept things through blind faith or out of fear, but does so because of genuine belief, and he does not judge people harshly or seek to inflict punishment on them for their transgressions. This is the stage of loving others as yourself, losing your attachment to your ego, and forgiving your enemies. Stage IV people are labeled as Mystics.



Based on his experience with community building workshops, Peck says that community building typically goes through four stages:


Pseudocommunity: In the first stage, well-intentioned people try to demonstrate their ability to be friendly and sociable, but they do not really delve beneath the surface of each other's ideas or emotions. They use obvious generalities and mutually established stereotypes in speech. Instead of conflict resolution, pseudocommunity involves conflict avoidance, which maintains the appearance or facade of true community. It also serves only to maintain positive emotions, instead of creating a safe space for honesty and love through bad emotions as well. While they still remain in this phase, members will never really obtain evolution or change, as individuals or as a bunch.

Chaos: The first step towards real positivity is, paradoxically, a period of negativity. Once the mutually sustained facade of bonhomie is shed, negative emotions flood through: Members start to vent their mutual frustrations, annoyances, and differences. It is a chaotic stage, but Peck describes it as a "beautiful chaos" because it is a sign of healthy growth. (This relates closely to Dabrowski's concept of disintegration).

Emptiness: In order to transcend the stage of "Chaos", members are forced to shed that which prevents real communication. Biases and prejudices, need for power and control, self-superiority, and other similar motives which are only mechanisms of self-validation and/or ego-protection, must yield to empathy, openness to vulnerability, attention, and trust. Hence this stage does not mean people should be "empty" of thoughts, desires, ideas or opinions. Rather, it refers to emptiness of all mental and emotional distortions which reduce one's ability to really share, listen to, and build on those thoughts, ideas, etc. It is often the hardest step in the four-level process, as it necessitates the release of patterns which people develop over time in a subconscious attempt to maintain self-worth and positive emotion. While this is therefore a stage of "Fana (Sufism)" in a certain sense, it should be viewed not merely as a "death" but as a rebirth—of one's true self at the individual level, and at the social level of the genuine and true Community.

True community: Having worked through emptiness, the people in the community enter a place of complete empathy with one another. There is a great level of tacit understanding. People are able to relate to each other's feelings. Discussions, even when heated, never get sour, and motives are not questioned. A deeper and more sustainable level of happiness obtains between the members, which does not have to be forced. Even and perhaps especially when conflicts arise, it is understood that they are part of positive change.


Teams move through a series of stages, beginning when they are formed and ending when they are disbanded. Bruce Tuckman identified four distinct phases of team development: forming, storming, norming, and performing. Each has a primary purpose and a common set of interpersonal dynamics among team members. Tuckman proposed that all are inevitable and even necessary parts of a successful team's evolution.



The results led her to 3 major attachment styles. In 1986, researchers Main and Solomon added a fourth attachment style. A number of studies since then have confirmed that the attachment style that develops in a child’s early years of life will impact their future relationships and connections with other human beings for years to come.


The four attachment styles are: secure, ambivalent, avoidant and disorganized.



Characteristics of Attachment

Bowlby believed that there are four distinguishing characteristics of attachment:


Proximity Maintenance - The desire to be near the people we are attached to.

Safe Haven - Returning to the attachment figure for comfort and safety in the face of a fear or threat.

Secure Base - The attachment figure acts as a base of security from which the child can explore the surrounding environment.

Separation Distress - Anxiety that occurs in the absence of the attachment figure.



All DBT can be said to involve 4 components:


Individual – The therapist and patient discuss issues that come up during the week (recorded on diary cards) and follow a treatment target hierarchy. Self-injurious and suicidal behaviors, or life-threatening behaviors, take first priority. Second in priority are behaviors which, while not directly harmful to self or others, interfere with the course of treatment. These behaviors are known as therapy-interfering behaviors. Third in priority are quality of life issues and working towards improving one's life generally. During the individual therapy, the therapist and patient work towards improving skill use. Often, a skills group is discussed and obstacles to acting skillfully are addressed.

Group – A group ordinarily meets once weekly for two to two and a half hours and learns to use specific skills that are broken down into four skill modules: core mindfulness, interpersonal effectiveness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance.

Therapist Consultation Team – A therapist consultation team includes all therapists providing DBT. The meeting occurs weekly and serves to support the therapist in providing the treatment.

Phone Coaching – Phone coaching is designed to help generalize skills into the patient's daily life. Phone coaching is brief and limited to a focus on skills.

No one component is used by itself; the individual component is considered necessary to keep suicidal urges or uncontrolled emotional issues from disrupting group sessions, while the group sessions teach the skills unique to DBT, and also provide practice with regulating emotions and behavior in a social context.


Four modules[edit]



There are four recognized stages of sleep, from the first and "lightest" stage to the deepest fourth stage. At night, you progress from stage 1 to stage 4 in the first hour of sleep, and spend the rest of the night cycling up and down between 1 and 4. The EEG gets progressively more synchronous with each deeper stage. Every time you return to stage 1, you enter REM sleep - a period of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements. REM sleep is also called paradoxical sleep, because the body appears to be more deeply asleep than in any other stage, but the EEG looks very much like the waking brain. The desynchronous activity of the brain may be due to dreaming, which also occurs during REM sleep.



43a In this tale the incest is on the point of being comraJtted,

but is prevented by the peculiar ritual with the four dolls. The

four dolls in the four comers of the room form the marriage

quaternlty, the aim being to prevent the incest by putting four

in place of two. The four dolls form a magic simulacrum svhich

stops the incest by removing the sister to the undenvorld. where

she discovers her alter cjo. Thus we can say that the

gave the young prince die fatal ring is his motlier-in-law-to-he.



435 The social split is by origin a matrilineal division into wo,

but in reality it represents a division of the tribe and settle-

ment into four. The quartering comes about through the

crossing of the matrilineal by a patrilineal line of division.

The practical purpose of this quartering is the separation ana

differentiation of marriage classes. (Marriage on Ais leve

amounts to “group marriage.”) The entire population is t

vided into moieties, and a man can take a wife only from the

opposite moiety. The basic pattern is a square or circle divide

by a cross; it forms the ground-plan of the primitive settlement

and the archaic city, also of monasteries, convents, etc., as can

be seen in Europe, Asia, and prehistoric America.^® The Egyp*

tian hieroglyph for “city" is a St. Andrews’s cross in a

436 In specifying the marriage classes, it should be mentione

that every man belongs to his father’s patrilineal moiety an

can only take a ^vife from his mother’s matrilineal moiety. Ip

order to avoid the possibility of incest, he marries his mother s

brother's daughter and gives his sister to his wife’s brother

(sister-exchange marriage). This results in the cross^ousin


Ainsworth (1970) identified three main attachment styles, secure (type B), insecure avoidant (type A) and insecure ambivalent/resistant (type C). She concluded that these attachment styles were the result of early interactions with the mother. 

A forth attachment style known as disorganized was later identified (Main, & Solomon, 1990).



There are four basic characteristics that basically give us a clear view of what attachment really is. They include a safe heaven, a secure base, proximity maintenance and separation distress. These four attributes are very evident in the relationship between a child and his caregiver.


1. Safe Haven


Ideally, the child can rely on his caregiver for comfort at times whenever he feels threatened, frightened or in danger. For example, if a child is given a toy that he doesn't like, he'd cry and his mother would remove the toy and hug the child so he would stop crying.


2. Secure Base


Here, the caregiver gives a good and reliable foundation to the child as he goes on learning and sorting out things by himself. For example, a child would ask questions to his mother about why his dad got sick and can't play with him at the moment.


3. Proximity Maintenance


This means that the child aims to explore the world but still tries to stay close to his care giver. For example, a teenager discusses peer problems with his mother.


4. Separation Distress


This means that the child becomes unhappy and sorrowful when he becomes separated from his caregiver. For example, an infant cries loudly when his mother leaves for work.




The interplay of overweighting of small probabilities and concavity-convexity of the value function leads to the so-called fourfold pattern of risk attitudes: risk-averse behavior when gains have moderate probabilities or losses have small probabilities; risk-seeking behavior when losses have moderate probabilities or gains have small probabilities.


Below is an example of the fourfold pattern of risk attitudes. The first item in each quadrant shows an example prospect (e.g. 95% chance to win $10,000 is high probability and a gain). The second item in the quadrant shows the focal emotion that the prospect is likely to evoke. The third item indicates how most people would behave given each of the prospects (either Risk Averse or Risk Seeking). The fourth item states expected attitudes of a potential defendant and plaintiff in discussions of settling a civil suit.[4]

Thayer suggests a two-factor model of mood consisting of energy and stress.


Four quadrants can be identified: calm-energy (exuberance, euphoria), calm-tiredness (serenity, contentment), tense-energy (frantic, fight/flight), and tense-tiredness (crankiness, disphoria).




Image: http://www.slideshare.net/akhilpanchal/music-mood-detection


There is good evidence that stress and arousal are physiologically distinguishable. Stress is associated with high cortisol levels. Energy is associated with high epinephrine levels. [more]



In a detailed review of four sittings done by medium Tyler Henry, Edward and Susan Gerbic reviewed all the statements on the TV show Hollywood Medium. In their opinion not one statement made by Henry was accurate, yet each sitter felt that the reading was very successful. In after interviews with each sitter all four claimed that Henry had made specific statements, but after reviewing the show it showed that he had not. Each sitter misremembered the statement. One of many examples of this was when Henry during a session with celebrity Ross Matthews stated "Bambi, why am I connecting to Bambi"? Matthews stated that his father who was a hunter would not shoot deer because of the movie Bambi. In the post interview, Matthews stated that "it was weird that Henry knew that my father would not shoot deer because of Bambi", when that is not what was said, Matthews had misremembered what Henry had said.[12]



The abstract critique is a reductio ad absurdum of methodological monism (the belief that only a single methodology can produce scientific progress).[3] Feyerabend goes on to identify four features of methodological monism: the principle of falsification,[4] a demand for increased empirical content,[5] the forbidding of ad hoc hypotheses[6] and the consistency condition.[7] He then demonstrates that these features imply that science could not progress, hence an absurdity for proponents of the scientific method.



The Quadras










































Clubs are groups that reflect spheres of activity.[citation needed] There are 4 clubs, each with 4 types:


Pragmatists (ST): ESTp, ESTj, ISTp, ISTj; or SLE, LSE, SLI, LSI

Researchers (NT): ENTp, ENTj, INTp, INTj; or ILE, LIE, ILI, LII

Socials (SF): ESFp, ESFj, ISFp, ISFj; or SEE, ESE, SEI, ESI

Humanitarians (NF): ENFp, ENFj, INFp, INFj; or IEE, EIE, IEI, EII




Viktor Gulenko's hypothesis of the existence of four temperaments in socionics is as follows.[152]


Extraverted Rational Temperament (Ej). Extraverted rational types, namely the ESE, EIE, LIE, and LSE, are characterized by energetic and proactive behavior. (close to choleric temperament)

Introverted Rational Temperament (Ij). Introverted rational types, namely the LII, LSI, ESI, and EII, are characterized by slow and methodical behavior. (close to phlegmatic temperament)

Extraverted Irrational Temperament (Ep). Extraverted irrational types, namely the ILE, SLE, SEE, and IEE, are characterized by impulsive and unpredictable behavior. (close to sanguine temperament)

Introverted Irrational Temperament (Ip). Introverted irrational types, namely the SEI, IEI, ILI, and SLI, are characterized by lack of motivation, inertia, and unstable moods and energy levels. (close to melancholic temperament)



In addition to Model A, two other models are in wide use[citation needed] by socionists. Model B, created by Aleksandr Bukalov, is designed to reconcile the socionics standpoint with the so-called "Model J" (Jung's outlook) and uses sixteen functional components instead of eight. The model uses the same eight functions as Model A, but further differentiates them by attributing positive and negative polarities to each.[153] Model B also refines Model A's strong/weak concept by attributing vectors of dimensionality to each function.[148] This allows it to describe with precision why some functions are relied on more than others.


The four dimensions are


Globality (also thought of as "time")


Cultural normatives




Niednagel divides the types into four basic motor skill groupings using his own terminology (originally derived from Jung/Myers) which he believes is more precise: EA, EI, CA, and CI. EA, or 'Empirical-Animate' types (FEAL, FEAR, BEAL, BEAR), are said to excel in the region of the brain responsible for gross motor skills. EI, or 'Empirical-Inanimate' types (FEIL, FEIR, BEIL, BEIR) are thought to possess the best fine motor skills of the four groups. CA, or 'Conceptual-Animate' types (FCAL, FCAR, BCAL, BCAR), excel in the auditory cortex, which is responsible for controlling the mouth and various hearing/language skills. CI, or 'Conceptual-Inanimate' types (FCIL, FCIR, BCIL, BCIR), are believed to excel in the cerebral cortex, where abstract levels of reasoning occur, along with the diaphragm region, responsible for voice production and breathing.




I was talking to someone from the US Navy. He told me the navy divides people into 4 types. Each type has specific jobs you point them towards.

You have your smart busy people. Make them leaders. Give them roles where they can be held accountable, and need good situational awareness. 20% of the people fit this description (though 90% would put themselves here)

Smart lazy people have their place, too---put them in logistics. Plan out caravans, run supply warehouses. They are smart so will trend towards setting up efficient operations to make less work for themselves.



To build Rapport with each type of personality you have to support the person in the way that is important to THAT personality type.


Analytical person - you have to be supportive of their principles and thinking


Driver type person - you have to support their conclusions and action


Amiable Type person - you have to support their feelings and relationships


Expressive type person – you have to support their dreams and intuitions.


Spend your time with each personality type in a different way!


Analytical - take time to be accurate


Amiable - take time to be agreeable


Drivers - take time to be efficient


Expressive - take time to be stimulating

Kiyosaki, Kim (3 September 2010). "The Four Keys to Raising Capital". Entrepreneur. Retrieved 2 August 2015.

Jump up ^





To understand how to move from passive to active learning, it is impor- tant to understand the different types of learners. There are four primary learning styles: visual, auditory, read-write, and kinesthetic. People learn using a variety of these methods, but one method is usually predominant. Familiarity with the characteristics of each learning style and associated strategies allows you to address the needs of each type of learner.



The most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramid contain what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "d-needs": esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs. If these "deficiency needs" are not met – with the exception of the most fundamental (physiological) need – there may not be a physical indication, but the individual will feel anxious and tense. Maslow's theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire (or focus motivation upon) the secondary or higher level needs. Maslow also coined the term "metamotivation" to describe the motivation of people who go beyond the scope of the basic needs and strive for constant betterment.[8]

FIRST FOUR LEVELS ARE THE D NEEDS (fourth transcendent fifth questionable


This five stage model can be divided into deficiency needs and growth needs. The first four levels are often referred to as deficiency needs (D-needs), and the top level is known as growth or being needs (B-needs).

FOUR BASIC LEVELS PYRAMID- fourth transcendent


Maslow called the bottom four levels of the pyramid ‘deficiency needs’ because a person does not feel anything if they are met, but becomes anxious if they are not. Thus, physiological needs such as eating, drinking, and sleeping are deficiency needs, as are safety needs, social needs such as friendship and sexual intimacy, and ego needs such as self-esteem and recognition. In contrast, Maslow called the fifth level of the pyramid a ‘growth need’ because it enables a person to ‘self-actualize’ or reach his fullest potential as a human being. Once a person has met his deficiency needs, he can turn his attention to self-actualization; however, only a small minority of people are able to self-actualize because self-actualization requires uncommon qualities such as honesty, independence, awareness, objectivity, creativity, and originality.


Focusing on the concepts and interactions of free will, moral responsibility, and determinism, this text represents the most up-to-date account of the four major positions in the free will debate.


Four serious and well-known philosophers explore the opposing viewpoints of libertarianism, compatibilism, hard incompatibilism, and revisionism

The first half of the book contains each philosopher’s explanation of his particular view; the second half allows them to directly respond to each other’s arguments, in a lively and engaging conversation

Offers the reader a one of a kind, interactive discussion

Forms part of the acclaimed Great Debates in Philosophy series


According to Peterson, positive psychologists are concerned with four topics: (1) positive experiences, (2) enduring psychological traits, (3) positive relationships, and (4) positive institutions.[10] According to Peterson, topics of interest to researchers in the field are: states of pleasure or flow, values, strengths, virtues, talents, as well as the ways that these can be promoted by social systems and institutions.[11]


His early findings,[88] which were based on observations from LSD research, uncovered four major types of experiences that, according to Grof, correspond to levels in the human unconscious: (1) Abstract and aesthetic experiences; (2) Psychodynamic experiences; (3) Perinatal experiences; (4) Transpersonal experiences.



Social workers in the 1990s are facing a postmodern world, with unique practice challenges in both the micro and macro levels of practice. Because psychological services are reactive, serving the clients that come out of a particular social context, different theories have emerged over time to address the ills of the day. Many of the practice challenges for social work practitioners today are related to diseases of the spiritual dimension or what has been labeled "spiritual malaise," including values deficits, moral apathy, existential despair, spiritual emergencies, and the like. Transpersonal psychology is the only one of the four force theories that includes the spiritual dimension. To remain relevant in a postmodern world, social work education must fill the current void in curricula by incorporating the comprehensive perspective of transpersonal theory into education and practice.


Ayer's version of emotivism divides "the ordinary system of ethics" into four classes:


"Propositions that express definitions of ethical terms, or judgements about the legitimacy or possibility of certain definitions"

"Propositions describing the phenomena of moral experience, and their causes"

"Exhortations to moral virtue"

"Actual ethical judgments"[19]

He focuses on propositions of the first class—moral judgments—saying that those of the second class belong to science, those of the third are mere commands, and those of the fourth (which are considered in normative ethics as opposed to meta-ethics) are too concrete for ethical philosophy.



All the suffering that goes on inside our minds is not reality, says Byron Katie. It's just a story we torture ourselves with. She has a simple, completely replicable system for freeing ourselves of the thoughts that make us suffer. "All war begins on paper," she explains. You write down your stressful thoughts, and then ask yourself the following four questions:

Question 1: Is it true?

This question can change your life. Be still and ask yourself if the thought you wrote down is true.


Question 2: Can you absolutely know it's true?

This is another opportunity to open your mind and to go deeper into the unknown, to find the answers that live beneath what we think we know.


Question 3: How do you react—what happens—when you believe that thought?

With this question, you begin to notice internal cause and effect. You can see that when you believe the thought, there is a disturbance that can range from mild discomfort to fear or panic. What do you feel? How do you treat the person (or the situation) you've written about, how do you treat yourself, when you believe that thought? Make a list, and be specific.


Question 4: Who would you be without the thought?

Imagine yourself in the presence of that person (or in that situation), without believing the thought. How would your life be different if you didn't have the ability to even think the stressful thought? How would you feel? Which do you prefer—life with or without the thought? Which feels kinder, more peaceful?


Turn the thought around:

The "turnaround" gives you an opportunity to experience the opposite of what you believe. Once you have found one or more turnarounds to your original statement, you are invited to find at least three specific, genuine examples of how each turnaround is true in your life.



Read more: http://www.oprah.com/omagazine/4-questions-that-defeat-negative-thoughts#ixzz4qT9yJcko


There is a limit to the amount of information that can be held in the short-term store: 7 ± 2 chunks.[21] These chunks, which were noted by Miller in his seminal paper The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two, are defined as independent items of information. It is important to note that some chunks are perceived as one unit though they could be broken down into multiple items, for example "1066" can be either the series of four digits "1, 0, 6, 6" or the semantically grouped item "1066" which is the year the Battle of Hastings was fought. Chunking allows for large amounts of information to be held in memory: 149283141066 is twelve individual items, well outside the limit of the short-term store, but it can be grouped semantically into the 4 chunks "Columbus[1492] ate[8] pie[314→3.14→π] at the Battle of Hastings[1066]". Because short-term memory is limited in capacity, it severely limits the amount of information that can be attended to at any one time.



The phenomenon of chunking as a memory mechanism can be observed in the way individuals group numbers and information in the day-to-day life. For example, when recalling a number such as 12101946, if numbers are grouped as 12, 10 and 1946, a mnemonic is created for this number as a day, month and year. Similarly, another illustration of the limited capacity of working memory as suggested by George Miller can be seen from the following example: While recalling a mobile phone number such as 9849523450, we might break this into 98 495 234 50. Thus, instead of remembering 10 separate digits that is beyond the "seven plus-or-minus two" memory span, we are remembering four groups of numbers.



In 2000, Baddeley extended the model by adding a fourth component, the episodic buffer, which holds representations that integrate phonological, visual, and spatial information, and possibly information not covered by the slave systems (e.g., semantic information, musical information). The episodic buffer is also the link between working memory and long-term memory.[14] The component is episodic because it is assumed to bind information into a unitary episodic representation. The episodic buffer resembles Tulving's concept of episodic memory, but it differs in that the episodic buffer is a temporary store.[15]



Anders Ericsson and Walter Kintsch[16] have introduced the notion of "long-term working memory", which they define as a set of "retrieval structures" in long-term memory that enable seamless access to the information relevant for everyday tasks. In this way, parts of long-term memory effectively function as working memory. In a similar vein, Cowan does not regard working memory as a separate system from long-term memory. Representations in working memory are a subset of representations in long-term memory. Working memory is organized into two embedded levels. The first consists of long-term memory representations that are activated. There can be many of these—there is theoretically no limit to the activation of representations in long-term memory. The second level is called the focus of attention. The focus is regarded as having a limited capacity and holds up to four of the activated representations.[17]


Oberauer has extended Cowan's model by adding a third component, a more narrow focus of attention that holds only one chunk at a time. The one-element focus is embedded in the four-element focus and serves to select a single chunk for processing. For example, four digits can be held in mind at the same time in Cowan's "focus of attention". When the individual wishes to perform a process on each of these digits—for example, adding the number two to each digit—separate processing is required for each digit, as most individuals can not perform several mathematical processes in parallel.[18] Oberauer's attentional component selects one of the digits for processing, and then shifts the attentional focus to the next digit, continuing until all digits have been processed.[19]



Several forms of interference have been discussed by theorists. One of the oldest ideas is that new items simply replace older ones in working memory. Another form of interference is retrieval competition. For example, when the task is to remember a list of 7 words in their order, we need to start recall with the first word. While trying to retrieve the first word, the second word, which is represented in proximity, is accidentally retrieved as well, and the two compete for being recalled. Errors in serial recall tasks are often confusions of neighboring items on a memory list (so-called transpositions), showing that retrieval competition plays a role in limiting our ability to recall lists in order, and probably also in other working memory tasks. A third form of interference is the distortion of representations by superposition: When multiple representations are added on top of each other, each of them is blurred by the presence of all the others.[45] A fourth form of interference assumed by some authors is feature overwriting.[46][47] The idea is that each word, digit, or other item in working memory is represented as a bundle of features, and when two items share some features, one of them steals the features from the other. The more items are held in working memory, and the more their features overlap, the more each of them will be degraded by the loss of some features.



Like the other facets of the HEXACO model, Honesty-Humility has four subscales:[1]


Sincerity - this subscale measures a person's (un)willingness to be manipulative or dishonest in their dealings with other people in order to achieve a desired outcome. High scorers are unwilling to be dishonest or manipulative towards others.

Fairness - this subscale measures (un)willingness to cheat or steal in order to get ahead, as well as people's tendency to use fraud, be corrupt, or take advantage of others. High scorers have integrity and behave in a manner that treats all parties fairly and equitably.

Greed Avoidance - this scale measures the value a person places on things like wealth, status, and expensive "toys". Low scorers wish to display their money and luxury, whereas high scorers are less concerned with obtaining wealth and status.

Modesty - this scale measures a person's beliefs about him/herself in relation to others—high scorers see themselves as "no better" than anyone else, whereas low scorers feel they deserve special treatment and more respect than others.

Each subscale contains items that measure both the trait and the opposite of the trait (e.g. the sincerity scale has items that measure both sincerity and insincerity, with insincerity scores being reverse coded). Each item is measured on a 5-point Likert scale (1=Strongly Disagree, 5= Strongly Agree). In the 100-item version of the HEXACO questionnaire, each subscale has 4 items, which are averaged together to get individual subset scores, that are then averaged together to get each facet score.



While people with BPD feel euphoria (ephemeral or occasional intense joy), they are especially prone to dysphoria (inability to experience entirety), depression, and/or feelings of mental and emotional distress. Zanarini et al. recognized four categories of dysphoria that are typical of this condition: extreme emotions, destructiveness or self-destructiveness, feeling fragmented or lacking identity, and feelings of victimization


Theodore Millon has proposed four subtypes of BPD. He suggests that an individual diagnosed with BPD may exhibit none, one, or more of the following:[80]


Subtype Features

Discouraged (including avoidant or dependent personality features) Pliant, submissive, loyal, humble; feels vulnerable and in constant jeopardy; feels hopeless, depressed, helpless, and powerless.

Petulant (including negativistic features) Negativistic, impatient, restless, as well as stubborn, defiant, sullen, pessimistic, and resentful; easily feels "slighted" and quickly disillusioned.

Impulsive (including histrionic or antisocial features) Capricious, superficial, flighty, distractible, frenetic, and seductive; fearing loss, the individual becomes agitated; gloomy and irritable; and potentially suicidal.

Self-destructive (including depressive or masochistic and self-defeating features) Inward-turning, intropunitively (self-punishing) angry; conforming, deferential, and ingratiating behaviors have deteriorated; increasingly high-strung and moody; possible suicide.


A four factor model (similar to all of the MMPI instruments) was chosen for the MMPI-A and included 1. General Maladjustment, 2. Over-control (repression) (L, K, Ma), 3. Si (Social Introversion), 4. MF (Masculine/Feminine).[19]



In the 1980s, paranoid personality disorder received little attention, and when it did receive it, the focus was on its potential relationship to paranoid schizophrenia. The most significant contribution of this decade comes from Theodore Millon who divided the features of paranoid personality disorder to four categories: 1) behavioral characteristics of vigilance, abrasive irritability and counterattack, 2) complaints indicating oversensitivity, social isolation and mistrust, 3) the dynamics of denying personal insecurities, attributing these to others and self-inflation through grandiose fantasies and 4) coping style of detesting dependence and hostile distancing of oneself from others.[14]



Asperger syndrome was distinguished from autism in the DSM-IV by the lack of delay or deviance in early language development.[18] Additionally, individuals diagnosed with Asperger syndrome did not have significant cognitive delays.[19] PDD-NOS was considered "subthreshold autism" and "atypical autism" because it was often characterized by milder symptoms of autism or symptoms in only one domain (such as social difficulties).[20] The DSM-5 eliminated the four separate diagnoses: Asperger Syndrome, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Degenerative Disorder, and Autistic Disorder and combined them under the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder.[13]


The first four of these disorders are commonly called the autism spectrum disorders; the last disorder is much rarer, and is sometimes placed in the autism spectrum and sometimes not.[2][3]


Relationship therapy stresses the importance of learning and applying four basic interpersonal skills: "...effective expression, empathy, discussion and problem solving/conflict resolution".[citation neededMarital/relationship therapy is most beneficial when both partners participate.[33]



Human agency has four core properties:


Intentionality: Individuals’ active decision on engaging in certain activities;

Forethought: Individuals’ ability to anticipate the outcome of certain actions;

Self-reactiveness: Individuals’ ability to construct and regulate appropriate behaviors;

Self-reflectiveness: Individuals’ ability to reflect and evaluate the soundness of their cognitions and behaviors.



In 1941, Neal E. Miller and John Dollard presented their book with a revision of Holt's social learning and imitation theory. They argued four factors contribute to learning: drives, cues, responses, and rewards. One driver is social motivation, which includes imitativeness, the process of matching an act to an appropriate cue of where and when to perform the act. A behavior is imitated depending on whether the model receives a positive or negative response consequences.[4] Miller and Dollard argued that if one were motivated to learn a particular behavior, then that particular behavior would be learned through clear observations. By imitating these observed actions the individual observer would solidify that learned action and would be rewarded with positive reinforcement.


The proposition of social learning was expanded upon and theorized by Canadian psychologist Albert Bandura. Bandura, along with his students and colleagues conducted a series of studies, known as the Bobo doll experiment, in 1961 and 1963 to find out why and when children display aggressive behaviors. These studies demonstrated the value of modeling for acquiring novel behaviors. These studies helped Bandura publish his seminal article and book in 1977 that expanded on the idea of how behavior is acquired, and thus built from Miller and Dollard's research.[5] In Bandura's 1977 article, he claimed that Social Learning Theory shows a direct correlation between a person's perceived self-efficacy and behavioral change. Self-efficacy comes from four sources: "performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states".[6]


Human agency has four core properties:[12]


Intentionality: Individuals’ active decision on engaging in certain activities;

Forethought: Individuals’ ability to anticipate the outcome of certain actions;

Self-reactiveness: Individuals’ ability to construct and regulate appropriate behaviors;

Self-reflectiveness: Individuals’ ability to reflect and evaluate the soundness of their cognitions and behaviors.

Evolving over time, human beings are featured with advanced neutral systems, which enable individuals to acquire knowledge and skills by both direct and symbolic terms.[2] Four primary capabilities are addressed as important foundations of social cognitive theory: symbolizing capability, self-regulation capability, self-reflective capability, and vicarious capability.[2]


Symbolizing Capability: People are affected not only by direct experience but also indirect events. Instead of merely learning through laborious trial-and-error process, human beings are able to symbolically perceive events conveyed in messages, construct possible solutions, and evaluate the anticipated outcomes.

Self-regulation Capability: Individuals can regulate their own intentions and behaviors by themselves. Self-regulation lies on both negative and positive feedback systems, in which discrepancy reduction and discrepancy production are involved. That is, individuals proactively motivate and guide their actions by setting challenging goals and them making effort to fulfill them. In doing so, individuals gain skills, resources, self-efficacy and beyond.

Self-reflective Capability: Human beings can evaluate their thoughts and actions by themselves, which is identified as another distinct feature of human beings. By verifying the adequacy and soundness of their thoughts through enactive, various, social, or logical manner, individuals can generate new ideas, adjust their thoughts, and take actions accordingly.

Vicarious Capability: One critical ability human being featured is to adopt skills and knowledge from information communicated through a wide array of mediums. By vicariously observing others’ actions and its consequences, individuals can gain insights into their own activities. Vicarious capability is of great value to human beings’ cognitive development in nowadays, in which most of our information encountered in our lives derives from the mass media than trial-and-error process.



32 girls and 32 boys were divided into 3 experimental groups and 1 control group. Group 1 watched a live model become aggressive towards the Bobo doll. Group 2 watched a film version of the human model become aggressive to the Bobo doll, and group 3 watched a cartoon version of a cat become aggressive towards the Bobo doll. Each child watched the aggressive acts individually. Following the exposure to the models all four groups of children were then individually placed in a room with an experimenter where they were exposed to a mildly frustrating situation to elicit aggression. Next the children were allowed to play freely in an adjoining room, which was full of toys, including the Bobo doll and the "weapons" that were used by the models. The researchers observed the children and noted any interaction with the Bobo doll.



Gait Abnormality Rating Scale (GARS)[1] is a videotape-based analysis of 16 facets of human gait. It has been evaluated as a screening tool to identify patients at risk for injury from falls.[2] and has been used in remote gait evaluation.[3] A modified version was published in 1996.[4]


Scoring and assessment[edit]

The scale comprises three categories:[5]


five general facets

four lower extremity facets

seven trunk, head and upper extremity facets

Each item has a score range from 0 (good function) to 3 (poor function).[6]


The total GARS score is the sum of the 16 individual facets, and the total score represents a rank ordering of risk for falling, based on the number of gait abnormalities recognized and the severity of any gait abnormality identified.

TCI operates with seven dimensions of personality traits: four so-called temperaments[4]


Novelty Seeking (NS)

Harm Avoidance (HA)

Reward Dependence (RD)

Persistence (PS)



Claridge named his concept schizotypy, and through examination of unusual experiences in the general population and clustering of symptoms in individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, the work of Claridge work suggested that this personality trait was more complex than had been previously thought and could be broken down into four factors.[4][5]


Unusual experiences: The disposition to have unusual perceptual and other cognitive experiences, such as hallucinations, magical or superstitious belief and interpretation of events (see also delusions).

Cognitive disorganization: A tendency for thoughts to become derailed, disorganised or tangential (see also formal thought disorder).

Introverted anhedonia: A tendency to introverted, emotionally flat and asocial behaviour, associated with a deficiency in the ability to feel pleasure from social and physical stimulation.

Impulsive nonconformity: The disposition to unstable mood and behaviour particularly with regard to rules and social conventions.



The St. Augustine Four

The civil rights movement brought forth many heroes who set an example for America and the world. Some were old. Some were middleaged. Some were young. Among the youngest of those heroes of the 1960s were "The St. Augustine Four": Audrey Nell Edwards, JoeAnn Anderson Ulmer, Willie Carl Singleton, and Samuel White.



A sit-in protest at the local Woolworth's lunch counter ended in the arrest and imprisonment of 16 young black protesters and seven juveniles. Four of the children, two of whom were 16-year-old girls, were sent to "reform" school and retained for six months. These four children were JoeAnn Anderson, Audrey Nell Edwards, Willie Carl Singleton, and Samuel White, and they came to be known as "the St. Augustine Four". Their case was publicized as an egregious injustice by Jackie Robinson, the NAACP, the Pittsburgh Courier, and others.[5] Finally, a special action of the governor and cabinet of Florida freed them in January 1964.[6]



Previous studies have theorized that CSE is an underlying (i.e., latent) trait that explains the relationship between locus of control, neuroticism, self-efficacy, and self-esteem.[4][13][14][20][27] However, it has also been suggested that core self-evaluations can be conceptualized as an "aggregate construct," which is composed of or predicted by its four dimensions. In other words, an individual's levels on each of these traits may predict their level of core self-evaluations as opposed to the other way around. This conceptualization difference has important implications for how CSE is measured and, thus, has important implications for the effects found when researching this construct. For this reason, additional research is necessary to examine this conceptualization discrepancy.[47]


There are four types of emotional connections:


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Trust and comfort

Emotional intelligence: the ability to make others feel comfortable

Uniqueness: That special "je ne sais quoi" that makes us “us”

Uncertainty: The certain level of mystery we have when meeting someone. It’s boring to have all your cards out from day one.


The LSP contains 23 scales representing four higher order factors: cognitive styles, perceptual responses, study preferences and instructional preferences (the affective and physiological elements). The LSP scales are: analytic skill, spatial skill, discrimination skill, categorizing skill, sequential processing skill, simultaneous processing skill, memory skill, perceptual response: visual, perceptual response: auditory, perceptual response: emotive, persistence orientation, verbal risk orientation, verbal-spatial preference, manipulative preference, study time preference: early morning, study time preference: late morning, study time preference: afternoon, study time preference: evening, grouping preference, posture preference, mobility preference, sound preference, lighting preference, temperature preference.[39]



Experimental evidence of the existence of a fourth state of unified, transcendental consciousness, which lies in the yoga nidra state at the transition between sensory and sleep consciousness, was first recorded at the Menninger Foundation in Kansas, United States in 1971.[6] Under the direction of Dr. Elmer Green, researchers used an electroencephalograph to record the brainwave activity of an Indian yogi, Swami Rama, while he progressively relaxed his entire physical, mental and emotional structure through the practice of yoga nidra. What they recorded was a revelation to the scientific community.[third-party source needed] The swami demonstrated the capacity to enter the various states of consciousness at will, as evidenced by remarkable changes in the electrical activity of his brain. Upon relaxing himself in the laboratory, he first entered the yoga nidra state, producing 70% alpha wave discharge for a predetermined 5 minute period, simply by imagining an empty blue sky with occasional drifting clouds. [7] Next, Swami Rama entered a state of dreaming sleep which was accompanied by slower theta waves for 75% of the subsequent 5 minute test period.[7] This state, which he later described as being "noisy and unpleasant", was attained by "stilling the conscious mind and bringing forth the subconscious". In this state he had the internal experience of desires, ambitions, memories and past images in archetypal form rising sequentially from the subconscious and unconscious with a rush, each archetype occupying his whole awareness.[7]


Finally, the swami entered the state of (usually unconscious) deep sleep, as verified by the emergence of the characteristic pattern of slow rhythm delta waves. However, he remained perfectly aware throughout the entire experimental period.[7] He later recalled the various events which had occurred in the laboratory during the experiment, including all the questions that one of the scientists had asked him during the period of deep delta wave sleep, while his body lay snoring quietly.[7]


Such remarkable mastery over the fluctuating patterns of consciousness had not previously been demonstrated under strict laboratory conditions.[citation needed] The capacity to remain consciously aware while producing delta waves and experiencing deep sleep is one of the indications of the third state (prajna) out of the total of four states of consciousness described in the Mandukya Upanishad.[citation needed] This is the ultimate state of yoga nidra in which there are no dreams, but only the deep sleep state with retained consciousness/awareness. The result is a single, semi-enlightened state of consciousness and a perfectly integrated and relaxed personality.[citation needed]


Beyond these basic motivating aims, the evolutionary theory specifies eight domains, four functional and four structural, representing the expression of personality in facets aligned with traditional psychological schools of thought. These also are generative of the Grossman Facet Scales.

The original BDI, first published in 1961,[6] consisted of twenty-one questions about how the subject has been feeling in the last week. Each question has a set of at least four possible responses, ranging in intensity. For example:


(0) I do not feel sad.

(1) I feel sad.

(2) I am sad all the time and I can't snap out of it.

(3) I am so sad or unhappy that I can't stand it.



DASS, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales,[1] is made up of 42 self-report items to be completed over five to ten minutes, each reflecting a negative emotional symptom.[2] Each of these is rated on a four-point Likert scale of frequency or severity of the participants' experiences over the last week with the intention of emphasising states over traits. These scores ranged from 0, meaning that the client believed the item "did not apply to them at all", to 3 meaning that the client considered the item to "apply to them very much, or most of the time". It is also stressed in the instructions that there are no right or wrong answers.



To evaluate intelligence, the test administrator uses the Draw-a-Person: QSS (quantitative scoring system). This system analyzes fourteen different aspects of the drawings (such as specific body parts and clothing) for various criteria, including presence or absence, detail, and proportion. In all, there are 64 scoring items for each drawing. A separate standard score is recorded for each drawing, and a total score for all three. The use of a nonverbal, nonthreatening task to evaluate intelligence is intended to eliminate possible sources of bias by reducing variables like primary language, verbal skills, communication disabilities, and sensitivity to working under pressure. However, test results can be influenced by previous drawing experience, a factor that may account for the tendency of middle-class children to score higher on this test than lower-class children, who often have fewer opportunities to draw. To assess the test-taker for emotional problems, the administrator uses the Draw-a-Person: SPED (Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance) to score the drawings. This system is composed of two types of criteria. For the first type, eight dimensions of each drawing are evaluated against norms for the child's age group. For the second type, 47 different items are considered for each drawing.



The design of the MLAT also reflects a major conclusion of Carroll's research, which was that language learning aptitude was not a "general" unitary ability, but rather a composite of at least four relatively independent "specialized" abilities. The four aspects, or "components," of language learning aptitude that Carroll identified were phonetic coding ability, grammatical sensitivity, rote learning ability and inductive language learning ability. In the article “The prediction of success in intensive foreign language training,” Carroll defined these components as follows:



The Culture Fair tests consist of three scales with non-verbal visual puzzles. Scale I includes eight subtests of mazes, copying symbols, identifying similar drawings and other non-verbal tasks.[8] Both Scales II and III consists of four subtests that include completing a sequence of drawings, a classification subtest where respondents pick a drawing that is different from other drawings, a matrix subtests that involves completing a matrix of patterns and conditions subtests which involve which out of several geometric designs fulfill a specific given condition.[8]

Robert Thorndike was asked to take over after Merrill’s retirement. With the help of Elizabeth Hagen and Jerome Sattler, Thorndike produced the fourth edition of the Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scale in 1986. This edition covers the ages two through twenty-three and has some considerable changes compared to its predecessors (Graham & Naglieri, 2003). This edition was the first to use the fifteen subtests with point scales in place of using the previous age scale format. In an attempt to broaden cognitive ability, the subtests were grouped and resulted in four area scores, which improved flexibility for administration and interpretation (Youngstrom, Glutting, & Watkins, 2003). The fourth edition is known for assessing children that may be referred for gifted programs. This edition includes a broad range of abilities which provides more challenging items for those in their early adolescent years, whereas other intelligence tests of the time did not provide difficult enough items for the older children (Laurent, Swerdlik, & Ryburn, 1992).





Robert Thorndike was asked to take over after Merrill’s retirement. With the help of Elizabeth Hagen and Jerome Sattler, Thorndike produced the fourth edition of the Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scale in 1986. This edition covers the ages two through twenty-three and has some considerable changes compared to its predecessors (Graham & Naglieri, 2003). This edition was the first to use the fifteen subtests with point scales in place of using the previous age scale format. In an attempt to broaden cognitive ability, the subtests were grouped and resulted in four area scores, which improved flexibility for administration and interpretation (Youngstrom, Glutting, & Watkins, 2003). The fourth edition is known for assessing children that may be referred for gifted programs. This edition includes a broad range of abilities which provides more challenging items for those in their early adolescent years, whereas other intelligence tests of the time did not provide difficult enough items for the older children (Laurent, Swerdlik, & Ryburn, 1992).





The test aims to measure an individual's logical and analytical reasoning through the use of partial analogies. A sample test question might be


Bach : Composing :: Monet :


a. painting

b. composing

c. writing

d. orating

This should be read as "Bach is to (:) Composing as (::) Monet is to (:) _______." The answer would be a. painting because just as Bach is most known for composing music, Monet is most known for his painting. The open slot may appear in any of the four positions.


Tests taken in October 2004 or later have a score range from 200 to 600. The median score is 400, with a standard deviation of 25 points. These scores, based on a normal curve, are known as "scaled" scores. Because of their grounding in this model, scaled MAT scores of 500-600 are extremely rare, as they would be more than four standard deviations above the norm of 400.



The Verbal section consists of Verbal Comprehension and Verbal Reasoning questions. The Verbal Comprehension questions are made up of four types of questions: Following Directions, Antonyms, Sentence Completion, and Sentence Arrangement. This section is used to evaluate a child's ability to observe and comprehend relationships between words, to build sentences, and to understand different definitions of words based on context. There are seven types of Verbal Reasoning questions: Aural Reasoning, Arithmetic Reasoning, Logical Selection, Word/Letter Matrix, Verbal Analogies, Verbal Classification, and Inference. This section assesses a child's ability to determine relationships between words, to observe similarities and differences, and to apply conclusions in different scenarios.


The Figural Reasoning category is made up of four question types: Figural Classification, Figural Analogies, Pattern Matrix, and Figural Series. This section is used to assess a child's ability to utilize geometric shapes and figures in order to determine relationships, comprehend and continue progressions, and compare and contrast different figures. There are three different types of questions on the Quantitative Reasoning section: Number Series, Numeric Inference, and Number Matrix. This section assesses a child's ability to determine relationships with numbers as well as figure out and utilize computational rules.



The Long Bet Project Bet Nr. 1 is a wager of $20,000 between Mitch Kapor (pessimist) and Ray Kurzweil (optimist) about whether a computer will pass a lengthy Turing Test by the year 2029. During the Long Now Turing Test, each of three Turing Test Judges will conduct online interviews of each of the four Turing Test Candidates (i.e., the Computer and the three Turing Test Human Foils) for two hours each for a total of eight hours of interviews. The bet specifies the conditions in some detail.[108]


Blay Whitby lists four major turning points in the history of the Turing Test – the publication of "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" in 1950, the announcement of Joseph Weizenbaum's ELIZA in 1966, Kenneth Colby's creation of PARRY, which was first described in 1972, and the Turing Colloquium in 1990.[109]



There are four index scores representing major components of intelligence:


Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI)

Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI)

Working Memory Index (WMI)

Processing Speed Index (PSI)



The tests are divided into four different sections: cognitive, skill, personality, and behavioral. The scores are predictors of the possible conformity that a potential employee has within the field for which they are applying. Each test has a different number of questions and time requirement, and either can or cannot be administered via computer.

Animals that are considered to be able to recognise themselves in a mirror typically progress through four stages of behaviour when facing a mirror:[5]


(a) social responses

(b) physical inspection (e.g. looking behind the mirror)

(c) repetitive mirror-testing behaviour

(d) realisation of seeing themselves


The F-test in one-way analysis of variance is used to assess whether the expected values of a quantitative variable within several pre-defined groups differ from each other. For example, suppose that a medical trial compares four treatments. The ANOVA F-test can be used to assess whether any of the treatments is on average superior, or inferior, to the others versus the null hypothesis that all four treatments yield the same mean response. This is an example of an "omnibus" test, meaning that a single test is performed to detect any of several possible differences. Alternatively, we could carry out pairwise tests among the treatments (for instance, in the medical trial example with four treatments we could carry out six tests among pairs of treatments). The advantage of the ANOVA F-test is that we do not need to pre-specify which treatments are to be compared, and we do not need to adjust for making multiple comparisons. The disadvantage of the ANOVA F-test is that if we reject the null hypothesis, we do not know which treatments can be said to be significantly different from the others, nor, if the F-test is performed at level α, can we state that the treatment pair with the greatest mean difference is significantly different at level α.



{\mathfrak {p}}, the probability that a woman is a studier is also


{\mathfrak {p}}, and we assume that both men and women enter our sample independently of whether or not they are studiers, then this hypergeometric formula gives the conditional probability of observing the values a, b, c, d in the four cells, conditionally on the observed marginals (i.e., assuming the row and column totals shown in the margins of the table are given). This remains true even if men enter our sample with different probabilities than women. The requirement is merely that the two classification characteristics—gender, and studier (or not)—are not associated.


For example, suppose we knew probabilities








{\displaystyle P,Q,{\mathfrak {p,q}}} with










{\displaystyle P+Q={\mathfrak {p}}+{\mathfrak {q}}=1} such that (male studier, male non-studier, female studier, female non-studier) had respective probabilities














{\displaystyle (P{\mathfrak {p}},P{\mathfrak {q}},Q{\mathfrak {p}},Q{\mathfrak {q}})} for each individual encountered under our sampling procedure. Then still, were we to calculate the distribution of cell entries conditional given marginals, we would obtain the above formula in which neither


{\mathfrak {p}} nor


P occurs. Thus, we can calculate the exact probability of any arrangement of the 24 teenagers into the four cells of the table, but Fisher showed that to generate a significance level, we need consider only the cases where the marginal totals are the same as in the observed table, and among those, only the cases where the arrangement is as extreme as the observed arrangement, or more so. (Barnard's test relaxes this constraint on one set of the marginal totals.) In the example, there are 11 such cases. Of these only one is more extreme in the same direction as our data; it looks like this:


Schoof, René (2004), "Four primality testing algorithms", Algorithmic Number Theory: Lattices, Number Fields, Curves and Cryptography (PDF), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-80854-5



The Dot cancellation test or Bourdon-Wiersma test is a commonly used test of combined visual perception and vigilance.[1][2]


The test has been used in the evaluation of stroke where subjects were instructed to cross out all groups of 4 dots on an A4 paper. The numbers of uncrossed groups of 4 dots, groups of dots other than 4 crossed, and the time spent (maximum, 15 minutes) were taken into account.[2] The Group-Bourdon test, a modification of the Bourdon-Wiersma, is one of a number of psychometric tests which trainee train drivers in the UK are required to pass.[3][4]


The test is based on the work of French psychologist Benjamin B. Bourdon (1860–1943) and Dutch neurologist Enno Dirk Wiersma (nl) (1858–1940).[5][6]



The GMAT exam consists of four sections: an analytical writing assessment, an integrated reasoning section, a quantitative section, and a verbal section.[14] Total testing time is three and a half hours, but test takers should plan for a total time of approximately four hours, with breaks. Test takers have 30 minutes for the analytical writing assessment and another 30 minutes to work through 12 questions, which often have multiple parts, on the integrated reasoning section and are given 75 minutes to work through 37 questions in the quantitative section and another 75 minutes to get through 41 questions in the verbal section.

Integrated Reasoning (IR) is a section introduced in June 2012 and is designed to measure a test taker’s ability to evaluate data presented in multiple formats from multiple sources. The skills being tested by the integrated reasoning section were identified in a survey of 740 management faculty worldwide as important for today’s incoming students.[17] The integrated reasoning section consists of 12 questions (which often consist of multiple parts themselves) in four different formats: graphics interpretation, two-part analysis, table analysis, and multi-source reasoning. Integrated reasoning scores range from 1 to 8. Like the Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA), this section is scored separately from the quantitative and verbal section. Performance on the IR and AWA sections do not contribute to the total GMAT score.

The integrated reasoning section includes four question types: table analysis, graphics interpretation, multi-source reasoning, and two-part analysis.[17] In the table analysis section, test takers are presented with a sortable table of information, similar to a spreadsheet, which has to be analyzed. Each question will have several statements with opposite-answer options (e.g., true/false, yes/no), and test takers click on the correct option. Graphics interpretation questions ask test takers to interpret a graph or graphical image. Each question has fill-in-the-blank statements with pull-down menus; test takers must choose the options that make the statements accurate. Multi-source reasoning questions are accompanied by two to three sources of information presented on tabbed pages. Test takers click on the tabs and examine all the relevant information, which may be a combination of text, charts, and tables to answer either traditional multiple-choice or opposite-answer (e.g., yes/no, true/false) questions. Two-part analysis questions involve two components for a solution. Possible answers are given in a table format with a column for each component and rows with possible options. Test takers have to choose one response per column.



Until 2009, the test had four levels, with 4 being the lowest and 1 being the highest level of certification.[4] JLPT certificates do not expire or become invalid over time


Until 2009, the test had four levels.[4] JLPT certificates do not expire or become invalid over time.[5]


All instructions on the test were written in Japanese, although their difficulty is adjusted to remain appropriate to each test level.[42] The subject matter covered at each level of the examination was based upon the Test Content Specification (出題基準 Shutsudai kijun), first published in 1994 and revised in 2004. This specification served as a reference for examiners to compile test questions, rather than as a study guide for candidates. It consisted of kanji lists, expression lists, vocabulary lists, and grammar lists for all four JLPT levels. However, about 20% of the kanji, vocabulary, and grammar in any one exam may have been drawn from outside the prescribed lists at the discretion of exam compilers.[43]


Two changes in levels of tests were made from the previous four-level format: firstly, a new level was inserted between the old level 3 and level 2, and secondly, the content of the top level exam (old level 1) was changed to test slightly more advanced skills, though the passing level was not changed,[46] possibly through equating of test scores. Vocabulary in particular is said to be taken from an increased pool of 18,000 words.



Advancements in test measurement technology, including machine scoring of tests, and changed views regarding test scores and medical school readiness reflected the evolution of the test in this period. The test underwent three major changes. It now had only four sub tests, including verbal ability, quantitative ability, science achievement, and understanding modern society. Questions were all in multiple-choice format. Each subtest was given a single score, and the total score was derived from the sum of the scores from the subtests. The total score ranged from 200–800. The individual scores helped medical school admission committees to differentiate the individual abilities among their candidates. Admission committees, however, did not consider the "understanding modern society" section to be of great importance, even though it was created to reward those with broad liberal arts skills, which included knowledge of history, government, economics, and sociology. Committees placed greater emphasis on scores on the scientific achievement section as it was a better predictor of performance in medical school.


In 1992 the test changed again. Though the test was still divided into four subtests, they were renamed as the verbal reasoning, biological sciences, physical sciences, and writing sample sections. Questions retained the multiple-choice format, though the majority of the questions are divided into passage sets. Passage-based questions were implemented to evaluate "text comprehension, data analysis, ability to evaluate an argument, or apply knowledge from the passage to other contexts." A new scoring scale was also implemented. The total composite score, which ranges from 3–45, is based on the individual scores of the verbal reasoning, biological sciences, and physical sciences, which each have a score range of 1–15. The writing sample, which consists of two essays to be written within 30 minutes for each, is graded on a letter scale from J-T with T being the highest attainable score.


The exam is offered 25 or more times per year at Prometric centers.[16] The number of administrations may vary each year. Most people who take the MCAT are undergraduates in their junior or senior year of college before they apply to medical school. Ever since the exam's duration was lengthened to 7.5 hours, the test is only offered in the morning.


The test, updated in 2015, consists of four sections, listed in the order in which they are administered on the day of the exam:


Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems

Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills (CARS)

Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems

Psychological, Social and Biological Foundations of Behavior

The four sections are in multiple-choice format. The passages and questions are predetermined, and thus do not change in difficulty depending on the performance of the test taker (unlike, for example, the general Graduate Record Examination).


The first section assesses problem-solving ability in general chemistry and physics while the third section evaluates these abilities in the areas of biology and organic chemistry. The Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills section evaluates the ability to understand, evaluate, and apply information and arguments presented in prose style.


Test contents[edit]

Section Questions Minutes

Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems 59 95

Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems 59 95

Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills 53 90

Psychological, Social and Biological Foundations of Behavior 59 95

The test consists of four sections, each with a maximum score of 132 points (and a minimum score of 118 points). The total MCAT score is the sum of the four section scores, and ranges from 472 to 528, with 500 being the median score.[17]



Most of the questions on the SAT, except for the optional essay and the grid-in math responses, are multiple choice; all multiple-choice questions have four answer choices, one of which is correct. Thirteen of the questions on the math portion of the SAT (about 22% of all the math questions) are not multiple choice.[31] They instead require the test taker to bubble in a number in a four-column grid.




The SAT has four sections: Reading, Writing and Language, Math (no calculator), and Math (calculator allowed). The test taker may optionally write an essay which, in that case, is the fifth test section. The total time for the scored portion of the SAT is three hours (or three hours and fifty minutes if the optional essay section is taken). Some test takers who are not taking the essay may also have a fifth section which is used, at least in part, for the pretesting of questions that may appear on future administrations of the SAT. (These questions are not included in the computation of the SAT score.) Two section scores result from taking the SAT: Evidence-Based Reading and Writing, and Math. Section scores are reported on a scale of 200 to 800, and each section score is a multiple of ten. A total score for the SAT is calculated by adding the two section scores, resulting in total scores that range from 400 to 1600. There is no penalty for guessing on the SAT: scores are based on the number of questions answered correctly. In addition to the two section scores, three "test" scores on a scale of 10 to 40 are reported, one for each of Reading, Writing and Language, and Math. The essay, if taken, is scored separately from the two section scores.[21]


The mathematics portion of the SAT is divided into two sections: Math Test – Calculator and Math Test – No Calculator. In total, the SAT math test is 80 minutes long and includes 58 questions: 45 multiple choice questions and 13 grid-in questions.[24] The multiple choice questions have four possible answers; the grid-in questions are free response and require the test taker to provide an answer.


The Math Test – No Calculator section has 20 questions (15 multiple choice and 5 grid-in) and lasts 25 minutes.

The Math Test – Calculator section has 38 questions (30 multiple choice and 8 grid-in) and lasts 55 minutes.

Several scores are provided to the test taker for the math test. A subscore (on a scale of 1 to 15) is reported for each of three categories of math content: "Heart of Algebra" (linear equations, systems of linear equations, and linear functions), "Problem Solving and Data Analysis" (statistics, modeling, and problem-solving skills), and "Passport to Advanced Math" (non-linear expressions, radicals, exponentials and other topics that form the basis of more advanced math). A test score for the math test is reported on a scale of 10 to 40, and a section score (equal to the test score multiplied by 20) is reported on a scale of 200 to 800. [25][26][27]


Calculator use[edit]

All scientific and most graphing calculators, including Computer Algebra System (CAS) calculators, are permitted on the SAT Math – Calculator section only. All four-function calculators are allowed as well; however, these devices are not recommended. All mobile phone and smartphone calculators, calculators with typewriter-like (QWERTY) keyboards, laptops and other portable computers, and calculators capable of accessing the Internet are not permitted.[28]



The IELTS test has four parts[edit]

Listening: 30 minutes (plus 10 minutes' transfer time)[13]

Reading: 60 minutes

Writing: 60 minutes

Speaking: 11–14 minutes


The module comprises four sections, with ten questions in each section.[14] It takes 40 minutes: 30 - for testing, plus 10 for transferring the answers to an answer sheet.[15]


Sections 1 and 2 are about everyday, social situations.


Section 1 has a conversation between two speakers (for example, a conversation about travel arrangements)

Section 2 has one person speaking (for example, a speech about local facilities).

Sections 3 and 4 are about educational and training situations


Section 3 is a conversation between two main speakers (for example, a discussion between two university students, perhaps guided by a tutor)

Section 4 has one person speaking about an academic subject.[13]



Run Lola Run (German: Lola rennt, literally "Lola runs") is a 1998 German thriller film written and directed by Tom Tykwer, and starring Franka Potente as Lola and Moritz Bleibtreu as Manni. The story follows a woman who needs to obtain 100,000 Deutsche Mark in twenty minutes to save her boyfriend's life. The film's three scenarios are reminiscent of the 1981 Krzysztof Kieślowski film Blind Chance; following Kieślowski's death, Tykwer directed his planned film Heaven.


Run Lola Run was released to generally positive reviews from critics.


Contents [hide]

1 Plot

1.1 Introduction

1.2 First run

1.3 Second run

1.4 Third run

2 Cast

3 Themes

4 Soundtrack

5 Locations

6 Critical reception

7 Legacy

8 See also

9 References

10 External links



Initially, the demand for test seats was higher than availability, and candidates had to wait for months. It is now possible to take the test within one to four weeks in most countries.[8] The four-hour test consists of four sections, each measuring one of the basic language skills (while some tasks require integrating multiple skills), and all tasks focus on language used in an academic, higher-education environment. Note-taking is allowed during the TOEFL iBT test. The test cannot be taken more than once every 12 days.[9]



The Reading section consists of questions on 3-5 passages, each approximately 700 words in length. The passages are on academic topics; they are the kind of material that might be found in an undergraduate university textbook. Passages require understanding of rhetorical functions such as cause-effect, compare-contrast and argumentation. Students answer questions about main ideas, details, inferences, essential information, sentence insertion, vocabulary, rhetorical purpose and overall ideas. New types of questions in the TOEFL iBT test require filling out tables or completing summaries. Prior knowledge of the subject under discussion is not necessary to come to the correct answer.


The Listening section consists of questions on six passages, each 3–5 minutes in length. These passages include two student conversations and four academic lectures or discussions. The conversations involve a student and either a professor or a campus service provider. The lectures are a self-contained portion of an academic lecture, which may involve student participation and does not assume specialized background knowledge in the subject area. Each conversation and lecture passage is heard only once. Test-takers may take notes while they listen and they may refer to their notes when they answer the questions. Each conversation is associated with five questions and each lecture with six. The questions are meant to measure the ability to understand main ideas, important details, implications, relationships between ideas, organization of information, speaker purpose and speaker attitude.


The Speaking section consists of six tasks: two independent and four integrated. In the two independent tasks, test-takers answer opinion questions on familiar topics. They are evaluated on their ability to speak spontaneously and convey their ideas clearly and coherently. In two of the integrated tasks, test-takers read a short passage, listen to an academic course lecture or a conversation about campus life and answer a question by combining appropriate information from the text and the talk. In the two remaining integrated tasks, test-takers listen to an academic course lecture or a conversation about campus life and then respond to a question about what they heard. In the integrated tasks, test-takers are evaluated on their ability to appropriately synthesize and effectively convey information from the reading and listening material. Test-takers may take notes as they read and listen and may use their notes to help prepare their responses. Test-takers are given a short preparation time before they have to begin speaking. The responses are digitally recorded, sent to ETS’s Online Scoring Network (OSN), and evaluated by three to six raters.


The Writing section measures a test taker's ability to write in an academic setting and consists of two tasks: one integrated and one independent. In the integrated task, test-takers read a passage on an academic topic and then listen to a speaker discuss it. The test-taker then writes a summary about the important points in the listening passage and explains how these relate to the key points of the reading passage. In the independent task, the test-taker must write an essay that states their opinion or choice, and then explain it, rather than simply listing personal preferences or choices. Responses are sent to the ETS OSN and evaluated by at least 3 different raters.[10]



The national edition features four sections: Politics, Culture, Economy and Sports. Editions sold in Munich and its surrounding counties include local news inserts.


The SZ is well known for its daily frontpage column Streiflicht (searchlight) of 72 lines, which is published anonymously.



There are generally four recognized levels of tests: unit testing, integration testing, component interface testing, and system testing. Tests are frequently grouped by where they are added in the software development process, or by the level of specificity of the test. The main levels during the development process as defined by the SWEBOK guide are unit-, integration-, and system testing that are distinguished by the test target without implying a specific process model.[26] Other test levels are classified by the testing objective.[26]



Clinical psychologists are expert in providing psychotherapy, and generally train within four primary theoretical orientations—psychodynamic, humanistic, behavior therapy/ cognitive behavioral, and systems or family therapy.


Four main schools[edit]

Many clinical psychologists are integrative or eclectic and draw from the evidence base across different models of therapy in an integrative way, rather than using a single specific model.


In the UK, clinical psychologists have to show competence in at least two models of therapy, including CBT, to gain their doctorate. The British Psychological Society Division of Clinical Psychology has been vocal about the need to follow the evidence base rather than being wedded to a single model of therapy.


In the USA, intervention applications and research are dominated in training and practice by essentially four major schools of practice: psychodynamic, humanistic, behavioral/cognitive behavioral, and systems or family therapy.[2]

Locus of control is one of the four dimensions of core self-evaluations – one's fundamental appraisal of oneself – along with neuroticismself-efficacy, and self-esteem.[3] The concept of core self-evaluations was first examined by Judge, Locke, and Durham (1997), and since has proven to have the ability to predict several work outcomes, specifically, job satisfaction and job performance.[4] In a follow-up study, Judge et al. (2002) argued the concepts of locus of control, neuroticism, self-efficacy and self-esteem measured the same, single factor.




There are four stages of schizophrenia: prodromal phase, active or acute phase, remission, and relapse.


Prodromal phase


Schizophrenia usually starts with this phase, when symptoms are vague and easy to miss. They are often the same as symptoms of other mental health problems, such as depression or other anxiety disorders. They may not seem unusual for teens or young adults. In fact, schizophrenia is rarely diagnosed at this time.


Symptoms are sometimes triggered by stress or changes, such as going away to school, starting to use drugs or alcohol, or going through a severe illness or a death in the family.


These first symptoms often include being withdrawn, outbursts of anger, or odd behavior. For more information, see Symptoms.


This phase can last for days, months, or years.








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Active, or acute, phase


At some point you start to have symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, or confusing thoughts and speech.


These symptoms may appear suddenly or slowly over time. They can be severe and can cause a psychotic episode, which means you can't tell the difference between what is real and what isn't real.


You may need to go to the hospital. You probably won't be able to make many decisions about your care.


This phase usually lasts 4 to 8 weeks. This is when schizophrenia usually is diagnosed.


Remission and relapse


After an active phase, symptoms get better, especially with treatment, and life may be more "normal." This is called remission. But symptoms may get worse again, which is called a relapse. You may have this cycle of symptoms that get severe and then improve.


In each cycle, symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions may become less intense, but other symptoms, such as feeling less interested in caring for yourself, may get worse. You may have few or many cycles before you are able to stay in remission.


Within 5 to 10 years, you may develop a unique pattern of illness that often stays the same throughout your life. It also is possible that you will have fewer relapses as you get older and may even not have symptoms.

A person does not suddenly wake up one morning with a new illness called schizophrenia. The development of schizophrenia is a process that takes place over varying periods of time depending on the individual, but it is never a sudden manifestation. There might the first sudden noticing of the symptoms however. The process of the revealing of this latent illness in the brain happens in a typical fashion, enough so for most everyone dealing with it that we can now classify four stages of schizophrenia.
The four stages or phases of schizophrenia can be labeled as:
The Prodromal Stage
The Acute Stage
The Remission Stage
The Relapse Stage



Since the introduction of the BAI, other factor structures have been implemented, including a four factor structure used by Beck and Steer with anxious outpatients that included neurophysiological, autonomic symptoms, subjective, and panic components of anxiety.[5] In 1993, Beck, Steer, and Beck used a three factor structure including subjective, somatic, and panic subscale scores to differentiate among a sample of clinically anxious outpatients[6]





Variable The STPI is useful for measuring the four affects of anxiety, depression, anger and curiosity. The STPI measures these constructs both as traits/dispositions and as transitory emotions/states.[30][31] Trait and state measures may be employed as outcome variables in evaluation of therapeutic interventions.[32] However, the STPI provides measures of only four affect dimensions in comparison with the more comprehensive mapping of affect dimensions by Izard et al.[33]

When the scale to diagnose depression according to ICD-10, there are the following possibilities:


Mild depression: A score of 4 or 5 in two of the first three items. Plus a score of at least 3 on two or three of the last seven items.

Moderate depression: A score of 4 or 5 in two or three of the first three items. Plus a score of at least 3 on four of the last seven items.

Severe depression: A score of 4 or 5 in all of the first three items. Plus a score of at least 3 on five or more of the last seven items.

Major depression: Thusinge number of items is reduced to nine, as Item 4 is part of Item 5. Include whichever of the two items has the highest score (item 4 or 5). A score on at least five items is required, to be scored as follows: the score on the first three items must be at least 4, and on the other items at least 3. Either Item 1 or 2 must have a score of 4 or 5.



So where does self-efficacy come from and how can you get more of it? The originator of the theory, Albert Bandura names four sources of efficacy beliefs.

1. Mastery Experiences

The first and foremost source of self-efficacy is through mastery experiences. However nothing is more powerful than having a direct experience of mastery to increase self-efficacy. Having a success, for example in mastering a task or controlling an environment, will build self- belief in that area whereas a failure will undermine that efficacy belief. To have a resilient sense of self-efficacy requires experience in overcoming obstacles through effort and perseverance.

2. Vicarious Experiences

The second source of self-efficacy comes from our observation of people around us, especially people we consider as role models. Seeing people similar to ourselves succeed by their sustained effort raises our beliefs that we too possess the capabilities to master the activities needed for success in that area.

3. Verbal Persuasionself efficacy

Influential people in our lives such as parents, teachers, managers or coaches can strengthen our beliefs that we have what it takes to succeed. Being persuaded that we possess the capabilities to master certain activities means that we are more likely to put in the effort and sustain it when problems arise.

4. Emotional & Physiological States

The state you’re in will influence how you judge your self-efficacy. Depression, for example, can dampen confidence in our capabilities. Stress reactions or tension are interpreted as signs of vulnerability to poor performance whereas positive emotions can boost our confidence in our skills.



The ride was originally designed with four trains with six cars per train. Designers realized that promptly dispatching the trains would be problematic and revised the layout to three trains with seven cars per train. An extra fourth train is usually parked under the ride's main station.[3]



Aristotle also believed that there were four sections of the soul: the calculative and scientific parts on the rational side used for making decisions, and the desiderative and vegetative parts on the irrational side responsible for identifying our needs.



In his lectures circa 1838–1839 Sir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet described "thought" as "a series of acts indissolubly connected"; this comes about because of what he asserted was a fourth "law of thought" known as the "law of reason and consequent":



An Essay Concerning Human Understanding in four books (1690) by John Locke (1632-1704)



It has been argued that from the nature of sensations and ideas there is no such thing as a permanent identity.[42] Daniel Shapiro asserts that one of four major views on identity does not recognize a "permanent identity" and instead thinks of "thoughts without a thinker" − "a consciousness shell with drifting emotions and thoughts but no essence". According to him this view is based on the Buddhist concept of Anatta − "a continuously evolving flow of awareness".[43] Malcolm David Eckel states that "the self changes at every moment and has no permanent identity"[44] − it is a "constant process of changing or becoming", a "fluid ever-changing self".[45]



An important distinction in the Circumplex Model is between balanced and extreme types of couple and family relationships. Balanced relationships are either structured or flexible on adaptability and either separated or connected on cohesion. The four types of balanced relationships are located graphically at the center of the Model.






Extreme couples or families are either rigid or chaotic on adaptability and either disengaged or enmeshed on cohesion. The four types of extreme relationships are, in fact, graphically represented at the four extreme corners of the Model.








Lövheim also proposed that the sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of the autonomic nervous system might be viewed as orthogonal axes, instead of viewing them as antagonists. The sympathetic axis were thought to represent arousal and the parasympathetic axis to represent secretion and possible positive versus negative valence.[6] This model corresponds, in a way, to the cube model of emotions (the sympathetic axis appears to be similar to the noradrenergic axis, and the parasympathetic axis to the serotonergic axis in the CNS).[citation needed]


Lövheim's two-dimensional autonomic nervous system model



Another way to provide students with an opportunity to have a say in the classroom is to develop a Classroom Needs Circle. This strategy is one I learned from Becky Sue Bianco, a middle school reading teacher in Watkins Glen, New York. Using this strategy, the teacher begins the year teaching her students about the basic human needs. After the students have gained an understanding of the genetic instructions that drive our behavior, the teacher explains the difference between responsible and irresponsible behavior, using Glasser's definition. Responsible behavior is that which enables us to meet our needs without making it more difficult for others to meet theirs. The students, working in pairs or small groups, list specific behaviors that would enable them to meet each of their psychological needs (love and belonging, power, freedom, and fun) in responsible ways in the classroom. Next, the teacher leads a whole-class discussion, coming to consensus on a list of behaviors derived from those developed in the pairs or small groups. After consensus, the teacher writes the behaviors agreed upon in the appropriate quadrants of a circle like the one in Figure 4.1.

Here are the gate names, the I Ching names, followed by brief descriptions for the 4 gates of the cross of the Planning.

  • Gate 37 – Friendship – The Family – This is the energy to be part of a community or group to be one in kinship and to be part of the tribe.

  • Gate 40 – Aloneness – Deliverance – When one lives alone they have personal freedom to live according to their will.

  • Gate 9 – Focus – the taming power of the small – This is energy that can be extremely focused on the pertinent details but can also become hyper focused and get lost.

  • Gate 16 – Skills – Enthusiasm – This is energy that is talented as it comes out of the throat to express itself and generate enthusiasm.



The Four Aura Types


Aura, the cornerstone of the Human Design System, is how you were designed to meet life. Aura is the electromagnetic frequency that animates your body, extending roughly two arm lengths in all directions. It is the “song” of your unique being as you move through space.


Aura type is determined by the interconnection of the centers that are defined (colored) in your chart. There are over 6 billion people on the planet. Yet just as humans have four blood groups, there are four aura types: Manifestor, Generator (including Manifesting Generator), Projector, and Reflector.


This layer cake was a standard in our house. This recipe is a very old one that people could keep in their heads because of the utter simplicity of the formula that gave the cake its name—1 cup of butter, 2 cups of sugar, 3 cups of flour, and 4 eggs. The juice mixture will give the cake a lovely, fresh, fruity flavor and it is not rich like an icing.



These basic ingredients, used in the correct proportions, can make an almost infinite variety of cakes, cookies and breads with the addition of a few other items and the proper technique. Often, how you combine your ingredients is as important as what goes into the mix. A 1–2–3–4 cake is as simple as it gets, uses all four of the essential ingredients, and is a great basic recipe to have in your repertoire.




The Cross of Penetration is an interesting energy and it can be quite useful but it can be a bit abrupt or shocking. But it is all good because that shock is here to wake us up, to cut through the bull crap and get’er done!


There is a concept called fractals which when referenced in Human Design indicates a segment or pattern that we tend to attract. For my wife and I, people on the Cross of Penetration are certainly a primary fractal. Our son and many close friends are on this cross so I have become quite familiar with the energy.



Edward Snowden was born on summer solstice 1983 under the cross of the Vessel of Love. But what energy is driving him to be the NSA / Government whistle blower that he is? The Vessel of Love… or the Vessel of Hate?



Edward Snowden was born on summer solstice 1983 under the cross of the Vessel of Love. But what energy is driving him to be the NSA / Government whistle blower that he is? The Vessel of Love… or the Vessel of Hate?






Incarnation – Cross of the Four Ways

Incarnation – Cross of the Four Ways

The Incarnation cross of the Four Ways represents the coming together of 4 energies that each have a voice in where we humans are going. There is a real evolution written here in the 4 gates as each gate has a way for us as humans to go. Gate 24 is a mental gate. It […]



Incarnation cross of the Maya

Incarnation cross of the Maya

People born into the Incarnation cross of Maya are born with an internal pressure to know Why. This energy has driven humankind to be explorers. It has pushed us to explore the continents, then to the seas, then to outer space and now to the universe. But it is not just outward exploration as we […]



Despite our shared brain organization, cultural differences in how we handle numbers persist, and they are not confined to the classroom. Evolution may have endowed us with an approximate number line, but it takes a system of symbols to make numbers precise—to “crystallize” them, in Dehaene’s metaphor. The Mundurukú, an Amazon tribe that Dehaene and colleagues, notably the linguist Pierre Pica, have studied recently, have words for numbers only up to five. (Their word for five literally means “one hand.”) Even these words seem to be merely approximate labels for them: a Mundurukú who is shown three objects will sometimes say there are three, sometimes four. Nevertheless, the Mundurukú have a good numerical intuition. “They know, for example, that fifty plus thirty is going to be larger than sixty,” Dehaene said. “Of course, they do not know this verbally and have no way of talking about it. But when we showed them the relevant sets and transformations they immediately got it.”

The Mundurukú, it seems, have developed few cultural tools to augment the inborn number sense. Interestingly, the very symbols with which we write down the counting numbers bear the trace of a similar stage. The first three Roman numerals, I, II, and III, were formed by using the symbol for one as many times as necessary; the symbol for four, IV, is not so transparent. The same principle applies to Chinese numerals: the first three consist of one, two, and three horizontal bars, but the fourth takes a different form. Even Arabic numerals follow this logic: 1 is a single vertical bar; 2 and 3 began as two and three horizontal bars tied together for ease of writing. (“That’s a beautiful little fact, but I don’t think it’s coded in our brains any longer,” Dehaene observed.)




The four types of behavioral traits
There’s some debate about who developed the classification system I’m about to introduce to you. Some say it was Erich von Manstein, who was regarded as one of Germany’s best military strategists during World War II. However, others believe it was Kurt Gebhard Adolf Philipp Freigerr von Hammerstein-Equord. von Hammerstein-Equord was Germany’s Chief of the Army High Command before the second world war, and was once described by von Manstein as “… probably one of the cleverest people I ever met.”

For our purposes we’ll credit von Hammerstein-Equord with the quote that he divides his officers into four groups based on their behavioral habits:

There are clever, diligent, stupid, and lazy officers. Usually two characteristics are combined.

So the groups are set as follows:

clever and diligent
stupid and lazy
clever and lazy
stupid and diligent
To map it out into terms of the 21st century, we could see it like this:




Massey hypothesizes two dimensions of mental categorization, leading to four gross categories of people in one's social category scheme: warm-cold (appealing-unappealing) and competent-incompetent. People who are like us are considered "warm" and "competent". The other three quadrants are categorized as "other": warm but incompetent (pitied), competent but cold (envied), and incompetent and cold (despised). And he asserts that American racism places African-Americans in the final category. This in turn is used to explain the harshly negative tilt that US legislation has shown across lines of race and poverty.


Figure 1 is the recognition that stereotypes may have no racial/ethnic or genderedsalience (the lower-left quadrant), salience along one dimension but not the other (theupper-left and lower-right quadrants), or both racial/ethnic and gendered salience (theupper-right quadrant).In analyzing survey data, this implies that if respondents were asked to rate the menand women of four racial/ethnic target groups on each of the 12 stereotypes presentedin Figure 1, we would expect to observe no differences in mean ratings by either race/ethnicity or sex in the lower-left quadrant, differences by sex but not race/ethnicity in theupper-left quadrant, differences by at least one racial/ethnic group but not by sex in thelower-right quadrant, and differences both by at least one racial/ethnic group and by sexin the upper-right quadrant. Furthermore, we would expect that within this latterquadrant, there may be certain status constellations that would be more salient for onestereotype than for another. For example, based on Prasso’s (2005) work, we mightexpect no difference between ratings of the sexual exoticism of Black, Hispanic, andWhite women, but large effects for Asian women.


Do Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes Depend on the Sex of Target Group Members? Evidence from a Survey-Based Experiment (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/229579740_Do_Racial_and_Ethnic_Stereotypes_Depend_on_the_Sex_of_Target_Group_Members_Evidence_from_a_Survey-Based_Experiment [accessed Sep 17, 2017].


For example, Mitchell, Borroni-Bird, and Burns set out four ideas in Reinventing the Automobile that combine to enable a revolutionary improvement in urban mobility:6


Transform the fundamental design principles of the vehicle from mechanically based to electronically based.

Enable such transformed vehicles to interact with one another and with the surrounding infrastructures through a “Mobility Internet.”

Replace propulsion systems derived from petroleum with those derived from electric or hydrogen energy.

Provide a cloud-enabled (my term, not theirs), dynamically priced marketplace for urban mobility services.

Figure 1 combines the two dimensions of the urban mobility space (technology model and business model) to create four scenarios. In the southwest quadrant, we find the scenario labeled Point of Departure, which describes the current situation:



Driver assistance technologies entering the marketplace, chiefly in premium vehicles.

Most vehicles privately owned and driven.

New private models for shared vehicles entering the marketplace, including Zipcar, Uber, and Lyft.

Reluctance in some jurisdictions to allow shared-vehicle business models into the marketplace, independent of consumer demand.25

Apparent reluctance of some consumers to accept full automation of vehicles, whether owned or shared.26,27

Proceeding counter-clockwise around the matrix, the scenario in the southeast quadrant labeled Paradise Lite describes an urban mobility space in which customers prefer the economy and service offered by shared vehicles to the costs of owned vehicles with infrequent use cycles. Further, regulatory authorities find ways to overcome the opposition of displaced groups, such as taxi drivers and some owners. However, either the customers or the jurisdictions (or both) remain averse to full vehicle automation.


The northeast quadrant, labeled Mobility Paradise, contains the scenario generally envisioned by the simulation studies—a benign world of efficient and affordable mobility services.


Finally, the northwest quadrant, Paradise Delayed, offers a scenario in which full automation is desired by vehicle owners, but shared vehicle models are blocked by interest groups or by lack of customer interest.


Two pathways lead from the Point of Departure to the Mobility Paradise, and their outcomes suggest very different consequences for shared autonomous mobility. These are shown in Figure 2.

In no case did we ever claim that any one quadrant is better than another. IT departments of the last century received criticism for focusing too much on inward benefits and losing focus on the broader context in which IT operates. That situation was expensive, frustrating to users, and ultimately untenable.



IT organizations in this century must and do perform activities in all four quadrants. Neglecting any quadrant can lead to the following outcomes.


Benefit-Change-Neglect-MatrixClick to expand


Using frameworks such as ITIL, COBIT 5, or ISO/IEC 20000 to guide improvement initiatives can help IT organizations balance their efforts in all quadrants.



Based primarily on variations in these two attributes of profitability and regulation, stakeholders determined four potential futures for N in California agriculture. The four scenarios are the following:


End of agriculture: Rising cost and declining competitiveness for California farmers, with mandates and regulation running ahead of technological capabilities to address N issues.

Regulatory Lemonade: Good prices and strong competitiveness for California farmers, with strict mandates and regulations to control N tempered by flexible implementation to allow technological capabilities to catch up.

Nitropia: Farming economics are favorable, and technological innovation spurs controls of N before there is need for regulation.

Complacent agriculture: Rising costs and declining competitiveness for California farmers, with incentives and regulation lagging behind technological capabilities to address N issues.


The four scenarios show that the environmental and human health impacts of agricultural N use could vary substantially depending on regulatory responses and the competitiveness of California’s agriculture industry in the global context. The worst-case scenario, from the perspective of outcomes for agriculture, the environment, and human health, evolves from a combination of low agricultural competitiveness and low regulatory pressure to adopt better management practices and technologies, which leads to poor outcomes for the agricultural sector and mixed outcomes for the environment and human health. The two best-case scenarios in terms of outcomes involve high agricultural profitability, which stimulates investment in better management options, and either strict regulations that are rolled out in a flexible and timely manner or government policies and consumer-driven certification schemes that provide incentives for adoption, resulting in better environmental and human health outcomes.




When looking at these Story Points it might hep to understand that every quad is based on the four elements of Knowledge, Thought, Ability, and Desire. In the external world these are known as Mass, Energy, Space, and Time. Every quad is simply these four things, but seen from a different perspective.



There are four perspectives available to everyone while trying to identify and resolve troubles.


In our own lives:


We can experience firsthand what it is like to have a personal problem (the “I,” Main Character perspective).

We can experience firsthand what it is like for someone to have an alternative viewpoint on a problem (the “you,” Influence Character perspective).

We can experience firsthand what it is like to have a troubled relationship (the “we,” RS perspective).

BUT, we CANNOT experience firsthand what it is like to stand outside ourselves and objectively see how we're connected to a problem (the “they,” Overall Story perspective).



Syd Field says there are four major qualities that make a good character:


Dramatic Need—What does the Main Character want to gain, get or achieve?

Strong Point of View—The way the Main Character views the world

Attitude—The Main Character's manner or opinion

CHANGE—Does your Main Character change during the course of the story?

The next step requires the analyst to assign each of these Four Throughlines to a particular Domain, or area, of conflict. In our Universe, conflict can be found in four different arenas:



a Situation (fixed external conflict)

an Activity (a process of external conflict)

a Fixed Attitude (fixed internal conflict)

a Manner of thinking (a process of internal conflict)

Areas of Conflict


In Dramatica, these four areas align into a quad where the external conflict sit on top, and the internal conflicts rest on the bottom. The fixed conflicts find themselves diagonally across from one another as do the processes of conflict.


Only one rule when assigning Throughlines to Domains, the following must be diagonally across from each other:


Overall Story <—> Relationship Story

Main Character <—> Influence Character

In The Dark Horse, the Throughlines fall into these Domains:


MC Throughline: Genesis — Bipolar Personality Disorder is a Fixed Attitude conflict

IC Throughline: Ariki - Cancer is a Situation conflict

RS Throughline: Family - Roles within the Family Unit is a Manner of Thinking conflict

OS Throughline: Disadvantaged Kids Playing Chess is an Activity conflict



In this sense, as a fundamental “hermeneutic metaphor” –in R. Jung’s terminology—techno-centrism will persist and cannot disappear as it forms an essential facet of human effort. To understand this it is useful to see the Four Perspectives also as manifestations of the World Hypotheses or Root Metaphors studied by the American philosopher Stephen C. Pepper[xxv]. Following Pepper’s model, we can immediately point to these Four Perspectives as world-views with deeply-rooted philosophical meanings. Here is how the Four Perspectives map to Pepper’s root metaphors:


Formism: Direction, i.e. definition of Trust, Risk-taking

Organicism: Selection, i.e. allocation of Trust, Risk sharing

Mechanism: Protection, i.e. enforcement of Trust, Risk avoidance

Contextualism: Verification, i.e. verification of Trust, Risk monitoring





S. C. Pepper’s Four Root Metaphors and the Security Perspectives



While the Mechanist metaphor stresses the disciplines of Protection against “objective” threats, the Contextualist paradigm underlines the disciplines of Verification and therefore the need for rules and processes. From its side, the Organicism will highlight the disciplines of Selection as the key to Security, and consequently the ideas of authorisation, delegation, membership and roles. Complementing the model proposed by John Arnold[xxvi], I introduced a fourth Perspective in Security, under the Formist metaphor. It should be called the discipline of Direction and remain focused on the ideas of definition of Trust Definition and Risk-Taking.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

The Four Hats of Creativity



These four livelihoods: artist, designer, scientist, and engineer, make a nice fourfold. They are called the “four hats of creativity” by Rich Gold. They are also called the “four winds of making” by computer scientist Richard P. Gabriel.


Some say the artist and scientist are “inward” looking, and the designer and engineer are “outward” looking. Some say the artist and the designer “move minds”, and the scientist and engineer “move matter”. One can observe that the artist sorts the important from the boring, the scientist separates the true from the false, the designer discerns the cool from the uncool, and the engineer divides the good from the bad.

I know what you’re thinking (and not necessarily because I’m wearing a colored hat): this is about six things and not four. But wait, notice how the six thinking styles form three pairs of opposites:



Creative (Green) pairs with Process (Blue)


Positive (Yellow) pairs with Negative (Black)


Facts (White) pairs with Emotion (Read)


Then the three pairs of opposites can be arranged into a tetrahedron, where the opposite edges are the three pairs. A tetrahedron has four vertices and four faces, where each vertex is the opposite of its opposite face.


The vertices are Creative + Positive + Emotion, Creative + Negative + Facts, Process + Positive + Facts, and Process + Negative + Emotion. The faces are Creative + Positive + Facts, Creative + Negative + Emotion, Process + Positive + Emotion, and Process + Negative + Facts.


The first link below lists the same opposites for the Six Hats as I found. And there are also a huge number of links out there devoted to the Six Thinking Hats, so I can’t list or summarize them all, or even a small portion.



Bargh (1994) reconceptualized the notion of an automatic process by breaking down the term "automatic" into four components: awareness, intentionality, efficiency, and controllability. One way for a process to be labeled as automatic is for the person to be unaware of it. There are three ways in which a person may be unaware of a mental process: they can be unaware of the presence of the stimulus (subliminal), how the stimulus is categorized or interpreted (unaware of the activation of stereotype or trait constructs), or the effect the stimulus has on the person's judgments or actions (misattribution). Another way for a mental process to be labeled as automatic is for it to be unintentional. Intentionality refers to the conscious "start up" of a process. An automatic process may begin without the person consciously willing it to start. The third component of automaticity is efficiency. Efficiency refers to the amount of cognitive resources required for a process. An automatic process is efficient because it requires few resources. The fourth component is controllability, referring to the person's conscious ability to stop a process. An automatic process is uncontrollable, meaning that the process will run until completion and the person will not be able to stop it. Bargh (1994) conceptualizes automaticity as a component view (any combination awareness, intention, efficiency, and control) as opposed to the historical concept of automaticity as an all-or-none dichotomy.[15]



Another argument against dual-process accounts for reasoning which was outlined by Osman is that the proposed dichotomy of System 1 and System 2 does not adequately accommodate the range of processes accomplished.[38] Moshman proposed that there should be four possible types of processing as opposed to two. They would be implicit heuristic processing, implicit rule-based processing, explicit heuristic processing, and explicit rule-based processing.[39]

Another fine-grained division is as follows: implicit action-centered processes, implicit non-action-centered processes, explicit action-centered processes, and explicit non-action-centered processes (that is, a four-way division reflecting both the implicit-explicit distinction and the procedural-declarative distinction). [40]


Bargh, J.A. (1994). The Four Horsemen of Automaticity: Awareness, Intention, Efficiency, and Control in Social Cognition. Handbook of Social Cognition. R. Wyer & T. Srull. pp. 1–40.

^ Jump up to: a b c d



A Four-Strategy Model of

Creative Interaction

This theory details how a simple two stage model of creativ- ity (divergence vs. convergence) and dual process theory (implicit vs. explicit) can be combined to inform the design of creative composition interfaces. It is worth setting out the exact scope of this model. It is not intended to be a model of separate systems within the brain. It is not intended to have any predictive power outside the domain of interaction with a parameter space, though it may prove useful in other areas, and we speculatively propose how these four strate- gies may interact to produce insight. Furthermore, important cultural, personality and emotional considerations have been ignored. It only addresses what Boden (Boden 1992) terms P-creativity, rather than the H-creativity found in culturally significant achievements. Specifically, it is intended to be a categorisation of parameter search strategies, a summary of how those strategies work together (or not) to create novelty and value, and how parameters should be mapped to gestures to assist each of these processes. This design methodology should prevent the designer forcing the user into the wrong creative problem solving strategy at the wrong time.

Divergent and Convergent Solution-Space Traversal

First of all we attempt to define divergent and convergent processes with reference to the CSF (Wiggins 2006).

Convergent processes are traversal mechanisms that im- prove the fitness of solutions. These could be a series of discrete options, for example selecting the best sound from a number of candidates, or they could be a continuum, for example finding the “best” setting for a synthesis parameter is a convergent process. Convergence requires both a fit- ness evaluation E , and some prediction of what change will increase value, which yields a parameter traversal strategy T . E is therefore actively employed in guiding T . This is analogous to a gradient descent algorithm (these algorithms are said to “converge” on a solution). So whilst some mod- els of creativity postulate generative and evaluative stages, where convergence is just evaluation and selection, in our model convergence can still change the solution (i.e. incre- mental improvement rather than just evaluation or selection c.f. the “honing” theory of creativity (Gabora 2005)). A second method of convergence is more analytical: where E can be broken down into smaller individual success criteria, each of which requires a non-creative solution.

Divergent processes are different in that they set aside questions of improving any fitness value, and generate can- didate solutions distant from the current ones, e.g. creat- ing lots of more or less randomly scattered points. E may still operate in the background in order to spot promising new ideas, but is disengaged from directly determining T , in order to prevent it revisiting unoriginal ideas. An alter- native divergent approach can be carried out on the meta- level: deliberately transforming the fitness function or the constraints.

Convergence by itself will rarely produce novelty, as mul- tiple runs will settle in the same local minimum. Diver-

Figure 2: The four quadrants of implicit vs. explicit thinking (left/right) and divergent and convergent thinking (top/bottom). Examples of useful information transfer are shown in green. Examples of detrimental interference ef- fects shown in red.

gence by itself will produce useless noise. It is the careful blending of these processes that yields progress. Examples abound from machine learning that combine both divergent and convergent behaviours, such as random forests, genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimisation. Balancing the two tendencies is also known as the exploration-exploitation trade-off (Barto 1998). Often such algorithms progressively reduce the diversity component as the search progresses.

So by defining divergence and convergence in this way, we see that by strategically connecting and disconnecting judgements of fitness from the parameter navigation strat- egy, the musician can produce both novelty and value.

The Four Quadrant Model

The central hypothesis in this section is that both fast and slow brain systems may conduct convergent or divergent searches. This results in four distinct parameter space traver- sal strategies.

Figure 2 shows the four categories: divergent-implicit (exploratory), divergent-explicit (reflective), convergent- implicit (tacit) and convergent-explicit (analytic). These may be strategies carried out within the brain (conceptual space traversal), or actual manipulations of the controls of an instrument (parameter space traversal). Below, each quad- rant is described in more detail, both in terms of cognitive processes and interfaces that may augment them.

Exploratory (implicit-divergent) refers to stochastic, asso- ciative, combinatorial or transformational processes that can quickly generate a large number of points across a solution space. Examples may be the unconscious process of con- ceptual recombination, techniques such as brainstorming, or simple playfulness. Computers effectively generate random, transformed and recombined data, therefore exploration is easily augmented.




2.3 The Four Quadrant Model

The central hypothesis of this section is that both fast and slow brain systems may conduct convergent or divergent searches. Fig- ure 1 shows the four possible combinations: divergent-implicit (exploratory, top left), divergent-explicit (reflective, top right), convergent-implicit (tacit, bottom left) and convergent-explicit (an- alytic, bottom right). These may be the strategies carried out within the brain (conceptual space traversal), or actual manipulations of the controls of an instrument (parameter space traversal).

Exploratory (implicit-divergent) refers to stochastic, associative, combinatorial or transformational processes that can quickly gener- ate a large number of points across a solution space. Examples may be the unconscious process of conceptual recombination, techniques such as brainstorming, interactions enabling recombination or trans- formation of material, or a computational process of randomisation. Computers can be exceptionally good at generating random, trans- formed and recombined data but tend not to do so in a very meaning- ful way.

Tacit (implicit-convergent) is intended to refer to those instinctive or learned techniques that quickly produce a valuable, but unorigi- nal local solution to a problem. These could be genetic-instinctive or experiential-learned. This, in the solution space would be a fast multi-dimensional gradient descent algorithm, that can efficiently find a local minima in the fitness function. This corresponds to a well learned complex, multi-dimensional, space-multiplexed inter- face such as a traditional musical instrument, but could also refer to a interaction metaphor such as a physical model that was intuitive and instinctive.

Analytic (explicit-convergent) relates to mental processes that break a problem down into separate components, and solves them in a sequential way. In the solution space it would proceed in a city- block fashion, therefore it tends to work best with separable dimen- sions. An analytic interface is one such as a digital audio workstation that provides individual parameters as knobs and sliders, and sequen- tial, time-multiplexed input devices such as the mouse and keyboard.

Reflective (explicit-divergent) refers to analytical methods that can take existing concepts and infer new ones, or propose entirely new problem spaces by asking questions or generating hypotheses. There are almost certainly analytic, conscious intentional processes that can generate very distant points in solution space, and should at least feature in our model, notwithstanding the fact that the underlying process may be beyond our current ability to model. One possible mechanism is that the analytic system transforms the solution space, the constraints and/or the fitness function, deliberately engineering a large jump, and forcing convergent parts out of their local solution finding complacency. This might include other strategies as use of metaphor, analogy or metacognitive introspection. For truly transfor- mative creativity this meta-exploration ability is essential.

One might then ask, which of these quadrants is most important for musical creativity? The answer must surely be all four. Take the incubation-illumination model as a, highly speculative, illustration. Preparation is the process of asking a new question, or finding a new problem (reflective), and attempting to solve it, consciously via the (methodical) solutions of the past. This fails, but you persevere. Throughout this struggle you are both activating concepts in the sub-

Figure 1.

The four quadrants of system 1 vs. system 2 thinking (left/right) and divergent and convergent thinking (top/bottom). Transfer of information,

knowledge or concepts are shown as thin arrows. Possible inhibition/interference effects shown as large arrows.

conscious for recombination, and tacitly learning how to quickly se- lect a solution: imposing a neural fitness landscape that will function as a fast unconscious solution recogniser (a process known as prim- ing). At some point one of the many divergent subconscious com- binations will be intuitively recognised and converged on, and then (seemingly miraculously) provided to the conscious mind for verifi- cation by the methodical system.

The key fact to reiterate here is that System 2 is a more or less serial process with limited working memory. Therefore, if it is fully engaged with analytic processing, e.g. dealing with many separate musical parameters, it stands to reason that there will be less re- sources available for meta-cognition and high level reasoning. This prediction seems to gel with users reports of using computers to make music: the fact they can get hung up on details, lose perspective and become distracted from their overall artistic intent.

In the case that reflection does reveal an analytic strategy to change the space in which you are operating, one-to-one mappings again seem less than ideal. What is required is a means of constructing your own abstractions, for example a musical programming language [1]. However, the route from programming a new abstraction to control- ling it gesturally is often a time consuming one.



Henry L. Roediger III and Schmidt found that the act of retrieval can serve as the source of the failing to remember, using multiple experiments that tested the recall of categorized and paired associative lists.[30] Three experiments were carried out where subjects were first presented with category lists and then asked to recall the items in the list after being shown the category name as a cue.[30] The further the test position from the category resulted in a decline of the recall of words. A fourth experiment revealed that only recent items were present in output interference in paired associative lists.[30]



The magical number 4 in vision Brian J. Scholl1 and Yaoda Xu2

1 Vision Sciences Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Harvard University, 33 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA. scholl@wjh.harvard.edu, http://wjh.harvard.edu/~scholl

2 Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139. yaoda@psyche.mit.edu

Abstract: Some of the evidence for a ‘magical number 4’ has come from the study of visual cognition, and Cowan reinterprets such evidence in terms of a single general limit on memory and attention. We evaluate this evidence, including some studies not mentioned by Cowan, and argue that limitations in visual processing are distinct from those involved in other memory phenomena.

Cowan’s discussion of the ‘magical number 4’ synthesizes evidence from domains which are rarely discussed together. In particular, Cowan draws on work from the study of visual cognition — such as studies of subitizing (section 3.3.2) and multiple object tracking (section 3.3.3) — and attempts to reinterpret such evidence in terms of a general memory limitation, which he suggests is a reflection of the underlying capacity of the “attentional focus” (a thesis which is discussed in Cowan, 1995, but which he does not argue for in his target article). Here we note additional evidence for a limit of approximately 4 objects in certain types of visual processing, and discuss why these limits are probably distinct from those involved in other (e.g. verbal) tasks.

Additional evidence from visual cognition.

Additional evidence for a ‘magical number 4’ in visual processing comes from studies of infants, normal adults, and neuropsychological syndromes. Recent looking-time studies with infants have suggested that they are able to keep track of arrays of objects through additions and subtractions, but only if there are less than 4 objects in these arrays (e.g. Wynn, 1992; Uller et al., 1999), and this evidence has been interpreted in terms of developing mechanisms of visual attention (e.g. Scholl & Leslie, 1999; Carey & Xu, to appear). In normal adults, there appears to be a limit of 4 on the number of objects which can receive prioritized processing due to attentional capture (Yantis & Johnson, 1990), and the number of items which can be simultaneously examined in a visual search for a change (Rensink, 2000).

Finally, it has been shown that bilateral lesions of the parietal lobes in Balint’s syndrome can reduce visual processing capacity. Patients with Balint’s

syndrome have great deficits in perceiving complex visual scenes, although their ability to recognize individual objects is usually preserved (for a review, see Rafal, 1997). Dehaene and Cohen (1994) studied visual enumeration in 5 Balint’s patients and found that these patients could enumerate sets of 1, 2, and sometimes 3 items correctly, but not sets comprising more than 3 items. Reaction time slopes for these patients were flat for set sizes of 1 and 2 items, but increased sharply for set sizes of 3 or more items. Treisman and colleagues (Friedman-Hill et al., 1995; Robertson et al., 1997) reported another Balint’s patient who could not correctly enumerate more than one or two objects even when he was aware that more were present. In rare and extreme cases, Balint’s patients report seeing only one object when presented with multiple objects (e.g., Coslett & Saffran, 1991).

Specific visual limits or general memory/ attention limits? Cowan views such evidence as continuous with data concerning the number of chunks which can be simultaneously active in short term memory (STM). In contrast, we think there are good reasons to resist this reinterpretation, and to view the limits on visual processing as separate from those involving verbal and other non-visual material. (In this respect we take a position similar to that of Miller, 1956, who suspected that STM limits and subitizing limits were independent.) Given space restrictions, we will largely restrict our discussion of this issue to the evidence which Cowan does discuss in his target article: subitizing (wherein observers can determine the cardinality of sets with less than 5 items roughly in parallel and without errors) and multiple object tracking (MOT; wherein observers can attentionally track up to 4-5 independently and unpredictably moving identical items in a field of identical distractors).

Cowan presents only a few arguments for interpreting these phenomena in terms continuous with general STM limits. For MOT he provides no arguments, simply stating that one could use a general STM-based theory to explain performance. (Such an explanation, it seems to us, could not easily account for the strong dependency of MOT performance on subtle visual details such as the type of accretion and deletion behind occluders; Scholl & Pylyshyn, 1999.) For subitizing, he notes the vision- based theory of Trick and Pylyshyn (1994), and argues against it mainly by appeal to two phenomena. First, he suggests that the ‘pop-out’ alluded to by Trick and Pylyshyn can also occur for larger numbers of items, for example “when all of the

Scholl & Xu, The magical number 4 in vision

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eggs [in a carton] pop out against the surrounding carton” (Section 3.3.2). This, however, is clearly not the type of pop-out that Trick and Pylyshyn (and others who have investigated visual search) have in mind, since the eggs in this case do not pop out as individuals, but as a group. Second, Cowan suggests that focused central attention is more important to enumeration than is suggested by Trick and Pylyshyn’s theory, since other researchers (Atkinson et al., 1976; Simon & Vaishnavi, 1996) studying the enumeration of dots in afterimages have claimed that observers cannot enumerate sets greater than 4 without eye-movements. This claim is false, however, and the limits these investigators found were due to the confounding effects of crowding (He et al., 1997).

Beyond Cowan’s arguments, we think there are several additional reasons to view these limits as distinct from those involved in verbal STM. First, viewing them as identical seems to necessitate a prediction that one should not be able to track 4 targets in the MOT task and simultaneously acquire and hold 4 verbally-presented items in STM. However, this is trivial to do, and such tasks seem not to interfere at all. (In an informal test, two observers tracked 4 in 8 items for 10 s with an accuracy of 87.5% averaged over 10 trials. When they also had to remember 4 random digits presented auditorily as the targets were being specified, they tracked with an accuracy of 92.5%, and made no errors on the memory task.) Cowan notes in section 4.2 of the target article that such evidence against a single capacity limit could be explained away by appeal to attentional switching back and forth between the two tasks, but in this respect MOT is an ideal foil, since one can succeed in the task only by continuous tracking (Pylyshyn & Storm, 1988).

Second, an explanation based on a single general limitation of memory or attention predicts that these limits should stand or fall together in neuropsychological impairments, which they do not. For example, none of the Balint’s patients mentioned above exhibited deficits in short-term memory span. There are patients who, after lesions in the left hemisphere language areas, exhibited reduced STM span despite normal speech production in some cases (e.g., Baddeley, 1986; Shallice & Warrington, 1970). However, none of these patients showed any signs of Balint’s symptoms or deficits in visual processing. Moreover, although these patients showed very poor retention of auditorily presented digits, with a span in the region of two items, they usually showed better retention of visually presented digits, with a span in the region of 4 or 5. These double dissociations in lesion sites and patient performance

argue strongly against the notion that a common capacity limitation underlies capacity limited performance in both verbal and visual tasks.

Visual objects vs. chunks in memory. The view that these limitations in visual processing are distinct from those involved in other memory phenomena is further strengthened by the fact that the ‘units’ of processing in each case are quite different. T h e ‘chunks’ of memory can be almost infinitely flexible in their composition, and are thus defined by Cowan and others simply in terms of association networks (see section 1.3). This flexibility is in marked contrast to the units of visual attention — visual objects — which appear to be characterized by highly constrained and inflexible rules (Scholl, to appear). In MOT, for instance, observers can track 4 dots in a field of 8 dots, but completely fail when trying to track 4 line endpoints in a field of 4 lines (and thus 8 endpoints). In general, very specific rules involving connectedness and part-structure seem to determine whether a feature cluster can be tracked in MOT (Scholl et al., submitted). Similarly, in visual short- term memory studies using a change detection paradigm, color and orientation features are best remembered if they belong to the same part of an object and less well remembered if they belong to different parts of an object (Xu, submitted). All of these constraints are in marked contrast to the robustness and flexibility of potential STM chunks with verbal materials.

We think the considerations discussed here provide good reasons for thinking that the limits of approximately 4 involved in various types of visual processing are distinct from other similar STM limits. We remain agnostic on the question of why there should exist similar independent limits. It could be for the teleological and computational reasons discussed by Cowan (in section 4.1), or it could be — as George Miller (1956) suspected of the similarity of memory capacity and subitizing limitations — “nothing more than a coincidence.”



I've learned this in school as well, and I often use the magic number seven when it comes to grouping of elements in more logical units. However recent research question Miller's Law stating that the correct number a human being can hold in working memory is three or four[2]. In my daily life, I can see that this is more likely. When I go shopping, I need to write a shopping list if there are more than four things I need to buy and by this not forget what it was I'm supposed to buy. One could argue that my working memory is worse than average, but I would never agree to such a statement.




Crossed Arm Grip:

front squat, back squat, crossed arm squat, clean grip squat, squat variationsThis version of the front squat grip makes it a lot more difficult to secure the weight. Place the bar in front of your shoulders, resting it directly on top of your deltoids, just as you with clean grip version. You then will cross your hands over the bar, making an “X” when looked at from up above. Elbows will face forward and arms will be parallel to the ground. Keeping the bar over your heels will help in assisting an upright position. Elbows must also be kept up.