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256 IS FOUR TO THE FOURTH POWER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-definition_television_in_the_United_States

Cable television companies in the U.S. generally prefer to use 256-QAM to transmit HDTV. Many of the newer HDTVs with integrated digital tuners include support for decoding 256-QAM in addition to 8VSB for OTA digital. Cable television companies started carrying HDTV in 2003.

QUADRATURE AMPLITUDE MODULATION- QUAD IS FOUR- THESE ARE ALL QUADRANT NUMBERS- 256 IS TWO TIMES 16- 4096 IS 256 TIMES 16 - 1024 IS 16 TIMES 64, 32768 IS 16 TIMES 2048

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quadrature_amplitude_modulation

 

As in many digital modulation schemes, the constellation diagram is useful for QAM. In QAM, the constellation points are usually arranged in a square grid with equal vertical and horizontal spacing, although other configurations are possible (e.g. Cross-QAM). Since in digital telecommunications the data is usually binary, the number of points in the grid is usually a power of 2 (2, 4, 8, …). Since QAM is usually square, some of these are rare—the most common forms are 16-QAM, 64-QAM and 256-QAM. By moving to a higher-order constellation, it is possible to transmit more bits per symbol. However, if the mean energy of the constellation is to remain the same (by way of making a fair comparison), the points must be closer together and are thus more susceptible to noise and other corruption; this results in a higher bit error rate and so higher-order QAM can deliver more data less reliably than lower-order QAM, for constant mean constellation energy. Using higher-order QAM without increasing the bit error rate requires a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by increasing signal energy, reducing noise, or both.

 

If data-rates beyond those offered by 8-PSK are required, it is more usual to move to QAM since it achieves a greater distance between adjacent points in the I-Q plane by distributing the points more evenly. The complicating factor is that the points are no longer all the same amplitude and so the demodulator must now correctly detect both phase and amplitude, rather than just phase.

 

64-QAM and 256-QAM are often used in digital cable television and cable modem applications. In the United States, 64-QAM and 256-QAM are the mandated modulation schemes for digital cable (see QAM tuner) as standardised by the SCTE in the standard ANSI/SCTE 07 2013. Note that many marketing people will refer to these as QAM-64 and QAM-256.[citation needed] In the UK, 64-QAM is used for digital terrestrial television (Freeview) whilst 256-QAM is used for Freeview-HD.

 

 

Bit-loading (bits per QAM constellation) on an ADSL line

Communication systems designed to achieve very high levels of spectral efficiency usually employ very dense QAM constellations. For example, current Homeplug AV2 500-Mbit powerline Ethernet devices use 1024-QAM and 4096-QAM,[4] as well as future devices using ITU-T G.hn standard for networking over existing home wiring (coaxial cable, phone lines and power lines); 4096-QAM provides 12 bits/symbol. Another example is ADSL technology for copper twisted pairs, whose constellation size goes up to 32768-QAM (in ADSL terminology this is referred to as bit-loading, or bit per tone, 32768-QAM being equivalent to 15 bits per tone).[5]

 

Ultra-high capacity Microwave Backhaul Systems also use 1024-QAM.[6] With 1024-QAM, Adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM), and XPIC, Vendors can obtain Gigabit capacity in a single 56 MHz channel.[7]

IT SAYS THE FIRST ENCOUNTERED IS THE 16- 16 SQUARES QMR

Constellation diagram for rectangular 16-QAM.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:16QAM_Gray_Coded.svg

Rectangular QAM constellations are, in general, sub-optimal in the sense that they do not maximally space the constellation points for a given energy. However, they have the considerable advantage that they may be easily transmitted as two pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) signals on quadrature carriers, and can be easily demodulated. The non-square constellations, dealt with below, achieve marginally better bit-error rate (BER) but are harder to modulate and demodulate.

 

The first rectangular QAM constellation usually encountered is 16-QAM, the constellation diagram for which is shown here. A Gray coded bit-assignment is also given. The reason that 16-QAM is usually the first is that a brief consideration reveals that 2-QAM and 4-QAM are in fact binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) and quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK), respectively. Also, the error-rate performance of 8-QAM is close to that of 16-QAM (only about 0.5 dB better[citation needed]), but its data rate is only three-quarters that of 16-QAM.

256 IS FOUR TO THE FOURTH POWER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Braille_pattern_dots-256

The Braille pattern dots-256 ( ⠲ ) is a 6-dot braille cell with both middle, and the bottom right dots raised, or an 8-dot braille cell with both upper-middle, and the lower-middle right dots raised. It is represented by the Unicode code point U+2832, and in Braille ASCII with the number 4.

256 IS FOUR TO THE FOURTH POWER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pac-Man_256

Pac-Man 256 is an endless running video game co-developed by Hipster Whale and 3 Sprockets and published by Bandai Namco Entertainment. The game is part of the Pac-Man series and is inspired by the original Pac-Man game's infamous Level 256 glitch. The game was originally released as a free-to-play title for iOS and Android on August 20, 2015. A port of the game for PlayStation 4, Xbox One, and PC by Bandai Namco Studios Vancouver, featuring additional features, was released on June 21, 2016.[1]

 

Pac-Man 256 puts players in control of Pac-Man as he continues across an endless maze, collecting dots and power-ups while avoiding enemy ghosts. The game ends if Pac-Man comes into contact with a ghost or falls behind and is consumed by a chasing glitch at the bottom of the maze. By eating enough dots in a row (256 dots to be precise [2]), players will be awarded with a blast that clears all on-screen enemies. Along with power pellets, which enable Pac-Man to eat ghosts, Pac-Man can equip and obtain various power-ups such as lasers, tornadoes, and clones to attack the ghosts, as well as collect score-multiplying fruit. Additional power-ups are unlocked by collecting enough dots. Clearing certain missions unlock coins, also obtained either on the maze or by viewing sponsored videos, which can be used to upgrade power-ups.[3]

256 IS FOUR FOURTH POWER 64 IS FOUR QUADRANT MODELS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectr-H64

Spectr-H64

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Spectr-H64

General

Designers N.D. Goots, A.A. Moldovyan and N.A. Moldovyan

First published 2001

Successors CIKS-1

Cipher detail

Key sizes 256 bits

Block sizes 64 bits

Structure Feistel-like network

Rounds 12

Best public cryptanalysis

Slide attack using 217 chosen plaintexts

In cryptography, Spectr-H64 is a block cipher designed in 2001 by N. D. Goots, A. A. Moldovyan and N. A. Moldovyan. It relies heavily on the permutation of individual bits, so is much better suited to implementation in hardware than in software.

 

The algorithm has a block size of 64 bits and key size of 256 bits. It uses a 12 round structure in which half of the block determines the transformation of the other half in each round, similar to a Feistel cipher or RC5. This same basic design was repeated in its successor, CIKS-1.

192 IS 16 TIMES 12 ALL QUADRANT NUMBERS-16 ARTIFACT COLORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Composite_artifact_colors

The TRS-80 Color Computer 256x192 two color graphics mode uses four colors due to a quirk in the NTSC television system. It is not possible to reliably display 256 dots across the screen due to the limitations of the NTSC signal and the phase relationship between the VDG clock and colorburst frequency. In the first colorset, where green and black dots are available, alternating columns of green and black are not distinct and appear as a muddy green color. However, when one switches to the white and black colorset, instead of a muddy gray as expected, the result is either orange or blue. Reversing the order of the alternating dots will give the opposite color. In effect this mode becomes a 128x192 4 color graphics mode where black, orange, blue, and white are available (the Apple II created color graphics by exploiting a similar effect). Most CoCo games used this mode as the colors available are more useful than the ones provided in the hardware 4 color modes. Unfortunately the VDG internally can power up on either the rising or falling edge of the clock, so the bit patterns that represent orange and blue are not predictable. Most CoCo games would start up with a title screen and invited the user to press the reset button until the colors were correct. The CoCo 3 fixed the clock-edge problem so it was always the same; a user would hold the F1 key during reset to choose the other color set. On a CoCo 3 with an analog RGB monitor, the black and white dot patterns do not artifact; to see them one would have to use a TV or composite monitor, or patch the games to use the hardware 128x192 four color mode in which the GIME chip allows the color choices to be mapped. Users in PAL countries saw green and purple stripes instead of solid red and blue colors.

 

Readers of The Rainbow or Hot CoCo magazine learned that they could use some POKE commands to switch the 6847 VDG into one of the artifact modes, while Extended Color Basic continued to operate as though it were still displaying one of the 128x192 four-color modes. Thus, the entire set of Extended Color Basic graphics commands could be used with the artifact colors. Some users went on to develop a set of 16 artifact colors[how?] using a 4x2 pixel matrix. Use of POKE commands also made these colors available to the graphics commands, although the colors had to be drawn one horizontal line at a time. Some interesting artworks were produced from these effects, especially since the CoCo Max art package provided them in its palette of colors.

 

The resulting 16 color palette is:

 

black

dark cyan

brick red

light violet

dark blue

azure

olive green

brown

purple

light blue

orange

yellow

light gray

blue-white

pink-white

white

THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourth_television_network

In American television terminology, a fourth network is a reference to a fourth broadcast (over-the-air) television network, as opposed to the Big Three television networks that dominated U.S. television from the 1950s to the 1990s: ABC, CBS and NBC.

THERE ARE THREE COPIES OF 16 REPRESENTATIONS- 16 SQUARES QMR- SPINORIAL 16
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SO(10)_(physics)
https://en.wikipedia.org/…/File:SO(10)_-_16_Weight_Diagram.…
The matter representations come in three copies (generations) of the 16 representation. The Yukawa coupling is 10H 16f 16f. This includes a right-handed neutrino. We can either include three copies of singlet representations φ and a Yukawa coupling 
<
16
¯
H
>
16
f
ϕ<\overline {16}_{H}>16_{f}\phi (see double seesaw mechanism) or add the Yukawa interaction 
<
126
¯
H
>
16
f
16
f
<\overline {126}_{H}>16_{f}16_{f} or add the nonrenormalizable coupling 
<
16
¯
H
><
16
¯
H
>
16
f
16
f
<\overline {16}_{H}><\overline {16}_{H}>16_{f}16_{f}. See seesaw mechanism.

Before the SU(5) theory behind the Georgi–Glashow model, Harald Fritzsch and Peter Minkowski and independently Howard Georgi found that all the matter contents are incorporated into a single representation, spinorial 16 of SO(10). (Historical note: the before in the previous sentence is misleading: Georgi found the SO(10) theory a few hours before finding SU(5) at the end of 1973.[1])

THERE ARE FOUR PARTICLES THAT MAKE UP THE ELECTROWEAK INTERACTION- FOUR PART LAGRANGIAN---- I DESCRIBED THERE ARE 16 REGULAR PARTICLES IN THE UNIVERSE THE UNIVERSE THAT HUMANS INTERACT WITH ONLY FOUR PARTICLES------- THERE ARE 16 REGULAR PARTICLES THE FOUR QUADRANTS A QUESTIONABLE 17th GOD OEN FIFTH QUADRANT ALWAY SQUESTIONABLE GOD PARTICLE HIGGS MANY ARGUE THAT THERE IS NO REAL EVIDENCE OF ITS EXISTENCE AND ULTRA TRANSCENDENT

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroweak_interaction

This unified theory modeled the electroweak interaction as a force mediated by four particles: the photon for the electromagnetic aspect, and a neutral Z particle and two charged W particles for weak aspect

 

 

 

The Lagrangian for the electroweak interactions is divided into four parts before electroweak symmetry breaking

FOUR GRAN SASSO EXPERIMENTs
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutrino
In June 2012, CERN announced that new measurements conducted by all four Gran Sasso experiments (OPERA, ICARUS, Borexino and LVD) found agreement between the speed of light and the speed of neutrinos, finally refuting the initial OPERA claim.[61]

THERE ARE FOUR MAIN FISSILE ISOTOPES IN NUCLEAR REACTORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutrino

Nuclear reactors are the major source of human-generated neutrinos. The majority of energy in a nuclear reactor is generated by fission (the four main fissile isotopes in nuclear reactors are 235

U

, 238

U

, 239

Pu

and 241

Pu

)

FOUR GENERATIONS FOURTH DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Programming_language_generations

Initially, all programming languages at a higher level than assembly were termed "third-generation", but later on, the term "fourth-generation" was introduced to try to differentiate the (then) new declarative languages (such as Prolog and domain-specific languages) which claimed to operate at an even higher level, and in a domain even closer to the user (e.g. at a natural language level) than the original, imperative high level languages such as Pascal, C, ALGOL, Fortran, BASIC, etc.

THE ATLAS DETECTOR FOUR PARTS- THERE ARE FOUR DETECTORS IN THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER

 

The ATLAS detector consists of a series of ever-larger concentric cylinders around the interaction point where the proton beams from the LHC collide. It can be divided into four major parts: the Inner Detector, the calorimeters, the Muon Spectrometer and the magnet systems.[19] Each of these is in turn made of multiple layers. The detectors are complementary: the Inner Detector tracks particles precisely, the calorimeters measure the energy of easily stopped particles, and the muon system makes additional measurements of highly penetrating muons. The two magnet systems bend charged particles in the Inner Detector and the Muon Spectrometer, allowing their momenta to be measured.

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ATLAS_experiment

quad

LEP FOUR LARGE UNDERGROUND EXPERIMENTAL AREAS FOUR EXPERIMENTS- THERE ARE FOUR DETECTORS

 

FOUR MAIN PRODUCTION MECHANISMS FOR HADRON COLLIDERS---- GLUON GLUON FUSION, WW/ZZ FUSION, ASSOCIATED PRODUCITON WITH HEAVY QUARKS, AND ASSOCIATED PRODUCTION WITH WEAK GAUGE BOSONS

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=BP7xBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA109&lpg=PA109&dq=four+gg+fusion+ww+zz+fusion+tt+fusion&source=bl&ots=zZF9RpClY4&sig=aV6y9TL1aqD3YFV_Qg71hMdW8XA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiEpMHdq7nTAhVE-mMKHdzeACcQ6AEIQjAF#v=onepage&q=four%20gg%20fusion%20ww%20zz%20fusion%20tt%20fusion&f=false

QUADRANT

THE FOUR LEP DETECTORS- THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER IS LIKE THE LEP (LARGE ELECTRON POSITRON COLLIDER)- THEY BOTH HAVE FOUR COLLIDERS- THERE ARE FOUR LEP EXPERIMENTS THERE WERE FOUR MAIN LHC EXPERIMENTS

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=BP7xBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA109&lpg=PA109&dq=four+gg+fusion+ww+zz+fusion+tt+fusion&source=bl&ots=zZF9RpClY4&sig=aV6y9TL1aqD3YFV_Qg71hMdW8XA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiEpMHdq7nTAhVE-mMKHdzeACcQ6AEIQjAF#v=onepage&q=four&f=false

Quadrant

FOUR DETECTORS OF THE LEP--- THIS STUFF WAS POSTED IN MY OVER 60 QMR BOOKS- LIKE THE FOUR DETECTORS AT CERN LHC THAT EVERYBODY TALKS ABOUT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Large_Electron–Positron_Collider

The Large Electron–Positron Collider had four detectors, built around the four collision points within underground halls. Each was the size of a small house and was capable of registering the particles by their energy, momentum and charge, thus allowing physicists to infer the particle reaction that had happened and the elementary particles involved. By performing statistical analysis of this data, knowledge about elementary particle physics is gained. The four detectors of LEP were called Aleph, Delphi, Opal, and L3. They were built differently to allow for complementary experiments.

 

ALEPH[edit]

Main article: ALEPH experiment

ALEPH stands for Apparatus for LEP PHysics at CERN. The detector determined the mass of the W-boson and Z-boson to within one part in a thousand. The number of families of particles with light neutrinos was determined to be 2.982±0.013, which is consistent with the standard model value of 3. The running of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) coupling constant was measured at various energies and found to run in accordance with perturbative calculations in QCD.[2]

 

DELPHI[edit]

Main article: DELPHI experiment

DELPHI stands for DEtector with Lepton, Photon and Hadron Identification.

 

OPAL[edit]

Main article: OPAL experiment

OPAL stands for Omni-Purpose Apparatus for LEP. The name of the experiment was a play, as some of the founding members of the scientific collaboration which first proposed the design had previously worked on the JADE detector at DESY in Hamburg.[3] OPAL was a general-purpose detector designed to collect a broad range of data. Its data were used to make high precision measurements of the Z boson lineshape, perform detailed tests of the Standard Model, and place limits on new physics. The detector was dismantled in 2000 to make way for LHC equipment. The lead glass blocks from the OPAL barrel electromagnetic calorimeter are currently being re-used in the large-angle photon veto detectors at the NA62 experiment at CERN.

 

L3[edit]

Main article: L3 experiment

L3 was another LEP experiment.[4] Its enormous octagonal magnet return yoke remained in place in the cavern and became part of the ALICE detector for the LHC.

THE QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS OF THE LHC AND THE FOUR PARTICLE DETECTORS

https://home.cern/topics/large-hadron-collider

Thousands of magnets of different varieties and sizes are used to direct the beams around the accelerator. These include 1232 dipole magnets 15 metres in length which bend the beams, and 392 quadrupole magnets, each 5–7 metres long, which focus the beams. Just prior to collision, another type of magnet is used to "squeeze" the particles closer together to increase the chances of collisions. The particles are so tiny that the task of making them collide is akin to firing two needles 10 kilometres apart with such precision that they meet halfway.

 

All the controls for the accelerator, its services and technical infrastructure are housed under one roof at the CERN Control Centre. From here, the beams inside the LHC are made to collide at four locations around the accelerator ring, corresponding to the positions of four particle detectors – ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb.

THEY ARE CALLED FOUR GIAN DETECTORS---THESE FOUND THE 16 PARTICLES- 16 SQUARES QMR

http://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Large_Hadron_Collider

Particles enter the LHC through a series of small particle accelerators (in a ring shape), each one pushing them closer and closer to the speed of light until they are released into the larger LHC ring. Some of the accelerators inject particles moving clockwise, others inject counterclockwise particles. When these opposing particle streams collide, they release enormous amounts of energy. This energy is recorded by four giant detectors: ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment), CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid), ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus), and LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty).[5] All this data is processed using a new system of computing called "The Grid." The Grid consists of 80,000 computers in 50 countries, all designed to number-crunch the huge amounts of data the LHC is expected to produce, which amounts to 15,000 terabytes (or 15 petabytes) per annum.[6]

FOUR CROSSING POINTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Large_Hadron_Collider
The collider has four crossing points, around which are positioned seven detectors, each designed for certain kinds of research. The LHC primarily collides proton beams, but it can also use beams of lead nuclei. Proton–lead collisions were performed for short periods in 2013 and 2016, and lead–lead collisions took place in 2010, 2011, 2013, and 2015.

YES THERE ARE 16 PARTICLES (16 SQUARES IN THE QUADRANT MODEL) BUT IN THE UNIVERSE WE INTERACT WITH THERE IS REALLY ONLY FOUR PARTICLES (THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT CONTAINS THE PREVIOUS THREE PARTICLES- IT LITERALLY CAN TURN INTO THE PREVIOUS THREE PARTICLES THE NEUTRINO IS TRANSCENDENT)

https://books.google.com/books?id=9GFqDQAAQBAJ&pg=PA74&lpg=PA74&dq=everything+is+made+up+of+four+particles+up+quark+down+quark&source=bl&ots=dZU1dOlRA1&sig=iabgFuf0iZt3dolOMI5R63u0aVA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjhhuGxl7rTAhVY12MKHRlvDrE4ChDoAQgzMAM#v=onepage&q=everything%20is%20made%20up%20of%20four%20particles%20up%20quark%20down%20quark&f=false

 

EVERYTHING IN OUR UNIVERSE BOILS DOWN TO FOUR PARTICLES- THE UP QUARK THE DOWN QUARK THE ELECTRON AND THE NEUTRINO

FOUR NEUTRALINOS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_particles

The neutralinos are superpositions of the superpartners of neutral Standard Model bosons (FOUR): neutral Higgs boson, Z boson and photon.

The lightest neutralino is a leading candidate for dark matter.

The MSSM predicts four neutralinos.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimal_Supersymmetric_Standard_Model

There are four neutralinos that are fermions and are electrically neutral, the lightest of which is typically stable. They are typically labeled

N͂0

1,

N͂0

2,

N͂0

3,

N͂0

4 (although sometimes

χ

~

1

0

,

,

χ

~

4

0

{\tilde {\chi }}_{1}^{0},\ldots ,{\tilde {\chi }}_{4}^{0} is used instead). These four states are mixtures of the Bino and the neutral Wino (which are the neutral electroweak Gauginos), and the neutral Higgsinos. As the neutralinos are Majorana fermions, each of them is identical with its antiparticle. Because these particles only interact with the weak vector bosons, they are not directly produced at hadron colliders in copious numbers. They primarily appear as particles in cascade decays of heavier particles usually originating from colored supersymmetric particles such as squarks or gluinos.

FOUR NEUTRALINOS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutralino

In supersymmetry, the neutralino[1] is a hypothetical particle. There are four neutralinos that are fermions and are electrically neutral, the lightest of which is typically stable. They are typically labeled

N͂0

1 (the lightest),

N͂0

2,

N͂0

3 and

N͂0

4 (the heaviest) although sometimes

χ

~

1

0

,

,

χ

~

4

0

{\tilde {\chi }}_{1}^{0},\ldots ,{\tilde {\chi }}_{4}^{0} is also used when

χ

~

i

±{\tilde {\chi }}_{i}^{\pm } is used to refer to charginos. These four states are mixtures of the bino and the neutral wino (which are the neutral electroweak gauginos), and the neutral higgsinos. As the neutralinos are Majorana fermions, each of them is identical to its antiparticle. Because these particles only interact with the weak vector bosons, they are not directly produced at hadron colliders in copious numbers. They would primarily appear as particles in cascade decays of heavier particles (decays that happen in multiple steps) usually originating from colored supersymmetric particles such as squarks or gluinos.

 

In supersymmetry models, all Standard Model particles have partner particles with the same quantum numbers except for the quantum number spin, which differs by 1/2 from its partner particle. Since the superpartners of the Z boson (zino), the photon (photino) and the neutral higgs (higgsino) have the same quantum numbers, they can mix to form four eigenstates of the mass operator called "neutralinos". In many models the lightest of the four neutralinos turns out to be the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), though other particles may also take on this role.

 

In models in which R-parity is conserved and the lightest of the four neutralinos is the LSP, the lightest neutralino is stable and is eventually produced in the decay chain of all other superpartners.[3] In such cases supersymmetric processes at accelerators are characterized by a large discrepancy in energy and momentum between the visible initial and final state particles, with this energy being carried off by a neutralino which departs the detector unnoticed.[4][5] This is an important signature to discriminate supersymmetry from Standard Model backgrounds.

FOUR ANOMALOUS SETS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Direct_Detection_Constraints.png

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weakly_interacting_massive_particles

Historically there have been four anomalous sets of data from different direct detection experiments, two of which have now been explained with backgrounds (CoGeNT and CRESST-II), and two which remain unexplained (DAMA and CDMS-Si).[27][28] In February 2010, researchers at CDMS announced that they had observed two events that may have been caused by WIMP-nucleus collisions.[29][30][31]

FOURTH COLOR DIFFERENT- SIXTEEN FOLDS

http://inspirehep.net/record/89207?ln=en

Lepton Number as the Fourth Color

Jogesh C. Pati (Maryland U.) , Abdus Salam (ICTP, Trieste & Imperial Coll., London)

Jan 1974 - 35 pages

 

Phys.Rev. D10 (1974) 275-289

Erratum: Phys.Rev. D11 (1975) 703-703

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.10.275, 10.1103/PhysRevD.11.703.2

IC-74-7

Abstract (APS)

Universal strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions of leptons and hadrons are generated by gauging a non-Abelian renormalizable anomaly-free subgroup of the fundamental symmetry structure SU(4)L×SU(4)R×SU(4′), which unites three quartets of "colored" baryonic quarks and the quartet of known leptons into 16-folds of chiral fermionic multiplets, with lepton number treated as the fourth "color" quantum number. Experimental consequences of this scheme are discussed. These include (1) the emergence and effects of exotic gauge mesons carrying both baryonic as well as leptonic quantum numbers, particularly in semileptonic processes, (2) the manifestation of anomalous strong interactions among leptonic and semileptonic processes at high energies, (3) the independent possibility of baryon-lepton number violation in quark and proton decays, and (4) the occurrence of (V+A) weak-current effects.

FOUR COLOR CHARGES INSTEAD OF THE CONVENTIONAL THREE- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT- LEPTON NUMBER IS THE FOURTH TRANSCENDENT COLOR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pati–Salam_model

In physics, the Pati–Salam model is a Partial Unification Theory proposed in 1974 by nobel laureate Abdus Salam and Jogesh Pati. The unification is based on there being four quark color charges, dubbed red, green, blue and violet (or lilac), instead of the conventional three, with the new "violet" quark being identified with the leptons. The model also has Left–right symmetry and predicts the existence of a high energy right handed weak interaction with heavy W' and Z' bosons.

 

Originally the fourth color was labelled "lilac" to alliterate with "lepton". Pati–Salam is a mainstream theory and a viable alternative to the Georgi–Glashow SU(5) unification. It can be embedded within an SO(10) unification model (as can SU(5)).

J. Pati and A. Salam, Phys. Rev. D10 (1974), 275. Lepton number as the fourth "color"

ALL ORDINARY MATTER IS MADE UP OF FOUR PARTICLES- BACK IN THE DAY I POSTED A WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE ON THIS TOO

http://www.clab.edc.uoc.gr/materials/pc/dive/matter.html

Just four kinds of building blocks are needed to account for all of ordinary matter. These are particles called up-quarks, down-quarks, electrons, and electron-neutrinos

THE HIGGS FIELD (THE GOD PARTICLE FIELD) HAS FOUR COMPONENTs

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higgs_boson

In the Standard Model, the Higgs particle is a boson with no spin, electric charge, or colour charge. It is also very unstable, decaying into other particles almost immediately. It is a quantum excitation of one of the four components of the Higgs field.

 

In the Standard Model, the Higgs field is a scalar tachyonic field – scalar meaning it does not transform under Lorentz transformations, and tachyonic meaning the field (but not the particle) has imaginary mass, and in certain configurations must undergo symmetry breaking. It consists of four components: two neutral ones and two charged component fields. Both of the charged components and one of the neutral fields are Goldstone bosons, which act as the longitudinal third-polarisation components of the massive W+, W−, and Z bosons. The quantum of the remaining neutral component corresponds to (and is theoretically realised as) the massive Higgs boson,[84] this component can also interact with fermions via Yukawa coupling to give them mass, as well.

 

In the Standard Model, the Higgs field is a four-component scalar field that forms a complex doublet of the weak isospin SU(2) symmetry:

QUARTIC MEANS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quartic_interaction

This article refers to a type of self-interaction in scalar field theory, a topic in quantum field theory. Other types of quartic interactions may be found under the topic of four-fermion interactions. A classical free scalar field

AGAIN 64 AND 128 ARE QUADRANT NUMBERS - 64 IS 16 TIMES 4 aND 128 IS 16 TIMES 8

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Unified_Theory

SU(8)[edit]

Assuming 4 generations of fermions instead of 3 (FOURTH ALWAYS DIFFERENT) makes a total of 64 types of particles. These can be put into 64 = 8 + 56 representations of SU(8). This can be divided into SU(5) × SU(3)F × U(1) which is the SU(5) theory together with some heavy bosons which act on the generation number.

 

O(16)[edit]

Again assuming 4 generations of fermions, the 128 particles and anti-particles can be put into a single spinor representation of O(16).

QUATERNION REPRESENTATION IS A FOUR BY FOUR 16 SQUARE MATRIX- 16 DIMENSIONS 16 SQUARES QMR

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Unified_Theory

Symplectic groups and quaternion representations[edit]

Symplectic gauge groups could also be considered. For example, Sp(8) (which is called Sp(4) in the article symplectic group) has a representation in terms of 4 × 4 quaternion unitary matrices which has a 16 dimensional real representation and so might be considered as a candidate for a gauge group. Sp(8) has 32 charged bosons and 4 neutral bosons. Its subgroups include SU(4) so can at least contain the gluons and photon of SU(3) × U(1). Although it's probably not possible to have weak bosons acting on chiral fermions in this representation. A quaternion representation of the fermions might be:

 

{\begin{bmatrix}e+i{\overline {e}}+jv+k{\overline {v}}\\u_{r}+i{\overline {u_{r}}}+jd_{r}+k{\overline {d_{r}}}\\u_{g}+i{\overline {u_{g}}}+jd_{g}+k{\overline {d_{g}}}\\u_{b}+i{\overline {u_{b}}}+jd_{b}+k{\overline {d_{b}}}\\\end{bmatrix}}_{L}

A further complication with quaternion representations of fermions is that there are two types of multiplication: left multiplication and right multiplication which must be taken into account. It turns out that including left and right-handed 4 × 4 quaternion matrices is equivalent to including a single right-multiplication by a unit quaternion which adds an extra SU(2) and so has an extra neutral boson and two more charged bosons. Thus the group of left and right handed 4 × 4 quaternion matrcies is Sp(8) × SU(2) which does include the standard model bosons:

 

SU(4,H)_{L}\times H_{R}=Sp(8)\times SU(2)\supset SU(4)\times SU(2)\supset SU(3)\times SU(2)\times U(1)

If

ψ\psi is a quaternion valued spinor,

A

μ

a

b

A_{\mu }^{ab} is quaternion hermitian 4 × 4 matrix coming from Sp(8) and

B

μB_{\mu } is a pure imaginary quaternion (both of which are 4-vector bosons) then the interaction term is:

 

{\overline {\psi ^{a}}}\gamma _{\mu }\left(A_{\mu }^{ab}\psi ^{b}+\psi ^{a}B_{\mu }\right)

THESE FOUR FOUR BY FOUR MATRICES (16 SQUARES) ARE SUPER IMPORTANT IN PHYSICS IN EVERY PHYSICS COURSE EVERY DOCUMENTARY THEY TALKED ABOUT THEM THEY ARE WHAT DISCOVERED ANTIMATTER- I WATCHED TONS OF DOCUMENTARIES I ATTENDED TONS OF CLASSES OVER THE YEARS ALL OF THE MAIN STUFF THEY TAUGHT WAS THE QUADRANT MODEL PATTERN WHEN THE PROFESSORS TAUGHT IT WAS ALL QUADRANT MODEL AND I CANT REMEMBER A LOT OF IT LIKE A TON OF IT I FORGET NOW BUT ARE EXAMPLES THAT WOULD BLOW YOUR MIND

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_matrices

In mathematical physics, the gamma matrices, 

\{\gamma ^{0},\gamma ^{1},\gamma ^{2},\gamma ^{3}\}, also known as the Dirac matrices, are a set of conventional matrices with specific anticommutation relations that ensure they generate a matrix representation of the Clifford algebra Cℓ1,3(R). It is also possible to define higher-dimensional gamma matrices. When interpreted as the matrices of the action of a set of orthogonal basis vectors for contravariant vectors in Minkowski space, the column vectors on which the matrices act become a space of spinors, on which the Clifford algebra of spacetime acts. This in turn makes it possible to represent infinitesimal spatial rotations and Lorentz boosts. Spinors facilitate spacetime computations in general, and in particular are fundamental to the Dirac equation for relativistic spin-½ particles.

 

In Dirac representation, the four contravariant gamma matrices are

THE FOUR DELTA BARYONS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delta_baryon

The Delta baryons (or Δ baryons, also called Delta resonances) are a family of subatomic particle made of three up or down quarks (u or d quarks).

 

Four Δ baryons exist:

Δ++

(constituent quarks: uuu),

Δ+

(uud),

Δ0

(udd), and

Δ−

(ddd), which respectively carry an electric charge of +2 e, +1 e, 0 e, and −1 e.

 

The Δ baryons have a mass of about 1232 MeV/c2, a spin of

3

/

2

, and an isospin of

3

/

2

. In many ways, a Δ baryon is an 'excited' nucleon (symbol N). Nucleons are made of the same constituent quarks, but they are in a lower-energy spin configuration (spin

1

/

2

). The

Δ+

(uud) and

Δ0

(udd) particles are the higher-energy equivalent of the proton (

N+

, uud) and neutron (

N0

, udd), respectively. However, the

Δ++

and

Δ−

have no nucleon equivalent.

 

The four Δ baryons are distinguished by their electrical charges, which is the sum of the charges of the quarks from which they are composed. There are also four antiparticles with opposite charges, made up of the corresponding antiquarks. The existence of the

Δ++

, with its unusual +2 charge, was a crucial clue in the development of the quark model.

AMERICA HAD THREE ON THE TREE EUROPE HAD FOUR ON THE FLOOR- FOURTH ALWAYS DIFFERENT TRANSCENDENT (but there are other gears other than three and four)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manual_transmission

"Three on the Tree" vs "Four on the Floor"[edit]
During the period when U.S. cars usually had only three forward speeds and the steering column was the most common shifter location, this layout was sometimes called "three on the tree". In contrast European cars and performance cars mostly used a four-speed transmission with floor-mounted shifters. This layout was then referred to as "four on the floor".

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Manual_Layout4d.svg

A sample layout of a four-speed transmission is shown below. N marks neutral, the position wherein no gears are engaged and the engine is decoupled from the vehicle's drive wheels. The entire horizontal line is a neutral position, though the shifter is usually spring-loaded so it will return to the centre of the N position if not moved to another gear. The R marks reverse, the gear position used for moving the vehicle backward.

16 SQUARES QUADRANT MODEL 256 IS FOUR TO THE FOURTH POWER (NIBBLE IS 16)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nibble

 

In computing, a nibble (often nybble or nyble to match the vowels of byte) is a four-bit aggregation,[1][2] or half an octet. It is also known as half-byte[3] or tetrade.[4][5] In a networking or telecommunication context, the nibble is often called a semi-octet,[6] quadbit,[7] or quartet.[8][9] A nibble has sixteen (24) possible values. A nibble can be represented by a single hexadecimal digit and called a hex digit.[10]

 

A full byte (octet) is represented by two hexadecimal digits; therefore, it is common to display a byte of information as two nibbles. Sometimes the set of all 256 byte values is represented as a 16×16 table, which gives easily readable hexadecimal codes for each value.

 

Four-bit computer architectures use groups of four bits as their fundamental unit. Such architectures were used in early microprocessors, pocket calculators and pocket computers. They continue to be used in some microcontrollers.

FULLER IS EXTREMELY FAMOUS AND ALL OF HIS STUFF CENTERED ARUOND THE TETRAHEDRON WHICH HE FELT WAS FUNDAMENTAL TO THE UNIVERSE SPACE TIME AND EVERYTHING- TETRA IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synergetics_(Fuller)

Tetrahedral accounting[edit]

A chief hallmark of this system of mensuration was its unit of volume: a tetrahedron defined by four closest-packed unit-radius spheres. This tetrahedron anchored a set of concentrically arranged polyhedra proportioned in a canonical manner and inter-connected by a twisting-contracting, inside-outing dynamic named the Jitterbug Transformation.[citation needed]

TETRA IS FOUR

https://metatranspiration.com/2008/06/20/peace-and-tetrahedron-the-way-to-source/

This article also re-introduced me to someone whose life has fascinated me. His name is R. Buckminster Fuller. R. Buckminster Fuller had a unique perspective on the Universe. He believed that “the tetrahedron is a form of energy package,” that the Universe in all of its “definable structuring””is tetrahedrally coordinate in rational number increments of the tetrahedron.” In other words, our Universe is “defined” by the tetrahedron.

The tetrahedron is everywhere around us and within us. IT IS. Dr. Siegmund refers to it as “cosmic architecture.”

R. Buckminster Fuller was not only a great thinker and creator, he envisioned a world of peace. An early environmental activist, he was a proponent of alternative energy and efficient use of natural resources always to the greater purpose of world peace.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four-stroking

Four-stroking is an operating condition of two-stroke engines, where they instead begin to fire every four strokes or more, rather than every two strokes. This firing is uneven, noisy and may even, in cases where it doesn't occur normally, damage the engine if allowed to continue unabated.

 

However, in some circumstances, four-stroking is normal. When idling most two stroke engines will four-stroke, as well as when letting off the throttle.[1]

 

Four stroking will also occur in a correctly adjusted two stroke engine at full throttle without load. In the latter case this happens because the air-fuel mixture becomes overly rich and prevents the engine from running faster. The engine is intentionally constructed by the manufacturer for this to happen, as a too lean mixture will cause the engine to over-rev as well as overheat, and in engines running on premixed fuel a too lean mixture will cause poor lubrication. Running the engine at full throttle without load is not normally done in most applications, but in a chain saw the full throttle mixture is actually adjusted for the engine to four stroke at a given rpm set by the manufacturer. This is done by adjusting the high rpm screw on the carburetor while the engine runs at full throttle until the correct rpm level can be read on a tachometer.[2]

THERES THE FOUR OUTER PLANETS AND THE FOUR INNER PLANETS AND FOUR TRANS NEPTUNIAN PLANETS THAT THE NASA ORGANIZAITON ALL AGREE ON--- third has solid core more phyiscal- fourth has sort of solid core different

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outer_planets

 

The outer planets are those planets in the Solar System beyond the asteroid belt, and hence refers to the gas giants, which are in order of their distance from the Sun:

 

Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System. It has four very large satellites (moons).

Saturn is the second-largest planet, with a large and bright ring system.

Uranus is the third-largest planet and the least massive of the four outer planets.[1] It is tilted almost onto the plane of its orbit.

Neptune is the fourth-largest planet, as smallest of the four outer planets, but third-most massive. It has one big retrograde moon and many small ones.

THERE IS THE FOUR TERRESTRIAL INNER PLANETS--- THEN THERE IS THE KUIPER BELT WITH THE BIG FOUR ASTEROIDS THAT MAKE UP ALMOST THE WHOLE MASS OF THE BELT- THEN THERE IS THE FOUR GAS GIANT OUTER PLANETS---- THEN THERE IS THE FOUR TRANS NEPTUNIAN DWARF PLANETS THAT NASA SCIENTISTS AGREE ON (they argue about the other ones if the other ones are dwarf planets but they agree on four

 

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_System

 

The first four planets closest to the Sun are called the inner planets. They are small and dense terrestrial planets, with solid surfaces. They are made up of mostly rock and metal with a distinct internal structure and a similar size. Three also have an atmosphere. The study of the four planets gives information about geology outside the Earth. Most asteroids are also often counted with the inner planets

 

Terrestrial planets region contains the four planets closest to the sun, all are rocky planets

(1) Mercury

(2) Venus

(3) Earth

(4) Mars

Asteroid belt region contains;

(a) Ceres (the only dwarf planet in this region)

Asteroids

Outer solar system[change | change source]

Gas giant planets region contains;

(5) Jupiter

(6) Saturn

(7) Uranus

(8) Neptune

Trans-Neptune region[change | change source]

Kuiper belt region contains;

(b) Pluto

(c) Haumea

(d) Makemake

Kuiper belt objects and possibly other dwarf planets

short-period comets

scattered disc region contains;

(e) Eris

Scattered disk objects and possibly other dwarf planets

THERE ARE FOUR TRANS NEPTUNIAN DWARF PLANETS THAT THE IAU AGREES ON- THERE IS FOUR TERRESTRIAL INNER PLANETS- THERE ARE FOUR GAS GIANT OUTER PLANETS- THE FOURTHS ARE DIFFERENT/TRANSCENDENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwarf_planet

 

Under this arrangement, the twelve planets of the rejected proposal were to be preserved in a distinction between eight classical planets and four dwarf planets.

 

Four accepted by the IAU

MANY ASTRONOMERS SAY THAT PLUTO HAS FOUR MOONS BECAUSE THEY SEE PLUTO AND CHARON AS A DOUBLE PLANET SYSTEM- IF THEY DON'T SAY FOUR MOONS THEY SAY THAT CHARON IS DIFFERENT AND THERE IS FOUR SMALL SATELLITES BUT MOST SAY THERE IS FOUR MOONS AND CHARON AND PLUTO ARE A DOUBLE PLANET SYSTEM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_satellite

Pluto has the relatively large natural satellite Charon and four smaller natural satellites; Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra

 

The Pluto–Charon system is unusual in that the center of mass lies in open space between the two, a characteristic sometimes associated with a double-planet system

FOUR IAU DWARF PLANETS HAVE SATELLITES/moons

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_satellite

Four IAU-listed dwarf planets are also known to have natural satellites: Pluto, Haumea, Makemake, and Eris.[3] As of January 2012, over 200 minor-planet moons have been discovered.[4]

I DESCRIBED THAT FIRST GALILEO SAW THREE SATELLITES OF JUPITER THEN HE SAW THE FOURTH AND IT WAS DIFFERENT- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT- KEPLER WROTE A BOOK CALLED "NARRARATION OF THE FOUR SATELLITES OF JUPITER OBSERVED"- THESE ARE THE FOUR GALILEAN MOONS THAT CAN BE SEEN FROM EARTH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_satellite

The first to use of the term satellite to describe orbiting bodies was the German astronomer Johannes Kepler in his pamphlet Narratio de Observatis a se quatuor Iouis satellitibus erronibus ("Narration About Four Satellites of Jupiter Observed") in 1610. He derived the term from the Latin word satelles, meaning "guard", "attendant", or "companion", because the satellites accompanied their primary planet in their journey through the heavens.[citation needed]

https://en.wikipedia.org/…/Saturn%27s_Gallic_group_of_satel…
The four members of the group are (in order of increasing distance from Saturn):

Albiorix
Bebhionn
Erriapus
Tarvos

FOUR MOONS- INNER MOONS OF SATURN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moons_of_Saturn#Trojan_moons

Inner large moons[edit]

A circular part of a grayish surface, which is intersected from the top-left to the bottom-right by four wide sinuous groves. Smaller and shorter grooves can be seen between them running either parallel to the large grooves or criss-crossing them. There is a rough terrain in the top-left corner.

Tiger stripes on Enceladus

Saturn's rings and moons

 

Tethys, Hyperion and Prometheus

 

Tethys and Janus

 

Tethys and the rings of Saturn

The innermost large moons of Saturn orbit within its tenuous E Ring, along with three smaller moons of the Alkyonides group.

 

Mimas is the smallest and least massive of the inner round moons,[34] although its mass is sufficient to alter the orbit of Methone.[43] It is noticeably ovoid-shaped, having been made shorter at the poles and longer at the equator (by about 20 km) by the effects of Saturn's gravity.[44] Mimas has a large impact crater one-third its diameter, Herschel, situated on its leading hemisphere.[45] Mimas has no known past or present geologic activity, and its surface is dominated by impact craters. The only tectonic features known are a few arcuate and linear troughs, which probably formed when Mimas was shattered by the Herschel impact.[45]

Enceladus is one of the smallest of Saturn's moons that is spherical in shape—only Mimas is smaller[44]—yet is the only small Saturnian moon that is currently endogenously active, and the smallest known body in the Solar System that is geologically active today.[46] Its surface is morphologically diverse; it includes ancient heavily cratered terrain as well as younger smooth areas with few impact craters. Many plains on Enceladus are fractured and intersected by systems of lineaments.[46] The area around its south pole was found by Cassini to be unusually warm and cut by a system of fractures about 130 km long called "tiger stripes", some of which emit jets of water vapor and dust.[46] These jets form a large plume off its south pole, which replenishes Saturn's E ring[46] and serves as the main source of ions in the magnetosphere of Saturn.[47] The gas and dust are released with a rate of more than 100 kg/s. Enceladus may have liquid water underneath the south-polar surface.[46] The source of the energy for this cryovolcanism is thought to be a 2:1 mean-motion resonance with Dione.[46] The pure ice on the surface makes Enceladus one of the brightest known objects in the Solar System—its geometrical albedo is more than 140%.[46]

Tethys is the third largest of Saturn's inner moons.[34] Its most prominent features are a large (400 km diameter) impact crater named Odysseus on its leading hemisphere and a vast canyon system named Ithaca Chasma extending at least 270° around Tethys.[45] The Ithaca Chasma is concentric with Odysseus, and these two features may be related. Tethys appears to have no current geological activity. A heavily cratered hilly terrain occupies the majority of its surface, while a smaller and smoother plains region lies on the hemisphere opposite to that of Odysseus.[45] The plains contain fewer craters and are apparently younger. A sharp boundary separates them from the cratered terrain. There is also a system of extensional troughs radiating away from Odysseus.[45] The density of Tethys (0.985 g/cm3) is less than that of water, indicating that it is made mainly of water ice with only a small fraction of rock.[33]

Dione is the second-largest inner moon of Saturn. It has a higher density than the geologically dead Rhea, the largest inner moon, but lower than that of active Enceladus.[44] While the majority of Dione's surface is heavily cratered old terrain, this moon is also covered with an extensive network of troughs and lineaments, indicating that in the past it had global tectonic activity.[48] The troughs and lineaments are especially prominent on the trailing hemisphere, where several intersecting sets of fractures form what is called "wispy terrain".[48] The cratered plains have a few large impact craters reaching 250 km in diameter.[45] Smooth plains with low impact-crater counts are present as well on a small fraction its surface.[49] They were probably tectonically resurfaced relatively later in the geological history of Dione. At two locations within smooth plains strange landforms (depressions) resembling oblong impact craters have been identified, both of which lie at the centers of radiating networks of cracks and troughs;[49] these features may be cryovolcanic in origin. Dione may be geologically active even now, although on a scale much smaller than the cryovolcanism of Enceladus. This follows from Cassini magnetic measurements that show Dione is a net source of plasma in the magnetosphere of Saturn, much like Enceladus.[49]

THERE ARE FOUR OUTER LARGE MOONS OF SATURN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moons_of_Saturn#Trojan_moons

Outer large moons[edit]

These moons all orbit beyond the E Ring. They are:

 

A spherical body is almost fully illuminated. Its grayish surface is covered by numerous circular craters. The terminator is located near the upper-right limb. A large crater can be seen near the limb in the upper-left part of the body. Another smaller bright crater can be seen in the center. It is surrounded by a large bright patch having the shape of a five-pointed star.

Inktomi or "The Splat", a relatively young crater with prominent butterfly-shaped ejecta on Rhea's leading hemisphere

Rhea is the second-largest of Saturn's moons.[44] In 2005 Cassini detected a depletion of electrons in the plasma wake of Rhea, which forms when the co-rotating plasma of Saturn's magnetosphere is absorbed by the moon.[22] The depletion was hypothesized to be caused by the presence of dust-sized particles concentrated in a few faint equatorial rings.[22] Such a ring system would make Rhea the only moon in the Solar System known to have rings.[22] However, subsequent targeted observations of the putative ring plane from several angles by Cassini's narrow-angle camera turned up no evidence of the expected ring material, leaving the origin of the plasma observations unresolved.[53] Otherwise Rhea has rather a typical heavily cratered surface,[45] with the exceptions of a few large Dione-type fractures (wispy terrain) on the trailing hemisphere[54] and a very faint "line" of material at the equator that may have been deposited by material deorbiting from present or former rings.[55] Rhea also has two very large impact basins on its anti-Saturnian hemisphere, which are about 400 and 500 km across.[54] The first, Tirawa, is roughly comparable to the Odysseus basin on Tethys.[45] There is also a 48 km-diameter impact crater called Inktomi[56][b] at 112°W that is prominent because of an extended system of bright rays,[57] which may be one of the youngest craters on the inner moons of Saturn.[54] No evidence of any endogenic activity has been discovered on the surface of Rhea.[54]

 

Three crescent moons of Saturn: Titan, Mimas and Rhea

Titan, at 5,150 km diameter, is the second largest moon in the Solar System and Saturn's largest.[34] Out of all the large moons, Titan is the only one with a dense (surface pressure of 1.5 atm), cold atmosphere, primarily made of nitrogen with a small fraction of methane.[58] The dense atmosphere frequently produces bright white convective clouds, especially over the south pole region.[58] On June 6, 2013, scientists at the IAA-CSIC reported the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the upper atmosphere of Titan.[59] On June 23, 2014, NASA claimed to have strong evidence that nitrogen in the atmosphere of Titan came from materials in the Oort cloud, associated with comets, and not from the materials that formed Saturn in earlier times.[60] The surface of Titan, which is difficult to observe due to persistent atmospheric haze, shows only a few impact craters and is probably very young.[58] It contains a pattern of light and dark regions, flow channels and possibly cryovolcanos.[58][61] Some dark regions are covered by longitudinal dune fields shaped by tidal winds, where sand is made of frozen water or hydrocarbons.[62] Titan is the only body in the Solar System beside Earth with bodies of liquid on its surface, in the form of methane–ethane lakes in Titan's north and south polar regions.[63] The largest lake, Kraken Mare, is larger than the Caspian Sea.[64] Like Europa and Ganymede, it is believed that Titan has a subsurface ocean made of water mixed with ammonia, which can erupt to the surface of the moon and lead to cryovolcanism.[61] On July 2, 2014, NASA reported the ocean inside Titan may be "as salty as the Earth's Dead Sea".[65][66]

Hyperion is Titan's nearest neighbor in the Saturn system. The two moons are locked in a 4:3 mean-motion resonance with each other, meaning that while Titan makes four revolutions around Saturn, Hyperion makes exactly three.[34] With an average diameter of about 270 km, Hyperion is smaller and lighter than Mimas.[67] It has an extremely irregular shape, and a very odd, tan-colored icy surface resembling a sponge, though its interior may be partially porous as well.[67] The average density of about 0.55 g/cm3[67] indicates that the porosity exceeds 40% even assuming it has a purely icy composition. The surface of Hyperion is covered with numerous impact craters—those with diameters 2–10 km are especially abundant.[67] It is the only moon besides the small moons of Pluto known to have a chaotic rotation, which means Hyperion has no well-defined poles or equator. While on short timescales the satellite approximately rotates around its long axis at a rate of 72–75° per day, on longer timescales its axis of rotation (spin vector) wanders chaotically across the sky.[67] This makes the rotational behavior of Hyperion essentially unpredictable.[68]

A part of a spherical body illuminated from the above and behind. The convex limb runs from the lower-left to the upper-right corner. The black outer space is in the upper-left corner. The terminator is near the bottom. The surface of the body is covered with numerous craters. A large ridge runs in the center from the top to bottom.

Equatorial ridge on Iapetus

Iapetus is the third-largest of Saturn's moons.[44] Orbiting the planet at 3.5 million km, it is by far the most distant of Saturn's large moons, and also has the largest orbital inclination, at 15.47°.[35] Iapetus has long been known for its unusual two-toned surface; its leading hemisphere is pitch-black and its trailing hemisphere is almost as bright as fresh snow.[69] Cassini images showed that the dark material is confined to a large near-equatorial area on the leading hemisphere called Cassini Regio, which extends approximately from 40°N to 40°S.[69] The pole regions of Iapetus are as bright as its trailing hemisphere. Cassini also discovered a 20 km tall equatorial ridge, which spans nearly the moon's entire equator.[69] Otherwise both dark and bright surfaces of Iapetus are old and heavily cratered. The images revealed at least four large impact basins with diameters from 380 to 550 km and numerous smaller impact craters.[69] No evidence of any endogenic activity has been discovered.[69] A clue to the origin of the dark material covering part of Iapetus's starkly dichromatic surface may have been found in 2009, when NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered a vast, nearly invisible disk around Saturn, just inside the orbit of the moon Phoebe—the Phoebe ring.[70] Scientists believe that the disk originates from dust and ice particles kicked up by impacts on Phoebe. Because the disk particles, like Phoebe itself, orbit in the opposite direction to Iapetus, Iapetus collides with them as they drift in the direction of Saturn, darkening its leading hemisphere slightly.[70] Once a difference in albedo, and hence in average temperature, was established between different regions of Iapetus, a thermal runaway process of water ice sublimation from warmer regions and deposition of water vapor onto colder regions ensued. Iapetus's present two-toned appearance results from the contrast between the bright, primarily ice-coated areas and regions of dark lag, the residue left behind after the loss of surface ice.[71][72]

https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/saturn/moons

Four moons orbit in stable places around Saturn called Lagrangian points. These places lie 60 degrees ahead of or behind a larger moon and in the same orbit. Telesto and Calypso occupy the two Lagrangian points of Tethys in its orbit; Helene and Polydeuces occupy the corresponding Lagrangian points of Dione.

THERE IS 16 SQUARES QMR

https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/saturn/moons

Sixteen of Saturn's moons keep the same face toward the planet as they orbit. Called "tidal locking," this is the same phenomenon that keeps our Moon always facing toward Earth.

FOUR SPACECRAFT VISITIED SATURN FOURTH DIFFERENT

https://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/science/moons/

Four spacecraft have visited the Saturn system, but only Cassini has orbited the ringed planet. Doing so has bought Cassini time -- more than a decade -- to linger and watch Saturn’s exotic zoo of 60-plus moons like no spacecraft has before. Cassini has looked, listened, sniffed and even tasted Saturn’s moons, and what it has learned about them is nothing less than extraordinary.

THE FIRST FOUR MOONS OF URANUS WERE DISCOVERED---- NO OTHER DISCOVERY WAS MADE FOR ANOTHER CENTURY- FINALLY A CENTURY LATER A FIFTH MOON WAS DISCOVERED

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moons_of_Uranus

The first two moons to be discovered were Titania and Oberon, which were spotted by Sir William Herschel on January 11, 1787, six years after he had discovered the planet itself. Later, Herschel thought he had discovered up to six moons (see below) and perhaps even a ring. For nearly 50 years, Herschel's instrument was the only one with which the moons had been seen.[4] In the 1840s, better instruments and a more favorable position of Uranus in the sky led to sporadic indications of satellites additional to Titania and Oberon. Eventually, the next two moons, Ariel and Umbriel, were discovered by William Lassell in 1851.[5] The Roman numbering scheme of Uranus's moons was in a state of flux for a considerable time, and publications hesitated between Herschel's designations (where Titania and Oberon are Uranus II and IV) and William Lassell's (where they are sometimes I and II).[6] With the confirmation of Ariel and Umbriel, Lassell numbered the moons I through IV from Uranus outward, and this finally stuck.[7] In 1852, Herschel's son John Herschel gave the four then-known moons their names.[8]

 

No other discoveries were made for almost another century.

AFTER HERSCHEL DISCOVERD THE FIRST FOUR MOONS OF SATURN (IT TOOK A CENTURY TO ACTUALLY FIND ANOTHER)- HE THOUGHT THAT HE DISCOVERE FOUR MORE MOONS--- IT TURNED OUT HE DID NOT DISCOVER ANYTHING AND THESE FOUR MOONS ARE CALLED "THE SPURIOUS MOONS"

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moons_of_Uranus

Spurious moons[edit]

After Herschel discovered Titania and Oberon on January 11, 1787, he subsequently believed that he had observed four other moons: two on January 18 and February 9, 1790, and two more on February 28 and March 26, 1794. It was thus believed for many decades thereafter that Uranus had a system of six satellites, though the four latter moons were never confirmed by any other astronomer. Lassell's observations of 1851, in which he discovered Ariel and Umbriel, however, failed to support Herschel's observations; Ariel and Umbriel, which Herschel certainly ought to have seen if he had seen any satellites beside Titania and Oberon, did not correspond to any of Herschel's four additional satellites in orbital characteristics. Herschel's four spurious satellites were thought to have sidereal periods of 5.89 days (interior to Titania), 10.96 days (between Titania and Oberon), 38.08 days, and 107.69 days (exterior to Oberon).[14] It was therefore concluded that Herschel's four satellites were spurious, probably arising from the misidentification of faint stars in the vicinity of Uranus as satellites, and the credit for the discovery of Ariel and Umbriel was given to Lassell.[15]

FOUR PLANETS- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT (four planet systems main)

Jump up ^

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HR_8799

HR 8799 is a young (~30 million-year-old) main-sequence star located 129 light years (39 parsecs) away from Earth in the constellation of Pegasus, with roughly 1.5 times the Sun's mass and 4.9 times its luminosity. It is part of a system that also contains a debris disk and at least four massive planets

 

A precovery observation of the outer 3 planets was later found in infrared images obtained in 1998 by the Hubble Space Telescope's NICMOS instrument, after a newly developed image-processing technique was applied.[20] Further observations in 2009–2010 revealed the fourth giant planet orbiting inside the first three planets at a projected separation just less than 15 AU [6][21] which has now also been confirmed in multiple studies.[22]

 

The broadband photometry of planets b, c and d has shown that there may be significant clouds in their atmospheres,[21] while the infrared spectroscopy of planets b and c pointed to non-equilibrium CO/CH4 chemistry.[6] Near-infrared observations with the Project 1640 integral field spectrograph on the Palomar Observatory have shown that compositions between the four planets vary significantly. This is a surprise since the planets presumably formed in the same way from the same disk and have similar luminosities.[24]

 

The first simultaneous spectra of all four known planets in the HR 8799 system were obtained in 2012 using the Project 1640 instrument at Palomar Observatory. The near-infrared spectra from this instrument confirmed the red colors of all four planets and are best matched by models of planetary atmospheres that include clouds. Though these spectra do not directly correspond to any known astrophysical objects, some of the planet spectra demonstrate similarities with L- and T-type brown dwarfs and the night-side spectrum of Saturn. The implications of the simultaneous spectra of all four planets obtained with Project 1640 are summarized as follows: Planet b contains ammonia and/or acetylene as well as carbon dioxide, but has little methane; Planet c contains ammonia, perhaps some acetylene but neither carbon dioxide nor substantial methane; Planet d contains acetylene, methane, and carbon dioxide but ammonia is not definitively detected; Planet e contains methane and acetylene but no ammonia or carbon dioxide. The spectrum of planet e is similar to a reddened spectrum of Saturn.[26]

 

Marois, C.; Zuckerman, B.; Konopacky, Q. M.; MacIntosh, B.; Barman, T. (2010). "Images of a fourth planet orbiting HR 8799". Nature. 468 (7327): 1080–1083. arXiv:1011.4918Freely accessible. Bibcode:2010Natur.468.1080M. doi:10.1038/nature09684. PMID 21150902.

FOUR PRINCIPAL LUNAR PHASES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_phase

In Western culture, the four principal lunar phases are new moon, first quarter, full moon, and third quarter (also known as last quarter). These are the instants when the Moon's apparent geocentric celestial longitude minus the Sun's apparent geocentric celestial longitude is 0°, 90°, 180° and 270°, respectively.[a] Each of these phases occur at slightly different times when viewed from different points on the Earth. During the intervals between principal phases, the Moon appears either crescent-shaped or gibbous. These shapes, and the periods of time when the Moon shows them, are called the intermediate phases. They last, on average, one-quarter of a synodic month, roughly 7.38 days, but their durations vary slightly because the Moon's orbit is slightly elliptical, and thus its speed in orbit is not constant. The descriptor waxing is used for an intermediate phase when the Moon's apparent size is increasing, from new moon toward full moon, and waning when the size is decreasing.

THE FOUR GALILEAN MOONS THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Jupiter%27s_moons

The planet Jupiter has 63 moons. 46 of these are less than 3 km wide and probably used to be asteroids before Jupiter's gravity pulled them in. The four biggest moons are called the Galilean moons because they were discovered by the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei. These four are Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto They are roughly the same size as Earth's moon, some are a bit bigger, some are smaller.

THIS IS IN MY OVER 60 QMR BOOKS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars_rover

THERE HAVE BEEN FOUR MARS ROVERS

 

There have been four successful robotically operated Mars rovers. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory managed the Mars Pathfinder mission and its now inactive Sojourner rover. It currently manages the Mars Exploration Rover mission's active Opportunity rover and inactive Spirit, and, as part of the Mars Science Laboratory mission, the Curiosity rover. On January 24, 2016 NASA reported that current studies on the planet Mars by the Curiosity and Opportunity rovers will now be searching for evidence of ancient life, including a biosphere based on autotrophic, chemotrophic, and/or chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms, as well as ancient water, including fluvio-lacustrine environments (plains related to ancient rivers or lakes) that may have been habitable.[1][2][3][4] The search for evidence of habitability, taphonomy (related to fossils), and organic carbon on the planet Mars is now a primary NASA objective.[1]

ASTRONOMERS ONLY HAVE SEEN FOUR PLANETS ORBIT THIS STAR BUT THEY THINK THAT THERE SHOULD BE MORE- ACCORDING TO THEIR CALCULATIONS THE FOUR PLANETS SHOULDN'T BE ABLE TO ORBIT THE STAR UNLESS THERE WERE MORE PLANETS BUT THEY HAVE ONLY FOUND FOUR- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gliese_581

Astronomers have discovered some planets that orbit Gliese 581. The astronomers agree that four of the planets are real, but some think there are two more planets

 

In 2009, the first group of astronomers found a fourth planet, named 581e.[8] They measured the planet's mass to be 1.94 times the mass of the Earth, and measured the planet's orbit to be 3.149 days long. The astronomers also studied planet 581d again, and made more accurate measurements for that planet. They found that the planet has a mass that is 7.09 times the Earth's mass, and that its orbit lasts for 66.8 days.

 

However, the Vogt group published even more research that supported the two new planets.[4] Later in 2012, they studied new Doppler spectroscopy experiments and found stronger signs of planets 581f and 581g. They also simulated the two orbit models that the two groups of scientists have proposed. Vogt's group found that the proposed system with four planets was unstable, meaning that if there were only four planets orbiting Gliese 581, the system would have broken a long time ago. On the other hand, they said that the system with six planets was much more stable.

 

Today, there is still no consensus about whether or not planets 581f or 581g exist.

 

Two orbit models for the Gliese 581 system are being considered currently. An orbit model is a scientific model that astronomers create as a hypothesis of how a star's planets go through their orbits. One has four planets with eccentric orbits, and the other has six planets with circular orbits.

 

In the first model, some scientists propose that only the four planets 581b, 581c, 581d, and 581e orbit Gliese 581.[10] None of the planets orbits in a circle. Instead, their paths around the star are ellipses.

THE ATMOSPHERE OF THE SUN IS COMPOSED OF FOUR PARTS (earths atmosphere has four main layers)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun

During a total solar eclipse, when the disk of the Sun is covered by that of the Moon, parts of the Sun's surrounding atmosphere can be seen. It is composed of four distinct parts: the chromosphere, the transition region, the corona and the heliosphere.

FOUR SUPER EARTHS- FOURTH DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Super-Earth

The National Science Foundation announced on 29 September the discovery of a fourth super-Earth (Gliese 581g) orbiting within the Gliese 581 planetary system. The planet has a minimum mass 3.1 times that of Earth and a nearly circular orbit at 0.146 AU with a period of 36.6 days, placing it in the middle of the habitable zone where liquid water could exist and midway between the planets c and d. It was discovered using the radial velocity method by scientists at the University of California at Santa Cruz and the Carnegie Institution of Washington.[32][33][34] However, the existence of Gliese 581 g has been questioned by another team of astronomers, and it is currently listed as unconfirmed at The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia.[35]

THE FOUR JOVIAN PLANETS- THE ATMOSPEHRE OF JUPITER HAS FOUR LAYERS

https://www.universetoday.com/33061/what-are-the-jovian-planets/

The atmosphere of Jupiter is classified into four layers based on increasing altitude: the troposphere, stratosphere, thermosphere and exosphere. Temperature and pressure increase with depth, which leads to rising convection cells emerging that carry with them the phosphorus, sulfur, and hydrocarbons that interact with UV radiation to give the upper atmosphere its spotted appearance.

TVS USING YELLOW AS FOURTH TRANSCENDENT COLOR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_color#Psychological_primaries

 

A self portrait by Anders Zorn clearly showing a four pigment palette of what are thought to be white, yellow ochre, red vermilion and black pigments.[7]

Some recent TV and computer displays are starting to include yellow as a fourth primary color, often in a four-point square pixel area, so as to achieve brighter pure yellows and a larger color gamut.[11] Even the four-primary technology does not yet reach the range of colors that the human eye can see from light reflected by illuminated surfaces (as defined by the sample-based estimate called the Pointer Gamut[12]), with 4-primary LED prototypes providing typically about 87% and 5-primary prototypes about 95%. Several firms, including Samsung and Mitsubishi, have demonstrated LED displays with five or six "primaries", or color LED point light sources per pixel.[13][14] A recent academic literature review claims a gamut of 99% can be achieved with 5-primary LED technology.[15] While technology for achieving a wider gamut appears to be within reach, other issues remain; for example, affordability, dynamic range, and brilliance. In addition, there exists hardly any source material recorded in this wider gamut, nor is it currently possible to recover this information from existing visual media. Regardless, industry is still exploring a wide variety of "primary" active light sources (per pixel) with the goal of matching the capability of human color perception within a broadly affordable price. One example of a potentially affordable but yet unproven active light hybrid places an LED screen over a plasma light screen, each with different "primaries". Because both LED and plasma technologies are many decades old (plasma pixels going back to the 1960s), both have become so affordable that they could be combined.

 

Garvey, Jude (2010-01-20). "Sharp four primary color TVs enable over one trillion colors". gizmag.com.

Jump up ^

THE FIRST THREE ARE SIMILAR THE FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT- SONY ADDED A FOURTH COLOR- EMERALD THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH

 

I HAVE MONTHS OF POSTS WHERE I POSTED QUADRANT MODEL ALL DAY LONG FOR MONTHS FROM JANUARY TO MARCH OF LAST YEAR AND I THINK THEY ARE ALL HIDDEN BUT ALL THIS STUFF I POSTED- IT IS IN MY OVER 60 QMR BOOKLS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RGBE_filter

In digital photography, the RGBE filter is an alternative color filter array to the Bayer filter (GRGB). It similarly uses a mosaic of pixel filters, of red, green, blue and "emerald" ("like cyan" according to Sony), and so also requires demosaicing to produce a full-color image. It was developed by Sony and so far is used only in the ICX456 8-megapixel CCD and in the Sony Cyber-shot DSC-F828 camera.[1]

 

Sony states that the reason for adding the fourth filter color is "to reduce the color reproduction errors and to record natural images closer to the natural sight perception of the human eye."[2]

QUADRANT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:RGBE_filter.svg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RGBE_filter
The RGBE array uses a fourth color, cyan, as well as red, green and blue

AGAIN IT USES FOUR CELLS CYYM ONE CYAN TWO YELLOWS AND ONE MAGENTA QUADRANT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CYYM_pattern.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CYYM_filter

A CYYM filter is a color filter array. It has one cyan, two yellow, and one magenta element.[1] Developed by Kodak, it was used in the Kodak DCS 620x and DCS 720x DSLRs. [2] [3]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CYYM_filter

 

A CYYM filter is a color filter array. It has one cyan, two yellow, and one magenta element.[1] Developed by Kodak, it was used in the Kodak DCS 620x and DCS 720x DSLRs. [2] [3]

CYGM USES MAGENTA AS THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH COLOR- AGAIN THEY ONLY NEED THREE COLORS BUT THE FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CYGM_filter

In digital photography, the CYGM filter is an alternative color filter array to the Bayer filter (GRGB). It similarly uses a mosaic of pixel filters, of cyan, yellow, green and magenta, and so also requires demosaicing to produce a full-color image.

 

The CYGM color filter array differs from the standard Bayer filter by using only a single color filter for 3 of the 4 sensors.[1] This produces a broad spectral response and therefore makes measurements more accurate in respect to luminance (that is, taking measurements of how much light there is) but makes it more difficult to determine color information accurately. While 'green' is unaffected (produced with 2 color filters), color inaccuracy arises from the fact that the red and blue sensors (as found in the standard Bayer filter) are in effect conflated into 'magenta' and 'cyan' sensors. This is shown by a graph of the spectral response of the CYGM sensor.[2]

RGBW WHITE IS TRANSCENDENT FOURTH

CYGM MAGENTA IS TRANSCENDENT FOURTH

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_filter_array

 

RGBW sensor[edit]

An RGBW matrix (from Red, Green, Blue, White) is a CFA that includes "white" or transparent filter elements that allow the photodiode to respond to all colors of light; that is, some cells are "panchromatic", and more of the light is detected, rather than absorbed, compared to the Bayer matrix. Sugiyama filed for a patent on such an arrangement in 2005.[7] Kodak announced several RGBW CFA patents in 2007, all of which have the property that when the panchromatic cells are ignored, the remaining color filtered cells are arranged such that their data can be processed with a standard Bayer demosaicing algorithm.

256 IS FOUR TO THE FOURTH POWER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multi-Color_Graphics_Array

Software support[edit]

The 256-color mode proved most popular for gaming. 256-color VGA games ran fine on MCGA as long as they stuck to the basic 320×200 256-color mode and didn't attempt to use VGA-specific features such as multiple screen pages.

 

Games lacking support for 256-color graphics were forced to fall back to four-color CGA mode (or not run at all) due to the incompatibility with EGA video modes (320×200 16 colors). Some adventure games from Sierra On-line and Lucasfilm Games solved this problem by supporting MCGA in its 320×200 256-color mode and picking the colors most resembling the EGA 16-color RGB palette, while leaving the other available colors in that mode unused.

16 BY 16 MACROBLOCKS- 16 SQUARES QMR- 256 IS FOUR TO THE FOURTH POWER- THERE IS A 256 BY 256 MAXIMUM SPRITE SIZE- 512 256 TIMES 2- ALL QUADRANT NUMBERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PlayStation_technical_specifications

Documented device mode is to read three RLE-encoded 16×16 macroblocks, run IDCT and assemble a single 16×16 RGB macroblock.

System Control Coprocessor (Cop0)[citation needed]

This unit is part of the CPU. Has 16 32-bit control registers.

 

Sprite engine[citation needed]

1024×512 framebuffer, 8×8 and 16×16 sprite sizes, bitmap objects[citation needed

 

256×256 maximum sprite size

 

512 kB RAM[2]

THE FOUR MAXWELLS EQUATIONS (derived from quaternions which are fours)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_inventions_and_discoveries

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Maxwell%27sEquations.svg

 

 

"the most significant event of the 19th century will be judged as Maxwell's discovery of the laws of electrodynamics"

 

— Richard Feynman

FOUR PHASES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DHCP_session.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_Host_Configuration_Protocol

DHCP operations fall into four phases: server discovery, IP lease offer, IP lease request, and IP lease acknowledgement. These stages are often abbreviated as DORA for discovery, offer, request, and acknowledgement.

ALL HAVE FOUR PAIRS OF WIRES- THE FOURTH PAIR IS DIFFERENT- HEADPHONES TELEPHONES ALL THAT IT IS FOUR WIRES AND FOURTH DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet_over_twisted_pair

 

All these standards use 8P8C connectors,[b] and the cables from Cat3[c] to Cat8 have four pairs of wires; though 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX only use two of the pairs.

 

1000BASE-T uses all four pairs bi-directionally and the standard includes auto MDI-X; however, implementation is optional. With the way that 1000BASE-T implements signaling, how the cable is wired is immaterial in actual usage. The standard on copper twisted pair is IEEE 802.3ab for Cat 5e UTP, or 4D-PAM5; four dimensions using PAM (pulse amplitude modulation) with five voltages, −2 V, −1 V, 0 V, +1 V, and +2 V.[15] While +2 V to −2 V voltage may appear at the pins of the line driver, the voltage on the cable is nominally +1 V, +0.5 V, 0 V, −0.5 V and −1 V.[16]

 

Shared cable[edit]

Main article: Category 5 cable § Shared cable

10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX only require two pairs (pins 1–2, 3–6) to operate. Since Category 5 cable has four pairs, it is possible, but not necessarily standards compliant, to use the spare pairs (pins 4–5, 7–8) in 10- and 100-Mbit/s configurations. The spare pairs may be used for Power over Ethernet (PoE), or two phone lines, or a second 10BASE-T or 100BASE-TX connection. In practice, great care must be taken to separate these pairs as most 10/100-Mbit/s hubs, switches, and PCs electrically terminate the unused pins.[citation needed] Moreover, 1000BASE-T requires all four pairs to operate.

 

Runs over four wires (two twisted pairs) on telephone twisted pair or Category 3 cable. An active hub sits in the middle and has a port for each node. Manchester coded signaling.

10 100

(nominally) LattisNet (pre) 802.3i 1987 Runs over AT&T Premises Distribution System (PDS) wiring or four wires (two twisted pairs) on telephone twisted pair or Category 3 cable.[7][18]

10 100

(nominally)[19] 10BASE-T 802.3i 1990 Runs over four wires (two twisted pairs) on a Category 3 or Category 5 cable. Star topology with an active hub or switch sits in the middle and has a port for each node. This is also the configuration used for 100BASE-T and Gigabit Ethernet. Manchester coded signaling.

100 100 100BASE-TX 802.3u 1995 4B5B MLT-3 coded signaling, Category 5 cable copper cabling with two twisted pairs.

1,000 100 1000BASE‑T 802.3ab 1999 PAM-5 coded signaling. At least Category 5 cable with four twisted pairs copper cabling. Category 5 cable has since been deprecated and new installations use Category 5e. Each pair is used in both directions simultaneously.

FOUR PAIRS OF WIRES FOURTH DIFFERENT- RED YELLOW GREEN AND BLACK- FOURTH ALWAYS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telephone_line

Older houses often have 4-conductor telephone station cable in the walls color coded with Bell System colors: red, green, yellow, black as 2-pairs of 22 AWG (0.33 mm²) solid copper; "line 1" uses the red/green pair and "line 2" uses the yellow/black pair. Inside the walls of the house—between the house's outside junction box and the interior wall jacks—the most common telephone cable in new houses is Category 5 cable—4 pairs of 24 AWG (0.205 mm²) solid copper.[1]

ETHERNET CONNECTIONS- FOUR PAIRS OF WIRES- NOT JUST ETHERNET HEADPHONES ALL THAT FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category_5_cable

Each of the four pairs in a Cat 5 cable has differing precise number of twists per meter to minimize crosstalk between the pairs. Although cable assemblies containing 4 pairs are common, category 5 is not limited to 4 pairs. Backbone applications involve using up to 100 pairs.[4] This use of balanced lines helps preserve a high signal-to-noise ratio despite interference from both external sources and crosstalk from other pairs.

 

This type of cable is used in structured cabling for computer networks such as Ethernet over twisted pair. The cable standard provides performance of up to 100 MHz and is suitable for 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX (Fast Ethernet), and 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet). 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX Ethernet connections require two wire pairs. 1000BASE-T Ethernet connections require four wire pairs. Through the use of power over Ethernet (PoE), up to 25 watts of power can be carried over the cable in addition to Ethernet data.

FOUR CONDUCTOR CABLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_quad_cable

Star-quad cable is a four conductor cable that has a special quadrupole geometry that provides magnetic immunity when used in a balanced line. Four conductors are used to carry the two legs of the balanced line. All four conductors must be an equal distance from a common point (usually the center of a cable). The four conductors are arranged in a four-pointed star (forming a square). Opposite points of the star are connected together at each end of the cable to form each leg of the balanced circuit.

 

Star quad cables often use filler elements to hold the conductor centers in a symmetric four-point arrangement about the cable axis. All points of the star must lie at equal distances from the center of the star. When opposite points are connected together they act as if they are one conductor located at the center of the star. This configuration places the geometric center of each of the two legs of the balanced circuit in the center of the star. To a magnetic field, both legs of the balanced circuit appear to be in the exact center of the star. This means that both legs of the balanced circuit will receive exactly the same interference from the magnetic field and a common-mode interference signal will be produced. This common-mode interference signal will be rejected by the balanced receiver.

 

While the above discussion focuses on preventing noise from getting in (e.g. into a microphone cable) the same star-quad quadrupole configuration is useful for audio speaker cable,[10] for split-phase electric power wiring, and even for open-wire star quad transmission line.

 

In these cases, the purpose of the star quad configuration is reversed. The star-quad geometry cancels the magnetic fields that are produced by the two pairs of conductors. This cancellation reduces the magnetic emissions of the cable. To work properly, the cable must be wired in the same fashion as the microphone cable example above. Wires on opposite sides of the star must be shorted together at each end of the cable. This means that 4 conductors are required for a two-wire circuit. Furthermore, this scheme only works if the two pairs of conductors carry equal and opposite currents.

 

If a ground conductor is also needed, it must be added in a way that will not interfere with the star-quad geometry. It should also be added in a geometric configuration that exposes the ground conductor to equal interference from all four star-quad conductors. The most common solution is to wrap the star quad with a cylindrical ground conductor.

 

Star-quad cable can be used for two circuits, such as four-wire telephony and other telecommunications applications, but it will not provide magnetic immunity in this application. In this configuration each pair uses two non-adjacent conductors. Because the conductors are always the same distance from each other, crosstalk is reduced relative to cables with two separate twisted pairs. Each conductor of one pair sees an equal capacitance to both wires in the other pair. This cancels the capacitive crosstalk between the two pairs. The geometry also cancels the magnetic interference between the two pairs.

QUADRUPOLE- FOUR TERMINAL- QUAD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_line#Star_quad

The four terminal model[edit]

 

Variations on the schematic electronic symbol for a transmission line.

For the purposes of analysis, an electrical transmission line can be modelled as a two-port network (also called a quadripole), as follows:

 

Star quad[edit]

Main article: Star quad cable

Star quad is a four-conductor cable in which all four conductors are twisted together around the cable axis. It is sometimes used for two circuits, such as 4-wire telephony and other telecommunications applications. In this configuration each pair uses two non-adjacent conductors. Other times it is used for a single, balanced line, such as audio applications and 2-wire telephony. In this configuration two non-adjacent conductors are terminated together at both ends of the cable, and the other two conductors are also terminated together.

FOUR VARIABLES- FOUR TERMINAL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two-port_network

A two-port network (a kind of four-terminal network or quadripole) is an electrical network (circuit) or device with two pairs of terminals to connect to external circuits. Two terminals constitute a port if the currents applied to them satisfy the essential requirement known as the port condition: the electric current entering one terminal must equal the current emerging from the other terminal on the same port.[1][2] The ports constitute interfaces where the network connects to other networks, the points where signals are applied or outputs are taken. In a two-port network, often port 1 is considered the input port and port 2 is considered the output port.

 

 

A two-port network has four variables with two of them being independent. If one of the ports is terminated by a load with no independent sources, then the load enforces a relationship between the voltage and current of that port. A degree of freedom is lost. The circuit now has only one independent parameter. The two-port becomes a one-port impedance to the remaining independent variable.

ALMOST ALL TELEPHONES FOUR WIRE CIRCUITS- THE FOURTH WIRE IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four-wire_circuit

In telecommunication, a four-wire circuit is a two-way circuit using two paths so arranged that the respective signals are transmitted in one direction only by one path and in the other direction by the other path. Late in the 20th century, almost all connections between telephone exchanges were four-wire circuits, while conventional phone lines into residences and businesses were two-wire circuits.

 

The four-wire circuit gets its name from the fact that, historically, a balanced pair of conductors were used in each of two directions for full-duplex operation. The name may still be applied to, for example, optical fibers, even though only one fiber is required for transmission in each direction. A system can separate the frequency directions by frequency duplex and realize the benefits of a four-wire circuit even while the same wire pair is used in both directions.

FOUR CONDUCTOR QUAD- IT SAYS TELEPHONE TRUNK LINES AND ESPECIALLY FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING CARRIER SYSTEMS ARE USUALLY FOUR LINES - THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balanced_line

 

Some balanced lines use 4-conductor star quad cable to provide immunity to magnetic fields. The geometry of the cable ensures that magnetic fields will causes equal interference of both legs of the balanced circuit. This balanced interference is a common-mode signal that can easily be removed by a transformer or balanced differential receiver.[2][3][4][5][6]

 

Fig. 2. Balanced line in star quad format. This line is intended for use with 4-wire circuits or two 2-wire circuits. It is also used with microphone signals in professional audio.

 

Fig. 3. Balanced line in DM quad format. This line is intended for use with 4-wire circuits or two 2-wire circuits.

 

Telephone trunk lines, and especially frequency division multiplexing carrier systems, are usually 4-wire circuits rather than 2-wire circuits (or at least they were before fibre-optic became widespread) and require a different kind of cable. This format requires the conductors to be arranged in two pairs, one pair for the sending (go) signal and the other for the return signal. The greatest source of interference on this kind of transmission is usually the crosstalk between the go and return circuits themselves. The most common cable format is star quad, where the diagonally opposite conductors form the pairs. This geometry gives maximum common mode rejection between the two pairs. An alternative format is DM[9] quad which consists of two twisted pairs with the twisting at different pitches.[10]

QUAD TELEPHONE WIRING

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper_conductor

Most telephone lines can share voice and data simultaneously. Pre-digital quad telephone wiring in homes is unable to handle communications needs for multiple phone lines, Internet service, video communications, data transmission, fax machines, and security services. Crosstalk, static interference, inaudible signals, and interrupted service are common problems with outdated wiring. Computers connected to old-fashioned communications wiring often experience poor Internet performance.

 

Quad-shielded RG-6 coaxial cable can carry a large number of TV channels at the same time. A star wiring pattern, where the wiring to each jack extends to a central distribution device, facilitates flexibility of services, problem identification, and better signal quality. This pattern has advantages to daisy chain loops. Installation tools, tips, and techniques for networked wiring systems using twisted pairs, coaxial cables, and connectors for each are available.[33][34]

IT SAYS TYPICALLY MOST INSIDE CABLING HAS FOUR PAIRS OF WIRES (THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT)

https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Communication_Systems/Communication_Mediums

Typically, most inside cabling has four pairs with each pair having a different twist rate. The different twist rates help to further reduce the chance of crosstalk by making the pairs appear electrically different in reference to each other. If the pairs all had the same twist rate, they would be electrically identical in reference to each other causing crosstalk, which is also referred to as capacitive coupling. Twisted pair wire is commonly used in telephone and data cables with variations of categories and twist rates.

 

Wikipedia-logo.png

Wikipedia has related information at Shielded Twisted Pair

 

Other variants of Twisted Pair are the Shielded Twisted Pair cables. The shielded types operate very similar to the non-shielded variety, except that Shielded Twisted Pair also has a layer of metal foil or mesh shielding around all the pairs or each individual pair to further shield the pairs from electromagnetic interference. Shielded twisted pair is typically deployed in situations where the cabling is subjected to higher than normal levels of interference.

Some balanced lines use 4-conductor star quad cable to provide immunity to magnetic fields. The geometry of the cable ensures that magnetic fields will causes equal interference of both legs of the balanced circuit. This balanced interference is a common-mode signal that can easily be removed by a transformer or balanced differential receiver.[2][3][4][5][6]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balanced_line

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Star_quad.svg

Fig. 2. Balanced line in star quad format. This line is intended for use with 4-wire circuits or two 2-wire circuits. It is also used with microphone signals in professional audio.

 

Fig. 3. Balanced line in DM quad format. This line is intended for use with 4-wire circuits or two 2-wire circuits.

QUAD IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coaxial_cable

Some cables may invest in more than two shield layers, such as "quad-shield", which uses four alternating layers of foil and braid. Other shield designs sacrifice flexibility for better performance; some shields are a solid metal tube. Those cables cannot be bent sharply, as the shield will kink, causing losses in the cable.

 

 

 

RG-6/UQ 75 1.024 PF 0.75 0.185 4.7 0.298 7.57 Quad This is "quad shield RG-6". It has four layers of shielding; regular RG-6 has only one or two

 

RG-11/U 75 1.63 PE 0.66 0.285 7.2 0.412 10.5 Dual/triple/quad Used for long drops and underground conduit[19]

 

Quad-shield" cable, using two low-coverage aluminum braid shields and two layers of foil, is often used in situations involving troublesome interference, but is less effective than a single layer of foil and single high-coverage copper braid shield such as is found on broadcast-quality precision video cable.

16 BITS 16 POSSIBLE OPCODES- 16th DIFFERENT- FOURTH SQUARE OF THE FOURTH QUADRANT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LC-3

The LC-3 specifies a word size of 16 bits for its registers and uses a 16-bit addressable memory with a 2 TO THE 16TH-location address space. The register file contains eight registers, referred to by number as R0 through R7. All of the registers are general-purpose in that they may be freely used by any of the instructions that can write to the register file, but in some contexts (such as translating from C code to LC-3 assembly) some of the registers are used for special purposes.

 

Instructions are 16 bits wide and have 4-bit opcodes. The instruction set defines instructions for fifteen of the sixteen possible opcodes, though some instructions have more than one mode of operation. Individual instructions' execution is regulated by a state machine implemented with a control ROM and microsequencing unit.

 

The LC-3 instruction set implements fifteen types of instructions, with a sixteenth opcode reserved for later use. The architecture is a load-store architecture; values in memory must be brought into the register file before they can be operated upon.

16 BIT PROCESSOR- 16 TO THE 12TH POWER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/0x10c#DCPU-16

The announced features include a fully working virtual computer, random encounters, an advanced economy system, and also single and multiplayer modes in a consistent universe, or "Multiverse".[2] The game takes place in the year AD 281,474,976,712,644[4] after people start waking up from "deep sleep" caused by a bug in deep sleep cells that were released in 1988. 0x10C is a hexadecimal number equivalent to 16 TO THE 12TH POWER in decimal, which equals 281,474,976,710,656, the number of years passed in story since 1988.

 

Contents [hide]

1 Gameplay

2 Development

2.1 Art

2.2 Soundtrack

2.3 Pricing

3 References

4 External links

Gameplay[edit]

The list of features include engineering, space battles, seamless space-to-planet transitions, mining and trading, laser guns, and an open universe with both single-player and multiplayer variants.[2] 0x10c features a working emulated 16-bit processor inside the game called the DCPU-16 that can be accessed through any of the monitors located in the game. The DCPU-16 can also load external programs and data using the required standards which allows the community to make their own DCPU-16 emulators.[5]

FOUR PROPERTIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ACID

In 1983,[1] Andreas Reuter and Theo Härder coined the acronym ACID as shorthand for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability, building on earlier work[2] by Jim Gray who enumerated Atomicity, Consistency, and Durability but left out Isolation when characterizing the transaction concept. These four properties describe the major guarantees of the transaction paradigm, which has influenced many aspects of development in database systems.

 

Consider two transactions. T1 transfers 10 from A to B. T2 transfers 10 from B to A. Combined, there are four actions:

 

T1 subtracts 10 from A.

T1 adds 10 to B.

T2 subtracts 10 from B.

T2 adds 10 to A.

QUADRANT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:X-engine.gif

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X_engine

An X engine is a piston engine comprising twinned V-block engines horizontally opposed to each other. Thus, the cylinders are arranged in four banks, driving a common crankshaft. Viewed head-on, this would appear as an X. X engines were often coupled engines derived from existing powerplants.

 

This configuration is extremely uncommon, primarily due its weight and complexity as compared to a radial engine. It was more compact (per number of cylinders) than a V-engine, however. Shorter crankshafts relative to an inline or V design also appealed to early 20th-century engineers like Henry Ford, given the less developed metallurgical technology of the time.[2]

 

Most examples of X engines are from the World War II era, and were designed for large military aircraft. The majority of these are X-24s based on existing V-12s. The following are examples of this engine type:

 

Ford, as an X-8 prototype during the 1920s that led the way to the company's eventual Flathead V-8.[3][4]

Daimler-Benz DB 604, developed for the Luftwaffe’s Bomber B program. Development suspended.

Isotta-Fraschini Zeta R.C. 24/60, developed for the Caproni Vizzola F.6Z fighter, but never fully completed before Italy’s surrender in 1943.

Rolls-Royce Vulture, based on two Peregrines and the powerplant of the ill-fated Avro Manchester bomber and the Hawker Tornado fighter.

Rolls-Royce Exe, an air-cooled sleeve valve prototype engine.

Napier Cub, a water-cooled X-16 engine of the 1920s, which powered the prototype Blackburn Cubaroo torpedo bomber.

Honda is said to have experimented with an X-32 engine configuration in the 1960s for their Formula One racing efforts, but abandoned the design as being too complex and unreliable.

Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant T-14 X12 engine 12Н360[5]

FOUR PEAKS OF ETERNAL LIGHT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon

From images taken by Clementine in 1994, it appears that four mountainous regions on the rim of Peary Crater at the Moon's north pole may remain illuminated for the entire lunar day, creating peaks of eternal light

FOUR VARIABLES ONE VARIABLE IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_state

As a consequence, the quantum state of a particle with spin is described by a vector-valued wave function with values in C2S+1. Equivalently, it is represented by a complex-valued function of four variables: one discrete quantum number variable (for the spin) is added to the usual three continuous variables (for the position in space).

 

Many-body states and particle statistics[edit]

Further information: Particle statistics

The quantum state of a system of N particles, each potentially with spin, is described by a complex-valued function with four variables per particle, e.g.

EXTREMELY FAMOUS AND IMPORTANT PHYSICS EXPERIMENT I LEARNED IN MANY PHYSICS CLASSES (I WENT TO CLASSES ALL DAY LONG AT UCSD AND WATCHED LECTURES ON YOUTUBE AND IT WAS ALL THE QUADRANT MODEL)

FOUR TYPES- THE EPERIMENT HAS A QUADRANT FORMATION- FAMOUS BELL EXPERIMENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell%27s_theorem

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bell-test-photon-analyer.png

 

Scheme of a "two-channel" Bell test

The source S produces pairs of "photons", sent in opposite directions. Each photon encounters a two-channel polariser whose orientation (a or b) can be set by the experimenter. Emerging signals from each channel are detected and coincidences of four types (++, −−, +− and −+) counted by the coincidence monitor.

EXTREMELY FAMOUS AND IMPORTANT PHYSICS EXPERIMENT ALICE AND BOB QUADRANT MODEL- TAUGHT IN MANY CLASSES- LITERALLY I WENT TO CLASSES OF EVERY SUBJECT AT UCSD ALL THAT WAS TAUGHT WAS THE QUADRANT MODEL- FOUR CORRELATIONS FOUR QUANTITIES FOUR VARIABLES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell%27s_theorem

Generalizing Bell's original inequality,[4] John Clauser, Michael Horne, Abner Shimony and R. A. Holt introduced the CHSH inequality,[17] which puts classical limits on the set of four correlations in Alice and Bob's experiment, without any assumption of perfect correlations (or anti-correlations) at equal settings

 

the CHSH inequality can be derived as follows. Each of the four quantities is ±1 and each depends on λ. It follows that for any λ ∈ Λ, one of B + B′ and B − B′ is zero, and the other is ±2. From this it follows that

 

At the heart of this derivation is a simple algebraic inequality concerning four variables, A, A′, B, B′, which take the values ±1 only:

THE FOUR INSTITUTIONS FOR THE NOBEL PRIZE- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize_in_Physics

After Nobel’s death, the Nobel Foundation was set up to carry out the provisions of his will and to administer his funds. In his will, he had stipulated that four different institutions—three Swedish and one Norwegian—should award the prizes. From Stockholm, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences confers the prizes for physics, chemistry, and economics, the Karolinska Institute confers the prize for physiology or medicine, and the Swedish Academy confers the prize for literature. The Norwegian Nobel Committee based in Oslo confers the prize for peace. The Nobel Foundation is the legal owner and functional administrator of the funds and serves as the joint administrative body of the prize-awarding institutions, but it is not concerned with the prize deliberations or decisions, which rest exclusively with the four institutions.

Jump up ^

THE EXTREMELY FAMOUS FOUR BELL STATES FOUR TERM SUPPOSITION COLLAPSE TO ONE OF FOUR STATES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_teleportation

Next, the protocol requires that Alice and Bob share a maximally entangled state. This state is fixed in advance, by mutual agreement between Alice and Bob, and can be any one of the four Bell states shown. It does not matter which one.

 

Alice will then make a local measurement in the Bell basis (i.e. the four Bell states) on the two particles in her possession. To make the result of her measurement clear, it is best to write the state of Alice's two qubits as superpositions of the Bell basis. This is done by using the following general identities, which are easily verified:

 

One applies these identities with A and C subscripts. The total three particle state, of A, B and C together, thus becomes the following four-term superposition:

 

Experimentally, this measurement may be achieved via a series of laser pulses directed at the two particles. Given the above expression, evidently the result of Alice's (local) measurement is that the three-particle state would collapse to one of the following four states (with equal probability of obtaining each):

 

Alice's two particles are now entangled to each other, in one of the four Bell states, and the entanglement originally shared between Alice's and Bob's particles is now broken. Bob's particle takes on one of the four superposition states shown above. Note how Bob's qubit is now in a state that resembles the state to be teleported. The four possible states for Bob's qubit are unitary images of the state to be teleported.

 

The result of Alice's Bell measurement tells her which of the above four states the system is in. She can now send her result to Bob through a classical channel. Two classical bits can communicate which of the four results she obtained.

 

After Bob receives the message from Alice, he will know which of the four states his particle is in. Using this information, he performs a unitary operation on his particle to transform it to the desired state

ONE OF FOUR STATES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_teleportation

Protocol[edit]

 

Diagram for quantum teleportation of a photon

The prerequisites for quantum teleportation are a qubit that is to be teleported, a conventional communication channel capable of transmitting two classical bits (i.e., one of four states), and means of generating an entangled EPR pair of qubits, transporting each of these to two different locations, A and B, performing a Bell measurement on one of the EPR pair qubits, and manipulating the quantum state of the other of the pair. The protocol is then as follows:

 

An EPR pair is generated, one qubit sent to location A, the other to B.

At location A, a Bell measurement of the EPR pair qubit and the qubit to be teleported (the quantum state

|

ϕ

⟩|\phi \rangle) is performed, yielding one of four measurement outcomes, which can be encoded in two classical bits of information. Both qubits at location A are then discarded.

Using the classical channel, the two bits are sent from A to B. (This is the only potentially time-consuming step after step 1, due to speed-of-light considerations.)

As a result of the measurement performed at location A, the EPR pair qubit at location B is in one of four possible states. Of these four possible states, one is identical to the original quantum state

|

ϕ

⟩|\phi \rangle, and the other three are closely related. Which of these four possibilities actually obtains is encoded in the two classical bits. Knowing this, the qubit at location B is modified in one of three ways, or not at all, to result in a qubit identical to

|

ϕ

⟩|\phi \rangle, the qubit that was chosen for teleportation.

FOUR BY FOUR MATRICES AND 64 SQUARE QUADRANT MATRICES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1010_0110_Walsh_spectrum_(single_row).svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadamard_transform#Quantum_computing_applications

The Hadamard transform (also known as the Walsh–Hadamard transform, Hadamard–Rademacher–Walsh transform, Walsh transform, or Walsh–Fourier transform) is an example of a generalized class of Fourier transforms. It performs an orthogonal, symmetric, involutive, linear operation on 2m real numbers (or complex numbers, although the Hadamard matrices themselves are purely real).

 

The Hadamard transform can be regarded as being built out of size-2 discrete Fourier transforms (DFTs), and is in fact equivalent to a multidimensional DFT of size 2 × 2 × ⋯ × 2 × 2.[2] It decomposes an arbitrary input vector into a superposition of Walsh functions.

FOUR STATES IS REFERRED TO AS "THE ELEMENTARY SYSTEM"- THE BASIS OF THE SPEKKENS TOY MODEL (WHAT YOU ALL SHOULD REALIZE IS THIS IS THE MOST IMPORTANT STUFF IN PHYSICS AND IT IS ALL THAT PHYSICS IS ALL THAT PHYSICS AND EVERYTHING IS IS THE QUADRANT MODEL)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spekkens_Toy_Model

 

The Spekkens toy model is based on the knowledge balance principle: "the number of questions about the physical state of a system that are answered must always be equal to the number that are unanswered in a state of maximal knowledge."[1] However, the "knowledge" one can possess about a system must be carefully defined for this principle to have any meaning. To do this, the concept of a canonical set of yes or no questions is defined as the minimum number of questions needed. For example, for a system with 4 states, one can ask "Is the system in state 1?", "Is the system in state 2?" and "Is the system in state 3?" which would determine the state of the system (state 4 being the case if all three questions were answered "No."). However, one could also ask "Is the system in either state 1 or state 2?" and "Is the system in either state 1 or state 3?", which would also uniquely determine the state, and has only two questions in the set. This set of questions is not unique, however it is clear that at least two questions (bits) are required to exactly represent one of four states. We say that for a system with 4 states, the number of questions in a canonical set is two. As such, in this case, the knowledge balance principle insists that the maximum number of questions in a canonical set that one can have answered at any given time is one, such that the amount of knowledge is equal to the amount of ignorance.

 

It is also assumed in the model that it is always possible to saturate the inequality, i.e. to have knowledge of the system exactly equal to that which is lacked, and thus at least two questions must be in the canonical set. Since no question is allowed to exactly specify the state of the system, the number of possible ontic states must be at least 4 (if it were less than 4, the model would be trivial, since any question that could be asked may return an answer specifying the exact state of the system, thus no question can be asked). Since a system with four states (described above) exists, it is referred to as an elementary system. The model then also assumes that every system is built out of these elementary systems, and that each subsystem of any system also obeys the knowledge balance principle.

THE FOUR ONTIC STATES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spekkens_Toy_Model

Transformations[edit]

The only transformations on the ontic state of the system which respect the knowledge balance principle are permutations of the four ontic states. These map valid epistemic states to other valid epistemic states, for instance

A PAIR OF ELEMENTARY SYSTEMS HAS 16 ONTIC STATES- 16 SQUARES QMR- ALL BASED AROUND THE NUMBERS 1, 2, 3, AND 4

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spekkens_Toy_Model

Groups of elementary systems[edit]

A pair of elementary systems has 16 combined ontic states, corresponding to the combinations of the numbers 1 through 4 with 1 through 4 (i.e. the system can be in the state (1,1), (1,2), etc.) The epistemic state of the system is limited by the knowledge balance principle once again. Now however, not only does it restrict the knowledge of the system as a whole, but also of both of the constituent subsystems. Two types of systems of maximal knowledge arise as a result. The first of these corresponds to having maximal knowledge of both subsystems; for example, that the first subsystem is in the state 1 ∨ 3 and the second is in the state 3 ∨ 4, meaning that the system as a whole is in one of the states (1,3), (1,4), (3,3) or (3,4). In this case, nothing is known about the correspondence between the two systems. The second is more interesting, corresponding to having no knowledge about either system individually, but having maximal knowledge about their interaction. For example, one could know that the ontic state of the system is one of (1,1), (2,2), (3,4) or (4,3). Here nothing is known about the state of either individual system, but knowledge of one system gives knowledge of the other. This corresponds to the entangling of particles in quantum theory.

16 SQUARES QMR- 16 CHILDREN OF GOD- YORUBA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ekiti_State

Ekiti is a state in western Nigeria, declared a state on 1 October 1996 alongside five others by the military under the dictatorship of General Sani Abacha. The state, carved out of the territory of old Ondo State, covers the former twelve local government areas that made up the Ekiti Zone of old Ondo State. On creation, it had sixteen Local Government Areas (LGAs), having had an additional four carved out of the old ones

 

Ekiti was an independent state prior to the British conquest. It was one of the many Yoruba states in what is today Nigeria. The Ekiti people as a nation and districts of Yoruba race had her progeny in Oduduwa, the father and progenitor of Yoruba race. Just like every major subethnic division in Yorubaland. Ekiti has her origin from Ile-Ife (the cradle land of Yorubaland). The Olofin, one of the sons of the Oduduwa had sixteen (16) children and in the means of searching for the new land to develop, they all journeyed out of Ile-Ife as they walked through the Iwo - Eleru(crave) near Akure and had stop over at a place called Igbo-Aka(forest of termites) closer to Ile-Oluji.

 

The Olofin, the sixteen children and some other beloved people continued with their journey, but when they got to a particular lovely and flat land, the Owa-Obokun (the monarchy of Ijesha land) and Orangun of Ila decided to stay in the present Ijesha and Igomina land of in Osun state. While the remaining fourteen (14) children continued with the journey and later settled in the present day Ekiti land. They discovered that there were many hills in the place and they said in their mother's language that this is 'Ile olokiti' the land of hills. Therefore, the Okiti later blended to Ekiti. So Ekiti derived her name through hills.

THE FOUR PURE BELL STATES
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_entanglement
Entangled states[edit]
There are several canonical entangled states that appear often in theory and experiments.

For two qubits, the Bell states are

|\Phi^\pm\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} (|0\rangle_A \otimes |0\rangle_B \pm |1\rangle_A \otimes |1\rangle_B)
|\Psi^\pm\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} (|0\rangle_A \otimes |1\rangle_B \pm |1\rangle_A \otimes |0\rangle_B).
These four pure states are all maximally entangled (according to the entropy of entanglement) and form an orthonormal basis (linear algebra) of the Hilbert space of the two qubits. They play a fundamental role in Bell's theorem.

It is worthwhile to note that the above example is one of four Bell states, which are (maximally) entangled pure states (pure states of the HA ⊗ HB space, but which cannot be separated into pure states of each HA and HB).

FOUR FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS OF NATURE- 16 PARTICLES IN EXISTENCE (FOUR SETS OF FOUR)- HIGGS QUESTIONABLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fundamental_interaction

In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions. There are four conventionally accepted fundamental interactions—gravitational, electromagnetic, strong, and weak. Each one is described mathematically as a field. The gravitational force is modelled as a continuous classical field. The other three, part of the Standard Model of particle physics, are described as discrete quantum fields, and their interactions are each carried by a quantum, an elementary particle.

THIS IS NINE TIMES FOUR 36 (9 TIMES FOUR) ALL BASED AROUND GROUPS OF FOUR NUMBERS- AND FOUR ORTHOGONAL VECTORS FOUR DIMENSIONAL HILBERT SPACE FOUR VALUES- NO GO THEOREM FOUR NUMBERS FOUR ROWS- FOUR MEASUREMENTS FOUR OUTCOMES FOUR PAIRS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kochen–Specker_theorem

In order to do so it is sufficient to realize that, if u1, u2, u3 and u4 are the four orthogonal vectors of an orthogonal basis in the four-dimensional Hilbert space, then the projection operators P1, P2, P3, P4 on these vectors are all mutually commuting (and, hence, correspond to compatible observables, allowing a simultaneous attribution of values 0 or 1). Since

 

{\mathbf P}_1+ {\mathbf P}_2+{\mathbf P_3}+ {\mathbf P_4} = {\mathbf I}

it follows that

 

v({\mathbf P_1}+ {\mathbf P_2}+{\mathbf P}_3+ {\mathbf P}_4) = v({\mathbf I}) = 1.

But, since

v({\mathbf P}_1+ {\mathbf P}_2+{\mathbf P}_3+ {\mathbf P}_4)=

v({\mathbf P}_1)+v({\mathbf P}_2)+v({\mathbf P}_3)+v({\mathbf P}_4)

it follows from

\scriptstyle v({\mathbf P}_i) = 0 or 1,

\scriptstyle i = 1,\ldots,4, that out of the four values

\scriptstyle v({\mathbf P}_1), v({\mathbf P}_2), v({\mathbf P}_3), v({\mathbf P}_4), one must be 1 while the other three must be 0.

 

Cabello,[11] extending an argument developed by Kernaghan [12] considered 9 orthogonal bases, each basis corresponding to a column of the following table, in which the basis vectors are explicitly displayed. The bases are chosen in such a way that each projector appears in exactly two contexts, thus establishing functional relations between contexts.

 

u1 (0, 0, 0, 1) (0, 0, 0, 1) (1, –1, 1, –1) (1, –1, 1, –1) (0, 0, 1, 0) (1, –1, –1, 1) (1, 1, –1, 1) (1, 1, –1, 1) (1, 1, 1, –1)

u2 (0, 0, 1, 0) (0, 1, 0, 0) (1, –1, –1, 1) (1, 1, 1, 1) (0, 1, 0, 0) (1, 1, 1, 1) (1, 1, 1, –1) (–1, 1, 1, 1) (–1, 1, 1, 1)

u3 (1, 1, 0, 0) (1, 0, 1, 0) (1, 1, 0, 0) (1, 0, –1, 0) (1, 0, 0, 1) (1, 0, 0, –1) (1, –1, 0, 0) (1, 0, 1, 0) (1, 0, 0, 1)

u4 (1, –1, 0, 0) (1, 0, –1, 0) (0, 0, 1, 1) (0, 1, 0, –1) (1, 0, 0, –1) (0, 1, –1, 0) (0, 0, 1, 1) (0, 1, 0, –1) (0, 1, –1, 0)

Now the "no go" theorem easily follows by making sure that it is impossible to distribute the four numbers 1,0,0,0 over the four rows of each column, such that equally coloured compartments contain equal numbers. Another way to see the theorem, using the approach by Kernaghan, is to recognize that a contradiction is implied between the odd number of bases and the even number of occurrences of the observables.

 

The usual proof of Bell's theorem (CHSH inequality) can also be converted into a simple proof of the KS theorem in dimension at least 4. Bell's setup involves four measurements with four outcomes (four pairs of a simultaneous binary measurement in each wing of the experiment) and four with two outcomes (the two binary measurements in each wing of the experiment, unaccompanied), thus 24 projection operators.

FOUR COMBINATIONS- FOUR SUBEXPERIMENTS FOUR TERMS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CHSH_inequality

Statement of the inequality[edit]

The usual form of the CHSH inequality is

,

{\displaystyle |S|\leq 2,}

(1)

where

{\displaystyle S=E(a,b)-E(a,b^{\prime })+E(a^{\prime },b)+E(a^{\prime },b^{\prime }).}

(2)

a and a′ are detector settings on side A, b and b′ on side B, the four combinations being tested in separate subexperiments

 

Four separate subexperiments are conducted, corresponding to the four terms

E(a, b) in the test statistic S (2). The settings a, a′, b and b′ are generally in practice chosen to be 0, 45°, 22.5° and 67.5° respectively — the "Bell test angles" — these being the ones for which the QM formula gives the greatest violation of the inequality.

 

For each selected value of a and b, the numbers of coincidences in each category

\left \{ N_{++}, N_{--}, N_{+-}, N_{-+} \right \} are recorded. The experimental estimate for

E(a, b) is then calculated as:

−E = \frac {N_{++} - N_{+-} - N_{-+} + N_{--}} {N_{++} + N_{+-} + N_{-+}+ N_{--}}

STAR SYSTEMS WITH FOUR STARS ARE DIFFERENT NOT THAT LIKELY--- FIVE EXTREMELY UNLIKELY- FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT FIFTH ULTRA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_system

Most multiple star systems are triple stars. Systems with four or more components are less likely to occur

THERE ARE 16 PARTICLES IN ALL- THERE ARE FOUR GAUGE BOSONS (THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH QUADRANT)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photon

In the prevailing Standard Model of physics, the photon is one of four gauge bosons in the electroweak interaction; the other three are denoted W+, W− and Z0 and are responsible for the weak interaction. Unlike the photon, these gauge bosons have mass, owing to a mechanism that breaks their SU(2) gauge symmetry. The unification of the photon with W and Z gauge bosons in the electroweak interaction was accomplished by Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg, for which they were awarded the 1979 Nobel Prize in physics.[100][101][102] Physicists continue to hypothesize grand unified theories that connect these four gauge bosons with the eight gluon gauge bosons of quantum chromodynamics; however, key predictions of these theories, such as proton decay, have not been observed experimentally.[103]

FOUR FUNDAMENTAL QUALITIES- FOURTH DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_charge

In systems of units other than SI such as cgs, electric charge is expressed as combination of only three fundamental quantities (length, mass, and time), and not four, as in SI, where electric charge is a combination of length, mass, time, and electric current.[citation needed]

Quadrupole mass analyzer

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Not to be confused with Quadrupole ion trap or Radio frequency quadrupole.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quadrupole_mass_analyzer

Quadrupole elements

The quadrupole mass analyzer (QMS) is one type of mass analyzer used in mass spectrometry. It is also known as a transmission quadrupole mass spectrometer, quadrupole mass filter, or quadrupole mass spectrometer. As the name implies, it consists of four cylindrical rods, set parallel to each other.[1] In a quadrupole mass spectrometer the quadrupole is the component of the instrument responsible for filtering sample ions, based on their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). Ions are separated in a quadrupole based on the stability of their trajectories in the oscillating electric fields that are applied to the rods.[1]

 

A linear series of three quadrupoles is known as a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The first (Q1) and third (Q3) quadrupoles act as mass filters, and the middle (q2) quadrupole is employed as a collision cell. This collision cell is an RF-only quadrupole (non-mass filtering) using Ar, He, or N2 gas (~10−3 Torr, ~30 eV) for collision induced dissociation of selected parent ion(s) from Q1. Subsequent fragments are passed through to Q3 where they may be filtered or fully scanned.

 

This process allows for the study of fragments that are useful in structural elucidation by tandem mass spectrometry. For example, the Q1 may be set to 'filter' for a drug ion of known mass, which is fragmented in q2. The third quadrupole (Q3) can then be set to scan the entire m/z range, giving information on the intensities of the fragments. Thus, the structure of the original ion can be deduced.

 

The arrangement of three quadrupoles was first developed by Jim Morrison of LaTrobe University, Australia for the purpose of studying the photodissociation of gas-phase ions.[4] The first triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was developed at Michigan State University by Dr. Christie Enke and graduate student Richard Yost in the late 1970s.[5]

QUAD IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triple_quadrupole_mass_spectrometer

Triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Waters Quattro II triple quadropole mass spectrometer (center). This photo was taken in the old mass spec facility in Whitmore Lab of Pennsylvania State University.

 

Quadrupole from a Waters TQ-S triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS), is a tandem mass spectrometer consisting of two quadrupole mass analyzers in series, with a (non-mass-resolving) radio frequency (RF)–only quadrupole between them to act as a cell for collision-induced dissociation. This configuration is often abbreviated QqQ, here Q1q2Q3.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quadrupole_ion_trap

 

The quadrupole ion trap has two main configurations: the three-dimensional form described above and the linear form made of 4 parallel electrodes. A simplified rectilinear configuration is also used.[6] The advantage of the linear design is its greater storage capacity (in particular of Doppler-cooled ions) and its simplicity, but this leaves a particular constraint on its modeling. The Paul trap is designed to create a saddle-shaped field to trap a charged ion, but with a quadrupole, this saddle-shaped electric field cannot be rotated about an ion in the centre. It can only 'flap' the field up and down. For this reason, the motions of a single ion in the trap are described by Mathieu Equations, which can only be solved numerically by computer simulations.

QUAD BIKE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tandem_bicycle
History[edit]
Patents related to tandem bicycles date from the late 1890s.[1] In approximately 1898, Mikael Pedersen developed a two-rider tandem version of his Pedersen bicycle that weighed 24 pounds, and a four-rider, or "quad", that weighed 64 pounds.[2] They were also used in the Second Anglo-Boer War. Tandem popularity began to decline after WWII until a revival started in the late sixties. In the UK The Tandem Club was founded in 1971, new tandems came on to the market from the French companies Lejeune and Gitane, and in the USA Bill McCready founded Santana Cycles in 1976.[3] Modern technology has improved component and frame designs, and many tandems are as well-built as modern high-end road and off-road bikes.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quadracycle

A quadracycle is a four-wheeled human-powered land vehicle. It is also referred to as a quadricycle, quadcycle, pedal car, four-wheeled bicycle or quike amongst other terms.

QUAD BIKE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/All-terrain_vehicle

An all-terrain vehicle (ATV), also known as a quad, quad bike, three-wheeler, four-wheeler, or quadricycle as defined by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a vehicle that travels on low-pressure tires, with a seat that is straddled by the operator, along with handlebars for steering control. As the name implies, it is designed to handle a wider variety of terrain than most other vehicles. Although it is a street-legal vehicle in some countries, it is not street-legal within most states and provinces of Australia, the United States or Canada.

THERE ARE THREE WHEELERS AND FOUR WHEELERS THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN FOUR AND THREE --- FOURTH TRANSCENDENT

FOUR WHEELERS FOUR STROKES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/All-terrain_vehicle

Four-wheelers (1985-today)[edit]

Suzuki was a leader in the development of four-wheeled ATVs. It sold the first model, the 1982 QuadRunner LT125, which was a recreational machine for beginners. Suzuki sold the first four-wheeled mini ATV, the LT50, from 1984 to 1987. After the LT50, Suzuki sold the first ATV with a CVT transmission, the LT80, from 1987 to 2006.

 

In 1985 Suzuki introduced to the industry the first high-performance four-wheel ATV, the Suzuki LT250R QuadRacer. This machine was in production for the 1985–1992 model years. During its production run it underwent three major engineering makeovers. However, the core features were retained. These were: a sophisticated long-travel suspension, a liquid-cooled two-stroke motor and a fully manual five-speed transmission for 1985–1986 models and a six-speed transmission for the 87–92 models. It was a machine exclusively designed for racing by highly skilled riders.

 

Honda responded a year later with the FourTrax TRX250R—a machine that has not been replicated until recently. It currently remains a trophy winner and competitor to big-bore ATVs. Kawasaki responded with its Tecate-4 250. The TRX250R was very similar to the ATC250R it eventually replaced, and is often considered one of the greatest sport ATVs ever built.

 

In 1987, Yamaha Motor Company introduced a different type of high-performance machine, the Banshee 350, which featured a twin-cylinder liquid-cooled two-stroke motor from the RD350LC street motorcycle. Heavier and more difficult to ride in the dirt than the 250s, the Banshee became a popular machine with sand dune riders thanks to its unique power delivery. The Banshee remains popular, but 2006 is the last year it was available in the U.S. (due to EPA emissions regulations); it remained available in Canada until 2008 and in Australia until 2012.

 

Shortly after the introduction of the Banshee in 1987, Suzuki released the LT500R QuadRacer. This unique quad was powered by a 500 cc liquid-cooled two-stroke engine with a five-speed transmission. This ATV earned the nickname "Quadzilla" with its remarkable amount of speed and size. While there are claims of 100+ mph stock Quadzillas, it was officially recorded by 3&4 Wheel Action magazine as reaching a top speed of over 79 mph (127 km/h) in a high-speed shootout in its 1988 June issue, making it the fastest production four-wheeled ATV ever produced. Suzuki discontinued the production of the LT500R in 1990 after just four years.

 

At the same time, development of utility ATVs was rapidly escalating. The 1986 Honda FourTrax TRX350 4x4 ushered in the era of four-wheel drive ATVs. Other manufacturers quickly followed suit, and 4x4s have remained the most popular type of ATV ever since. These machines are popular with hunters, farmers, ranchers and workers at construction sites.

 

ATV with a tow spreader mounted

Models continue, today, to be divided into the sport and utility markets. Sport models are generally small, light, two-wheel drive vehicles that accelerate quickly, have a manual transmission and run at speeds up to approximately 80 mph (130 km/h). Utility models are generally bigger four-wheel drive vehicles with a maximum speed of up to approximately 70 mph (110 km/h). They have the ability to haul small loads on attached racks or small dump beds. They may also tow small trailers. Due to the different weights, each has advantages on different types of terrain. A popular model is Yamaha's Raptor 700, which features a nearly 700 cc four-stroke engine.

 

Six-wheel models often have a small dump bed, with an extra set of wheels at the back to increase the payload capacity. They can be either four-wheel drive (back wheels driving only), or six-wheel drive.

 

In 2011 LandFighter was founded, "the first Dutch/European ATV brand". The largest part of production takes site in Taiwan, to European standards; the ATVs are finally assembled in the Netherlands.

A four-stroke engine (also known as four cycle) is an internal combustion (IC) engine in which the piston completes four separate strokes while turning a crankshaft. A stroke refers to the full travel of the piston along the cylinder, in either direction. The four separate strokes are termed:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:4StrokeEngine_Ortho_3D_Small.gif

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four-stroke_engine

Intake: also known as induction or suction This stroke of the piston begins at top dead center (T.D.C.) and ends at bottom dead center (B.D.C.). In this stroke the intake valve must be in the open position while the piston pulls an air-fuel mixture into the cylinder by producing vacuum pressure into the cylinder through its downward motion.

Compression: This stroke begins at B.D.C, or just at the end of the suction stroke, and ends at T.D.C. In this stroke the piston compresses the air-fuel mixture in preparation for ignition during the power stroke (below). Both the intake and exhaust valves are closed during this stage.

Combustion: also known as power or ignition This is the start of the second revolution of the four stroke cycle. At this point the crankshaft has completed a full 360 degree revolution. While the piston is at T.D.C. (the end of the compression stroke) the compressed air-fuel mixture is ignited by a spark plug (in a gasoline engine) or by heat generated by high compression (diesel engines), forcefully returning the piston to B.D.C. This stroke produces mechanical work from the engine to turn the crankshaft.

Exhaust: also known as outlet. During the exhaust stroke, the piston once again returns from B.D.C. to T.D.C. while the exhaust valve is open. This action expels the spent air-fuel mixture through the exhaust valve.

FOUR PHASES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:RADModel.JPG

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rapid_application_development

The James Martin RAD method[edit]

 

Phases in the James Martin approach to RAD

The James Martin approach to RAD divides the process into four distinct phases:

 

Requirements planning phase – combines elements of the system planning and systems analysis phases of the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC). Users, managers, and IT staff members discuss and agree on business needs, project scope, constraints, and system requirements. It ends when the team agrees on the key issues and obtains management authorization to continue.

User design phase – during this phase, users interact with systems analysts and develop models and prototypes that represent all system processes, inputs, and outputs. The RAD groups or subgroups typically use a combination of Joint Application Development (JAD) techniques and CASE tools to translate user needs into working models. User Design is a continuous interactive process that allows users to understand, modify, and eventually approve a working model of the system that meets their needs.

Construction phase – focuses on program and application development task similar to the SDLC. In RAD, however, users continue to participate and can still suggest changes or improvements as actual screens or reports are developed. Its tasks are programming and application development, coding, unit-integration and system testing.

Cutover phase – resembles the final tasks in the SDLC implementation phase, including data conversion, testing, changeover to the new system, and user training. Compared with traditional methods, the entire process is compressed. As a result, the new system is built, delivered, and placed in operation much sooner.[6]

FOUR GENERATIONS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SCADA

SCADA architecture development[edit]

 

The United States Army's Training Manual 5-601 covers "SCADA Systems for C4ISR Facilities"

SCADA systems have evolved through four generations as follows:[8][9][10]

 

First generation: "monolithic"[edit]

Early SCADA system computing was done by large minicomputers. Common network services did not exist at the time SCADA was developed. Thus SCADA systems were independent systems with no connectivity to other systems. The communication protocols used were strictly proprietary at that time. The first-generation SCADA system redundancy was achieved using a back-up mainframe system connected to all the Remote Terminal Unit sites and was used in the event of failure of the primary mainframe system.[11] Some first generation SCADA systems were developed as "turn key" operations that ran on minicomputers such as the PDP-11 series made by the Digital Equipment Corporation.[citation needed].

 

Second generation: "distributed"[edit]

SCADA information and command processing was distributed across multiple stations which were connected through a LAN. Information was shared in near real time. Each station was responsible for a particular task, which reduced the cost as compared to First Generation SCADA. The network protocols used were still not standardized. Since these protocols were proprietary, very few people beyond the developers knew enough to determine how secure a SCADA installation was. Security of the SCADA installation was usually overlooked.[11]

 

Third generation: "networked"[edit]

Similar to a distributed architecture, any complex SCADA can be reduced to simplest components and connected through communication protocols. In the case of a networked design, the system may be spread across more than one LAN network called a process control network (PCN) and separated geographically. Several distributed architecture SCADAs running in parallel, with a single supervisor and historian, could be considered a network architecture. This allows for a more cost effective solution in very large scale systems.

 

Fourth generation: "Internet of things"[edit]

With the commercial availability of cloud computing, SCADA systems have increasingly adopted Internet of things technology to significantly reduce infrastructure costs and increase ease of maintenance and integration. As a result, SCADA systems can now report state in near real-time and use the horizontal scale available in cloud environments to implement more complex control algorithms than are practically feasible to implement on traditional programmable logic controllers.[12][13] Further, the use of open network protocols such as TLS inherent in the Internet of things technology, provides a more readily comprehensible and manageable security boundary than the heterogeneous mix of proprietary network protocols typical of many decentralized SCADA implementations. One such example of this technology is an innovative approach to rainwater harvesting through the implementation of real time controls (RTC)[citation needed].

 

This decentralization of data also requires a different approach to SCADA than traditional PLC based programs. When a SCADA system is used locally, the preferred methodology involves binding the graphics on the user interface to the data stored in specific PLC memory addresses. However, when the data comes from a disparate mix of sensors, controllers and databases (which may be local or at varied connected locations), the typical 1 to 1 mapping becomes problematic. A solution to this is data modeling, a concept derived from object oriented programming.[14]

 

In a data model, a virtual representation of each device is constructed in the SCADA software. These virtual representations (“models”) can contain not just the address mapping of the device represented, but also any other pertinent information (web based info, database entries, media files, etc.) that may be used by other facets of the SCADA/IoT implementation. As the increased complexity of the Internet of things renders traditional SCADA increasingly “house-bound,” and as communication protocols evolve to favor platform-independent, service-oriented architecture (such as OPC UA),[15] it is likely that more SCADA software developers will implement some form of data modeling.

KARNAUGH MAPS 16 SQUARES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:K-map_6,8,9,10,11,12,13,14_anti-race.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karnaugh_map

In the example above, the four input variables can be combined in 16 different ways, so the truth table has 16 rows, and the Karnaugh map has 16 positions. The Karnaugh map is therefore arranged in a 4 × 4 grid.

HYPERCUBE IS FOUR DIMENSIONS- FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dimension_levels.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypercube

A hypercube can be defined by increasing the numbers of dimensions of a shape:

 

0 – A point is a hypercube of dimension zero.

1 – If one moves this point one unit length, it will sweep out a line segment, which is a unit hypercube of dimension one.

2 – If one moves this line segment its length in a perpendicular direction from itself; it sweeps out a 2-dimensional square.

3 – If one moves the square one unit length in the direction perpendicular to the plane it lies on, it will generate a 3-dimensional cube.

4 – If one moves the cube one unit length into the fourth dimension, it generates a 4-dimensional unit hypercube (a unit tesseract).

CRUCIFORM PARACHUTES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parachute#Cruciform

Cruciform[edit]

The unique design characteristics of cruciform parachutes decreases oscillation (its user swinging back and forth) and violent turns during descent. This technology will be used by the United States Army as it replaces its older T-10 parachutes with T-11 parachutes under a program called Advanced Tactical Parachute System (ATPS). The ATPS canopy is a highly modified version of a cross/ cruciform platform and is square in appearance. The ATPS system will reduce the rate of descent by 30 percent from 21 feet per second (6.4 m/s) to 15.75 feet per second (4.80 m/s). The T-11 is designed to have an average rate of descent 14% slower than the T-10D, thus resulting in lower landing injury rates for jumpers. The decline in rate of descent will reduce the impact energy by almost 25% to lessen the potential for injury.

CRUCIFORM CASTLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gjorslev

Gjorslev is a cruciform medieval castle located 17 km south-east of Køge, on the island of Zealand, in Denmark. Originally owned by the Bishop of Roskilde, it is considered one of the most well-preserved examples of Gothic secular architecture in Denmark.

 

Gjorslev is surrounded by moats and built to a cruciform design in the Gothic style. The building materials are a combination of local limestone from the Cliffs of Stevns and large bricks (Danish "monk stones").[2]

256 IS FOUR TO THE FOURTH POWER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Units_of_information

Historically, a byte was the number of bits used to encode a character of text in the computer, which depended on computer hardware architecture; but today it almost always means eight bits – that is, an octet. A byte can represent 256 (28) distinct values, such as the integers 0 to 255, or -128 to 127. The IEEE 1541-2002 standard specifies "B" (upper case) as the symbol for byte. Bytes, or multiples thereof, are almost always used to specify the sizes of computer files and the capacity of storage units. Most modern computers and peripheral devices are designed to manipulate data in whole bytes or groups of bytes, rather than individual bits.

16 SQUARES QMR- QUADRANT NUMBERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_color

High color graphics (variously spelled Highcolor, Hicolor, Hi-color, Hicolour, and Highcolour, and known as Thousands of colors on a Macintosh) is a method of storing image information in a computer's memory such that each pixel is represented by two bytes. Usually the color is represented by all 16 bits, but some devices also support 15-bit high color.[1]

 

More recently, high color has been used by Microsoft to distinguish display systems that can make use of more than 8-bits per color channel (10:10:10:2 or 16:16:16:16 rendering formats) from traditional 8-bit per color channel formats.[2] This is a distinct usage from the 15-bit (5:5:5) or 16-bit (5:6:5) formats traditionally associated with the phrase high color.

 

16-bit high color[edit]

 

RGB 16bits palette

 

Human eyes are more sensitive to green light. Discontinuities in the green gradient are easier to see than in the reds, and in the blues they are the hardest to see.

When all 16 bits are used, one of the components (usually green, see below) gets an extra bit, allowing 64 levels of intensity for that component, and a total of 65,536 available colors.

 

This can lead to small discrepancies in encoding, e.g. when one wishes to encode the 24-bit color RGB (40, 40, 40) with 16 bits (a problem common to subsampling). Forty in binary is 00101000. The red and blue channels will take the five most significant bits, and will have a value of 00101, or 5 on a scale from 0 to 31 (16.1%). The green channel, with six bits of precision, will have a binary value of 001010, or 10 on a scale from 0 to 63 (15.9%). Because of this, the color RGB (40, 40, 40) will have a slight purple (magenta) tinge when displayed in 16 bits. Note that 40 on a scale from 0 to 255 is 15.7%.

 

System-search.svg

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Green is usually chosen for the extra bit in 16 bits because the human eye has its highest sensitivity for green shades. For a demonstration, look closely at the following picture (note: this will work only on monitors displaying true color, i.e., 24 or 32 bits) where dark shades of red, green and blue are shown using 128 levels of intensities for each component (7 bits). Readers with normal vision should see the individual shades of green relatively easily, while the shades of red should be difficult to see, and the shades of blue are likely indistinguishable. More rarely, some systems support having the extra bit of color depth on the red or blue channel, usually in applications where that color is more prevalent (photographing of skin tones or skies, for example).

 

Other notes[edit]

There is generally no need for a color look up table (CLUT, or palette) when in high color mode, because there are enough available colors per pixel to represent graphics and photos reasonably satisfactorily, although the lack of precision decreases image fidelity. As a result, some image formats (e.g., TIFF) can save paletted 16-bit images with an embedded CLUT.

256 COLORS- 16 SQUARED- FOUR TO THE FOURTH POWER- 24 is 6 times four

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colour_look-up_table

A common example would be a palette of 256 colours (e.g. VGA hardware); that is, the number of entries is 256, and thus each entry is addressed by an 8-bit pixel value. The 8 bits is known as colour depth, bit depth or bits per pixel (bpp). Each colour can be chosen from a full palette, typically with a total of 16.7 million colours; that is, the width of each entry is 24 bits, 8 bits per channel, which means combinations of 256 levels for each of the red, green, and blue components: 256 × 256 × 256 = 16,777,216 colours. Another common use case was low bit depth elements (e.g. 4bpp per element, with multiple palettes) composited into a high colour frame buffer (e.g. in the PlayStation 2).

256 IS FOUR TO THE FOURTH POWER AND OTHER QUADRANT NUMBERS 24 is 6 times four

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Framebuffer

Framebuffers have traditionally supported a wide variety of color modes. Due to the expense of memory, most early framebuffers used 1-bit (2-color), 2-bit (4-color), 4-bit (16-color) or 8-bit (256-color) color depths. The problem with such small color depths is that a full range of colors cannot be produced. The solution to this problem was to add a lookup table to the framebuffers. Each "color" stored in framebuffer memory would act as a color index; this scheme was sometimes called "indexed color".

 

The lookup table served as a palette that contained data to define a limited number (such as 256) of different colors. However, each of those [256] colors, itself, was defined by more than 8 bits, such as 24 bits, eight of them for each of the three primary colors. With 24 bits available, colors can be defined far more subtly and exactly, as well as offering the full range gamut which the display can show. While having a limited total number of colors in an image is somewhat restrictive, nevertheless they can be well chosen, and this scheme is markedly superior to 8-bit color.

 

The data from the framebuffer in this scheme determined which of the [256] colors in the palette was for the current pixel, and the data stored in the lookup table (sometimes called the "LUT") went to three digital-to-analog converters to create the video signal for the display.

RED GREN BLUE ALPHA- ALPHA THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT- USES QUADRANT NUMBERS LIKE 256- THERE IS A FOURTH EXTRA ALPHA INFORMATION CHANNEL- FOURTH ALWAYS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RGBA_color_space

 

RGBA (byte-order)[edit]

In OpenGL and Portable Network Graphics (PNG), the RGBA (byte-order) is used, where the colors are stored in memory such that R is at the lowest address, G after it, B after that, and A last. On a little endian architecture this is equivalent to ABGR (word-order).[1]

 

Even when there are more than 8 bits per channel (such as 16 bits or floating-point), the channels are still stored in RGBA order. In PNG, the channels are stored as 16-bit integers in network order (big-endian).

 

ARGB (word-order)[edit]

In the ARGB (word-order) encoding the intensity of each channel sample is defined by 8 bits, and are arranged in memory in such manner that a single 32-bit unsigned integer has the alpha sample in the highest 8 bits, followed by the red sample, green sample and finally the blue sample in the lowest 8 bits:

 

Sample layout in a typical 32bpp pixel

ARGB values are typically expressed using 8 hexadecimal digits, with each pair of the hexadecimal digits representing the values of the Alpha, Red, Green and Blue channel, respectively. For example, 80FFFF00 represents 50.2% opaque (non-premultiplied) yellow. The 80 hex value, which is 128 in decimal, represents a 50.2% alpha value because 128 is approximately 50.2% of the maximum value of 255 (FF hex); to continue to decipher the 80FFFF00 value, the first FF represents the maximum value red can have; the second FF is like the previous but for green; the final 00 represents the minimum value blue can have (effectively – no blue). Consequently, red + green yields yellow. In cases where the alpha is not used this can be shortened to 6 digits RRGGBB, this is why it was chosen to put the alpha in the top bits. Depending on the context a 0x or a number sign (#)[2] is put before the hex digits.

 

On little-endian systems, this is equivalent to BGRA (byte-order). On big-endian systems, this is equivalent to ARGB (byte-order).

 

RGBA hexadecimal (word-order)[edit]

System-search.svg

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In some software originating on big-endian machines such as Silicon Graphics, RGBA (word-order) means color is specified similar to ARGB (word-order) but with the alpha in the bottom 8 bits rather than the top. For example, 808000FF would be Red and Green:50.2%, Blue:0% and Alpha:100%, a brown. This is used in, e.g. Portable Arbitrary Map (PAM).

 

RGBA stands for red green blue alpha. While it is sometimes described as a color space, it is actually simply a use of the RGB color model, with extra alpha channel information

NEED FOUR ELEMENTS- FOURTH DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camera_lens

Good-quality lenses with maximum aperture no greater than f/2.8 and fixed, normal, focal length need at least three (triplet) or four elements (the trade name "Tessar" derives from the Greek tessera, meaning "four"). The widest-range zooms often have fifteen or more. The reflection of light at each of the many interfaces between different optical media (air, glass, plastic) seriously degraded the contrast and color saturation of early lenses, particularly zoom lenses, especially where the lens was directly illuminated by a light source. The introduction many years ago of optical coatings, and advances in coating technology over the years, have resulted in major improvements, and modern high-quality zoom lenses give images of quite acceptable contrast, although zoom lenses with many elements will transmit less light than lenses made with fewer elements (all other factors such as aperture, focal length, and coatings being equal).[16]

FIRST MODELS HAD THREE ELEMENTS- BUT FOR HIGH QUALITY NEED FOUR ELEMENTS FOURTH ALWAYS TRANSCENDENT/DIFFERENT- TESSAR MEANS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kodak_Retinette

Kodak Retinette is the name of a classic series of cameras manufactured by the Eastman Kodak company. They were introduced in 1939 as a less expensive alternative to the Kodak Retina series.[1] The first models were of the folding type using bellows and their lenses had three elements as compared to the four element Tessar lenses (Greek: Tessera meaning four) of the Retina series.

QUADRANT NUMBERS 16 SQUARES QMR 32 IS TWO 16S

https://quadriformisratio.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/hapgood.jpg

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/orientation/

Windroses flowered, even before the introduction of the compass, as detailed indicators of direction, based on a division of the circle in four, eight, twelve, sixteen or even thirty-two parts. The ancient system of ‘winds’ (or ‘plagae‘) was essentially a system of division.

 

The eight-wind system (or, one step further, the sixteen fold division) was generally used on navigation charts known as portolan-maps. This particular type of map making flourished in the fourteenth century and was used by sailors (mostly in the Mediterranean) to chart their way from harbor to harbor. The maps were based on a sixteen-fold division (‘quadruple-four’) of the circle.

 

hapgood

 

Fig. 30 – The construction of the eight-wind system of the Portolan Charts as given by Livengood, Estes and Woitkowski in HAPGOOD (1966/1979). A circle is bisected eight times, resulting in sixteen lines from the centre to the periphery at equal angles of 22,5 degrees. Horizontal and vertical lines through the intersections form a grid of sixteen squares. Geographical details, like a coastline, are marked within this grid.

 

The stages to construct this system by bisecting the circle four times (fig. 30) results in angles of 22,5 degrees (HAPGOOD, 1966/1979; p. 14/15). This procedure displays the ‘ratiocinationis quadrivium‘ (as mentioned earlier):

 

1. Division: Four times division of a circle results in angles of 22,5 degrees.

 

2. Definition: Horizontal and vertical lines are drawn from the intersections of the angle-lines with the circle. This results in a grid of sixteen squares, a theoretical framework.

 

3. Demonstration: Geographical landmarks are indicated on this grid.

 

4. Resolution: The procedure of sixteen directions – or ‘plagae‘ – within a theoretical framework filled with empirical data, enables an observer to known a location in a given context.

I DESCRIBED THERE ARE FOUR ROCKY INNER PLANETS THEN THE ASTEROID BELT WITH "THE BIG FOUR ASTEROIDS" THAT MAKE UP ALMOST ALL OF IT MASS WISE THEN THERE IS THE FOUR GAS GIANT PLANETS- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT- THEN THERE IS THE COMET BELT AND FOUR PLANETARY DWARFS THAT NASA AGREES UPON (there may be more but NASA AGREES UPON FOUR)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_planet

Most modern astrologers use the four classical elements extensively, and indeed they are still viewed as a critical part of interpreting the astrological chart.

YOU SEE THE ASIAN MEDICINE STUFF IS WEIRD- THAT IS BECAUSE ASIANS ARE THE FIRST SQUARE- THEY LINK THE FIVE ELEMENTS TO THE FIVE SEASONS (FOUR SEASONS PLUS ONE)- THIS IS STILL THE QUADRANT PATTERN BUT THEY ARE ADDING AN ULTRA TRANSCENDENT FIFTH AS WELL AS THE DIFFERENT FOURTH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wu_Xing

 

Some of the Mawangdui Silk Texts (no later than 168 BC) also present the Wu Xing as "five virtues" or types of activities.[9] Within Chinese medicine texts the Wu Xing are also referred to as Wu Yun (五運 wǔ yùn) or a combination of the two characters (Wu Xing-Yun) these emphasise the correspondence of five elements to five 'seasons' (four seasons plus one). Another tradition refers to the Wǔ Xíng as Wǔ Dé (五德), the Five Virtues (zh:五德終始說).

FOUR CALIBERS HE FOURTH CALIBER DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heckler_%26_Koch_HK4

It is thought that the basic design of the HK 4 is based on that of the Mauser HSc. The HK 4 was designated "4" because the pistol had the ability to be modular in four calibers. This means the frame and slide could accommodate three (3) different centerfire calibers by simply replacing the barrel/return spring assembly and inserting the proper magazine for the caliber of choice. The fourth caliber, .22 Long Rifle (.22 LR), requires the extractor faceplate and firing pin be moved to conform to the proper configuration for rimfire operation in addition to changing the barrel and magazine. The three centerfire calibers that the pistol can use are: .25 ACP (6.35×16mmSR); .32 ACP (7.65×17mm Browning SR); .380 ACP (9×17mm Short). Most standalone pistols were sold in .380 ACP and .32 ACP. All four calibers came as a two-box set with the extra barrels, magazines and a screw driver/cleaning kit in accompanying box.

QUADCAM- FOUR THE MOST- 16 CYLINDAR- 16 SQUARES QMR- 64 VALVES IS FOUR 16S

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camshaft

While today some engines rely on a single camshaft per cylinder bank, which is known as a single overhead camshaft (SOHC), most[quantify] modern engines are driven by a two camshafts per cylinder bank arrangement (one camshaft for the intake valves and another for the exhaust valves); such camshaft arrangement is known as a double or dual overhead cam (DOHC), thus, a V engine, which has two separate cylinder banks, may have four camshafts (colloquially known as a quad-cam engine[10]).

 

More unusual is the modern W engine (also known as a 'VV' engine to distinguish itself from the pre-war W engines) that has four cylinder banks arranged in a "W" pattern with two pairs narrowly arranged with a 15-degree separation. Even when there are four cylinder banks (that would normally require a total of eight individual camshafts), the narrow-angle design allows the use of just four camshafts in total. For the Bugatti Veyron, which has a 16-cylinder W engine configuration, the four camshafts are driving a total of 64 valves.

CRUCIFORM STRUCTURE-- CRUCIFORM IS CROSS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pogo_oscillation

The most famous pogo oscillation was in the Saturn V first stage, S-IC, caused by the cruciform thrust structure. This structure was an "X" of two I-beams, with an engine on the end of each beam and the center engine at the intersection of the beams. The center of the cruciform was unsupported, so the central F-1 engine caused the structure to bend upwards. The pogo oscillation occurred when this structure sprang back, lengthening the center engine's fuel line bellows (which was mounted down the center of the cruciform), temporarily reducing the fuel flow and thus reducing thrust. At the other end of the oscillation, the fuel line was compressed, increasing fuel flow. This caused a sinusoidal thrust oscillation during the first stage ascent.

FOUR STROKES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diesel_cycle

The image on the left shows a p-V diagram for the ideal Diesel cycle; where

p

p is pressure and V the volume or

v

v the specific volume if the process is placed on a unit mass basis. The ideal Diesel cycle follows the following four distinct processes:

 

Process 1 to 2 is isentropic compression of the fluid (blue)

Process 2 to 3 is reversible constant pressure heating (red)

Process 3 to 4 is isentropic expansion (yellow)

Process 4 to 1 is reversible constant volume cooling (green)[1]

CHINESE ASTERISM MEANING CROSS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_Crucis

In Chinese, 十字架 (Shí Zì Jià), meaning Cross, refers to an asterism consisting of Gamma Crucis, Alpha Crucis, Beta Crucis and Delta Crucis.[17] Consequently, Gamma Crucis itself is known as 十字架一 (Shí Zì Jià yī, English: the First Star of Cross.).[18]

KNOWN TO THE CHINESE AS THE FOURTH STAR OF THE CROSS- HAS FOUR STARS

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delta_Crucis

 

In Chinese, 十字架 (Shí Zì Jià), meaning Cross, refers to an asterism consisting of δ Crucis, γ Crucis, α Crucis and β Crucis.[15] Consequently, δ Crucis itself is known as 十字架四 (Shí Zì Jià sì, English: the Fourth Star of Cross.).[16]

LOOK AT THE FOUR PARTS OF THE DIAGRAM THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT- THIS WAS ONE OF THE ONLY THINGS TAUGHT IN MY ASTRONOMY CLASS AT UCSD THE FOUR PARTS

 

http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/images/hr_diagram_3.gif

http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/ast122/lectures/lec11.html

Quadrant

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

FOUR DICHOTOMIES HR DIAGRAM

 

http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/images/hr_diagram_1.gif

These diagrams, called the Hertzsprung-Russell or HR diagrams, plot luminosity in solar units on the Y axis and stellar temperature on the X axis, as shown below.

 

Quadrant

FOUR IS TRANSCENDENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morgan_Four_Seater

Morgan Four Seater

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Morgan 4-4 and 4/4 Four Seat Tourer

2006 SAG - Morgan roadster -06.jpg

Overview

Manufacturer Morgan Motor Company

Production 1937-2016

Body and chassis

Class Sports car

Touring car

Body style 2-door convertible

The Morgan Four Seater is a model from the Morgan Motor Company with four full seats but little luggage space. It is a touring car, with snap-on top and side curtains.

 

The Four-Seater Tourer has been offered since 1937, on the 4-4 chassis (1937–39) and its postwar incarnation as the 4/4 1948-50, the Plus 4 (1950–68), the 4/4 1600 (1969–1993), 4/4 1800 (1999-2001) and the later Plus 4 (2006-2016) and Roadster (2006-2016). Reportedly only about 50 four-seaters were built per year.

IT SAYS "BEYOND FOUR STACKS OF WINGS NONE HAVE PROVEN SUCCESSFUL"

QUADRUPLANES ARE TRANSCENDENT- IT SAYS THAT PLANES BEYOND FOUR RARELY OCCUR AND NONE HAVE PROVEN SUCCESSFUL- FOUR IS THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH- BEYOND THAT IT IS QUESTIONABLE EVEN IMPOSSIBLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiplane_(aeronautics)

In aviation, a multiplane is a fixed-wing aircraft-configuration featuring multiple wing planes. The wing planes may be stacked one above another, or one behind another, or both in combination. Types having a small number of planes have specific names and are not usually described as multiplanes:

 

Biplane - two wings stacked one above the other

Triplane - three wings stacked one above another

Quadruplane- four stacked wings

Tandem wing - two main planes, one behind the other. The tandem triple or tandem triplet configuration has three lifting surfaces one behind another.

While triplane, quadruplane and tandem designs are relatively uncommon, aircraft with more than four sets of wings rarely occur - none have proven successful.

 

Quadruplanes[edit]

Quadruplane.svg

The quadruplane configuration takes the triplane approach a step further, using efficient wings of high aspect ratio and stacking them to allow a compact and light weight design. During the pioneer years of aviation and World War I, a few designers sought these potential benefits for a variety of reasons, mostly with little success.

 

From ca. 1909 the American inventor Matthew Bacon Sellers II made a series of flights in the Sellers 1909 Quadruplane, progressively fitted with powerplants of decreasing power, in order to investigate low-powered flight. He eventually achieved flight on only 5 to 6 hp at a speed of 20 mph.

 

Pemberton-Billing Ltd. made two prototype Zeppelin killers, the Pemberton-Billing P.B.29E and Pemberton-Billing P.B.31E, respectively in 1915 and 1917. They were comparatively large, twin-engined fighters. After the company changed its name to Supermarine, the P.B.31E became known as the Supermarine Nighthawk.

 

Following test flights with the prototype Armstrong Whitworth F.K.9 in 1916, a small number of Armstrong Whitworth F.K.10 quadruplane reconnaissance fighters were produced, but none saw combat action.

 

The private-venture Wight Quadruplane scout fighter was flown in 1917.

 

The Euler Vierdecker of 1917 unusually featured a standard triplane arrangement of fixed wings with a fourth uppermost wing comprising left and right hand articulated surfaces which acted as full-span ailerons. Two examples were built, with different engines.

 

Also in 1917, Friedrichshafen created the even more unusual Friedrichshafen FF54 scout fighter, which featured narrow-chord second and third wings, with struts connecting only the upper pair and lower pair of planes. The prototype proved unacceptable in the air and was later modified as an equally unsuccessful triplane, again with a short-chord intermediate plane.

 

The Naglo D.II quadruplane fighter of 1918 featured a standard triplane arrangement with a smaller fourth wing attached below the main assembly, somewhat analogous to a sesquiplane. It participated in Germany's second D-type contest in 1918, and was praised for its construction and workmanship.

 

In 1922 Besson constructed the H-5, a prototype quadruplane flying boat transport. It was unusual in having two braced biplane wing stacks deeply staggered and vertically offset such that the four wing planes were stacked in an overall zig-zag arrangement.[1] The only example was damaged and development was abandoned.

QUADRADISC- QUAD IS FOUR- FOUR CHANNELS - FOUR RECORDED SIGNALS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compatible_Discrete_4

Compatible Discrete 4, also known as Quadradisc or CD-4 (not to be confused with compact disc) was as a discrete 4-channel quadraphonic system for gramophone records, commonly called "phonograph" records. The system was created by JVC and RCA in 1971[1] and introduced in May 1972. Other major record companies who adopted this format include A&M, Arista, Atlantic, Capricorn, Elektra, Fantasy, Nonesuch, Reprise and Warner Bros.[2]

 

In discrete quadraphonic systems all 4 channels remain fully independent of each other throughout the entire recording and reproduction chain. There is no intermixing of channels as is done in matrix decoder 4-channel systems such as SQ and QS. CD-4 encoded records were also compatible with conventional with 2-channel stereo playback systems. In stereo mode all four channels of music can be heard over 2 speakers. This was the only discrete quadraphonic phonograph record system to gain major industry acceptance.

 

A typical high-performance CD-4 system would include a turntable with a CD-4 compatible phono cartridge, a CD-4 demodulator, a discrete four-channel amplifier, and four identical full-range loudspeakers.[3] Some audio electronics manufacturers included the CD-4 demodulator as a built in feature of other equipment. A four-channel audio receiver, for example, could contain the demodulator along with FM radio and amplifier circuitry.

 

Simply put, CD-4 consists of four recorded signals (LF, LB, RB, RF) using a coding matrix similar to FM broadcast stereo multiplexing.

FOUR TRACKS- QUAD IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quadraphonic_open_reel_tape

Quadraphonic open reel tape or Q4 was the first medium for quadraphonic sound recording and playback, introduced to the American market by the Vanguard Recording Society in June 1969.[1]

 

History[edit]

It was based on reel-to-reel tape, and was first used in European electronic-music studios by 1954.[2]

 

Like other quadraphonic formats it was unsuccessful and disappeared by the late 1970s.

 

Operation[edit]

All available four tracks where used in one direction on the ¼-inch tape, playing at a speed of 7½ inches per second (twice the speed of the regular 4-Track reel to reel tapes).[3][4]

 

The four fully discrete tracks had full-bandwidth (unlike Q8 cartridges which had limited dynamic range).

FOUR CHANNEL QUADRAPHONIC- QUAD IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UD-4

UD-4, also known as UMX or BMX, was a discrete 4-channel quadraphonic sound system developed by Nippon/Columbia (Denon).

 

The UMX standard contains two subsystems, BMX, a basic 4-2-4 matrix decoder (different from QS Regular Matrix), and QMX, a 4-4-4 system.

 

UD-4 systems first encoded the four original channels into four new channels. Two of these new channels contained the original four channels, matrix encoded. The other two contained only band-limited localization information, and were encoded with carriers similar to the CD-4 system.

FOUR CHANNEL QUADRAPHONIC

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QS_Regular_Matrix

Quadraphonic Sound (originally called Quadphonic Synthesizer, and later referred to as RM or Regular Matrix)[1] was a matrix 4-channel quadraphonic sound system based on the same principles as laid down by Peter Scheiber, but developed by engineer Ryosuke Ito[2] of Sansui in the early 1970s.

QUAD IS FOUR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynaquad
Dynaquad, or DY, was a matrix 4-channel quadraphonic sound system developed by Dynaco in 1969.

FOUR CHANNEL QUADRAPHONIC- FOUR IS TRANSCENDENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KQIV_(defunct)

Both the "Q" and "IV" in the station's call sign alluded to four-channel quadraphonic sound. Although KQIV was widely reported in the local press to be the second quadraphonic broadcast station in the world[2] and the first to be designed and built to be quadraphonic,[1] those reports were based on erroneous information. KQIV established its quadraphonic identity and "Rockin' in Quad" branding on its anticipation of being selected as the exclusive FM station in the Portland radio market to field test the Dorren Quadraplex System, invented by audio engineer Louis Dorren.

 

Early efforts to transmit discrete four-channel quadraphonic music required the use of two FM stations; one transmitting the front audio channels, the other the rear channels. A breakthrough came in 1970 when KIOI (K-101) in San Francisco successfully transmitted true quadraphonic sound from a single FM station using the Quadraplex system under Special Temporary Authority from the FCC. Following this experiment, a long term test period was proposed that would permit one FM station in each of the top 25 U.S. radio markets to transmit in Quadraplex. The test results hopefully would prove to the FCC that the system was compatible with existing two-channel stereo transmission and reception and that it did not interfere with adjacent stations.

QUAD IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FM_broadcasting#Quadraphonic_FM

Quadraphonic FM[edit]

In 1969, Louis Dorren invented the Quadraplex system of single station, discrete, compatible four-channel FM broadcasting. There are two additional subcarriers in the Quadraplex system, supplementing the single one used in standard stereo FM. The baseband layout is as follows:

 

50 Hz to 15 kHz Main Channel (sum of all 4 channels) (LF+LR+RF+RR) signal, for mono FM listening compatibility.

23 to 53 kHz (sine quadrature subcarrier) (LF+LR) - (RF+RR) Left minus Right difference signal. This signal's modulation in algebraic sum and difference with the Main channel is used for 2 channel stereo listener compatibility.

23 to 53 kHz (cosine quadrature 38 kHz subcarrier) (LF+RR) - (LR+RF) Diagonal difference. This signal's modulation in algebraic sum and difference with the Main channel and all the other subcarriers is used for the Quadraphonic listener.

61 to 91 kHz (sine quadrature 76 kHz subcarrier) (LF+RF) - (LR+RR) Front-back difference. This signal's modulation in algebraic sum and difference with the main channel and all the other subcarriers is also used for the Quadraphonic listener.

105 kHz SCA subcarrier, phase-locked to 19 kHz pilot, for reading services for the blind, background music, etc.

The normal stereo signal can be considered as switching between left and right channels at 38 kHz, appropriately band limited. The quadraphonic signal can be considered as cycling through LF, LR, RF, RR, at 76 kHz.[9]

 

There were several variations on this system submitted by GE, Zenith, RCA, and Denon for testing and consideration during the National Quadraphonic Radio Committee field trials for the FCC. The original Dorren Quadraplex System outperformed all the others and was chosen as the national standard for Quadraphonic FM broadcasting in the United States. The first commercial FM station to broadcast quadraphonic program content was WIQB (now called WWWW-FM) in Ann Arbor/Saline, Michigan under the guidance of Chief Engineer Brian Jeffrey Brown.[10]

QUADRAPHONIC

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrix_decoder

The function is to allow multichannel audio, such as quadraphonic sound or surround sound to be encoded in a stereo signal, and thus played back as stereo on stereo equipment, and as surround on surround equipment – this is "compatible" multichannel audio.

QUAD IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quaudiophiliac

Quaudiophiliac (styled QuAUDIOPHILIAc) is a compilation album featuring music by Frank Zappa, released in DVD-Audio format by Barking Pumpkin Records in 2004. It compiles recordings he made while experimenting with quadraphonic, or four-channel, sound in the 1970s. Zappa prepared quadraphonic mixes of a number of his 1970s albums, with both Over-Nite Sensation (1973) and Apostrophe (') (1974) being released in discrete quadraphonic on Zappa's DiscReet Records label.[2][3]

 

Produced by Zappa, and completed by his son, Dweezil Zappa, Quaudiophiliac includes several previously unreleased works in this format. The recordings date from as early as 1970, with "Chunga Basement", a version of the title track from Chunga's Revenge (1970). Also included are three tracks from the 1975 Royce Hall, UCLA concerts with the Abnuceals Emuukha Electric Orchestra which would become Orchestral Favorites (1979); plus a quad remix of a segment of Zappa's 1968 musique concrète masterpiece Lumpy Gravy.

QUADRAPHONIC

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrix_H

Matrix H was developed by BBC engineers in the late 1970s to carry quadraphonic sound via FM radio in a way that would be most compatible with existing mono and stereo receivers.[1]

QUADRAPHONIC FOUR CHANNELS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereo_Quadraphonic

SQ Quadraphonic ("Stereo Quadraphonic") was a matrix 4-channel quadraphonic sound system for vinyl LP records. It was introduced by CBS Records (known in the United States and Canada as Columbia Records) in 1971. Record companies who adopted this format include: Angel, CTI, Columbia (in Europe called CBS Records), EMI, Epic, Eurodisc, Harvest, HMV, Seraphim, Supraphon and Vanguard.

 

With Matrix formats, the four sound channels (forward left, forward right, back left, back right) are converted (encoded) down to two channels (left, right). These are then passed through a two-channel transmission medium (usually an LP record) before being decoded back to four channels and presented to four speakers.

 

The SQ encoding is based on the work by Peter Scheiber and further developed by Benjamin Bauer. His basic formula used 90 degree phase shift circuitry to enable enhanced 4-2-4 matrix systems to be developed.[1][2] This 4:2:4 process could not be accomplished without some information loss. That is to say, the four channels produced at the final stage were not truly identical to those with which the process had begun.

 

In 4-2-4 matrix four channel stereo, the rear speakers should be of the same or almost same size quality and have the same or almost same frequency range as the front speakers.

Quite by accident, I ran across anthropologist Edward T. Hall’s Map of Time in his book “The Dance of Life: the other dimension of time”. In it, he shows a mandala of different notions of time which tries to answer the question, “what is time”? The mandala consists of eight (or nine) different notions of time, organized as a fourfold of duals:

https://equivalentexchange.wordpress.com

Physical / Metaphysical

Micro / Sync

Biological / Personal

Profane/ Sacred

In addition, there are four duals of attributes:

https://equivalentexchange.files.wordpress.com/2017/05/sq_map_of_time.jpg

Group / Individual

Cultural / Physical

Conscious/ Unconscious

Low Context / High Context

So that the different times have these attributes:

 

Physical: Low Context, Conscious, Physical, Group

Metaphysical: Low Context, Conscious, Cultural, Group

Micro: High Context, Unconscious, Cultural, Individual

Sync: High Context, Unconscious, Physical, Individual

Biological: Low Context, Unconscious, Physical, Group

Personal: Low Context, Unconscious, Physical, Individual

Profane: High Context, Conscious, Cultural, Individual

Sacred: High Context, Conscious, Cultural, Group

And the different attributes belong to these notions of time:

 

Physical: Physical, Biological, Personal, Sync

Cultural: Metaphysical, Sacred, Profane, Micro

Group: Biological, Physical, Metaphysical, Sacred

Individual: Profane, Micro, Sync, Personal

Conscious: Physical, Metaphysical, Sacred, Profane

Unconscious: Micro, Sync, Personal, Biological

Low Context: Personal, Biological, Physical, Metaphysical

High Context: Sacred, Profane, Micro, Sync

The ninth notion of time is a synthesis of all eight which he calls meta-time.

16 SQUARES QMR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UTF-16
UTF-16 (16-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points of Unicode. The encoding is variable-length, as code points are encoded with one or two 16-bit code units. (also see Comparison of Unicode encodings for a comparison of UTF-8, -16 & -32)

UTF-16 developed from an earlier fixed-width 16-bit encoding known as UCS-2 (for 2-byte Universal Character Set) once it became clear that 16 bits were not sufficient for Unicode's user community.[1]

16 ICE- 16 SQUARES QMR

https://johncarlosbaez.wordpress.com/2012/04/15/ice/

Water is complicated and fascinating stuff! There are at least sixteen known crystal phases of ice, many shown in this diagram based on the work of Martin Chaplin:

16 full moons

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Full_moon_cycle

Full moon cycle and the saros - using the FMC for predicting eclipses[edit]

The saros is an eclipse cycle of 223 synodic months = 239 anomalistic months = 242 draconic months. This is also equal to 16 full moon cycles. The circumstances of an eclipse depend much on the apparent size of the Moon, and therefore on its phase in its anomalistic cycle and consequently in its full moon cycle. In the duration of a saros cycle, there are about 40 eclipses. 1 saros after an eclipse, another eclipse is very likely to occur that much resembles that first eclipse. Moreover, eclipses that occur a multiple of full moon cycles apart, are also very similar. This may have been known to the ancient Greeks: in the Antikythera mechanism, the saros cycle is represented in a dial arranged as a 4-turn spiral, which also has quadrant divisors on its inside. It has been proposed (Freeth et al. 2008) that this matches a division of the saros in 16 full moon cycles, and may have been used to predict the appearance of eclipses.

I DESCRBIED THAT WHEN I DISCOVERED THE QUADRANT MODEL I WAS TRYING TO RECONCILE THE NUMBER THREE AND FOUR WHEN I REALIZED THAT THE FOURTH WAS DIFFERENT AND TRANSCENDENT FROM THE FIRST THREE--- WOLFGANG PAULI DISCOVERED THE FOUR QUANTUM NUMBERS- ORIGIANLLY THERE WERE THREE BUT PAULI ADDED THE FOURTH AND HE KNEW CARL JUNG AND THE QUATERNITY CONCEPT AND HE SAW WHAT HE DID AS AN EXAMPLE OF THE QUATERNITY IN REALITY (I DISCOVERED JUNG AND THE QUATERNITY WAY AFTER I DISCOVERED THE QUADRANT MODEL)--- THIS BOOK DESCRIBES HOW PAULI "SRUGGLED BETWEEN THE THREE AND THE FOUR" AND RECONCILED THEM WITH THE QUATERNITY CONCEPT

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=v_YOBo-lMS8C&pg=PA249&lpg=PA249&dq=jung+and+pauli+quaternity&source=bl&ots=JGiy6RGWS-&sig=Vw6mR8mdyH_a_Y1XGz5zC4BUOAo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi6u_Pj14LUAhXKxFQKHcWsCWoQ6AEISTAG#v=onepage&q=jung%20and%20pauli%20quaternity&f=false

Quadrant

PAULI DISCUSSING HIS STRUGGLE TO ADD THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH TO THE THREE (FIRST THREE ALWAYS SIMILAR FOURTH DIFFERENT)- JUNG SAW PAULI AS MAKING THE LEAP FROM TRINITY TO QUATERNITY- JUNG CORRESPONDED WITH PAULI AND TOLD PAULI THAT HE HAD MADE THE TRANSFORMATION AND THAT HIS DISCOVERY WAS GETTING RID OF THE NERUOSIS OF TRINITY AND MOVING TO THE QUATERNITY

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=v_YOBo-lMS8C&pg=PA249&lpg=PA249&dq=jung+and+pauli+quaternity&source=bl&ots=JGiy6RGWS-&sig=Vw6mR8mdyH_a_Y1XGz5zC4BUOAo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi6u_Pj14LUAhXKxFQKHcWsCWoQ6AEISTAG#v=onepage&q=jung%20and%20pauli%20quaternity&f=false

Quadrant

QUADRANT

http://www.solid.ethz.ch/pauli-conference/material/Whithead_QM_Klose.pdf

In the epochal theory of time, Whitehead unifies four different time aspects to be found in the experience of an actual occasion. There are two internal and two ex- ternal aspects. The internal time aspects are the passage of thought (becoming and perishing, retentions), and the experience of extension (unlimited act, inner time consciousness, retentions and protentions). The external time aspects are the po- tential physical time (extensive continuum), and the actual physical time (passage of nature, becoming and perishing). The experience of extension corresponds to po- tential physical time; the passage of mind corresponds to the passage of nature. The physical concept of time unifies the experience of an extensive continuum and the perception of concrete, actual occasions. It unifies the discontinuity and continuity of the external world into one concept.

FOUR STEPS FOUR SIGHTS- FOUR BLOCK OPERATORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dmrg_of_Heisenberg_model

To simulate an infinite chain, starting with four sites. The first is the Block site, the last the Universe-Block site and the remaining are the added sites, the right one is "added" to the Universe-Block site and the other to the Block site.

 

The Hilbert space for the single site is

HH_{B}=H_{U}=0. This is always (at every iterations) true only for left and right sites.

 

Step 1: Form the Hamiltonian matrix for the Superblock[edit]

The ingredients are the four Block operators and the four Universe-Block operators, which at the first iteration are

3

×

3

3\times 3 matrices, the three left-site spin operators and the three right-site spin operators, which are always

3

×

3

3\times 3 matrices. The Hamiltonian matrix of the superblock (the chain), which at the first iteration has only four sites, is formed by these operators. In the Heisenberg antiferromagnetic S=1 model the Hamiltonian is:

FOUR IS TRANSCENDENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galaxy_merger

One of the largest galaxy mergers ever observed consisted of four elliptical galaxies in the cluster CL0958+4702. It may form one of the largest galaxies in the Universe.[12]

 

"Galaxies clash in four-way merger". BBC News. August 6, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-07.

Jump up ^

https://www.space.com/4170-astronomers-witness-whopper-galaxy-collision.html

This artist's concept shows what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical planet around a star tossed out of an ongoing four-way collision between big galaxies (yellow blobs). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope spotted the quadruple merger of galaxies within a larger cluster of galaxies located nearly 5 billion light-years away.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Harvard-Smithsonian CfA

A major cosmic pileup involving four large galaxies could give rise to one of the largest galaxies the universe has ever known, scientists say.

 

Each of the four galaxies is at least the size of the Milky Way, and each is home to billions of stars.

 

The galaxies will eventually merge into a single, colossal galaxy up to 10 times as massive as our own Milky Way.

THE FOURTH GALAXY IN THE MERGER IS DIFFERENT HAN OTHER THREE

 

https://www.space.com/4170-astronomers-witness-whopper-galaxy-collision.html

This artist's concept shows what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical planet around a star tossed out of an ongoing four-way collision between big galaxies (yellow blobs). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope spotted the quadruple merger of galaxies within a larger cluster of galaxies located nearly 5 billion light-years away.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Harvard-Smithsonian CfA

A major cosmic pileup involving four large galaxies could give rise to one of the largest galaxies the universe has ever known, scientists say. 

 

Each of the four galaxies is at least the size of the Milky Way, and each is home to billions of stars. 

 

The galaxies will eventually merge into a single, colossal galaxy up to 10 times as massive as our own Milky Way.

 

Spitzer's infrared eyes observed an unusually large fan-shaped plume of light emerging from a gathering of four blob-shaped elliptical galaxies. Three of the galaxies are about the size of the Milky Way, while the fourth is three times as large. 

 

The

MERKABA IS DOUBLE TETRAHEDRON TETRA IS FOUR

http://www.consciouslifeexpo.com/-2017-workshops/david-wilcock_2.html

Join David in a remarkable scientific tour-de-force proving that the Universe originated as a single geometric merkaba, both impossibly tiny and extremely large. Each photon is a fractal of this original creation. Superclusters, galaxies, solar systems, planets, biological organisms, proteins and DNA are all structured by these remarkable new geometric laws. Never before has such a robust scientific model of a biological universe been presented.

THESE FOUR SPECTRAL LINES BOHR USED TO DISCOVER QUANTUM MECHANICS- I have a lecture on it but the lectures I had had so much quadrant stuff it was blatant quadrant model everywhere I just forget a ton now- I'd have to rewatch and record for you hopefully
http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/…/topicreview/bp/ch6/bohr.html
When an electric current is passed through a glass tube that contains hydrogen gas at low pressure the tube gives off blue light. When this light is passed through a prism (as shown in the figure below), four narrow bands of bright light are observed against a black background.

Diagram

These narrow bands have the characteristic wavelengths and colors shown in the table below.

Wavelength Color 
656.2 red 
486.1 blue-green
434.0 blue-violet 
410.1 violet

FOUR LOOPS WAS EXTREMELY DIFFICULT FEYNMAN DIAGRAM ONLY WENT TO FOUR LOOPS HAVE DONE ALL THE FOUR LOOP DIAGRAMS WITH HELP OF COMPUTERS FOURTH ALWAYS DIFFERENT FIFTH QUESTIONABLE- HAS ONLY GONE UP TO FOUR LOOPS AND THAT WAS AN ENORMOUS TASK THE FIVE LOOPS IS QUESTIONABLE FOUR ALWAYS TRANSCENDENT FIVE CAHOS

https://books.google.com/books?id=fq4y9J1LdRUC&pg=PA247&lpg=PA247&dq=up+quark+down+quark+electron+electron+neutrino+four+particles&source=bl&ots=GwA-9Xk6LK&sig=x1qa8tLSr0aJl7yM2h5O9Y36ghQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjg0ovKhtLUAhVJymMKHRtnAm84ChDoAQg5MAQ#v=snippet&q=four&f=false

Quadrant

FOUR PARTICLES THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT TRANSCENDENT CONTAINS THE PREVIOUS THREE THE ELECTRON NEUTRINO- ACCOUNT FOR ALL MATTER WE SEE IN UNIVERSE (these four make up the protons and neutrons and electrons)

https://www.nevis.columbia.edu/~phypharm/opp/opp.html

These four particles, the up and down quarks, the electron and the neutrino, account for essentially all matter we see in the universe.

ADDED A FOURTH LAW TO ARISTOTLES THREE THE FOURTH ALWAYS DIFFERENT

http://www.cheniere.org/books/aids/ch4.htm

At about the same time, I formulated a fundamental correction to Aristotle's logic, adding a fourth law of logic to Aristotle's three, and a proof of it. The new logic was of great use in discovering and uncovering new concepts in unified field theory .

A TRANSCENDENT FOURTH LAW OF LOGIC

http://www.cheniere.org/books/aids/appendixIII.htm

Resolving the Paradox of Change

However, the conditions necessary to resolve the problem of change can be stated simply by inspection of the problem as follows: (1) Aristotle's three laws must specify or apply to only that which is not changing, since change violates or negates all three laws; (2) If change is to logically exist, there must exist at least a fourth law of logic, one which applies to change; (3) This fourth law must contain the negations of each of the first three laws, since change negates them; (4) To be consistent, in any particular logical case, either the three laws explicitly apply or the fourth law explicitly applies (i.e., either change explicitly exists in that particular case or it does not); (5) Since all four laws must apply at all times, then when the three laws apply explicitly, the fourth law must be implicit - and when the fourth law applies explicitly, the three laws must be implicit.

 

With the five stated conditions, a fourth axiom of logic can be written simply by writing down the negations of Aristotle's three laws, and synthesizing these negations into a single fourth law, as shown in Table 2.

FOUR LAWS LEVELS OF REALITY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolai_Hartmann

In Hartmann's ontological theory, the levels of reality are: (1) the inorganic level (German: anorganische Schicht), (2) the organic level (organische Schicht), (3) the psychical/emotional level (seelische Schicht) and (4) the intellectual/cultural level (geistige Schicht). In the Structure of the Real World (Der Aufbau der realen Welt), Hartmann postulates four laws that apply to the levels of reality.

 

The law of recurrence: Lower categories recur in the higher levels as a subaspect of higher categories, but never vice versa.

The law of modification: The categorial elements modify in their recurrence in the higher levels (they are shaped by the characteristics of the higher levels).

The law of the novum: The higher category is composed of a diversity of lower elements, but it is a specific novum that is not included in the lower levels.

The law of distance between levels: Since the different levels do not develop continuously but in leaps, they can be clearly distinguished.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

GALILEOS BOOK DIVIDED INTO FOUR DAYS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two_New_Sciences

Introduction[edit]

The book is divided into four days, each addressing different areas of physics. Galileo dedicates Two New Sciences to Lord Count of Noailles.[5]

 

 

Figure 1 out of Galileo's Two New Sciences in the First Day section

In the First Day, Galileo addressed topics that were discussed in Aristotle's Physics and also the Aristotelian school Mechanics. It also provides an introduction to the discussion of both of the new sciences. The likeness between the topics discussed, specific questions that are hypothesized, and the style and sources throughout give Galileo the backbone to his First Day. The First Day introduces the speakers in the dialogue: Salviati, Sagredo, and Simplicio, the same as in the Dialogue. These three people are all Galileo just at different stages of his life, Simplicio the youngest and Salviati, Galileo's closest counterpart. It also provides an introduction to the discussion of both of the new sciences. The second day addresses the question of the strength of materials.

 

The Third and Fourth days address the science of motion. The Third day discusses uniform and naturally accelerated motion, the issue of terminal velocity having been addressed in the First day. The Fourth day discusses projectile motion.

GALILEOS OTHER MAIN BOOK ALSO DIVIDED INTO FOUR DAYS FOUR SECTIONS- THE FOURTH PART IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dialogue_Concerning_the_Two_Chief_World_Systems

Generally, these arguments have held up well in terms of the knowledge of the next four centuries. Just how convincing they ought to have been to an impartial reader in 1632 remains a contentious issue.

 

Galileo attempted a fourth class of argument:

 

Direct physical argument for the Earth's motion, by means of an explanation of tides.

As an account of the causation of tides or a proof of the Earth's motion, it is a failure. The fundamental argument is internally inconsistent and actually leads to the conclusion that tides do not exist. But, Galileo was fond of the argument and devoted the "Fourth Day" of the discussion to it.

THE FOURTH GALILEAN MOON IS DIFFERENT GALILEO SAW THREE THEN LATER SAW THE FOURTH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galilean_moons

The three inner moons—Io, Europa, and Ganymede—are in a 4:2:1 orbital resonance with each other. Because of their much smaller size, and therefore weaker self-gravitation, all of Jupiter's remaining moons have irregular forms rather than a spherical shape.

 

On January 7, 1610, Galileo wrote a letter containing the first mention of Jupiter's moons. At the time, he saw only three of them, and he believed them to be fixed stars near Jupiter. He continued to observe these celestial orbs from January 8 to March 2, 1610. In these observations, he discovered a fourth body, and also observed that the four were not fixed stars, but rather were orbiting Jupiter.[2]

THE HUBBLE CROSS- CROSS IS QUADRANT- FORM OF EXISTENCE

http://www.skyimagelab.com/m51-cross.html

Sometimes known as the Hubble Cross or Cross of Hubble

 

This image of the core of the nearby spiral galaxy M51, taken with the Wide Field Planetary camera (in PC mode) on NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, shows a striking , dark "X" silhouetted across the galaxy's nucleus. The "X" is due to absorption by dust and marks the exact position of a black hole which may have a mass equivalent to one-million stars like the sun. The darkest bar may be an edge-on dust ring which is 100 light-years in diameter. The edge-on torus not only hides the black hole and accretion disk from being viewed directly from earth, but also determines the axis of a jet of high-speed plasma and confines radiation from the accretion disk to a pair of oppositely directed cones of light, which ionize gas caught in their beam. The second bar of the "X" could be a second disk seen edge on, or possibly rotating gas and dust in MS1 intersecting with the jets and ionization cones.

NIBURU PLANET SYSTEM AND THE CROSS/QUADRANT

https://socioecohistory.wordpress.com/2014/06/21/the-history-of-the-search-for-planet-x-nibiru-a-cross-in-the-heavens-signalling-the-2nd-coming-of-jesus-christ/

Planet X, Nibiru planetary system forms a Cross in the heavens!

 

Why are the Illuminati elites preparing Deep UnderGround Military Bases (DUMBs), thousands of kilometres of tunnels, massive underground warehousing facilities …etc.? They are preparing for the incoming of something which forms a CROSS in the sky! Ie. the 2nd Coming of Jesus Christ!

Matthew 24:30

Then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in heaven, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.

The Illuminists are spending trillions of dollars building space warfare system. They have build and deployed telescopes, space satellites, probes; all in the InfraRed band to detect this incoming object which forms a CROSS in the skies! Yes, Planet X or Nibiru, planetary system, with its 6-7 satellites/moons/planets circling a Brown Dwarf star (Nemesis) forms a CROSS in the skies! Thus, some people call it Planet of the Crossing. As it moves closer to the sun, the brown dwarf star will heat up and light up in reddish brown color. And we will see a bright Red Coss in the skies.

My interest in Planet X, Nibiru stems from biblical prophecy. During the endtimes there will be unprecedented astronomical phenomena: ‘the powers of heavens will be shaken’. Here are some biblical prophecy which seem to indicate the approach of a planetary system. This approaching planetary system will intersect earth’s orbit some time in the future.

CROSSES ON MARS

 

The Curiosity rover, which has been exploring the Red Planet for almost two years, never ceases to amaze us with unique and extraordinary pictures. In the last batch, those searching for extraterrestrial civilization have found what appears to be a tomb topped with a cross.

https://sputniknews.com/voiceofrussia/news/2014_05_24/Tomb-with-cross-found-on-Mars-6401/

According to one Internet user, nicknamed Truthseeker, who has not only examined the photos thoroughly but also made a video, the religious symbol on the surface of Mars is nothing other than a wooden cross and the small plate beneath it looks like a headstone.

"I am dumbfounded, there's not much to say," Truthseeker says. "There's another cross, I mean, come on, that's just clear…everybody can see that, you don't even have to do any editing or nothing."

"It looks like a plate on a grave. This is not the first cross, which you can see on the photos from Mars, published by NASA," cryptozoologynews.com quotes the network user.

 

Read more: https://sputniknews.com/voiceofrussia/news/2014_05_24/Tomb-with-cross-found-on-Mars-6401/

Quadrant

AUM AND ALLAH BOTH FOURFOLD

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SNraVirlP8U

Quadrant

ASTROLOGY FOUR

http://richarddagan.com/asteroid-goddesses.php

We divide the twelve signs into four elements: fire, earth, air, and water. The elements are principles of action in the world. The psychologist Carl Jung related then to the four psychological functions: Fire is intuition, earth is sensation, air is thinking, and water is feeling. They correspond to Plato's four bodies, where fire is the spiritual body, earth is the physical body, air is the mental body, and water is the emotional body. They correlate with the modern view of the world as seen by physicists, in which fire is energy, earth is the particle nature of matter, water is the wave nature of matter, and air is the complimentarity between particle and wave [...]

FOURTH POINT ADDED TO THE GRAND TRINE- THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH

http://richarddagan.com/asteroid-goddesses.php

Deeper analysis of the chart requires assessment and interpretive synthesis of planetary aspects, referring to recognized geometric relationships which are thought to describe or characterize the blending of planetary principles in personality. In some cases, groups of aspects are combined in a dynamic that is given greater weight than would be accorded the individual aspects alone. For example, three (or more) planets may be in trine with each other, such that each is approximately 120º (±10º) from the others. This results in a dynamic called the Grand Trine, and it effectively magnifies the combined energies of all three points. A Kite Formation adds a fourth point to the Grand Trine; this fourth point, which may include one or more planets or astrological variables, is 60º from two points in the Grand Trine, and 180º from the third. A Kite Formation is illustrated below.

 

Kite Formation

Kite Formation (Koch House System)

Taken in isolation, this dynamic involves ten principals that comprise a circuit or matrix with four integrated themes, identified by (i) Vesta, Venus, North Mode and Midheaven in 10th-House Aries [base of the kite]; (ii) Chiron Retrograde, Ceres and Vertex in 5th-House Sagittarius; (iii) Neptune Retrograde and South Node in 4th-House Libra [apex of the kite]; and (iv) Pluto in 1st-House Leo. The House positions help identify the nature of the circuit, and the apical 4th House, dealing with psychological foundations, reveals the orientation of the matrix, focused by its base and the Vesta archetype.

TRANSCENDENT FOURTH ADDED TO THE TRINE- THE FOURTH IS OPPOSITE/DIFFERENT

http://www.bobmarksastrologer.com/GrandTrine15.2.htm

The Grand Trine is supposed to be “lucky.” The problem with “luck” is that people can blow it. If there are too many trines in a chart (it doesn’t matter if they are in a Grand Trine or not) there is usually be a tendency to take the easy way out, to let your life drift.

 

A T-Cross can get you moving. Grand Trines can also get you moving --- to bed.

 

The lopsided nature of the T-Cross focuses your attention to one spot, that empty leg. But the Grand Trine looks like an equilateral triangle. It’s symmetrical. That means no outlet for the “energy.” The desire to move has to come from elsewhere in your chart, usually from square aspects.

 

A Grand Trine is formed when two planets that make a trine aspect (120 degrees) both make another trine aspect to a third planet. If you draw lines connecting all the planets, you get an equilateral triangle.

 

Sometimes, a fourth planet is opposite one of the Grand Trine planets. That means it will probably make sextiles (60 degree aspects) to the other two Grand Trine planets. If you draw connecting lines on the chart, you get what looks like a Kite formation.

https://www.janspiller.com/the-quadrants/

PLANET QUADRANTS

 

Planets in Quadrant #1 (Houses 1, 2 & 3)

 

AWARENESS OF SELF

 

Many planets in Quadrant #1 indicate that in this lifetime, your primary attention is focused on yourself – on developing a heightened awareness of your personal identity and inherent values, learning to be more at ease in communicating your ideas to others.

FOUR PRIMARY GODDESS ARCHETYPES

http://richarddagan.com/asteroid-goddesses.php

Archetypal influences are often evident, in this case, and astrological interpretations can prove much more resonant when these are elucidated. For example, in their classic text entitled Asteroid Goddesses: The Mythology, Psychology, and Astrology of the Re-emerging Feminine, authors Demetra George and Douglas Bloch present Ephemerides of 16 Asteroids 1930-2050, with insightful descriptions of aspects between four primary goddess archetypes and planets in the natal chart; they also describe the influence of each archetype in the Houses. A 9th-, 10th-, or 11th-House locus (depending on the House System you used to erect you chart) is especially significant for Ceres, Pallas Athene, Vesta, or Juno [we would add Lilith and possibly Pholus to this list], particularly if any of these is conjunct (± 10º of) the MC. Aspects from these asteroids to the MC (e.g. by square, quintile, trine, opposition, etc.) are equally instructive, as are placements of the asteroids in the 2nd House (personal resources) or the 6th House (jobs, personal service).

FOUR ANGLES IN HOROSCOPE

http://richarddagan.com/asteroid-goddesses.php

Also known as Medium Coeli, "Middle of the Heavens", abbreviated in charts as M.C. One of the four angles in a horoscope. It marks the cusp of the tenth house and is directly opposite the Nadir. The midheaven represents ambition, ideals, and public image. Planets at or near the Midheaven tend to indicate that the person is likely to make a mark on the outside world.

FOUR ANGLES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angle_(astrology)

The angles are the four Cardinal points of an astrological chart: the Ascendant, the Midheaven, the Descendant and the Imum Coeli.

 

The point opposite the Midheaven, which is in the unseen sky, and would be the midnight point in a chart cast for dawn, is the anticulmination of the Sun, or the Imum Coeli, which is Latin for the "bottom of the sky." This is the last of the four angles.

FOUR CUSPS

https://www.tarot.com/astrology/birth-chart-angles

Within the circle of the horoscope there are four all-important points that define a birth chart in a most special way. They are the "cusp" (or beginning) of the 1st, 4th, 7th and 10th houses. These points are known as the "angles," and they have particular significance because they represent physical points of energy manifestation. The angles in an Astrology birth chart are where your horoscope comes alive; where you meet and interact with the outside world.

QUADRANTS V TRINES

http://www.astrology-x-files.com/vedic/vedicastro5.html

Debilitation is cancelled due to 2 factors:

 

When the dispositor is in a quadrant ( 1,4,7 & 10 houses ) either from the Ascendant or the Lunar Ascendant.

When the exaltation dispositor is in a quadrant either from the Ascendant or the Lunar Ascendant.

This Cancellation of Debilitation is considered to be a powerful Regal Yoga or Conjunction (Raja Yoga).

 

Planets in Quadrants

 

1, 4, 7, 10 houses are called quadrants. 1, 5, 9 houses are called Trines. Benefic planets like Jupiter, Venus & Mercury are considered to be powerful when they are posited in quadrants. It is said that that these 3 natural benefics in quadrants can destroy scores of afflictions!

 

If natural malefics own quadrants, they become benefics. Mars& Saturn are good as owners of quadrants. On the other hand, if natural benefics like Venus and Jupiter own quadrants, they are vitiated by Quadrangular ownership. They become functional malefics.

 

The trinal lords (lords of 1, 5 & 9) are considered powerful.

THE FOUR HOUSE QUADRANTS

http://www.drstandley.com/astrologycharts_quadrants.shtml

THE 4 HOUSE QUADRANTS

Daily, Weekly, Monthly and Yearly Horoscopes

Aries | Aquarius | Cancer | Capricorn | Gemini | Leo

Libra | Pisces | Sagittarius | Scorpio | Taurus | Virgo

North & South Node Calendar

The North Node Virgo and the South Node Pisces

North Node Virgo - South Node Pisces Transiting Degrees Calendar

Saturn in Sagittarius Transiting Degrees Calendar

2017 Major Aspects & Astro-Memes | 2017 Void of Course Moon Calendar

 

If you have a Natal Chart that I wrote for you, I have indicated in the text which quadrant you are strong, balanced or weak.

 

After reading about each quadrant, you may have a Good idea which quadrant represents your strengths.

 

If your Natal Chart indicates that all the Quadrants are balanced, then THAT'S GREAT! Then read all the Quadrants below to see what they indicate. Notice how each quadrant is compromised of 3 houses each.

KITE PATTERN FOUR MAKES A CROSS

http://www.drstandley.com/astrologycharts_kite.shtml

In the Kite pattern, there are four planets connected to one another and it sure does look like a kite!

GRAND CROSS/QUADRANT IN ASTROLOGY

http://www.drstandley.com/astrologycharts_grandcross.shtml

A Grand Cross is four planets in square aspect, including 2 oppositions (a complete fourth harmonic syndrome). This is an intense and often stressful structure needing a focus for its considerable energy into specific purposes and constructive action. Usually a Grand Cross occurs all in one quadruplicity or mode. If in Cardinal signs, the outlet for the energy is action; in Fixed signs, the outlet is emotional and/or surrendering self-will; in Mutable signs, being able to see all sides leads to indecisiveness and diffusion of energy: an adjustment in thinking habits is necessary.

 

The reason why this pattern is called both a cross and a square is because it is a big box (square) and the intersecting points create a big "X" in the middle of the square. So it can be referred to as a "cross" or a "square." Either way, it means the same thing.

 

A Grand Cross a.k.a. Grand Square is a sharp contrast to a Grand Trine. All of the signs in the Grand Cross are of the same 'mode,' meaning the same time period in a different season of the year (Spring, Summer, Fall and Winter). So each 90 degree angle of the Grand Cross has to involve one of the 4 signs in each mode (Cardinal, Fixed or Mutable). That means a Grand Cross involves one sign of each element (air, earth, fire and water). *See below.

 

The Grand Cross has four 90 degree angles (squares) with four equal lines. In other words, it's a great big square in the middle of your Natal Chart. The cross or X in the center represents the planets involved are directly opposing each other thereby creating challenges. It's like a tug of war from 4 areas of your Life.

 

There's no doubt - Grand Cross' are character builders. Many, many, many successful people have Grand Cross' in their charts. They are relentless and they NEVER give up; therefore, success eventually comes to them and rewards them for their patience, perseverance and diligence.

 

If you are looking at a Natal Chart that I wrote for you, the SQUARE LINES in the middle of your Chart Wheel will be the color RED.

 

MODES

 

Cardinal (movable) signs - Aries (fire), Cancer (water), Libra (air), Capricorn (earth) = The first signs in each season

 

Fixed signs - Taurus (earth), Leo (fire), Scorpio (water), Aquarius (air) = They are the signs in the middle of each season

 

Mutable (adaptable) signs - Gemini (air), Virgo (earth), Sagittarius (fire), Pisces (water) = They are signs in the last months of each season

Where a Grand Trine is ease, a Grand Cross represents many challenges in the Life of the native chart holder. Those with a Grand Cross also know their place in the world and they recognize the challenges they face. Typically, the native will have four separate problems occurring at one time.

 

One way to use this energy to your advantage would be to funnel the energy into a planet that is forming a positive aspect to one or more of the planets involved in the Grand Cross. This would be a planet that sextiles or trines two of the planets involved, then you could use the powerful energy of the square to your advantage. It's a lot of energy and it has to be used somehow, so you may as well turn into your favor. It can be done!

GRAND CROSS ASTROLOGY

http://www.myastrologybook.com/grand-cross-cosmic-cross-planetary-pattern-astrology.htm

When four or more planets occupy the vertices of an imaginary square in a chart, that planetary pattern is known as a grand—or cosmic—cross shown above. Consisting of two oppositions the ends of which mutually square one another, this pattern could also be described as a completed T-square or a complete "fourth harmonic syndrome."

BIG FOUR ASTEROIDS AND FOUR FEMININE ARCHETYPES

http://richarddagan.com/asteroid-goddesses.php

The Mandala of the Asteroid Goddesses

 

Ceres, Pallas, Juno and Vesta represent four very basic feminine archetypes which amplify and particularize the more general energies of the Moon and Venus. Their relation to the regular planets and to each other becomes clear in a mandala.

 

The large circle in the mandala represents the Moon, the fundamental feminine principle that contains all the potential expressions of the feminine nature. Behind the Moon resides the Sun, the embodiment of the fundamental masculine principle. The union of the masculine and feminine, of the Sun God and Moon Goddess, gives rise to what mystics have described as Oneness.

 

In the center of the mandala is Venus. As the essence of the feminine nature in her activated form, Venus embodies the feminine creative, magnetic, sexual, reproductive, vital life force. Venus is surrounded by Ceres, Pallas, Juno and Vesta. Each of the four in its unique way uses the creative sexual energy of Venus to express the various functions and activities of the feminine principle as it operates in both women and men.

 

ASTEROID GODDESSES: Chloe Armand

Image Credit: Demetra George and Douglas Bloch.

 

Note that these asteroids are placed at the four cardinal directions of the mandala. These correspond to the four "angles" of the astrological chart: the Ascendant and Descendant to the left and right along the horizon, and the MC (Medium Coeli or Midheaven) and IC (Imum Coeli or Lowest Heaven), at the top and bottom of the vertical meridian line. The basic symbolism of these four great goddesses is as follows:

FOUR DECAY CHAINS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decay_chain

The four most common modes of radioactive decay are: alpha decay, beta decay, inverse beta decay (considered as both positron emission and electron capture), and isomeric transition. Of these decay processes, only alpha decay changes the atomic mass number (A) of the nucleus, and always decreases it by four. Because of this, almost any decay will result in a nucleus whose atomic mass number has the same residue mod 4, dividing all nuclides into four chains. The members of any possible decay chain must be drawn entirely from one of these classes. All four chains also produce helium-4 (alpha particles are helium-4 nuclei).

 

Three main decay chains (or families) are observed in nature, commonly called the thorium series, the radium or uranium series, and the actinium series, representing three of these four classes, and ending in three different, stable isotopes of lead. The mass number of every isotope in these chains can be represented as A = 4n, A = 4n + 2, and A = 4n + 3, respectively. The long-lived starting isotopes of these three isotopes, respectively thorium-232, uranium-238, and uranium-235, have existed since the formation of the earth, ignoring the artificial isotopes and their decays since the 1940s.

 

Due to the relatively short half-life of its starting isotope neptunium-237 (2.14 million years), the fourth chain, the neptunium series with A = 4n + 1, is already extinct in nature, except for the final rate-limiting step, decay of bismuth-209. The ending isotope of this chain is now known to be thallium-205. Some older sources give the final isotope as bismuth-209, but it was recently discovered that it is very slightly radioactive, with a half-life of 1.9×1019 years.

FOUR NATURAL ISOTOPES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_radioactivity#Natural

Radioactivity is present everywhere, and has been since the formation of the earth. According to the IAEA, soil typically contains the following four natural radioisotopes: 40K, 226Ra, 238U, and 232Th. In one kilogram of soil, the potassium-40 amounts to an average 370 Bq of radiation, with a typical range of 100–700 Bq; the others each contribute some 25 Bq, with typical ranges of 10–50 Bq (7–50 Bq for the 232Th).[1] Some soils may vary greatly from these norms.

FOUR BRANCHES PROTON PROTON CHAIN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proton–proton_chain_reaction#The_P-P_IV_.28Hep.29_branch

The proton-proton chain reaction

2.1 The P-P I branch

2.2 The P-P II branch

2.3 The P-P III branch

2.4 The P-P IV (Hep) branch

FOUR PARTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun

During a total solar eclipse, when the disk of the Sun is covered by that of the Moon, parts of the Sun's surrounding atmosphere can be seen. It is composed of four distinct parts: the chromosphere, the transition region, the corona and the heliosphere.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun

For the Sun, four thermal pulses are predicted before it completely loses its outer envelope and starts to make a planetary nebula. By the end of that phase – lasting approximately 500,000 years – the Sun will only have about half of its current mass

FUSES FOUR TOGETHER LIKE QUADRANT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun

Fusing four free protons (hydrogen nuclei) into a single alpha particle (helium nucleus) releases around 0.7% of the fused mass as energy,[72] so the Sun releases energy at the mass–energy conversion rate of 4.26 million metric tons per second (which requires 600 metric megatons of hydrogen [73]), for 384.6 yottawatts (3.846×1026 W),[1] or 9.192×1010 megatons of TNT per second.

So what did we do?

http://burro.cwru.edu/academics/Astr221/StarPhys/ppchain.html

We essentially turned 4 protons into

 

1 helium nucleus

1 positron (this positron will bump into a electron and annihilate, creating a gamma ray - energy!).

1 gamma ray (energy!)

1 neutrino

THE FOUR GROUPS OF STARS HERTZSPRUNG RUSSEL DIAGRAMS- THIS WAS LIKE THE ONLY THING THEY TAUGHT US IN THE ASTRONOMY CLASS I TOOK AT UCSD ALL THAT WAS TAUGHT WAS THE QUADRANT MODEL- THE FOURTH GROUP IS DIFFERENT

http://www.atnf.csiro.au/outreach/education/senior/cosmicengine/stars_hrdiagram.html

As we can see, stars do not appear randomly on the plot but appear to be grouped in four main regions. This is highly significant as it suggests that there may be some relationship between the luminosity and temperature of a star. Whilst not surprising (indeed we have already seen that a hotter star emits more energy per unit surface area than a cooler star) the relationship is complicated by the presence of these four groups. Let us examine these more closely.

http://www.atnf.csiro.au/outreach//education/senior/cosmicengine/images/stars/hrgenericsml.jpg

Most stars seem to fall into group A. It shows a general trend from cool, dim stars in the lower right corner up to hot, extremely bright stars in the top left corner which fits in with our expected relationship between temperature and luminosity. This group is called the Main Sequence so stars found on it are main sequence stars. Our Sun is one such example. Others include α Cen, Altair, Sirius, Achernar and Barnard's Star.

 

Stars in group B are mostly 6,000 K or cooler yet more luminous than main sequence stars of the same temperature. How can this be? The reason is that these stars are much larger than main sequence stars. Although they emit the same amount of energy per square metre as main sequence stars they have have much greater surface area (area ∝ radius2) the total energy emitted is thus much greater. These stars are referred to as giants. Examples include Aldebaran and Mira.

 

The stars in group C are even more luminous than the giants. These are the supergiants, the largest of stars with extremely high luminosities. A red supergiant such as Betelgeuse would extend beyond the orbit of Jupiter if it replaced the Sun in our solar system.

 

The final group of interest are those stars in group D. From their position on the H-R diagram we see that they are very hot yet very dim. Although they emit large amounts of energy per square metre they have low luminosity which implies that they must therefore be very small. Group D stars are in fact known as white dwarfs. Sirius B and Procyon B are examples. White dwarfs are much smaller than main sequence stars and are roughly the size of Earth. The diagram below shows the main groups labelled together with example stars in each group.

FOUR GROUPS OF STARS- FOURTH WHITE DDWARFS ARE SEPARATE FROM OTHER THREE THE QUADRANT PATTERN

http://skyserver.sdss.org/dr1/en/proj/advanced/hr/neareststars.asp

The schematic H-R diagram shows four groups of stars. The narrow band across the center is the "main sequence" of stars, which contains about 90% of stars. Main sequence stars are normal hydrogen-burning stars like our Sun. A star's position along the main sequence is determined entirely by its mass. Bigger stars are hotter and brighter - class O stars can have 60-100 times the Sun's mass. Smaller stars are cooler and dimmer - class M stars can have one-tenth the Sun's mass. When you made the H-R diagram of the nearest stars, you saw only main sequence stars.

THE FOUR EQUATIONS OF STELLAR STRUCTURE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_structure

The simplest commonly used model of stellar structure is the spherically symmetric quasi-static model, which assumes that a star is in a steady state and that it is spherically symmetric. It contains four basic first-order differential equations: two represent how matter and pressure vary with radius; two represent how temperature and luminosity vary with radius.[4]

THERE IS FOUR TERRESTRIAL PLANETS THEN THE ASTEROID BELT THEN FOUR GIANT PLANETS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_gravitationally_rounded_objects_of_the_Solar_System

By the IAU's definition, there are eight planets in the Solar System; four terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) and four giant planets

THERE ARE FOUR ACCEPTED PLUTOIDS (dwarf planets beyond Neptune

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plutoid

There are thought to be thousands of plutoids in the Solar System, although only four have been formally designated as such by the IAU.

 

This decision allowed for the naming of Makemake and Haumea, and their formal recognition as plutoids and dwarf planets, bringing the number of IAU-accepted plutoids to four.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Pillars_of_Destiny

The Four Pillars of Destiny (四柱命理) is a Chinese conceptual term describing the four components that supposedly create a person's destiny or fate. The four components within the moment of birth are year, month, day, and hour. The four pillars (a translation of the Chinese dynastic phrase Shēng Chén Bā Zì; Korean Saju) are used alongside fortune-telling practices such as Zǐ wēi dòu shù within the realm of Chinese astrology. Chinese astrology believes the alignment of sun and stars affects a person's destiny. Ba Zi uses the alignment of sun's position, in other words the solar calendar, while Zǐ wēi dòu shù uses the alignment of moon and stars positions.

I LISTENED TO A TEACHING COMPANY COURSE ON ECONOMICS HE HAD A WHOLE LECTURE ON THE FOUR TIGER ECONOMIES AND THE MIRACLE OF THE FOUR- ALL THAT WAS TALKED ABOUT IN EVERY CLASS I SAW AND I STUDIED EVERY SINGLE CLASS AT UCSD FOR FOUR YEARS IT WAS ALL THE QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiger_Cub_Economies

The term Tiger Cub Economies collectively refers to the economies of the developing countries of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand[1] the four dominant countries in Southeast Asia.[2][3]

 

Tiger Cub Economies are so named because they attempt to follow the same export-driven model of technology and economic development already achieved by the rich high-tech industrialized developed countries of Taiwan and South Korea along with the wealthy financial centers of Hong Kong (China) and Singapore, which are all collectively referred to as the Four Asian Tigers. Young tigers are referred to as "cubs", the implication being that the five newly industrialized countries[4] who make up the Tiger Cub Economies are rising Tigers. In fact, four countries are included in HSBC's list of top 50 economies in 2050,[5] while Indonesia and Philippines are included in Goldman Sachs's Next Eleven list of economies because of their rapid growth and large population.

SCHOEPENHAUER SAID FOUR PRIASMATIC COLORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/On_Vision_and_Colors

Schopenhauer claimed that there are only four prismatic colors: violet, blue, yellow, and orange. The rays described by Newton are supposed to be variously colored according to laws that have nothing to do with the eye.

FOUR POSSIBLE TYPES OF MATTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Bang

The four possible types of matter are known as cold dark matter, warm dark matter, hot dark matter, and baryonic matter.

THE FOUR PILLARS OF THE BIG BANG THEORY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Bang

The earliest and most direct observational evidence of the validity of the theory are the expansion of the universe according to Hubble's law (as indicated by the redshifts of galaxies), discovery and measurement of the cosmic microwave background and the relative abundances of light elements produced by Big Bang nucleosynthesis. More recent evidence includes observations of galaxy formation and evolution, and the distribution of large-scale cosmic structures,[67] These are sometimes called the "four pillars" of the Big Bang theory.[68]

The Four Pillars of Big Bang Cosmology

 

http://physics.weber.edu/palen/phsx1040/Lectures/LBigbang.html

There are four key observations that provide convincing evidence that the Universe began with the 'Big Bang'. The first two observations were formative---they made people think there might have been a Big Bang. The second two are predictive---if the Big Bang happened, in the way we think it did, then we should be able to look out in the Universe and observe these two things. We took the predictions of the theory, and went looking for those things in space. We would not still hold the Big Bang as the standard model if these predictions were not born out by observation. At this point in time, Big Bang cosmology is the standard model, accepted by most scientists, no matter how uncomfortable or mind-boggling we find it!

THREE OF THE FOUR FORCES HAVE BEEN UNIFIED- NOT GRAVITY GRAVITY IS THE DIFFERENT FOURTH

http://bustard.phys.nd.edu/Phys171/lectures/inflation.html

More complete theories of particle physics called Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) were developed

they were very similar to the "standard model"

they "unified" 3 of the 4 forces (not gravity)

FOUR QUARKS

 

The discovery of a particle made essentially of four quarks does not fit with our current model of physics.

 

 

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2604476/Could-particle-rewrite-modern-physics-Discovery-4-quark-hadron-proves-not-fully-understand-universe.html#ixzz4ma4GMWO4

Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

 

The discovery of a four-quark hadron, known as a tetraquark, challenges that theory.

 

 

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2604476/Could-particle-rewrite-modern-physics-Discovery-4-quark-hadron-proves-not-fully-understand-universe.html#ixzz4ma4L5q1R

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Quadrant

FOUR MESONS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaon

In particle physics, a kaon /ˈkeɪ.ɒn/, also called a K meson and denoted

K

,[nb 1] is any of a group of four mesons distinguished by a quantum number called strangeness. In the quark model they are understood to be bound states of a strange quark (or antiquark) and an up or down antiquark (or quark).

 

The four kaons are :

 

 

K−

, negatively charged (containing a strange quark and an up antiquark) has mass 493.677±0.013 MeV and mean lifetime (1.2384±0.0024)×10−8 s.

 

K+

(antiparticle of above) positively charged (containing an up quark and a strange antiquark) must (by CPT invariance) have mass and lifetime equal to that of

K−

. The mass difference is 0.032±0.090 MeV, consistent with zero. The difference in lifetime is (0.11±0.09)×10−8 s.

 

K0

, neutrally charged (containing a down quark and a strange antiquark) has mass 497.648±0.022 MeV. It has mean squared charge radius of −0.076±0.01 fm2.

 

K0

, neutrally charged (antiparticle of above) (containing a strange quark and a down antiquark) has the same mass.

EXTREMELY FAMOUS MICHAELSON INTERFEROMETER THAT SHOWED NO AETHER WAS A QUADRANT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interferometry

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Interferometer.svg

Figure 1. The light path through a Michelson interferometer. The two light rays with a common source combine at the half-silvered mirror to reach the detector. They may either interfere constructively (strengthening in intensity) if their light waves arrive in phase, or interfere destructively (weakening in intensity) if they arrive out of phase, depending on the exact distances between the three mirrors.

FOUR TRAVELLING WAVE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramsey_interferometry

The Four Traveling Wave Interaction Geometry[edit]

The problem that Bordé et al.[5] were trying to solve in 1984 was the averaging-out of Ramsey fringes of atoms whose transition frequencies were in the optical range. When this was the case, first-order Doppler shifts caused the Ramsey fringes to vanish because of the introduced spread in frequencies. Their solution was to have four Ramsey interaction zones instead of two, each zone consisting of a traveling wave but still applying a

π

2

{\frac {\pi }{2}} pulse. The first two waves both travel in the same direction, and the second two both travel in the direction opposite that of the first and second. There are two populations that result from the interaction of the atoms first with the first two zones and subsequently with the second two. The first population consists of atoms whose Doppler-induced de-phasing has cancelled, resulting in the familiar Ramsey fringes. The second consists of atoms whose Doppler-induced de-phasing has doubled and whose Ramsey fringes have completely disappeared (this is known as the "backward-stimulated photon echo," and its signal goes to zero after integrating over all velocities.)

 

The interaction geometry of two pairs of counter-propagating waves that Bordé et al. introduced allows for improved resolution of spectroscopy of frequencies in the optical range, such as those of Ca and I2.[5]

 

The Interferometer[edit]

Specifically, however, the Ramsey–Bordé interferometer is an atom interferometer that uses this four traveling wave geometry and the phenomenon of atomic recoil.[9] In Bordé's notation, |a⟩ is the ground state and |b⟩ is the excited state. When an atom enters any of the four interaction zones, the wavefunction of the atom is divided into a superposition of two states, where each state is described by a specific energy and a specific momentum: |α,mα⟩, where 'α' is either 'a' or 'b' (see Figure 5). The quantum number mα is the number of light momentum quanta

|

k

|

\hbar |\mathbf{k}| that have been exchanged from the initial momentum, where

k

\mathbf {k} is the wavevector of the laser. This superposition is due to the energy and momentum exchanged between the laser and the atom in the interaction zones during the absorption/emission processes. Because there is initially one atom-wave, after the atom has passed through three zones it is in a superposition of eight different states before it reaches the final interaction zone.

 

Looking at the probability to transition to |b⟩ after the atom has passed through the fourth interaction zone, one would find dependence on the detuning in the form of Ramsey fringes, but due to the difference in two quantum mechanical paths. After integrating over all velocities, there are only two closed circuit quantum mechanical paths that do not integrate to zero, and those are the |a, 0⟩ and |b, –1⟩ path and the |a, 2⟩ and |b, 1⟩ path, which are the two paths that lead to intersections of the diagram at the fourth interaction zone in Figure 5. The atom-wave interferometer formed by either of these two paths leads to a phase difference that is dependent on both internal and external parameters, i.e. it is dependent on the physical distances by which the interaction zones are separated and on the internal state of the atom, as well as external applied fields. Another way to think about these interferometers in the traditional sense is that for each path there are two arms, each of which is denoted by the atomic state.

 

If an external field is applied to either rotate or accelerate the atoms, there will be a phase shift due to the induced de Broglie phase in each arm of the interferometer, and this will translate to a shift in the Ramsey fringes. In other words, the external field will change the momentum states, which will lead to a shift in the fringe pattern, which can be detected. As an example, apply the following Hamiltonian of an external field to rotate the atoms in the interferometer:

IT USES FOUR INSTEAD OF THREE- THE DYNAMIC OF FOUR AND THREE FOUR TRANSCENDENT

https://journals.aps.org/pra/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevA.30.1836

We present a new interaction geometry for optical Ramsey fringes comprised of four traveling waves instead of the three usual standing waves. First, we demonstrate experimentally that the new method leads to an improved contrast, using the optothermal detection of the vibrational excitation of

SF

6

in a supersonic beam illuminated by a waveguide

CO

2

laser. Second, we give a simple theoretical description of the method, using evolution matrices of spinors and pseudospin-vector representations of these spinors. Finally, we introduce strong-field density-matrix diagrams to discuss the differences between the various interaction geometries as well as between the Ramsey fringes and the usual stimulated photon echoes.

THE FOUR STOKES PARAMETERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stokes_parameters

The relationship of the Stokes parameters S0, S1, S2, S3 to intensity and polarization ellipse parameters is shown in the equations below and the figure at right.

 

S

0

=I

S

1

=Ipcos⁡2ψcos⁡2χ

S

2

=Ipsin⁡2ψcos⁡2χ

S

3

=Ipsin⁡2χ{\begin{aligned}S_{0}&=I\\S_{1}&=Ip\cos 2\psi \cos 2\chi \\S_{2}&=Ip\sin 2\psi \cos 2\chi \\S_{3}&=Ip\sin 2\chi \end{aligned}}

Here

I

I

p

p,

2

ψ2\psi and

2

χ2\chi are the spherical coordinates of the three-dimensional vector of cartesian coordinates

(

S

1

,

S

2

,

S

3

)

(S_{1},S_{2},S_{3}).

I

I is the total intensity of the beam, and

p

p is the degree of polarization, constrained by 0 ≤ p ≤ 1. The factor of two before

ψ\psi represents the fact that any polarization ellipse is indistinguishable from one rotated by 180°, while the factor of two before

χ\chi indicates that an ellipse is indistinguishable from one with the semi-axis lengths swapped accompanied by a 90° rotation. The phase information of the polarized light is not recorded in the stokes parameters. The four Stokes parameters are sometimes denoted I, Q, U and V, respectively.

 

The Stokes vector spans the space of unpolarized, partially polarized, and fully polarized light. For comparison, the Jones vector only spans the space of fully polarized light, but is more useful for problems involving coherent light. The four Stokes parameters are not a preferred coordinate system of the space, but rather were chosen because they can be easily measured or calculated.

 

From a geometric and algebraic point of view, the Stokes parameters stand in one-to-one correspondence with the closed, convex, 4-real-dimensional cone of nonnegative Hermitian operators on the Hilbert space C2. The parameter I serves as the trace of the operator, whereas the entries of the matrix of the operator are simple linear functions of the four parameters I, Q, U, V, serving as coefficients in a linear combination of the Stokes operators. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the operator can be calculated from the polarization ellipse parameters I, p, ψ, χ.

USES THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH COLOR

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=09sM7Y0jZdI

Quadrant

FOURTH STERILE NEUTRINO FOURTH DIFFERENT

https://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0209097

Analytical calculations of four-neutrino oscillations in matter

 

Yuki Kamo, Satoshi Yajima, Yoji Higasida, Shin-Ichiro Kubota, Shoshi Tokuo, Jun-Ichi Ichihara (Kumamoto University)

(Submitted on 10 Sep 2002 (v1), last revised 9 Oct 2002 (this version, v2))

We analytically derive transition probabilities for four-neutrino oscillations in matter. The time evolution operator giving the neutrino oscillations is expressed by the finite sum of terms up to the third power of the Hamiltonian in a matrix form, using the Cayley-Hamilton theorem. The result of computation for the probabilities in some mass patterns tells us that it is realistically difficult to observe the resonance between one of three active neutrinos and the fourth (sterile) neutrino near the earth, even if the fourth neutrino exists.

FOUR QUARK MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa_matrix#Wolfenstein_parameters

In 1973, Observing that CP-violation could not be explained in a four-quark model, Kobayashi and Maskawa generalized the Cabibbo matrix into the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix (or CKM matrix) to keep track of the weak decays of three generations of quarks:[5]

FOUR QUARK MECHANISM

https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.42.1106

A four-quark mechanism is proposed which generates virtually the entire known spectrum of (noncharm) meason states to remarkable accuracy. The ground-state

0

and

1

nonets are taken as input; exclusive of octet-singlet mixing there are no free parameters.

TRANSCENDENT TETRAQUARKS

http://www.hawaii.edu/news/article.php?aId=2216

Four-quark

mesons have been proposed by theorists and a number

of candidate "tetraquarks" have been identified in

experiments, most notably the X(3872), A meson that

was found by UH researchers in 2003. However, prior to

the Z(4430), all such candidates have been

electrically neutral, which allowed the possibility for

a quark-antiquark classification. This "out" does not

exist for the charged Z(4430), which appears

to be smoking-gun evidence for a tetra-quark meson state.

THE FIRST FOUR FLAVORED TETRAQUARK- IT DESCRIBES THAT FOUR QUARK TETRAQUARKS ARE RARE AND TRANSCENDENT WHEREAS THREE ARE MORE COMMON FOURTH ALWAYS DIFFERENT

http://archive.news.indiana.edu/releases/iu/2016/03/zieminska-tetraquark.shtml

IU physicist leads discovery of new particle: 'four-flavored' tetraquark

March 2, 2016

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

 

BLOOMINGTON, Ind. -- Research led by Indiana University physicist Daria Zieminska has resulted in the first detection of a new form of elementary particle: the "four-flavored" tetraquark.

 

"For most of the history of quarks, it's seemed that all particles were made of either a quark and an antiquark, or three quarks; this new particle is unique -- a strange, charged beauty," said Zieminska, who has been a member of the DZero experiment since the project's establishment in 1985. "It's the birth of a new paradigm. Particles made of four quarks -- specifically, two quarks and two antiquarks -- is a big change in our view of elementary particles."

 

A tetraquark is a group of four quarks, the first evidence for which was recorded by scientists on the Belle experiment in Japan in 2008. But the new tetraquark is the first quark quartet to contain four different quark flavors: up, down, strange and bottom.

 

Although nothing in nature forbids the formation of a tetraquark, four-quark states are rare and not nearly as well understood as two- and three-quark states. Zieminska and colleagues plan to deepen their understanding of the tetraquark by measuring various properties of the particle, such as the ways it decays or how much it spins on its axis.

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FOUR STAGES OF THE BIG BANG

http://thebigwhatthebigbang.weebly.com/stages-of-the-big-bang.html

What are the Stages of The Big Bang!

Well, since you asked, the Big Bang has four main stages. The first actually begins before it happened! Take a look:

 

Stage 1: Oh, you mean that tiny dot?

 

 

Before the Big Bang, the universe basically, didn't exist. We know this can be really hard to wrap your head around but let's give it a try anyway. So, many scientists believe that before the Big Bang, everything we have in the universe today was all squished up into one tiny point. But then, the point of matter EXPLODED! We don't know what caused it, but we do have evidence to prove that it actually did happen. And that explosion of energy, my friends, is what we call, THE BIG BANG!

 

 

Stage 2: The Inflation!

 

 

The second stage of the Big Bang was so quick that it was 100 times faster than a second! Now that's quick! Basically, all the energy and heat from the explosion shot out. And wherever it travelled created space. This space created by the particles from the explosion is what we call the universe today. That's all the planets, stars, black holes and everything else we see and sometimes can't see in the sky.

 

 

Stage 3: Primordial Soup (what?)

 

 

Stage three followed straight after stage two, and was when the universe began a superheated phase called primordial soup. We know this name sounds really funny, but you have to accept what is, right? During this time, the heat was so high that particles from the Big Bang couldn't form mass or atoms. Because of this, neutrons, protons and electrons started to join. At the same time, there were these things called light photons that were continuously bouncing off or latching onto electrons which caused a constant glow coming from the universe. PRETTY!

 

 

Stage 4: Cooling and Expansion (hint: this involves what you see today!)

 

 

So, the last stage was when everything started to settle and the universe we recognize today started to form. As the particles began to cool down and spread out, the electrons, neutrons and protons began to come together and create atoms. These atoms then eventually combined to create mass. e.g: stars, planets, galaxies and everything else in the universe).

 

 

Now wasn't that the easiest thing you ever learnt? No need to constantly be looking up long words in google. And now, you have expanded your knowledge to include the stages of the Big Bang. Impress your science teachers with THAT!

UNIVERSE FOUR PHASES

http://www.express.co.uk/news/science/720860/beginning-of-universe-scientists-discover-what-existed-before

This approach changes the equation for cosmology in a very interesting way. It predicts four distinct phases for our universe - the present phase of the universe being just one of those phases.

 

There is a phase before the big bang in this cosmological model, and it is possible to know about that phase of the universe by studying the physics of present phase of our universe.

 

Professor Mir Faizal said: “In our cosmological model the universe did not start with the big bang, but there was a phase transition from one phase of the universe to another.

 

“This is possible because the universe can exist in four different phases, like ordinary water can exist in three different phases. Just as we can know about the properties of ice, by studying water which has formed from it, we can know about pre big bang cosmology by studying the physics of this universe.

16 SQUARES QUADRANT MODEL

http://www-sldnt.slac.stanford.edu/alr/standard_model.htm

Seven of these 16 particles (charm, bottom, top, tau neutrino, W, Z, gluon) were predicted by the Standard Model before they were observed experimentally!

https://prezi.com/3jqqcw5dwhqr/max-tegmarks-four-levels-a-multiverse-theory/

Transcript of Max Tegmark's four levels, A multiverse theory

Max Tegmark's four levels

Level I: An extension of our Universe

Level II: Universes with different physical constants

Bubble universes – every disk represents a bubble universe. Our universe is represented by one of the disks.

Universe 1 to Universe 6 represent bubble universes. Five of them have different physical constants than our universe has.

Level IV: Ultimate ensemble

This level considers all universes to be equally real which can be described by different mathematical structures.

MOST CARS FOUR STROKE ENGINE

http://www.rapid-racer.com/car-engines.php

Most traditional cars these days use what is called a four-stroke combustion cycle to convert gasoline into kinetic motion. This four-stroke approach is known as the the Otto cycle, in honour of Nikolaus Otto who invented it in 1867.

 

The Rotary or Wankel engine as it is know has no pistons, it uses rotors instead. This engine is small, compact and has a curved, oblong inner shape. Its central rotor turns in one direction only, but it produces all four OTTO strokes (intake, compression, power and exhaust) effectively as it rotates.

 

Inline engines have the cylinders arranged, one after the other, in a straight line. Almost all four cylinder engines are straight/ Inline engines and are considerably easier to build than an otherwise equivalent Boxer or V type engines. This is because the cylinder bank and crankshaft can be milled from a single metal casting and it requires fewer cylinder heads and camshafts.

 

The basic unit of the rotary engine is a large combustion chamber in the form of a pinched oval. Within this chamber all four functions of a piston take place simultaneously in the three pockets that are formed between the rotor and the chamber wall. Just as the addition of cylinders increases the horsepower of a piston-powered engine, so the addition of combustion chambers increases the power of a rotary engine. Larger cars may eventually use rotaries with three or four rotors.

https://www.quora.com/Auto-Parts-What-different-types-of-car-motors-engines-are-there

Four Bank W Style Engines: Made famous because they power the world's fastest production car a four bank w features 4 rows of cylinders configured like a V sitting inside another V. There is only 15 degrees of separation between the banks on each side. Due to the compact design you can squeeze a lot of power out of a smaller package using only 2 camshafts.

FOUR TYPES OF ENGINE BLOCK GEOMETRY

http://www.autoeducation.com/rm_preview/engine_intro.htm

There are four types of engine block geometry: V-type, inline, horizontally opposed and slant. Each refers to the orientation of the cylinders as viewed from the front or back of the engine. A V-type has two angled rows of cylinders, which form a “V.” An inline engine arranges the cylinders vertically in a row. The horizontally opposed engine has the cylinders horizontal and opposing each other. A slant design is one row of angled cylinders forming a half “V.” A slant block allows the hood line to be lower.

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FOUR VALVE

http://www.autoeducation.com/rm_preview/engine_intro.htm

Chamber type can be swirl, three-valve, or four-valve. A swirl chamber is designed to spin or twirl the air-fuel mixture as it enters. The three-valve design has two intake valves and one exhaust valve. The four-valve design has two valves for both intake and exhaust.

FOUR FERMIONS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermi%27s_interaction

In particle physics, Fermi's interaction (also the Fermi theory of beta decay) is an explanation of the beta decay, proposed by Enrico Fermi in 1933.[1] The theory posits four fermions directly interacting with one another (at one vertex of the associated Feynman diagram). This interaction explains beta decay of a neutron by direct coupling of a neutron with an electron, a neutrino (later determined to be an antineutrino) and a proton.[2]

USES FOUR BY FOUR MATRICES- ANTIMATTER WAS DISCOVERED BY USING FOUR FOUR BY FOUR MATRICES
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dirac_equation
The equation also implied the existence of a new form of matter, antimatter, previously unsuspected and unobserved and which was experimentally confirmed several years later. It also provided a theoretical justification for the introduction of several component wave functions in Pauli's phenomenological theory of spin; the wave functions in the Dirac theory are vectors of four complex numbers (known as bispinors), two of which resemble the Pauli wavefunction in the non-relativistic limit, in contrast to the Schrödinger equation which described wave functions of only one complex value. Moreover, in the limit of zero mass, the Dirac equation reduces to the Weyl equation.

Dirac, who had just then been intensely involved with working out the foundations of Heisenberg's matrix mechanics, immediately understood that these conditions could be met if A, B, C and D are matrices, with the implication that the wave function has multiple components. This immediately explained the appearance of two-component wave functions in Pauli's phenomenological theory of spin, something that up until then had been regarded as mysterious, even to Pauli himself. However, one needs at least 4 × 4 matrices to set up a system with the properties required — so the wave function had four components, not two, as in the Pauli theory, or one, as in the bare Schrödinger theory. The four-component wave function represents a new class of mathematical object in physical theories that makes its first appearance here.

THE FOUR FOUR BY FOUR DIRAC MATRICES
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_matrices
\{\gamma ^{0},\gamma ^{1},\gamma ^{2},\gamma ^{3}\}, also known as the Dirac matrices, are a set of conventional matrices with specific anticommutation relations that ensure they generate a matrix representation of the Clifford algebra Cℓ1,3(R). It is also possible to define higher-dimensional gamma matrices. When interpreted as the matrices of the action of a set of orthogonal basis vectors for contravariant vectors in Minkowski space, the column vectors on which the matrices act become a space of spinors, on which the Clifford algebra of spacetime acts. This in turn makes it possible to represent infinitesimal spatial rotations and Lorentz boosts. Spinors facilitate spacetime computations in general, and in particular are fundamental to the Dirac equation for relativistic spin-½ particles.

In Dirac representation, the four contravariant gamma matrices are

γ
0
=
(
1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 −1 0 0 0 0 −1
)

γ
1
=
(
0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 −1 0 0 −1 0 0 0
)
γ
2
=
(
0 0 0 −i 0 0 i 0 0 i 0 0 −i 0 0 0
)

γ
3
=
(
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 −1 −1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
)
.{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}\gamma ^{0}&={\begin{pmatrix}1&0&0&0\\0&1&0&0\\0&0&-1&0\\0&0&0&-1\end{pmatrix}},\quad &\gamma ^{1}&={\begin{pmatrix}0&0&0&1\\0&0&1&0\\0&-1&0&0\\-1&0&0&0\end{pmatrix}}\\\gamma ^{2}&={\begin{pmatrix}0&0&0&-i\\0&0&i&0\\0&i&0&0\\-i&0&0&0\end{pmatrix}},\quad &\gamma ^{3}&={\begin{pmatrix}0&0&1&0\\0&0&0&-1\\-1&0&0&0\\0&1&0&0\end{pmatrix}}.\end{aligned}}}
γ
0
\gamma ^{0} is the time-like matrix and the other three are space-like matrices.

Analogous sets of gamma matrices can be defined in any dimension and signature of the metric. For example, the Pauli matrices are a set of "gamma" matrices in dimension 3 with metric of Euclidean signature (3,0). In 5 spacetime dimensions, the 4 gammas above together with the fifth gamma matrix to be presented below generate the Clifford algebra.

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FOUR PROCESSOR COMPUTER- 16 memory modules 16 squares qmr

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallel_computing

Burroughs Corporation introduced the D825 in 1962, a four-processor computer that accessed up to 16 memory modules through a crossbar switch.[55] In 1967, Amdahl and Slotnick published a debate about the feasibility of parallel processing at American Federation of Information Processing Societies Conference.[54] It was during this debate that Amdahl's law was coined to define the limit of speed-up due to parallelism.

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FOUR DISTINCT REGIONS OF OPERATION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bipolar_junction_transistor

Bipolar transistors have four distinct regions of operation, defined by BJT junction biases.

 

Forward-active (or simply active)

The base–emitter junction is forward biased and the base–collector junction is reverse biased. Most bipolar transistors are designed to afford the greatest common-emitter current gain, βF, in forward-active mode. If this is the case, the collector–emitter current is approximately proportional to the base current, but many times larger, for small base current variations.

Reverse-active (or inverse-active or inverted)

By reversing the biasing conditions of the forward-active region, a bipolar transistor goes into reverse-active mode. In this mode, the emitter and collector regions switch roles. Because most BJTs are designed to maximize current gain in forward-active mode, the βF in inverted mode is several times smaller (2–3 times for the ordinary germanium transistor). This transistor mode is seldom used, usually being considered only for failsafe conditions and some types of bipolar logic. The reverse bias breakdown voltage to the base may be an order of magnitude lower in this region.

Saturation

With both junctions forward-biased, a BJT is in saturation mode and facilitates high current conduction from the emitter to the collector (or the other direction in the case of NPN, with negatively charged carriers flowing from emitter to collector). This mode corresponds to a logical "on", or a closed switch.

Cut-off

In cut-off, biasing conditions opposite of saturation (both junctions reverse biased) are present. There is very little current, which corresponds to a logical "off", or an open switch.

GOES UP TO TETRACHROMATIC WITH THE TRANSCENDENT WHITE - TRANSCENDS THE TRI COLOR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-emitting_diode

There are several types of multi-color white LEDs: di-, tri-, and tetrachromatic white LEDs. Several key factors that play among these different methods include color stability, color rendering capability, and luminous efficacy. Often, higher efficiency means lower color rendering, presenting a trade-off between the luminous efficacy and color rendering. For example, the dichromatic white LEDs have the best luminous efficacy (120 lm/W), but the lowest color rendering capability. However, although tetrachromatic white LEDs have excellent color rendering capability, they often have poor luminous efficacy. Trichromatic white LEDs are in between, having both good luminous efficacy (>70 lm/W) and fair color rendering capability.

FOUR COLORS 16 SQUARES QMR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RG_color_space

The first color capable video card for the IBM PC family was the Color Graphics Adapter (CGA), which includes two graphic modes: 320×200 pixels with four colors (two bits per pixel) and 640×200 pixels black-and-white (one bit per pixel). The card as a whole implemented the "digital RGBI" 16-color space (i.e. each primary color (red, green, and blue) could be either on or off for a given pixel, and an additional intensity bit would brighten all three primaries if it was turned on for a pixel.

 

The color mode uses two bits to store red and green 1-bit components for each pixel (that is, colors in the RG color space) while the blue and intensity components were fixed for the entire screen.

 

This gave four possibilities for each single pixel: background (any one of the 16 colors the system offered, black or blue was most used; however only one background color could be chosen for the entire screen), red, green, and yellow, with two possibilities of intensity selectable for the entire screen (except the background): low (darker) and high (lighter). This was known as Fixed palette #2. The Fixed palette #1 adds the blue component to all colors except the background, giving background (usually black was chosen), magenta (red+blue), cyan (green+blue) and white (yellow+blue), with two possible intensities, too.

TETRA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution_of_color_vision_in_primates

The evolution of color vision in primates is unique compared to most eutherian mammals. A remote vertebrate ancestor of primates possessed tetrachromacy,[1] but nocturnal, warm-blooded, mammalian ancestors lost two of four cones in the retina at the time of dinosaurs. Most teleost fish, reptiles and birds are therefore tetrachromatic while all mammals, with the exception of some primates and marsupials,[2] are strictly dichromats.

FOUR TRANSISTORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transistor

The first "production" all-transistor radio was the Regency TR-1, released in October 1954. Produced as a joint venture between the Regency Division of Industrial Development Engineering Associates, I.D.E.A. and Texas Instruments of Dallas Texas, the TR-1 was manufactured in Indianapolis, Indiana. It was a near pocket-sized radio featuring 4 transistors and one germanium diode. The industrial design was outsourced to the Chicago firm of industrial design firm of Painter, Teague and Petertil. It was initially released in one of four different colours: black, bone white, red, and gray. Other colours were to shortly follow. [24][25][26]

FOUR ACTIVE TERMINALS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetrode_transistor

A tetrode transistor is any transistor having four active terminals.

 

Diffused planar silicon bipolar junction transistor,[2] used in some integrated circuits. This transistor, apart from the three electrodes, emitter, base and collector, has a fourth electrode or grid made of conducting material placed near the emitter-base junction from which it is insulated by a silica layer.

THE FOURTH FUNDAMENTAL CIRCUIT ELEMENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memristor

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Two-terminal_non-linear_circuit_elements.svg

According to the original 1971 definition, the memristor was the fourth fundamental circuit element, forming a non-linear relationship between electric charge and magnetic flux linkage. In 2011 Chua argued for a broader definition that included all 2-terminal non-volatile memory devices based on resistance switching.[2] Williams argued that MRAM, phase change memory and RRAM were memristor technologies.[15] Some researchers argued that biological structures such as blood[16] and skin[17][18] fit the definition. Others argued that the memory device under development by HP Labs and other forms of RRAM were not memristors but rather part of a broader class of variable resistance systems[19] and that a broader definition of memristor is a scientifically unjustifiable land grab that favored HP's memristor patents.[20]

16 BY 16 SYSTEM TEMPORAL QUATERNIO FOUR COLORS FOUR MEN- dynamic three and four

http://uni-obuda.hu/journal/Varlaki_Nadai_Bokor_14.pdf

 

That is the rhythm of rotation is isomorphic with π, and the operation of rising to power is isomorphic with the mutual embedding of the three rhythms. The spatial quaternio is connected to the three rhythms of time. Thus this connection is iso- morphic with the multiplication of four and the π. These considerations are sup- ported by Pauli’s later dreams showing oscillation (vibration) curves [27]. The dream interpretation of causal FSC can be arrived at by taking the four small men with pendulum and the four spatial directions changing permanently with temporal rotation. In this case we get a 16 by 16 system on the basis of the symbolic inter- pretation of the spatial temporal quaternio, which is isomorphic with the Edding- ton model concerning the identification of the number of independent variables.

 

We can derive the permanent symbolic equivalent of the FSC determined by spec- troscopic measurements from the dream of bears having four eyes in four colors. In this description the four (basic) colors randomly alternate with the four eyes making a “stochastic process”, whose (virtual) spectrum is the symbolic equiva- lent of the color spectrum. As we have seen, the order with a 256 + 16 + 4 struc-

– 89 –

P. Várlaki et al. Number Archetypes and “Background” Control Theory Concerning the Fine Structure Constant

ture also leads to the number ‘137’, as to the number of its independent variables. The dynamic picture of the colored bear with four eyes is isomorphic with the four different little men and the four colors. Since Pauli’s dream succeeds Eddington’s model with two years it can, at best be called cryptomnesic symbolization.

IN THE ADMIRAL ISLANDS THE NAME FOR FOUR AND ONE IS THE SAME THE FOUR IS THE QUADRANT WHICH IS ONE THE FOUR IS ONE AS THE ISRAELITES SAY "HEAR OH ISRAEL THE TETRAGRAMMATON THE FOUR IS ONE"

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=_d7u3Nis52MC&pg=PA132&lpg=PA132&dq=eddington+equation+four+quaternity&source=bl&ots=G92LTrAlxx&sig=HWbF4ktQKyICEzPu_QiWSgSPxX8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiwt5yy8KzVAhVU8GMKHQ4uCvkQ6AEISDAF#v=onepage&q=eddington%20equation%20four%20quaternity&f=false

Quadrant

FOUR CARDINAL METAPHORS OF PHYSICS

https://www.amazon.com/Physics-As-Metaphor-Roger-Jones/dp/0816619166

For those who have read other anti-scientism tracts the above surely sounds familiar, but "Physics As Metaphor" demonstrates in precise, readable, logical terms why the four cardinal metaphors of physics, number, space, time, and measure, are only human, self-referential devices. Rather than trying to show the convergence of sub-atomic physics and mysticism, Prof. Jones takes a different tact and very insightfully also demonstrates that metaphors like space and measure actually cause us to separate ourselves from the deeper unity of the One. And no matter what science says about the meaningless of "its" universe, people are perenially searching for (deeper) meaning.

COMPATABLISISM IS THE FOURHT DIFFERENT ONE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DeterminismXFreeWill.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Determinism

Philosophers have debated both the truth of determinism, and the truth of free will. This creates the four possible positions in the figure. Compatibilism refers to the view that free will is, in some sense, compatible with determinism. The three incompatibilist positions, on the other hand, deny this possibility. The hard incompatibilists hold that both determinism and free will do not exist, the libertarianists that determinism does not hold, and free will might exist, and the hard determinists that determinism does hold and free will does not exist.

four orders dinosaurs

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saurischia

He preferred one that had been put forward by Othniel Charles Marsh in 1878, which divided dinosaurs into four orders: Sauropoda, Theropoda, Ornithopoda, and Stegosauria (these names are still used today in much the same way to refer to suborders or clades within Saurischia and Ornithischia).[2]

FOUR RESISTORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bridge_circuit

The best-known bridge circuit, the Wheatstone bridge, was invented by Samuel Hunter Christie and popularized by Charles Wheatstone, and is used for measuring resistance. It is constructed from four resistors, two of known values R1 and R3 (see diagram), one whose resistance is to be determined Rx, and one which is variable and calibrated R2. Two opposite vertices are connected to a source of electric current, such as a battery, and a galvanometer is connected across the other two vertices. The variable resistor is adjusted until the galvanometer reads zero. It is then known that the ratio between the variable resistor and its neighbour R1 is equal to the ratio between the unknown resistor and its neighbour R3, which enables the value of the unknown resistor to be calculated.

FOUR TERMINALS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohmmeter

For high-precision measurements of very small resistances, the above types of meter are inadequate. This is partly because the change in deflection itself is small when the resistance measured is too small in proportion to the intrinsic resistance of the ohmmeter (which can be dealt with through current division), but mostly because the meter's reading is the sum of the resistance of the measuring leads, the contact resistances and the resistance being measured. To reduce this effect, a precision ohmmeter has four terminals, called Kelvin contacts. Two terminals carry the current from and to the meter, while the other two allow the meter to measure the voltage across the resistor. In this arrangement, the power source is connected in series with the resistance to be measured through the external pair of terminals, while the second pair connects in parallel the galvanometer which measures the voltage drop. With this type of meter, any voltage drop due to the resistance of the first pair of leads and their contact resistances is ignored by the meter. This four terminal measurement technique is called Kelvin sensing, after William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, who invented the Kelvin bridge in 1861 to measure very low resistances. The Four-terminal sensing method can also be utilized to conduct accurate measurements of low resistances.

FOUR TYPES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resistor

Types of windings in wire resistors:

common

bifilar

common on a thin former

Ayrton-Perry

ONLY FOUR PLANETS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gliese_581_planetary_system

Gliese 581g was claimed to be detected by astronomers of the Lick–Carnegie Exoplanet Survey. The authors stated that data sets from both High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) and HARPS were needed to sense the planet; however, the ESO/HARPS survey team could not confirm its existence. The planet remained unconfirmed as consensus for its existence could not be reached. Additional reanalysis only found evidence for four planets, but the discoverer, Steven S. Vogt, did not agree with those conclusions; another study by Guillem Anglada-Escudé later supported the planet's existence

JUPITERS RING SYSTEM FOUR MAIN PARTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ring_system

Jupiter's ring system was the third to be discovered, when it was first observed by the Voyager 1 probe in 1979,[4] and was observed more thoroughly by the Galileo orbiter in the 1990s.[5] Its four main parts are a faint thick torus known as the "halo"; a thin, relatively bright main ring; and two wide, faint "gossamer rings".[6] The system consists mostly of dust.[4][7]

FOUR COMPONENTS JUPITER RING

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rings_of_Jupiter

The Jovian ring system is faint and consists mainly of dust.[1][5] It has four main components: a thick inner torus of particles known as the "halo ring"; a relatively bright, exceptionally thin "main ring"; and two wide, thick and faint outer "gossamer rings", named for the moons of whose material they are composed: Amalthea and Thebe.[6]

 

Jupiter's ring system was the third to be discovered in the Solar System, after those of Saturn and Uranus. It was first observed in 1979 by the Voyager 1 space probe.[1] It is composed of four main components: a thick inner torus of particles known as the "halo ring"; a relatively bright, exceptionally thin "main ring"; and two wide, thick and faint outer "gossamer rings", named after the moons of whose material they are composed: Amalthea and Thebe.[6] The principal attributes of the known Jovian Rings are listed in the table.[2][5][6][8]

 

A schema of Jupiter's ring system showing the four main components. For simplicity, Metis and Adrastea are depicted as sharing their orbit.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amalthea_(moon)

There are four named geological features on Amalthea: two craters and two faculae (bright spots).[17] The faculae are located on the edge of a ridge on the anti-Jupiter side of Amalthea.[2]

 

 

Leading side of Amalthea. North is up, and Jupiter is beyond the right side. Crater Pan is seen on the upper right edge, and Gaea on the lower. Ida Facula and Lyctos Facula are on the left end (upper and lower brightenings respectively)

Feature Named after

Pan (crater) Pan, Greek god

Gaea (crater) Gaia, Greek goddess

Lyctos Facula Lyctus, Crete

Ida Facula Mount Ida, Crete

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rings_of_Saturn#G_Ring

In 2006, four tiny "moonlets" were found in Cassini images of the A Ring.[75] The moonlets themselves are only about a hundred m in diameter, too small to be seen directly; what Cassini sees are the "propeller"-shaped disturbances the moonlets create, which are several km across. It is estimated that the A Ring contains thousands of such objects. In 2007, the discovery of eight more moonlets revealed that they are largely confined to a 3,000 km belt, about 130,000 km from Saturn's center,[76] and by 2008 over 150 propeller moonlets had been detected.[77] One that has been tracked for several years has been nicknamed Bleriot.[78]

 

Location of the first four moonlets detected in the A ring.

THE FOUR OF THEM MAKE A QUADRANT PATTERN

https://www.space.com/20133-olympus-mons-giant-mountain-of-mars.html

But Mars has very limited plate movement. Both the hot spot and the crust remain unmoving. When lava flows to the surface, it continues to pile up in a single spot. Instead of a chain of volcanic islands, large volcanoes such as Olympus Mons form. In fact, three other large volcanoes near Olympus Mons are similarly gigantic; if only one of the four volcanoes in the region existed, it would be the tallest feature in the solar system.

. It's easy.

THE FOUR GIANT VOLCANOES ON MARS

https://airandspace.si.edu/exhibitions/exploring-the-planets/online/solar-system/mars/surface/volcanoes/

The crust of Mars is not broken up into moving plates as on Earth. So rising plumes of heated rock from deep below built gigantic volcanoes over many millions of years. Four of these giants formed on a bulge in the planet called the Tharsis Rise. Their peaks rise more than three times the height of Mount Everest, the tallest mountain on Earth.

 

Olympus Mons (left) is the largest volcano in the solar system. It stands 26 kilometers (15.5 miles) above the surrounding plains, and is 500 kilometers (300 miles) wide at its base.

 

Studies Courtesy of MOLA Science Team

 

Olympus Mons, Mars

Water-ice clouds, formed as moist air rises and cools, are almost a daily occurrence around Olympus and the other tallest other nearby volcanoes, Ascraeus Mons, Pavonis Mons, and Arsia Mons.

PAULI MATRICES TWO BY TWO QUADRANT MATRICES

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pauli_matrices

Quadrant

A THREE PLUS ONE PATTERN USING THE THREE PAULI MATRICES PLUS A antihermetian matrix

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clifford_module

Real Clifford algebra R3,1[edit]

Developed by Ettore Majorana, this Clifford module enables the construction of a Dirac-like equation without complex numbers, and its elements are called Majorana spinors.

 

The four basis vectors are the three Pauli matrices and a fourth antihermitian matrix. The signature is (+++−). For the signatures (+−−−) and (−−−+) often used in physics, 4×4 complex matrices or 8×8 real matrices are needed.

A THREE PLUS ONE PATTERN USING THE THREE PAULI MATRICES PLUS A antihermetian matrix FOUR BY FOUR MATRICES IS THE SIGNATURE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clifford_module

Real Clifford algebra R3,1[edit]

Developed by Ettore Majorana, this Clifford module enables the construction of a Dirac-like equation without complex numbers, and its elements are called Majorana spinors.

 

The four basis vectors are the three Pauli matrices and a fourth antihermitian matrix. The signature is (+++−). For the signatures (+−−−) and (−−−+) often used in physics, 4×4 complex matrices or 8×8 real matrices are needed.

FOUR FOUR BY FOUR MATRICES USED TO DISCOVER ANTIMATTER

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dirac_equation

Dirac, who had just then been intensely involved with working out the foundations of Heisenberg's matrix mechanics, immediately understood that these conditions could be met if A, B, C and D are matrices, with the implication that the wave function has multiple components. This immediately explained the appearance of two-component wave functions in Pauli's phenomenological theory of spin, something that up until then had been regarded as mysterious, even to Pauli himself. However, one needs at least 4 × 4 matrices to set up a system with the properties required — so the wave function had four components, not two, as in the Pauli theory, or one, as in the bare Schrödinger theory. The four-component wave function represents a new class of mathematical object in physical theories that makes its first appearance here.

FOUR DISTINCT FORMS IN A COILED WIRE

http://www.gestaltreality.com/energy-synthesis/eric-dollard/key-points-glossary/

Inductance – Energy stored in the form of a magnetic field

Capacitance – Energy stored in the form of dielectric field

Self-Capacitance or Parasitic Capacitance – Capacitance between windings on an inductor

Mutual Inductance is when voltage impressed upon one coil induces a voltage in another

The Four Distinct Forms of Energy Stored in a COIL OF WIRE: (abridged from garrett):

L, Leakage Inductance – Leakage inductance can only store energy it CAN NOT TRANSFER ENERGY

M, Mutual Inductance – Magnetic energy stored in Normal Space. Mutual induction of the magnetic field is that which transfers energy in-between two separate coils, there is no storage of energy here, only the transfer of energy from one distinct coil to another.

C, Leakage Capacitance –

K, Mutual Capacitance – ALL DIELECTRIC ENERGY IS CONSIDERED AS A COUNTER SPATIAL ENERGY. Thus, the storage of dielectric energy is greater when there is MORE counter space for the energy to occupy. This can be looked at as the RECIPROCAL of SPACE or a “large space” divided into the “unit” (1) is an equally large “counter space”. This is seen in the design of a capacitor, the closer the plates are the more “storage” or “capacity” the capacitor has, it’s that simple. K is when there are multiple C’s that are mutual with one another, or MULTIPLE separate metallic surfaces linked via dielectric flux, this in the secondary is seen in-between turns.

FOUR WAVES FOUR COEFFICIENTS

http://www.gestaltreality.com/energy-synthesis/eric-dollard/key-points-glossary/

FOUR waves result from these four coefficients (LC, MK, LK & MC)

The time function of LC, dt=(Square Root of (LC))

The time function of MK, dt=(Square Root of (1/MK))

The time function of LK, dt=(Square Root of (L/K))

The time function of MC, dt=(Square Root of (C/M))

FOUR QUADRANT LAYOUT TAO

 

Four Quadrant Layout by Tao

Mr. Vladimir Karapetoff, “Electric Circuit 2nd Ed [1912] – (post by Garrett)

http://www.gestaltreality.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/karapetoffcircuit.png

Quadrant

TYPICALLY TWO OR FOUR AREAS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Split_screen_(computer_graphics)

Split screen is a display technique in computer graphics that consists of dividing graphics and/or text into non-movable adjacent parts, typically two or four rectangular areas.

FOUR KINDS BECOMING

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Becoming_(philosophy)

A. Einstein, On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, New York, Dover Publications 1952, pp. 35–65.P.Fitzgerald, Four Kinds of Temporal Becoming,Philosophical Topics 13 1985, pp. 145–177.