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ARISTOTLE CORRELATES THE FOUR SENSORY ORGANS WITH THE FOUR ELEMENTS

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/sense.1.1.html

Hence, if the facts be at all as here stated, it is clear that- if one should explain the nature of the sensory organs in this way, i.e. by correlating each of them with one of the four elements,- we must conceive that the part of the eye immediately concerned in vision consists of water, that the part immediately concerned in the perception of sound consists of air, and that the sense of smell consists of fire. (I say the sense of smell, not the organ.) For the organ of smell is only potentially that which the sense of smell, as realized, is actually; since the object of sense is what causes the actualization of each sense, so that it (the sense) must (at the instant of actualization) be (actually) that which before (the moment of actualization) it was potentially. Now, odour is a smoke-like evaporation, and smoke-like evaporation arises from fire. This also helps us to understand why the olfactory organ has its proper seat in the environment of the brain, for cold matter is potentially hot. In the same way must the genesis of the eye be explained. Its structure is an offshoot from the brain, because the latter is the moistest and coldest of all the bodily parts.

ARISTOTLE SAYS THAT THE FOUR SENSE ORGANS CORRELATE TO THE FOUR ELEMENTS AND HE SAYS THAT TASTE IS AN ASPECT OF TOUCH SO THERE ARE REALLY FOUR SENSES AND HE SAYS THAT TOUCH AND TASTE ARE EARTH

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=mBE8sv9ySJMC&pg=PA41&lpg=PA41&dq=aristotle+four+sensory+organs+four+elements&source=bl&ots=cdWC-2OcL3&sig=qVvwDxnNBJkIFWgOvdTNuk6vbv0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjfiMHpzYnUAhUIsVQKHdoYCDEQ6AEINDAC#v=onepage&q=aristotle%20four%20sensory%20organs%20four%20elements&f=false

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ARISTOTLE SAYS THAT THE FOUR SENSE ORGANS CORRELATE TO THE FOUR ELEMENTS AND HE SAYS THAT TASTE IS AN ASPECT OF TOUCH SO THERE ARE REALLY FOUR SENSES AND HE SAYS THAT TOUCH AND TASTE ARE EARTH- NOTICE HOW THE FOURTH FIRE IS TRANSCENDENT (CONTAINING THEM ALL)- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS TRANSCENDENT

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=mBE8sv9ySJMC&pg=PA41&lpg=PA41&dq=aristotle+four+sensory+organs+four+elements&source=bl&ots=cdWC-2OcL3&sig=qVvwDxnNBJkIFWgOvdTNuk6vbv0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjfiMHpzYnUAhUIsVQKHdoYCDEQ6AEINDAC#v=onepage&q=aristotle%20four%20sensory%20organs%20four%20elements&f=false

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SOLON FOUR CLASSES

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/athenian_const.1.1.html

Solon ratified his laws for a hundred years; and the following was the fashion in which he organized the constitution. He divided the population according to property into four classes, just as it had been divided before, namely, Pentacosiomedimni, Knights, Zeugitae, and Thetes.

FOUR TRIBES SOLON ALSO COUNCIL OF 400 REPETITION OF FOURS
http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/athenian_const.1.1.html
There were four tribes, as before, and four tribe-kings. Each tribe was divided into three Trittyes [=Thirds], with twelve Naucraries in each; and the Naucraries had officers of their own, called Naucrari, whose duty it was to superintend the current receipts and expenditure. Hence, among the laws of Solon now obsolete, it is repeatedly written that the Naucrari are to receive and to spend out of the Naucraric fund. Solon also appointed a Council of four hundred, a hundred from each tribe; but he assigned to the Council of the Areopagus the duty of superintending the laws, acting as before as the guardian of the constitution in general

BROWNE SAW THE QUINCUNX X IN SO MANY PLACES HE THOUGHT IT WAS EVIDENCE OF INTELLIGENT DESIGN (THE QUINCUNX IS THE QUADRANT)- IT MENTONS THAT BROWNE SAW THE CRUCIFIED CHRIST AS A QUINCUNX- DISPOSURE OF ARTICHOKE LEAVES MACEDONIAN BATTLE FORMATIONS FORCEPS NUTCRACKERS (only a tiny sample)

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=WX_aiU94U9cC&pg=PA208&lpg=PA208&dq=browne+quincunxial+plants&source=bl&ots=XhszGIk3zf&sig=r98ryzKhnS3FBbg1geAuERoEdO8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiJ28OJ1YnUAhXhgFQKHVW3DtQQ6AEIKjAA#v=snippet&q=quincunx&f=false

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I POSTED THE EXAMPLES IN THIS BOOK MYSTERY OF POE OF A TON OF QUATERNITY AND QUADRANT MODEL THE AUTHOR EXPLICITLY TALKS ABOUT IT AND HE TALKS ABOUT THE QUINCUNX AND BORWNE SEEING IT IN CONSTELLATION HYADES- HE ALSO MENTIONS THE CRETAN LABYRINTH WAS A QUINCUNX BORGES'S DESCRITPIN OF THE DIAMOND FIGURE- QUINCUNX IS QUADRANT OF FIVE PARTS

https://books.google.com/books?id=jsxTenuOQKgC&pg=PA155&lpg=PA155&dq=constellation+hyades+quincunx&source=bl&ots=T8u9Tpzm7Z&sig=-zqbYLCtBzITt7GSFUTQ-0BcSzE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiX_vmj14nUAhWhhlQKHQOSAyYQ6AEIQzAH#v=onepage&q=constellation%20hyades%20quincunx&f=false

QUADRANT

THE "SEED PATTERN" OF THE CLASSICAL LABARYNTH IS THE CROSS./QUADRANT- THE CRETAN LABARYNTH

 

http://www.labyrinthos.net/classic_ani.gif

 

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AIRSTOTLE FOUR ORIGINAL TRIBES BECAME 10- COUNCIL OF FOUR HUNDRED 40 FROM EACH TRIBE REPETITION OF FOURS- FUTURE DIVISION OF 400 INTO FOUR SECTIONS

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/athenian_const.2.2.html

With reference to the future distribution of the Four Hundred into the four successive sections, the hundred commissioners must divide them whenever the time comes for the citizens to join in the Council along with the rest.

 

Such was the constitution which they drew up for the time to come, but for the immediate present they devised the following scheme. There should be a Council of Four Hundred, as in the ancient constitution, forty from each tribe, chosen out of candidates of more than thirty years of age, selected by the members of the tribes

ARISTOTLE SAYS THAT THE 40 ARE ELECTED- FOUR FROM EACH TRIBE- HE SAYS ORIGINALLY THERE WERE FOUR TRIBES THEN THERE BECAME 10 THE 40 ARE ELECTED BY PICKING FOUR FROM EACH OF THE TEN TRIBES HE SAID AT ONE POINT IT WAS THE 30 BUT IT WAS CHANGED TO THE 40- AT ONE POINT IT WAS THREE FROM EACH TRIBE THEN IT BECAME FOUR- THEY ADDED THE TRANSCENDENT FOUR- THE THIRTY BECAME THE FORTY- THE DYNAMIC OF THREE AND FOUR
http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/athenian_const.3.3.html
The Forty are also elected by lot, four from each tribe, before whom suitors bring all other cases. Formerly they were thirty in number, and they went on circuit through the demes to hear causes; but after the oligarchy of the Thirty they were increased to forty. They have full powers to decide cases in which the amount at issue does not exceed ten drachmas, but anything beyond that value they hand over to the Arbitrators. The Arbitrators take up the case, and, if they cannot bring the parties to an agreement, they give a decision. If their decision satisfies both parties, and they abide by it, the case is at an end; but if either of the parties appeals to the law-courts, the Arbitrators enclose the evidence, the pleadings, and the laws quoted in the case in two urns, those of the plaintiff in the one, and those of the defendant in the other. These they seal up and, having attached to them the decision of the arbitrator, written out on a tablet, place them in the custody of the four justices whose function it is to introduce cases on behalf of the tribe of the defendant. These officers take them and bring up the case before the law-court, to a jury of two hundred and one members in cases up to the value of a thousand drachmas, or to one of four hundred and one in cases above that value. No laws or pleadings or evidence may be used except those which were adduced before the Arbitrator, and have been enclosed in the urns.

ARISTOTLE FOUR MODES FLEXION

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/gait_anim.html

Now there are four modes of flexion if we take the combinations in pairs. Fore and hind may bend either both backwards, as the figures marked A, or in the opposite way both forwards, as in B, or in converse ways and not in the same direction, as in C where the fore bend forwards and the hind bend backwards, or as in D, the opposite way to C, where the convexities are turned towards one another and the concavities outwards. Now no biped or quadruped bends his limbs like the figures A or B, but the quadrupeds like C, and like D only the elephant among quadrupeds and man if you consider his arms as well as his legs. For he bends his arms concavely and his legs convexly.

ARISTOTLE SAYS THAT SOME POSIT TWO ELEMENTS SOME POSIT THREE AND SOME POSIT FOUR--- (I DESCIRBED THAT EMPDEDOCLES SAID THERE WERE FOUR AND HE EVEN EXPLICITLY SAID THAT FIRE WAS DIFFERENT THE FOURTH TRANSCENDENT ONE HE SAID THE FIRST THREE WERE SIMILAR BUT FIRE WAS DIFFERENT)- ARISTOTLE SAYS "THERE MUST BE FOUR ELEMENTS" AND HE EXPLAINS WHY- AND DELINEATES THEM BY TWO DICHOTOMIES MAKING A QUADRANT MODEL

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/gener_corr.2.ii.html

Others, on the contrary, postulate two or more materials-ascribing to their 'association' and 'dissociation', or to their 'alteration', the coming-to-be and passing-away of things. (Some, for instance, postulate Fire and Earth: some add Air, making three: and some, like Empedocles, reckon Water as well, thus postulating four.)

It is clear, then, that all the other differences reduce to the first four, but that these admit of no further reduction. For the hot is not essentially moist or dry, nor the moist essentially hot or cold: nor are the cold and the dry derivative forms, either of one another or of the hot and the moist. Hence these must be four.

ARISTOTLE DESCRIBES HOW EMPEDOCLES "OPPOSES AIR WATER AND EARTH TO FIRE"- AGAIN EMPEDOCLES SAW FIRE THE FOURTH ELEMENT AS DIFFERENT FROM THE OTHER THREE THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT

ARISTOTLE SAYS "THERE MUST BE FOUR ELEMENTS"- HE SAYS THAT PEOPLE WHO SAY THERE ARE TWO ELEMENTS OR THREE ELEMENTS ARE INCORRECT- HE SAYS "FIRST OFF THEY ARE THE SAME THING TO SAY TWO OR THREE ELEMENTS" IN THAT HE SAYS THAT THE PEOPLE WHO SAY THREE ELEMENTS JUST DIVIDE ONE OF THE TWOS INTO TWO CREATING AN INTERMEDIATE

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/gener_corr.2.ii.html

HE THEN POINTS OUT THAT EMPEDOCLES SAID THERE WERE FOUR ELEMENTS AND HE SAID "EMPEDOCLES PUT FIRE AGAINST THE OTHER THREE"- THAT IS THE QUADRANT PATTERN WHERE THE FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT

 

ARISTOTLE DISTINGUISHES THE FOUR BY MAKING A QUADRANT MODEL OF TWO DICHOTOMIES MAKING FOUR TYPES- HE SAID EACH OF THE FOUR ELEMENTS HAS ONE OF THE FOUR QUALITIES THAT DEFINES IT THE MOST WATER IS COLD AIR IS MOIST EARTH IS DRY AND FIRE IS HOT DELINEATING THE FOUR QUALITIES

 

The elementary qualities are four, and any four terms can be combined in six couples. Contraries, however, refuse to be coupled: for it is impossible for the same thing to be hot and cold, or moist and dry. Hence it is evident that the 'couplings' of the elementary qualities will be four: hot with dry and moist with hot, and again cold with dry and cold with moist. And these four couples have attached themselves to the apparently 'simple' bodies (Fire, Air, Water, and Earth) in a manner consonant with theory. For Fire is hot and dry, whereas Air is hot and moist (Air being a sort of aqueous vapour); and Water is cold and moist, while Earth is cold and dry. Thus the differences are reasonably distributed among the primary bodies, and the number of the latter is consonant with theory. For all who make the simple bodies 'elements' postulate either one, or two, or three, or four. Now (i) those who assert there is one only, and then generate everything else by condensation and rarefaction, are in effect making their 'originative sources' two, viz. the rare and the dense, or rather the hot and the cold: for it is these which are the moulding forces, while the 'one' underlies them as a 'matter'. But (ii) those who postulate two from the start-as Parmenides postulated Fire and Earth-make the intermediates (e.g. Air and Water) blends of these. The same course is followed (iii) by those who advocate three. (We may compare what Plato does in Me Divisions': for he makes 'the middle' a blend.) Indeed, there is practically no difference between those who postulate two and those who postulate three, except that the former split the middle 'element' into two, while the latter treat it as only one. But (iv) some advocate four from the start, e.g. Empedocles: yet he too draws them together so as to reduce them to the two, for he opposes all the others to Fire.

 

In fact, however, fire and air, and each of the bodies we have mentioned, are not simple, but blended. The 'simple' bodies are indeed similar in nature to them, but not identical with them. Thus the 'simple' body corresponding to fire is 'such-as-fire, not fire: that which corresponds to air is 'such-as-air': and so on with the rest of them. But fire is an excess of heat, just as ice is an excess of cold. For freezing and boiling are excesses of heat and cold respectively. Assuming, therefore, that ice is a freezing of moist and cold, fire analogously will be a boiling of dry and hot: a fact, by the way, which explains why nothing comes-to-be either out of ice or out of fire.

 

The 'simple' bodies, since they are four, fall into two pairs which belong to the two regions, each to each: for Fire and Air are forms of the body moving towards the 'limit', while Earth and Water are forms of the body which moves towards the 'centre'. Fire and Earth, moreover, are extremes and purest: Water and Air, on the contrary are intermediates and more like blends. And, further, the members of either pair are contrary to those of the other, Water being contrary to Fire and Earth to Air; for the qualities constituting Water and Earth are contrary to those that constitute Fire and Air. Nevertheless, since they are four, each of them is characterized par excellence a single quality: Earth by dry rather than by cold, Water by cold rather than by moist, Air by moist rather than by hot, and Fire by hot rather than by dry.

Aristotle says six are possible but the contraries can't be put together ie (hot and cold) (wet and dry) SO THERE IS FOUR (HE CREATES THIS BY A QUADRANT MODEL)

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/gener_corr.2.ii.html

But the contrarieties being two, the 'elements' must be four (as they evidently are) and cannot be three: for the couplings' are four, since, though six are possible, the two in which the qualities are contrary to one another cannot

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/history_anim.1.i.html

All creatures that are capable of motion move with four or more points of motion; the blooded animals with four only: as, for instance, man with two hands and two feet, birds with two wings and two feet, quadrupeds and fishes severally with four feet and four fins. Creatures that have two winglets or fins, or that have none at all like serpents, move all the same with not less than four points of motion; for there are four bends in their bodies as they move, or two bends together with their fins. Bloodless and many footed animals, whether furnished with wings or feet, move with more than four points of motion; as, for instance, the dayfly moves with four feet and four wings: and, I may observe in passing, this creature is exceptional not only in regard to the duration of its existence, whence it receives its name, but also because though a quadruped it has wings also.

 

All animals move alike, four-footed and many-footed; in other words, they all move cross-corner-wise. And animals in general have two feet in advance; the crab alone has four.

ARISTOTLE SAYS THAT ALL CREATURES HAVE AT LEAST FOUR POINTS OF MOTION EVEN SNAKES BECAUSE HE SAYS THAT SNAKES HAVE FOUR BENDS

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/history_anim.1.i.html

All creatures that are capable of motion move with four or more points of motion; the blooded animals with four only: as, for instance, man with two hands and two feet, birds with two wings and two feet, quadrupeds and fishes severally with four feet and four fins. Creatures that have two winglets or fins, or that have none at all like serpents, move all the same with not less than four points of motion; for there are four bends in their bodies as they move, or two bends together with their fins. Bloodless and many footed animals, whether furnished with wings or feet, move with more than four points of motion; as, for instance, the dayfly moves with four feet and four wings: and, I may observe in passing, this creature is exceptional not only in regard to the duration of its existence, whence it receives its name, but also because though a quadruped it has wings also. 

 

All animals move alike, four-footed and many-footed; in other words, they all move cross-corner-wise. And animals in general have two feet in advance; the crab alone has four.

ARISTOTLE POLYBUS SAYS THERE IS FOUR PAIRS OF VEINS

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/history_anim.3.iii.html

Such are the accounts given by Syennesis and Diogenes. Polybus writes to the following effect:-

 

'There are four pairs of veins. The first extends from the back of the head, through the neck on the outside, past the backbone on either side, until it reaches the loins and passes on to the legs, after which it goes on through the shins to the outer side of the ankles and on to the feet. And it is on this account that surgeons, for pains in the back and loin, bleed in the ham and in the outer side of the ankle. Another pair of veins runs from the head, past ears, through the neck; which veins are termed the jugular veins. This pair goes on inside along the backbone, past the muscles of the loins, on to the testicles, and onwards to the thighs, and through the inside of the hams and through the shins down to the inside of the ankles and to the feet; and for this reason, surgeons, for pains in the muscles of the loins and in the testicles, bleed on the hams and the inner side of the ankles. The third pair extends from the temples, through the neck, in underneath the shoulder-blades, into the lung; those from right to left going in underneath the breast and on to the spleen and the kidney; those from left to right running from the lung in underneath the breast and into the liver and the kidney; and both terminate in the fundament. The fourth pair extend from the front part of the head and the eyes in underneath the neck and the collar-bones; from thence they stretch on through the upper part of the upper arms to the elbows and then through the fore-arms on to the wrists and the jointings of the fingers, and also through the lower part of the upper-arms to the armpits, and so on, keeping above the ribs, until one of the pair reaches the spleen and the other reaches the liver; and after this they both pass over the stomach and terminate at the penis.'

EMPEDOCLES SAID THAT BONE WAS FOUR PARTS FIRE TWO PARTS EARTH ONE OF WATER AND ONE OF AIR (MADE OF ALL THE FOUR ELEMENTS- EMPEDOCLES THOUGHT EVERYTHING WAS MADE OF A MIXTURE OF THE FOUR ELEMENTS)--- ANCIENT PHILOSOPEHRS OFTEN SPOKE OF THREE HUMOURS BUT GALEN THE FATHER OF MEDICINE ADDED THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH AND SPOKE OF IT AS DIFFERENT FROM THE OTHER THREE

https://books.google.com/books?id=K16_pHik_zgC&pg=PA305&lpg=PA305&dq=polybus+four+pairs+of+veins&source=bl&ots=AzIwYW9RfI&sig=EmntEnABHYlCO3T2RHijlpHvOOw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiIiJ21hYrUAhVprVQKHUwhCikQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=four&f=false

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POLYBUS AND THE FOUR PAIRS OF VEINS IN THE BODY AND HIPPOCRATES AND THE FOUR HUMOURS- BOTH SAW THE FOURTH AS DIFFERENT AND THE AUTHOR OF THIS ARTICLE THINKS THAT THEIR VIEWS STEMMED FROM (MYSTICISM)

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016752730701889X

Polybus of Cos (~ 400 B.C.) was the son-in-law and the successor of Hippocrates. He is credited with founding the school of Dogmatism, and writing “The Nature of Man” which was important in advancing the theory of the four body humors (humoralism). Some earlier scholars negated Polybus' role as an independent medical figure. However, Corpus Aristotelicum quoted him as having a unique theory regarding the body vasculature which stated that this system was composed of four pairs of blood vessels originating from the head and that these supplied the whole body. In an interpretation of this theory, we opined that numerological mysticism might have been the common motive for both Hippocrates' humoralism and Polybus' theory of the vasculature. A discussion on this issue is presented.

Aristotle says the skull is "composed of not four bones but six"-- HE SEEMS TO EMPHASIZE THE FOUR AS IF IT SHOULD BE EXPECTED TO BE FOUR- BUT HE QUALIFIES THIS BY SAYING- two of these are in the regions of the ears, SAMLL IN COMPARISON WITH THE OTHER FOUR- AS IF TO EMPHASIZE THE FOUR as the four major ones

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/history_anim.3.iii.html

The skull is composed not of four bones, but of six; two of these are in the region of the ears, small in comparison with the other four.

ALL LOGIC IS BASED AROUND THIS ARISTOTLES FOUR FORMS OF CATEGORICAL PROPOISTION IT IS A QUADRANT MODEL WITH TWO DICHOTOMIES- WITH FOUR KINDS OF RELATIONSHIPS- ALL LOGIC ARISTOTLES LOGIC FOUNDED ON A QUADRANT- THE FOUR RELATIONSHIPS CONTRADICTORY CONTRARY SUBLANTERNATION SUCONTRARY

http://www.iep.utm.edu/aris-log/

http://www.iep.utm.edu/wp-content/media/Aristotle-logic-figure-1.gif

This brings us to Aristotle’s classification of the four different kinds of categorical propositions (called “categorical propositions” because they assert a relationship between two categories or kinds).  Each different categorical proposition possesses quantity insomuch as it represents a universal or a particular predication (referring to all or only some members of the subject class).  It also possesses a definite quality (positive or negative) insomuch as it affirms or denies the specified predication.  The adjectives “all,” “no,” and “some” (which is understood as meaning “at least one”) determine the quantity of the proposition; the quality is determined by whether the verb is in the affirmative or the negative.  Rather than going into the details of Aristotle’s original texts, suffice it to say that contemporary logicians generally distinguish between four logical possibilities:

 

1.  Universal Affirmation: All S are P (called A statements from the Latin, “AFFIRMO”: I affirm).

 

2.  Universal Negation: No S are P (called E statements from “NEGO”: I deny).

 

3.  Particular Affirmation: Some S are P (called I statements from AFFIRMO).

 

4.  Particular Negation: Some S are not P (called O statements from NEGO).

 

As it turns out, we can use a square with crossed interior diagonals (Fig. 1 above) to identify four kinds of relationships that hold between different pairs of categorical propositions.  Consider each relationship in turn.

 

1)  Contradictory propositions possess opposite truth-values.  In the diagram, they are linked by a diagonal line.  If one of two contradictories is true, the other must be false, and vice versa.  So the A proposition (All S are P) and the O proposition (Some S are not P) are contradictories.  Clearly, if it is true that “all S are P,” then the O statement that “some S are not P” must be false.  And if it is true that “some S are not P,” then the A statement that “all S are P” must be false.  The same relationship holds between E (No S are P) and I (Some S are P) propositions.  To use a simple example: If it is true that “all birds lay eggs,” then it must be false that “some birds do not lay eggs.”  And if it is true that “some birds do not fly,” then it must be false that “all birds fly.”

 

2)  Contrary propositions cannot both be true.  The top horizontal line in the square joining the A proposition (All S are P) to the E proposition (No S are P) represents this logical relationship.  Clearly, it cannot be true that “all S are P” and that “no S are P.”  The truth of one of these contrary propositions excludes the truth of the other.  It is possible, however, that both statements are false as in the case where some S are P and some (other) S are not P.  So, for example, the statements “all politicians tell lies” and “no politicians tell lies” cannot both be true.  They will, however, both be false if it is indeed the case that some politicians tell lies whereas some do not.

 

3)  The relationship of subalternation results when the truth of a universal proposition, “the superaltern,” requires the truth of a second particular proposition, “the subaltern.”  The vertical lines moving downward from the top to the bottom of the square in the diagram represent this condition.  Clearly, if all members of an existent group possess (or do not possess) a specific characteristic, it must follow that any smaller subset of that group must possess (or not possess) that specific characteristic.  If the A proposition (All S are P) is true, it must follow that the I proposition (“Some S are P”) must be true.  Again, if the E proposition (No S are P) is true, it must follow that the O proposition (Some S are not P) must be true.  Consider, for example, the statement, “all cheetahs are fast.”  If every member of the whole group of cheetahs is fast, then it must be the case that at least one member of the group of cheetahs is fast; that is, the statement “some cheetahs are fast” must be true.  And, to reformulate the same example as a negation, if it is true that “no cheetahs are slow,” then it must be the case that at least one member of the group of cheetahs is not slow; that is, the statement “some cheetahs are not slow” must be true.

 

Note that subalternation does not work in the opposite direction.  If “Some S are P,” it need not follow that “All S are P.”  And if “Some S are not P,” it need not follow that “No S are P.”  We should also point out that if the subaltern is false, it must follow that the superaltern is false.  If it is false to say that “Some S are P,” it must be false to say that “All S are P.”  And if it is false to say that “Some S are not P,” it must be false to say that “No S are P.”

 

4)  Subcontrary propositions cannot both be false.  The bottom horizontal line in the square joining the I proposition (Some S are P) to the O proposition (Some S are not P) represents this kind of subcontrary relationship.  Keeping to the assumptions implicit in Aristotle’s system, there are only three possibilities: (1) All S have property P; in which case, it must also be true (by subalternation) that “some S are P.”  (2) No S have property P; in which case it must also be true (by subalternation) that “some S are not P.”  (3)  Some S have and some S do not have property P; in which case it will be true that “some S are P” and that “some S are not P.”  It follows that at least one of a pair of subcontrary propositions must be true and that both will be true in cases where P is partially predicated of S.  So, for example, both members of the subcontrary pair “some men have beards” and “some men do not have beards” are true.  They are both true because having a beard is a contingent or variable male attribute.  In contrast, only one member of the subcontrary pair “some snakes are legless” and “some snakes are not legless” is true.  As all snakes are legless, the proposition “some snakes are not legless” must be false.

ARISTOTLE FOUR PROPOSITIONS
http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/interpretation.1.1.html
When the verb 'is' is used as a third element in the sentence, there can be positive and negative propositions of two sorts. Thus in the sentence 'man is just' the verb 'is' is used as a third element, call it verb or noun, which you will. Four propositions, therefore, instead of two can be formed with these materials. Two of the four, as regards their affirmation and denial, correspond in their logical sequence with the propositions which deal with a condition of privation; the other two do not correspond with these. 

I mean that the verb 'is' is added either to the term 'just' or to the term 'not-just', and two negative propositions are formed in the same way. Thus we have the four propositions. Reference to the subjoined table will make matters clear: 

A. Affirmation B. Denial Man is just Man is not just \ / X / \ D. Denial C. Affirmation Man is not not-just Man is not-just Here 'is' and 'is not' are added either to 'just' or to 'not-just'. This then is the proper scheme for these propositions, as has been said in the Analytics. The same rule holds good, if the subject is distributed. Thus we have the table: 

A'. Affirmation B'. Denial Every man is just Not every man is just \ / X D'. Denial / \ C'. Affirmation 
Not every man is not-just Every man is not-just Yet here it is not possible, in the same way as in the former case, that the propositions joined in the table by a diagonal line should both be true; though under certain circumstances this is the case. 

We have thus set out two pairs of opposite propositions; there are moreover two other pairs, if a term be conjoined with 'not-man', the latter forming a kind of subject. Thus: 

A." B." Not-man is just Not-man is not just \ / - X 

D." / \ C." Not-man is not not-just Not-man is not-just

SMALL TITLE

ANCIENT PHILOSOPHERS SAID THAT EUCLIDS FOURHT POSTUALTE WAS DIFFERENT AND NOT EVEN A POSUTALE FOURTH ALWAYS TRANSCNEDNETN FIGTH QUESTIONABLE

EUCLID HAD FIVE POSTULATES BUT THE FIFTH WAS PROVEN WRONG FIFTH ALWAYS QUESIOTNBALE BUT EUCLID NEVER USED IT AND PEOPLE SAY HE KNEW IT WAS WRONG BUT ONLY PUT IT TO SPARK FURUTER GEOMETRIES THAT WERE DIFFERENT. ALSO MATHEMTICISNAS SAY THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT AND MANY SAY ITS NOT EVEN A POSTULATE THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT AND IN FACT IT SAYS THAT TWO BISECIGN LLINES MAKE A RIGHT ANGLE THAT IS A QUADRANT-

https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/roots-of-unity/whate28099s-the-deal-with-euclide28099s-fourth-postulate/

Now it makes a little more sense that Euclid would want a postulate that states that right angles are congruent. We need to know that creating a pair of right angles on one piece of paper is the same as creating them on another piece of paper. We need to be able to put the pieces of paper on top of each other and have the angles line up exactly. In effect, the fourth postulate establishes the right angle as a unit of measurement for all angles. Although Euclid never uses degrees or radians, he sometimes describes angles as being the size of some number of right angles. In this light, Euclid's fourth postulate doesn't seem quite so bizarre.

But if you are a bit put off by the fourth postulate, you are not alone. Proclus, a 5th century CE Greek mathematician who wrote an influential commentary on the Elements, thought that the fourth postulate should be a theorem and provided a "proof" of it in his commentary. But his proof relies on assuming that angles "look" the same wherever we are in space, a property that Heath referred to in his 1908 commentary as the homogeneity of space. Basically, Heath states that Proclus's proof replaces the fourth postulate with a different, unstated, postulate.

I WATHED A LECTURE BEFORE I RECORDED STUFF ON FACEBOOK ABOUT A DIFFERENT TYPE OF NUMBER NOT PERFECT OR MERSENNE BUT THEY COULD FIND THE FIRST FOUR AND THE FOURHT WAS DIFFERENT HARD TO FIND--- THEN IT TOOK THE NEED OF COMPUTERS FOR THEM TO FIND THE FIFTH THE FIFTH IS ALWAYS QUESTIONABLE OURTH ALWAYS DIFFERENT- I FORGET THE NAME OF THOSE TYPES OF NUMBERS THOUGH BUT IT WAS THE PERFECT QUADRANT PATTERN- SAME WITH PERFECT NUMBERS THE FOURTH IS DIFFERNET AND TOOK A VERY LONG TIME TO FIND- BUT THE FIRST FOUR WERE KNOWN TO THE ANCIENTS THE FIRST THREE WERE DISCOVERED KIND OF EASY THE FOURTH HARD AND DIFFERENT. IT TOOK UNTIL THE 1400S TO FIND THE FIFTH-- FIFTH ULTRA TRANSCENDENT

http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Perfect_numbers.html

The four perfect numbers 6, 28, 496 and 8128 seem to have been known from ancient times and there is no record of these discoveries.

6 = 1 + 2 + 3,

28 = 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14,

496 = 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 31 + 62 + 124 + 248

8128 = 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + 64 + 127 + 254 + 508 + 1016 + 2032 + 4064

LOOK HOW FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT FIFTH ULTRA TRANSCENDENT

http://mathforum.org/library/drmath/view/52471.html

 

We now have the first five perfect numbers:

 

6

28

496

8128

33,550,336

FOUR KINDS ARISTOTLE -

Book X Go to next

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/metaphysics.10.x.html

Part 1

 

 

"WE have said previously, in our distinction of the various meanings of words, that 'one' has several meanings; the things that are directly and of their own nature and not accidentally called one may be summarized under four heads, though the word is used in more senses. (1) There is the continuous, either in general, or especially that which is continuous by nature and not by contact nor by being together; and of these, that has more unity and is prior, whose movement is more indivisible and simpler. (2) That which is a whole and has a certain shape and form is one in a still higher degree; and especially if a thing is of this sort by nature, and not by force like the things which are unified by glue or nails or by being tied together, i.e. if it has in itself the cause of its continuity. A thing is of this sort because its movement is one and indivisible in place and time; so that evidently if a thing has by nature a principle of movement that is of the first kind (i.e. local movement) and the first in that kind (i.e. circular movement), this is in the primary sense one extended thing. Some things, then, are one in this way, qua continuous or whole, and the other things that are one are those whose definition is one. Of this sort are the things the thought of which is one, i.e. those the thought of which is indivisible; and it is indivisible if the thing is indivisible in kind or in number. (3) In number, then, the individual is indivisible, and (4) in kind, that which in intelligibility and in knowledge is indivisible, so that that which causes substances to be one must be one in the primary sense. 'One', then, has all these meanings-the naturally continuous and the whole, and the individual and the universal. And all these are one because in some cases the movement, in others the thought or the definition is indivisible.

FOUR KINDS A QUADRANT MODEL

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-ethics/

The two kinds of passions that Aristotle focuses on, in his treatment of akrasia, are the appetite for pleasure and anger. Either can lead to impetuosity and weakness. But Aristotle gives pride of place to the appetite for pleasure as the passion that undermines reason. He calls the kind of akrasia caused by an appetite for pleasure “unqualified akrasia”—or, as we might say, akrasia “full stop”; akrasia caused by anger he considers a qualified form of akrasia and calls it akrasia “with respect to anger”. We thus have these four forms of akrasia: (A) impetuosity caused by pleasure, (B) impetuosity caused by anger, (C) weakness caused by pleasure (D) weakness caused by anger.

ARISTOTLE ON ZENOS FOUR ARGUMENTS OF MOTION (the four paradoxes)

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/physics.6.vi.html

Zeno's arguments about motion, which cause so much disquietude to those who try to solve the problems that they present, are four in number. The first asserts the non-existence of motion on the ground that that which is in locomotion must arrive at the half-way stage before it arrives at the goal. This we have discussed above.

 

The second is the so-called 'Achilles', and it amounts to this, that in a race the quickest runner can never overtake the slowest, since the pursuer must first reach the point whence the pursued started, so that the slower must always hold a lead. This argument is the same in principle as that which depends on bisection, though it differs from it in that the spaces with which we successively have to deal are not divided into halves. The result of the argument is that the slower is not overtaken: but it proceeds along the same lines as the bisection-argument (for in both a division of the space in a certain way leads to the result that the goal is not reached, though the 'Achilles' goes further in that it affirms that even the quickest runner in legendary tradition must fail in his pursuit of the slowest), so that the solution must be the same. And the axiom that that which holds a lead is never overtaken is false: it is not overtaken, it is true, while it holds a lead: but it is overtaken nevertheless if it is granted that it traverses the finite distance prescribed. These then are two of his arguments.

 

The third is that already given above, to the effect that the flying arrow is at rest, which result follows from the assumption that time is composed of moments: if this assumption is not granted, the conclusion will not follow.

 

The fourth argument is that concerning the two rows of bodies, each row being composed of an equal number of bodies of equal size, passing each other on a race-course as they proceed with equal velocity in opposite directions, the one row originally occupying the space between the goal and the middle point of the course and the other that between the middle point and the starting-post. This, he thinks, involves the conclusion that half a given time is equal to double that time. The fallacy of the reasoning lies in the assumption that a body occupies an equal time in passing with equal velocity a body that is in motion and a body of equal size that is at rest; which is false. For instance (so runs the argument), let A, A...be the stationary bodies of equal size, B, B...the bodies, equal in number and in size to A, A...,originally occupying the half of the course from the starting-post to the middle of the A's, and G, G...those originally occupying the other half from the goal to the middle of the A's, equal in number, size, and velocity to B, B....Then three consequences follow:

THE FIRST THING YOU LEARN AND PRETTY MUCH ALL YOU DO IN PHYSICS 1 IN COLLEGE IS THE FOUR KINEMATIC EQUAITONS- THE FOURHT IS DIFFERENT IT IS A QUADRATIC EQUATION- THEY EXPLAIN ALL MOTION

http://www.softschools.com/formulas/physics/kinematic_equations_formula/24/

Kinematics is the study of objects in motion and their inter-relationships. There are four (4) kinematic equations, which relate to displacement, D, velocity, v, time, t, and acceleration, a.

a) D = vit + 1/2 at2 b) (vi +vf)/2 = D/t

c) a = (vf - vi)/t d) vf2 = vi2 + 2aD

ARISTOTLE ARGUES THE FOURTH KIND OF MOTION IS DIFFERENT AND THE FOUR CHANGS CORRESPOND TO THE FOUR CATEGORIES OF BEING

https://www.topoi.org/project/topoi-1-33/

This project investigated the priority of local motion in Aristotle. Aristotle recognizes four distinct kinds of change, corresponding to four categories of being: substance, quality, quantity, and location. According to Aristotle, these four kinds of change are irreducibly distinct; none of them can be reduced to any other. In Physics VIII, he argues that local motion has priority over the other three kinds of change in different ways. This doctrine plays a crucial role in his argument for the eternity of change in the cosmos, an unmoved mover, and throws important light on the role of local motion, and hence space, in Aristotle’s physical theory in general.

Just now

Four things to be aimed at
http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/poetics.2.2.html
In respect of Character there are four things to be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is good. This rule is relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at is propriety. There is a type of manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. Thirdly, character must be true to life: for this is a distinct thing from goodness and propriety, as here described. The fourth point is consistency: for though the subject of the imitation, who suggested the type, be inconsistent, still he must be consistently inconsistent. As an example of motiveless degradation of character, we have Menelaus in the Orestes; of character indecorous and inappropriate, the lament of Odysseus in the Scylla, and the speech of Melanippe; of inconsistency, the Iphigenia at Aulis- for Iphigenia the suppliant in no way resembles her later self.

Aristotle four kinds of tragedy

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/poetics.2.2.html

There are four kinds of Tragedy: the Complex, depending entirely on Reversal of the Situation and Recognition; the Pathetic (where the motive is passion)- such as the tragedies on Ajax and Ixion; the Ethical (where the motives are ethical)- such as the Phthiotides and the Peleus. The fourth kind is the Simple. [We here exclude the purely spectacular element], exemplified by the Phorcides, the Prometheus, and scenes laid in Hades. The poet should endeavor, if possible, to combine all poetic elements; or failing that, the greatest number and those the most important; the more so, in face of the caviling criticism of the day. For whereas there have hitherto been good poets, each in his own branch, the critics now expect one man to surpass all others in their several lines of excellence.

ARISTOTLE SAYS "THERE ARE FOUR PRINCIPAL FORMS OF GOVERNMENT" (fourth different)- ARISTOTLE SAID THAT PLATO RECOGNIZED FOUR PRINCIPAL FORMS OF GOVERNMENT- Aristotle proposes a questionable fifth (he also proposes a questionable fifth element the aeither) (the order he gives them is the quadrant pattern monarchy good oligarchy good ordered democracy bad disorder freedom nature of third fourth bad.

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/politics.4.four.html

There are still two forms besides democracy and oligarchy; one of them is universally recognized and included among the four principal forms of government, which are said to be (1) monarchy, (2) oligarchy, (3) democracy, and (4) the so-called aristocracy or government of the best

FOUR QUADRANTS OF THE NOLAN CHART POLITICAL IDEOLOGY- BASED ON TWO DICHOTOMIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nolan_Chart

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nolan_chart_normal.png

The claim that political positions can be located on a chart with two axes: left-right (economics) and tough-tender (authoritarian-libertarian) was put forward by the British psychologist Hans Eysenck in his 1954 book The Psychology of Politics with statistical evidence based on survey data.[1] This leads to a loose classification of political positions into four quadrants, with further detail based on exact position within the quadrant.

THE FOUR TYPES OF THE NOLAN CHART BASED ON TWO DICHOTOMIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nolan_Chart

Since, Nolan realized, most government activity (or government control) occurs in these two major areas, political positions can be defined by how much government control a person or political party favors in these two areas. The extremes are no government at all in either area (anarchism) or total or near-total government control of everything (various forms of totalitarianism). Most political philosophies fall somewhere in between. In broad terms:

 

Conservatives and those on the right tend to favor more freedom in economic areas (example: a free market), but more government intervention in personal matters (example: drug laws).

Liberals and those on the left (by the common US meanings of those terms) tend to favor more freedom in personal areas (example: no military draft), but more government activism or control in economics (example: a government-mandated minimum wage).

Libertarians favor both personal and economic freedom, and oppose most (or all) government intervention in both areas. Like conservatives, libertarians believe that people should be free to make economic choices for themselves. Like liberals, libertarians believe in personal freedom.

Statists favor a lot of government control in both the personal and economic areas. Different versions of the chart, as well as Nolan's original chart, use terms such as "communitarian" or "populist" to label this corner of the chart.

THE QUADRANT POLITICAL COMPASS- BASED ON TWO DICHOTOMIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_compass

The political compass is a multi-axis political model, used by the website of the same name, to label or organise political thought on two dimensions. In its selection and representation of these two dimensions, it is similar to the Nolan Chart and Pournelle Chart. The term "Political Compass" is claimed as a trademark by the British website Pace News Limited,[1] which uses responses to a set of 61 propositions to rate political ideology on two axes: Economic (Left–Right) and Social (Authoritarian–Libertarian).[2] The site also includes an explanation of the two-axis system they use, a few charts which place various past and present political figures according to their estimation,[3] and reading lists for each of the main political orientations.

FOUR DIFFERNET CLEAVAGES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cleavage_(politics)

There are numerous cleavages in society, but Seymour Martin Lipset and Stein Rokkan (1967) defined four basic cleavages for western civilization after the Industrial Revolution. According to Lipset and Rokkan, these cleavages determined the emergence and the content of all European political parties.

 

Centre versus periphery: between elites in the urban areas and those in more outlying areas. This usually expresses itself in terms of regional nationalism. For example, in Spain many regions have regionalist or separatist parties. This division is, according to Lipset and Rokkan, caused by the creation of modern nation-states, where some states were better than others at assimilating other cultures into the majority nation.

State versus church: between religious and secular voters. In the Netherlands until the 1970s there were five major parties: the Catholic People's Party (KVP), the Protestant Anti Revolutionary Party (ARP) and Christian Historical Union (CHU), the social democratic Dutch Labour Party (PvdA), and the liberal People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD), the last two being secular.

Owner versus worker: a class cleavage, causing the formation of parties of the left and parties of the right. Sometimes it is argued that this cleavage represents a conflict between the rich and poor.[1] Various parties have claimed to represent either interest, though this may or may not be genuine.

Land versus industry: continued state exercise of control over tariffs, against freedom of control for industrial enterprise.

POURNELLE CHART FOUR TYPES BASED ON TWO DICHOTOMIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pournelle_chart

The Pournelle chart, developed by Jerry Pournelle (in his 1963 political science Ph.D. dissertation), is a two-dimensional coordinate system which can be used to distinguish political ideologies. It is similar to the Political Compass and the Nolan Chart in that it is a two-dimensional chart, but the axes of the Pournelle chart are different from those of other systems.

 

The two axes are as follows:

 

The x-axis, "Attitude toward the State" (labeled statism), refers to a political philosophy's attitude toward the state and centralized government. The farthest right is "state worship," and the farthest left represents the state as the "ultimate evil," preferring individual freedom.

The y-axis, "Attitude toward planned social progress" (labeled rationalism), refers to the extent which a political philosophy is compatible with the idea that social problems can be solved by use of reason. The top indicates complete confidence in planned social progress; the bottom represents skepticism of such methods, often considering them as naively utopian. Those at the top of this axis would tend to discard a traditional custom if they do not understand what purpose it serves (considering it antiquated and probably useless), while those at the bottom would tend to keep the custom (considering it time-tested and probably useful).

FOUR TYPES CULTURE

http://changingminds.org/explanations/culture/competing_values.htm

The four hierarchies are to some extent historical in their development and are presented in this order below.

 

Hierarchy

The hierarchy has a traditional approach to structure and control that flows from a strict chain of command as in Max Weber's original view of bureaucracy. For many years, this was considered the only effective way of organizing and is still a basic element of the vast majority of organizations.

 

Hierarchies have respect for position and power. They often have well-defined policies, processes and procedures.

 

Hierarchical leaders are typically coordinators and organizers who keep a close eye on what is happening.

 

Market

The Market organization also seeks control but does so by looking outward, and in particular taking note of transaction cost.

 

Note that the Market organization is not one which is focused just on marketing, but one where all transactions, internal and external are viewed in market terms. Transactions are exchanges of value. In an efficient market organization, value flows between people and stakeholders with minimal cost and delay.

 

Market cultures are outward looking, are particularly driven by results and are often very competitive.

 

Leaders in market cultures are often hard-driving competitors who seek always to deliver the goods.

 

Clan

The Clan organization has less focus on structure and control and a greater concern for flexibility. Rather than strict rules and procedures, people are driven through vision, shared goals, outputs and outcomes.

 

In contrast to Hierarchies, clans often have flat organizations and people and teams act more autonomously.

 

It has an inward focus and a sense of family and people work well together, strongly driven by loyalty to one another and the shared cause. Rules, although not necessarily documented, do still exist and are often communicated and inculcated socially.

 

Clan leaders act in a facilitative, supportive way and may take on a parental role.

 

Adhocracy

The Adhocracy has even greater independence and flexibility than the Clan, which is necessary in a rapidly changing business climate.

 

Where market success goes to those with greatest speed and adaptability, the adhocracy will rapidly form teams to face new challenges. It will use prototyping and experimenting rather than long, big-bang projects and development.

 

Leaders in an adhocracy are visionary, innovative entrepreneurs who take calculated risks to make significant gains.

THREE GENERATIONS PROGRAM BECAME FOUR GENERATIONS PROGRAM- DYNAMIC THRE AND FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crowdsourcing

Genealogical research was using crowdsourcing techniques long before personal computers were common. Beginning in 1942, members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints encouraged members to submit information about their ancestors. The submitted information was gathered together into a single collection. In 1969, to encourage more people to participate in gathering genealogical information about their ancestors, the church started the three-generation program. In this program, church members were asked to prepare documented family group record forms for the first three generations. The program was later expanded to encourage members to research at least four generations and became known as the four-generation program.[40]

Hofstede demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behavior of organizations and identified four dimensions of culture (later five[38]) in his study of national cultures:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_culture

Power distance (Mauk Mulder, 1977) – Different societies find different solutions regarding social inequality. Although invisible, inside organizations power inequality of the "boss-subordinate relationships" is functional and according to Hofstede reflects the way inequality is addressed in the society. "According to Mulder's Power Distance Reduction theory subordinates will try to reduce the power distance between themselves and their bosses and bosses will try to maintain or enlarge it", but there is also a degree to which a society expects there to be differences in the levels of power. A high score suggests that there is an expectation that some individuals wield larger amounts of power than others. A low score reflects the view that all people should have equal rights.

Uncertainty avoidance is the way of coping with uncertainty about the future. Society copes with it with technology, law and religion (though different societies have different ways of addressing it), and according to Hofstede organizations deal with it with technology, law and rituals, or in two ways – rational and non-rational, with rituals being the non-rational. Hofstede listed some of the rituals as the memos and reports, some parts of the accounting system, a large part of the planning and control systems, and the nomination of experts.

Individualism vs. collectivism – disharmony of interests on personal and collective goals (Parsons and Shils, 1951). Hofstede raises the idea that society's expectations of Individualism/Collectivism will be reflected by the employee inside the organization. Collectivist societies will have more emotional dependence on members in their organizations; when in equilibrium an organization is expected to show responsibility to members. Extreme individualism is seen in the US. In fact, collectivism in the US is seen as "bad". Other cultures and societies than the US will therefore seek to resolve social and organizational problems in ways different from American ways. Hofstede says that a capitalist market economy fosters individualism and competition, and depends on it, but individualism is also related to the development of the middle class. Some people and cultures might have both high individualism and high collectivism. For example, someone who highly values duty to his or her group does not necessarily give a low priority to personal freedom and self-sufficiency.

Masculinity vs. femininity – reflects whether a certain society is predominantly male or female in terms of cultural values, gender roles and power relations.

Aristotle four branches education

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/politics.8.eight.html

The customary branches of education are in number four; they are- (1) reading and writing, (2) gymnastic exercises, (3) music, to which is sometimes added (4) drawing

KANT FOUR SYLLOGISTIC FIGURES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_False_Subtlety_of_the_Four_Syllogistic_Figures

Kant claimed that the fourth figure is based on the insertion of several immediate inferences that each have no middle term. The affirmative mode of this fourth figure is not possible because a conclusion cannot be derived from the premises. The negative mode of this fourth figure is possible only if each premise is immediately followed by its unexpressed, unspoken converse as an immediate inference.

 

In order to be valid, the negative mode ratiocination:

 

No stupid man is learned,

 

Some learned persons are pious,

 

Therefore, some pious persons are not stupid

 

must become:

 

No stupid man is learned,

 

Consequently, no learned person is stupid;

 

Some learned persons are pious,

 

Consequently, some pious persons are learned,

 

Therefore, some pious persons are not stupid.

 

Section V[edit]

The Logical Division of the Four Figures is a Mistaken Subtlety.

 

Legitimate conclusions can be drawn in all four figures. Only the first figure determines the conclusion by pure, unmixed reasoning. The other figures use unspoken, inserted inferences. Logic should consist of open, not covert, reasoning. It should be simple and unmixed, with no hidden inferences.

 

Previous logicians incorrectly considered all four figures as being simple and pure. The four figures were created by playfully changing the middle term’s position. This retained the rational conclusion but increased obscurity. Time should not be wasted on the study of the three mixed ratiocinations.

ARISTOTLE BEGINS THE NEXT SECTION WITH THE FOUR KINDS OF QUESTIONS AND THE FOUR THINGS WE KNOW

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/posterior.2.ii.html

Book II

 

Part 1

 

The kinds of question we ask are as many as the kinds of things which we know. They are in fact four:-(1) whether the connexion of an attribute with a thing is a fact, (2) what is the reason of the connexion, (3) whether a thing exists, (4) What is the nature of the thing. Thus, when our question concerns a complex of thing and attribute and we ask whether the thing is thus or otherwise qualified-whether, e.g. the sun suffers eclipse or not-then we are asking as to the fact of a connexion. That our inquiry ceases with the discovery that the sun does suffer eclipse is an indication of this; and if we know from the start that the sun suffers eclipse, we do not inquire whether it does so or not. On the other hand, when we know the fact we ask the reason; as, for example, when we know that the sun is being eclipsed and that an earthquake is in progress, it is the reason of eclipse or earthquake into which we inquire.

 

Where a complex is concerned, then, those are the two questions we ask; but for some objects of inquiry we have a different kind of question to ask, such as whether there is or is not a centaur or a God. (By 'is or is not' I mean 'is or is not, without further qualification'; as opposed to 'is or is not [e.g.] white'.) On the other hand, when we have ascertained the thing's existence, we inquire as to its nature, asking, for instance, 'what, then, is God?' or 'what is man?'.

 

Part 2

 

These, then, are the four kinds of question we ask, and it is in the answers to these questions that our knowledge consists.

ARISTOTLE PROPOSES THE FOUR CAUSES- OUT OF WHICH HE WILL PROPOSE THE "UNMOVED MOVER" WHO PEOPLE CALL GOD

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/posterior.2.ii.html

We think we have scientific knowledge when we know the cause, and there are four causes: (1) the definable form, (2) an antecedent which necessitates a consequent, (3) the efficient cause, (4) the final cause.

THE FOURTH CAUSE IS TRANSCENDENT DIFFERENT- ARISTOTLE WILL PROPOSE THE UNMOVED MOVER "GOD" FROM HIS FOUR CAUSES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unmoved_mover

The Cosmological argument, later attributed to Aristotle, thereby draws the conclusion that God exists

 

In the Physics (VIII 4–6) Aristotle finds "surprising difficulties" explaining even commonplace change, and in support of his approach of explanation by four causes, he required "a fair bit of technical machinery".[6] This "machinery" includes potentiality and actuality, hylomorphism, the theory of categories, and "an audacious and intriguing argument, that the bare existence of change requires the postulation of a first cause, an unmoved mover whose necessary existence underpins the ceaseless activity of the world of motion".[7] Aristotle's "first philosophy", or Metaphysics ("after the Physics"), develops his peculiar theology of the prime mover, as πρῶτον κινοῦν ἀκίνητον: an independent divine eternal unchanging immaterial substance.[8]

 

Aristotle originated his fourfold distinction without reference to such an entity. But the real question is whether, given his definition of the efficient cause, it includes the unmoved mover willy-nilly. One curious fact remains: that Aristotle never acknowledges the alleged fact that the unmoved mover is an efficient cause (a problem of which Simplicius is well aware: 1363. 12–14)...[11]

 

— D. W. Graham, Physics

ARISTOTLES FOUR KINDS OF PROPOSITION BASED ON TWO DICHOTOMIES

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Aristotle/The-unmoved-mover

In what figure it is possible to draw a conclusion from premisses which are opposed, and in what figure this is not possible, will be made clear in this way. Verbally four kinds of opposition are possible, viz. universal affirmative to universal negative, universal affirmative to particular negative, particular affirmative to universal negative, and particular affirmative to particular negative: but really there are only three: for the particular affirmative is only verbally opposed to the particular negative. Of the genuine opposites I call those which are universal contraries, the universal affirmative and the universal negative, e.g. 'every science is good', 'no science is good'; the others I call contradictories.

ARISTOTLE SAYS THE MOST IMPORTANT ATTRIBUTES OF ANIMALS CAN BE SUMMED UP IN FOUR PAIRS

 

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/sense.1.1.html

The most important attributes of animals, whether common to all or peculiar to some, are, manifestly, attributes of soul and body in conjunction, e.g. sensation, memory, passion, appetite and desire in general, and, in addition pleasure and pain. For these may, in fact, be said to belong to all animals. But there are, besides these, certain other attributes, of which some are common to all living things, while others are peculiar to certain species of animals. The most important of these may be summed up in four pairs, viz. waking and sleeping, youth and old age, inhalation and exhalation, life and death. We must endeavour to arrive at a scientific conception of these, determining their respective natures, and the causes of their occurrence.

ARISTOTLE COORDINATES THE FOUR ELEMENTS WITH THE FIVE SENSES SAYING THERE ARE REALLY FOUR SENSES IN THAT TASTE AND TOUCH ARE THE SAME AND BOTH RELATED TO THE ELEMENT EARTH

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/sense.1.1.html

But as to the nature of the sensory organs, or parts of the body in which each of the senses is naturally implanted, inquirers now usually take as their guide the fundamental elements of bodies. Not, however, finding it easy to coordinate five senses with four elements, they are at a loss respecting the fifth sense. But they hold the organ of sight to consist of fire, being prompted to this view by a certain sensory affection of whose true cause they are ignorant. This is that, when the eye is pressed or moved, fire appears to flash from it. This naturally takes place in darkness, or when the eyelids are closed, for then, too, darkness is produced.

Hence, if the facts be at all as here stated, it is clear that- if one should explain the nature of the sensory organs in this way, i.e. by correlating each of them with one of the four elements,- we must conceive that the part of the eye immediately concerned in vision consists of water, that the part immediately concerned in the perception of sound consists of air, and that the sense of smell consists of fire. (I say the sense of smell, not the organ.) For the organ of smell is only potentially that which the sense of smell, as realized, is actually; since the object of sense is what causes the actualization of each sense, so that it (the sense) must (at the instant of actualization) be (actually) that which before (the moment of actualization) it was potentially. Now, odour is a smoke-like evaporation, and smoke-like evaporation arises from fire. This also helps us to understand why the olfactory organ has its proper seat in the environment of the brain, for cold matter is potentially hot. In the same way must the genesis of the eye be explained. Its structure is an offshoot from the brain, because the latter is the moistest and coldest of all the bodily parts.

ARGUMENTS IN DIALOGUE FOUR CLASSES ARISTOTLE

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/sophist_refut.1.1.html

Of arguments in dialogue form there are four classes:

Didactic, Dialectical, Examination-arguments, and Contentious arguments. Didactic arguments are those that reason from the principles appropriate to each subject and not from the opinions held by the answerer (for the learner should take things on trust): dialectical arguments are those that reason from premisses generally accepted, to the contradictory of a given thesis: examination-arguments are those that reason from premisses which are accepted by the answerer and which any one who pretends to possess knowledge of the subject is bound to know-in what manner, has been defined in another treatise: contentious arguments are those that reason or appear to reason to a conclusion from premisses that appear to be generally accepted but are not so. The subject, then, of demonstrative arguments has been discussed in the Analytics, while that of dialectic arguments and examination-arguments has been discussed elsewhere: let us now proceed to speak of the arguments used in competitions and contests.

GOETHE COLORS FOUR QUALIITES FOUR TEMPERAMENTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Goethe_Schiller_Die_Temperamentenrose.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_Colours

Goethe also included aesthetic qualities in his colour wheel, under the title of "allegorical, symbolic, mystic use of colour" (Allegorischer, symbolischer, mystischer Gebrauch der Farbe), establishing a kind of color psychology. He associated red with the "beautiful", orange with the "noble", yellow to the "good", green to the "useful", blue to the "common", and violet to the "unnecessary". These six qualities were assigned to four categories of human cognition, the rational (Vernunft) to the beautiful and the noble (red and orange), the intellectual (Verstand) to the good and the useful (yellow and green), the sensual (Sinnlichkeit) to the useful and the common (green and blue) and, closing the circle, imagination (Phantasie) to both the unnecessary and the beautiful (purple and red).[24]

 

The "rose of temperaments" (Temperamentenrose), an earlier study (1798/9) by Goethe and Schiller, matching twelve colours to human occupations or their character traits (tyrants, heroes, adventurers, hedonists, lovers, poets, public speakers, historians, teachers, philosophers, pedants, rulers), grouped in the four temperaments.

MANNS FOUR TYPES OF SURVEILLANCE

http://hplusmagazine.com/2014/10/07/sousveillance-surveillance-kind-future-want/

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-8iuiL-U-JKY/VDKoDC_VlNI/AAAAAAAAC68/i4kFZMRXaPY/s1600/Types%2Bof%2BVeillance%2BSociety.261.png

2. Four Types of Veillance Society

And the definitions matter because, as noted above, the surveillance-sousveillance distinction is critical to understanding the possible futures that are open to us. You have to imagine that surveillance and sousveillance represent two different dimensions or matrices along which future societies can vary. A society can have competing attitudes toward both surveillance and sousveillance. That is: they can reject both, embrace both, or embrace one and reject the other. The result is four possible futures, which can be represented by the two-by-two matrix below.

 

 

(Note: Mann adopts a slightly more complicated model in his work. He imagines this more like a coordinate plane with the coordinates representing the number of people or entities engaging in different types of veillance. There may be some value to this model, but it is needlessly complex for my purposes. Hence the more straightforward two-by-two matrix).

 

Let’s consider these four possible futures in more detail:

 

The Equiveillance Society: This is a society which embraces both surveillance and sousveillance. The authorities can watch over us with their machines of loving grace and we can watch over them with our smartphones, smartwatches and other smart devices (though there are questions to be asked about who really controls those technologies).

The Univeillance Society: This is a society which embraces sousveillance but resists surveillance. It’s not quite clear why it is called univeillance (except for the fact that it embraces one kind of veillance only, but then that would imply that a society that embraced surveillance only should have the same name, which it doesn’t). But the basic idea is that we accept all forms of peer-to-peer monitoring, but try to cut out monitoring by authorities.

THE FAMOUS RHETORICIAN QUINTILLIAN SAID "WHAT IS MORE BEAUTIFUL THAN A QUINCUNX" (A CROSS OF FIVE ELEMENTS"- AND HE POINTED OUT THAT GARDENS AND TREES LIKE THE GARDEN OF CYRUS ARE ARRANGED IN QUINCUNX FORMATION BECAUSE IT IS MOST HEALTHY FOR THEM

http://www.gardenhistorymatters.com/2013/02/quincunx.html

In it he quotes Quintilian, a 1st century Roman rhetorician who uses the term in his Institutio Oratoria, first published c.95 AD: “Quid [illo] quincunce speciosius, qui, in quamcumque partem spectaveris, rectus est?" which translates roughly, "What is more beautiful than the quincunx, that, from whatever direction you regard it, presents straight lines?" In context, Quintilian is discussing beauty and utility and writes, “Shall not beauty, then, it may be asked, be regarded in the planting of fruit trees? Undoubtedly; I should arrange my trees in a certain order, and observe regular intervals between them.” He recognizes that planting trees at regular intervals is also advantageous to their growth and health “as each of them then attracts an equal portion of the juices of the soil...”.

Aristotle four species of locomotion

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/soul.1.i.html

There are four species of movement-locomotion, alteration, diminution, growth; consequently if the soul is moved, it must be moved with one or several or all of these species of movement. Now if its movement is not incidental, there must be a movement natural to it, and, if so, as all the species enumerated involve place, place must be natural to it. But if the essence of soul be to move itself, its being moved cannot be incidental to-as it is to what is white or three cubits long; they too can be moved, but only incidentally-what is moved is that of which 'white' and 'three cubits long' are the attributes, the body in which they inhere; hence they have no place: but if the soul naturally partakes in movement, it follows that it must have a place.

JUNG AND PAULI AND GETTING TO THE NUMBER FOUR FROM THREE TO FOUR- MOVING TO THE QUATERNITY- PAULI CONCLUDED THAT THE WESTERN WORLD WAS NOT READY TO GO FROM THREE TO FOUR AND GO TO QUATERNITY ALTHOUGH HE IN HIS SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH HAD- 12 AS FOUR TIMES THREE

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=898ZS2QYG9EC&pg=PA217&lpg=PA217&dq=four+times+three+twelve+jung&source=bl&ots=MGN19gv2tm&sig=F_PFt4yOwhSJeSciZffutRBFB-g&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiogNz6zpPUAhUM0GMKHVvlAU0Q6AEIKzAB#v=onepage&q=four%20times%20three%20twelve%20jung&f=false

Quadrant

PAULI FOCUSED VERY MUCH ON THE NUMBER FOUR AND SAID HIS "MAIN WORK WAS MOVING FROM THREE TO FOUR"- THE SAME THING HAPPENED TO ME WHEN I DISCOVERED THE QUADRANT MODEL I TRISED TO RECONCILE THREE AND FOUR WHEN I REALIZED FOUR WAS TRANSCENDENT-

https://books.google.com/books?id=898ZS2QYG9EC&pg=PA217&lpg=PA217&dq=four+times+three+twelve+jung&source=bl&ots=MGN19gv2tm&sig=F_PFt4yOwhSJeSciZffutRBFB-g&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiogNz6zpPUAhUM0GMKHVvlAU0Q6AEIKzAB#v=onepage&q=four%20times%20three%20twelve%20jung&f=false

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PAULI RECONCILED LIGHT AND DARK WITH TWO TETRACKTYS

FLUDD POINTED OUT THAT HERMES (MERCURY) SAID THAT THE WORLD IS MADE IN THE IMAGE OF GOD- FLUDD LOOKED AT THE TETRAGRAMMATON AND POINTED OUT THAT THE MICROCOSM WAS REFLECTED IN THE FOUR LETTERS IN FOUR PARTS

https://books.google.com/books?id=6fYx1jae_5gC&pg=PA33&lpg=PA33&dq=fludd+four&source=bl&ots=bQN4fdP-vW&sig=N1LrFWm8kWY_BsX-rSJoJosWEm8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiV38Px2JPUAhVMwmMKHQ5zARkQ6AEIaDAQ#v=onepage&q=fludd%20four&f=false

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WOLFGANG PAULI RECOGNIZED THAT KEPLER PREFERRED THE NUMBER THREE YET FLUDD "LOVED THE NUMBER FOUR"- PAUL SAID HIS "MAIN WORK WAS MOVING FROM THREE TO FOUR"

http://www.towardsoneworld.eu/toowPauli5.php

“While Kepler represents the modern view that the soul is a part of nature, Fludd even protests against the application of the concept “part” to the human soul, since the soul, being freed from the laws of the physical world, that is, in so far as it belongs to the light principle, is inseparable from the whole world-soul.” In Fludd's quaternary approach Pauli recognises his love for the number four: “It is significant for the psychological contrast between Kepler and Fludd that for Fludd the number four has symbolical character, which is not true of Kepler.”

PAULI RECOGNIZED THAT KEPLER WAS STUCK ON THREE AND DID NOT RECOGNIZE THE FOURTH TIME DIMENSION AND THAT EVERYTHING DERIVES FROM THE TETRACTYS FOUR- FLUDD ON THE OTHER HAND RECOGNIZED THE TETRAGRAMMATON AND HOW REALITY REFLECTED THE FOUR PARTS WITH THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH

https://books.google.com/books?id=auLOUgJsVf0C&pg=PA193&lpg=PA193&dq=fludd+number+four&source=bl&ots=uvPnIrWeVb&sig=eC1EcABTCIWOP8Z_4nNclcw9k_g&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwics8jB2pPUAhVG22MKHc9xCjEQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=fludd%20number%20four&f=false

Quadrant

FIERZ WAS ANOTHER PHYSICIST WHO RECOGNIZE DTHE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE NUMBER FOUR AND CORRESPONDED WITH PAULI TELLING PAULI THERE WAS SIGNIFICANCE IN THE NUMBER FOUR AND THE FOUR SYMBOLS OF HIS EQUATION AND THE FOUR QUANTUM NUMBERS-- SIMILARLY FIERZ TRANSFORMATIONS ARE PRACTICAL UP TO THE FOURTH POWER (THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT FIFTH QUESTIONABLE)

http://cds.cern.ch/record/446265/files/0007010.pdf

We consider the higher-order Fierz transformation, which corresponds to expanding a product of ψ ̄Γψ terms into a sum of products of Dirac densities and currents. It is shown that the Fierz transformation can be obtained by solving a large system of linear equations with fractional complex coefficients, which is practical at least up to fourth power.

FIERZ TRANSFORMATIONS AND THE 16 DIRAC MATRICES - 16 SQUARES QMR (FOUR BY FOUR MATRICES QUADRANT MODELS)

http://cds.cern.ch/record/446265/files/0007010.pdf

Fierz transformation [1] is a name given to the expression of a certain product of nondiagonal matrix elements of Dirac Γ-matrices as an expansion into products of diagonal matrix elements, such as

(a ̄ Γi b)(b Γj a) =

Here Γi stands for one of the 16 Dirac matrices {1, γ5, γμ, γ5γμ, σμν } constituting a linearly independent basis in the

space of complex 4 × 4 matrices. The matrix elements denote products in Dirac-index space only, i. e.,

FIERZ CORRESPONDED WITH WOLFGANG PAULI TWO VERY FAMOUS PHYSICISTS AND HE TOLD PAULI THAT IT WAS NOT A COINCIDENCE THAT FOUR WAS SIGNIFICANT- FIERZ TRANSFORMATIONS GO UP TO TO THE FOURTH POWER AND THEY ARE FOUR BY FOUR MATRICES AND THE MATHEMATICS IS 16 TO THE FOURTH POWER- 16 SQUARES QMR

http://cds.cern.ch/record/446265/files/0007010.pdf

III. ALGEBRAIC DETERMINATION OF THE EXPANSION

The second-order Fierz transformation as defined in Eq. (1) can be viewed as a system of equations obtained by comparing coefficients in the 4 TO THE FOURTH POWER = 16 SQUARED dimensional space spanned by the spinors ψa, ψb, ψ ̄a, and ψ ̄b. The coefficients are given by the components of the Γ-matrices and thus can be expressed as complex integers. The unknowns ckl are 16 × 16 in number, so that we have exactly the right number of equations, and since the Γ-matrices form a basis for the 4 × 4 complex matrices, the decomposition (1) is always possible.

The solution of this system of linear equations can be carried out using the standard Gauss elimination algorithm, provided that the coefficients are not treated in floating point arithmetic, but as exact complex fractions.

For third-order Fierz transformations the dimension of the system of equations is 16 TO THE THIRD POWER and it is 16 TO THE FOURTH POWER for fourth order, that is, the complexity in going from second order to fourth order is in the ratio 1:16:256. For the latter case practical solution would require substantial computing resources, but fortunately in cases of practical interest the number of terms in the expansion can be reduced substantially by symmetry and invariance requirements. In the symmetrized case of the preceeding section, for example, the dimension in fourth order is reduced by the number of permutations 4!.

PAULI DISCUSSED HOW SCOTUS THE FAMOUS PHILOSOPHER (I WATCHED A LECTURE FROM TEACHING COMPANY ON RELIGION AND FAITH AND IT DISCUSSED SCOTUS DIVISION OF NATURE WHICH WAS A QUADRANT MODEL) DIVIDED NATURE INTO FOUR THAT IT WAS NOT A TRINITY BUT A QUATERNITY

https://books.google.com/books?id=c-UJWhBaZBgC&pg=PA420&lpg=PA420&dq=fierz+number+four&source=bl&ots=BVpytyaSeg&sig=3V8QWL68ENG3iaG5Jup6ZDNWOZo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi7jr3q3JPUAhVB_WMKHQtvC0AQ6AEIMzAC#v=onepage&q=fierz%20number%20four&f=false

Quadrant

I POINTED THIS OUT TOO THAT THE SEVEN DAYS OF CREATION IN THE BIBLE ARE A FOUR PLUS THREE PATTERN- FLUDD SAID THE SAME THING- THE FIRST DAY AIR THEN WATER EARTH AND FIRE IS THE FOURTH THEN THERE IS A SEPARATE THREE- EMPHASIS ON THE FOUR

https://books.google.com/books?id=KR2EtBnmcRYC&pg=PA205&lpg=PA205&dq=fludd+number+four&source=bl&ots=8Vo_ZHKnKN&sig=8SBl_Q2p3zdCqarlU7LDZJyINeE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwics8jB2pPUAhVG22MKHc9xCjEQ6AEIMDAC#v=snippet&q=four&f=false

QUADRANT

FLUDD SAYS "FROM THE NUMBER FOUR AND ITS ROOTS COMES ALL OF THE PROPORTIONS OF THE CHORDS"- THIS IS WHAT PYTHAGORAS ARGUED AND PYTHAGORAS BELIEVED THE CHORDS AND MUSIC DERIVED FROM THE TETRACTYS

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=pTAiTfP5jq4C&pg=PA140&lpg=PA140&dq=fludd+four&source=bl&ots=65MR305Sdo&sig=RggNeJvZAiCor4Be4Z8iYtVANFQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiV38Px2JPUAhVMwmMKHQ5zARkQ6AEIZjAP#v=onepage&q=fludd%20four&f=false

Quadrant

FLUDD DESCRIBES THE NUMBERS SEVEN AS FOUR PLUS THREE I POINTED OUT THE MANY BOOKS A LONG TIME AGO THAT STUDY MYTHOLOGY AND POINT OUT THE SEVENS ARE ALWAYS DEPICTED AS FOUR PLUS THREES- I POSTED THEM A LONG TIME AGO ID HOPEFULLY HAVE TO FIND THEM AGAIN- FLUDD SEES FOUR AS DOMINANT THE DIVISION OF THE ZODIAC FOUR TIMES THREE THE TETRACTYS SO ON- WHEN PYTHAGORAS DESCRIBED THE NUMBER SEVEN PYTHAGORAS SAW IT AS FOUR PLUS THREE AND EVEN WENT SO FAR TO SAY THAT SEVEN WAS FOUR AND THAT THE TETRACTYS WAS SEVEN (ESTABLISHING THE DOMINANCE OF FOUR) FLUDD DOES THE SAME THING- FLUDD SAYS THAT THE NUMBERS THREE AND FIVE ARE "DERIVED FROM THE ROOT OF THE QUATENARY AND THUS SUBORDINATE TO IT"

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=pTAiTfP5jq4C&pg=PA140&lpg=PA140&dq=fludd+four&source=bl&ots=65MR305Sdo&sig=RggNeJvZAiCor4Be4Z8iYtVANFQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiV38Px2JPUAhVMwmMKHQ5zARkQ6AEIZjAP#v=snippet&q=four&f=false

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KABALLAH FOUR LETTER VALUES 137

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/home/books/article-1192554/The-answer-life-universe--DECIPHERING-THE-COSMIC-NUMBER-BY-ARTHUR-I-MILLER.html

At first, the omens are promising: 137 is a prime number. It has various curious and interesting properties. In the Kabbalah - the mystical system that assigns Hebrew letters numerical values - it is the number associated with the word 'Kabbalah' itself, whose four letters are valued at 5, 30, 2 and 100.

PLATOS HEPTACHORD PLATO DESCRIBED AS TWO TETRACYSTS TWO SERIES OF FOUR NUMBERS IT WAS SAID TO UNDERLY REALITY- THE FIRST SERIES OF FOUR NUMBERS WAS ONE TWO FOUR EIGHT THE SECOND ONE THREE NINE TWENTY SEVEN --- ARTHUR YOUNG ALSO HAD A SEVEN PART MODEL BUT HE DIVIDED IT INTO TWO SETS OF FOUR MAKING FOUR LEVELS- I POSTED YOUNGS BOOKS WHERE YOUNG ALSO DESCRIBES ALL OF REALITY AROUND THE FOUR

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=pTAiTfP5jq4C&pg=PA140&lpg=PA140&dq=fludd+four&source=bl&ots=65MR305Sdo&sig=RggNeJvZAiCor4Be4Z8iYtVANFQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiV38Px2JPUAhVMwmMKHQ-5zARkQ6AEIZjAP#v=snippet&q=four&f=false

 

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JOHN DEE SYMBOL MADE OF FOUR SYMBOLS

https://www.thoughtco.com/occult-symbols-4123013

SUMMARY OF THE HIEROGLYPHIC MONAD

Dee summarized his description of the glyph as such: "The Sun and the Moon of this Monad desire that the Elements in which the tenth proportion will flower, shall be separated, and this is done by the application of Fire."

 

The symbol is constructed from four distinct symbols: the astrological signs for the moon and the sun, the cross, and the zodiacal sign of Aries the ram, represented by the two semi-circles at the bottom of the glyph.

 

For the full article, please check out John Dee's Hieroglyphic Monad.

JOHN DEE ON THE QUATENARY

http://www.esotericarchives.com/dee/monad.htm

We must now, in view of our subject, philosophise for a short time upon the Cross. Our Cross may be formed of two straight lines (as we have said) which are equal one to the other -- that is to say, we cannot separate the lines except we do it by parting them so that we get equal lengths. But in the mystic distribution of the components of our Cross, we wish to use parts which are both equal and unequal. These parts show that a virtue is hidden under the power of the division of the Equilateral Cross into two parts, because they are of equal grandeur. In general, the Cross must be composed of equal right angles, since the nature of justice demands the perfect equality of the lines used in the decussation. In accordance with this justice, we propose to examine with care that which follows concerning the Equilateral Cross (which is the twenty-first letter of the Latin alphabet).

 

If, through the common point where the opposite angles meet in our Rectilineal, Rectangular, and Equilateral Cross, we imagine a straight line dividing it into two parts, then on either side of the line thus traversed we find the parts are perfectly equal and similar. And these parts are similar in shape to that letter of the Romans which is regarded as the fifth of the vowels, and which was frequently used by the most ancient Latin philosophers to represent the number five.

 

 

This, I conceive, was not done by them without good reason, because it is in fact the exact half of our Decad. Of these parts of the figure thus duplicated by the hypothetical division of the Cross, we must conclude it to be reasonable that each part represents the quinary, although one is upright and the other reversed in imitation of the multiplication of the square root which comes in here in a marvellous way as the circular number, that is to say, the quinary, from which we find the number twenty-five is produced (because this letter is the twentieth of the alphabet and the fifth of the vowels).

 

We will now consider another aspect of this same Equilateral Cross -- that which follows is based upon the position shown in our Monadic Cross. Let us suppose a similar division of the Cross into two parts be made as in the drawing.

 

 

Now we see the germinating shape of another letter of the Latin alphabet -- the one upright, the other reversed and opposite. This letter is used (after the ancient custom of the Latins) to represent the number fifty. From this, it seems to me, we establish our Decad of the Cross, for this is placed at the summit of all the mysteries, and it follows that this Cross is the hieroglyphic sign of perfection. Therefore, enclosed within the quinary force is the power of the Decad, out of which comes the number fifty as its own product.

 

Oh, my God, how profound are these mysteries! and the name E L is given to this letter! And for this very reason, we see that it responds to the decadal virtue of the Cross, because, starting from the first letter of the alphabet, L is the tenth letter, and counting backwards from the letter X, we find that it falls into the tenth place, and since we show that there are two parts of the Cross, and considering now their numerical virtue, it is quite clear how the number one hundred is produced. And if by the law of squares these two parts be multiplied together, they give a product of 2500. This square compared with the square of the first circular number, and applied to it, gives a difference of one hundred, which is the Cross itself explained by the square of its Decad, and is recognised as one hundred. Therefore, as this is contained within the figure of the Cross, it also represents unity. By the study of these theories of the Cross, the most dignified of all, we are thereby induced to utilise this progression, viz. one -- ten -- one hundred, and this is the decadal proportion of the Cross as it appears to us.

THE MONAS MADE OF FOUR SYMBOLS OF KIRCHER AND JOHN DEE- JOHN DEE ALSO NOTES THE CENTRALITY OF THE FOUR- HE SEES THE QUATENARY AS TRANSCENDEING THE TERNARY THE THREE PUS ONE QUATERNITY PATTERN- HE SEES SEVEN AS THE QUATENARY PLUS THE TENARY- THE FOUR PLUS THREE ANDHE SEES THE DECAD AS THE TETRACTYS ONE PLUS TWO PLUS THREE PLUS FOUR THE CENTRALITY THE DOMINANCE OF THE FOUR- WITHIN HIS FOUR SYMBOLS OF THE MONAS HE HAS THE CROSS WHICH HE HIMSELF NOTES IS A QUATENARY- DEE SAYS "THE QUATENARY IS THE BRIDGE TO THE DECAD"- SEEING THE DECAD AS THE TETRACTYS AGAIN EVERYTHING IS BUILT IN RELATION TO FOUR

http://jdoms.blogspot.com/p/monas-hierogliphica.html

The ‘Monas Hieroglyphica‘ (one glyph) is an emblem proposed originally by Athanasius Kircher and expanded on by Dr. John Dee for his sixteenth century treatise on the creation of a mystical symbolic language of the same name. The figure is based on the Egyptian Ankh and contains symbols of the seven planets/alchemical metals.

 

 

The symbol is constructed from four distinct symbols: the astrological signs for the moon and the sun, the cross, and the zodiacal sign of Aries the ram, represented by the two semi-circles at the bottom of the glyph.

 

The cross also represents the Quaternary (group of four), for it is composed of four segments. In occult sciences, a group of four very commonly represents the four elements, and Dee gives considerable attention to this, describing them as "four straight lines running in four contrary directions from one common and indivisible point." The lines are not equal here because while every physical thing is composed of varying quantities of elements

 

Combining the Ternary and the Quaternary, you get a Septenary (group of seven). Groups of seven were of particular import to Dee and he used them often. Seven is the number of the planetary spheres, which were of central importance to any astrologer.

 

Finally, Dee, considers the Quaternary to be "an abridged or reduced form of the Decad," (group of 10), noting that 1+2+3+4=10 and that the Romans used a cross (specifically, an X) to represent the number 10.

THE FOUR SYMBOLS OF THE MONAS- THE FOUR IS ONE- AGAIN DEE SAID THAT THE NUMBER TEN WAS BUILT FROM THE FOUR HE SAW SEVEN AS BUILT FROM THE FOUR HE SAW FOUR AS DOMINANT AND HE RECOGNIZED THE FOUR AS THE CROSS

 

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_FMGACDcBa7A/TDRCd5yW1AI/AAAAAAAABVQ/SexAIfqwh5Y/s1600/monas-hieroglyphica+colour.png

http://jdoms.blogspot.com/p/monas-hierogliphica.html

 

Summary of the Hieroglyphic Monad

 

Dee summarized his description of the glyph as such: "The Sun and the Moon of this Monad desire that the Elements in which the tenth proportion will flower, shall be separated, and this is done by the application of Fire."

 

The symbol is constructed from four distinct symbols: the astrological signs for the moon and the sun, the cross, and the zodiacal sign of Aries the ram, represented by the two semi-circles at the bottom of the glyph.

OF THE FOUR MODES OF PERCEPTION

http://www.sacred-texts.com/phi/spinoza/under/tiu07.htm

[19] (1) Reflection shows that all modes of perception or knowledge may be reduced to four:—I. (2) Perception arising from hearsay or from some sign which everyone may name as he please.

 

II. (3) Perception arising from mere experience—that is, form experience not yet classified by the intellect, and only so called because the given event has happened to take place, and we have no contradictory fact to set against it, so that it therefore remains unassailed in our minds.

 

III. (19:4) Perception arising when the essence of one thing is inferred from another thing, but not adequately; this comes when [f] from some effect we gather its cause, or when it is inferred from some general proposition that some property is always present.

 

IV. (5) Lastly, there is the perception arising when a thing is perceived solely through its essence, or through the knowledge of its proximate cause.

 

[23] (1) In order that the whole matter may be put in a clearer light, I will make use of a single illustration as follows. (2) Three numbers are given—it is required to find a fourth, which shall be to the third as the second is to the first. (23:3) Tradesmen will at once tell us that they know what is required to find the fourth number, for they have not yet forgotten the rule which was given to them arbitrarily without proof by their masters; others construct a universal axiom from their experience with simple numbers, where the fourth number is self-evident, as in the case of 2, 4, 3, 6; here it is evident that if the second number be multiplied by the third, and the product divided by the first, the quotient is 6; when they see that by this process the number is produced which they knew beforehand to be the proportional, they infer that the process always holds good for finding a fourth number proportional.

 

[24] (1) Mathematicians, however, know by the proof of the nineteenth proposition of the seventh book of Euclid, what numbers are proportionals, namely, from the nature and property of proportion it follows that the product of the first and fourth will be equal to the product of the second and third: still they do not see the adequate proportionality of the given numbers, or, if they do see it, they see it not by virtue of Euclid's proposition, but intuitively, without going through any process.

Spinoza four proofs God's Existence

http://www.soaziglebihan.org/1101-PHL262/PHL262-6.pdf

God exists necessarily – Prop 11

Four proofs of God’s existence:

1. Ontological Argument: based on the definition of God as infinite sub- stance – given that substances necessarily exist

2. Modal Argument: if God’s existence is not impossible, then God nec- essarily exists.

Premise: Causal Principle: For all X, there must be a cause for X’s existence or non-existence

Consequence of the premise: For all X, either X exists necessarily, or X’s existence is impossible.

3. Cosmological argument: The existence of finite beings requires the ex- istence of an infinite being.

4. Ontological Argument, version 2: an absolutely perfect being necessar- ily exists.

Four Powers of Intuition AUROBINDO

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https://auromere.wordpress.com/2009/03/29/four-powers-of-intuition/

Many of us have at times felt those influences and inspirations which express themselves through us as scientific breakthroughs, poetic verses, stirring musical compositions or great works of art. According to Sri Aurobindo, these moments of inspiration are actually the secret workings of the four powers called Revelation, Inspiration, Intuition and Discrimination. These powers can be consciously cultivated through the practice of Integral Yoga. This post describes these four powers.

ACCORDING TO GNOSTICS IN THE BEGINNING WAS TWO TETRADS MAKING THE OGDOAD- TWO FOURS AND JESUS ACCORDING TO THE GNOSTICS WAS MADE FROM THE SECOND TETRAD

https://books.google.com/books?id=9HCOCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA221&lpg=PA221&dq=Esaldaios+four&source=bl&ots=FpPJpZXeTo&sig=QvC10Buac5KOaTToJorKMe1d710&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj6v4i1oJfUAhVnxFQKHZWsB-cQ6AEINTAB#v=onepage&q=tetrad&f=false

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NICHOMACHUS SAYING WHAT THE PYTHAGOREANS SAID OF THE NUMBER FOUR- AGAIN I LISTENED TO A TEACHING COMPANY COURSE ON THIS- THE PYTHAGOREANS EMPHASIZED FOUR THEY DID NOT MENTION OTHER NUMBERS THE NUMBER FOUR WAS DOMINANT

http://www.hermetik-international.com/en/media-library/occultism/numbers-their-occult-power-and-mystic-virtues/iv-the-individual-numerals/the-tetrad-4/

THE TETRAD. 4.

THE Pythagoreans, said Nicomachus, call the number four “the greatest miracle,” “a God after another manner,” “a manifold divinity,” the “fountain of Nature,” and its “key bearer.” It is the “introducer and cause of the permanency of the Mathematical discipline.” It is “most masculine” and “robust”; it is Hercules and Æolus. It is Mercury, Vulcan, and Bacchus. Among the Muses, Urania. They also called it Feminine, effective of Virility, and an Exciter of Bacchic fury. In harmony, it was said to form by the quadruple ratio the symphony dis-diapason. They called it Justice, as the first evenly even number.

HE DESCIRBES HOW ALMOST ALL OF THE ANCIENT PEOPLES NAME FOR DEITY CONSISTED OF FOUR LETTERS- AND THE BUDDHIST SACRED FOUR WORD CHANT AUM MANI PADME HUM

http://www.hermetik-international.com/en/media-library/occultism/numbers-their-occult-power-and-mystic-virtues/iv-the-individual-numerals/the-tetrad-4/

Almost all the peoples of Antiquity possessed a name for Deity consisting of four letters, and many of them considered 4 to be a Divine number, thus:—

 

In Hebrew we find also IHIH called Eheie; and AHIH called Aheie.

 

Assyrian Adad, Egyptian Amun, Persians Syre or Sire, Greek ThEos, Latin Deus, German Gott, French Dieu, Turkish Esar, Tartar Itga, ArabianAllh, Allah, Samaritan Jabe, Egyptian Teut, Taut, THOTh.

 

In Sanchoniathon we find the Deity called Ievo.

 

In Clemens Alexandrinus „ „ „ Jaou.

 

Attention should be paid to the Sanscrit holy phrase, aspiration or prayer of Four syllables—”Aum mani padme hum”—literally, “Oh, the Jewel in the Lotus” (meaning “the Divine spark within man”).

THEON OF SMYRNA TETRACTYS

http://www.hermetik-international.com/en/media-library/occultism/numbers-their-occult-power-and-mystic-virtues/iv-the-individual-numerals/the-tetrad-4/

Theon of Smyrna, in the edition of Ismael Bullialdo, 1644, page 147, says, “The Tetractys was not only principally honoured by the Pythagoreans because all symphonies exist within it, but also because it appears to contain the nature of all things,” hence their oath, “Not by him who delivered to our souls the Tetractys” (that is Pythagoras), this tetractys is seen in the COMPOSITION of the first numbers 1. 2. 3. 4.

 

But the 2nd Tetractys arises from the increase by MULTIPLICATION of odd and even numbers beginning from the Monad.

 

The 3rd subsists according to Magnitude.

 

The 4th is in simple Bodies, Monad-Fire, Dyad-Air, Triad-Water, Tetrad-Earth.

 

The 5th is of the figures of Bodies, Pyramid-Fire, Octahedron-Air, Icosahedron-Water, Cube-Earth.

 

The 6th of Vegetative Life, Seed-Monad or point; if it increase in length—dyad-line; in breadth—triad-superficies; in thickness—tetrad-solid.

 

The 7th is of Communities; as Man, House, Street, City.

 

The 8th is the Judicial power: Intellect, Science, Opinion, Sense.

 

The 9th is of the parts of the Animal, the Rational, Irascible and Epithymetic soul, and the Body they live in.

 

The 10th Tetractys is of the Seasons of the Year, spring, summer, autumn, winter.

 

The 11th Tetractys is of the Ages of Man, the infant, the lad, the man, and the senex.

 

And all are proportional one to another, and hence they said “all things are assimilated to number.”

 

They also gave a four-fold distribution of goods to the Soul and Body, to the Soul, Prudence, Temperance, Fortitude, Justice; and to the Body, Acuteness of senses, Health, Strength, Beauty. The Objects of desire are 4: viz., Prosperity, Renown, Power, Friendship.

 

The celebrated 4 Causes of Aristotle may be mentioned here:

 

Divinity as the cause—by which; υπ᾽ ου up ou.

 

Matter—from which; εξ ου ex ou.

 

Form—through which; δἰ ου di´ ou.

 

Effect with reference to which; προς ου pros ou.

 

The Dead also are called 4 times Blessed; and the Living but thrice blessed.

 

The number 4 being the completion of the quaternary group of point, line, superficies and body, has also this character that its elements 1, 2, 3, and 4 when summed up are equal to 1 0, which is so perfect that we can go no further, but to increase we must return to the Monad.

PLUTARCH WORLD CONSISTS OF DOUBLE QUATENARY

http://www.hermetik-international.com/en/media-library/occultism/numbers-their-occult-power-and-mystic-virtues/iv-the-individual-numerals/the-tetrad-4/

Plutarch, “De Anim. Procr.” 1027, says the world consists of a double Quaternary; 4 of the intellectual World, T’Agathon, Nous, Psyche and Hyle; that is Supreme Wisdom or Goodness, Mind, Soul, Matter, and four of the Sensible World, forming the Kosmos of Elements, Fire, Air, Earth and Water; pur, aer, gē and πυρ, αῃρ, γη, υδωρ.

PLUTARCH TALKING ABOUT THE PYTHAGOREANS SAYS THAT PYTHAGORAS SAW "THE VIRTURE OF TEN CONSISTS IN THE QUATERNION" AND DESCRIBES THAT ACCORDING TO PYTHAGORAS "OF THIS NUMBER THE SOUL OF MAN IS COMPOSED"- AND THAT PYTHAGORAS SWORE BY FOUR- THIS WAS PRETTY MUCH ALL PLUTARCH HAD TO SAY ABOUT PYTHAGORAS

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=7WgjAgAAQBAJ&pg=PT65&lpg=PT65&dq=plutarch+the+number+four&source=bl&ots=BZtVHBOsUu&sig=jvc2cuifyp3Z5DpnidUJ5gqARdk&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiqs4aksJfUAhVhi1QKHQECBrsQ6AEILzAC#v=onepage&q=plutarch%20the%20number%20four&f=false

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THEON OF SMYRNA DISCUSSES HOW IN THE TIMAEUS PLATO DECRIBES THAT THE SOUL IS COMPRISED OF THESE TWO SETS OF FOUR NUMBERS WHAT ARE CALLED THE TWO TETRACKTYS

 

http://www.universaltheosophy.com/sacred-texts/translations/on-the-tetractys/

 

Of these, the monad is assumed as the first, because, as we have before observed, it is the principle of all even, odd, and evenly-odd numbers, and the nature of it is simple. But the three successive numbers receive their composition according to the even and the odd; because every number is not alone even, nor alone odd. Hence the even and the odd receive two tetractys, according to multiplication; the even indeed, in a duple ration; for 2 is the first of even numbers, and increases from the monad by duplication. But the odd number is increased in a triple ratio; for 3 is the first of odd numbers, and is itself increased from the monad by triplication. Hence the monad is common to both these, being itself even and odd. The second number, however, in even and double numbers is 2; but in odd and triple numbers 3. The third among even numbers is 4; but among odd numbers is 9. And the fourth among even numbers is 8; but among odd numbers is 27.

 

1. 2. 4. 8.

1. 3. 9. 27.

 

In these numbers the more perfect ratios of symphonies are found; and in these also a tone is comprehended. The monad, however, contains the productive principle of a point. But the second numbers 2 and 3 contain the principle of a side, since they are incomposite, and first, are measured by the monad, and naturally measure a right line. The third terms are 4 and 9, which are in power a square superficies, since they are equally equal. And the fourth terms 8 and 27 being equally equal, are in power a cube. Hence from these numbers, and this tetractys, the increase takes place from a point to a solid. For a side follows after a point, a superficies after a side, and a solid after a superficies. In these numbers also, Plato in the Timæus constitutes the soul. But the last of these seven numbers, i.e. 27, is equal to all the numbers that precede it; for 1+2+3+4+8+9=27. There are, therefore, two tetractys of numbers, one of which subsists by addition, but the other by multiplication, and they comprehend musical, geometrical, and arithmetical ratios, from which also the harmony of the universe consists.

HARTMANNS QUADRILOGY- QUAD IS FOUR

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/nicolai-hartmann/

The fourth volume of Hartmann’s quadrilogy, Philosophy of Nature, analytically presents the categories characterizing the two basic levels of reality (the inanimate and the animate) (HE HAS FOUR OVERALL LEVELS). Today we would say that this is more a book of philosophy of science than ontology (it should be remembered, however, that for Hartmann science is ontological in all its ramifications, see the Introduction above). In the words of Hartmann, “philosophy of nature is not a metaphysics,” in the sense that “the problems of the philosophy of nature cannot be addressed without contact with the results of natural science” (N.Prologue). What is even more interesting is that the ontological theory of categories makes explicit the limitations of the scientific understanding of reality for at least two different reasons: firstly, because categories such as those of space and time are not limited to physics alone (N.Prologue); secondly, because at least some of the categories that apply to the lowest level of the real world—such as space and time—share the categorial moment of dimensionality, the categorial precondition for measurement. In fact, dimensionality—and its subsequent measurement—is the condition that makes natural science possible. To further indicate the difference between the scientific and the philosophical understanding of reality, Hartmann adds that “mathematical physics deals with reality qua measurable, not with reality as such” (N 24).

http://www.arthuryoung.com/youngstory.html

 

I drew the arc using these seven distinct stages, each stage having the meaning of the corresponding planet. I represented the directionality of the arc by an arrow, indicating that process is set in motion by intention or purpose. Each stage develops a new power, as represented by the powers of the planets, and the powers are cumulative-that is, each stage retains the powers developed in the preceding stages. At this first attempt, I was able to fill in kingdoms of nature for all the stages except the first one. When I arranged the seven stages of process along the V-shaped arc, with the fourth at the turn, I realized that the stages naturally lined up on four levels.

 

Myth, science, philosophy, and almost any serious effort to describe cosmology, are replete with groups of four. The American Indians have their gods of the four directions; even before the Greeks there were the four elements; Aristotle had his four causes. In psychology, Jung identified the four functions. In topology, there is the four-color problem for a plane surface. I had already discovered that the principle of fourness could always be represented as two independent dichotomies at right angles to one another. Thus black and white, plus and minus, north and south are opposites; if we add them together, the result is zero. Opposites cancel one another; those at right angles are complementary; and their combination, as in length and width, produces an area.

 

I made use of these basic facts to describe the four levels. The assignment of meaning to the levels is crucial. Each level must accommodate many instances, so the distinction between levels is of paramount importance. I even found that the levels constitute different logical types in philosophy. The stages on the right- and left-hand branches of the arc at the same level have properties in common. To avoid the difficulties that can arise with colloquial uses of terms such as "spirit" or "mind," I prefered to define the levels in terms of constraints. Thus:

 

Level I, Purpose, is defined as free of any constraint: having 3 degrees of freedom, and 0 degrees of constraint.

Level II, Substance, is subject to the constraint of time (one dimension), and so it has 2 degrees of freedom, and 1 degree of constraint.

Level III, Form, is subject to the constraint of space (two dimensions), and so it has 1 degree of freedom, and 2 degrees of constraint.

Level IV, Combination, is subject to the constraints of time and space (three dimensions), and so it has 0 degrees of freedom, and 3 degrees of constraint.

 

Another way of defining the levels is by the use of two dichotomies-particular versus general, and projective versus objective. Thus:

 

Level I is projective and particular (the purpose, intention).

Level II is projective and general (belief, prejudice, value).

Level III is objective and general (concepts, classifications, words).

Level IV is objective and particular (actual objects: my glasses, this chair).

 

The four levels are a visible scaffold on which the invisible temple of life is erected. The divine constructs a physical and objective vehicle which it uses to perfect or express itself, much as our desire to communicate constructs language to convey thought. The levels represent both the steps going down-the descent of the divine spark into matter (the prerequisite for the turn or Virgin Birth), and the steps going up-the ascent back to freedom.

AVICENNA FOUR MOTIONS QUADRANT MODEL

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ibn-sina-natural/

In his chapter “On Defining Nature” from The Cure (Avicenna, [Ph], 1.5), Avicenna begins by distinguishing between the motions and actions that proceed from a substance owing to external causes and those that proceed from a substance owing to the substance itself. For instance, water becomes hot as a result of some external heat sources, whereas it becomes cool of itself. Avicenna next identifies two sets of parameters for describing those motions and actions that proceed from a substance owing to that substance itself. They may either proceed from the substance as a result of volition or without volition. Additionally they may proceed either uniformly without deviation or non-uniformly with deviation. Thus there are four very general ways for dividing and describing all the motions and actions that are found in the cosmos.

 

volitional non-volitional

non-uniform animal soul plant soul

uniform celestial soul nature

(1) Motions and actions may proceed as a result of volition and do so in a uniform and unvarying way, such as the motion of the heavenly bodies. The internal cause in these cases, Avicenna tells us, is a celestial soul.[2] (2) Other motions and actions may proceed as a result of volition but do so in a non-uniform and varying way, like the motions and actions of animals; the internal cause in these cases is an animal soul. (3) Again, other motions and actions may not proceed as a result of volition and are non-uniform and varying, like plant growth; the internal cause in these cases is a plant soul. Finally (4) some motions and actions may proceed without volition while doing so in a uniform and unvarying way, like the downward motion of a clod of earth and the heating of fire; the internal cause in these cases is a nature.

AVICENNA ON THE FOUR ELEMENTS

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ibn-sina-natural/

Given these differences in motions and qualitative powers, Avicenna, again following in this tradition, identifies four terrestrial elements: (1) fire, which is hot and dry with an absolute upward motion, (2) air, which is hot and wet with a relative upward motion, (3) water, which is cool and wet with a relative downward motion and (4) earth, which is cool and dry with an absolute downward motion. Finally, and for completeness, (5) celestial bodies are neither hot nor cold (and so neither heavy nor light) nor wet nor dry, but instead are solely identified in term of their natural circular motion.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_India

The Dravidian languages are classified in four groups: North, Central (Kolami–Parji), South-Central (Telugu–Kui) and South Dravidian (Tamil-Kannada).[22]

AVICENNA 16 INTEMPERAMENTS 16 SQUARES QMR FOUR BY FOUR

https://archive.org/stream/AvicennasCanonOfMedicine/9670940-Canon-of-Medicine_djvu.txt

So much for the four simple intemperaments.

 

40. The compound intemperaments. The four compound

intemperaments are those in which there is a departure from

equability in respect of two contraries. Thus, the temperament

may be at the same time hotter and moister than it should,

hotter and drier than it should, colder and moister than it

should, colder and drier than it should. Obviously it cannot

be simultaneously hotter and colder, or drier and moisten

 

41. Each of these intemperaments is further subdivisible

into two forms (thus making sixteen intemperaments). {a)

Those apart from any material substance — (qualitative ; formal).

Here the temperament is altered only in regard to one quality,

because the fluid pervading it has the same quality as that

towards which the body is being changed as a whole. Yet

it does not do so unless it be in virtue, e.g., of heat (in fever)

or cold (extraneous cold).

92. Excrementitious atrabilious humour is of four kinds : 

https://archive.org/stream/AvicennasCanonOfMedicine/9670940-Canon-of-Medicine_djvu.txt

(a) the ash derived from bilious humour. This is bitter. The 

difference between this and oxidized bilious humour is that m 

the latter the ash is only admixed, whereas in the other the 

ash separates out after dispersal of the attenuated portion ; 

 

(b) the ash derived from the oxidation of serous humour. The 

ash becomes salty if the serous humour is too attenuated and 

watery; otherwise the ash is acid or bitter ; (c) the ash derived 

from the oxidation of sanguineous humour. This is salty and 

faintly sweet ; (d) the ash derived from normal atrabilious 

humour. If this humour be attenuated, the ash will be very 

acrid, like vinegar. That is, when vinegar (and the like) is 

sprinkled upon the earth it " boils " and acquires an acrid odour, 

so that flies and insects of all kinds shun it. If the atrabilious 

humour were dense the ash will have less acrimony and be only

AVICENNA FOUR FACULTIES

https://archive.org/stream/AvicennasCanonOfMedicine/9670940-Canon-of-Medicine_djvu.txt

146. Vegetative Life (i.e. the natural faculties) is sub-

served by four faculties : attractive,* retentive, transformative,t

expulsive.

151. Inter-relations between the faculties and the qualities. — -

These four natural faculties are subserved by the four

 

primary qualities — heat, cold, dryness, moisture. Strictly

speaking, heat is the underlying factor in all the subservient

faculties.

 

152. Action of cold. — While cold aids all four faculties

it does so indirectly and not directly — except in so far as

it is the contrary of all the faculties. For all the facul

ties act in virtue of movement, which is shown not only as

attraction and expulsion, but even in the transformative

process (digestion proper) ; for the latter consists in the

separation of gross and aggregated particles from one another,

AVICENNA FOUR MAIN GROUPS

https://archive.org/stream/AvicennasCanonOfMedicine/9670940-Canon-of-Medicine_djvu.txt

3. Disorders of Configuration.

 

199. These are comprised in four main groups : (i)

 

Errors of development (malformations), (ii) Errors in bulk,

(iii) Errors in number, (iv) Displacements.

 

(i) Errors of Development.

AVICENNA FOUR MAIN GROUPS OF LESIONS

https://archive.org/stream/AvicennasCanonOfMedicine/9670940-Canon-of-Medicine_djvu.txt

1 72 THE CANON OF MEDICINE

 

diseases naturally comprise swellings, deformities, discolorations displacements,

ulcerations, various solutions of continuity, aches and pains, and the like. Patho-

logically, there are only four main groups of lesions— inflammations, new-growths,

nutritional changes (degenerations and hypertrophies), and errors of development.

(The short list presented by Avicenna is not a real fault, when considered from

such a point of view.) If such a system cannot be allowed either by 'academic

medicine or the laity (who insist on a " name " for a disease ) it has at least the

advantage of enabling one to visualize from the first what is important to the patient

and to concentrate on it. .

AVICENNA FOUR STAGES OF DISEASE

https://archive.org/stream/AvicennasCanonOfMedicine/9670940-Canon-of-Medicine_djvu.txt

222. Many diseases show four stages — onset, increment

acme, and decline. These are distinct from the phases of health'

 

In speaking of " time of onset," and " increment," we do

not wish to convey the idea that there are two extremes during

which a. state of disease is indiscernible. Each stage can be

detected by the senses, and each has its own characteristic signs.

 

1. The " onset " is that period of time during which the

disease is becoming manifested, and its characters are commenc-

ing to develop. There is no evident change in degree.

 

" ****?* " djpase belongs here ; " occulta " as compared with the other three

stages, which are declared," " visibilia."

 

c M1 2 - The , " i^ement " is the period during which the degree

or illness is hourly becoming more and more decided.

 

3- The " acme " is that period during which all the

characters of the illness have become manifest, and remain so.

.4- The "decline" (defervescence ; terminal stage) shows

abating of the signs of illness ; and the further this period

advances, the more nearly is there freedom from the symptoms

of the diseases. r

I WATCHED TEACHING COMPANY COURSE ON FAITH AND REASON AND IT TALKED ABOUT SCOTUS FOUR TYPES OF BEING QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Scotus_Eriugena

The Latin title refers to these four divisions of nature: (1) that which creates and is not created; (2) that which is created and creates; (3) that which is created and does not create; (4) that which is neither created nor creates. The first is God as the ground or origin of all things, the last is God as the final end or goal of all things, that into which the world of created things ultimately returns. The second and third together compose the created universe, which is the manifestation of God, God in process, Theophania; the second is the world of Platonic ideas or forms, and the third is a more pantheistic world, or a pandeistic one,[9] depending on the interference of God.

AVICENNA FOUR ORDERS MEDICAMENTS FOUR GROUPS POISONS

https://archive.org/stream/AvicennasCanonOfMedicine/9670940-Canon-of-Medicine_djvu.txt

355 e There are four orders of medicaments — whether eaten,

or taken °in the fluid state, or whether given by inunction.

 

i„ The first degree. The action of the quality ot a

medicament on the body is imperceptible to the senses. Thus,

 

 

 

THE CANON OF MEDICINE 217

 

a warming or cooling effect is not perceived by the senses unless

it is given repeatedly, or in larger dose.

 

2. . The second degree. A greater degree of action, without

perceptibly interfering with the functions of the body or changing

their natural course (excepting incidentally, or because given in

large doses).

 

3. The third degree. There is evident interference with

function, but not markedly enough to produce breakdown or

death of tissue.

 

4. The fourth degree. Destruction or death of tissue is

produced. This is the degree produced by poisons. A poison

is lethal in all respects (that is, in all parts of its " substance ").

 

§ 194- (Another classification would be (a) medicaments which produce

change without destruction of function or tissue, (6) those which actually destroy

function or tissue. In each case there are two degrees— one imperceptible to the

senses, the other plainly evident.— This is Galen's grouping. The grouping into

four degrees still survives in the classification of burns.) .

 

Substances which are definitely poisonous may be classified into four groups

as follows : ^

 

(i) Corrosives. These produce immediate and violent irritation. Ex •

mineral acids, alkalis, corrosive sublimate.

 

... T/ (-) {quants : (a) Metallic, such as lead, copper, arsenic, phosphorus ;

(b) Vegetable, such as drastic purgatives (aloes, colocynth, croton oil) ; (c) Animal

such as canthandes. This group produces effects which simulate natural disease

such as gastric and intestinal disease, peritonitis, abdominal catastrophe.

 

_ (3) Neurotics. Ex. : hydrocyanic acid and the cyanides, opium, strychnine

aconite, belladonna.

 

(4) Gaseous, (a) Irritant : halogens, ammonia ; (6) Anaesthetics ; (c) Coal-

gas, carbon monoxide, etc.

I POSTED THIS STUFF BEFORE- CHRIS BROWN- X CRUCIFIXION

 

Chris Brown has an album called “X”:

 

https://i0.wp.com/illuminatiwatcher.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Chris-Brown-X-Mark-of-the-Beast-album-WO.jpg

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CROSSES IN VIDEO

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9kPQiAJv4fo

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http://illuminatiwatcher.com/decoding-illuminati-symbolism-mark-beast-x/

Here on IlluminatiWatcher.com I frequently reference signs and symbols that are often times given to us by the entertainment industry. Whether or not you want to believe they are done for a nefarious purpose is obviously up to you. At first I was hesitant to commit to such a stance, but the last few years of focusing on these things has led me to believe there are too many coincidences for it to be anything but coordinated. That’s not to say that I am fully ready to claim that “Lady Gaga performs black magick rituals” or “Lil Wayne worships the devil”, but I will admit that there are far too many of these symbols showing up in films and music videos for it to be easily dismissed.

http://illuminatiwatcher.com/decoding-illuminati-symbolism-mark-beast-x/

 

In this post we will examine one such symbol, and that is the “X”. While this is merely a letter of the alphabet, it also holds much importance by the occult groups whom we collectively refer to as “the Illuminati.” I put that in quotes because there really is no proof of this secretive group, but there is a WHOLE LOT of evidence to suggest there is an organized effort to influence our decisions.

 

Let it be known that there is a non-occult basis of the “X” symbol, and that is the symbolism of Jesus Christ overcoming death by death; through the Cross which is often times depicted with the “X”. I’m not referring to that use of the “X” in this article at all. The practitioners of the occult often times associate with mockery of Christianity, so perhaps they are trying to use the symbol against the Christians (similar to the inverted cross).

 

 

I argue that the marketing and symbols are pointing towards the direction of the occult; whether or not you’re worried about the occult being choreographed by Satan is again, up to you…

X: THE SYMBOL OF TRANSFORMATION

 

One resource I used to research this first topic of the mysterious ‘X’ was Texe Marrs’ Codex Magica. In this book, he cited Freemason Jim Tresnar (who is a well-decorated member of the Garfield Lodge in Oklahoma) and an article from the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry Journal in which they detail the ‘X’ as a symbol of transformation.

http://illuminatiwatcher.com/decoding-illuminati-symbolism-mark-beast-x/

In Freemasonry one must go through various initiation rituals before attaining the next rank in their journey of enlightenment. The 17th degree is conferred upon the initiate and is considered the transformation, or change of the initiate. They cite the crossing of cordons as part of the ritual as a reference of the point in the heavens where the celestial equator crosses the plane of the ecliptic, basically referring to changes made over time. This 17th degree marks the transformation of spiritual power into the Law of Love (which reminds me of occultist Aleister Crowley’s “Love is the law, love under will” saying, and it should also be noted that Crowley’s Star of Babalon serves as the logo for his Thelema system which has the X and O at the top center):

 

IlluminatiWatcherDotCom Crowley OTO Star of Babalon X Mark of BeastThe cordons used in this ‘X’ transformation ceremony are depicted with black and white- the classic symbol of duality these various groups are always referencing. They are pushing the idea of joining opposites and finding a new equilibrium. This is conveyed in various manners in conspiracy theories like the Ordo Ab Chao (Order Out of Chaos), the Hegelian Dialectic (creating the New World Order through new, cultural “norms”), the Baphomet with its aspects of dual sexuality (it’s both female and male), and the Boaz & Jachin pillars which show us the entrance to a new, mystical place of transformation.

http://illuminatiwatcher.com/decoding-illuminati-symbolism-mark-beast-x/

Perhaps these ideas of transforming man into some new creature are why we see characters like the X-Men who are mutants with “super” powers. The storyline of this group are meant to sympathize with these people who are labelled as outcasts, and some theorists believe this is a way of predictively programming us to accept alterations to the creation of man and woman.

 

IlluminatiWatcherDotCom XMen All Seeing Eye WO

 

 

Another idea I’ll toss out is that Russell Brand has a show called Brand X. Of course this might just be a play on his last name, but I find it interesting that he’s had such a prominent voice in the media lately as a “subversive” conspiracy theorist. Perhaps he’s on the good side of the argument (or so it seems), or maybe he’s a disinformation agent for the Illuminati. This realm of conspiracy gets paranoid and convoluted the further you go down, so I won’t harp on this subject too much right now, but you get the point.

X: THE SYMBOL OF DEATH

https://i2.wp.com/illuminatiwatcher.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Master-Mason-arms-crossed-Codex-Magica.jpg

http://illuminatiwatcher.com/decoding-illuminati-symbolism-mark-beast-x/

Another theory is that the ‘X’ signifies death; the journey into the ultimate unknown. Texe Marrs says it is used a symbol for the Egyptian deity Osiris because you see it in Egyptian pyramids and temples, while we find pharaohs buried with their arms and legs crossed in devotion to this sun god.

 

IlluminatiWatcherDotCom Horus arms crossed X Mark of Beast WO

 

No doubt this idea has permeated pop culture with its use in sayings like “cross my heart and hope to die”, and in cartoons where we see ‘X’s placed over the eyes of dead characters.

 

 

?

Like many other traditions, we see that we’ve heavily borrowed Egyptian themes because you sometimes see people placed in caskets with their arms crossed. We talked about how the Freemasons use the ‘X’ to symbolize transformation, but it should also be noted that the Freemasons (aka “The Illuminati”) use this for other imagery as well. For example, the Royal Arch’s Super-Excellent Master’s Degree has the first sign being that of crossing the hands over the chest, which says that the initiate will be penalized with death if they ever reveal the secrets:

X IS QUADRANT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shady_XV

On October 13, 2014, Eminem posted a video on various social media websites of the artwork, along with the description "Back to basics! Here's the cover for #SHADYXV out 11/24".[5] The cover depicts a black and red hockey mask designed by Cuzzalo Ink under two crossed chainsaws.[5][6]

XENOPHON FOUR BOOK- LIKE JESUS ONLY FOUR SOURCES TALKED ABOUT HIS LIFE- SOCRATES HAD ONLY FOUR SOURCES THAT TALKED ABOUT HIS LIFE XENOPHON WAS ONE OF THE FOUR AND XENOPHONE WROTE FOUR BOOKS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memorabilia_(Xenophon)

The Memorabilia contains 39 chapters broken into four books; Book I contains 7 chapters, Book II contains 10 chapters, Book III contains 14 chapters, and Book IV contains 8 chapters.

 

The overall organization of the Memorabilia is not always easy to make out :

 

Book I. After the direct defense of Socrates (I.1-I.2), the rest of Book I consists of an account of Socrates' piety and self-control.

Books II and III are devoted largely to showing how Socrates benefitted his family, friends, and various Athenians who came to him for advice.

Book IV turns to a more detailed account of how Socrates educated one particular student, Euthydemus. It includes an early example (possibly the earliest) of the Argument from Design (i.e. the Teleological Argument) (IV.3, anticipated already in I.4). Chapter 4 gives a related account of Natural Law.

 

Memorabilia (original title in Greek: Ἀπομνημονεύματα, Apomnemoneumata) is a collection of Socratic dialogues by Xenophon, a student of Socrates

FOUR REMINDERS WICCA

https://www.thoughtco.com/to-know-dare-will-keep-silent-2561925

The phrase refers to four important reminders about the practice of Wicca. Although the interpretations may vary, in general, you can follow these explanations as beginning guidelines:

 

To Know refers to the idea that the spiritual journey is one of knowledge -- and that knowledge is never-ending.

 

 

If we are indeed "to know," then we must constantly be learning, questioning, and expanding our horizons. Also, we must know ourselves before we can know our true paths.

 

To Dare can be interpreted as to have the courage we need to grow. By daring ourselves to step out of our comfort zone, to be something that people see as "other," we are in fact fulfilling our own need "to dare." We are facing that which is unknown, moving into a realm that is far outside what we're used to.

 

To Will means to have determination and perseverance. Nothing of any value comes with ease, and spiritual growth is no exception. Want to be a competent practitioner of magic? Then you better study, and work at it. If you make the choice to evolve and grow spiritually, then you will be able to do so -- but it is, in fact, a choice we make. Our will guides us, and will lead us to success. Without it, we are stagnant.

 

To Keep Silent seems like it should be an obvious one, but it's a bit more complex than it appears on the surface.

 

To be certain, "keeping silent" means that we need to make sure we never out other members of the Pagan community without their permission, and to some extent, it means we need to keep our practices private. However, it also means that we need to learn the value of inner silence. It is a rare person indeed who recognizes that sometimes the unspoken is more important than the words we utter.

FOUR POWERS OF MAGUS

http://silverlotus.net/wicca/magic/four-powers-of-the-magus/

Four Powers of the Magus

To Know, To Dare, To Will, To Keep Silent – the four powers of the Magus. While not Wiccan in origin, many Wiccans and Pagans integrate these rules into their magical practices. It’s not surprising really, since the influence of Ceremonial Magic and the Golden Dawn can be seen in many areas of Wicca.

 

To Know – Noscere in Latin. This rule tells us to strive for knowledge, and to apply the knowledge we have gained. We are to seek the truth, no matter how difficult the search or the revelations may be. This rule is associated with Air and intelligence.

 

To Dare – Auder in Latin. This rule tells us to question everything, even the truths we hold dear. Be courageous. Auder is associated with Fire and change.

 

To Will – Velle in Latin. This rule reminds you to focus your thoughts. You need to meditate on your goal, clearing your mind of anything that can distract you. This rule is associated with Water and emotion.

 

To Keep Silent – Tacere in Latin. Some say this rule is a reminder not to speak to others of your magical workings, lest they seek to undo them. To me, it means to know when to speak of what you know, and when to share your knowledge. I also see it as a reminder to know when to silence yourself so you can hear your inner voice. It also means to always watch what you say, for if you are truly disciplined, there is no need for insults and wasted words.

ADVNET FOUR SUNDAYS

http://tndok.org/the-liturgical-seasons/

The word Advent is from the Latin adventus for "coming" and is associated with the four weeks of preparation for Christmas. Advent always contains four Sundays, beginning on the Sunday nearest the feast of St. Andrew the Apostle, (November 30) and continuing until December 24. It blends together a penitential spirit, very similar to Lent, a liturgical theme of preparation for the Second and Final Coming of the Lord, called the Parousia, and a joyful theme of getting ready for the Bethlehem event.

The Four Great Errors[edit]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twilight_of_the_Idols

In the chapter The Four Great Errors, he suggests that people, especially Christians, confuse the effect for the cause, and that they project the human ego and subjectivity on to other things, thereby creating the illusionary concept of being, and therefore also of the thing-in-itself and God. In reality, motive or intention is "an accompaniment to an act"[9] rather than the cause of that act. By removing causal agency based on free, conscious will, Nietzsche critiques the ethics of accountability, suggesting that everything is necessary in a whole that can neither be judged nor condemned, because there is nothing outside of it.[10] What people typically deem "vice" is in fact merely "the inability not to react to a stimulus."[11] In this light, the concept of morality becomes purely a means of control: "the doctrine of will has been invented essentially for the purpose of punishment, that is of finding guilty."[12]

 

Men were thought of as free so that they could become guilty: consequently, every action had to be thought of as willed, the origin of every action as lying in the consciousness... ...Today, when we have started to move in the reverse direction, when we immoralists especially are trying with all our might to remove the concept of guilt and the concept of punishment from the world and to purge psychology, history, nature, the social institutions and sanctions of them, there is in our eyes no more radical opposition than that of the theologians, who continue to infect the innocence of becoming with 'punishment' and 'guilt' by means of the concept of the 'moral world-order'. Christianity is a hangman's metaphysics. The Four Great Errors

MCLUHAN FOUR EPOCHS OF HISTORY

http://jamie-jamiemedia.blogspot.com/2010/02/marshall-mcluhans-four-epochs-of.html

Friday, February 19, 2010

Marshall McLuhan's Four Epochs of History

According to Marshall McLuhan history can be understood through technology. He then divides history into four parts or epochs. The first epoch he calls the oral tribe culture. In general oral makes knowledge living,and is subject to change, interpretation, and embellishment. Sadly, the oral tribe culture is dead--or at least almost dead. Where it still exists is in small areas where native, indiginous people dwell. However this culture generally dies out when technology colonizes and assimilates various countries. Generally this technology manages to culturally embed itself whether it's wanted or not.In the oral tribe culture, everything is preliterate and depends upon the art of memory. Thus an entire work must be memorized word for word.

NAVAJO SAND PAINTING QUADRANTS AS WELL AS HUNDRED ACRES CROP CIRCLE

http://www.greatdreams.com/numbers/444/qpspbx.gif

http://www.greatdreams.com/numbers/444/444.htm

Remember, the number 144 is an ancient Gematrian number meaning "Light," and its double, 288, means "Double Light." Also, the similar 1999 female quintuplet pyramid crop formation had 288 little circles. The mitochondrial DNA crop circle formation of 2002 had a snake skin design, formed by 144 arcs. And, the number 288 and its square, 82944, is related to the fine-structure constant in the work of Professor Leahy.

 

 

 

 

The 2005 Hundred Acres crop circle formation is one of the most important, in my opinion. There are many connections. It is clearly related to many other formations and symbols. In addition to the quintuplet pyramid 444 connections, the formation relates to my "splice box" dream and the Navaho Sand paintings with four couples around a square. These graphics illustrate the point --

 

 

 

 

Splice Box Dream

 

Navaho Sand

Painting

 

 

 

Inner Portion of the

Hundred Acres Formation

 

I colored elements of the formation in red to show the similarity to the splice box and Navaho sand painting.

 

Here are two other examples of Navaho sand paintings --

HE MENTIONS THE FOUR COUPLES ON NOAHS ARC AND RELATIONSHIP TO THE QUADRANT NAVAJO SAND PAINTINGS

http://www.greatdreams.com/numbers/444/nvhsp.gif

http://www.greatdreams.com/numbers/444/444.htm

The illustrations depict four couples around a square. Interestingly, there were four couples aboard Noah's Ark -- Noah and his wife, and his three sons and their wives. The number eight is often said to represent a new beginning.

NAZCA AND OREGON CROP CIRCLE QUADRANTS

http://www.greatdreams.com/numbers/444/444.htm

http://www.greatdreams.com/crop/2005ccs/nazcadia.gif

The Hundred Acres crop formation was similar to a design found on the Nazca plains. This is a close-up photograph of the central part of the marking, which is thought to be at least 2000 years old --

 

 

 

This is a simplified diagram of the land marking from Carol Peterson's Oregon crop circle newsletter --

 

 

 

This page has a very good diagram of the marking, along with a short article --

 

Martin Keitel's article about the Nazca Palpa Glyphs

 

A very similar crop formation appeared around July 30, 2000, at Blackland (Morgan's Hill), Wiltshire --

SUFI BREATH OF THE COMPASSIONATE QUADRANT X
http://www.greatdreams.com/numbers/444/444.htm
http://www.greatdreams.com/crop/2005ccs/breath.gif
The most meaningful connection to Hundred Acres crop formation and the Nazca glyph is the Sufi concept of "The Breath of the Compassionate." The eight-pointed star and "X" shape formed by two overlapping boxes is probably the most common Islamic design --

Sufi Concept of the Breath of the Compassionate

Many similar patterns appeared as crop formations in the year 2000. The shapes symbolize how the creation is created in each moment through the Breath of the Compassionate. The star portion is the outward breath. The "X" shape is the inward breath (see the Extra Data section for details).

Following the various crop circles discussed in this article, and similar findings elsewhere, I am led to speculate that the Sufi concept of how the creation is created relates to Professor Leahy's concepts about the fine-structure concept, which is fundamental to subatomic physics. The important conjunction here is about the creation itself.

I originally posted information about the 1999 quintuplet pyramid crop circle formations in April, 2004, in this article --

SPIDERS WITH CROSSES ON THEIR BACK HOPI CREATION MYTH

http://www.greatdreams.com/crop/lazarus/spderwhl.jpg

Around the year 1994, I noticed that three diagrams in The Sacred Symbols of Mu, page 235, depected spiders as having a cross shape on their backs. The Hopi creation myth also shows Spider Grandmother with a cross on her back. The inspiration came to me to draw Spider Grandmother over the Gematrian Wheel:

SPIDERS CROSSES ON BACKS- CROSS IS QUADRANT

http://www.greatdreams.com/crop/lazarus/lazarus.htm

James Churchward wrote that a friend, Dr. Thomas M. Stewart, of Cincinnati, Ohio, helped him to understand the symbolic meaning of the spider, by showing him relics found in the burial vaults of the Mound Builders of Missouri, Arkansas and Tennessee. On the backs of spider images engraved on pieces of shells, were the cross type shapes indicating the Four Great Forces. Similar images were on pottery recovered from the ancient ruined cities in Crete, Cyprus and ancient Troy in Asia Minor. The four forces of science are electromagnatism, gravity, the strong atomic force, and the weak atomic force.

ELIZABETH X SHAPED UFO

http://www.greatdreams.com/crop/2005ccs/lizufo.gif

http://www.greatdreams.com/numbers/444/444.htm

In 2005, I posted some of the information about the Hundred Acres crop circle formation on the Crop Circle Connector Forum.

 

After my initial postings, I received an e-mail from a lady named Elizabeth. She reported that she sited a UFO over Denver, Colorado on July 15, 2005. She created some paintings of the object. She searched the Internet, and amazingly, found a similar shape on one of my web pages. It is an article about the symbolism of UFOs. She sent the paintings of the UFO. This is one of them --

 

 

 

The image had that pyramid look, which reminded me of the 1999 male pyramid quintuplet. Incredibly, the shape was quite similar to the "X" part of the Breath of the Compassionate!

 

 

 

 

 

This is the image Elizabeth found on our site --

 

 

The image on the far right, above, is the one most similar to the UFO sighted and painted by Liz.

HE DIALOGUES WITH THIS WOMAN ABOUT THE X/QUADRANT SHAPED UFO A FEW DAYS LATER AN X QUADRANT CROP CIRCLE POPS UP

http://www.greatdreams.com/crop/2005ccs/xcc.gif

http://www.greatdreams.com/numbers/444/444.htm

The image on the far right, above, is the one most similar to the UFO sighted and painted by Liz.

 

 

 

 

I could hardly believe it when an "X" type crop formation appeared some days later, around July 20, 2005, at Kings Worthy, near Winchester, Hampshire --

THE BARBURY CASTLE CROP CIRCLE QUINCUNX CROSS FOUR TRIANGLES

 

http://www.greatdreams.com/p4brby.gif

http://www.greatdreams.com/numbers/444/444.htm

 

The Barbury Castle Pictogram Connection

 

The row of six images, above, are based on the quintuplet and the triangular Barbury Castle crop formation. The idea began in 1991 with the insight from another person that the Barbury Castle triangle can fit within the New Jerusalem Plan design, which has four overlapping triangles --

 

After reading that a Teutonic type cross pattern was found by dowsing within a simple crop circle, I recalled some similar glyphs in The Sacred Symbols of Mu --

 

I realized that four of the Barbury Castle triangles can be used to form this type of shape, and the basic design looks like a pyramid as viewed from above. I drew a simplified version in my notebook --

 

The idea came to "lower" the bases of the triangles to form a quintuplet pyramid type shape --

 

I later drew a simplified version, which is the basis of the image on the right side of the row of six images, above -- the one labeled "Y's Added" --

 

Months later, I read a theory about Ezekiel' vision of the four living creatures. I found the Biblical passages in Ezekiel 1, and started reading. It seemed like the descriptions fit fairly well with the design made with the four triangles. I then read that the creatures had four wheels and the wheels had rims and spokes. I realized that I needed to draw in the central circle and rings of the Barbury Castle pictogram on each triangle --

 

The words of Ezekiel include -- ". . . when they stood still, they let down their wings." This seemed similar to my idea about lowering the bases of the triangles.

 

The image then fit quite well with Ezekiel's description. I wrote of the comparison in this article --

 

Humanity On The Pollen Path - Part Six

The Four Living Creatures Or Merkabah

 

As I mentioned above, the Barbury Castle pictogram may represent the smallest particle of consciousness and matter, also known as the "consciousness unit."

 

In 1998, a young man sent an e-mail to me about my version of "Ezekiel's Wagon." He directed me to an article by Vincent Bridges that had similar images -- 

 

Southern Hemispheric Projection

 

Northern Hemispheric Projection

 

The images represent a three-dimensional Tree of Life projected into the celestial vault. It is like a giant sphere in space with the Earth (circle 10) in the center of the diagram on the left. This was quite a coincidence! This is Vincent's article --

HE GETS THE NUMBER 444

http://www.greatdreams.com/numbers/444/444.htm

Pauli and Jung -- On Dreams, 137

and the Fine-Structure Constant

 

As I was researching and writing this article in January, 2010, I found a pdf file article online about the communication between theoretical physicist, Wolfgang Pauli, and psychiatrist, Carl Jung. The primary subjects centered around the dreams of Pauli, and his "obsession" with the number 137, as it relates to the fine-structure constant.

 

This was quite an important find for me, as it seems so similar to the subjects in this article -- especially the 2808 dream of Professor Leahy and his work about connections between the number 288 and its square with the fine-structure constant.

 

The article, by Péter Várlaki et al, is titled, "Background" Control Theory Concerning the Fine Structure Constant. It appeared in Acta Polytechnica Hungarica Vol. 5, No. 2, 2008. Here's the abstract --

In this paper we analyze in detail the central role of number '137', the so-called Fine Structure Constant in the collaboration of Pauli and Jung. First, we present the fascination or the obsession of Pauli for the interpretation of number '137'. Second, we treat the spontaneous messages originating from unconscious concerning number '137' in the well-known dreams of Pauli. We restrict our investigations to the dreams containing the especially important formulae of Fine Structure Constant (4Pi3 + Pi2 + Pi), and also that contain the so-called background models of mathematical control systems. Third, we shortly mention four of the numerous synchronicities arising during the Pauli-Jung collaboration.

 

In another part of the article the formula above is expressed as an approximate estimation of the fine-structure constant number --

 

4Pi3 + Pi2 + Pi1

 

124.02510672 + 9.86960440 + 3.14159265 = 137.03630377

 

It is often said that the fine-structure constant is actually the reciprocal of the number, in this case --

 

1 / 137.03630377 = 0.00729734

 

According to Wikipedia, as of 2008, the best determination of the value of the fine-structure constant is --

 

1 / 137.035999084 = 7.297352569 × 10-3 (or 0.007297352569)

 

The article continues --

Furthermore, besides Pi, sufficiently (according to certain alchemical and traditionally hermeneutical rules) it contains only the first four integer numbers. The first three (as powers) have some "generative characteristics" but the fourth one (4) with certain topological characteristics (as a multiple) also meets the usual "symbolic demands".

 

The first three powers in the equation can symbolically translate to 321. Adding its mirror gives --

 

321+ 123 = 444

THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

http://www.greatdreams.com/numbers/444/444.htm

Furthermore, besides Pi, sufficiently (according to certain alchemical and traditionally hermeneutical rules) it contains only the first four integer numbers. The first three (as powers) have some "generative characteristics" but the fourth one (4) with certain topological characteristics (as a multiple) also meets the usual "symbolic demands".

 

The first three powers in the equation can symbolically translate to 321. Adding its mirror gives --

 

321+ 123 = 444

 

The topological characteristics result in the geometry on the left, below --

1111 and 444 experiences

 

http://www.angelscribe.com/1111stor.html

 

 

I had a reflexology session on Saturday morning. I was driving home, and I decided to stop at Target... one of my favorite shopping spots.

 

I drove past the High School where my son attends and I noticed many buses parked there.

 

I figure there was a speech meet going on. This road is on the way to Target. So, I get to Target, pull in the lot, and one of the buses is parked there.

 

I get out of my Landcruiser, and this gentleman starts to walk towards me from the bus (he was the busdriver). He gets to me and says wow..... nice!

 

I thought he was talking about my truck.... and I say... yes, it is fun to drive.

 

He says no.... I am talking about your license plate..... which is 4444.

 

He then said..... I was a soldier in Vietnam.... my dog tags were 4444..... and then asked me if I knew what those numbers meant.... since they were on my car.

THE NEXT ONE SHOULD BE 16- 16 IS ONE- 16 SQUARES QMR

http://web.archive.org/web/20071107233206/http://www.sangraal.com/Archives/gnomon.html

I am One that Transforms into Two.

 

I am Two that transforms into Four.

 

I am Four that transforms into Eight.

 

After This, I am One again.

 

EGYPTIAN CREATION MYTH

THRONE OF OSIRIS 16 SQUARES WITHIN IT THE FOUR SQUARE A QUADRANT AND THE QUADRANT MODEL 16

http://web.archive.org/web/20071107233206/http://www.sangraal.com/Archives/gnomon.html

http://web.archive.org/web/20071107233206im_/http://www.sangraal.com/Archives/ametimage/gnomonsq.gif

In its basic form, the Throne of Osiris symbolizing the solar power on earth, which is constant through growth and change, the gnomon can be represented by a square of two growing into a square of four. (That is, a square with each side divided into 2 equal sections, for a total of four squares, expanding into a square with four equal divisions of each side length; twelve squares in the outer square, four in the inner, making a grand total of sixteen squares of equal size.) In many western magickal traditions, the altar is described as a double cube. The basic gnomon 2/4 square can be seen as an unfolded, or unpacked into 2D, representation of a double cube.

16 POINTS 16 SQUARES

http://web.archive.org/web/20071107233206/http://www.sangraal.com/Archives/gnomon.html

The higher imprint triggers supply this elemental force. We symbolize this by drawing the L symbol with the higher imprint at the shift point. This gives us sixteen points on the surface of our wheel, which combine to form the eight dimensional reality tunnels of the labyrinth.

 

So our little circuit board diagram contains a very complete symbolic model of an interactive universe. In order to make it truly interactive, we must plug the board in correctly. We do this by drawing the labyrinth. Our wheel of the year and its elemental qualities gives us a total of sixteen points on the perimeter of our circular chip. Starting at the top point and counting counter-clockwise, label each point with a number, 1 through 16. Then simply connect the points in a clockwise direction, 1 with 16 and so on around to 8 - 9. You have just created a labyrinth.

ANALYZES FOUR RELIGIOUS DREAMS

http://uni-obuda.hu/journal/Varlaki_Nadai_Bokor_14.pdf

This statement of ours is

1 Extended version of a lecture given at 12th International Conference on Intelligent Engineering Systems, February 25-29, 2008, Miami, Florida.

– 71 –

P. Várlaki et al. Number Archetypes and “Background” Control Theory Concerning the Fine Structure Constant

based on Jung’s book Psychology and Alchemy [14] where he analyzes, apart from 4 explicitly religious dreams, 72 other dreams that all share a pattern presumably from alchemy and Cabbala.2 (He analyzes three out of the four religious dreams in the Terry Lectures at Yale in 1937 [13].)

FOUR INTEGERS THE FOURTH DIFFERENT AND THE FOUR HINTS AT TOPOLOGICAL STRUCTURE

http://uni-obuda.hu/journal/Varlaki_Nadai_Bokor_14.pdf

2.3 Our Formula and Interpretation for the Fine Structure Constant

Without knowing the “accepted”, probably, most accurate two values (considering just the 137.03... value of FSC), the following formula for the general (synchro- nistic) definition of the fine structure constant was proposed [12]:

α-1 =4π3 +π2 +π1 =π(4π2 +π+1)=137.0363037...=α−1(π) (1)

It can be seen that this formula is simple, general, self-expressive and aesthetically also neat. Furthermore, besides π, sufficiently (according to certain alchemical and traditionally hermeneutical rules) it consists only of the first four integer numbers. The first three numbers (as powers) have some “generative characteristics” but the fourth one (4) with certain topological characteristics (as a multiple) also meets the usual “symbolic demands”.

Therefore it is able to symbolize the completeness or perfectness according to the mentioned Caballo-Alchemistic and hermeneutical principles. On the other hand, the first three integer numbers appear in generative way as powers of π, while the fourth one, the ‘4’ hints at a topological structure (as a multiple) satisfying the usual Jungian interpretations as well [14].

The generative geometric structure number version of the fine structure constant can ensure a rather unique possibility of hermeneutical interpretation through the tetragonal substitution (interpretation) of π, a slightly similar to the classical al- chemical problem of “quadratura circuli”. The quaternary substitutive interpreta- tion of π ∼ 4 or π ∼ 2 numbers rewriting into the expression of α−1(π) the following

natural (integer) structure numbers can be obtained.

PAULIS DREAM OF QUATERNION

http://uni-obuda.hu/journal/Varlaki_Nadai_Bokor_14.pdf

In another place Laurikainen discussed the Pauli approach to the concept of the synchronicity:

“Idea of synchronicity [...] is idea that noncausal (acausal) events would be con- trolled by some kind of regular correspondence.” [48]

Figure 4

Dream of the four rectangles forming a geometric quaternion [17]

PAULI THE CHERUBIM FOUR TIMES FOUR ELEMENTS AND THE 256 FOUR TO FOURTH POWER

http://uni-obuda.hu/journal/Varlaki_Nadai_Bokor_14.pdf

It would demand a separate book... However, in the following we shortly outline the background control system “interpretation” of the vision, and the 4 + 16 + 256 system representations. In this rare interpretation one counts the four Cherubims standing at the four corners of the Chariot of God. All the Cherubims have 4 × 4 body-parts (4 faces, 4 wings, 4 hands, and 4 legs) according to the four natures (man, lion, bull, and eagle). This system of 4 + 16 + 256 can be related to the 39th dream of Pauli [46]:

“Dreamer is falling into the abyss. At the bottom there is a bear whose eyes gleam alternately in four colours: red yellow green and blue. Actually it has four eyes that change into four lights.”

Inasmuch the bear symbolizes north in mythology, as well as in astronomy and the Chariot of God arrives from north on the sky in the vision. The algebraic variation system of the four lights of the four eyes can be related in a natural way to the 4 + 16 + 256 system interpreted in the previous paragraphs. According to the par- ity conception of Pauli (right-left sides of space), the above structure can be sim- plified into 128 + 8 + 1. That is, the dream of Pauli connects the Merkabah vision with the fine structure constant – without any knowledge of mythology [46].

In the dream of four rectangles (dream No. 51, see Fig. 4) beside the four colors we can identify 32 geometric elements (12 corners, 16 lines and 4 rectangles). It is originally formed from two basic rectangles, so the structure 32 + 4 + 2 is valid

EDDINGTON MODEL 16 EQUATIONS 16 SQUARES QMR

http://uni-obuda.hu/journal/Varlaki_Nadai_Bokor_14.pdf

EDDINGTON’s model already mentioned matches the causal descriptive mode in which the four variables of the spatial temporal continuum gives 16 equations where the number of the independent variables arranged in a matrix is 137 = (162 – 16)/2 + 16 + 1. This approach seems to be synchronistic from the per- spective of classical physics while it seems causal in character from the perspec- tive of modern quantum physics. As appose to the real physical phenomena of the previous axis it is obvious that we do not have concepts emerging from immediate experience but an intuitively appealing mathematical (or meta-mathematical) in- terpretation leading out from physics. Although it starts out from physical thought, the result – properly speaking – is not physical, but it is the concept of a back- ground language. This solution is near to Pauli’s mental world since he often makes references to the problem of FSC and his explanation lies outside quantum physics. Pauli applies the same line of thought to the Einsteinien criticism against the quantum theory. According to him these lifelike questions are outside physics (In Sinne des Lebens betrachtet), or, in other words, these questions can be inter- preted and approached in a wider framework.

HEIDEGGER FOUNDED ONTOLOGY WHICH IS THE STUDY OF BEING AND HE TRIES TO EMPLOY CHIASMUS X QUADRANT AND OVER BEING HE TRIES TO MAKE AN X (A QUADRNAT) IN OTHER WORDS HEIDEGGER WAS SAYING THAT BEING IS THE QUADRANT IT CAN BE ARGUED

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=8THyGAHevywC&pg=PA100&lpg=PA100&dq=heidegger+crossing+of+the+fourfold+chiasmus&source=bl&ots=sc1wWe8N_P&sig=jXgK1_489w-8BNrjpR6-BVO4gbc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiNs6DG37DVAhVJwFQKHftOD08Q6AEIMTAC#v=onepage&q=heidegger%20crossing%20of%20the%20fourfold%20chiasmus&f=false

Quadrant

HOPKINS USE OF CHIASMUS CROSS QUADRANT ALLUDING TO CHRIST AND DERRIDA USE OF CHIASMUS DECONSTRUCTION

 

https://www.jstor.org/stable/40002740?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Quadrant

I DESCRIBED THAT I DID NOT CHERRY PICK EXAPLES I STUDIED THE PHILOSPHERS WORKS ALL THE STUFF THE MAIN THING TAUGHT ONLY THING TAUGHT WAS QUADRANT MODEL OVER AND OVER AGAIN

ARISTOTLE KINDS OF THINGS KINDS OF QUESTIONS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Posterior_Analytics

The second book Aristotle starts with a remarkable statement, the kinds of things determine the kinds of questions, which are four:

 

Whether the relation of a property (attribute) with a thing is a true fact.

What is the reason of this connection.

Whether a thing exists.

What is the nature and meaning of the thing.

The last of these questions was called by Aristotle, in Greek, the "what it is" of a thing. Scholastic logicians translated this into Latin as "quiddity" (quidditas). This quiddity cannot be demonstrated, but must be fixed by a definition. He deals with definition, and how a correct definition should be made. As an example, he gives a definition of the number three, defining it to be the first odd number.

 

Maintaining that "to know a thing's nature is to know the reason why it is" and "we possess scientific knowledge of a thing only when we know its cause", Aristotle posited four major sorts of cause as the most sought-after middle terms of demonstration: the definable form; an antecedent which necessitates a consequent; the efficient cause; the final cause.

LOCKES ESSAY DIVIDED INTO FOUR BOOKS

http://www.iep.utm.edu/locke/

The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to its contents and operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly.

 

Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to the idea of bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of these types.

FOUR PERSON CREW

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-135

STS-135 (ISS assembly flight ULF7)[4] was the 135th and final mission of the American Space Shuttle program.[5][6] It used the orbiter Atlantis and hardware originally processed for the STS-335 contingency mission, which was not flown. STS-135 launched on 8 July 2011, and landed on 21 July 2011, following a one-day mission extension. The four-person crew was the smallest of any shuttle mission since STS-6 in April 1983. The mission's primary cargo was the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Raffaello and a Lightweight Multi-Purpose Carrier (LMC), which were delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). The flight of Raffaello marked the only time that Atlantis carried an MPLM.[7]

 

NASA announced the STS-335/135 crew on 14 September 2010.[18] Only four astronauts were assigned to this mission, versus the normal six or seven, because there were no other shuttles available for a rescue following the retirement of Discovery and Endeavour. If the shuttle was seriously damaged in orbit, the crew would have moved into the International Space Station and returned in Russian Soyuz capsules, one at a time, over the course of a year. All STS-135 crew members were custom-fitted for a Russian Sokol space suit and molded Soyuz seat liner for this possibility.[19] The reduced crew size also allowed the mission to maximize the payload carried to the ISS.[20] It was the only time that a Shuttle crew of four flew to the ISS. The last shuttle mission to fly with just four crew members occurred 28 years earlier: STS-6 on 4 April 1983 aboard Space Shuttle Challenger.

four temparaments

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ali_ibn_Sahl_Rabban_al-Tabari

On the Antagonism of these Temperaments and the Refutation of the Opinion of those who allege that the Air is cold (of temper.). diagram of the four temperaments and their antagonistic action.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ali_ibn_Sahl_Rabban_al-Tabari

Frye, ed. by R.N. (1975). The Cambridge history of Iran. (Repr. ed.). London: Cambridge U.P. p. 415-416. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6. The greatest of these figures, who ushered in the golden age of Islamic medicine and who are discussed separately by E. G. Browne in his Arabian Medicine, are four Persian physicians: 'All b. Rabban al-Tabarl, Muhammad b. Zakariyya' al-Razl, 'All b. al-'Abbas al-Majusi and Ibn Sina.

adds a transcendent fourth soul to the three levels the fourth soul of the sphere

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/israeli/

The motions of the superlunary sphere of heaven, made up of a fifth unchanging element, govern the combinations and recombinations of the four elements in the material world below the moon—hence they govern the processes of generation and corruption. Israeli's student Dunash Ibn Tamim calls this fourth soul the soul of the sphere.

Isaac Israeli on four types of inquiry AND ARABIC PHILOSOPHERS
https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/israeli/
3.1 The Four Kinds of Inquiry
The four kinds of inquiry, introduced by Aristotle in his Posterior Analytics, and subsequently modified by Neoplatonist commentators, were such a universal and fundamental component of the cultural episteme, that elaboration of the four inquiries often formed part of the introduction to philosophical and medical treatises. Aristotle lists the four questions thusly:

“(1) whether the connexion of an attribute with a thing is a fact, (2) what is the reason of the connexion, (3) whether a thing exists, (4) what is the nature of the thing.” (Posterior Analytics ii.1, G.R.G. Mure translation)

Following the practice of thinkers of his age, at the very beginning of his Book of Definitions and also at the beginning of his Book on Fevers, Isaac Israeli introduces the Aristotelian distinction of the four kinds of inquiry, in a slightly modified form:

“(1) The first is existence: when one inquires whether so-and-so exists; (2) the second is quiddity: when one inquires what so-and-so is; (3) the third is quality: when one inquires how so-and-so is; (4) the fourth is ‘quarity’: when one inquires why so-and-so is.” (Altmann and Stern, Isaac Israeli, pp. 10–11)

Israeli's description mirrors the list of al-Jahiz (d. ca. 869) in the Book of Indications and Considerations (Arabic: Kitab al-Dala’il wa’l-cItibar) as well as cAli ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari (fl. 9th century), in his medical text Firdaws al-Hikmah fi al-Tibb. His list varies slightly from that of al-Kindi, who in his treatise on metaphysics Al-Falsafah al-cula defines the third inquiry as which, rather than how.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

tetractys masonry

http://tetractys.blogspot.com/2007/07/what-is-tetractys.html?m=1

 

"Bless us, divine number, thou who generated gods and men! O holy, holy Tetractys, thou that containest the root and source of the eternally flowing creation! For the divine number begins with the profound, pure unity until it comes to the holy four; then it begets the mother of all, the all-comprising, all-bounding, the first-born, the never-swerving, the never-tiring holy ten, the keyholder of all."

 

The Tetractys was very important to the Pythagoreans and considered sacred. So much so that they addressed some of their prayers to it and took oaths by it. What is the Tetractys and why is it so important?

 

According to Pythagoras, the numerical intelligence of the Universe was represented by the Tetractys - a triangular arrangements of ten dots, with one on top, two on the second row, three on the third and four on the fourth. Ten was considered the perfect number.

 

The Tetractys represented the four elements - earth, air, fire, and water. It was also used to represent the ratios that form the basic intervals of the Pythagorean musical scales.

 

The Tetractys is also closely associated with the Kabbalah. The Kabbalah Tetractys is usually displayed with the Tetragrammatton written right to left instead of the dots. Some say the ten dots of the Tetractys correspond to the ten Sephiroth of the Tree of Life.

 

What does the Tetractys have to do with Freemasonry? In Morals and Dogma, Pike asserts that the Tetractys should be one of the symbols of the Master Mason degree. According to Bridge to Light by Rex Hutchens, a book that I received after becoming a 32° Scottish Rite Freemason,

"In the Scottish Rite workings of the Symbolic Degrees (1-3) the Pythagorean Tetractys is an important symbol. Since it is not to be found in the York Rite symbols of these degrees, it is not well known among Masons in America, virtually all of whom take the first three degrees in York Rite lodges."

This intrigued me and I wanted to learn more. In UGLE lodges, the Tetractys is represented by the Hebrew letter Yod, the first letter of the ineffable name of God - יהוה, suspended above the Master's throne - the same place as the 'G' in American lodges. It looks like I will have to dive into the Kabbalah and the teachings of Pythagoras to learn more. Albert Pike writes of the Tetractys numerous times. In the 29th chapter of Morals and Dogma he writes:

 

The peculiar and principal symbol of this Degree is the Tetractys of Pythagoras, suspended in the East, where ordinarily the sacred word or letter glitters, like it, representing the Deity. Its nine external points form the triangle, the chief symbol in Masonry, with many of the meanings of which you are familiar.

 

To us, its three sides represent the three principal attributes of the Deity, which created, and now, as ever, support, uphold, and guide the Universe in its eternal movement; the three supports of the Masonic Temple, itself an emblem of the Universe: — Wisdom, or the Infinite Divine Intelligence; Strength, or Power, the Infinite Divine Will; and Beauty, or the Infinite Divine Harmony, the Eternal Law, by virtue of which the infinite myriads of suns and worlds flash ever onward in their ceaseless revolutions, without clash or conflict, in the Infinite of space, and change and movement are the law of all created existences.

 

To us, as Masonic Judges, the triangle figures forth the Pyramids, which, planted firmly as the everlasting hills, and accurately adjusted to the four cardinal points, defiant of all assaults of men and time, teach us to stand firm and unshaken as they, when our feet are planted upon the solid truth.

 

It includes a multitude of geometrical figures, all having a deep significance to Masons. The triple triangle is peculiarly sacred, having ever been among all nations a symbol of the Deity. Prolonging all the external lines of the Hexagon, which also it includes, we have six smaller triangles, whose bases cut each other in the central point of the Tetractys, itself always the symbol of the generative power of the Universe, the Sun, Brahma, Osiris, Apollo, Bel, and the Deity Himself. Thus, too, we form twelve still smaller triangles, three times three of which compose the Tetractys itself.

 

I refrain from enumerating all the figures that you may trace within it: but one may not be passed unnoticed. The Hexagon itself faintly images to us a cube, not visible at the first glance, and therefore the fit emblem of that faith in things invisible, most essential to salvation. The first perfect solid, and reminding you of the cubical stone that sweated blood, and of that deposited by Enoch, it teaches justice, accuracy, and consistency.

 

The infinite divisibility of the triangle teaches the infinity of the Universe, of time, of space, and of the Deity, as do the lines that, diverging from the common centre, ever increase their distance from each other as they are infinitely prolonged. As they may be infinite in number, so are the attributes of Deity infinite; and as they emanate from one-centre and are projected into space, so the whole Universe has emanated from God.

i learned about eurogneas four levels of being on teaxhig company corse only thing taught any course was quadrant model

https://books.google.com/books?id=nCa-19M0WfIC&pg=PA95&lpg=PA95&dq=four+hypostases&source=bl&ots=lkNvyhDOwX&sig=g1E9HvC5MNOUYP2ahhet0Kxo5d8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjO7_LDwLPVAhXM0FQKHXLcBacQ6AEISzAJ#v=onepage&q=four&f=false

related to marius victorinus four divisions of being true being truly being not truly being and not truly non being

quadrant

tetradic society

http://asiapacific.anu.edu.au/cap-events/back-kinship-evolution-approaches-change-kinship

Parkin proposes a sequence of types of kinship system starting with Two-line Prescription (often known as Dravidian), but also supporting the hypothesis of his Oxford colleague Nicholas Allen of an even earlier stage of  ‘Tetradic Society’ (2008). This scheme does bear the hallmarks of such an evolutionary construct, such as unidirectionality of most of the changes.

Isaac Israeli on four types of inquiry AND ARABIC PHILOSOPHERS
https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/israeli/
3.1 The Four Kinds of Inquiry
The four kinds of inquiry, introduced by Aristotle in his Posterior Analytics, and subsequently modified by Neoplatonist commentators, were such a universal and fundamental component of the cultural episteme, that elaboration of the four inquiries often formed part of the introduction to philosophical and medical treatises. Aristotle lists the four questions thusly:

“(1) whether the connexion of an attribute with a thing is a fact, (2) what is the reason of the connexion, (3) whether a thing exists, (4) what is the nature of the thing.” (Posterior Analytics ii.1, G.R.G. Mure translation)

Following the practice of thinkers of his age, at the very beginning of his Book of Definitions and also at the beginning of his Book on Fevers, Isaac Israeli introduces the Aristotelian distinction of the four kinds of inquiry, in a slightly modified form:

“(1) The first is existence: when one inquires whether so-and-so exists; (2) the second is quiddity: when one inquires what so-and-so is; (3) the third is quality: when one inquires how so-and-so is; (4) the fourth is ‘quarity’: when one inquires why so-and-so is.” (Altmann and Stern, Isaac Israeli, pp. 10–11)

Israeli's description mirrors the list of al-Jahiz (d. ca. 869) in the Book of Indications and Considerations (Arabic: Kitab al-Dala’il wa’l-cItibar) as well as cAli ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari (fl. 9th century), in his medical text Firdaws al-Hikmah fi al-Tibb. His list varies slightly from that of al-Kindi, who in his treatise on metaphysics Al-Falsafah al-cula defines the third inquiry as which, rather than how.

pythagoras rejected fifth hammer fifth is questiinable unnecessary only accepts four
https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/fifth-hammer
An ancient tradition holds that Pythagoras discovered the secrets of harmony within a forge when he came across five men hammering with five hammers, producing a wondrous sound. Four of the five hammers stood in a marvelous set of proportions, harmonizing; but there was also a fifth hammer. Pythagoras saw and heard it, but he could not measure it; nor could he understand its discordant sound. Pythagoras therefore discarded it. What was this hammer, such that Pythagoras chose so decidedly to reject it?
Since antiquity, “harmony” has been a name for more than a theory of musical sounds; it has offered a paradigm for the scientific understanding of the natural world. Nature, through harmony, has been transcribed in the ideal signs of mathematics. But, time and again, the transcription has run up against one fundamental limit: something in nature resists being written down, transcribed in a stable set of ideal elements. A fifth hammer, obstinately, continues to sound. 
In eight chapters, linked together as are the tones of a single scale, The Fifth Hammer explores the sounds and echoes of that troubling percussion as they make themselves felt on the most varied of attempts to understand and represent the natural world. From music to metaphysics, aesthetics to astronomy, and from Plato and Boethius to Kepler, Leibniz, and Kant, this book explores the ways in which the ordering of the sensible world has continued to suggest a reality that no notes or letters can fully transcribe.

http://www.chalquist.com/jung&gnostics.html

Introvert/extravert echoes the Gnostic delineation of "inner, outer, and outermost." "...The followers of Valentinus maintain that the three places mean those on the left, while the 'fourth generation' is their own seed" (Clement & Casey, 1934). "For, say they, of this man one part is rational, another psychical, another earthly. And they suppose that the knowledge of him is the originating principle of the capacity for a knowledge of God" (Hippolytus, 2011).

https://www.opednews.com/articles/2/11-11-Indigo-Time-by-Ethan-Indigo-Smith-Buddha_Buddhism_Compassion_Consciousness-161115-526.html

 

Despite our level of capability or learning, despite who or what is restraining us, we always have the option to reach toward higher levels of being, toward the peaceful potential of completion and oneness. Just as there are unlimited levels of development in warrior, healer, scholar and priest modes of being, there is an unlimited number of choices available to us -- the infinite potential of the unknown fourth option -- and we are being called, through the synchronicity of the 11:11 symbolism to make our choices and resonate our energy in tune with the powerful peaceful beings we are, and the powerful peaceful future we are creating.

 

11:11 is a reminder. 11:11 reminds us of the nature of duality and polarity (represented by 4) and of our higher levels of spiritual function. 11:11 reminds us to return to our most peaceful and powerful potential; to embody the potential of the Indigo. And, it reminds us that we have the opportunity to create peace, oneness and completion, to transcend the status quo and transmute it into something new, unexpected and beautiful.

 

To close, I will leave you with the four Bodhisattva Vows of Buddhism, which eloquently describe the Indigo state of mind. To close, I will leave you with the four Bodhisattva Vows of Buddhism, which eloquently describe the Indigo state of mind.

 

Sentient beings are numberless; I vow to save them all.

Desires are inexhaustible; I vow to put an end to them.

The dharmas are boundless; I vow to master them. (*Dharhma is Buddhist/life lesson)

The Buddha's Way is unsurpassable; I vow to attain it.

Quadrant

I developed an idea from Howard Margolis, the distinguished social scientist who died in 2009, that two basic kinds of cognitive events are “seeing-that” and “reasoning-why.” (These terms correspond roughly to what the psychologist Daniel Kahneman and others call “System 1” and “System 2” and that I call the “elephant” and the “rider.”) We effortlessly and intuitively “see that” something is true, and then we work to find justifications, or “reasons why,” which we can give to others. Both processes are crucial for understanding belief and persuasion. Both are needed for the kind of democratic deliberation that Lynch (and I) want to promote.

https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/10/07/reasons-matter-when-intuitions-dont-object/

I’d like to show how these two processes work together by offering here a figure that I cut from my book a few months before turning in the manuscript, thinking it would be too confusing for a broad audience.

ARISTOTLES FOURFOLD ONTOLOGY

https://subratachak.files.wordpress.com/2016/04/socretis-class.jpg?w=1360

https://subratachak.wordpress.com/tag/aristotle/

Aristotle’s Categories is a work of ontology. That is, it is about onta,beings, or what there is. He is interested in classifying the kinds of beings there are. And within that classification, he wants to identify the beings that are the most fundamental, important, or real. Let’s look now at the four-fold classification of beings that he generates in chapter two. And then see how he uses that classification to identify the most fundamental realities. Aristotle generates this four-fold ontology by invoking the two subject predicate relations that we’ve been examining. Being said of a subject and being in a subject.

 

Said-Of and Present-In

Socretis-Class

He thinks you can sort anything that is into one of four categories by asking two questions about it.

Is it said of a subject? Yes or no?

And is it in a subject? Yes or no?

 

Harry Potter fans can think of this as the two questions asked by the Sorting Hat at the Aristotelian Institute of Ontology.

 

We’ve just seen that the distinction between “being said of” a subject, and “not being said” of any subject, amounts to the distinction between universals and particulars. Thus, human being is a universal, which is “said of” Socrates, a particular. And labrador retriever, dog, and animal are universals that are “said of” the particular labrador retriever, Fido.

 

Okay, so that’s the east west distinction. What about the north south distinction? This concerns whether an entity is in a subject. Recall Aristotle’s definition of being in a subject or as we’ve been calling it, inherence. What belongs to something not as a part,

and cannot exist separately from what it is in. We saw how this is the relation in which walking stands to Socrates. Walking is an activity of Socrates. It is the sort of thing that cannot exist without being the activity of something. This is also the relation in which brown stands to Fido, supposing Fido was one of those beautiful chocolate brown labrador retrievers. So, walking and brown are inherent items, while Socrates and Fido are not. Things like colors, shapes, locations, activities, and so on go below the line. Since they exist, only by inhering in subjects like Socrates or Fido. But Socrates and Fido don’t inhere

in anything more fundamental so they go above the line.

 

In chapter four, Aristotle introduces the term substance to refer to the subjects of inherent items. Those above the line. Socrates and Fido are substances.

 

Now what should we call the items that go below the line, beyond the fact that they inhere in substances? In chapter four, Aristotle just gives us a list, quality, quantity, activity, and so on. The list, however, provides us with a way of classifying the source of things that inhere in substances such as Socrates and Fido. That is, he’s enumerating the sorts of things that can be said of the particular items that inhere in Socrates or Fido. For example, take brown, which is in Fido, what is it? Brown is a color. So color instead of brown, that means color goes in the right hand column because it’s a universal. But below the line because it inheres in a subject. Now just as in the case of the universals above the line where we can ask what is a dog, and get the answer it is an animal, we can ask further of color. Below the line, what is it, and eventually we are going to get the answer color is a quality. So quality goes in this quadrant as well. Note, that quality is one of the ten categories of being that are listed in chapter four, where Aristotle says that every entity invoked in a predication is either a substance, or quantity, or quality, or relative, or where, or when, or being-in-a-position, or having, or acting, or undergoing. Indeed, all of those categories other than substance that is quality, quantity, position, relation, activity, and so forth.

 

All of these will end up in the lower-right quadrant of our four-fold classification. Aristotle is proposing

these as the highest universals in the category

of inherent entities. Note that acting, which is on the list

of these universals in chapter four, will be said of walking, since walking

is an action, something you do. Okay, to sum up Aristotle’s

four-fold classification of beings. It arises from the combination of two

distinctions between universals and particulars on the one hand,

that’s the east west distinction. And between substances and

inherent items on the other, that’s the north south distinction. This yields four basic kinds of beings. Universal substances,

universal inherent properties, particular inherent properties,

and particular substances. Now there is some dispute about how to

understand the east west distinction south of the line. That is, between universals and

particulars in the case of adherent entities, but that complication

need not concern us here. What’s important for our purposes is the direction of

the having a subject relation. Recall that to have a subject

is to be dependent on a more fundamental underlying entity. If we draw arrows pointing to

the subject on which an entity depends, we’ll be able to see pretty

clearly which category Aristotle singles out as most important and why. First, we can note

the east west dependence. Universals have particulars

as their subjects. So the arrows of dependence

go towards the particulars. Now, the north south dependence. Inherent items have as their subjects,

the substances in which they inhere. Now, to identify the most

fundamental beings. Which category serves as

the subject to every other? Either directly or indirectly. It is the category of

particular substances. All other entities are either

said of them as subjects, those are the universal substances. Or, in them as subjects,

An early work (1934) in the study of fourfolds is James H. Cousins’ “A Study in Synthesis”, which is available for downloading at the link below.

https://equivalentexchange.wordpress.com/2017/07/

Cousins’ key fourfold is

 

Intuition

Cognition

Emotion

Action

which is similar to Jung’s psychological types except Action replaces Sensation.

 

Each fourth also has two movements as follows:

 

Intuition: Illumination / Inspiration

Cognition: Contemplation / Observation

Emotion: Aspiration / Creation

Action: Organization / Execution

Cousins was an influence to Patrick Geddes, renowned as a town planner, who had several fourfolds of his own.

 

Further Reading:

 

James H. Cousins / A Study in Synthesis

 

https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.501469

 

https://www.transcend.org/tms/2015/07/james-cousins-22-jul-1873-20-feb-1956-an-effort-of-synthesis/

 

http://hodgers.com/mike/patrickgeddes/feature.html

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Cousins

Quadrant

HARTMANNS QUADRUPLE OBJECT

https://avoidingthevoid.wordpress.com/dictionary-of-concepts-for-graham-harmans-object-oriented-philosophy-draft-work-in-progress/

– Harman’s fourfold – see TIME, SPACE, ESSENCE, EIDOS. The diagram below will be explained on the publication of Harman’s next book The Quadruple Object. So far, all is known about the tension lines between the poles is the following: 1) essence, 2) space, 3) eidos, 4) time. Harman gives a preview of the meaning of this diagram on his blog HERE

 

– Fourfold’s in general – “The only way of obtaining a rigorous quadruple structure is to cross-breed two dualisms, yielding a world split into four distinct zones” (M&M). Harman likes to extrapolate fourfolds which have a universal structure. Only with Heidegger, and the possibility of McLuhan,’s tetrad (see MCLUHAN), is this possible to do, as both emphasize the figure/ground relationship of objects. Other classic examples of fourfold quadruple structures are: Empedocles four elements (earth, air, fire, water); Plato’s dividing line (shadows, things, mathematical objects, perfect forms); Aristotle’s four causes (material, formal, efficient, final); the medieval cosmology of Scotus Eriugena (based on two dualities of created.uncreated and capable/incapable of creation); Bacon’s four idols (of the tribe, cave, marketplace and theater); Ken Wilber’s New Age holons (based on a doubling of the part/whole duality) (M&M).

THE SWASTIKA LINKED TO THE TREE OF LIFE AGAIN CHURCH FATHERS SAID THE SWASTIKA WAS THE CROSS AND THE CROSS WAS THE TREE OF LIFE A FRIEND FROM THE SACRED SWASTIKA WEBSItE TOLD ME ABOUT STORIES THAT ADAM HAD SWASTIKAS ON HIS KNEES AND SO FOURTH I DISCUSSED THE CROSS IN ANCIENT JEWISH STORIES LIKE JOSEPH AND ASENATH PREDATING CHRISTIANITY AND REPRESENTING ETERNAL LIFE

http://www.symbolonpress.com/assets/images/wilson_swastika/altar_swastika_tree.gif

http://www.symbolonpress.com/htm/Wilson%20Swastika/wilson_swastika_page.html

Illustration from THE SWASTIKA by Thomas Wilson

 

A stone altar from France depicting the swastika and the Tree of Life. For more information on the wide occurrence of the Tree of Life in world mythology, and about the relationship of this sacred tree to the swastika symbol, click HERE.

http://newporttowermuseum.com/resources/3-The-Meaning-of-the-Monas-Hieroglyphica-with-regards-to-Geometry.pdf

Which brings us to the rst of the four words he uses in the phrase “Mathematically, Magically, Cabalistically, Anagogically.” Mathematics, “to use a modern phrase is an “exact science”, a eld of science capable of “accurate quantitative expression.”

In simple terms,

4 x 7 = 28 in Beijing is the same as 4 x 7 = 28 in Peoria. A tetrahedron to Plato is a tetrahedron today. Arithmetic and geometry don’t change.

JOHN DEE AND THE TETRACTYS

http://newporttowermuseum.com/resources/3-The-Meaning-of-the-Monas-Hieroglyphica-with-regards-to-Geometry.pdf

To start this investigation, lets have Mr. Peabody tell Sherman to set the “Way-Back” machine to a Greek colony in Southern Italy, around 550 BC.

The great Pythagoras summarized his mathematical wisdom with his “tet- raktys,” 10 dots arranged in 4 rows, the way we set up bowling pins nowa- days (tetraktys means four-fold).The Pythagoreans felt it was such a power- ful description of the cosmos that they made it the basis of their oath.

“By that pure, holy, four lettered name on high, nature’s eternal fountain and supply,

the parent of all souls that living be,

by him, with faith nd oath, I swear to thee.”

1 point

2 points

3 points 4 points

10 points

All possible Trans- positions

The Pythagorean Sum

A Complete addition of the parts,

1x2x3x4=24

Addition, 1+2+3+4=10

A complete addition of the parts, which sum to 30

yields

ARTIFICIAL QUATERNARY

yields

Sum of

the addition

of All the parts is

Here are its 3 results: Multiplication, 1x2x3x2=12 Addition, 1+2+3+2=8

A complete sum of all of the parts, 24

yields

Simple Addition

The Pythagorean Tetraktys

In Theorem 23, Dee mathematically manipulates these 4 digits in three ways: Multiplication, (or the number of possible permutations of 4 things)

PYTHAGOREAN QUARTERNARY

On the facing page, Dee presents his Arti cial Quaternary, which is derived from the sequence 1, 2, 3, 2. Why did he change Pythagoras’ nal “4” into a “2”? (Believe it or not, this minor alteration has huge rami cations that will lead to Dee’s rare gift to King Maximillian.)

JOHN DEE THE TETRACTYS AND HIS MODIFIED TETRACTYS AND THE NUMBER 24

http://newporttowermuseum.com/resources/3-The-Meaning-of-the-Monas-Hieroglyphica-with-regards-to-Geometry.pdf

1 point

2 points

3 points 4 points

10 points

All possible Trans- positions

The Pythagorean Sum

A Complete addition of the parts,

1x2x3x4=24

Addition, 1+2+3+4=10

A complete addition of the parts, which sum to 30

yields

ARTIFICIAL QUATERNARY

yields

Sum of

the addition

of All the parts is

Here are its 3 results: Multiplication, 1x2x3x2=12 Addition, 1+2+3+2=8

A complete sum of all of the parts, 24

JOHN DEE FOUR SYMOBLS REPRESENT HIS MONAD (one of which is the cross) AND HE MENTIONS HOW THE CROSS WAS REPRESENTED BY ROMANS AS AN X AS A QUADRANT AND HE RELATES THE CROSS TO THE QUATENARY AND THE PYTHAGOREAN TETRACTYS

http://jdoms.blogspot.com/p/monas-hierogliphica.html

The Cross

 

The cross represents a wide number of ideas. Dee explains that it represents the Ternary (group of three), being two lines and an intersecting point, which can represent body, mind, and spirit. The union of body and mind might just as easily be compared to the union of spiritual and physical, or of male and female, or of any number of other common occult dualities.

 

The cross also represents the Quaternary (group of four), for it is composed of four segments. In occult sciences, a group of four very commonly represents the four elements, and Dee gives considerable attention to this, describing them as "four straight lines running in four contrary directions from one common and indivisible point." The lines are not equal here because while every physical thing is composed of varying quantities of elements

 

Combining the Ternary and the Quaternary, you get a Septenary (group of seven). Groups of seven were of particular import to Dee and he used them often. Seven is the number of the planetary spheres, which were of central importance to any astrologer.

 

Finally, Dee, considers the Quaternary to be "an abridged or reduced form of the Decad," (group of 10), noting that 1+2+3+4=10 and that the Romans used a cross (specifically, an X) to represent the number 10.

 

 

The symbol is constructed from four distinct symbols: the astrological signs for the moon and the sun, the cross, and the zodiacal sign of Aries the ram, represented by the two semi-circles at the bottom of the glyph.

QUAD MEANS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quadratus_lumborum_muscle

It originates via aponeurotic fibers into the iliolumbar ligament and the internal lip of the iliac crest for about 5 cm. It inserts from the lower border of the last rib for about half its length and by four small tendons from the apices of the transverse processes of the upper four lumbar vertebrae.

 

Occasionally, a second portion of this muscle is found in front of the preceding. It arises from the upper borders of the transverse processes of the lower three or four lumbar vertebræ, and is inserted into the lower margin of the last rib.

 

Relations[edit]

Anterior to the quadratus lumborum are the colon, the kidney, the psoas major and (if present) psoas minor, and the diaphragm; between the fascia and the muscle are the twelfth thoracic, ilioinguinal, and iliohypogastric nerves. Quadratus lumborum is a continuation of transverse abdominal muscle.

 

Variations[edit]

The number of attachments to the vertebræ and the extent of its attachment to the last rib vary.

 

Innervation[edit]

Anterior branches of the ventral rami of T12 to L4.

 

Functions[edit]

The quadratus lumborum can perform four actions:

 

Lateral flexion of vertebral column, with ipsilateral contraction

Extension of lumbar vertebral column, with bilateral contraction

Fixes the 12th rib during forced expiration. The quadratus lumborum assists the diaphragm in inhalation

Elevates the Ilium (bone), with ipsilateral contraction

PHILOLAUS PLATONIC FORMS AND ELEMENTS

http://www.crystalinks.com/philolaus.html

Speusipus, the Plato's successor at the Academy summarized Philolaus's work.Philolaus was deeply involved in the distinctively Pythagorean number theory, dwelling particularly on the properties inherent in the decad Ð the sum of the first four numbers, consequently the fourth triangular number, the tetractys Ð which he called great, all-powerful, and all-producing.

 

The great Pythagorean oath was taken by the sacred tetractys. The discovery of the regular solids is attributed to Pythagoras by Eudemus, and Empedocles is stated to have been the first who maintained that there are four classical elements.

 

Philolaus, connecting these ideas, held that the elementary nature of bodies depends on their form, and assigned the tetrahedron to fire, the octahedron to air, the icosahedron to water, and the cube to earth; the dodecahedron he assigned to a fifth element, aether, or, as some think, to the universe.

FOUR PERIODS PYTHAGOREANS

https://www.britannica.com/topic/Pythagoreanism#ref560025

Within the ancient Pythagorean movement four chief periods can be distinguished: early Pythagoreanism, dating from the late 6th century bce and extending to about 400 bce; 4th-century Pythagoreanism; the Hellenistic trends; and Neo-Pythagoreanism, a revival that occurred in the mid-1st century ce and lasted for two and a half centuries.

ARISTOTLE FOURFOLD

http://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=art_jbgc

system. The four member system is most concretely documented by Aristotle (although he tends to take the physical level for granted and thus does not actually speak of four). Though at present the least regarded aspect of the Four Elements theory, this

CHAPTER I: UNDERSTANDING FOUR COLORS PHILOSOPHY 13

quadripartite articulation of the human being has remained as the essential frame of reference of the western world and still survives—largely unexamined and uncoordinated—in our conceptual life as physical anthropology (study of skeletal systems, among other things), physiology (study of the vital systems, particularly glandular), psychology (study of the emotional and mental capacities, particularly as carried by the nervous system) and ego. Since modern psychology has no concept of soul as such, it overlaps into conclusions about the ego, which in the Greek system corresponds to a separate fourth member, nous, the cogitative faculty, not present in animals. In effect, the crowning term of the four—all derived from the Greek language and fossilized in our time—should be philosophy. The latter, deprived of its former relation to peoples who understand themselves in fourfold terms, has had no choice but to become increasingly abstract and peripheral in human affairs.

CHRYSSIPUS SAYS THE WHOLE BATTLE IS WITH THE FOURTH

http://www.iep.utm.edu/chrysipp/

There are four headings to prove there is nothing that can be known, cognized, or grasped, which is the subject of this whole controversy. The first of these is that (i) some false impression does exist. The second is that (ii) it is not cognitive. The third is that (iii) impressions between which there is no difference cannot be such that some are cognitive and others not. The fourth is that (iv) no true impression arises from sensation that does not have alongside it another impression, no different from it, that is not cognitive. Everyone accepts the second and third of these. Epicurus does not grant the first, but you…[Stoics], with whom we are dealing, admit that one. The entire battle is about the fourth.

64 FOUR TO THE THIRD POWER

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-ancient/

Theophrastus distinguished three figures of these syllogisms, depending on the position of the indefinite term (also called ‘middle term’) in the prosleptic premise; for example (1) produces a third figure syllogism, (2) a first figure syllogism. The number of prosleptic syllogisms was presumably equal to that of types of prosleptic sentences: with Theophrastus' concept of the first figure these would be sixty-four (i.e. 32 + 16 + 16). Theophrastus held that certain prosleptic premises were equivalent to certain categorical sentences, e.g. (1) to ‘A is predicated of all B’. However, for many, including (2), no such equivalent can be found, and prosleptic syllogisms thus increased the inferential power of Peripatetic logic.

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-ancient/

In Topics 1 Aristotle distinguishes four relationships a predicate may have to the subject: it may give its definition, genus, unique property, or accidental property

Where he uses letters, Aristotle tends to express the four types of categorical sentences in the following way (with common later abbreviations in parentheses):

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-ancient/

‘A holds of (lit., belongs to) every B’ (AaB)

‘A holds of no B’ (AeB)

‘A holds of some B’ (AiB)

‘A does not hold of some B’ (AoB)

FOUR BOOKS REMAIN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epictetus

The main work is The Discourses, four books of which have been preserved (out of the original eight).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallacy_of_four_terms

Equivocation of the middle term is a frequently cited source of a fourth term being added to a syllogism; both of the equivocation examples above affect the middle term of the syllogism. Consequently this common error itself has been given its own name: the fallacy of the ambiguous middle.[4] An argument that commits the ambiguous middle fallacy blurs the line between formal and informal (material) fallacies, however it is usually considered an informal fallacy because the argument's form appears valid.[5]

SOUL FOUR TYPES OF ATOMS

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Epicurus

Epicurus concluded that the soul must be a body, made up of four types of atoms and consisting of two parts: one distributed through the physical body and able to experience physical sensations; and a separate part, the psyche, located in the chest, which is the seat of thought, emotion and will. Thin films continuously issue from all bodies and reach the psyche through the pores. Thought occurs when the images constituted by these films are perceived by the psyche. The psyche is free to continually seize only the images it needs from these films.

HAYDN WHITE THE FOUR TROPES AND FOUCALTS FOUR PERIODS

http://visual-memory.co.uk/daniel/Documents/S4B/sem07.html

Hayden White has suggested a tropological sequence in Western discourse (originally based on historical writing), whereby the dominant trope changed from one period to the next - from metaphor to metonymy to synecdoche to irony (White 1973). He interprets Vico as the originator of this particular sequence, although Vico's hypothetical historical sequence for the development of the four key tropes seems to be open to the interpretation that it was from metonymy to synecdoche to metaphor to irony (White 1978, 5ff, 197ff; Vico 1968, 129-31). White suggests an ontogenetic parallel to his proposed sequence of tropes in Piaget's four stages of cognitive development. However, he denies any implication that earlier modes within such developmental schemes are in any way 'inferior' (White 1978, 9). This speculative analogy should not to be taken as suggesting that children's acquisition of these tropes is related to the age-ranges which are included here.

 

Hayden White's Sequence of Tropes Piagetian stages of cognitive development White's alignment of Foucault's historical epochs

Metaphor sensorimotor stage (birth to about 2 years) Renaissance period (sixteenth century)

Metonymy pre-operational stage (2 to 6/7 years) Classical period (seventeenth and eighteenth centuries)

Synecdoche concrete operations stage (6/7 to 11/12 years) Modern period (late eighteenth to early twentieth century)

Irony formal operations stage (11/12 to adult) Postmodern period

Michel Foucault undertook an 'archeological' study of three loosely defined historical periods: the 'Renaissance' period, the 'Classical' period and the 'Modern' period. He argued that each period had an underlying epistemology. White suggests that each of these periods, together with the Postmodern period in which Foucault wrote, reflects one of the four master tropes in White's suggested sequence (White 1978, 230-60). Elsewhere he argues that in Foucault, 'every "discursive formation" undergoes a finite number of... shifts before reaching the limits of the épistème that sanctions its operations. This number corresponds to the fundamental modes of figuration identified by the theory of tropology: metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche and irony (which is here understood as self-conscious catechresis)' (White 1979, 95). Cathachresis is variously defined, but it is based on the notion of an abusive comparison.

HAYDN WHITE FOUR PART TOPOLOGICAL SYSTEM

http://visual-memory.co.uk/daniel/Documents/S4B/sem07.html

Hayden White's four-part tropological system is widely cited and applied beyond the historiographical context in which he originally used it, and the application of such frameworks can often be enlightening. However, some caution is necessary in their use. Catachresis may be involved in applying any tropological framework. White himself notes that the 'affinities' suggested by his alignment of tropes with genres, worldviews and ideologies 'are not to be taken as necessary combinations of the modes in a given historian. On the contrary, the dialectical tension which characterizes the work of every master historian usually arises from an effort to wed a mode of emplotment with a mode of argument or of ideological implication which is inconsonant with it' (White 1973, 29). There is a danger of over-systematization when three- or four-fold distinctions are multiplied and correlated by analogy. Taken to relativistic extremes, everything can be taken as resembling everything else. Phenomena are seldom as tidy as our systems of classification. Systems always leak (and it's no good replacing the plumbing with poetry). Even Francis Bacon, who sought scientific dominion over nature, observed that 'the subtlety of nature is greater many times over than the subtlety of argument' (Bacon 1620, 261-2). It is for the individual reader to assess how interpretatively useful the application of such schemes may be on any particular occasion of use - and what the limitations of such analogies may be. Since they can be extraordinarily compelling, we need to ensure that they do not become 'more real' than what they purport to describe.

WHITE FOURFOLD FOUR ARCHETYPAL GENRES FOUR MODES- SAYS VICOS STAGES ARE NOT THREE BUT FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metahistory:_The_Historical_Imagination_in_Nineteenth-century_Europe

The theoretical framework is outlined in the first 50 pages of the book, which consider in detail eight major figures of 19th-century history and the philosophy of history. The larger context of historiography and writing in general is also considered. White's approach uses systematically a fourfold structural schema with two terms mediating between a pair of opposites.

 

For the typologies of emplotment, argumentation and ideologies White refers to works by Northrop Frye, Stephen Pepper and Karl Mannheim.[3] His four basic emplotments are provided by the archetypical genres of romance, comedy, tragedy and satire. The modes of argumentation, following Pepper's 'adequate root metaphors' are formist, organist, mechanicist and contextualist. Among the main types of Ideology White adopts anarchy, conservatism, radicalism and liberalism. White affirms that elective affinities link the three different aspects of a work and only four combinations (out of 64) are without internal inconsistencies or 'tensions'. The limitation arises through a general mode of functioning - representation, reduction, integration or negation, which White assimilates to one of the four main tropes: metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche and irony. Structuralists as Roman Jakobson or Emile Benveniste have used mostly an opposition between the first two of them but White refers to an earlier classification, adopted by Giambattista Vico and contrasts metaphor with irony.[4] The exemplary figures chosen by White present the ideal types of historians and philosophers.

 

In White's reading the epochs of Vico's Scienza Nuova are not three but four as the last age is followed by an 'ironic' episode of dissolution; he contends also that the same succession of tropes is underlying Foucault's analysis from The Order of Things; see White H., (1973) Foucault Decoded: Notes from Underground in Tropics of Discourse: Essays in Cultural Criticism. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. 1978. p.241. In 19th century historiography the leading tropes do not follow this strict order but coexist.

Jump up ^

ITS A THREE PLUS ONE BECAUSE ORIGINALLY IT WAS POSITED IT WAS THREE STAGES

The Four-Stage Theory of the Republic of China or the Theory of the Four Stages of the Republic of China is a viewpoint proposed by Chen Shui-bian, the President of the Republic of China (Taiwan) from 2000 to 2008, in 2005. It is a viewpoint regarding the political status of the Republic of China, whose government retreated to Taiwan after the Chinese Civil War in 1949. The main idea of the theory is that the time line for the development of the Republic of China can be classified into four stages, which are:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four-Stage_Theory_of_the_Republic_of_China

The Republic of China on the mainland. (Chinese: 中華民國在大陸, Republic of China (1912–49)) (1912–1949)

The Republic of China arrival to Taiwan. (Chinese: 中華民國來臺灣) (before Lee Teng-hui's presidency) (1949–1988)

The Republic of China on Taiwan. (Chinese: 中華民國在臺灣) (during Lee Teng-hui's presidency) (1988–2000)

The Republic of China is Taiwan. (Chinese: 中華民國是臺灣) (during Chen Shui-bian's presidency) (2000–2008)[1][2][3]

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_historiography

 

ADDED A FOURTH STAGE TO THE THREE

 

The schools of thought on the 1911 Revolution have evolved from the early years of the Republic. The Marxist view saw the events of 1911 as a Bourgeois Revolution.[26] In the 1920s, the Nationalist Party issued a theory of three political stages based on Sun Yatsen's writings:

 

Military unification – 1923 to 1928 (Northern Expedition)

Political tutelage – 1928 to 1947

Constitutional democracy – 1947 onward

The most obvious criticism is the near-identical nature of "political tutelage" and of a "constitutional democracy" consisting only of the one-party rule until the 1990s. Against this, Chen Shui-bian proposed his own four-stage theory.

FRYE FOURFOLDS- ADDS FOUR TO THREE- FOURTH TRANSCENDENT CHARACTER TYPE- BLAKE FOUR LEVELS OF VISION

https://macblog.mcmaster.ca/fryeblog/critical-method/theory-of-myths.html

Moreover, within the several cycles, Frye observes four main phases:

Seasons of the year: Spring Summer Fall Winter

Periods of the day: Morning Noon Evening Night

Aspects of water: Rains Fountains Rivers Sea, snow

Periods of life: Youth Maturity Old age Death

It is even possible to quadrisect the periods of Western culture into the Medieval Age, the Renaissance, the Eighteenth Century, and the Modern Period (AC, 160). The fourfold division has important consequences for the subsequent structure of Frye’s argument. Schematically, the cyclical paradigm is located within the order of nature, whereas the dialectical one moves from the order of nature toward or into the higher apocalyptic realm.

 

Frye’s method of argument at this point is based upon the similarities of “movement” between the seven categories of reality and the cyclical and dialectical processes of archetypes. Cyclically, the analogy produces four mythoi: comedy, romance, tragedy, and irony or satire (this latter also called “realism”). Dialectically, it produces an upward and downward movement between innocence and experience, apocalypse and nature, the ideal and the actual, the comic and the tragic. A {68} diagrammatic representation of these movements is found in Figure 10. We have already encountered a rudimentary form of the dialectical part of this design in the First Essay, where Frye uses “comic” and “tragic” in a similar pregeneric sense to describe aspects of mythos in general.

 

Figure 10. Cyclical and dialectical pattern of the four mythoi. {p. 68}

Figure 10. Cyclical and dialectical pattern of the four “mythoi.”

Figure 10, showing the quadrantal and cyclic pattern of the four mythoi and the dialectical arrangement of the mythical and realistic worlds, provides only the skeletal outline for Frye’s taxonomy. The mythos of archetypes is a complex theory, the fullest and most elaborately conceived section of the Anatomy. While it accounts for but one-half of Frye’s theory of archetypes, it comprises practically one-fourth {69} of the entire book. The elaborateness of its design results chiefly from the theory of phases, the word referring in this context to the variety of literary structures which can be isolated in any one mythos.4 Frye is able to discover six phases for each of the pregeneric mythoi; this yields, of course, twenty-four separate structures.

The argument is made more complex, however, by the fact that adjacent mythoi tend to merge. “If we think of our experience of these mythoi,” Frye says, “we shall realize that they form two opposed pairs. Tragedy and comedy contrast rather than blend, and so do romance and irony, the champions respectively of the ideal and actual. On the other hand, comedy blends insensibly into satire at one extreme and into romance at the other; romance may be comic or tragic; tragic extends from high romance to bitter and ironic realism” (AC, 162). To this should be added the fourth possible relation, namely, that irony merges insensibly into tragedy and comedy. We shall examine these correspondences in more detail below.

 

Structure The following analysis of the archetypal structure of the mythoi is based on two of the four typical patterns that Frye isolates: his treatment of comedy and romance. The normal pattern for comedy, he says, comes from the “plot structure of Greek New Comedy, as transmitted by Plautus and Terence. . . . What normally happens is that a young man wants a young woman, that his desire is resisted by some opposition, usually paternal, and that near the end of the play some twist in the plot enables the hero to have his will” (AC, 163). The action of this simple comic pattern has two centers of interest: the obstruction of the hero’s desire by certain usurpers or blocking characters who dominate the internal society of the play; and the overcoming of these obstacles in the comic resolution, out of which is created a new society, often signaled by such festive rituals as weddings, dances, banquets, and the like. The way a comedy is developed depends on which of these two centers of interest is heightened. If the interest falls mainly upon the blocking characters, and therefore upon the conflict, then ironic, satiric, realistic, or mannered forms of comedy tend to result. On the other hand, if the emphasis moves toward the comic anagnorisis and the reconciliation, then the resultant form is romantic comedy of the Shakespearean kind (AC, 164–67).

This disappearance of the hero is what leads to the qualification of Frye’s three-stage romantic plot; for there are not three distinguishable aspects of the quest-myth after all, bur four. Thus to the agon, the pathos, and the anagnorisis Frye now adds the sparagmos or the tearing to pieces of the hero—which is the form his disappearance frequently takes (AC, 190–92).

We have seen how the comic plot is but one aspect of the total mythos of comedy. In a similar though more expansive way the conflict of romance is but a part of a larger mythos which neatly binds together all the mythoi. It is not insignificant that Frye’s own version of the “monomyth” is presented in connection with his theory of romance:

The four mythoi that we are dealing with, comedy, romance, tragedy, and irony, may . . . be seen as four aspects of a central unifying myth. Agon or conflict is the basis or archetypal theme of romance, the radical of romance being a sequence of marvellous adventures. Pathos or catastrophe, whether in triumph or in defeat, is the archetypal theme of tragedy. Sparagmos, or the sense that heroism and effective action are absent, disorganized or foredoomed to defeat, and that confusion and anarchy reign over the world, is the archetypal theme of irony and satire. Anagnorisis, or the recognition of a newborn society rising in triumph around a still somewhat mysterious hero and his bride, is the archetypal theme of comedy. (AC, 192)

That each of these four aspects of the “central unifying myth” appears also in the quest-myth, which has a romantic structure, indicates that Frye conceives of romance, formally speaking, as the fullest or most comprehensive literary type.7 We shall return to Frye’s predilection for romance later in this study. What is important to observe now is that {73} the definition of the structure of a given mythos depends essentially on isolating one part of its narrative movement: in comedy it is the discovery; in romance the conflict. While these are elements of the structure of plot, Frye also refers to them as “themes.” The two words are in fact synonymous at one level, the action of a comedy, for example, being embodied in the thematic movement from illusion to reality. In another context Frye says that “narrative in literature may also be seen as theme, and theme is narrative, but narrative seen as a simultaneous unity. At a certain point in the narrative, the point which Aristotle called anagnorisis or recognition, the sense of linear continuity or participation in the action changes perspective, and what we now see is a total design or unifying structure in the narrative” (SS, 164). This appears to be very close to what Aristotle means by plot, though Frye himself often uses the word in the un-Aristotelian sense of a typical scenario (e.g., AC, 163).

 

Character Frye’s second aim in this section of the Third Essay is to determine the typical character of each mythos. A typical character for Frye is a “stock type,” though this expression is not meant to imply the antithesis of the lifelike character. All lifelike characters, he says, “owe their consistency to the appropriateness of the stock type which belongs to their dramatic function. That stock type is not the character but it is as necessary to the character as a skeleton is to the actor who plays it” (AC, 172). The framework for Frye’s discussion of these types is a set {74} of two pairs of categories, three of which (alazon, eiron, and bomolochos) derive from the previously mentioned Tractatus. To these Frye adds the “character whom Aristotle calls agroikos, [one we] may reasonably accept . . . as a fourth character type” (AC, 172). We are most familiar with these kinds of stock characters in comedy, yet in each of the other mythoi Frye locates types which correspond generally to the two basic oppositions: alazon (impostor) versus eiron (self-deprecator), bomolochos (buffoon) versus agroikos (churl, rustic).9

Characterization depends on function, Frye has said, and this principle underlies his differentiation of the four character types. An alazon, for example, is distinguished from an eiron on the basis of the separate roles they play in achieving a given narrative structure. However abstract the four general categories may appear, Frye’s discussion of them, in most cases, involves a wide range of particular illustrations. Moreover, the reference of each category, contrary to what the Greek label might imply, is not singularly restricted to some unambiguous prototype: alazon and eiron, for example, come to mean much more than simply impostor and self-deprecator, respectively. In fact, Frye develops a number of subtypes within each category. To illustrate the procedure he uses in denning these types and their variations, we turn once again to his analysis of the comic and romantic mythoi.

 

In fifth-phase comedy the ending is not so much a matter of the plot as it is the distanced perspective of the audience, who, looking down upon the action from a higher point of view, can distinguish the chaos of experience from the order of innocence. This phase, “less festive and more pensive” than fourth-phase comedy, can be called “Arcadian.” In it, says Frye, “the reader or audience feels raised above the action.” We look down on the plotting “as generic or typical human behavior: the action, or at least the tragic implication of the action, is presented as though it were a play within a play that we can see in all dimensions at once.” And what is seen is not merely the movement from winter to spring, as in green-world comedy, but one from “a lower world of confusion to an upper world of order” (AC, 184).

Now in the first five phases, according to Frye, we see a progressive movement toward the redeemed society. His own recapitulation of this grand scheme is as follows:

{80} Purely ironic comedy exhibits this society in its infancy, swaddled and smothered by the society it should replace. Quixotic comedy exhibits it in adolescence, still too ignorant of the ways of the world to impose itself. In the third phase it comes to maturity and triumphs; in the fourth it is already mature and established. In the fifth it is part of a settled order which has been there from the beginning, an order which takes on an increasingly religious cast and seems to be drawing away from human experience altogether. At this point the undisplaced commedia, the vision of Dante’s Paradiso, moves out of our circle of mythoi into the apocalyptic or abstract mythical world above it. (AC, 185)

3. The influence of Blake on Frye’s entire conception of archetypal imagery should be noted. His essay on Blake’s Milton is strikingly similar to the first section of the Third Essay. In charting the structure of Blake’s symbolism, Frye relies on the same matrix of categories as in the Anatomy. The one difference is that Blake conceives of only four levels of vision (Eden or Paradise, Beulah or Innocence, Generation or Experience, and Ulro or Hell), whereas in the Anatomy there are five. It is perhaps significant that Frye attaches no name to his additional category. He says, in fact, that he will devote little attention to it “in order to preserve the simpler undisplaced structures,” that is, the apocalyptic and demonic ones (AC, 151). The inference seems to be that in Blake’s conception of the four levels of vision we have the source for the horizontal categories of Frye’s archetypal matrix. Certainly the seven vertical categories do not derive from Blake; they are much older than that. But Frye puts them to extensive use in outlining the symbolism in each of Blake’s four “worlds.” See “Notes for a Commentary on Milton,” pp. 108–29.

4. In the Second Essay “phase” is used to describe the different kinds of symbolic interpretation. Frye also uses the word to refer to the fourfold division of cyclical symbols. See AC, 160.

5. There is a slight variation on this pattern in Frye’s treatment of the fourth mythos.

6. Frye’s earliest account of the dragon-killing theme is his discussion of Blake’s Orc symbolism in FS, 207–26.

GEBSERS FOUR CIVILIZATIONAL TYPES

https://longsworde.wordpress.com/2012/10/14/a-tale-of-two-seers-william-blake-and-jean-gebser/

We have earlier noted the correspondences between Blake’s “fourfold vision” and his four “Zoas” with Jean Gebser’s insights into the history of civilisations as being, in effect, a history of the mutations of consciousness, where civilisational types are appreciated as being particular “structures of consciousness”. For Gebser, there have been correspondingly only four civilizational types hitherto. These he calls the archaic, the magical, the mythical, and the mental (or mental-rational). In addition, he anticipates yet a fifth mutational form or structure, presently in process of “irruption”, that he calls the emerging “integral” or holistic.

FOUR TYPES OF ANTINOMY

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Antinomy

Four Types of Antinomy in the “Transcendental Dialectic” of the Critique of Pure Reason

In the section, “Transcendental Dialectic” in the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant presented four types of antinomies.

 

The First Antinomy

 

Thesis: The world is finite in time and space.

Antithesis: The world is infinite in time and space.

Kant's own formulation in the Critique of Pure Reason:

 

Thesis: The world has a beginning in time, and is also limited in terms of space.

Antithesis: The world has no beginning, and no limits in space; it is infinite in terms of both time and space.

(Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, Book II, Chapter II, Section 2. Norman Kemp-Smith's translation)

The first antinomy arises for the question of whether the world has the beginning in time or not, and whether it is spatially finite or not. Reason can argue for each position but cannot reach any conclusive position. Reason cannot decide and resolve the antinomy.

 

The Second Antinomy

 

Thesis: The world consists of indivisible elements.

Antithesis: The world does not consist of indivisible elements.

Kant's own formulation in the Critique of Pure Reason:

 

Thesis: Every composite substance in the world is made up of simple parts, and nothing anywhere exists save the simple or what is composed of the simple.

Antithesis: No composite thing in the world is made up of simple parts, and nothing simple exists in the world anywhere.(Ibid.)

The question is about the divisibility of components of the world. Can we divide the component of the world into such elements as atoms or particles, and further divide into finer components indefinitely? Or do we reach the final component whose further division is impossible?

 

The Third Antinomy

 

Thesis: Freedom exists as a causality in the world.

Antithesis: There is no freedom and everything in the world takes place according to laws of nature.

Kant's own formulation in the Critique of Pure Reason:

 

Thesis: Causality in accordance with laws of nature is not the only causality from which the appearances of the world can one and all be derived. To explain these appearances it is necessary to assume that there is also another causality, that of freedom.

Antithesis: There is no freedom; everything in the world takes place solely in accordance with laws of nature.(Ibid)

If we trace a chain of cause and effect, do we reach the final point called freedom, which is the initial cause of the causal chain? Or do we never reach the final point, and so the chain of cause and effect continues endlessly? Is there any point outside of the causal chain of beings in the universe? The Fourth Antinomy

 

Thesis: There is an absolutely necessary being (such as God) in the causal chain of beings

Antithesis: There is no absolutely necessary being.

Kant's own formulation in the Critique of Pure Reason:

 

Thesis: There belongs to the world, either as its part or as its cause, a being that is absolutely necessary.

Antithesis: An absolutely necessary being exists nowhere in the world, nor does it exist outside the world as its cause.

(Ibid)

The question, here, is whether we can suppose the existence of God as the being which necessarily exists. Anselm of Canterbury formulated an ontological proof of the existence of God: God is a unique being who exists by its essence. Anselm's was based upon the idea that God is that which "is" or who He is. The validity of this ontological argument has been discussed throughout the history of philosophy. Kant argued that we cannot settle the argument conclusively through rational arguments because the faculty of reason can make two incompatible claims.

FOUR DISTINGUISHING FEATURES

KANT

 

http://www.iep.utm.edu/kantaest/

Overview: The Critique of Judgment begins with an account of beauty. The initial issue is: what kind of judgment is it that results in our saying, for example, 'That is a beautiful sunset'. Kant argues that such aesthetic judgments (or 'judgments of taste') must have four key distinguishing features. First, they are disinterested, meaning that we take pleasure in something because we judge it beautiful, rather than judging it beautiful because we find it pleasurable. The latter type of judgment would be more like a judgment of the 'agreeable', as when I say 'I like doughnuts'.

 

Second and third, such judgments are both universal and necessary. This means roughly that it is an intrinsic part of the activity of such a judgment to expect others to agree with us. Although we may say 'beauty is in the eye of the beholder', that is not how we act. Instead, we debate and argue about our aesthetic judgments - and especially about works of art -and we tend to believe that such debates and arguments can actually achieve something. Indeed, for many purposes, 'beauty' behaves as if it were a real property of an object, like its weight or chemical composition. But Kant insists that universality and necessity are in fact a product of features of the human mind (Kant calls these features 'common sense'), and that there is no objective property of a thing that makes it beautiful.

 

Fourth, through aesthetic judgments, beautiful objects appear to be 'purposive without purpose' (sometimes translated as 'final without end'). An object's purpose is the concept according to which it was made (the concept of a vegetable soup in the mind of the cook, for example); an object is purposive if it appears to have such a purpose; if, in other words, it appears to have been made or designed. But it is part of the experience of beautiful objects, Kant argues, that they should affect us as if they had a purpose, although no particular purpose can be found.

KANT USES THE FOUR HUMOURS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observations_on_the_Feeling_of_the_Beautiful_and_Sublime

Kant will attempt to fit the various feelings of the beautiful and sublime, and the resulting moral characters, into Galen's rigid arrangement of the four humours or human temperaments: melancholic, sanguine, choleric, and phlegmatic.

 

Kant asserted that the human temperaments or dispositions are fixed and separate characters. An individual who has one frame of mind has no feeling or sense for the finer feelings that occur in a person of another temperament.

 

A person who has a constitution that is melancholic will have a predominating feeling for the sublime. That person may possess genuine virtue based on the principle that humanity has beauty and worth.

One who has a sanguine nature will mostly have a feeling for the beautiful. This results in an "adoptive" virtue that rests on goodheartedness. This person's compassion and sympathy depend on the impression of the moment.

A choleric human will have a feeling for the splendid or showy sublime. As a result, this person will possess an apparent virtue. Kant calls it "a gloss of virtue." This includes a sense of honor and concern for outward appearance.

Phlegmatic people have apathy or lack of any finer feeling. They therefore may have an absence of virtue.

http://www.psymeet.com/articles/IMART/img/figure5.jpg
http://www.psymeet.com/articles/IMART/IMART.html
L’Abate’s four-level hierarchy may alternatively be viewed as projected onto a plane to form four “Quadrants” that are positioned along two orthogonal continua, namely Abstraction–Concreteness and Generality–Specificity. The Basis Quadrant contains a reviewer’s descriptions of those app Attributes that concern the app’s purpose, the kind of benefits an app promises to bring and the psychological concept of how this will come about. The Identity Quadrant holds concrete detail identifying which app is under review and who the reviewer is along with notes about the review process itself. The Outcome Attributes are for rating the impact the reviewer expects users of the app to experience and how well the app’s promise is likely to be fulfilled. The reviewer rates and describes the technicalities, as the Features of the app. (After L’Abate [83].)

I LEARNED ABOUT THIS AT UCSD YOU MAKE FOUR QUADRANTS FOR THE RATS

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4545046/

Create four equal quadrants inside the maze

Click the “Ellipse” option under the “Zone Definition” tab first, and create a circle that matches the maze on the screen. Note: On this tab, the actual maze set up is displayed, so it allows the option to match the computer setup with the actual maze setup.

Click the “Rectangle” option and create four equal squares. Place these squares on the screen to create four equal quadrants within the newly created circle.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text

Four Mice Deep in the Jungle (March 2004)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geronimo_Stilton

Quadrant

edit me. It's easy.

PROCLUS ON THE MISSING FOURTH IN THE TETRACTYS AND PLATO

https://muse.jhu.edu/article/617083/summary

In Proclus’ words, the pinnacle of the triad subsumes all that comes second and fully supplies what is lacking in them. The higher levels one, two, and three can supply the fourth. The missing fourth person represents the important principle that the material world is supplied by higher hypostases and the greater multiplicity of the lowest rung is subsumed by a higher infrastructure (the more unified numbers of the tetractys).

ARISTOTLE FOURFOLD CLASSIFICATION OF BEING

https://subratachak.files.wordpress.com/2016/04/socretis-class.jpg?w=1360

 

https://subratachak.wordpress.com/tag/aristotle/

Aristotle’s Categories is a work of ontology. That is, it is about onta,beings, or what there is. He is interested in classifying the kinds of beings there are. And within that classification, he wants to identify the beings that are the most fundamental, important, or real. Let’s look now at the four-fold classification of beings that he generates in chapter two. And then see how he uses that classification to identify the most fundamental realities. Aristotle generates this four-fold ontology by invoking the two subject predicate relations that we’ve been examining. Being said of a subject and being in a subject.

 

He thinks you can sort anything that is into one of four categories by asking two questions about it.

Is it said of a subject? Yes or no?

And is it in a subject? Yes or no?

 

Harry Potter fans can think of this as the two questions asked by the Sorting Hat at the Aristotelian Institute of Ontology.

 

We’ve just seen that the distinction between “being said of” a subject, and “not being said” of any subject, amounts to the distinction between universals and particulars. Thus, human being is a universal, which is “said of” Socrates, a particular. And labrador retriever, dog, and animal are universals that are “said of” the particular labrador retriever, Fido.

 

Okay, so that’s the east west distinction. What about the north south distinction? This concerns whether an entity is in a subject. Recall Aristotle’s definition of being in a subject or as we’ve been calling it, inherence. What belongs to something not as a part,

and cannot exist separately from what it is in. We saw how this is the relation in which walking stands to Socrates. Walking is an activity of Socrates. It is the sort of thing that cannot exist without being the activity of something. This is also the relation in which brown stands to Fido, supposing Fido was one of those beautiful chocolate brown labrador retrievers. So, walking and brown are inherent items, while Socrates and Fido are not. Things like colors, shapes, locations, activities, and so on go below the line. Since they exist, only by inhering in subjects like Socrates or Fido. But Socrates and Fido don’t inhere

in anything more fundamental so they go above the line.

 

In chapter four, Aristotle introduces the term substance to refer to the subjects of inherent items. Those above the line. Socrates and Fido are substances.

 

Now what should we call the items that go below the line, beyond the fact that they inhere in substances? In chapter four, Aristotle just gives us a list, quality, quantity, activity, and so on. The list, however, provides us with a way of classifying the source of things that inhere in substances such as Socrates and Fido. That is, he’s enumerating the sorts of things that can be said of the particular items that inhere in Socrates or Fido. For example, take brown, which is in Fido, what is it? Brown is a color. So color instead of brown, that means color goes in the right hand column because it’s a universal. But below the line because it inheres in a subject. Now just as in the case of the universals above the line where we can ask what is a dog, and get the answer it is an animal, we can ask further of color. Below the line, what is it, and eventually we are going to get the answer color is a quality. So quality goes in this quadrant as well. Note, that quality is one of the ten categories of being that are listed in chapter four, where Aristotle says that every entity invoked in a predication is either a substance, or quantity, or quality, or relative, or where, or when, or being-in-a-position, or having, or acting, or undergoing. Indeed, all of those categories other than substance that is quality, quantity, position, relation, activity, and so forth.

http://tomblackson.com/Ancient/fourfold.png

http://tomblackson.com/Ancient/chapter92.html

Plato had emphasized the ontological division between general and particular things. Aristotle thinks that there is an equally important division that Plato overlooked. In addition to the division between particular and general, Aristotle thinks that in reality there is a division between object and property. Thus, according to Aristotle, in reality there are four kinds of things: (i) particular objects, (ii) particular properties, (iii) general objects, and (iv) general properties.

What’s interesting from List’s perspective is that even though most of the contemporary debate settles around these two concepts of freedom, there is a broader logical space of freedom that is being ignored. After all, there are two dimensions along which theories of freedom can vary which suggests, at a minimum, four logically possible theories of freedom. The two-by-two matrix below depicts this logical space:

https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-bDQRa3aDpPE/WDrqUIB6MDI/AAAAAAAAEUo/Vm63OBpdj8IzVMB4FirbmoxnUOsVz09TgCLcB/s1600/List%2527s%2Blogical%2Bspaces.001.jpeg

http://philosophicaldisquisitions.blogspot.com/2016/11/

Quadrant

WESTONS FOUR CONCEPTS OF CONSENT

https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-tKrN5X6JDrg/WDro-MYDYuI/AAAAAAAAEUI/UUbbME6p_MQOcFGsxBZ1_xtmKbyOj9qGwCLcB/s1600/Frameworks%2Bfor%2Bconsent.002.jpeg

http://philosophicaldisquisitions.blogspot.com/2016/11/

Third, there is Westen’s four concepts of consent. Consent is often described as being a form of ‘moral magic’ - it is the special ingredient that translates morally impermissible acts (e.g. rape) into permissible ones (e.g. sexual intercourse). But the term consent is used in different ways in legal and moral discourse. Westen’s framework divides these concepts of consent up in two main sub-categories: factual and prescriptive. He then identifies two further sub-types of consent under each category. This helps to make sense of the different claims one hears about consent in moral and legal debates.

FOUR STAGES

https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-r1sVnbYMxm4/WDrp-5Hb82I/AAAAAAAAEUg/xG3PL6dcr9kmMLsgYRAsOZFGWbUPFR5wwCLcB/s1600/Frameworks%2Bfor%2BAlgocracy.001.jpeg

http://philosophicaldisquisitions.blogspot.com/2016/11/

Citron and Pasquale (2014) develop a similar framework. They use different terminology but they talk about the same thing. They focus in particular on credit-scoring algocratic systems which they suggest have four main stages to them. This is illustrated in the diagram below:

http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/7/1/222/htm

In a different approach, the foresight literature has also proposed a number of frameworks to analyse and develop future scenarios. The need to manage the combinatorial explosion in the number of scenarios which may arise from concurrently addressing several issues and drivers has led many teams to adopt the double uncertainty, grid or 2 × 2 matrix approach [9,45,114,115,116,117], in which the two most important or most uncertain issues under analysis define the axes of a 2D futures’ plane in which the resulting four quadrants provide alternative paths to explore. A different, but somehow related, approach relies on the observation that different teams dealing with different foresight questions even in different cultural contexts often converge towards a small number of themes, or future “archetypes” [9,11,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,123,124,125,126,127,128,129]. In applied foresight exercises, often these archetypes are plotted on a 2 × 2 plane or may naturally emerge from the choice of the double uncertainty axis, which results is a certain overlap between the archetypes and grid approaches [4,5,6,9,12,13,123,130,131,132].

In this work we borrow extensively from the archetype framework described in [124], which draws on the reviews by [119,128]. The archetypes there described are good representatives of several similar choices available in the literature [119,128,129,133,134,135]. For visualisation purpose the original authors plotted these archetypes on a 2 × 2 plane, but avoided the potentially ambiguous task of assigning meaning to the axes. We follow the same approach and adopt four archetypes:

Growth represents a “business as usual” world with globalisation and free trade as major forces under the premise of possible continuous economic growth.

Restraint, highlights the government role in oversighting economic and environmental priorities, which can emerge either top-down or bottom up. Social, environmental and economic concerns are given comparable attention.

Transformation envisages a very different future, as a result of technological, environmental, moral or social forces, or a combination of them.

Decline sees our civilisation approaching some kind of breaking point, as a result of environmental, social or moral stresses. Some serious, possibly painful, adjustment will have to happen before further development is possible. This archetypes was referred to as “Catastrophe” in [124].

This is where things get interesting. Using the last two parameters, we can construct a grid which we can use to classify algocratic decision-procedures. The grid looks something like this:

https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-zhvadi0-uk4/WDrqrnpjvjI/AAAAAAAAEU0/41tZ2zi_G7MKoX4KjjbmCbrFiKQbYGC5QCLcB/s1600/The%2BLogical%2BSpace%2Bof%2BAlgocracy.001.jpeg

http://philosophicaldisquisitions.blogspot.com/2016/11/

Quadrant

The educational designer has an opportunity to manipulate the structure and amount of dialogue in the learning sequence. High and low levels of each variable present educational opportunities in four quadrants, measured according to the degree of structure and dialogue found within them (Kawachi, 2009).

https://i2.wp.com/teachingcrowds.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/000019.jpg?zoom=2&w=700

images

https://teachingcrowds.ca/discuss-the-chapters/chapter-2-social-learning-theories

Figure 2.3 Transactional distance quadrants (adapted from Kawachi, 2009).

 

As illustrated in figure 2.3, there are many potential classic forms of formal and informal study that are associated with each of the quadrants. However, each learning context results in more or fewer restrictions on student freedoms, and each is associated with different degrees of scalability, speed of production, direct and indirect costs, and other variables. Rather than dispute the value of intense interaction as advocated by proponents of collaborative and cohort models of distance education (Garrison, 2000) or celebrating the autonomy offered by individual study (Holmberg, 1986), Moore’s transactional distance theory (1993) helps us create models that trade off the advantages of both. Anderson has argued for an equivalency theory that postulates “deep and meaningful formal learning is supported as long as one of the three forms of interaction—student–teacher; student–student; student–content—is at a high level. The other two may be offered at minimal levels, or even eliminated, without degrading the educational experience” (2003, p.4). Thus, tension exists between developing formal learning programs that decrease transactional distance by increasing interaction and decreasing prescriptive activity, and providing access to educational experience that is of both high quality and affordable cost.

https://deanyeong.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/happiness-quadrants.jpg

https://deanyeong.com/author/deanyeong/

These four types of hamburgers or activities made up four quadrants called the Happiness Quadrants, from the book Happier by Tal Ben-Shahar. Looking at these four quadrants, it’s clear that why some people are happy and some are depressed. Your happiness is directly affected by what you’re focusing on.

ANSELMS FOUR MODALITIES

http://carlos-trigoso.com/fundamental-conceptions-of-information/persistence-of-techno-centrism/

http://carlos-trigoso.com/wp-content/uploads/26.png

For my own research it was decisive to be able to match Moretti’s insights into this matter with the medieval logic of St. Anselm of Canterbury[xxxvi], brilliantly analysed by Sara Uckelman and Douglas Walton.[xxxvii] Anselm develops the logic of action, a modal logic articulated around the verb “to do” (“facere” in Latin)[xxxviii]. As explained in particular by S. Uckelman, St. Anselm had a unique approach to modal logic which can be compared with advantage to modern modal logic of action. In this logic, there are four main modalities:

 

Facere esse (to cause to be)

Facere non esse (to cause not to be)

Non Facere esse (not to cause to be)

Non Facere non esse (not to cause not to be)

Using simple logical symbolism, these formulae may also be written as:

 

Fp

F~p

~Fp

~F~p

And a diagram may clarify the relationships between the logical terms:

ANSELM OF CANTERBURYS LOGIC OF ACTION QUADRANT

http://carlos-trigoso.com/fundamental-conceptions-of-information/persistence-of-techno-centrism/

http://carlos-trigoso.com/wp-content/uploads/27.png

Anselm of Canterbury’s “Logic of Action” according to S. Uckelman

 

The studies by S. Uckelman are in themselves interesting as they unfold a Medieval Logic which sheds a powerful light both on history and the nature of modal logic itself. Modern logic does not seem so “modern” after reading her analysis of Anselm’s logic of action. For my own purposes, though, I find it particularly useful linking the logic of the verb “to do” –as proposed by Anselm hundreds of years ago, with modern deontic logic, or the logic of obligation.

 

We can use modal logic symbols to depict a simple logic of obligation in the square of opposition as follows:

 

27

 

 

A simple deontic logic in the square of opposition

 

The reader probably will see that a logic of the verb “to do” maps neatly to a logic of obligation and permission, so “Facere esse” is compatible with Obligation (OA), and “Facere non esse” is compatible with Prohibition (O~A). The other two quadrants have similar equivalences. The most interesting point here is that through this translation, we can also reach a logical square that is immediately applicable to Security concerns, i.e. the concerns of reading and writing (as explained in previous chapters). A diagram shows this derivation: