The Hermann grid illusion is probably the most famous perceptual illusions. I discussed that perception is the first quadrant of the quadrant model (the second square of the first quadrant) and therefore it is kind of weird and should not be entirely trusted.
A grid illusion is any kind of grid that deceives a person's vision. The two most common types of grid illusions are the Hermann grid illusion and the scintillating grid illusion. A grid illusion is any kind of grid that deceives a person's vision. The two most common types of grid illusions are the Hermann grid illusion and the scintillating grid illusion.
Some patterns to prove, that a new visibility (induced brightness) appears on the junctions of a grid – if the dimensions are chosen properly: A) Grey squares at the intersections of the white lines; B) The same effect against a grey background. C) The effect is lost due to distance; D) A reversal of A) with the same effect.
‘Such effects induced by the grids – often called Hermann grids – are not completely understood’ stated MURCH (1973, p. 225), ‘although the mechanism of lateral inhibition certainly plays a part
The grids in the grid illusion represent quadrants.
The scintillating grid illusion is an optical illusion, discovered by E. Lingelbach in 1994, that is usually considered a variation of the Hermann grid illusion.
It is constructed by superimposing white discs on the intersections of orthogonal gray bars on a black background. Dark dots seem to appear and disappear rapidly at random intersections, hence the label "scintillating". When a person keeps his or her eyes directly on a single intersection, the dark dot does not appear. The dark dots disappear if one is too close to or too far from the image.

Nobody quite knows why it works. But it is taught in every psychology class on illusions and in every class on vision and sight. The quadrant is very significant because it is the form of being, and has worked its way into every arena, including illusions. I discussed that I took a class by Stuart Anstis at UCSD and he invented famous illusions, "coincidentally" involving quadrants

I studied the abacus in a class in psychology that I took, where the teacher described how the use of the abacus is centered around the number four, because as he said people can calculate best with the four system.

To use the abacus lay it on a flat surface and set it to zero by making sure no beads are touching the reckoning bar. If you have a reset button, press it to reset the beads. To count on the abacus start on the far right side of the abacus, and slide one earthly bead up to the reckoning bar using your thumb. One bead touching the reckoning bar makes the abacus equal 1. Slide three more beads up makes the abacus value four (3 + 1 = 4). Because the modern abacus only has four Earthly beads, if you want to count to five, you must move the heavenly bead down to the reckoning bar using your index finger.


How to use an abacus


Before learning to use the abacus realize that there are many different types of abacus'. For example, the classical abacus or Chinese abacus has five beads on the bottom and two beads at the top. The modern abacus, Japanese abacus, or soroban has four beads at the bottom and one bead at the top. We are using the modern abacus for examples on this page.

For a night sleep a person goes through four REM sleep cycles. Five is questionable a person never really goes past four REM cycles
16 is the squares of the quadrant model

Over several decades of factor-analytic study, Cattell and his colleagues gradually refined and validated their list of underlying source traits. The search resulted in the sixteen unitary traits of the 16PF Questionnaire. These traits have remained the same over the last 50 years of research. In addition, the 16PF Questionnaire traits are part of a multi-variate personality model that provides a broader framework including developmental, environmental, and hereditary patterns of the traits and how they change across the life span (Cattell, 1973, 1979, 1980).[49][50]
The validity of the factor structure of the 16PF Questionnaire (the 16 primary factors and 5 global factors) has been supported by more than 60 published studies (Cattell & Krug, 1986; Conn & Rieke, 1994; Hofer and Eber, 2002).[51][52][53] Research has also supported the comprehensiveness of the 16PF traits: all dimensions on other major personality tests (e.g., the NEO Personality Inventory, the California Psychological Inventory, the Personality Research Form, and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) have been found to be contained within the 16PF scales in regression and factor-analytic studies (Conn & Rieke, 1994; Cattell, 1996).[33]
Since its release in 1949, the 16PF Questionnaire has been revised four times: once in 1956, once in 1962, once in 1968, and the current version was developed in 1993. The US version of the test was also re-standardized in 2002, along with the development of forms for children and teenagers; versions for the UK, Ireland, France and the Netherlands were re-standardised in 2011. Additionally, there is a shortened form available primarily for employee selection and the questionnaire has been adapted into more than 35 languages. The questionnaire has also been validated in a range of international cultures over time
Recall that the number 16 is the 16 squares of the quadrant model


The fourth is always different


The dark triad is a group of three personality traits: narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Use of the term "dark" implies that people scoring high on these traits have malevolent qualities:

Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, pride, egotism, and a lack of empathy.

Machiavellianism is characterized by manipulation and exploitation of others, a cynical disregard for morality, and a focus on self-interest and deception.

Psychopathy is characterized by enduring antisocial behavior, impulsivity, selfishness, callousness, and remorselessness.

All three traits have been associated with a callous-manipulative interpersonal style. A factor analysis carried out at the Glasgow Caledonian University found that among the big five personality traits, low agreeableness is the strongest correlate of the dark triad, while neuroticism and a lack of conscientiousness were associated with some of the dark triad members.

Several researchers have suggested expanding the dark triad to contain a fourth dark trait. Everyday sadism, defined as the enjoyment of cruelty, is the most common addition. While sadism is highly correlated with the dark triad, researchers have shown that sadism predicts anti-social behavior beyond the dark triad.

The fourth square is always different and does not seem to belong


The fourth is always transcendent and points to a larger context. The fifth is ultra transcendent.


The most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramid contain what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "d-needs": esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs. If these "deficiency needs" are not met – with the exception of the most fundamental (physiological) need – there may not be a physical indication, but the individual will feel anxious and tense. Maslow's theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire (or focus motivation upon) the secondary or higher level needs. Maslow also coined the term "metamotivation" to describe the motivation of people who go beyond the scope of the basic needs and strive for constant betterment.[7]

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow used the terms "physiological", "safety", "belongingness" and "love", "esteem", "self-actualization", and "self-transcendence" to describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through. This is considered one of the most renowned models in psychology. It fits the quadrant model pattern
Square 1:Physiological needs are the physical requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met, the human body cannot function properly and will ultimately fail. Physiological needs are thought to be the most important; they should be met first.
Air, water, and food are metabolic requirements for survival in all animals, including humans. Clothing and shelter provide necessary protection from the elements. While maintaining an adequate birth rate shapes the intensity of the human sexual instinct, sexual competition may also shape said instinct. This is the sensation perception, response and awareness quadrant of the quadrant model of reality. This square is the sensation square
Square 2: Safety needs
With their physical needs relatively satisfied, the individual's safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior. In the absence of physical safety – due to war, natural disaster, family violence, childhood abuse, etc. – people may (re-)experience post-traumatic stress disorder or transgenerational trauma. In the absence of economic safety – due to economic crisis and lack of work opportunities – these safety needs manifest themselves in ways such as a preference for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, reasonable disability accommodations, etc. This level is more likely to be found in children because they generally have a greater need to feel safe.
Safety and Security needs include:
Personal security
Financial security
Health and well-being
Safety net against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts
The second square is homeostasis. This is the belief, faith behavior belonging square, or perception square of the quadrant model
Square:Love and belonging
After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third level of human needs is interpersonal and involves feelings of belongingness. This need is especially strong in childhood and can override the need for safety as witnessed in children who cling to abusive parents. Deficiencies within this level of Maslow's hierarchy – due to hospitalism, neglect, shunning, ostracism, etc. – can impact the individual's ability to form and maintain emotionally significant relationships in general, such as:
According to Maslow, humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance among their social groups, regardless whether these groups are large or small. For example, some large social groups may include clubs, co-workers, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, and gangs. Some examples of small social connections include family members, intimate partners, mentors, colleagues, and confidants. Humans need to love and be loved – both sexually and non-sexually – by others.[2] Many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression in the absence of this love or belonging element. This need for belonging may overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure.
The third quadrant of the quadrant model is rational interpersonal thinking emotion doing and dreaming. Here the person is beyond just belonging and feeling safe and now is doing things.
Square 4:Esteem
All humans have a need to feel respected; this includes the need to have self-esteem and self-respect. Esteem presents the typical human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People often engage in a profession or hobby to gain recognition. These activities give the person a sense of contribution or value. Low self-esteem or an inferiority complex may result from imbalances during this level in the hierarchy. People with low self-esteem often need respect from others; they may feel the need to seek fame or glory. However, fame or glory will not help the person to build their self-esteem until they accept who they are internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can hinder the person from obtaining a higher level of self-esteem or self-respect.
Most people have a need for stable self-respect and self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs: a "lower" version and a "higher" version. The "lower" version of esteem is the need for respect from others. This may include a need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention. The "higher" version manifests itself as the need for self-respect. For example, the person may have a need for strength, competence, mastery, self-confidence, independence, and freedom. This "higher" version takes precedence over the "lower" version because it relies on an inner competence established through experience. Deprivation of these needs may lead to an inferiority complex, weakness, and helplessness.
Maslow states that while he originally thought the needs of humans had strict guidelines, the "hierarchies are interrelated rather than sharply separated".[5] This means that esteem and the subsequent levels are not strictly separated; instead, the levels are closely related.
The fourth quadrant is the transpersonal consciousness. In Maslows model Maslow explicitly says that Esteem really is kind of an amalgamation of the previous three squares. He claimed that if the previous three squares are sufficient this helps to improve esteem. Esteem is also how you stack up in a social environment. In Wilber's model the fourth square is the social square. The fourth square always puts you in a larger context. The nature of the quadrant model is the fourth square is separate yet contains the previous three. Maslow's model reflects the quadrant model of reality
Square 5:Self-actualization
Main article: Self-actualization
"What a man can be, he must be." This quotation forms the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. This level of need refers to what a person's full potential is and the realization of that potential. Maslow describes this level as the desire to accomplish everything that one can, to become the most that one can be. Individuals may perceive or focus on this need very specifically. For example, one individual may have the strong desire to become an ideal parent. In another, the desire may be expressed athletically. For others, it may be expressed in paintings, pictures, or inventions.[12] As previously mentioned, Maslow believed that to understand this level of need, the person must not only achieve the previous needs, but master them.
The fifth square is being. Being is God in the quadrant model. Maslow specifically states that this square is being. Self esteem points to self actualization. Notice how the fourth indicates the nature of the fifth. That is the quadrant model nature revealed in the most acclaimed model in psychology history.

What is fascinating is that modern psychologists and philosophers developed personality models that parallel the ancient personality model system. All of these modles fit the quadrant model pattern. Examples of modern philosophers and psychologists who had four personality model systems are
Immanuel Kant (1724–1804), Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925), Alfred Adler (1879–1937), Erich Adickes (1866–1925), Eduard Spranger (1914), Ernst Kretschmer (1920), and Erich Fromm, and David Keirsey. Other models tha parallel the Myers Briggs personality system are socionics, and DisC. (1947). The models that they used employed different names, but they all took the quadrant model patern.
It is interesing to notice that these ancient philosophers believed that the biological qualities of a person influenced the persons personality. I discussed how this relates to the quadrant model of reality. In the quadrant model I described how the group that you belong, which is the second square, affects how you think, and your emotions, and what you do, which is your personality. Moreover, I described how biology, as the third square field of science and psychology, which is the fourth square field of science, are linked. These philosophers believed that biology and psychology were intricately related, and that biology shaped ones personality.
In the socionics model, the information elements of personality, sensing, intuition, thingking and feeling, are associated with what the model describes as the fundamental components of physics, space, time, matter and space.
Square 1: sensing and space. The first square has a quality of being like space. Space seems empty but it is actually filled with energy. The fourth square is energy. The fourth is separate, yet encompasses he previous three. Matter is full of energy. It is ineresing that idealists are always extremely entranced by the notion of space. They often describe how they need space, and the idea of open space and how they like to create an "open space for possibilities" and things like this.
Square 2: intution and time. The second square has a characteristic of being like time always. time is linked with organization. Time and music are often associated because music is sound in time. Recall that the second square is hearing. The first square is seeing and seeing is associated with space. It is interesting that guadinas are usually entranced by the notion of time.
Square 3: thinking and matter. The third square is linked with matter. Artisans are the third square temparement in the Keirsey model, and artisans are very phyiscal. They love to do things. Artisans like to do things where they manipulate objects. Objects are matter. I described how thinking, according to quantum physicists, does produce matter.
Square 4: feeling and energy. The fourth square always has a quality of being associated with energy. I described the four molecular compounds. The fourth was nucleic acids. ATP is an example of a nucleic acid, and ATP provides energy for the body. Recall in the model of the four elemens the fourth element is fire. Fire has a quality of being pure energy. Energy, as I described, encompasses space, time and matter. Space, time, matter, and energy, are described by physicists, as being saturated with energy. Physiciss say that even empty space is saturated with energy. It is important to note that physicists say that space and time are a duality. Einstein described space and time as a fabric. Einstein described them almost as the same thing. That is the nature of the first two squares. The first two squaes are a duality. This is like thought and emotion. Space and time are often seen as opposites like thought and emotion are often seen as opposites. But pschologists point out that the limbic system of the brain, associated with emotin, and the cortex of the brain, associated with thought, are intricately linked. Moreover, studies show that if a part of the brain is damaged that is associated with emotion, than the persons ability to think is jeapordized as well. Similarly, Einstein described space and time as being extremely tied together. People used to think that space and time are opposites. But Einstein said that they were part of the same fabric.
Hans Eyensck studied personality through factor analysis. He claims to have discovered that temparament is linked with biology, and that people are born with certain personality traits. It is ineresting that Hans Eyensck looks at models like the ancient temparement model, and the Kerisey temparement model, and he says that they are related to his findings on personality.
A very popular model among psychologists regarding personality is the Big 5 Personality Traits model. It is interesting that the model used to be the Big 4, but after further factor analysis, psychologoists came to the conclusion tha there is a fifth personality factor. An interesting thing though is, some psychologists note that the fifth personality factor is a little bit questionable. The fifth is always questionable if it even exists. The five factors of the Big 5 fit the quadrant model pattern. They are
Square 1: Openness to experience. People are either inventive and curious, or consistent and cautious. The first square is the mind square. Openness has to do with curiosity. Idealists, the first quadrant temparement are very curious. The idea of openness has a connotation about i of being linked with the mental. The first square is very mental. Openness has the quality of being intellectual, and it relates to an appreciation for novelty. Idealists are very into the bizarre and the strange. Like I described, idealists are very spiritual. Idealists like to read science fiction, are do things like meditation. Idealists love nature and may be more likely to believe in supernatural things like levitation. Recall that idealists are sensers and perceivers. They sense things. When you sense something you do not quite have a handle on it completely. Idealists have the tendency to not be extremely rational, and they can get carried away and have a hard time distinguishing the impossible from he possible. An example of this, is an idealist will be more likkely to experience something like having put something in one spot, and later seeing it in another spot, as this having a supernatural force lieing behind it.

The emotional intelligence chart is what psychologists use to determine emotional intelligence. It is based on a quadrant with two dyads. What I observe v. What I do, and Personal competence v. social competence. The four squares are
What I observe and personal competence- self awareness
What I do and personal competence- self management
Social competence and what I observe- social awareness
What I do and social competence- relationship management

The fourth is different. Originally there were three


Parenting Typology[edit]

Diana Baumrind is a researcher who focused on the classification of parenting styles. Baumrind’s research is known as “Baumrind’s Parenting Typology”. In her research, she found what she considered to be the four basic elements that could help shape successful parenting: responsiveness vs. unresponsiveness and demanding vs. undemanding.[23] Through her studies Baumrind identified three initial parenting styles: Authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting and permissive parenting. Maccoby and Martin expanded upon Baumrind’s three original parenting styles by placing parenting styles into two distinct categories: demanding and undemanding.[24] With these distinctions, four new parenting styles were defined:


The Four boxes test is a computer-based test used to measure reaction times. In the test, a black circle appears in one of four boxes on the screen, and the patient presses the corresponding key on the keyboard as quickly as possible. The next circle appears after 500 ms, until 52 circles have been exposed. The computer measures the time the subject takes to complete the test and the number of errors they make.[1]

The test has been used to measure long-term cognitive dysfunction in elderly people who have undergone an operation.[2] When subjects had undergone anesthesia with different drugs, and were then tested using the Stroop Colour and Word Interference Test, the Digit symbol substitution test and the Four Boxes test, recovery times varied both by anesthetic and by type of test.[3] Other studies have shown that there is an association between Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and impaired performance in the four boxes test, but that the test is not a good predictor of POCD.[4]


16 Genetic Personality Types

The 16 Geniuses —

Sixteen Genetic Personality Types

New Groundbreaking Discoveries

That Will Change Psychology Forever

NOW AVAILABLE: Book excerpts from Bob Cooley's upcoming book...

The 16 Geniuses — Sixteen Genetic Personality Types

...learn more at

16 Genetic Personality Types

What type are you?

How can you acquire a confirmation of what type you are? There is only one authoritative organization for GPT typing: The GPT Foundation in Boston, MA founded and presided by Bob Cooley. Bob Cooley's second book The 16 Geniuses — Sixteen Genetic Personality Types will be released soon.

Soon you will be able to click on “What type am I” and then be filmed for 15 minutes while being interviewed. Four faculty of the GPT Foundation will review the film and confirm your type. You will then be sent via email information on your type and your balancing type.

The 16 GPT Types

A New Psychology — Based on Types

The 16 Genetic Personality Types (GPT) Theory is a new psychology based on types. What has been discovered and presented on types breaks the code on human psychology. This new psychology is based on the principles of concomitance, balance, equivalence, and reflection. The hallmark of this new system is the groundbreaking discovery of defining the type of unconscious for each type. This 16 Type System is not the same as anything previously identified in Astrology, Myers Briggs, the Ennegram, Chinese Medicine, nor any other current system, though many sources were ultimately used to help develop this psychology of types after my initial discovery of types while Resistance Stretching. But no western, eastern, northern, nor southern theories have ever existed that identify humans as genetic types nor that there were sixteen. What theories do you have about types?

Every culture, nationality, and religion can also be understood as forming from a type. This philosophy on types is so grand in its applications that it instantly expands consciousness.

Knowing types is still mostly lost

in the large overwhelming mix of life, slippery to most,

yet obvious once you know that types exist.

Knowing types is a master key for knowing yourself and others.

Types = Geniuses

Each of the 16 types has innate traits, qualities, and characteristics totally differentiable and unique from all the other types. Each type's exceptional abilities, spirit, and talents are genius, and capable of giving each person a global perspective and recognition. Everyone knows there are types of trees, but do not yet know there are types of people. Each type epitomizes a different historical archetype, and typifies a distinctive lifestyle. The type is part of the essence, the core of the person, a psychological blueprint for life. All types are equal, none being better or worse than another. When you are the same type as another person you both share identical qualities and behaviors while not having primarily the pervasive traits and behaviors of other types, and yet both of you are very different unique individuals. No one is not a type, and everyone is but one of the 16 types. What type of person are you?


When you first recognize another person, not just for who they are but also as a type, they feel validated. Then biases about them surprisingly begin to disappear, and then you and the person that you typed change forever. First impressions often allow you to associate someone new with someone you have known in the past. When the new person and a previous person's behaviors replicate each other almost identically, then they are probably the same type.

Types are visible in the sense that each type displays characteristic behaviors. But types are invisible in the sense that each type has the other half of themselves occurring inside themselves, so you will have to go inside yourself and others to know the type, and not simply think you can know a type by seeing them from the outside.

Soon it will become self-evident what type everyone is. Typing will become ubiquitous. How many people do you know that might be the same type as you?

High and Low Personality Traits of the 16 Types

Each type has what can be best described as innate, distinctive, pervasive, and salient personality behavioral characteristics or qualities unique to their type. The pervasiveness of each type's characteristic high and low traits overshadows the appearance of those same traits in all other types, and differentiates them from all the other types. Each type is a natural authority on their traits, always being the most reliable source on their traits. These high and low traits are also called positive and negative traits, or the light and dark sides of the types. These traits are inalienable, incontrovertible, predilections, predictable, enduring, perquisite, and undeniable. These traits are hardwired within each type while the traits of other types can be learned and are like software programs that are added to the hard drive.

Each type's highly specific traits are a 24/7 affair, quotidian behaviors impossible not to occur, privileges for being that type. These traits are a freebie or bonus for being born a type. Each type's traits can be understood as natural inborn gifts, and are how they display their unique genius. Everyone can learn those high traits associated with other types, but can never match the potential development of those traits by the type that is known for those traits. They give each type an advantage over the other types as well being a contribution to the human mix. Sometimes people are born with the high traits of other types as additional gifts added to their own type's innate characteristic traits.

Some of the positive personality traits of the types include being honest, sober, empathetic, athletic, communicative, ethical, and so on while some of the negative traits include lying, depression, lust, addiction, brainwashing, etc. Everyone is a natural authority on the traits inherently concomitant with their type. When anyone develops the high traits of a type, the low traits simultaneously dismantle naturally. When you know the high traits, you can reroute yourself to be that way and stay that way permanently. Positive or negative life events can facilitate the development of high traits.

A common unspoken assumption of type's traits is that everyone really knows what the words for these high and low traits really mean, when usually only the type associated with these traits is capable of expounding endlessly on them because they are the natural authority on those specific qualities. For example, whom do you go to learn how to be radically honest, naturally sobering, or worldly empathetic, and whom do you go to learn how to dismantle habitual lying, chronic depression, or obsessive lust? Who knows what? There is only one place to go to answer all these types of questions — to people who are the types that are born with these traits. Go to the type that knows what you need to learn. What are the things that you need to know about the most, and what types of people do you know who would know about those things?

½+ — The Myths of Perceiving Reality and the Role of the Unconscious

A person initially only sees half of the pixels as they look at the world. The entire other half of reality can only be seen when the unconscious part of them is in full operation. Access to this second half is the balancing part of a person and sees the world in the way the balancing type sees the world.

It is like each GPT sees the world made up of 16 different colored pixels, and they only see one of the sixteen pixels distinctly and with muted clarity 7 others, and the balancing 8 only when they learn to become more conscious of what they are naturally not conscious of. Upon a person seeing all 16 pixels is the world revealed.…/16-genetic-persona…


The Rashomon effect is a term used to describe the circumstance when the same event is given contradictory interpretations by different individuals involved. The term derives from Akira Kurosawa's 1950 film Rashomon, in which a murder involving four individuals (suspects, witnesses, and surviving victims) is described in four mutually contradictory ways. More broadly, the term addresses the motivations, mechanism, and occurrences of the reporting on the circumstance, and so addresses contested interpretations of events, the existence of disagreements regarding the evidence of events, and the subjects of subjectivity versus objectivity in human perception, memory, and reporting.

Contents [hide]

1 Origin and definition

2 History

3 See also

4 References

Origin and definition[edit]

The title term is named for Akira Kurosawa's 1950 film Rashomon, in which a murder involving four individuals (suspects, witnesses, and surviving victims) is described in four mutually contradictory ways.[1][better source needed]


In Life's Other Secret (1999), Ian Stewart suggests the ubiquitous swastika pattern arises when parallel waves of neural activity sweep across the visual cortex during states of altered consciousness, producing a swirling swastika-like image, due to the way quadrants in the field of vision are mapped to opposite areas in the brain


Jung identified four fundamental psychological functions: thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition. Each function may be experienced in an introverted or an extraverted fashion. Generally, one of the functions is more conscious, developed, and dominant. Jung called this the superior function. It operates out of the dominant attitude (either extraversion or introversion). One of the other three remaining functions is generally deep in the unconscious and less developed. Jung called this the inferior function.


The term Schizophrenia , as many of the readers will recall, was coined by Eugen Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist , who intended the ‘split personality’ to reflect the fact that there was an underlying dissociation between various functions like memory, cognition, emotion that are normally integrated in normal people.

He also gave the famous 4 a’s that he presumed lied at the core of the schizophrenia and were fundamental aspects of the disorder.

To recall:

‘affect’: Inappropriate or flattened affect-emotions in-congruent to circumstances/situation.

‘autism’: social withdrawal- preferring to live in a fantasy world rather than interact with social world appropriately.

‘ambivalence’ : holding of conflicting attitudes and emotions towards others and self; lack of motivation and depersonalization.

‘associations’ : loosening of thought associations leading to word salad/ flight of ideas/ thought disorder.

Bleuler maintained that these distinctive and fundamental features identified and formed the core of Schizophrenia while the manifest symptoms like hallucinations and delusions (first rank symptoms as per Schneider) were peripheral and not that important).

The readers of this blog will also be familiar with the ABCD model of psychology where Affect, Behavior (social aspects), Cognition and Desire (motivation/ dynamics) are the four fundamental domains; it is easy to see how the four a’s of Bleuler map to the 4 domains of psychology and it seems that schizophrenics have major troubles in each domain:

affect: this directly maps to Affect dimension and inappropriate affect is a major core part of the syndrome.

autism: though named somewhat incorrectly the intent of autism was to catch the behavioral and social impediments of the schizophrenics.

ambivalence: here there are conflicts and ambiguities regarding what one desires; for self and for others; lack of motivation/conflicted motivation is significant at this dimension.

associations: here the cognitive underpinnings are all too evident- the thought disorganization and flight of ideas is all too cognitive in nature.

It is amazing how the insights of Bleuler from a century before lend themselves so easily to fit the ABCD framework. What do you think, a bit stretched? or have I started making loose associations myself :-) ?


Four-Quadrant Model of Emotional Intelligence Personal CompetenceThese competencies determine how we manage ourselves Self-AwarenessKnowing one's internal states, preferences, resources, and intuitionso Emotional awareness: Recognizing one's emotions and their effectso Accurate self-assessment: Knowing one's strengths and limitso Personal power: A strong sense of one's self-worth and capabilities; self confidence Self-ManagementManaging ones' internal states, impulses, and resourceso Behavioral self-control: Keeping disruptive emotions in check; impulse control o Integrity: Maintaining high standards of honesty and ethics at all timeso Innovation & creativity: Actively pursuing new approaches and ideaso Initiative & bias for action: Readiness to act on opportunitieso Achievement drive: Striving to meet a standard of excellenceo Realistic optimism: Expecting success; seeing setbacks as manageable; persisting inachieving goals despite obstacles and setbacks.o Resilience: Perseverance and diligence in the face of setbackso Stress management: Working calmly under stress and pressureo Personal agility: Readily, willingly, rapidly and effectively anticipating and adapting to change o Intentionality: Thinking and acting “on purpose” and deliberately.Social CompetenceThese competencies determine how we handle relationships Social Awareness – Other Awareness Awareness of others feelings, needs, and concernso Empathy: Sensing others' feelings and perspectives, and taking an active interest in their concernso Situational awareness: Reading a group's emotional currents and power relationships; being able to “size up” a situation and plan an appropriate responseo Service ethic: Anticipating, recognizing, and meeting customers' needs Social Skills – Relationship Management Adeptness at inducing desirable responses in otherso Communication: Listening attentively and fostering open dialogueo Interpersonal effectiveness: Possessing diplomacy, tact and interpersonal skills, andknowing how to use them to ease transactions and relationships with others; the ability to relatewell and build rapport with all peopleo Powerful influencing skills: Wielding effective tactics for persuasiono Conflict management: Negotiating and resolving disagreementso Inspirational leadership: Motivating, guiding and mobilizing individuals and groups;articulating a clear, compelling and motivating vision for the futureo Catalyzing change: Initiating, managing and leading changeo Building bonds: Nurturing and maintaining relationships, cultivating a wide network;connecting with others on a deeper rather than superficial level.o Teamwork & collaboration: Working with others toward shared goals. Creating group synergyin pursuit of collective goals.o Coaching & mentoring others: Identifying others' development needs and bolstering theirabilitieso Building trust: Being trustworthy and ethical when working and relating to others; ability toestablish a bond of trust with others. If you all only knew what i had to go through.


The 20 question test you just completed was designed to figure out which of the 4 personalities you fell into. The test questions were created to look for 2 variables. Are you more…

Open or Closed?

Direct or Indirect?

The axis of the graph creates the 4 quadrants that contain the 4 personalities. Because Hippocrates’ Latin names are kinda hard to remember, people have come up more easy-to-understand modern names to help characterize the 4 personalities, and for our test we will use the following names:





OI relator

CI thinker

Od socializer

Cd director



Core self-evaluations (CSE) represent a stable personality trait which encompasses an individual's subconscious, fundamental evaluations about themselves, their own abilities and their own control. People who have high core self-evaluations will think positively of themselves and be confident in their own abilities. Conversely, people with low core self-evaluations will have a negative appraisal of themselves and will lack confidence. The concept of core self-evaluations was first examined by Judge, Locke, and Durham (1997)[1] and involves four personality dimensions: locus of control, neuroticism, generalized self-efficacy, and self-esteem. The trait developed as a dispositional predictor of job satisfaction, but has expanded to predict a variety of other outcomes. Core self-evaluations are particularly important because they represent a personality trait which will remain consistent over time. Furthermore, the way in which people appraise themselves using core self-evaluations has the ability to predict positive work outcomes, specifically, job satisfaction and job performance. These relationships have inspired increasing amounts of research on core self-evaluations and suggest valuable implications about the importance this trait may have for organizations.


Quadrant Model of Reality

Definitions of the four dimensions[edit]

Locus of control[edit]

The locus of control construct indicates a tendency for individuals to attribute life's events to their own doing or to outside forces beyond their control. There are two basic classifications of locus of control: internals and externals. Internals believe they control their own environment whereas externals believe outside forces control their lives.[2] Those with an internal locus of control are more likely to be satisfied with their job and life because they believe in their own control over the situation.[3]


Neuroticism, also a Big Five personality trait, is defined as an enduring tendency to experience unpleasant emotions (e.g., anger, anxiety, depression) easily. Those high in neuroticism react more negatively to stress, are prone to anxiety, and susceptible to feelings of helplessness.[4] Neuroticism, when examined as part of core self-evaluations, is conceptualized as its opposite, emotional stability (i.e., non-neuroticism).[3] In fact, because neuroticism and emotional stability are simply labels for two sides of the same trait, they are often used interchangeably in literature.[5]

Generalized self-efficacy[edit]

Generalized self-efficacy, adapted from Albert Bandura's original definition of self-efficacy,[6] is defined as an individual's estimate of his or her own ability to perform well and handle a variety of situations.[1] Although an individual can differ in levels of self-efficacy across different domains, generalized self-efficacy is the global estimate of ability across a wide range of situations, and can be considered a stable trait.[1] Individuals high in generalized self-efficacy are more likely to take on new tasks that allow for growth in their ability and are more persistent than those low in generalized self-efficacy.


Self-esteem reflects a person's overall appraisal of his or her own worth.[7] Self-esteem may, in fact, be one of the most essential core self-evaluation domains because it is the overall value one places on oneself as a person.[


Bandura identifies four factors affecting self-efficacy.

1. Experience, or "Enactive Attainment"

The experience of mastery is the most important factor determining a person's self-efficacy. Success raises self-efficacy, while failure lowers it.

"Children cannot be fooled by empty praise and condescending encouragement. They may have to accept artificial bolstering of their self-esteem in lieu of something better, but what I call their accruing ego identity gains real strength only from wholehearted and consistent recognition of real accomplishment, that is, achievement that has meaning in their culture." (Erik Erikson)

2. Modeling, or "Vicarious Experience"

Modeling is experienced as, "If they can do it, I can do it as well." When we see someone succeeding, our own self-efficacy increases; where we see people failing, our self-efficacy decreases. This process is most effectual when we see ourselves as similar to the model. Although not as influential as direct experience, modeling is particularly useful for people who are particularly unsure of themselves.

3. Social Persuasion

Social persuasion generally manifests as direct encouragement or discouragement from another person. Discouragement is generally more effective at decreasing a person's self-efficacy than encouragement is at increasing it.

4. Physiological Factors

In stressful situations, people commonly exhibit signs of distress: shakes, aches and pains, fatigue, fear, nausea, etc. Perceptions of these responses in oneself can markedly alter self-efficacy. Getting 'butterflies in the stomach' before public speaking will be interpreted by someone with low self-efficacy as a sign of inability, thus decreasing self-efficacy further, where high self-efficacy would lead to interpreting such physiological signs as normal and unrelated to ability. It is one's belief in the implications of physiological response that alters self-efficacy, rather than the physiological response itself.


The Four-C Model of Creativity

Created with Dr. Ron Beghetto.

The Four-C Model of Creativity looks at creativity as a developmental process.

Most conceptions of creativity tend to take one of two approaches: Big-C and little-c.

Big-C is creative genius. When you think of a classical composer, you probably think of Mozart, Beethoven, Chopin, or someone similar. They are all at the Big-C level.

little-c is everyday creativity. It is the creativity inherent in everyday life. It might be someone who writes music for fun.

What Ron and I argue is that this basic distinction omits two key levels:

mini-c is the creativity that happens in the learning process. It could be a child learning to write a song.

Pro-c is expert-level creativity. It might be someone who’s composed music that is currently popular.

The life of a creative writer, for example, might progress through these stages as follows:

At a young age, Sally learns about writing poetry and tries many different forms. She writes a sonnet, a Haiku, and free verse. These poems may not be particularly good, but they are meaningful to her. This is mini c.

As she advances, she gets better. Maybe she reads some poetry at a coffee house and gets some poems published in her college literary magazine. Other people see some value in her poetry. This is little-c (we sometimes call this “county fair creativity”).

Sally keeps improving. She gets an MFA and teaches poetry at a liberal arts college. She regularly publishes her work in respected journals. This is Pro-c.

If she is very talented and very lucky, Sally may eventually be considered a truly great poet. Even after she has died, her writing may be studied and enjoyed by generations to come. This is Big-C.

All of us have mini-c, and most of us can reach little-c. Many of us can attain Pro-c with enough work and training. Few of us will reach Big-C – which is okay. All levels and types of creativity are valuable.


Thomas Moore and Douglas Gillette adopted and extended Jung’s approach in their exploration of the masculine psyche by using the collective archetypes of the King, the Warrior, the Magician, and the Lover. Obviously those four male archetypes can be translated and mapped in female clusters of virtues, specific attributes associated with four major female archetypes: the Queen, the Mother, the Wise Woman and the (female) Lover found in history and myths.

Toni Wolff, colleague and presumable lover of Carl Jung, identified four feminine archetypes: Mother, the Amazon, the Hetaira, and the Medial. Wolff at the first glance comes closer, but her model is a male-centered quadruple (male Anima structure) instead a male-female archetype symmetry: This is most evident in Wolff’s definition of the Amazon, who represents more a female in good contact with her Animus, furthermore the semi-divine Queen is missing, while her Hetaira is not quite a full lover.

Square 1: The Queen is the semi-divine leader responsible for the safety and well being. History and art have shown that every society must have not only a wise leader who is entrusted with guiding his people to success and comfort but navigate in unknown territory towards redemption. The responsibilities of the Queen are mainly on the unconscious side, but worldly benefits and virtues must be many as well. And if the Queen fails in her duties she is traditionally disposed and evil prevails. Her shadow sides are tyrant and weakling both disposing male energies.

Square 2: The Mother is like the Warrior today the most controversial of the archetypes, because of ideological former and current stereotypes. The two male (warrior) shadow sides are the Sadist and the Masochist. The Mother is a life giver who maintains humanity as the warrior clears the space for renewal and change. The prototype of the mother is, well – the mother. But there are shadows here too – the careless and the devouring mother.

Square 3: The Wise Woman, represents Logos according to Jung a feminine principle, is the archetype behind a multitude of professions like doctors, but also lawyers, teachers and priests. She sees the unseen. She is the prophetess, mediator and communicator of secret knowledge, the healer, counselor, teacher, and spiritual. The Wise Woman always has a tendency to abuse her power, being the negative , the witch.

Square 4: The Lover like the feminine principle Eros manifests energy and fertility of the nature. The gendering of Eros and Logos and synergy is a consequence of Jung’s anima/animus synergy. Lovers are at ease with our own deepest and most central values and visions. And only through union of the feminine and the masculine our culture and personality prospers and grows. The “me- society” of the impotent is sterile and without compassion and destroys any spiritual dimension.



The vertical dimension addresses the motivation for meaning making.

Agency is the drive to differentiate, to separate, to assert, to expand, to master and to create.

Communion is the drive to contact, to attach, to connect and to unite.

The horizontal dimension addresses the orientation or target of the meaningful action.


Self – internally focused on the individual.

Others – externally focused on other people, groups, societies or wider ideals.

This leads to four major pathways to meaningful work:


Individuation – actions that define and distinguish the self as valuable and worthy

Contribution – actions perceived as significant to or done in the service of others or something greater than the self

Self-connection – actions that bring the individual into closer alignment with the way they perceive themselves

Unification – actions that bring the individual into harmony with other beings or principles


The VARK Modalities

The acronym VARK stands for Visual, Aural, Read/write, and Kinesthetic sensory modalities that are used for learning information. Fleming and Mills (1992) suggested four modalities that seemed to reflect the experiences of the students and teachers. Although there is some overlap between them they are defined as follows. [For a detailed description of the initial construction and limitations of VARK, and for other works on learning styles, see the bibliography and the seminal article.]


Remember life (and work) are multimodal so there are no hard and fast boundaries.


Visual (V):

This preference includes the depiction of information in maps, spider diagrams, charts, graphs, flow charts, labelled diagrams, and all the symbolic arrows, circles, hierarchies and other devices, that people use to represent what could have been presented in words. This mode could have been called Graphic (G) as that better explains what it covers. It does NOT include still pictures or photographs of reality, movies, videos or PowerPoint. It does include designs, whitespace, patterns, shapes and the different formats that are used to highlight and convey information. When a whiteboard is used to draw a diagram with meaningful symbols for the relationship between different things that will be helpful for those with a Visual preference. It must be more than mere words in boxes that would be helpful to those who have a Read/write preference.


Aural / Auditory (A):

This perceptual mode describes a preference for information that is “heard or spoken.” Learners who have this as their main preference report that they learn best from lectures, group discussion, radio, email, using mobile phones, speaking, web-chat and talking things through. Email is included here because; although it is text and could be included in the Read/write category (below), it is often written in chat-style with abbreviations, colloquial terms, slang and non-formal language. The Aural preference includes talking out loud as well as talking to oneself. Often people with this preference want to sort things out by speaking first, rather than sorting out their ideas and then speaking. They may say again what has already been said, or ask an obvious and previously answered question. They have need to say it themselves and they learn through saying it – their way.


Read/write (R):

This preference is for information displayed as words. Not surprisingly, many teachers and students have a strong preference for this mode. Being able to write well and read widely are attributes sought by employers of graduates. This preference emphasizes text-based input and output – reading and writing in all its forms but especially manuals, reports, essays and assignments. People who prefer this modality are often addicted to PowerPoint, the Internet, lists, diaries, dictionaries, thesauri, quotations and words, words, words… Note that most PowerPoint presentations and the Internet, GOOGLE and Wikipedia are essentially suited to those with this preference as there is seldom an auditory channel or a presentation that uses Visual symbols.


Kinesthetic (K):

By definition, this modality refers to the “perceptual preference related to the use of experience and practice (simulated or real).” Although such an experience may invoke other modalities, the key is that people who prefer this mode are connected to reality, “either through concrete personal experiences, examples, practice or simulation” [See Fleming & Mills, 1992, pp. 140-141]. It includes demonstrations, simulations, videos and movies of “real” things, as well as case studies, practice and applications. The key is the reality or concrete nature of the example. If it can be grasped, held, tasted, or felt it will probably be included. People with this as a strong preference learn from the experience of doing something and they value their own background of experiences and less so, the experiences of others. It is possible to write or speak Kinesthetically if the topic is strongly based in reality. An assignment that requires the details of who will do what and when, is suited to those with this preference, as is a case study or a working example of what is intended or proposed.


What about Mixtures? Multimodality (MM):

Life is multimodal. There are seldom instances where one mode is used, or is sufficient, so that is why there is a four-part VARK profile. That is why the VARK questionnaire provides four scores and also why there are mixtures of those four modes. Those who do not have a standout mode with one preference score well above other scores, are defined as multimodal.


They are of two types. There are those who are flexible in their communication preferences and who switch from mode to mode depending on what they are working with. They are context specific. They choose a single mode to suit the occasion or situation. If they have to deal with legalities they will apply their Read/write preference. If they are to watch the demonstration of a technique they will be expressing their Kinesthetic preference. They are described as VARK Type One? in our database and they may have two, three or four almost-equal preferences in their VARK scores. There are others who are not satisfied until they have had input (or output) in all of their preferred modes. They take longer to gather information from each mode and, as a result, they often have a deeper and broader understanding. They may be seen as procrastinators or slow-deliverers but some may be merely gathering all the information before acting – and their decision making and learning may be better because of that breadth of understanding. They are described as VARK Type Two in our database.


David Kolb's model[edit]

David A. Kolb's model is based on his experiential learning model, as explained in his book Experiential Learning.[8] Kolb's model outlines two related approaches toward grasping experience: Concrete Experience and Abstract Conceptualization, as well as two related approaches toward transforming experience: Reflective Observation and Active Experimentation.[8]:145 According to Kolb's model, the ideal learning process engages all four of these modes in response to situational demands; they form a learning cycle from experience to observation to conceptualization to experimentation and back to experience. In order for learning to be effective, Kolb postulated, all four of these approaches must be incorporated. As individuals attempt to use all four approaches, they may tend to develop strengths in one experience-grasping approach and one experience-transforming approach, leading them to prefer one of the following four learning styles:[8]:127[9]


Accommodator = Concrete Experience + Active Experiment: strong in "hands-on" practical doing (e.g., physical therapists)

Converger = Abstract Conceptualization + Active Experiment: strong in practical "hands-on" application of theories (e.g., engineers)

Diverger = Concrete Experience + Reflective Observation: strong in imaginative ability and discussion (e.g., social workers)

Assimilator = Abstract Conceptualization + Reflective Observation: strong in inductive reasoning and creation of theories (e.g., philosophers)

Kolb's model gave rise to the Learning Style Inventory, an assessment method used to determine an individual's learning style. According to this model, individuals may exhibit a preference for one of the four styles — Accommodating, Converging, Diverging and Assimilating — depending on their approach to learning in Kolb's experiential learning model.[8]


Although Kolb's model is widely accepted with substantial empirical support and has been revised over the years, a 2013 study suggests that the Learning Style Inventory still "possesses serious weaknesses".[10]:44



Peter Honey and Alan Mumford's model[edit]

Peter Honey and Alan Mumford adapted Kolb's experiential learning model. First, they renamed the stages in the learning cycle to accord with managerial experiences: having an experience, reviewing the experience, concluding from the experience, and planning the next steps.[11]:121–122 Second, they aligned these stages to four learning styles named:[11]:122–124






These four learning styles are assumed to be acquired preferences that are adaptable, either at will or through changed circumstances, rather than being fixed personality characteristics. Honey and Mumford's Learning Styles Questionnaire (LSQ)[12] is a self-development tool and differs from Kolb's Learning Style Inventory by inviting managers to complete a checklist of work-related behaviours without directly asking managers how they learn. Having completed the self-assessment, managers are encouraged to focus on strengthening underutilised styles in order to become better equipped to learn from a wide range of everyday experiences.


A MORI survey commissioned by The Campaign for Learning in 1999 found the Honey and Mumford LSQ to be the most widely used system for assessing preferred learning styles in the local government sector in the UK.[citation needed]



Neil Fleming's VAK/VARK model[edit]

Neil Fleming's VARK model[19] expanded upon earlier notions of sensory modalities such as the VAK model of Barbe and colleagues[13] and the representational systems (VAKOG) in neuro-linguistic programming.[20] The four sensory modalities in Fleming's model are:[21]


Visual learning

Auditory learning

Read/write learning

Kinesthetic learning

Fleming claimed that visual learners have a preference for seeing (visual aids that represent ideas using methods other than words, such as graphs, charts, diagrams, symbols, etc.). Subsequent neuroimaging research has suggested that visual learners convert words into images in the brain and vice versa,[22] but some psychologists have argued that this "is not an instance of learning styles, rather, it is an instance of ability appearing as a style".[2]:268 Likewise, Fleming claimed that auditory learners best learn through listening (lectures, discussions, tapes, etc.), and tactile/kinesthetic learners prefer to learn via experience—moving, touching, and doing (active exploration of the world, science projects, experiments, etc.). Students can use the model to identify their preferred learning style and, it is claimed, maximize their learning by focusing on the mode that benefits them the most. Fleming's model also posits two types of multimodality.[21]



Anthony Gregorc's model[edit]

Anthony Gregorc and Kathleen Butler organized a model describing different learning styles rooted in the way individuals acquire and process information differently.[23] This model posits that an individual's perceptual abilities are the foundation of his or her specific learning strengths, or learning styles.[24]


In this model, there are two perceptual qualities: concrete and abstract, and two ordering abilities: random and sequential.[24] Concrete perceptions involve registering information through the five senses, while abstract perceptions involve the understanding of ideas, qualities, and concepts which cannot be seen. In regard to the two ordering abilities, sequential ordering involves the organization of information in a linear, logical way, and random ordering involves the organization of information in chunks and in no specific order.[24] The model posits that both of the perceptual qualities and both of the ordering abilities are present in each individual, but some qualities and ordering abilities are more dominant within certain individuals.[24]


There are four combinations of perceptual qualities and ordering abilities based on dominance: concrete sequential, abstract random, abstract sequential, and concrete random. The model posits that individuals with different combinations learn in different ways—they have different strengths, different things make sense to them, different things are difficult for them, and they ask different questions throughout the learning process.[24]


The validity of Gregorc's model has been questioned by Thomas Reio and Albert Wiswell following experimental trials.[25] Gregorc argues that his critics have "scientifically-limited views" and that they wrongly repudiate the "mystical elements" of "the spirit" that can only be discerned by a "subtle human instrument".[26]



V. Mark Durand and David H. Barlow (2009). Essentials of Abnormal Psychology. Cengage Learning. pp. 74–75. ISBN 978-0-495-59982-1. Note: A patient who can additionally describe the current situation may be referred to as "oriented times four".

Jump up ^

In medicine, consciousness is examined using a set of procedures known as neuropsychological assessment.[84] There are two commonly used methods for assessing the level of consciousness of a patient: a simple procedure that requires minimal training, and a more complex procedure that requires substantial expertise. The simple procedure begins by asking whether the patient is able to move and react to physical stimuli. If so, the next question is whether the patient can respond in a meaningful way to questions and commands. If so, the patient is asked for name, current location, and current day and time. A patient who can answer all of these questions is said to be "alert and oriented times four" (sometimes denoted "A&Ox4" on a medical chart), and is usually considered fully conscious.[150]

William James is considered the Father of Psychology
James further divided the "Me" part of self into: the material self, the social self, and the spiritual self, as below.[53]

Material self[edit]
The material self consists of things that belong to a person or entities that a person belongs to. Thus, things like the body, family, clothes, money, and such make up the material self.[52] For James, the core of the material self was the body.[54] Second to the body, James felt a person's clothes were important to the material self. He believed a person's clothes were one way they expressed who they felt they were; or clothes were a way to show status, thus contributing to forming and maintaining one's self-image.[54] Money and family are critical parts of the material self. James felt that if one lost a family member, a part of who they are was lost also. Money figured in one's material self in a similar way. If once a person had significant money then lost it, who they were as a person changed as well.[54]

Social self[edit]
Our social selves are who we are in a given social situation. For James, people change how they act depending on the social situation that they are in. James believed that people had as many social selves as they did social situations they participated in.[54] For example, a person may act in a different way at work when compared to how that same person may act when they are out with a group of friends. James also believed that in a given social group, an individual's social self may be divided even further.[54] An example of this would be, in the social context of an individual's work environment, the difference in behavior when that individual is interacting with their boss versus their behavior when interacting with a co-worker.

Spiritual self[edit]
For James, the spiritual self was who we are at our core. The spiritual self is more concrete or permanent than the other two selves. The spiritual self is our subjective and most intimate self. Aspects of an individual's spiritual self include things like their personality, core values, and conscience that do not typically change throughout their lifetime. The spiritual self involves introspection, or looking inward to deeper spiritual, moral, or intellectual questions without the influence of objective thoughts.[54] For James, achieving a high level of understanding of who we are at our core, or understanding our spiritual selves is more rewarding than satisfying the needs of the social and material selves.

Pure ego[edit]
The pure ego is what James refers to as the "I" self. For James, the pure ego is what provides the thread of continuity between our past, present, and future selves. The pure ego's perception of consistent individual identity arises from a continual stream of consciousness.[55] James believed that the pure ego was similar to what we think of as the soul, or the mind. The pure ego was not a substance and therefore could not be examined by science.[52]

William James is called "The Father of Psychology"…/Hypostatic_model_of_personality
In his Principles of Psychology,[13] William James describes four aspects of the self:

material self (the body and the person's closest possessions and relatives, including the family);
social self (the being-for-others);
spiritual self (the person's inner and subjective being, her psychic faculties and dispositions, taken concretely);
the "pure" ego (the bare principle of personal unity).

According to the hypostatic model, human personality consists of four components or hypostases, which are patterns of behavior related to specific systems in the brain, and are conceptualized by virtually every culture as being characteristic and/or essential to humans:[36][37][38]


the basic cognitive component – "Homo Sapiens" (the intelligent person), which is in connection with sensory areas of the cerebral cortex;

the verbal subsystem – "Homo Loquens" (the speaking, communicating, and [self-]controlling person), which is connected with the activities of association areas;

the emotional and motivational subsystem – "Homo Potens" (the powerful and energetic person), which is correlated with the activity of the limbic system;

the pragmatic (motor) component – "Homo faber" (the productive and industrious person), which is linked to motor cortex activity.

These dimensions correspond to the following types of mental operations:[42]

cognitive operations – production and verbalization of images and thoughts;

practical operations, pertaining to executive functions;

affective operations – affective evaluation of the world and self;

expressive operations (emotional expression);

regulative operations – verbalization of needs, motives and feelings, and self-control;

perceptual–motor adaptive operations (e.g., eye–hand coordination).

In every specific task of daily life, one of the first four dimensions (cognitive, practical, affective, or expressive) is dominant, being at the center of the experience, whereas the other three are subordinated to it. Regulative and adaptive dimensions are constantly acting as a background throughout the behavioral process.[43]

Relational therapy[edit]

Relational (or direct relations) therapy (RT) is a method of psychotherapy aimed at changing the relations between the four dimensions of doing – thinking, acting, feeling, and expressing, both within the person and in her relationships.[96][97][98][99]



Intrapersonal relations

According to the model, intrapersonal relations can be:[56][57]


direct (adjusted) relations (cognitive decision followed by practical action: "I decided that's better for me to leave my boyfriend, and I told him that", or affective decision followed by expressive action: "I love my girlfriend, so I'm always gentle with her");

crossed (unadjusted) relations (cognitive decision followed by expressive action: "Today I decided that it's better for me to break up with my girlfriend, and I'll behave so that she will leave me", or affective decision followed by practical action: "We love each other; that's why we are moving in together").


Interpersonal relations

Interpersonal relations can also be:[56][58]


direct (cognitive reaction to another persons's practical action: "My girlfriend wants to make up with me, and I agree, because that's better for both of us", or affective reaction to the other's expressive action: "She loves me, I can feel it in her eyes");

crossed (affective reaction to other's practical action: "My partner wants to buy me a house, and therefore I assume he/she loves me", or cognitive reaction to an expressive action of another person: "He is giving me a bitter look, and I'm wondering what is wrong?").[59]

The locus of a relational disorder "is on the relationship rather than on any one individual in the relationship."[60]

Bandura's social cognitive learning theory states that there are four stages involved in observational learning:[8]


Attention: Observers cannot learn unless they pay attention to what's happening around them. This process is influenced by characteristics of the model, such as how much one likes or identifies with the model, and by characteristics of the observer, such as the observer's expectations or level of emotional arousal.

Retention/Memory: Observers must not only recognize the observed behavior but also remember it at some later time. This process depends on the observer's ability to code or structure the information in an easily remembered form or to mentally or physically rehearse the model's actions.

Initiation/Motor: Observers must be physically and/intellectually capable of producing the act. In many cases the observer possesses the necessary responses. But sometimes, reproducing the model's actions may involve skills the observer has not yet acquired. It is one thing to carefully watch a circus juggler, but it is quite another to go home and repeat those acts.

Motivation: Coaches also give pep talks, recognizing the importance of motivational processes to learning.

Nevetheless, when making this claim, Aristotle speaks about four kinds of motion and change only—those in substance, in quality, in quantity and in place—whereas the number of the kinds of being should have remained ten.


Indeed, the Physics will later submit its own list of categories. That list is slightly reduced—it has seven or eight elements, depending on whether we include or exclude time.[8] The reduced list also concludes with the claim that there are three kinds of motion, plus the additional kind of substantial change.[9] That is to say, even where Aristotle enumerates a fairly complete list of categories, he will not have motions in every one of these categories, and he is not content to include motions in the categories of action and passion.[10] But this is a context where Aristotle stresses another issue: he is not interested in assigning a separate ontological niche for motions—regardless of whether that might or might not have been a feasible task within the categorization of entities. Here Aristotle is more intent on characterizing the ontological links which motions have to entities falling into different categories, and to find a general matrix of undergoing and effecting change. This happens in several steps. First Aristotle claims that changes of relations are not changes in their own right; rather they are accidental, as they occur also in entities in which no change occurs at all, if the entity which they stand in relation to undergoes some change.[11] After these considerations the crucial two categories of action and passion are eliminated: As there are no motions of motions, we can set aside action and passion (items (7) and (8) in the Categories).[12] This leaves us with the shorter list of relevant categories, (1) substance, (2) quality, (3) quantity, and (4) place.[13]


Within the four domains where genuine change can occur, change always requires the existence of a potentiality which can be actualised. But change is neither identical to this potentiality, nor to the lack of a property, nor, without further qualifications, to the actuality which is acquired when the potentiality is actualised (Physics 3.2, 201b33–35). It is a special kind of actuality, the actuality of the potential in so far as it is potential (Physics 3.2, 201a27–29). Aristotle's formulation strongly suggests that the potentiality actualised in the process of change is not a separate and independent potentiality for motion, alongside the entity's potentiality for harbouring the end-state of the process: the process, say, house-building, and the end result, the house, are different actualisations of the same potentiality of a set of materials that is buildable into a house. Not only would Aristotle's definition be uninformative and circular otherwise, amounting to the tautologous claim that change is the actualisation of the capacity for change, the further qualification in the definition, that change is the actuality of the potential in so far as it is potential, would be completely idle. This further restriction is meant to select among the different types of the realisations of the same potentialities.[14] As Aristotle stresses these are the incomplete actualities belonging to these potentialities, because what is actualised in a process of realisation is an incomplete potentiality only (Physics 3.2, 201b32–33). Accordingly, potentialities of change are readmitted into the ontology. They, nevertheless, do not feature as potentialities in their own right, but as the incomplete variants of the fundamental potentiality for an end result.[15]

In Aristotle's Physics he discusses motion. He says motion is the passage of matter into form. He states there are four kinds of motion. They are
Square 1: motion which affects the substance of a thing, particularly its beginning and its ending
Square 2: motion which brings about changes in quality
Square 3: motion which brings about changes in quantity, by increasing it and decreasing it
Square 4: motion which brings about locomotion, or change of place. Of these the last is the most fundamental and important.

Erich Fromm was famous for his theory on character orientation. Erich Fromm's character orientations fit the quadrant model pattern. They are

Square 1:Receptive Orientation. People with this orientation receive satisfaction from outside factors, and thus they passively wait for others to provide them with things that they need. For example, they want someone to provide them with love and attention. They do not give these things away and lose loved ones who are close to them because they do not talk about their feelings or troubles. They do not let go of past issues, often trivial, and create a feeling of a secure present and future. They see minor, innocent things as a threat to their security with a spouse or loved one. They have a lack of creativity.

Square 2:Hoarding Orientation. These people save what they get, including their opinions, feelings, and material possessions.It may be love, power, or someone’s time.

Square 3: Exploitative Orientation Exploitative-oriented people aggressively take what they want because they do not want to passively receiving it. They get what they want by any means necessary, even by stealing or snatching.

Square 4:Marketing Orientation- They see themselves as commodities and value themselves against the criterion of their ability to sell themselves.[2] They have less positive qualities than the other orientations and are basically empty.

Kretschmer was the first person to divide schizophrenia and manic depression. He divided people into four character styles. They were

Square 1:hyperesthetic (sensitive)- schizoid

Square 2: depressive (melancholic)- cycloid

Square 3:hypomanic (gay) cycloid

Square 4: anesthetic (cold) schizoid

Adler is a famous psychologist who characterized the four mistaken goals in children. They fit the quadrant model pattern. They are

Square 1: Assumed Inadequacy- Children may mistakenly believe that there is no way to belong so they give up and assume they are inadequate at belonging.

Square 2: Undue attention- children may mistakenly feel the way to belong is to keep others busy with them.

Square 3: Revenge- Childen who don't feel that they belong are hurt, and if they do not know how to deal with the pain they retaliate and hurt back. Revenge is characteristic of the artisan.

Square 4: Misguided Power- Children may mistakenly think that to belong, they need to be controlling other or controlling a situation or showing others can't boss them around. This mistaken goal is characterized by the rational.

Dreikurs had a similar set of mistaken goals to Adler

My first year in college my Chemistry professor taught my chemistry class the four learning styles. David A. Kolb's model is centered on his experiential learning model. Kolb's model presents two related approaches toward grasping experience: Concrete Experience and Abstract Conceptualization. It also demonstrates two ways of transforming experience: Reflective Observation and Active Experimentation. By combining these dichotomies you get four learning approaches. The quadrant model pattern is revealed by the four learning approaches. They are

Square 1: Square 1: Assimilator = Abstract Conceptualization + Reflective Observation: strong in inductive reasoning and creation of theories (e.g., philosophers) The assimilator is related to the idealist, who is abstract, but cooperative, and thus not a doer.

Square 2: Square 2: Diverger -Concrete Experience and Reflective Observation: They are good at imaginative ability and discussion (e.g., social workers). The diverger is connected with the guardian, who is concrete and not a doer, so thus reflective.

Square 3: Accommodator = Concrete Experience + Active Experiment: strong in "hands-on" practical doing (e.g., physical therapists) The accommodator is connected with the artisan who is active and thus a doer.

Square 4: Converger = Abstract Conceptualization + Active Experiment: strong in practical "hands-on" application of theories (e.g., engineers). The converger is linked to the rational who is both abstract and utilitarian, so thus a doer.

William Moulton Marston developed the DISC model, a behavior assessment tool which centers on four different behavioral traits, which today are called: Square Square 1: influence. Influence is related to the idealist. People with influence style are outgoing, enthusiastic, optimistic, high spirited, and lively. Idealists like to lift people up and inspire with good feelings. People with the influence style motivate others by influence and persuasion, have good communication skills, present well, friendly, are affable, inspire others, are intuitive, gregarious, and friendly. They are motivated by recognition and personal approval. Their emphasis on image can neglect substance.
Square 2: steadiness. Steadiness is related to the guardian. These people are even tempered, accommodating, patient, humble and tactful. They are reliable, dependable, process-orientated, listener, friendly, trustworthy, solid, ethical, finishes what others start and leave, methodical, decides according to process. They are motivated by time, space and continuity to do things properly. Their dependence on process can become resistance. 
Square 3: compliance. Compliance is connected with the artisan. People with the compliant style are analytical, reserved, precise, private, and systematic. They are painstaking, investigative, curious, decides using facts and figures, correct, checker, detailed. They are motivated by attention to detail, perfection and truth. Their need for perfection can delay or obstruct
Square 4: dominance. Dominance is related to the rational. They are direct, goal oriented, and forceful. They are decisive, dominant, self-assured, forceful, task-orientated, instigate, lead and direct They are motivated by responsibility and achievement
Marston researched human emotions,and in his 1928 book Emotions of Normal People mapped out these behavioral traits.


Ned Herrmann put together the Triune Brain model of Paul McLean with the Left/Right Brain hemisphere theory of Roger Sperry and created a model of the human brain with two paired structures, which are the two halves of the cerebral system and the two halves of the limbic system. The Reptilian brain being not included in this model, or else include along with the Limbic. The four-sided model of thinking styles are attributed to four regions of the brain. These four quadrants (A, B, C, D)

Square 1A-logical. People with this mode of thinking are auditive,logical, factual, critical, technical and quantitative. Their preferred activities are collecting data, analysis, understanding how things work, judging ideas based on facts, criteria and logical reasoning. Therefore they are very mental. The first square is mental. The first square is the idealist.

Square 2: B-organized. People with this mode of thinking are into safekeeping, are structured, organized, are detailed, and planned. The second square is organization and homeostasis. Their preferred activities are following directions, detail oriented work, step-by-step problem solving, organization and implementation. The second square is the guardian.

Square 3: C-interpersonal.People with this mode of thinking are Kinesthetic, emotional, spiritual, sensory, and feeling. Kinesthetic means that they are good at doing things. The third square is doing. They prefer activities like listening to and expressing ideas, looking for personal meaning, sensory input, and group interaction. The third square is the artisan.

Square 4: D-imaginative.These people are visual, holistic, intuitive, innovative, and conceptual. Their preferred activities are looking at the big picture, taking initiative, challenging assumptions, visuals, metaphoric thinking, creative problem solving, and long term thinking. The fourth square is the rational

Four planes of development by Dr. Montessouri

The oldest system of typology known to us is the one de- vised by oriental astrologers. They classified character in terms of four trigons, corresponding to the four elements— water, air, earth and fire. The air trigon in the horoscope, for instance, consists of the three aerial signs of the zodiac, Aquarius, Gemini, Libra; the fire trigon is made up of Aries, Leo and Sagittarius. According to this age-old view, whoever is born under these signs shares in their aerial or fiery nature and has a corresponding temperament and fate; similarly for the water and earth signs. This system survives in modified form in present-day astrology.



Central limits can be observed better if the contribution of information in sensory memory is curtailed, as shown by Saults & Cowan (2007) in a procedure illustrated in Figure 3. An array of colored squares was presented at the same time as an array of simultaneous spoken digits produced by different voices in four loudspeakers (to discourage rehearsal). The task was sometimes to attend to only the squares or only the spoken digits, and sometimes to attend to both modalities at once. The key finding was that, when attention was directed different ways, a central working memory capacity limit still held. People could remember about 4 squares if asked to attend only to squares and, if they were asked to attend to both squares and digits, they could remember fewer squares, but about 4 items in all.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

The Tetrad Test
The (unspecified) tetrad is a four sample difference test. The assessor receives two samples of one product and of the second. Her task is to sort then into two groups such that the samples in each group are more similar to each other than to the other samples. Like the triangle, the probability of getting the correct answer by guessing is 1/3. However, the chart shows how the power of the tetrad compares to the triangle, duo-trio and 3-AFC. Whilst not as powerful as the 3-AFC, the tetrad is more powerful than the other unspecified difference tests. The reason for this is explained by Thurstonian modelling but the significance for your business is potential saving in panel time and money! Fewer respondents will be needed in a tetrad test to attain a statistically significant result at a given test power. For example, Ennis cites that for a test with a significance level of 0.05 (95%) and a power of 90% for which d' is quite high (1.5) you would need 87 assessors for a duo-trio test, 78 for a triangle but only 25 for a tetrad panel!

There is a caveat of course: for some sample types for example, very highly fragranced or flavoured personal care products or foods, the power advantage of the tetrad may be lost due to increased fatigue introduced by tasting or smelling the fourth sample or even by shear memory over-load. But it is worth making the comparison for your products…if we can help you with this or you would just like to discuss further then please don't hesitate to get in touch.


Dark tetrad[edit]

Several researchers have suggested expanding the dark triad to contain a fourth dark trait. Everyday sadism, defined as the enjoyment of cruelty, is the most common addition. While sadism is highly correlated with the dark triad, researchers have shown that sadism predicts anti-social behavior beyond the dark triad.[113][114] Borderline personality disorder and status-driven risk-taking have also been proposed as additions.[108]


The A-B-C-D model is a classic cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) technique developed by one of CBT’s founders, Albert Ellis. When applied effectively, this can help address a variety of emotional difficulties, including anger management problems. This post explains how the model works and how to start using it.

Overview of the A-B-C-D Model in Context of Anger Management

Below is an overview of the A-B-C-D cognitive-behavioral therapy model, using anger as the problem focus:

A = Activating Event

This refers to the initial situation or “trigger” to your anger.

B = Belief System

Your belief system refers to how you interpret the activating event (A). What do you tell yourself about what happened? What are your beliefs and expectations of how others should behave?

C = Consequences

This how you feel and what you do in response to your belief system; in other words, the emotional and behavioral consequences that result from A + B. When angry, it’s common to also feel other emotions, like fear, since anger is a secondary emotion. Other “consequences” may include subtle physical changes, like feeling warm, clenching your fists and taking more shallow breaths. More dramatic behavioral displays of anger include yelling, name-calling and physical violence.

D = Dispute

D refers to a very important step in the anger management process. You need to examine your beliefs and expectations. Are they unrealistic or irrational? If so, what may be an alternative and calmer way to relate to the situation? By “disputing” those knee-jerk beliefs about the situation, you can take a more rational and balanced approach, which can help you control your anger.

Example of the A-B-C-D Model

Let’s look at an example to illustrate how this model can be applied to anger management.

A = Activating Event

You’re driving to work and somebody cuts you off, almost causing a collision. You were already feeling stressed to begin with because you were running late and had a big day ahead of you.

B = Belief System

You think to yourself, “people shouldn’t drive like that,” “I’m a courteous driver, I don’t do that,” “everybody on the road these days is a reckless driver,” “if that car hit me, I would have been really late to work or even worse, I could have gotten injured.”

C = Consequences

After the triggering event (i.e., being cut-off in traffic), you roll down your window and yell an expletive out at the other driver, while giving the bird. You notice that your muscles are tense, your heart rate is high and you feel like you want to hit the steering wheel. You also notice that you feel some fear.

D = Dispute

In response to the triggering situation and its sequelae, rather than reinforce what’s fueling the anger, you could shift your thinking (this is the “D”/dispute part of the model). For example, you could say to yourself: “It’s a bummer that some people drive recklessly, but that’s just a fact of life. Most people actually do obey the rules of the road and I’m glad that I do as well. Who knows, maybe that driver had some emergency that he was responding to…probably not, but you never know. That was scary to almost get hit, but even if we got into a fender bender, I would have eventually gotten to work and probably nothing drastic would have happened because of it.”

As you can see, using this type of rational self-talk is likely to diffuse some of the anger and help you calm down.

How to Apply this Model to Anger Management

The first step in using this anger management tool is to increase your awareness of what is happening in each step. To review:

A.) Identify what initially triggered the anger

B.) Reflect on how you related to the triggering situation (e.g., what did you say to yourself about it)

C.) Identify all of the specific emotional and behavioral responses that followed…/Level_of_consciousness_(Esoteric…
Gibson's four states of consciousness[edit]
Dr. Bob Günius Gibson, left-handed author of Notes on Personal Integration and Health and often recognized as a psychic healer, hypothesized the existence of four tiers of extrasensory awareness. Beyond being more applicable to internal states rather than reactions to the external environment, these stages contrast markedly with the previously mentioned modern theories through their emphasis on humankind's immediate interactions.[21] Gibson does not focus on life progression or individual power to move between levels, but rather on momentary instances of personal experience.

State Description
Sleep Unaware of all surroundings; dreams may or may not occur
Waking Sleep Sleepwalking; normal tasks can be performed but the individual is not receptive to what is taking place
Self-awareness Able to identify surroundings and observe what is taking place
Objective awareness Identify surrounding events without opinions or input


The Eight-Circuit Model of Consciousness is a hypothesis by Timothy Leary


The first four circuits deal with life on earth, and survival of the species. The last four circuits are post terrestrial, and deal with the evolution of the species, altered states of consciousness, enlightenment, mystical experiences, psychedelic states of mind, and psychic abilities. The proposal suggest that these altered states of consciousness are recently realized, but not widely utilized. Leary describes the first four as "larval circuits", necessary for surviving and functioning in a terrestrial human society, and proposed that the post terrestrial circuits will be useful for future humans who, through a predetermined script, continue to act on their urge to migrate to outer space and live extra-terrestrially.[6] Leary, Wilson, and Alli have written about the idea in depth, and have explored and attempted to define how each circuit operates, both in the lives of individual people and in societies and civilization.


There are FOUR possible ways of imprinting the first two circuits:


Trusting 1st circuit and dominant 2nd circuit. I'm OK; you're OK. Friendly strength in the Interpersonal Circumplex. Fire in the four elements model.[22] Choleric in the four humors model.[23]

Trusting 1st circuit and submissive 2nd circuit. I'm not OK; you're OK. Friendly weakness. Water in the four elements model. Phlegmatic humor.

Suspicious 1st circuit and dominant 2nd circuit. I'm OK; you're not OK. Unfriendly strength. Air in the four elements model. Sanguine humor.

Suspicious 1st circuit and submissive 2nd circuit. I'm not OK; you're not OK. Unfriendly weakness. Earth in the four elements model. Melancholic humor.


Leary's first book on the subject, Neurologic, only included seven circuits when it was published in 1973. Exo-Psychology, published in 1977, expanded the number of circuits to eight and clarified the subject. In it, he puts forward the theory that the later four circuits are "post terrestrial;" intended to develop as we migrate off this planet and colonize others.[49] Once we begin space migration, according to Leary, we will have more ready access to these higher circuits. Exo-Psychology was re-published as revised by Timothy Leary with additional material in 1989 under the title Info-Psychology (New Falcon Publishing).


Morin's integration[edit]

Similar to Dr. Rondell Gibson's view of a simplified hierarchy of conscious states, Alain Morin describes a FOUR-tiered integration of nine past awareness models, focusing explicitly on the two common aspects underlying each belief structure: the perception of the self in time and the complexity of those self-representations.[23]


Level Description Alternative titles in past theories

Unconsciousness Non-responsive to self and environment Consciousness, non-consciousness, arousal, limbic stage, sensorimotor cognition

Consciousness Focusing attention on environment; processing incoming external stimuli Non-conscious mind, ecological and interpersonal self, neocortical level, consciousness, sensorimotor awareness; core, peripheral, primary and minimal consciousness

Self-awareness Focusing attention on self; processing private and public self-information Consciousness, extended and private self, symbolic level, meta-representational self-consciousness, conceptual self-consciousness, self-concept; reflective, recursive, self and meta-consciousness

Meta-self-awareness Aware that one is self-aware Consciousness, extended self






Hostile strength

Hostile weakness

Friendly strength

Friendly weakness

The Politics of Self-Determination

By Timothy Leary



LEARY CREATES ANOTHER QUADRANT MODEL AND SAYS "there are 16 mechanisms or reflexes of interpersonal behavior"

There are four quadrants in Skinner’s Quadrants:

Positive Punishment

Negative Punishment

Positive Reinforcement

Negative Reinforcement

Lets start with my least favorite – positive punishment. Before I “crossed over” to positive methods, positive punishment was what I used the most. Positive punishment can be broken down to this:


“Positive” – adding something

“Punishment” – reducing the frequency of that behavior

So positive punishment is adding something that will lower the occurrence of that behavior in the future.


Since operant conditioning relies heavily on the history of a behavior and it’s consequences, punishment will need to continue through out the dog’s life to keep the frequency of a behavior down. If the consequences change (i.e. you remove the punishment), the behavior will begin to occur more frequently again.


One thing I’d like to mention about positive punishment is that if the dog is reacting to or expressing anxiety about a scary object, animal, or human (in the dog’s eyes), positive punishment will decrease that behavior, but it will not change the emotional response inside the dog. The stress hormones will still be there (i.e. their physiological response to something scary will still be there), but the outward response will be suppressed. While the dog may not act the same towards a scary stimulus, it will still be just as terrified of it.

There is a famous model of competence. In the model there are two dichotomies. One is conscious and unconscious and the other is competent incompetent. The dualities yield four results.
Square 1: Unconscious incompetence. This is the idealist. Idealists are abstract which corresponds to being unconscious. But they are cooperative which corresponds to being incompetent. Cooperative people do what others do and what brings social harmony as opposed to what works. Unconscious incompetent relates to response, which is the first quadrant. When you respond you are not necessarily conscious of what you are doing and not necessarily competent. You are just reacting.
Square 2: Conscious incompetence. This corresponds with the guardian. Guardians are concrete, which relates to being conscious. Concrete people are aware of what’s going on and the facts of things and their surroundings. But guardians are cooperative, which means they are incompetent. They do what is socially right as opposed to what works. This relates to behaving which is the second quadrant. When you behave you do what others tell you to do because you are not competent.
Square 3: Conscious competence. This corresponds to the artisan. Artisans are concrete so they are conscious. They are utilitarian so they are competent. Conscious competence relates to doing which is the third quadrant.
Square 4. Unconscious competent. This corresponds to the rational. Unconscious competence relates to the flow, which is the fourth quadrant. When you are good at something and it is unconscious then you flow.
Square 5. There is a theoretical fifth level. The fifth is always questionable. This is conscious competence after being unconscious competent. This is becoming conscious of what you do unconsciously. The fifth level is the God level.

Four stages of competence

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The Greek letter 'psi', a symbol for psychology

Outline History Subfields

Basic types

Abnormal Behavioral genetics Biological Cognitive Comparative Cross-cultural Cultural Differential Developmental Evolutionary Experimental Mathematical Neuropsychology Personality Positive Quantitative Social

Applied psychology

Applied behavior analysis Clinical Community Consumer Counseling Critical Educational Environmental Ergonomics Forensic Health Humanistic Industrial and organizational Interpretive Legal Medical Military Music Occupational health Political Religion School Sport Traffic


Disciplines Organizations Psychologists Psychotherapies Publications Research methods Theories Timeline Topics

Psi2.svg Psychology portal

v t e


"Hierarchy of Competence".

In psychology, the four stages of competence, or the "conscious competence" learning model, relates to the psychological states involved in the process of progressing from incompetence to competence in a skill.


Contents [hide]

1 History

2 The four stages of competence

3 See also

4 References


Initially described as "Four Stages for Learning Any New Skill", the theory was developed at Gordon Training International by its employee Noel Burch in the 1970s.[1] It has since been frequently attributed to Abraham Maslow, although the model does not appear in his major works.[2]


The Four Stages of Learning provides a model for learning. It suggests that individuals are initially unaware of how little they know, or unconscious of their incompetence. As they recognize their incompetence, they consciously acquire a skill, then consciously use it. Eventually, the skill can be utilized without it being consciously thought through: the individual is said to have then acquired unconscious competence.[3]


Several elements, including helping someone 'know what they don't know' or recognize a blind spot, can be compared to some elements of a Johari window, although Johari deals with self-awareness, while the four stages of competence deals with learning stages.


The four stages of competence[edit]

Unconscious incompetence

The individual does not understand or know how to do something and does not necessarily recognize the deficit. They may deny the usefulness of the skill. The individual must recognize their own incompetence, and the value of the new skill, before moving on to the next stage.[2] The length of time an individual spends in this stage depends on the strength of the stimulus to learn.[3]

Conscious incompetence

Though the individual does not understand or know how to do something, he or she does recognize the deficit, as well as the value of a new skill in addressing the deficit. The making of mistakes can be integral to the learning process at this stage.[4]

Conscious competence

The individual understands or knows how to do something. However, demonstrating the skill or knowledge requires concentration. It may be broken down into steps, and there is heavy conscious involvement in executing the new skill.[3]

Unconscious competence

The individual has had so much practice with a skill that it has become "second nature" and can be performed easily. As a result, the skill can be performed while executing another task. The individual may be able to teach it to others, depending upon how and when it was learned.

Alexander Luria's earlier work on neuropsychological processes led to the PASS theory (1997). It argued that only looking at one general factor was inadequate for researchers and clinicians who worked with learning disabilities, attention disorders, intellectual disability, and interventions for such disabilities. The PASS model covers four kinds of processes (planning process, attention/arousal process, simultaneous processing, and successive processing). The planning processes involve decision making, problem solving, and performing activities and requires goal setting and self-monitoring.

An example of one kind of IQ test item, modeled after items in the Raven's Progressive Matrices test

There are four Parenting styles that reflect the quadrant model pattern. There are also two dichotomies that yield the four attachment styles. One dichotomy is self esteem and

thoughts about self; this is either positive or negative. The other dichotomy is sociability and thoughts about others. This is either positive or negative.
*Square one: Secure; The secure attachment type has positive thoughts about self and positive thoughts about others. The secure attachment type is related to the idealist. Abstract thought is related to positive thoughts about yourself. Abstract thinkers see the oneness and connection of things. If you are abstract you will have a positive thought about yourself. Being cooperative means that you see others positively. Cooperative people are themselves trustworthy, so they see others as similar to themselves, and thus trust others. Idealists are themselves trustworthy. They are responsible. People look at others through their own lenses. Because idealists are trustworthy, idealists trust others. Idealists, recall, are easily persuaded by authority. Idealists trust authority.
*Square two: Anxious-preoccupied; Anxious preoccupied people have negative thoughts about themselves and positive thoughts about others. This attachment type is associated with the guardian, who is concrete and cooperative. Concrete people are not abstract thinkers. They do not see the connections of things and the oneness of things. Concrete people may not be extremely confident in their own intellectual abilities. Thus guardians do not have necessarily positive thoughts about themselves. Guardians, however, are cooperative. Guardians themselves are very loyal. Remember, the second quadrant is belief and faith behavior and belonging. People who behave listen to orders. Guardians respect orders and trust authority. Guardians are faithful and make good friends because they are loyal and look at others through the lens of their own consciousness. Guardians thus have positive thoughts about others.
*Square three: Fearful-avoidant personality types have negative thoughts about themselves and others. The third square is associated with the Artisan temperament, which is concrete and utilitarian. Being utilitarian, they are spontaneous, do what they want and what they think works ,and care less about conforming to social considerations, maintaining the status quo, and not ruffling up feathers. As a result Artisans cannot be totally trusted and can therefore be considered “bad” or destructive. Artisans want respect and will be willing to hurt people to gain it, often putting themselves first before others. Being not too cooperative or trustworthy, they see others the same way. Thus they have negative thoughts about others. The third square has a quality of being destructive and bad. The fearful-avoidant attachment style is seen basically as a negative style.
*Square four: Dismissive-avoidant; Dismissive avoidant people have positive thoughts about themselves and negative thoughts about others. The fourth square is associated with the rational temperament. Rationals are abstract and utilitarian. Abstract people can see connections and understand patterns and understand things deeply. Abstract people tend to think positive thoughts about themselves.


There are four Parenting styles that reflect the quadrant model pattern. There are also two dichotomies that yield the four attachment styles. One dichotomy is self esteem and

thoughts about self; this is either positive or negative. The other dichotomy is sociability and thoughts about others. This is either positive or negative.
*Square one: Secure; The secure attachment type has positive thoughts about self and positive thoughts about others. The secure attachment type is related to the idealist. Abstract thought is related to positive thoughts about yourself. Abstract thinkers see the oneness and connection of things. If you are abstract you will have a positive thought about yourself. Being cooperative means that you see others positively. Cooperative people are themselves trustworthy, so they see others as similar to themselves, and thus trust others. Idealists are themselves trustworthy. They are responsible. People look at others through their own lenses. Because idealists are trustworthy, idealists trust others. Idealists, recall, are easily persuaded by authority. Idealists trust authority.
*Square two: Anxious-preoccupied; Anxious preoccupied people have negative thoughts about themselves and positive thoughts about others. This attachment type is associated with the guardian, who is concrete and cooperative. Concrete people are not abstract thinkers. They do not see the connections of things and the oneness of things. Concrete people may not be extremely confident in their own intellectual abilities. Thus guardians do not have necessarily positive thoughts about themselves. Guardians, however, are cooperative. Guardians themselves are very loyal. Remember, the second quadrant is belief and faith behavior and belonging. People who behave listen to orders. Guardians respect orders and trust authority. Guardians are faithful and make good friends because they are loyal and look at others through the lens of their own consciousness. Guardians thus have positive thoughts about others.
*Square three: Fearful-avoidant personality types have negative thoughts about themselves and others. The third square is associated with the Artisan temperament, which is concrete and utilitarian. Being utilitarian, they are spontaneous, do what they want and what they think works ,and care less about conforming to social considerations, maintaining the status quo, and not ruffling up feathers. As a result Artisans cannot be totally trusted and can therefore be considered “bad” or destructive. Artisans want respect and will be willing to hurt people to gain it, often putting themselves first before others. Being not too cooperative or trustworthy, they see others the same way. Thus they have negative thoughts about others. The third square has a quality of being destructive and bad. The fearful-avoidant attachment style is seen basically as a negative style.
*Square four: Dismissive-avoidant; Dismissive avoidant people have positive thoughts about themselves and negative thoughts about others. The fourth square is associated with the rational temperament. Rationals are abstract and utilitarian. Abstract people can see connections and understand patterns and understand things deeply. Abstract people tend to think positive thoughts about themselves.



Attachment in adults deals with the theory of attachment in adult relationships including friendships, emotional affairs, adult romantic relationships and in some cases inanimate objects known as "transitional objects."[1]


Attachment theory, initially studied in the 1960s and 1970s primarily in the context of children and parents, was extended to adult relationships in the late 1980s. Four main styles of attachment have been identified in adults:







Investigators have explored the organization and the stability of mental working models that underlie these attachment styles. They have also explored how attachment impacts relationship outcomes and how attachment functions in relationship dynamics.

Organization of working models[edit]

Bartholomew and Horowitz have proposed that working models consist of two parts.[7] One part deals with thoughts about the self. The other part deals with thoughts about others. They further propose that a person's thoughts about self are generally positive or generally negative. The same applies to a person's thoughts about others. In order to test these proposals, Bartholomew and Horowitz have looked at the relationship between attachment styles, self-esteem, and sociability. The diagram below shows the relationships they observed:


Why attachment styles change is not well-understood. Waters, Weinfield and Hamilton propose that negative life experiences often cause changes in attachment styles.[33] Their proposal is supported by evidence that people who experience negative life events also tend to experience changes in attachment styles.[29][34][35] Davila, Karney and Bradbury have identified four sets of factors that might cause changes in attachment styles: (a) situational events and circumstances, (b) changes in relational schemas, (c) personality variables, and (d) combinations of personality variables and situational events.[36] They conducted a study to see which set of factors best explained changes in attachment styles. Interestingly, the study found that all four sets of factors cause changes in attachment styles. Changes in attachment styles are complex and depend on multiple factors.





Attachments between infants and caregivers form even if this caregiver is not sensitive and responsive in social interactions with them.[6] This has important implications. Infants cannot exit unpredictable or insensitive caregiving relationships. Instead they must manage themselves as best they can within such relationships. Based on her established Strange Situation Protocol, research by developmental psychologist Mary Ainsworth in the 1960s and 1970s found that children will have different patterns of attachment depending primarily on how they experienced their early caregiving environment. Early patterns of attachment, in turn, shape — but do not determine — the individual's expectations in later relationships.[7] Four different attachment classifications have been identified in children: secure attachment, anxious-ambivalent attachment, anxious-avoidant attachment, and disorganized attachment.



Drawing on records of behaviours discrepant with the A, B and C classifications, a fourth classification was added by Ainsworth's colleague Mary Main.[52



Attachment theory was extended to adult romantic relationships in the late 1980s by Cindy Hazan and Phillip Shaver. Four styles of attachment have been identified in adults: secure, anxious-preoccupied, dismissive-avoidant and fearful-avoidant. These roughly correspond to infant classifications: secure, insecure-ambivalent, insecure-avoidant and disorganized/disoriented.


Attachment measures refer to the various procedures used to assess attachment in children and adults.


Researchers have developed various ways of assessing patterns of attachment in children. A variety of methods allow children to be classified into four attachment pattern groups: secure, anxious-ambivalent, anxious-avoidant, and disorganized/disoriented, or assess disorders of attachment. These patterns are also referred to as Secure (Group B); Anxious/Resistant (Group C); Avoidant (Group A) and Disorganized/Controlling (Group D). The disorganized/controlling attachment classification is thought to represent a breakdown in the attachment-caregiving partnership such that the child does not have an organized behavioral or representational strategy to achieve protection and care from the attachment figure. Each pattern group is further broken down into several sub-categories. A child classified with the disorganized/controlling attachment will be given a "next best fit" organized classification.


Attachment in adults is commonly measured using the Adult Attachment Interview, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System, and self-report questionnaires. Self-report questionnaires assess attachment style, a personality dimension that describes attitudes about relationships with romantic partners. Adult attachment style is thought to be similar to childhood attachment patterns. There is some research that shows a link between childhood attachment patterns and attachment personality dimensions with romantic partners,[1][2] but correlations are mild to moderate. The most common approach to defining attachment style is a two-dimension approach in defining attachment style. One dimension deals with anxiety about the relationship, and the other dimension dealing with avoidance in the relationship. Another approach defines four adult attachment style categories: secure, preoccupied, dismissive-avoidant, and fearful-avoidant.


Self-report questionnaires[edit]

Hazan and Shaver created the first questionnaire to measure attachment in adults. [43] Their questionnaire was designed to classify adults into the three attachment styles identified by Ainsworth. The questionnaire consisted of three sets of statements, each set of statements describing an attachment style:


Secure - I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them and having them depend on me. I don't often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me.

Avoidant - I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I find it difficult to trust them completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and often, love partners want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being.

Anxious/Ambivalent - I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to merge completely with another person, and this desire sometimes scares people away.

People participating in their study were asked to choose which set of statements best described their feelings. The chosen set of statements indicated their attachment style. Later versions of this questionnaire presented scales so people could rate how well each set of statements described their feelings.


One important advance in the development of attachment questionnaires was the addition of a fourth style of attachment. Bartholomew and Horowitz presented a model that identified four categories or styles of adult attachment. [44] Their model was based on the idea attachment styles reflected people's thoughts about their partners and thought about themselves. Specifically, attachment styles depended on whether or not people judge their partners to be generally accessible and responsive to requests for support, and whether or not people judge themselves to be the kind of individuals towards which others want to respond and lend help. They proposed four categories based on positive or negative thoughts about partners and on positive or negative thoughts about self.


Bartholomew and Horowitz used this model to create the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ-CV). The RQ-CV consisted of four sets of statements, each describing a category or style of attachment:


Secure - It is relatively easy for me to become emotionally close to others. I am comfortable depending on others and having others depend on me. I don't worry about being alone or having others not accept me.

Dismissive - I am comfortable without close emotional relationships. It is very important to me to feel independent and self-sufficient, and I prefer not to depend on others or have others depend on me.

Preoccupied - I want to be completely emotionally intimate with others, but I often find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I am uncomfortable being without close relationships, but I sometimes worry that others don't value me as much as I value them.

Fearful - I am somewhat uncomfortable getting close to others. I want emotionally close relationships, but I find it difficult to trust others completely, or to depend on them. I sometimes worry that I will be hurt if I allow myself to become too close to others.

Tests demonstrated the four attachment styles were distinct in how they related to other kinds of psychological variables. Adults indeed appeared to have four styles of attachment instead of three attachment styles.


David Schmitt, together with a large number of colleagues, validated the attachment questionnaire created by Bartholomew and Horowitz in 62 cultures. [45] The distinction of thoughts about self and thoughts about partners proved valid in nearly all cultures. However, the way these two kinds of thoughts interacted to form attachment styles varied somewhat across cultures. The four attachment styles had somewhat different meanings across cultures.


A second important advance in attachment questionnaires was the use of independent items to assess attachment. Instead of asking people to choose between three or four sets of statements, people rated how strongly they agreed with dozens of individual statements. The ratings for the individual statements were combined to provide an attachment score. Investigators have created several questionnaires using this strategy to measure adult attachment.


Two popular questionnaires of this type are the Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR) questionnaire and the Experiences in Close Relationships - Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire. The ECR was created by Brennan, Clark, and Shaver in 1998. [46] The ECR-R was created by Fraley, Waller, and Brennan in 2000. [47] Readers who wish to take the ECR-R and learn their attachment style can find an online version of the questionnaire at


Analysis of the ECR and ECR-R reveal that the questionnaire items can be grouped into two dimensions of attachment. One group of questionnaire items deal with how anxious a person is about their relationship. These items serve as a scale for anxiety. The remaining items deal with how avoidant a person is in their relationship. These items serve as a scale for avoidance. Many researchers now use scores from the anxiety and avoidance scales to perform statistical analyses and test hypotheses.


Scores on the anxiety and avoidance scales can still be used to classify people into the four adult attachment styles. [46] [48] [49] The four styles of attachment defined in Bartholomew and Horowitz's model were based on thoughts about self and thoughts about partners. The anxiety scale in the ECR and ECR-R reflect thoughts about self. Attachment anxiety relates to beliefs about self-worth and whether or not one will be accepted or rejected by others. The avoidance scale in the ECR and ECR-R relates to thoughts about partners. Attachment avoidance relates to beliefs about taking risks in approaching or avoiding other people. Combinations of anxiety and avoidance can thus be used to define the four attachment styles. The secure style of attachment is characterized by low anxiety and low avoidance; the preoccupied style of attachment is characterized by high anxiety and low avoidance; the dismissive avoidant style of attachment is characterized by low anxiety and high avoidance; and the fearful avoidant style of attachment is characterized by high anxiety and high avoidance.

Marcia classifies individuals based on their existence or extendt of their crisis or commitment. Crisis is defined as a period of identity development during which the individual is exploring alternatives. Commitment is a person’s investment in the identity. The four categories are listed below:


Diffusion – status of individuals who have not yet experienced a crisis or made any commitments, not only are they undecided about occupational and ideological choices, they are likely to sho1w little interest in such manners.

Foreclosure – status of individuals who have made a commitment but not experienced a crisis. This occurs most often when parents hand down commitments to their adolescents, usually in an authoritarian way, before adolescents have had a chance to explore different approaches, ideologies, and vocations on their own

Moratorium – status of individuals who are in the midst of a crisis but whose commitments are either absent or are only vaguely defined.

Achievement status of individuals who have undergone a crisis and made a commitment

Rudolf Dreikurs believed that pre-adolescent children's misbehavior was caused by their unfulfilled wish to be a member of a social group. He argued that they then act out a sequence of four mistaken goals: first they seek attention. If they do not get it, they aim for power, then revenge and finally feel inadequate. This theory is used in education as well as parenting, forming a valuable theory upon which to manage misbehavior.[12] Other parenting techniques should also be used to encourage learning and happiness.He emphasized the significance to establish a democratic family style that adopts a method of periodic democratic family councils and meanwhile avert the punishment.[13] He advances “logical and natural consequences”.[14] That teach children to be responsible and understand the natural consequences of proper rules of conduct and improper behavior.[15]



Baumrind's Parenting Typology[edit]

Diana Baumrind is a researcher who focused on the classification of parenting styles. Baumrind’s research is known as “Baumrind’s Parenting Typology”. In her research, she found what she considered to be the four basic elements that could help shape successful parenting: responsiveness vs. unresponsiveness and demanding vs. undemanding.[23] Through her studies Baumrind identified three initial parenting styles: Authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting and permissive parenting. Maccoby and Martin expanded upon Baumrind’s three original parenting styles by placing parenting styles into two distinct categories: demanding and undemanding.[24] With these distinctions, four new parenting styles were defined:


Maccoby and Martin's Four Parenting Styles

Baumrind's Three Parenting Styles

Demanding Undemanding

Responsive Authoritative/Propagative Indulgent


Unresponsive Authoritarian/Totalitarian Neglectful

Baumrind believed that parents should be neither punitive nor aloof.[25] Rather, they should develop rules for their children and be affectionate with them. These parenting styles are meant to describe normal variations in parenting, not deviant parenting, such as might be observed in abusive homes.[26] In addition, parenting stress can often cause changes in parental behavior such as inconsistency, increased negative communication, decreased monitoring and/or supervision,[citation needed] setting vague rules or limits on behavior, being more reactive and less proactive, and engaging in increasingly harsh disciplinary behaviors.



Baumrind's Parenting Typology[edit]

Diana Baumrind is a researcher who focused on the classification of parenting styles. Baumrind’s research is known as “Baumrind’s Parenting Typology”. In her research, she found what she considered to be the four basic elements that could help shape successful parenting: responsiveness vs. unresponsiveness and demanding vs. undemanding.[23] Through her studies Baumrind identified three initial parenting styles: Authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting and permissive parenting. Maccoby and Martin expanded upon Baumrind’s three original parenting styles by placing parenting styles into two distinct categories: demanding and undemanding.[24] With these distinctions, four new parenting styles were defined:


Maccoby and Martin's Four Parenting Styles

Baumrind's Three Parenting Styles

Demanding Undemanding

Responsive Authoritative/Propagative Indulgent


Unresponsive Authoritarian/Totalitarian Neglectful

Baumrind believed that parents should be neither punitive nor aloof.[25] Rather, they should develop rules for their children and be affectionate with them. These parenting styles are meant to describe normal variations in parenting, not deviant parenting, such as might be observed in abusive homes.[26] In addition, parenting stress can often cause changes in parental behavior such as inconsistency, increased negative communication, decreased monitoring and/or supervision,[citation needed] setting vague rules or limits on behavior, being more reactive and less proactive, and engaging in increasingly harsh disciplinary behaviors.


Sleep occurs in cycles of approximately 90 minutes. This rhythm is called the ultradian sleep cycle.[5] Sleep proceeds in cycles of NREM and REM, normally in that order and usually four or five such cycles per night. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) divides NREM into three stages: N1, N2, and N3, the last of which is also called delta sleep or slow-wave sleep.[6] The whole period normally proceeds in the order: N1 → N2 → N3 → N2 → REM. REM sleep occurs as a person returns to stage 2 or 1 from a deep sleep.[1] An adult reaches REM approximately every 90 minutes; REM sleep usually lasts for longer during latter half of sleep than in the early part of the sleep episode. There is a greater amount of deep sleep (stage N3) earlier in the night, while the proportion of REM sleep increases in the two cycles just before natural awakening.

Excerpt from my book QMR

Four parenting types have been identified and described. Baumrind was the first psychologist to study parenting, distinguishing three parenting styles. Macoby and Martin later identified a fourth, which conforms to the nature of the quadrant model--the fourth always seems not to belong. The following parenting types relate to the quadrant model.
*Square one: Authoritative--responsive and demanding. The first square is the Idealist square. Idealists recall are abstract and cooperative. Abstract people are responsive. Abstract people are intelligent in that they see patterns and connections. They are articulate. But Idealists are also cooperative. Cooperative people are demanding in that they follow rules and they think that other people should follow rules as well. Idealists are very into the notion of responsibility. Response is the third square of the first quadrant. Idealists are responsive. But because they are responsible they are very concerned with the notion of self reliance, and are very demanding. They do things themselves, expecting others to do the same. 
*Square two: Authoritarian--unresponsive and demanding. The second square is the Guardian square. Guardians are concrete and cooperative. Concrete people are unresponsive, focused on facts and detail, and are not deep thinkers. They excel in being useful. Because they are not abstract they are not as responsive. Guardians are also demanding because, like idealists, they are cooperative, valuing social harmony and order. Perceivers, who are third and fourth square oriented, usually do not read directions and instructions, whereas second square oriented people do, making them needed. The element that this corresponds to is water which is cold and wet.
*Square three: Neglectful--unresponsive and undemanding. The third square is the Artisan square; they are concrete and utilitarian, unresponsive because they are not abstract thinkers and not extremely articulate. Concrete people are more into facts and details and thus do not value deep understanding. Artisans are utilitarian and undemanding, do what works while not caring about social harmony. Utilitarians are not cooperative, less likely to read the manual. Utilitarians are more spontaneous, wild, and view others through their own consciousness. Spontaneity does not demand others to plan, therefore Artisans are undemanding yet destructive.
*Square four: Indulgent--responsive and undemanding. This square corresponds with the Rational who is abstract and utilitarian. Abstract people see connections, and value deep understanding, therefore they are responsive. But rationals are utilitarian, therefore spontaneous and inclined to want others to be the same. People view others through their own consciousness. so a Rational is less demanding on children. The element that the indulgent parent corresponds to is fire, which is hot and dry.

Excerpt from my book Quadrant Model of Reality

Sleep is an important subject of study in psychology. Dreaming is very common during sleep. Sleep is divided into four stages that reflect the quadrant model pattern.
*Square one: NREM--stage 1: This first stage of sleep is marked by alpha waves and theta waves in the brain. During this stage the sleeper many experience hypnagogic hallucinations. The first square personality type is the Idealist who, being very aware, is said to be subject to having hallucinations; they are highly intuitive, but their grasp of reality is often not firm. Frequent jokes are made that Idealists believe in things like fairies.
*Square two: NREM--stage 2, the second stage of sleep. Sleep spindles and k complexes, which are types of brain waves, are associated with this stage. The person is now firmly asleep. Interestingly, psychologists hypothesize that this stage is linked with homeostasis in the body. The second stage is always homeostasis..
*Square three: NREM--stage 3, the third stage of sleep, also known as deep sleep. This stage is marked by delta waves in the brain. It is interesting that this is the stage in which sleep walking, sleep talking, and bedwetting occurs. Remember that the third square is the doing square. The third square is also destructive and associated with negative things. The first two squares are more conservative. The third square though is breaking out of the comfort. Sleep walking and sleep talking is doing. Also this is the stage of sleep that is associated with night terrors, where people have very disturbing, scary dreams.
*Square four: REM sleep--stage 4. The first three squares are always extremely similar, whereas the fourth always has a very different quality. The first three are non-rapid eye movement stages of sleep; the fourth is called rapid eye movement. During this stage the body is completely paralyzed. The fourth square is associated with death--the paralysis of the body is like a death.
The debates regarding continuums and distinct stages in psychology occur in the understanding of sleep stages. In the quadrant model there are separate but connecting squares; all are interlinked, but very distinct. This is the nature of the squares in the quadrant model.

John, Thank you for sharing Chapter 6 of Energies and Patterns in Psychological Type. I appreciate the outline of Joseph Henderson’s concept of cultural attitudes and the four different stances that people can be seen to take toward developing cultural attitudes. Conjecturing a quaternary structure is a great way to align the concepts with other modes of Jungian thought that…


The Henderson cultural quaternary to psychological types is something you could test.

Home The Henderson cultural quaternary to psychological types is something you could test. Questions, issues call us USA +1.310.577.2380 IAJS Operations

IAJS Communications

, October 3, 2016, Cultural Attitudes,


John, Thank you for sharing Chapter 6 of Energies and Patterns in Psychological Type. I appreciate the outline of Joseph Henderson’s concept of cultural attitudes and the four different stances that people can be seen to take toward developing cultural attitudes. Conjecturing a quaternary structure is a great way to align the concepts with other modes of Jungian thought that……/



Quaternity. An image with a four-fold structure, usually square or circular and symmetrical; psychologically, it points to the idea of wholeness.

Quaternity – An image with a four-fold structure, usually square or circular and symmetrical; psychologically, it points to the idea of wholeness. – Daryl Sharp, Jung Lexicon

The quaternity is one of the most widespread archetypes and has also proved to be one of the most useful schemata for representing the arrangement of the functions by which the conscious mind takes its bearings. [See typology.] It is like the crossed threads in the telescope of our understanding. The cross formed by the points of the quaternity is no less universal and has in addition the highest possible moral and religious significance for Western man. Similarly the circle, as the symbol of completeness and perfect being, is a widespread expression for heaven, sun, and God; it also expresses the primordial image of man and the soul. [“The Psychology of the Transference,” CW 16, par. 405.]

From the circle and quaternity motif is derived the symbol of the geometrically formed crystal and the wonder-working stone. From here analogy formation leads on to the city, castle, church, house, and vessel. Another variant is the wheel (rota). The former motif emphasizes the ego’s containment in the greater dimension of the self; the latter emphasizes the rotation which also appears as a ritual circumambulation. Psychologically, it denotes concentration on and preoccupation with a centre. [“The Structure and Dynamics of the Self,” CW 9ii, par. 352.]

Jung believed that the spontaneous production of quaternary images (including mandalas), whether consciously or in dreams and fantasies, can indicate the ego’s capacity to assimilate unconscious material. But they may also be essentially apotropaic, an attempt by the psyche to prevent itself from disintegrating.

These images are naturally only anticipations of a wholeness which is, in principle, always just beyond our reach. Also, they do not invariably indicate a subliminal readiness on the part of the patient to realize that wholeness consciously, at a later stage; often they mean no more than a temporary compensation of chaotic confusion. [“The Psychology of the Transference,” CW 16, par. 536.]

© from Daryl Sharp’s Jung Lexicon, reproduced with kind permission of the author.

The Quaternary of Carl Jung

Carl Jung was a psychiatrist from Switzerland. Through the study of analytical psychology, Jung explained the idea of quaternary or wholeness. Quaternary is a total of four parts combined to create a whole and in this case, quaternary describes the completion of human beings. In the psychology of Jung, people have four elements or a quaternary as fundamental patterns depicting thoughts and behavior. As a circle is whole, there are four equal parts pieced together to form the thoughts of human beings. In the same way, the quaternary composes every individual with four pieces perfectly fitting together to create wholeness. The mandala is an example of quaternary in a depicted form.

As studies and religions have shown, the number four is found throughout spiritual texts as well as in nature. Carl Jung explained the quality of four parts or the quaternary in people. The pieces are as follows, the mind or intuition, the body or sensation, the intellect or thinking, and emotion or feeling. The four elements or quaternaties as described by Jung create the basis of every human being. As people grow older, the quaternaties of the body should learn to be at peace. Finding the balance between the four elements creates wholeness within. Succeeding with the balance of quaternary is not entirely easy, but at least being aware and possibly attempting to balance the four elements can be an enlightening experience.

Through the study of Jung, people can see elements of quaternary. From spiritual developments, prime qualities, psychic orientation, caste systems, and the elements being in four, Jung has delved into the study of quaternary as an archetype. Universal occurrences are part of the archetype of quaternary. Forming complete or whole conclusions is based on the aspect of four. Jung found the number four to be the center of psychological study in practice and in texts. When studying the work of Jung, people can come to understand the double pairing of opposites for a balanced arrangement of four. The wholeness comes from the quaternary opposites balancing out. Almost like a puzzle, the four elements fit together to create the whole human aspect.

With the integral work of Carl Jung, psychology has changed. Jung developed ideas still in practice. The study of quaternary is a small portion of the various elements of Jungian psychology.

December 30, 2016

Merk Diezle shared a link.

Performers draw crowds, but leaders make disciples (Part Two)

QMRFollowing on from last week is Part Two of Dave Rhodes‘ blog, “Performers draw crowds, but leaders make disciples”. This post takes a closer look at the WOW! and AHA! cultures he mentioned last week, and what that means in terms of accessibility and excellence.

“In my last post, I talked about my transition from simply being a performer to becoming a leader. I talked about the power of AHA! and of our addiction to the WOW! Today I want to go further and talk about how AHA! and WOW! also relate to another function of our ministries and organizations: the MEH.

Here’s how it works. WOW! culture values excellence, but there’s no way for anyone to reproduce what you’re doing. It’s all excellence, no accessibility. AHA! culture is both excellent and accessible, but the culture of accessibility with no excellence is a MEH experience for everyone.

Here’s a matrix to illustrate what I’m talking about….”


Place value systems (such as the Arabic numeral system we use) arose independently in four separate civilizations--evidence of a universal sense of number.



One of the more interesting and readily appreciable points Dehaene makes is the animal (humans included) inability to comprehend large numbers. He posits that we innately understand and grasp numbers only up to the number four; thus we are to able estimate and differentiate these discrete quantities quickly and accurately


Dehaene included, believe that our minds perceive up to three or four objects all at once, without having to mentally “spotlight” them one by one. Getting the computer model to subitize the way humans and animals did was possible, he found, only if he built in “number neurons” tuned to fire with maximum intensity in response to a specific number of objects. His model had, for example, a special four neuron that got particularly excited when the computer was presented with four objects.


Despite our shared brain organization, cultural differences in how we handle numbers persist, and they are not confined to the classroom. Evolution may have endowed us with an approximate number line, but it takes a system of symbols to make numbers precise—to “crystallize” them, in Dehaene’s metaphor. The Mundurukú, an Amazon tribe that Dehaene and colleagues, notably the linguist Pierre Pica, have studied recently, have words for numbers only up to five. (Their word for five literally means “one hand.”) Even these words seem to be merely approximate labels for them: a Mundurukú who is shown three objects will sometimes say there are three, sometimes four. Nevertheless, the Mundurukú have a good numerical intuition. “They know, for example, that fifty plus thirty is going to be larger than sixty,” Dehaene said. “Of course, they do not know this verbally and have no way of talking about it. But when we showed them the relevant sets and transformations they immediately got it.”


The Mundurukú, it seems, have developed few cultural tools to augment the inborn number sense. Interestingly, the very symbols with which we write down the counting numbers bear the trace of a similar stage. The first three Roman numerals, I, II, and III, were formed by using the symbol for one as many times as necessary; the symbol for four, IV, is not so transparent. The same principle applies to Chinese numerals: the first three consist of one, two, and three horizontal bars, but the fourth takes a different form. Even Arabic numerals follow this logic: 1 is a single vertical bar; 2 and 3 began as two and three horizontal bars tied together for ease of writing. (“That’s a beautiful little fact, but I don’t think it’s coded in our brains any longer,” Dehaene observed.)


Dehaene conjectured that, when we see numerals or hear number words, our brains automatically map them onto a number line that grows increasingly fuzzy above 3 or 4. He found that no amount of training can change this. “It is a basic structural property of how our brains represent number, not just a lack of facility,” he told me.


One stone,

two houses

three ruins

four gravediggers,

one garden,

some flowers


One raccoon.


Jacques Prevert, Inventaire


Demonstrating this fact required ingenious studies showing that, for example, infants are very accurate in recognizing that a set of two things is smaller than a set of three but that they make errors when required to compare two with four. It appears that the first three numbers are, cognitively speaking, very special. Dehaene noted in the first edition that almost every written language uses some version of counting for the first three digits (consider, for example, the Roman system, I, II, III), then adds a quite different symbol for the fourth (IV in the Roman system). Just how significant this observation might be was apparently not realized at first.



Knox Cubes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Knox Cube Imitation Test (KCIT, or CIT, or KCT) was developed as a nonverbal intelligence test developed by Dr. Howard Andrew Knox, a medical officer at Ellis Island. It was first published as a pamphlet in 1913, and then in 1914 as a paper in the Journal of the American Medical Association.[1]


Knox wrote:


"From different sources have come many requests for the description of the tests worked out and conclusions reached in the practical work that has been done on Ellis Island on mental defectives. For this reason I present this paper, based on tests which I have made on over 4,000 suspected defectives in the last eighteen months and many more made by my associates ... all were considered sufficiently near the required standard to be allowed to pass, except 400 certified as feeble-minded and (in a few cases) as imbeciles."

There were several other tests presented in his paper besides the cube test. In the cube test, 4 black 1" cubes were placed in a row, each cube separated by 4 inches from its neighbors. The test administrators takes a smaller cube and taps on the 4 1" cubes in increasing complicated sequences. The test subject is requested, sometimes only by sign language, to repeat the sequence. If the cubes are numbered 1 through 4, the sequences in order are:


a. 1,2,3,4

b. 1,2,3,4,3

c. 1,2,3,4,2

d. 1,3,2,4,3

e. 1,3,4,2,1

and so on.


Knox suggested that sequence a (1-2-3-4) is reasonable for a child of 4 years of age, sequence b (1-2-3-4-3) is suitable for a 5-year-old, sequence c (1-2-3-4-2) can be accomplished by a 6-year-old, sequence d (1-3-2-4) can be done by the average 8-year-old, and copying sequence e (1-3-4-2-3-1) is expected by most 11-year-olds. Some of these sequences were repeated as part of other published tests such as Arthur (1947)[citation needed] and Wright & Stone (1979).[citation needed]


Performance on the Knox Cube Imitation Test is correlated with both Verbal IQ and Performance IQ.[2]


The n-back task is a continuous performance task that is commonly used as an assessment in cognitive neuroscience to measure a part of working memory and working memory capacity.[1] The n-back was introduced by Wayne Kirchner in 1958.[2]

Penrose stairs — The Penrose stairs was created by Lionel Penrose and his son Roger Penrose.[4] A variation on the Penrose triangle, it is a two-dimensional depiction of a staircase in which the stairs make four 90-degree turns as they ascend or descend yet form a continuous loop, so that a person could climb them forever and never get any higher.

The "Instant Insanity" puzzle consists of four cubes with faces colored with four colors (commonly red, blue, green, and white). The objective of the puzzle is to stack these cubes in a column so that each side (front, back, left, and right) of the stack shows each of the four colors. The distribution of colors on each cube is unique.


This problem has a graph-theoretic solution in which a graph with four vertices labeled B, G, R, W (for blue, green, red, and white) can be used to represent each cube; there is an edge between two vertices if the two colors are on the opposite sides of the cube, and a loop at a vertex if the opposite sides have the same color. Trial and error is a slow way to solve this problem, as there are 41,472 arrangements of the four cubes, only one of which is a solution.


The Kohs Block test, also known as the Kohs Block Design Test,[1] is a performance test designed to be an IQ test. The test taker must, using 16 colored cubes, replicate the patterns displayed on a series of test cards. The design of the test was motivated by a belief that the test could easily be administered to persons with language or hearing disabilities.[1]



James Kelly (1966; Trickett, 1984) developed an ecological analogy used to understand the ways in which settings and individuals are interrelated. Unlike the ecological framework developed by Bronfenbrenner (1979), the focus of Kelly's framework was not so much on how different levels of the environment may impact on the individual, but on understanding how human communities function. Specifically, Kelly suggests that there are 4 important principles that govern people in settings:


adaptation: i.e. that what individuals do is adaptive given the demands of the surrounding context. It is a two-way process: Individuals adapt to the restrictions, constraints, and quality of the environment, while the environment adapts to its members [8]

Examples: In regards to adaption of the individual, take for instance when an individual adapts to the demands of a new job, they adapt to that environment by learning or acquiring any necessary skills that they may need to perform their tasks well. On the environmental side of adaption, we can imagine various situations involving the family, such as the birth of a child, new job of a parent, or when children attend college and move away from home; in all of these instances the environment adapted as necessary to the changes in its members [9]

succession: every setting has a history that created current structures, norms, attitudes, and policies, and any intervention in the setting must appreciate this history and understand why the current system exists in the form that it does. This principle applies to families, organizations, and communities; further, an implication of noting and understanding succession in these units is that psychologists must understand the history of that unit (family, organization, or community) before attempting to implement an intervention plan [10]

cycling of resources: each setting has resources that need to be identified and possibilities for new resources to be developed; a resource perspective emphasizes a focus on strengths of individuals, groups, and institutions within the setting and interventions are more likely to succeed if they build on such existing strengths, rather than introduce new external mechanisms for change. There are personal resources which include individual talents, strengths, or specialties, as well as social resources such as shared norms, beliefs, or values; further, aspects of the physical environment can be considered resources, such as calm resting places, a library, and other qualities of the space in particular [11]

interdependence: settings are systems, and any change to one aspect of the setting will have consequences for other aspects of the setting, so any intervention needs to anticipate its impact across the entire setting, and be prepared for unintended consequences. When we look at a school, for instance, as a real-world example, the interdependent parts include: students, teachers, administrators, students' parents, faculty and staff (secretaries, janitors, counselors, nurses), board members, and taxpayers [12]


Four main schools[edit]

Many clinical psychologists are integrative or eclectic and draw from the evidence base across different models of therapy in an integrative way, rather than using a single specific model.


In the UK, clinical psychologists have to show competence in at least two models of therapy, including CBT, to gain their doctorate. The British Psychological Society Division of Clinical Psychology has been vocal about the need to follow the evidence base rather than being wedded to a single model of therapy.


In the USA, intervention applications and research are dominated in training and practice by essentially four major schools of practice: psychodynamic, humanistic, behavioral/cognitive behavioral, and systems or family therapy.[2]



The theory of individual differences started from the concept of temperament suggested by Hippocrates and Galen. Hippocrates' four humours gave rise to four temperaments.[5] The explanation was further refined by his successor Galen during the second century CE. The "Four Humours" theory held that a person's temperament was based on the balance of bodily humours; yellow bile, black bile, phlegm, and blood.[6] Choleric people were characterized as having an excess of yellow bile, making them irascible. High levels of black bile were held to induce melancholy, signified by a sombre, gloomy, pessimistic outlook. Phlegmatic people were thought to have an excess of phlegm, leading to their sluggish, calm temperaments. Finally, people thought to have high levels of blood were said to be sanguine and were characterized by their cheerful, passionate dispositions.[6]


There are debates between researchers of temperament and researchers of personality as to whether or not biologically-based differences define a concept of temperament or a part of personality. The presence of such differences in pre-cultural individuals (such as animals or young infants) suggests that they belong to temperament since personality is a socio-cultural concept. Researchers of adult temperament point out that, similarly to sex, age, and mental illness, temperament is based on biochemical systems whereas personality is a product of socialization of an individual possessing these four types of features. Temperament interacts with social-cultural factors, but still cannot be controlled or easily changed by these factors.[7][8][9][10] Modern theories of temperament converge to 12 components, all based on ensemble interaction between brain neurotransmitters.[10][11]


Corsi blocks tasks with a normal forward order requires support from the visuospatial skech pad, but not from the phonological loop. When the sequence to be recalled becomes longer than three or four items, central executive resources are used


Qmr i put this in my first qmr book

Helen Fisher's Types: Explorer, Builder, Director, Negotiator

In a previous post I wrote of a personality and matching test at that was developed by researcher Helen Fisher. We are already seeing some possible patterns in how her types correspond to socionic types, and I encourage readers to take the test if they haven't already and share their results in that post.

The best introduction to Fisher's research is this half-hour interview with her by Nicole Simon. Here Fisher talks about the history of her research, her main findings, and the types themselves. Each type is supposedly related to one of four chemicals that broadly influences personality: dopamine (a neurotransmitter), serotonin (neurotransmitter), testosterone (hormone), and estrogen (hormone).

Explorer: (more dopamine expression) -- risk-taking, curious, creative, impulsive, optimistic and energetic

Builder: (more serotonin expression) -- cautious but not fearful, calm, traditional, community-oriented, persistent and loyal

Director: (more testosterone expression) -- very analytical, decisive, tough-minded; they like to debate and can be aggressive

Negotiator: (more estrogen expression) -- broadminded imaginative, compassionate, intuitive, verbal, nurturing, altruistic and idealistic

(descriptions taken from Fisher herself in Time article)

These types have a fairly clear biological basis:

There was a great deal of data that people vary in terms of their expression of dopamine and norepinephrine, serotonin, estrogen and oxytocin and testosterone. I culled from the academic literature all of those data points that show that these particular brain-chemical systems are related to certain aspects of personality. And I saw constellations of temperament traits that seemed to be associated with these chemicals.


Why Fisher did not include the neurotransmitter norepinephrine or the hormone oxytocin in her system is unclear. Perhaps the related personality traits were less obvious or fundamental. In the interview she states that people have been talking of 4 types for thousands of years, and she feels there's a reason for that. This is another case of the form of an idea being more lasting than its content (which I talked about in the previous post on the Enneagram) -- in this case, that there are four types. How these types are defined has varied widely. And is the four-based system an actual attribute of nature, or simply how our logical, order-seeking brain would like to see things?

Fisher attaches a second type to the first as a sort of auxiliary feature, creating a system of 12 possible combinations.

Socionics and Fisher's types

From the summaries given by Fisher, it appears that each of these four chemicals corresponds at least somewhat to more than one socionics category:

Dopamine: extraverted intuition, extraversion, irrationality

Serotonin: rationality, introversion, sensing

Testosterone: logic, sensing

Estrogen: ethics, intuition

So, a common type for an ILE might be "EXPLORER/director," for IEE - "EXPLORER/negotiator," for IEI "NEGOTIATOR/explorer," for ILI "NEGOTIATOR/director," for LSE "DIRECTOR/builder," etc.

Fisher says that Explorers are the rarest type (8%), and builders the most common (>40%).

Fisher identifies herself as an EXPLORER/negotiator.

Type development

Fisher says that while our natural propensities are genetically determined, much of our brain chemistry is dependent on situational factors, and our type may change or become more or less evident. This is a different view than socionics, but not necessarily a conflicting one, since the two typologies are based on different principles.

I find this possibility intriguing. I would say that my "Explorer" type fully awakened only at the age of 23 under the influence of a host of external factors. If I had remained in the situation I was in, I might be a different type today or simply a less obvious Explorer. If you find a natural Director working away at a dull job and make him the coach of a college football team, the experience could trigger a metamorphosis in him and a long-term change in his career direction.

Before a string of deeply "exploratory" experiences (spending extensive time abroad in Slovakia and Russia), I was a star math student planning on majoring in math in college. After spending 3 years abroad speaking two different foreign languages and being exposed to new ways of life, however, I could no longer focus my mind on math. It simply did not provide the rewards I had now come to expect from my activities: experiencing new things, seeing new places, meeting new people, and perfecting and applying my language skills. I think all these activities had activated my dopamine system in some way such that my brain had become reliant upon dopamine stimulation, which I could not get from mathematics. The propensity for this "dependency" was certainly built into my system to begin with. Had I had been a different "Fisher type" to begin with, my experiences abroad may not have had such a lasting impact on my path in life. The vast majority of people who went through the same experiences I did returned to life in the U.S. with only slightly modified career plans at most.

Intertype attraction

I have found conflicting views on which types attract which, seemingly from Helen Fisher herself. One view is that each type is attacted to its own. The other view is that Explorers and Builders attract (despite there being 5 times more builders) and Directors and Negotiators attract. My type profile (I am EXPLORER/negotiator) said I "tend to naturally gravitate to EXPLORER/director."

The conflicting statements on mutual attraction suggest that the correlation is weak or borderline, and that Fisher herself is not entirely sure yet. But she may not be able to say that outright, since she is being paid by these matchmaking websites to provide a matching algorithm. Correct me if anyone has read her latest book and has more information.


I think the study of chemicals and their effects of personality is a high-prospect direction of inquiry. It is based on a body of scientific research and lends itself to empirical study, meaning that strangers can work on research all at once and build on each other's findings with ease -- quite the opposite of socionics or the Enneagram, where people have to communicate closely and extensively to transfer knowledge.

Emerging patterns of correlation between socionic types and Fisher's types open up the possibility of discovering the roots of certain socionic categories in brain chemicals. The four Fisher focuses on are not the only chemicals known to influence personality, but certainly some of the most important and best


Theories of creativity (particularly investigation of why some people are more creative than others) have focused on a variety of aspects. The dominant factors are usually identified as "the four Ps" — process, product, person, and place (according to Mel Rhodes).[5] A focus on process is shown in cognitive approaches that try to describe thought mechanisms and techniques for creative thinking. Theories invoking divergent rather than convergent thinking (such as Guilford), or those describing the staging of the creative process (such as Wallas) are primarily theories of creative process. A focus on creative product usually appears in attempts to measure creativity (psychometrics, see below) and in creative ideas framed as successful memes.[6] The psychometric approach to creativity reveals that it also involves the ability to produce more.[7] A focus on the nature of the creative person considers more general intellectual habits, such as openness, levels of ideation, autonomy, expertise, exploratory behavior, and so on. A focus on place considers the circumstances in which creativity flourishes, such as degrees of autonomy, access to resources, and the nature of gatekeepers. Creative lifestyles are characterized by nonconforming attitudes and behaviors as well as flexibility.[7]


Creativity and personality[edit]

Creativity can be expressed in a number of different forms, depending on unique people and environments. A number of different theorists have suggested models of the creative person. One model suggests that there are kinds to produce growth, innovation, speed, etc. These are referred to as the four "Creativity Profiles" that can help achieve such goals.[135]


(i) Incubate (Long-term Development)

(ii) Imagine (Breakthrough Ideas)

(iii) Improve (Incremental Adjustments)

(iv) Invest (Short-term Goals)

Research by Dr Mark Batey of the Psychometrics at Work Research Group at Manchester Business School has suggested that the creative profile can be explained by four primary creativity traits with narrow facets within each


(i) "Idea Generation" (Fluency, Originality, Incubation and Illumination)

(ii) "Personality" (Curiosity and Tolerance for Ambiguity)

(iii) "Motivation" (Intrinsic, Extrinsic and Achievement)

(iv) "Confidence" (Producing, Sharing and Implementing)


The insights of Poincaré and von Helmholtz were built on in early accounts of the creative process by pioneering theorists such as Graham Wallas[20] and Max Wertheimer. In his work Art of Thought, published in 1926, Wallas presented one of the first models of the creative process. In the Wallas stage model, creative insights and illuminations may be explained by a process consisting of 5 stages:


(i) preparation (preparatory work on a problem that focuses the individual's mind on the problem and explores the problem's dimensions),

(ii) incubation (where the problem is internalized into the unconscious mind and nothing appears externally to be happening),

(iii) intimation (the creative person gets a "feeling" that a solution is on its way),

(iv) illumination or insight (where the creative idea bursts forth from its preconscious processing into conscious awareness);

(v) verification (where the idea is consciously verified, elaborated, and then applied).

Wallas' model is often treated as four stages, with "intimation" seen as a sub-stage.


"Four C" model[edit]

James C. Kaufman and Beghetto introduced a "four C" model of creativity; mini-c ("transformative learning" involving "personally meaningful interpretations of experiences, actions, and insights"), little-c (everyday problem solving and creative expression), Pro-C (exhibited by people who are professionally or vocationally creative though not necessarily eminent) and Big-C (creativity considered great in the given field). This model was intended to help accommodate models and theories of creativity that stressed competence as an essential component and the historical transformation of a creative domain as the highest mark of creativity. It also, the authors argued, made a useful framework for analyzing creative processes in individuals.[27]


The contrast of terms "Big C" and "Little c" has been widely used. Kozbelt, Beghetto and Runco use a little-c/Big-C model to review major theories of creativity.[26] Margaret Boden distinguishes between h-creativity (historical) and p-creativity (personal).[28]


Robinson[29] and Anna Craft[30] have focused on creativity in a general population, particularly with respect to education. Craft makes a similar distinction between "high" and "little c" creativity.[30] and cites Ken Robinson as referring to "high" and "democratic" creativity. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi[31] has defined creativity in terms of those individuals judged to have made significant creative, perhaps domain-changing contributions. Simonton has analysed the career trajectories of eminent creative people in order to map patterns and predictors of creative productivity.[32]



Deming is best known in the United States for his 14 Points (Out of the Crisis, by W. Edwards Deming, preface) and his system of thought he called the "System of Profound Knowledge". The system includes four components or "lenses" through which to view the world simultaneously:


Appreciating a system

Understanding variation


Epistemology, the theory of knowledge[5]


Deming advocated that all managers need to have what he called a System of Profound Knowledge, consisting of four parts:


Appreciation of a system: understanding the overall processes involving suppliers, producers, and customers (or recipients) of goods and services (explained below);

Knowledge of variation: the range and causes of variation in quality, and use of statistical sampling in measurements;

Theory of knowledge: the concepts explaining knowledge and the limits of what can be known.

Knowledge of psychology: concepts of human nature.

He explained, "One need not be eminent in any part nor in all four parts in order to understand it and to apply it. The 14 points for management in industry, education, and government follow naturally as application of this outside knowledge, for transformation from the present style of Western management to one of optimization."


Drawing from positive psychology constructs and empirical research, four psychological resources were determined to best meet the POB scientific criteria: Hope, Efficacy, Resilience, and Optimism and were termed by Luthans and colleagues as psychological Capital or PsyCap [4] and as en Emotional Capital (Gendron B., 2002, 2004).[5]


Link with emotional capital[edit]

Emotional capital (EK), a capital in an economic sense: filling the gap of the Becker's Human capital measurement approach. It brings outcomes and makes a bridge between outcomes from psychology and economics by taking into account soft skills as the socio-emotional competencies described in emotional intelligence models from Goleman, Cherniss, Bar-on, Salovey & Meyer, Caruso, Sarni.


Positive psychological capital: an heritage versus capital.[6][7][8][9] In combination, the four constructs making up PsyCap were empirically determined to be a second-order, core construct that had a stronger relationship with satisfaction and performance than each of the components by itself.[10] The four components are defined as follows:


Hope – Is defined as a positive motivational state where two basic elements - successful feeling of agency (or goal oriented determination) and pathways (or proactively planning to achieve those goals) interact.

Self efficacy – Is defined as people's confidence in their ability to achieve a specific goal in a specific situation.

Optimism – was defined by Seligman by Attribution theory (Fritz Heider, 1958). An Optimistic person is defined as one that makes "Internal" or "dispositional", fixed and global attributions for positive events and "External" or "situational", not fixed and specific attributions to negative events. Optimism in Psycap is thought as a realistic construct that regards what an employee can or cannot do, as such, optimism reinforces efficacy and hope.

Resilience – Is defined in Positive Psychology as a positive way of coping with adversity or distress. In organizational aspect, it is defined as an ability to recuperate from stress, conflict, failure, change or increase in responsibility.

The philosopher Charles Handy calls this concept the Johari House with four rooms. Room 1 is the part of ourselves that we see and others see. Room 2 is the aspects that others see but we are not aware of. Room 4 is the most mysterious room in that the unconscious or subconscious part of us is seen by neither ourselves nor others. Room 3 is our private space, which we know but keep Hiding from others.


Open or Arena: Adjectives that are selected by both the participant and his or her peers are placed into the Open or Arena quadrant. This quadrant represents traits of the subjects that both they themselves and their peers are aware of.


Hidden or Façade: Adjectives selected only by subjects, but not by any of their peers, are placed into the Hidden or Façade quadrant, representing information about them their peers are unaware of. It is then up to the subject to disclose this information or not.


Blind: Adjectives that are not selected by subjects but only by their peers are placed into the Blind Spot quadrant. These represent information that the subject is not aware of, but others are, and they can decide whether and how to inform the individual about these "blind spots".


Unknown: Adjectives that were not selected by either subjects or their peers remain in the Unknown quadrant, representing the participant's behaviors or motives that were not recognized by anyone participating. This may be because they do not apply or because there is collective ignorance of the existence of these traits.