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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Canon_of_Medicine

 

Thesis I Definition and Scope of Medicine[edit]

Avicenna begins part one by dividing theoretical medicine and medical practice. He describes what he says are the "four causes" of illness, based on Aristotelian philosophy: The material cause, the efficient cause, the formal cause, and the final cause:[8]:29–31

 

Material Cause Avicenna says that this cause is the human subject itself, the "members or the breath" or "the humours" indirectly.

Efficient Cause The efficient cause is broken up into two categories: The first is "Extrinsic", or the sources external to the human body such as air or the region we live in. The second efficient cause is the "Intrinsic", or the internal sources such as our sleep and "its opposite-the waking state", the "different periods of life", habits, and race.

Formal Cause The formal cause is what Avicenna called "the constitutions ; the compositions". According to Oskar Cameron Gruner, who provides a treatise within Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, this was in agreement with Galen who believed that the formal cause of illness is based upon the individual's temperament.

Final Cause The final cause is given as "the actions or functions".

Thesis II The Elements of Cosmology[edit]

Avicenna's thesis on the elements of the cosmos is described by Gruner as "the foundation of the whole Canon".[8]:39 Avicenna insists here that a physician must assume the four elements that are described by natural philosophy,[8]:34 although Avicenna makes it clear that he distinguishes between the "simple" element, not mixed with anything else, and what we actually experience as water or air, such as the sea or the atmosphere. The elements we experience are mixed with small amounts of other elements and are therefore not the pure elemental substances.[8]:202 The "light" elements are fire and air, while the "heavy" are earth and water:

 

The Earth Avicenna upholds Aristotelian philosophy by describing Earth as an element that is geocentric. The Earth is at rest, and other things tend towards it because of its intrinsic weight. It is cold and dry.[8]:35

The Water Water is described as being exterior to the sphere of the Earth and interior to the sphere of the Air, because of its relative density. It is cold and moist. "Being moist, shapes can be readily fashioned (with it), and as easily lost (and resolved)."[8]:35

The Air The position of Air above Water and beneath Fire is "due to its relative lightness". It is "hot and moist", and its effect is to "rarefy" and make things "softer".[8]:36

The (sphere of the) Fire Fire is higher than the other elements, "for it reaches to the world of the heavens". It is hot and dry; it traverses the substance of the air, and subdues the coldness of the two heavy elements; "by this power it brings the elementary properties into harmony."[8]:37

Thesis III The Temperaments[edit]

The Canon of Medicine divides the thesis on temperaments into three subsections; a general overview, one based on members of the body, and temperaments based on age.

 

I The Temperaments (General description)[edit]

The temperaments are reported to be the interaction between the four different element's qualities, such as the conflict between dryness, wetness, cold, and hot. Avicenna suggests that these qualities battle between each other until an equilibrium state is reached and this state is known as the temperaments.[8]:57–65

 

The Canon also adopted the ancient theory of Four Temperaments and extended it to encompass "emotional aspects, mental capacity, moral attitudes, self-awareness, movements and dreams." This expanded theory of four temperaments is given in the following table:[10]

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/new-names-for-old-feelings/

This is also from the website quadrisformatio where the author found a lot of fourfolds--- except I added the quadrant stuff- first quadrant second so fourth

Schopenhauer is considered one of the greatest philosophers in history. Einstein claimed that reading Schopenhauer was what inspired his philosophy and his theories on the nature of reality

Schopenhauer graduated, in 1813, on a thesis called ‘On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason‘ (‘Die Vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom Zureichenden Grunde‘). Sufficient reasons fall, according to Schopenhauer, into four logical categories:

—————— Category —————————————————————— Causation ————

1. physical world science

2. ongoing history time/space mathematical determination

3. organic physical objects moving through space and time logical entailment

4. medium (to animate physical objects) motivated action

This division, which covers every ‘necessary connection’, was an effort to construct a communication-model between the innate natural world and the human interference (intentions) therein. This presentation is, at scrutiny, an example of tetradic thinking, because it showed a fourfold subdivision in which the original quadrant-sequence is given (in a reverse order):

———————- First Quadrant (I) : motivated action

———————- Second Quadrant (II) : logical entailment

———————- Third Quadrant (III) : mathematical determination

———————- Fourth Quadrant (IV) : science

His main work was called ‘The World as Will and Representation‘ (‘Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung‘), which was published in 1818. The book consisted of four parts: epistemology, ontology, aesthetics and metaphysics of the person (ethics), and a critique of Kant as an appendix.

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/703/

The emblematic ‘Four Sources of Knowledge’ were later used by Athanasius Kircher in his optical publication ‘Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae’ (Rome, 1646). Kircher compared the action of light to that of a magnet.

The dualistic element is enhanced by the opposition between the profane knowledge – associated with a garden – and the senses depicted as a cave, the symbol of darkness. In the garden stands a sundial, but the beam of light goes astray in the darkness of the cave. The tetradic notion was represented in the corners of the picture as the ‘Four Sources of Knowledge’: the Sacral Authority with the Scriptures), the Ratio (symbolized as a writing hand with an unlighted eye), the Worldly Authority, and the Senses, depicted with a telescope and a pointing hand.

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/in-search-of-extremes/

The edition of Rupert van Deutz’s ‘De Divinis Officiis’ (On divine offices) in Cologne offered a book in which knowledge was presented in its most exuberant form (the original manuscript was from around 1110 AD). Remarkable is the quality of the indexes in the printed version of 1543. The reader is guided to a keyword in the text by a division of the reference-page in four parts.

——————————— A – principium

——————————— B – medium superius

——————————— C – medium inferius

——————————— D – finem paginae

I WATCHED A TEACHING COMPANY COURSE ON KANT WHERE THEY DREW THE FOUR QUADRANTS AND SAID HOW THE FOURTH WAS DIFFERENT ANALYTIC APOSTERIORI ANALYTIC APOSTERIORI IS THE DIFFERENT FOURTH WHICH PEOPLE SAY IS IMPOSSIBLE BUT SOME PHILOSOPHER HAVE COME FOURTH SAYING NOT ONLY IS ANALYTIC APOSTERIORI NOT IMPOSSIBLE BUT EVERYTHING IS ANALYTIC APOSTERIORI. THE FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT

 

http://68.media.tumblr.com/24fd2914c7573e0240931a7c8a8dea8b/tumblr_inline_nvargw9uK91rggsaa_500.jpg

 

http://68.media.tumblr.com/24fd2914c7573e0240931a7c8a8dea8b/tumblr_inline_nvargw9uK91rggsaa_500.jpg

 

Analytic a priori is warranted by what’s called the law of contradiction. You can’t say that a rose is not a flower or that a bachelor is unmarried, these are the definitions of the subjects.

 

Analytic a posteriori doesn’t exist. You can’t have analytical judgements based on experience since they’re universal and necessary, a circle is round before you experience such a thing.

 

Synthetic a posteriori is warranted by experience. This circle is 10 feet in diameter because I measured it, these roses are red because the light reflected off the petals and that was the visual experience I synthesized.

 

Synthetic A Priori

This is it, this is exactly where Kant comes in on his pale white horse to save philosophy from Descartes’ bullshit and Hume’s skepticism. This quadrant is where the general problem of pure reason comes into play, how can statements of pure intuition eventually allow for us to reach certainty? Well… you can’t totally. Kant gives Hume’s complete skepticism some room by saying that while we may not completely be able to reach things with absolute certainty, we can definitely find propositions that are highly probable. This is why you don’t put your hands on the stove or why if someone points a gun at you it might incite fear, you can’t know for sure the stove will be hot or that the gun will fire if the trigger is pulled, but you can have some certainty. 

 

Kant admits that human beings only experience appearances, not things in themselves. To impress your friends at parties, you can say that we experience phenomena, but we never experience the noumenal world, that is the thing outside of our experiences. This idea is called Transcendental idealism.

 

Ok so, Kant broke down the question of how Synthetic A Priori judgements can be reached in three (3) subquestions. How are synthetic a priori judgments possible in mathematics, in natural sciences and in metaphysics?

 

1. Synthetic A Priori in Mathematics are possible through what Kant called transcendental aesthetic, not aesthetics in the sense of Fiji water pictures but aesthetic in the way of sense. Mathematics is the study of the conditions for the possibility of sensibility (space and time)

Space is our ability for outer experience and time is our ability for inner experiences. What does this mean? Well, imagine an apple. Got it? Its floating in some huge void maybe white or black right? That’s our inner intuition for space according to Kant, innate in us. Now imagine the apple moving back and forth or maybe rotting, that’s time.

 

2. Synthetic A Priori in the natural sciences is possible through transcendental logic. That is the study of the condition for the possibility of understanding beyond sensuous experience. Big words, big words, Kant pretty much states that knowledge contains two elements. First, an experiential element, sense data, feelings and percepts. The other element is structural or relational, we conceptualize feelings and data. The Kantian distinction between percepts and concepts are as followed. If you were to randomly show up in Venice knowing nothing about the city, and just walked around looking at the sights and building and people, you would be going off percepts without and intelligible concepts. On the other hand if you were to go study Venice in texts, pictures and have thoughts on it, you’d be going off concepts alone with no sensible percepts to aid you.

 

Kant has a famous quote for this “Thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind.  

 

3. Synthetic A Priori in metaphysics is a bit more funky but Kant states that every judgement the mind makes presupposes one of the twelve synthetic operations of the Aristotelian categories which provide the transcendental rules that underlie and make possible our empirical judgements. This more or less means that categories allow us to filter experience and enable our knowledge.

 

Kant’s categories are a remix of Aristotelian categories. These FOUR categories are innate in all of us according to Kant and they are as follow: 

 

Quantity; unity, plurality and totality.

Quality; Reality, negation and limitation.

Relation; substance, causality and interaction.

Modality; Possibility, existence, and necessity.

 

All sensuous experience falls into one of these categories in each list. An example is Kant’s thinking cap wherein he’s about to make a shot.

 

An important thing to note about Kant’s metaphysical deduction is that things beyond the limits of reason are an illegitimate attempt to apply categories to things-in-themselves. Kant in a way kills metaphysics, God specially.

 

So more or less this is the Critique of Pure Reason, that is Kant’s theory of knowledge. This is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to Kantian epistemology but it should provide an ok foundation for anyone starting out, so congrats if you can comprehend this, great at parties when you’re surrounded by boring stoners spouting “can you really know anything, man?” Good ol Kant says yeah.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge

As a measure of religiosity in sociology of religion[edit]

According to the sociologist Mervin F. Verbit, knowledge may be understood as one of the key components of religiosity. Religious knowledge itself may be broken down into four dimensions:

 

content

frequency

intensity

centrality

http://www.collective-evolution.com/2014/01/06/at-least-4-known-alien-species-have-been-visiting-earth-for-thousands-of-years-x-canadian-defence-minister-continues-to-blow-the-whistle/

“AT LEAST 4 KNOWN ALIEN SPECIES HAVE BEEN VISITING EARTH FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS” X CANADIAN DEFENCE MINISTER CONTINUES TO BLOW THE WHISTLE

ARISTOTLE SAID THAT THERE WERE FOUR LEVLES OF BEING, mineral, vegetable, animal, and human (I listened to a lecture by a Christian philosopher who described this). MODERN PHILOSOPHERS LIKE SCHUMACHER SAY THAT ARISTOTLE WAS RIGHT, THERE ARE FOUR LEVELS OF BEING- and they point out that it has never been substantially explained by scientists or philosophers why there is in fact four levels of being

https://books.google.com/books?id=GCS8lAIjtCwC&pg=PA31&lpg=PA31&dq=aristotle+four+hierarchy+of+being+mineral+vegetable&source=bl&ots=_mgYf7enqn&sig=vvyatUsKyf_NzAfE3lfI7x2jSKI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjNxqmMjvrSAhXlxFQKHdYfAJkQ6AEILjAD#v=onepage&q=aristotle%20four%20hierarchy%20of%20being%20mineral%20vegetable&f=false

https://books.google.com/books?id=egDAfpkONRsC&pg=PA198&lpg=PA198&dq=aristotle+four+hierarchy+of+being+mineral+vegetable&source=bl&ots=KrE56Ivw-Z&sig=34ESqF3W0baClsmSAsASq4EhtfQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjNxqmMjvrSAhXlxFQKHdYfAJkQ6AEIMTAE#v=onepage&q=aristotle%20four%20hierarchy%20of%20being%20mineral%20vegetable&f=false

Abdul Baha- of Bahaism, agreed with Aristotle that there are four levels of being, mineral, vegetable, animal, and human. The FOURTH HUMAN IS DIFFERENT. Like I said there are books written by modern philosophers who agree that there are four levels of being and they say that modern scientists cannot accurately explain why in fact there are these four levels. I explained why- the quadrant model

I POSTED ALL OF THIS IN PREVIOUS BOOKS- IN MY OVER 50 QMR BOOKS

http://www.kheper.net/topics/greatchainofbeing/four_kingdoms.html

Meanwhile, in a progressive move that does not conflict with science, Sri Aurobindo, and Teilhard, replaced the four kingdoms with four evolutionary, stages: matter/geosphere, life/biosphere (which includes all five kingdoms and thre edomains), mind/noosphere (incorporating the human kingdom), and a future spiritual state of attainmaint and collective consumation, which Aurobindo terms the Supramental and Teilhard the Omega Point.

We see what our ancestors have always seen: a great Chain of Being which seems to divide naturally into four sections--four "kingdoms," as they used to be called: mineral, plant, animal, and human.

 

Our initial review of the four great Levels of Being can be summed up as follows:

 

Man can be written m+x+y+z

Animal can be written m+x+y

Plant can be written m+x

Mineral can be written m

 

A simple inspection of the four great Levels of Being has led us to the recognition of their four "elements"--matter, life, consciousness, and self-awareness. It is this recognition that matters, not the precise association of the four elements with the four Levels of Being. If the natural scientists should come and tell us that there are some beings they call animals in whom no trace of consciousness can be detected, it would not be for us to argue with them. Recognition is one thing; identification quite another. For us, only recognition is important, and we are entitled to choose for our purposes typical and fully-developed specimens from each Level of Being. If they manifest and demonstrate most clearly the "invisible dimensions" of life, consciousness, and self-awareness, this demonstration is not nullified or invalidated by any difficulty of classification in other cases.

 

Once we have recognized the ontological gaps and discontinuities that separate the four "elements"--m,x,y,z--from one another, we know also that there can exist no "links' or "transitional forms": Life is either present or absent; there cannot be a half-presence; and the same goes for consciousness and self-awareness. Difficulties of identification and are often increased by the fact that the lower level appears to present a kind of mimicry or counterfeit of the higher, just as an animated puppet can at times be mistaken for a living person, or a two-dimensional picture can look like three-dimensional reality. But neither difficulties of identification and demarcation nor possibilities of deception and error cna be used as arguments against the existence of the four great Levels of Being, exhibiting the four "elements" we have called matter, Life, Consciousness, and Self-awareness. These four "elements" are four irreducible mysteries, which need to be most carefully observed and studied, but which cannot be explained, let alone "explained away."

 

http://www.rijnlandmodel.nl/bronpaginas/schumacher_guide_perplexed.htm

QUADRANT

https://equivalentexchange.wordpress.com/2013/07/09/e-f-schumachers-four-fields-of-knowledge/

 

This fourfold is created from the product of two duals: I & World, and Inner Experience & Outer Appearance.

 

The Inner Experience of I is Experience.

 

The Outer Appearance of I is Behavior.

 

The Inner Experience of World is Communication.

 

The Outer Appearance of World is Science.

 

schumacher_fieldsThe first fourfold is very similar to Hjelmslev’s Net, where Content is Inner Experience, Expression is Outer Appearance, Substance is unitary “I”, and Form is multiplicity “World”.

 

It is also almost identical to Ken Wilbur’s AQAL as presented here.

 

References:

 

E. F. Schumacher / A Guide for the Perplexed

https://csl4d.wordpress.com/2012/12/30/wicked-problems-in-a-guide-for-the-perplexed/

A guide for the perplexed Schumacher finished A Guide for the Perplexed (1977) five days before his death. It provides the philosophical underpinnings for Small is Beautiful (as opposed to “bigger is better”). In it, he unfolds a system of thought that could help people find a way of life to meet the challenges of the contemporary world without despair. His four “great truths” are that: (1) reality has at least four levels of being; (2) each level requires its own means for understanding it (the principle of adaequatio); (3) four fields of knowledge permit the study of reality; and (4) the meaning of living in the world is intertwined with the problems it poses. The words “intertwined”, “perplexed”, and “complexity” are closely related. Schumacher argues that we would do wise to handle the world’s complexity and our own perplexity in tandem.

 

Four levels of being Similar to Thomism, Schumacher claims that there are at least four levels of being: (1) non-living matter; (2) animate plants; (3) conscious animals; and (4) self-aware humans. These four levels are ontologically discontinuous (i.e. fundamentally different) by the progressive presence of life, consciousness, and self-awareness. There is no discernible ceiling, so there is no reason why this progression cannot be extended. Other progressions can be formulated in terms of motion, causality, freedom, integration, interiority/visibility, time, and space (see full concept map). By extending these progressions into the unknown next level (if it exists, but we cannot know that), it is possible to hypothesize some qualities of a spiritual or religious world, essence, or “otherness” (epiphenomenous or not), including invisibility, omniscience, omnipresence, and motivation for inner unity or integration. Perhaps self-knowledge can help us look through the indiscernible ceiling for more integrated solutions.

 

Four fields of knowledge Schumacher distinguishes: (1) self-knowledge; (2) knowledge of the self of others; (3) knowledge of the self as seen by others; and (4) knowledge of the outside world. Following the principle of adaequatio, science is most suited for studying the lowest level of reality. Schumacher further distinguishes instructional science (e.g. physics) from descriptive science (e.g. botany). He warns against methodological lapses when attempting to apply instructional principles to higher levels of reality: absence of evidence ≠ evidence of absence. As to self-knowledge, Schumacher is convinced that it is foundational to the other fields of knowledge. It helps one to get into gear with the deeper insights that have been described by thinkers in the East and the West. Attentive exploration may help to make these insights one´s own. Knowledge of the self of others is difficult, because it is only accessible indirectly. It can be enhanced by trying to acquire knowledge of the self as seen by others. This gives real meaning to the golden rule, which may provide us with another clue to solving intractable problems.

Sir THOMAS BROWNE WROTE THE BOOK GARDEN OF CYRUS WHERE HE EXAMINED THE QUINCUNX (A QUINCUNX IS A CROSS MADE OF FIVE ELEMENTS- THE FIFTH IN THE CENTER THE FOUR ON THE FOUR QUADRANTS---HE SAID THAT THE QUINCUNX WAS SO PERVASIVE IN REALITY THAT IT WAS PROOF OF INTELLIGENT DESIGN- THE QUINCUNX IS THE QUADRANT- I POSTED HIS BOOK IN ONE OF MY BOOKS AND ITS IN MY TIMELINE. THEODORE COOKE AND THE RINGS OF SATURN NARRATOR ALSO SEE THE QUINCUNX-CROSS- AS SIGNIFICANT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Garden_of_Cyrus

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=Im2rBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA213&lpg=PA213&dq=quincunx+intelligent+design&source=bl&ots=3ri0vhkftj&sig=VQx9vq7PcH9NEVxOrh1RSSfy8tY&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiq3dHLkvrSAhXojFQKHfhhDAUQ6AEIJjAC#v=onepage&q=quincunx%20intelligent%20design&f=false

Quadrant

QUINCUNX IS THE CROSS

https://artlark.org/2016/10/19/quincunx-electricity-computer-the-mastermind-of-sir-thomas-browne/

QUINCUNX, ELECTRICITY, COMPUTER… THE MASTERMIND OF SIR THOMAS BROWNE

POSTED BY ARTLARK ON OCTOBER 19, 2016 IN ART, ART HISTORY, HISTORY, LITERATURE, SCIENCE | 5 COMMENTS

Sir Thomas Browne was an English author of numerous medical, religious, scientific and esoteric works. He was born on the 19th of October 1605 and died exactly 77 years later on the 19th of October 1682. This numerological symmetry seems in his case more of a necessity than a coincidence for it supports his theory on the quincuncial order in nature. In 1658 Browne published The Garden of Cyrus, a book in which he composed a whole discourse upon the significance of the geometric pattern of quincunx in various forms of nature and art.

In short, quincunx is arranged of five points, with four of them forming a square (sometimes rectangle) and the fifth one at its centre. “Browne’s use of the quincunx is in certain respects straightforwardly numerological: it is the sovereign number, the middle digit in the sequence of primary Arabic numerals one to nine; it is the ‘conjugal number’, and its Roman form, the V, is half a quincunx which, joined with another, becomes X… the first or fundamental letter of Christ’s name (GC 1, 181), and is therefore associated with generation and regeneration”(Claire Preston, Thomas Browne and the Writing of Early Modern Science).

In his book, Browne recounts Cyrus the Great, the founder of the First Persian Empire and the alleged creator of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. According to Browne, Cyrus was: “Not only a Lord of Gardens, but a Manual Planter thereof: Disposing his Trees like his Armies, in regular Ordination.” (Sir Thomas Browne, The Garden of Cyrus). As noticed by Browne, quincunx pattern creates regularity and order which gives the trees enough space for growth and healthy vegetation.

However, Browne’s arguments extend much further than arboriculture. By finding interconnections between art, nature, human anatomy and Universal laws he tried to prove the existence of Devine intentionalism for an intelligent design. “When, in the final chapter, the relentless and almost absurdly inventive list of quincunxes (the five acts of Greek drama, the five pebbles of David against Goliath, the five spots of the ladybird, and so on) leaves the strictly geometrical quincunx for more metaphoric or purely numerical ones, we recognise a scientist who has effectively integrated his natural history with his theology.” (Preston)

Quincunx has been present in art and architecture since antiquity or even longer. Also referred to as cross-in-square, it has become a dominant architectural form of Byzantine churches. Even Egyptian pyramids bear the quincuncial design. But one of the most impressive examples of quincunx in architecture is probably the 9th-century Mahayana Buddhist Temple, Borobudur, in Java. The symbolic meaning of quincunx has been used in heraldry, astrology or even analytical psychology. An interesting example of the latter is Carl Young’s analysis of Yves Tanguy’s paining ‘Noyer Indifférent’. In the painting Jung saw an order deriving from “the chaos of possibilities”, to which he referred to as the closest affinity “with the timeless psychic dominants”:

“When Jung looked attentively at the four figures surrounding the ‘indifferent drowning person’, he noticed the 3 + 1 structure. It is a pattern wherein one figure is clearly different from the three comparable others, whereas together they unmistakably form a foursome. Jung wrote extensively about this type of quaternity. It is an essence theme in alchemy in particular. Jung always attested that the Christian trinity needs a fourth figure; the dark unconscious function which Christianity repressed as devilish. In his view, the Christian trinity is perfect, but not complete. The fourth function is lacking, that is, the unconscious. Christian theology repressed the instinctive, dark factor. In Tanguy’s painting, Jung saw this fourth function in the shape of a flame. He figured that Tanguy painted a “developed symbol of totality”, stemming from the ancient Gnostic quarter-unity of the godhead Barbelo.

Exactly this perfect quaternity produces the fivesome, the quincunx!… Jung saw Tanguy’s painting as ‘great art’ because this painter did not depict only disorder, but at the same time archetypes which ‘express order’. “ (Tjeu Van den Berk, Jung on Art: The Autonomy of the Creative Drive).

Sir Thomas Browne’s partially scientific partially philosophical analysis on quincunx and his numerous other works have not been particularly well known. This is a paradox indeed, as Browne is one of the most influential writers in the history of English literature and if not for his input into science and literature then he should be at least remembered for introducing into English language (among a few hundred other words) the two words the modern world could not simply go without – ‘electricity’ and ‘computer’.

http://www.chicagonow.com/blogs/fresh-ink/2010/03/intelligent-design-on-pablos-arm.html

It is a Quincunx, a geometric pattern that some thinkers in the early modern period considered was present in all of nature: skin, leaves, wood, stones, but also art. To them it was evidence of the intelligent design in nature.

http://thecinquefoilpress.blogspot.com/2007/04/quincunx.html

BROWNE SAW THE UBIQUITY AND IMPORTANCE OF THE QUINCUNX (A CROSS MADE OF FIVE ELEMENTs) AS PROOF OF INTELLIGENT DESIGN

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

 

For Sir Francis Galton's machine for demonstrating the normal distribution named "quincunx", see bean machine.

 

Five dots forming a quincunx

Five dots forming a quincunx

 

A quincunx is the arrangement of five units in the pattern corresponding to the five-spot on dice, playing cards, or dominoes. The quincunx is named after the Roman coin of the same name.

 

The significance of the quincunx pattern originates in Pythagorean mathematical mysticism. This pattern lies at the heart of the Pythagorean tetraktys, a pyramid of ten dots. To the Pythagoreans the number five held particular significance and the quincunx pattern represented this significance.

 

Quincunx patterns occur in many contexts:

 

* A quincunx was the standard tactical formation for elements of a Roman legion.

* A quincunx is a standard pattern for planting an orchard, especially in France.

* Quincunxes are used in modern computer graphics as a supersampling pattern for anti-aliasing. Quincunx antialiasing samples scenes at the corners and centers of each pixel. These five sample points, in the shape of a quincunx, are combined to produce each displayed pixel. However, samples at the corner points are shared with adjacent pixels, so the number of samples needed is only twice the number of displayed pixels. [1]

* The spots on the 5th side of a (playing) die form a quincunx.

* In astrology (and less commonly in astronomy), a quincunx (also known as an inconjunct) is an astrological aspect of five-twelfths of a circle, or 150°, between two objects (the Sun, Moon, planets or signs).

* The points on each face of a unit cell of a face-centred cubic lattice form a quincunx.

* A quincuncial map is a conformal map projection that maps the poles of the sphere to the centre and four corners of a square, thus forming a quincunx.

* In architecture, a quincuncial plan, also defined as a "cross inscribed in a square", is the plan of an edifice composed of nine bays. The central and the four angular ones are covered with domes or groin vaults; the other four are surmounted by barrel vaults.

 

The English physician Sir Thomas Browne in his philosophical discourse The Garden of Cyrus (1658) elaborates upon evidence of the quincunx pattern in art, nature and mystically as 'evidence' of intelligent design.

QUINCUNX IS A CROSS OF FIVE ELEMENTS- I DESCRIBED THAT SMARTAS WORSHIP FIVE DEITIES BUT THEY WORSHIP THEM IN A QUINCUNX PATTERN WITH FOUR ON THE OUTSIDE AND THE FIFTH IN THE CENTER- THE ONE THEY ARE WORSHIPPING- THEY EVEN CALL IT A QUINCUNX

http://quarterlyconversation.com/the-making-of-the-rings-of-saturn

A similar desire of finding patterns and associations in nature made Browne see the quincunx everywhere, from starfish to silkworms, from the pyramids of Egypt to the temple of Jerusalem, from the Edenic Garden to the star cluster of Hyades. Before long, the desire to see the quincunx has infected Sebald too, and it is with a shudder that he makes out the pattern one evening, outside the house of a friend, on the belly of a beetle swimming on its back in a well.

 

It perplexed Browne to no end that while human reason increasingly demonstrated a system of immutable laws operating in nature, it also failed to account for bizarre physical forms and phenomena occurring everywhere.

CHOMSKY FOUR TYPES OF GRAMMAR

https://www.tutorialspoint.com/…/chomsky_classification_of_…
According to Noam Chomosky, there are FOUR types of grammars − Type 0, Type 1, Type 2, and Type 3. The following table shows how they differ from each other −

Grammar Type Grammar Accepted Language Accepted Automaton
Type 0 Unrestricted grammar Recursively enumerable language Turing Machine
Type 1 Context-sensitive grammar Context-sensitive language Linear-bounded automaton
Type 2 Context-free grammar Context-free language Pushdown automaton
Type 3 Regular grammar Regular language Finite state automaton
Take a look at the following illustration. It shows the scope of each type of grammar −

Containment of Type3, Type2, Type1, Type0
Type - 3 Grammar
Type-3 grammars generate regular languages. Type-3 grammars must have a single non-terminal on the left-hand side and a right-hand side consisting of a single terminal or single terminal followed by a single non-terminal.

The productions must be in the form X → a or X → aY

where X, Y ∈ N (Non terminal)

and a ∈ T (Terminal)

The rule S → ε is allowed if S does not appear on the right side of any rule.

Example
X → ε 
X → a | aY
Y → b 
Type - 2 Grammar
Type-2 grammars generate context-free languages.

The productions must be in the form A → γ

where A ∈ N (Non terminal)

and γ ∈ (T ∪ N)* (String of terminals and non-terminals).

These languages generated by these grammars are be recognized by a non-deterministic pushdown automaton.

Example
S → X a 
X → a 
X → aX 
X → abc 
X → ε
Type - 1 Grammar
Type-1 grammars generate context-sensitive languages. The productions must be in the form

α A β → α γ β

where A ∈ N (Non-terminal)

and α, β, γ ∈ (T ∪ N)* (Strings of terminals and non-terminals)

The strings α and β may be empty, but γ must be non-empty.

The rule S → ε is allowed if S does not appear on the right side of any rule. The languages generated by these grammars are recognized by a linear bounded automaton.

Example
AB → AbBc 
A → bcA 
B → b 
Type - 0 Grammar
Type-0 grammars generate recursively enumerable languages. The productions have no restrictions. They are any phase structure grammar including all formal grammars.

They generate the languages that are recognized by a Turing machine.

The productions can be in the form of α → β where α is a string of terminals and nonterminals with at least one non-terminal and α cannot be null. β is a string of terminals and non-terminals.

Example
S → ACaB 
Bc → acB 
CB → DB 
aD → Db

http://zasoby.open.agh.edu.pl/~11sustrojny/en/chomsky-classification/index.html

CHOMSKY CLASSIFICATION

In this chapter you will learn the four classes of formal languages,introduced by Noam Chomsky.

 

Most famous classification of grammars and languages ​​introduced by Noam Chomsky is divided into four classes:

 

Recursively enumerable grammars –recognizable by a Turing machine

Context-sensitive grammars –recognizable by the linear bounded automaton

Context-free grammars - recognizable by the pushdown automaton

Regular grammars –recognizable by the finite state automaton

There are four types of sentences. They are

Square 1: Declarative sentences. These sentences end with a period and make a statement.

Square 2: Imperative sentences. These sentences give direction or a command and end with a period.

Square 3: Interrogative sentences. These sentences ask a question and end with a question mark.

Square 4: Exclamatory sentences. These sentences show a lot of feeling and end in an exclamation point.

4. Magoroh Maruyama (1974-1980) distinguishes four types of epistemological mindscape (see review: part 1 and part 2):

https://www.laetusinpraesens.org/docs/territ.php

H-mindscape: homogenistic, hierarchical, classificational: Parts are subordinated to the whole, with subcategories neatly grouped into supercategories. The strongest, or the majority, dominate at the expense of the weak or of any minorities. Belief in existence of the one truth applicable to all (whether values, policies, problems, priorities, etc). Logic is deductive and axiomatic demanding sequential reasoning. Cause-effect relations may be deterministic or probabilistic.

I-mindscape: heterogenistic, individualistic, random: Only individuals are real, even when aggregated into society. Emphasis on self-sufficiency, independence and individual values. Design favours the random, the capricious and the unexpected. Scheduling and planning are to be avoided. Non-random events are improbable. Each question has its own answer; there are no universal principles.

S-mindscape: heterogenistic, interactive, homeostatic: Society consists of heterogeneous individuals who interact non-hierarchically to mutual advantage. Mutual dependency. Differences are desirable and contribute to the harmony of the whole. Maintenance of the natural equilibrium. Values are interrelated and cannot be rank-ordered. Avoidance of repetition. Causal loops. Categories not mutually exclusive. Objectivity is less useful than "cross-subjectivity" or multiple viewpoints. Meaning is context dependent.

G-mindscape: heterogenistic, interactive, morphogenetic: Heterogeneous individuals interact non-hierarchically for mutual benefit, generating new patterns and harmony. Nature is continually changing requiring allowance for change. Values interact to generate new values and meanings. Values of deliberate (anticipatory) incompleteness. Causal loops. Multiple evolving meanings.

A FOUR BY FOUR PATTERN- SETS OF FOUR

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taixuanjing

https://www.laetusinpraesens.org/docs00s/jingpat.php

Numerically the symbols can counted as ⚊ = 0, ⚋ = 1, 𝌀 = 2, and grouped into sets of four to count from 0 to 80. This is clearly intentional as this passage from chapter 8 of the Tài Xuán Jīng points out the principle of carrying and place value.

 

Chinese English

推玄筭:

家 一置一,二置二,三置三。

部 一勿增,二增三,三增六。

州 一勿增,二增九,三增十八。

方 一勿增,二增二十七,三增五十四

 

Push Profound Calculation:

First Part: one sets one, two sets two, three sets three.

Second Part: one doesn't add, two adds three, three adds six.

Third Part: one doesn't add, two adds nine, three adds eighteen.

Fourth Part: one doesn't add, two adds twenty-seven, three adds fifty-four.

TETRA IS FOUR- ACUPUNCTURE

 

http://earthacupuncture.info/cuboctahedron_meridian_model.htm

 

TETRAHEDRA AND VESSELS (SPIRITUAL MERIDIANS)

 

Within the perceptual process a minimum constellation emerges from our preoccupation of getting rid of the irrelevancies. The geometry appears out of pure conceptuality. We dismiss the irrelevancies for a clear understanding, to finally arrive at the most minimum system to divide universe into macrocosm and microcosm.

 

Tetrahedron is nature. Nature uses the tetrahedron in her fundamental formulation of organic and inorganic chemistry. Tetrahedron is the first spontaneous aggregate of our experiences. As chemists and physicists have found, nature is tetrahedrally based, and we find our thoughts resolving themselves spontaneously into the tetrahedron as we generalize about nature’s special cases.

 

The four pointed pyramid is fire. The ‘four-star affair’ is tetrahedron. A tetrahedron has four vertex points (stars, closest packing of spheres), six vectors (edges, relationships), and four faces (openings). This form is the basic building block of all the Platonic solids. It is the most minimal thinkable set that would subdivide universe. It encloses the least volume with the most surface area. The tetrahedron is comprised of four unique planes nonparallel to one another, thus four unique perpendicular poles to establish a four dimensional system.

 

Plato and thinkers from other ancient cultures agree that polyhedra have elemental characteristics based on their number of vertex points; the tetrahedron is the element fire, the procreative force that inspires change. The tetrahedron is the sharpest, lightest, and most penetrating of the Platonic solid group. The less vertex points a polyhedron has, the more mobile and stable it is. Western science uses the tetrahedra valency to describe molecular phases (the rate of molecular movement is regulated by heat); univalently bonded = gas; bivalently bonded = liquid; trivalently bonded = solid; quadrivalently bonded = crystal.

 

‘All silicates contain a fundamental unit called a silicon tetrahedron. Differences in linking and stacking of tetrahedra result in different silicate types.’

 

Two tetrahedrons juxtaposed at their centroids, the three dimensional star of David, or star tetrahedron as coined by DaVinci, can stabilize a cube which is the element of earth. Fire generates earth. The tetrahedron has the greatest resistance of any structure to externally applied concentrated load. However, the tetrahedron is the only polyhedron that can turn completely inside-out. When studying the progressive presence of points, or closest packing of spheres, the tetrahedron’s four vertex points represent the physical realm.

 

The 8 tetrahedra alone support the structure of VE while simultaneously defining the 6 half-octahedra. Similarly, the spiritual meridians support the qi body by serving as reservoirs for the regular meridians. Also since the spiritual meridians follow no specific energy flow, they have been associated with the tetrahedron, since the tetrahedra apexes share VE’s centroid. This quality reconfirms the close relationship of the spiritual meridians with yuan qi, found in the lower dan tian. VE is comprised of four unique planes of tetrahedra nonparallel to one another, thus four unique perpendicular poles to establish a four dimensional system. The four planes correlate to the four married pairs of the spiritual meridians; Du-Yangqiao, Ren-Yinqiao, Dai-Yangwei, Chong-Yinwei. Master points may be found at the center of area of each tetrahedron base, where each polar axis penetrates. Each polar axis of a tetrahedra married pair is a highway for yuan qi.

TETRA IS FOUR

 

Star Tetrahedron- Merkaba- (spins at each activated Spiritual Acupuncture point.)

http://www.jzbown.com/spiritual-acupuncture.html

quad

TETRA IS FOUR

https://shop.yogahub.org/yoga-products/gateway-to-expanded-healing-e-book/

An amazing synthesis of acupuncture, sacred geometry and the Qabbalistic Tree of Life. This book enables anyone to accelerate their spiritual advancement. Traditional needles, the Beamer or Tetrahedron Beamer can be used to energetically activate specific sequences of acupuncture points for pro…

from the website Sacred Swastika

Notice how Meno's slave draws a quadrant in the sand while proving the immortality of the soul

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meno%27s_slave
IF you can see the SWASTIKA in this demonstration, a method of questioning as proposed by Socrates .... then guess what?
ye are no longer a 'slave' to the system
think about it
maybe that is why HP Blavatsky said the following in her book the Secret Doctrine
page 98
"The Svastica is the most philosophically scientific of all symbols, as also the most comprehensible. It is the summary in a few lines of the whole work of creation, or evolution, as one should rather say, from Cosmo-theogony down to Anthro-pogony, from the indivisible unknown Parabrahm to the humble moneron of materialistic science, whose genesis is as unknown to that science as is that of the All-Deity itself. The Svastica is found heading the religious symbols of every old nation”
page 100
“It is the Alpha and the Omega of universal creative Force, evolving from pure Spirit and ending in gross Matter. It is also the key to the cycle of Science, divine and human; and he who comprehends its full meaning is for ever liberated from the toils of Mahamaya, the great Illusion and Deceiver”
http://www.sacred-texts.com/the/sd/sd2-1-05.htm
So Socrates and Theosophy are on the same page when it comes to a geometrical expression of what makes the world go round...?

http://www.mathpages.com/rr/s3-07/3-07.htm

 

Of the 40 arguments attributed to Zeno by later writers, the four most famous are on the subject of motion:

The Dichotomy: There is no motion, because that which is moved must arrive at the middle before it arrives at the end, and so on ad infinitum.

The Achilles: The slower will never be overtaken by the quicker, for that which is pursuing must first reach the point from which that which is fleeing started, so that the slower must always be some distance ahead.

The Arrow: If everything is either at rest or moving when it occupies a space equal to itself, while the object moved is always in the instant, a moving arrow is unmoved.

The Stadium: Consider two rows of bodies, each composed of an equal number of bodies of equal size. They pass each other as they travel with equal velocity in opposite directions. Thus, half a time is equal to the whole time.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analogy_of_the_divided_line

 

Socrates explains that the four resulting segments represent four separate 'affections' (παθήματα) of the psyche. The lower two sections are said to represent the visible while the higher two are said to represent the intelligible. These affections are described in succession as corresponding to increasing levels of reality and truth from conjecture (εἰκασία) to belief (πίστις) to thought (διάνοια) and finally to understanding (νόησις). Furthermore this Analogy not only elaborates a theory of the psyche but also presents metaphysical and epistemological views.

FOUR SECTIONS DIVIDED LINE

 

http://www.informationphilosopher.com/knowledge/divided_line.html

 

Later, at 511D-E, Plato summarizes the four sections of the divided line

“Your interpretation is quite sufficient,” I said; “and now, answering to these four sections, assume these four affections occurring in the soul: intellection (νόησιν) or reason for the highest [DE], understanding (διάνοια) for the second [CD]; assign belief (πίστις) to the third [BC], and to the last picture-thinking or conjecture (εἰκασία) [AB], and arrange them in a proportion, considering that they participate in clearness and precision in the same degree as their objects partake of truth and reality.”

ἱκανώτατα, ἦν δ᾽ ἐγώ, ἀπεδέξω. καί μοι ἐπὶ τοῖς τέτταρσι τμήμασι τέτταρα ταῦτα παθήματα ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ γιγνόμενα λαβέ, νόησιν μὲν ἐπὶ τῷ ἀνωτάτω, διάνοιανδὲ ἐπὶ τῷ δευτέρῳ, τῷ τρίτῳ δὲ πίστιν ἀπόδος καὶ τῷ τελευταίῳ εἰκασίαν, καὶ τάξον αὐτὰ ἀνὰ λόγον, ὥσπερ ἐφ᾽ οἷς ἐστιν ἀληθείας μετέχει, οὕτω ταῦτα σαφηνείας ἡγησάμενος μετέχειν.

We can collect the various terms that Plato has used to describe the components of his divided line. Some terms are ontological, describing the contents of the four sections. Some are epistemological, describing how it is we know those contents.

509D-510A likenesses, images, shadows, imitations, our vision (ὄψις, ὁμοιωθὲν) the physical things that we see/perceive with our senses (ὁρώμενα, ὁμοιωθὲν) opinion, beliefs (δόξα, νοῦν)

https://youtu.be/yqDoLdmcyZo

I put this in my first book in platos meno Socrates probes the immortality of the soul by drawing 16 squares in the sand the quadrant model

snowden called self citizenfour
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citizenfour
Citizenfour is a 2014 documentary film directed by Laura Poitras, concerning Edward Snowden and the NSA spying scandal. The film had its US premiere on October 10, 2014, at the New York Film Festival and its UK premiere on October 17, 2014, at the BFI London Film Festival. The film features Snowden and Glenn Greenwald, and was co-produced by Poitras, Mathilde Bonnefoy, and Dirk Wilutzky, with Steven Soderbergh and others serving as executive producers. Citizenfour received critical acclaim upon release, and was the recipient of numerous accolades, including the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature at the 2015 Oscars.

PLATO SAYS GUARDIANS MUST HAVE FOUR VIRTUES- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT AND HE DESCRIBES CONTAINS THE PREVIOUS THREE (THE QUADRANT PATTERN)- HE THEN DISCUSSES THE FOUR UNJUST FORMS OF GOVERNMENT WHICH FIT THE QUADRANT PATTERN- FIRST IS KIND OF GOOD BUT WORSHIPS GOLD SECOND KIND OF GOOD HOMEOSTASIS- THIRD IS THE BAD ONE WITH TOO MUCH FREEDOM ACITON DOING- THE FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT WITH A PHILOSOPHER TYRANT FOURTH IS ALWAYS MENTAL PHILOSOPHICAL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_(Plato)

Socrates and his companions Adeimantus and Glaucon conclude their discussion concerning education. Socrates breaks the educational system into two. They suggest that guardians should be educated in these four virtues: wisdom, courage, justice and temperance. They also suggest that the second part of the guardians' education should be in gymnastics. With physical training they will be able to live without needing frequent medical attention: physical training will help prevent illness and weakness. In summary, Socrates asserts that both male and female guardians be given the same education, that all wives and children be shared, and that ownership of private property ought to be prohibited amongst them.

 

Socrates, having to his satisfaction defined the just constitution of both city and psyche, moves to elaborate upon the four unjust constitutions of these. Adeimantus and Polemarchus interrupt, asking Socrates instead first to explain how the sharing of wives and children in the guardian class is to be defined and legislated, a theme first touched on in Book III. Socrates is overwhelmed at their request, categorizing it as three "waves" of attack against which his reasoning must stand firm. These three waves challenge Socrates' claims that

IN THE REPUBLCI PLATO TALKS ABOUT THE FOUR REGIMES THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT TRANSCENDENT PHILOSOPHICAL- HE SAYS THEY ARE ALL BAD- THEY FIT THE QUADRANT PATTERN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_(Plato)

While Plato spends much of the Republic having Socrates narrate a conversation about the city he founds with Glaucon and Adeimantus "in speech", the discussion eventually turns to considering four regimes that exist in reality and tend to degrade successively into each other: timocracy, oligarchy (also called plutocracy), democracy and tyranny (also called despotism).

 

Timocracy

 

Socrates defines a timocracy as a government of people who love rule and honor. Socrates argues that the timocracy emerges from aristocracy due to a civil war breaking out among the ruling class and the majority. Over time, many more births will occur to people who lack aristocratic, guardian qualities, slowly drawing the populace away from knowledge, music, poetry and "guardian education", toward money-making and the acquisition of possessions. This civil war between those who value wisdom and those who value material acquisition will be in struggle until a just medium is compromised. The timocracy values war insofar as it satisfies a love of victory and honor. The timocratic man loves physical training, and hunting, and values his abilities in warfare.

 

Oligarchy

 

Temptations create a confusion between economic status and honor which is responsible for the emergence of oligarchy. In Book VIII, Socrates suggests that wealth will not help a pilot to navigate his ship, as his concerns will be directed centrally toward increasing his wealth by whatever means, rather than seeking out wisdom or honor. The injustice of economic disparity divides the rich and the poor, thus creating an environment for criminals and beggars to emerge. The rich are constantly plotting against the poor and vice versa. The oligarchic constitution is based on property assessment and wealth qualification. Unlike the timocracy, oligarchs are also unable to fight war, since they do not wish to arm the majority for fear of their rising up against them (even more so fearing the majority than their enemies), nor do they seem to pay mercenaries, since they are reluctant to spend money.

 

Democracy

 

As this socioeconomic divide grows, so do tensions between social classes. From the conflicts arising out of such tensions, the poor majority overthrow the wealthy minority, and democracy replaces the oligarchy preceding it. The poor overthrow the oligarchs and grant liberties and freedoms to citizens, creating a most variegated collection of peoples under a "supermarket" of constitutions. A visually appealing demagogue is soon lifted up to protect the interests of the lower class. However, with too much freedom, no requirements for anyone to rule, and having no interest in assessing the background of their rulers (other than honoring such people because they wish the majority well) the people become easily persuaded by such a demagogue's appeal to try and satisfy people's common, base, and unnecessary pleasures.

 

Tyranny

 

The excessive freedoms granted to the citizens of a democracy ultimately leads to a tyranny, the furthest regressed type of government. These freedoms divide the people into three socioeconomic classes: the dominating class, the elites and the commoners. Tensions between the dominating class and the elites cause the commoners to seek out protection of their democratic liberties. They invest all their power in their democratic demagogue, who, in turn, becomes corrupted by the power and becomes a tyrant with a small entourage of his supporters for protection and absolute control of his people.

OLIGARCHY OF THE 400

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athenian_coup_of_411_BC

The Athenian coup of 411 BC was the result of a revolution that took place during the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta. The coup overthrew the democratic government of ancient Athens and replaced it with a short-lived oligarchy known as The Four Hundred.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Kreeft
Because God Is Real : Sixteen Questions, One Answer (2008)

FOUR ARGUMENTS

 

One of the main themes in the Phaedo is the idea that the soul is immortal. Socrates offers four arguments for the soul's immortality:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phaedo

The Cyclical Argument, or Opposites Argument explains that Forms are eternal and unchanging, and as the soul always brings life, then it must not die, and is necessarily "imperishable". As the body is mortal and is subject to physical death, the soul must be its indestructible opposite. Plato then suggests the analogy of fire and cold. If the form of cold is imperishable, and fire, its opposite, was within close proximity, it would have to withdraw intact as does the soul during death. This could be likened to the idea of the opposite charges of magnets.

The Theory of Recollection explains that we possess some non-empirical knowledge (e.g. The Form of Equality) at birth, implying the soul existed before birth to carry that knowledge. Another account of the theory is found in Plato's Meno, although in that case Socrates implies anamnesis (previous knowledge of everything) whereas he is not so bold in Phaedo.

The Affinity Argument, explains that invisible, immortal, and incorporeal things are different from visible, mortal, and corporeal things. Our soul is of the former, while our body is of the latter, so when our bodies die and decay, our soul will continue to live.

The Argument from Form of Life, or The Final Argument explains that the Forms, incorporeal and static entities, are the cause of all things in the world, and all things participate in Forms. For example, beautiful things participate in the Form of Beauty; the number four participates in the Form of the Even, etc. The soul, by its very nature, participates in the Form of Life, which means the soul can never die.

ALL THIS STUFF IS IN MY QMR BOOKS

 

Ostensibly in order to better defend himself in an upcoming trial for being an impious citizen of Athens, Socrates asks Euthyphro for a clear definition of piety (holiness); he offers Socrates four definitions.

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euthyphro

quadrant

FOUR SOURCES TALK ABOUT SOCRATES- LIKE FOUR GOSPELS JESUS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socratic_problem

Socrates was the main character in most of Plato's dialogues and was a genuine historical figure. It is widely understood that in later dialogues Plato used the character Socrates to give voice to views that were his own. Besides Plato, three other important sources exist for the study of Socrates: Aristophanes, Aristotle, and Xenophon. Since no extensive writings of Socrates himself survive to the modern era, his actual views must be discerned from the sometimes contradictory reports of these four sources. The main sources for the historical Socrates are the Sokratikoi logoi, or Socratic dialogues, which are reports of conversations apparently involving Socrates.[4] Most information is found in the works of Plato and Xenophon.[5][6]

FOUR KINDS OF BEING

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philebus

One of the major ontological themes of the work is that there are four kinds of being, or four "elements":

 

1. The limitless. These are the types of things of which we make relative comparisons such as more or less.

2. The limited. These are the types of things which can be given a definite measurement of number.

3. The mixed kind of being, mixes the first two, limiting and various types of limitless beings in the "world of becoming" and change which people experience, or at least that aspect of it which is not arbitrary and aimless, but a more genuine kind of becoming that aims at being.

4. The cause of such genuine mixture, which limits the unlimited beings and orders nature. This, Socrates argues, is reason itself - not only human reason, but the greater reason of nature itself.

SOME LOGICIANS REJECT THE FOURHT FIGURE- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT- THE FOUNDATION OF LOGIC IS THE QUADRANT- FOUR TYPES OF PROPOSITIONS

 

Relationships between the four types of propositions in the square of opposition

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syllogism

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Square_of_opposition,_set_diagrams.svg

The premises and conclusion of a syllogism can be any of four types, which are labeled by letters[12] as follows. The meaning of the letters is given by the table:

 

code quantifier subject copula predicate type example

A All S are P universal affirmatives All humans are mortal.

E No S are P universal negatives No humans are perfect.

I Some S are P particular affirmatives Some humans are healthy.

O Some S are not P particular negatives Some humans are not clever.

 

 

(Note, however, that, following Aristotle's treatment of the figures, some logicians—e.g., Peter Abelard and John Buridan—reject the fourth figure as a figure distinct from the first. See entry on the Prior Analytics.)

FOUR ROWS- TETRAGRAMMATON- FOUR ROWS OF 18- 216--- THEY GET 72 BECAUSE 72 IS THE GEMATRIA OF THE TETRAGRAMMATON IN A TETRACTYS- NOTICE THE FOCUS ON FOUR TETRA

http://www.biblegematria.com/number-216.html

The seventy-two names are divided into four columns of eighteen names each. Each of the four columns represents one of the four letters of the Tetragrammaton. The names are known collectively as Shemhamphorasch. These 216 letters were the theme of the 1989 movie Pi, directed by Darren Aronofsky. Asked in an interview about the number 216, Aronofsky replied "It's true. All the cabal stuff in the film is completely 100% real. Totally non-fictional. I studied with a lot of leading cabal scholars in the world. And they shared with me a lot of their secrets. Everything you see on the screen is completely 100%, totally, fully, completely real."

BACONS FOUR IDOLS- BACON SAYS THE FORMAL CAUSE IS THE MOST IMPORTANT OF ARISTOTLES FOUR CAUSES

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Novum_Organum

 

The Idols (Idola) [edit]

Novum organum, as suggested by its name, is focused just as much on a rejection of received doctrine as it is on a forward-looking progression. In Bacon's Idols are found his most critical examination of man-made impediments which mislead the mind's objective reasoning. They appear in previous works but were never fully fleshed out until their formulation in Novum organum:

 

Idols of the Tribe (Idola tribus)

"Idols of the Tribe are rooted in human nature itself and in the very tribe or race of men. For people falsely claim that human sense is the measure of things, whereas in fact all perceptions of sense and mind are built to the scale of man and not the universe." (Aphorism 41.)

 

Bacon includes in this idol the predilection of the human imagination to presuppose otherwise unsubstantiated regularities in nature. An example might be the common historical astronomical assumption that planets move in perfect circles.

 

Idols of the Cave (Idola specus)

These "belong to the particular individual. For everyone has (besides vagaries of human nature in general) his own special cave or den which scatters and discolours the light of nature. Now this comes either of his own unique and singular nature; or his education and association with others, or the books he reads and the several authorities of those whom he cultivates and admires, or the different impressions as they meet in the soul, be the soul possessed and prejudiced, or steady and settled, or the like; so that the human spirit (as it is allotted to particular individuals) is evidently a variable thing, all muddled, and so to speak a creature of chance..." (Aphorism 42).

 

This type of idol stems from the particular life experiences of the individual. Variable educations can lead the individual to a preference for specific concepts or methods, which then corrupt their subsequent philosophies. Bacon himself gives the example of Aristotle, "who made his natural philosophy a mere slave to his logic". (Aphorism 54.)

 

Idols of the Market (Idola fori)

These are "derived as if from the mutual agreement and association of the human race, which I call Idols of the Market on account of men's commerce and partnerships. For men associate through conversation, but words are applied according to the capacity of ordinary people. Therefore shoddy and inept application of words lays siege to the intellect in wondrous ways" (Aphorism 43).

 

Bacon considered these "the greatest nuisances of them all" (Aphorism 59). Because humans reason through the use of words they are particularly dangerous, because the received definitions of words, which are often falsely derived, can cause confusion. He outlines two subsets of this kind of idol and provides examples (Aphorism 60).

 

First, there are those words which spring from fallacious theories, such as the element of fire or the concept of a first mover. These are easy to dismantle because their inadequacy can be traced back to the fault of their derivation in a faulty theory.

Second, there are those words that are the result of imprecise abstraction. Earth, for example, is a vague term that may include many different substances the commonality of which is questionable. These terms are often used elliptically, or from a lack of information or definition of the term.

Idols of the Theatre (Idola theatri)

"Lastly, there are the Idols which have misguided into men's souls from the dogmas of the philosophers and misguided laws of demonstration as well; I call these Idols of the Theatre, for in my eyes the philosophies received and discovered are so many stories made up and acted out stories which have created sham worlds worth of the stage." (Aphorism 44.)

 

These idols manifest themselves in the unwise acceptance of certain philosophical dogmas, namely Aristotle's sophistical natural philosophy (named specifically in Aphorism 63) which was corrupted by his passion for logic, and Plato's superstitious philosophy, which relied too heavily on theological principles.

 

 

After enumerating the shortcomings of the current and past natural philosophies, Bacon can now present his own philosophy and methods. Bacon retains the Aristotelian causes, but redefines them in interesting ways. While traditionally the final cause was held as most important among the four (material, formal, efficient, and final), Bacon claims that it is the least helpful and in some cases actually detrimental to the sciences (aph. 2). For Bacon, it is the formal cause which is both the most illusive and most valuable, although each of the causes provides certain practical devices. By forms and formal causes, Bacon means the universal laws of nature. To these Bacon attaches an almost occult like power:

FOUR STAGE COSMIC CYCLE EMPEDOCLES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empedocles

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Empedocles_cosmic_cycle_concept_map.svg

The four elements, however, are simple, eternal, and unalterable, and as change is the consequence of their mixture and separation, it was also necessary to suppose the existence of moving powers to bring about mixture and separation. The four elements are both eternally brought into union and parted from one another by two divine powers, Love and Strife. Love (φιλότης) is responsible for the attraction of different forms of matter, and Strife (νεῖκος) is the cause for their separation.[35] If these elements make up of the universe, then Love and Strife explain their variation and harmony. Love and Strife are attractive and repulsive forces, respectively, which is plainly observable in human behavior, but also pervade the universe. The two forces wax and wane their dominance but neither force ever wholly disappears from the imposition of the other.

 

 

Empedocles cosmic cycle is based on the conflict between love and strife

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

KANT FOUR STEP SYSTEM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_reasoning

Immanuel Kant had a radically different view of morality. In his view, there are universal laws of morality that no one should ever break regardless of emotions.[4] He proposes a four-step system to determine whether or not a given action was moral based on logic and reason. The first step of this method involves formulating "a maxim capturing your reason for an action".[4] In the second step, one "frame[s] it as a universal principle for all rational agents".[4] The third step is assessing "whether a world based on this universal principle is conceivable".[4] If it is, then the fourth step is asking oneself "whether [one] would will the maxim to be a principle in this world".[4] In essence, an action is moral if the maxim by which it is justified is one which could be universalized. For instance, when deciding whether or not to lie to someone for one's own advantage, one is meant to imagine what the world would be like if everyone always lied, and successfully so. In such a world, there would be no purpose in lying, for everybody would expect deceit, rendering the universal maxim of lying whenever it is to your advantage absurd. Thus, Kant argues that one should not lie under any circumstance. Another example would be if trying to decide whether suicide is moral or immoral; imagine if everyone committed suicide. Since mass international suicide would not be a good thing, the act of suicide is immoral. Kant's moral framework, however, operates under the overarching maxim that you should treat each person as an end in themselves, not as a means to an end. This overarching maxim must be considered when applying the four aforementioned steps. [4]

Four components

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_reasoning

There are four components of moral behavior. The first of these is moral sensitivity, which is "the ability to see an ethical dilemma, including how our actions will affect others".[3] The second is moral judgment, which is "the ability to reason correctly about what 'ought' to be done in a specific situation".[3] The third is moral motivation, which is "a personal commitment to moral action, accepting responsibility for the outcome".[3] The fourth and final component of moral behavior is moral character, which is a "courageous persistence in spite of fatigue or temptations to take the easy way out".[3]

I WATCHED A TEACHING COMPANY COURSE ON RELIGION AND FAITH WHERE IT TALKED ABOUT SCOTUS FOUR DIVISIONS OF BEING AND IT ALSO TALKED ABOUT HOW SOCIOLOGISTS SAY THERE ARE ONLY FOUR WORLD RELIGIONS AND JUDAISM IS NOT A WORLD RELIGION (questionable fifth- transcendent fourth is hinduism)

http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/john-scotus-eriugena

 

Division of Natures. In De divisione naturae Eriugena presented a number of divisions according to which being may be classified, the most important of which is his division of natures into four types or stages: (1) nature that creates and is not created ("natura creans et non creata"), (2) nature that is created and also creates ("natura creata et creans"), (3) nature that is created and does not create ("natura creata et non creans"), (4) nature that is not created and does not create ("natura non creata et non creans").

CONSIDERED ONE OF THE MOST INFLUENTIAL BOOKS OF ALL TIME IT IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR BOOKS- ALL OF KANTS STUFF WAS DIVIDED INTO FOURS PRETTY MUCH- ALL THE PHILOSOPHY SO WAS SCHOPENHAUERS- the second volume was supplements to the four books

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_World_as_Will_and_Representation

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_100_Most_Influential_Books_Ever_Written

 

The development of Schopenhauer's ideas took place very early in his career (1814–1818) and culminated in the publication of the first volume of Will and Representation in 1819. This first volume consisted of four books – covering his epistemology, ontology, aesthetics and ethics, in order. Much later in his life, in 1844, Schopenhauer published a second edition in two volumes, the first a virtual reprint of the original, and the second a new work consisting of clarifications to and additional reflections on the first. His views had not changed substantially.

THE FAMOUS BITE MODEL HAS FOUR COMPONENTS

http://old.freedomofmind.com/Info/BITE/bitemodel.php

It is important to understand that destructive mind control can be determined when the overall effect of these four components promotes dependency and obedience to some leader or cause. It is not necessary for every single item on the list to be present. Mindcontrolled cult members can live in their own apartments, have nine-to-five jobs, be married with children, and still be unable to think for themselves and act independently.

 

We are all subject to influence from our parents, friends, teachers, co-workers... When this influence helps someone grow and maintain an internal locus of control, it is healthy. Influence which is used to keep people mindless and dependent is unhealthy. To download a PDF of the Influence Continuum graphic, click here.

Destructive mind control is not just used by cults. Learn about the Human Trafficking BITE Model and the Terrorism BITE Model.

 

 

The BITE Model

I. Behavior Control

II. Information Control

III. Thought Control

IV. Emotional Control

THE FAMOUS BOOK IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR PARTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thus_Spoke_Zarathustra

Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None (German: Also sprach Zarathustra: Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen, also translated as Thus Spake Zarathustra) is a philosophical novel by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, composed in four parts between 1883 and 1885 and published between 1883 and 1891.[1] Much of the work deals with ideas such as the "eternal recurrence of the same", the parable on the "death of God", and the "prophecy" of the Übermensch, which were first introduced in The Gay Science.[2]

NIETZSCHES OTHER VERY FAMOUS WORK IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR BOOKS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy_of_Friedrich_Nietzsche

The will to power[edit]

Main article: Will to power

"Will to power" (Wille zur Macht) is the name of a concept created by Nietzsche; the title of a projected book which he finally decided not to write; and the title of a book compiled from his notebooks and published posthumously and under suspicious circumstances by his sister and Peter Gast.

 

The work consists of four separate books, entitled "European Nihilism", "Critique of the Highest Values Hitherto", "Principles of a New Evaluation", and "Discipline and Breeding". Within these books there are some 1067 small sections, usually less than a page, and sometimes just a key phrase—such as his opening comments in the 1st section of the preface: "Of what is great one must either be silent or speak with greatness. With greatness—that means cynically and with innocence."[5]

The Four Great Errors[edit] FOUR GREAT ERRORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twilight_of_the_Idols

In the chapter The Four Great Errors, he suggests that people, especially Christians, confuse the effect for the cause, and that they project the human ego and subjectivity on to other things, thereby creating the illusionary concept of being, and therefore also of the thing-in-itself and God. In reality, motive or intention is "an accompaniment to an act"[9] rather than the cause of that act. By removing causal agency based on free, conscious will, Nietzsche critiques the ethics of accountability, suggesting that everything is necessary in a whole that can neither be judged nor condemned, because there is nothing outside of it.[10] What people typically deem "vice" is in fact merely "the inability not to react to a stimulus."[11] In this light, the concept of morality becomes purely a means of control: "the doctrine of will has been invented essentially for the purpose of punishment, that is of finding guilty."[12]

 

Men were thought of as free so that they could become guilty: consequently, every action had to be thought of as willed, the origin of every action as lying in the consciousness... ...Today, when we have started to move in the reverse direction, when we immoralists especially are trying with all our might to remove the concept of guilt and the concept of punishment from the world and to purge psychology, history, nature, the social institutions and sanctions of them, there is in our eyes no more radical opposition than that of the theologians, who continue to infect the innocence of becoming with 'punishment' and 'guilt' by means of the concept of the 'moral world-order'. Christianity is a hangman's metaphysics. The Four Great Errors

NIETZSCHE WANTED TO CREATE A FOUR BOOK MAGNUM OPUS ENTITLED REVALUATION OF ALL VALUES- THE BOOK THE ANTICHRIST WAS SUPPOSED TO BE ONE OF THE FOUR BOOKS BUT HE DIED BEFORE HE COULD FINISH THE OTHER THREE----- BUT HIS SISTER AFTER HE DIED MADE THE FOUR PART "WILL TO POWER" INSTEAD FOR HIM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transvaluation_of_values

The Revaluation of All Values was also the working title of a series of four books Nietzsche was planning to write, only the first of which — The Antichrist — he ever completed. However, one of his schemes for The Will to Power used "The Revaluation of All Values" as a subtitle, and it was this scheme that his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche used to assemble his notes into the final book with that title.

THIS STUFF IS IN MY OVER 60 QMR BOOKS

BOOK DIVIDED INTO FOUR PARTS- FOUR LEVELS

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nietzsche_and_Asian_Thought

Nietzsche and Asian Thought is an anthology of essays by a variety of contributors on the relationship of the thought of German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche to Asian philosophy; specifically, Indian, Chinese and Japanese philosophy. The book was edited by American philosopher Graham Parkes and was released in 1991 by the University of Chicago Press. The work was written for a Western audience of Nietzsche scholars and comparative philosophers, but features contributions from non-Western thinkers.

 

The work is split into four sections—Others, India, China and Japan—and each section contains between three and four essays, for a total of 14 articles by 13 different authors. The work was well received by academic reviewers upon its release, and praised as a "must-read" for both Nietzsche scholars and comparative philosophers. In 2004, a special edition of The Journal of Nietzsche Studies was published, aiming to build upon the scholarship in Nietzsche and Asian Thought.

 

The work contains 14 essays, split into four sections, covering Nietzsche's relationship to Asia and "others" (three essays, including Parke's introductory essay), Nietzsche and India (four essays), Nietzsche and China (three essays), and Nietzsche and Japan (four essays).

 

"The other Nietzsche" was written by Joan Stambaugh.[14] The essay addresses a specific aspect of Nietzsche, which Stambaugh calls the "other" Nietzsche; specifically, the idea of "Nietzsche the poet mystic".[15] However, apart from an indirect reference to Dōgen, the essay itself does not explicitly compare Nietzsche and Asian thought; instead, it selects "some strains of Nietzsche's thought that are most consonant with an Eastern temper of experience", allowing readers to reach their own conclusions.[16] Instead, Stambaugh closely considers four sections of Thus Spoke Zarathustra; "Before Sunrise" (part 3, section 4), "On the Great Longing" (part 3, section 14), "At Noon" (part 4, section 10) and "The Drunken Song" (part 4, section 19).[14] The experiences of Zarathustra in these passges can be compared to the mystical experiences of Dōgen and Meister Eckhart.[4]

 

"Questioning one's 'own' from the perspective of the foreign"

"Questioning one's "own" from the perspective of the foreign" is a hermeneutic essay by Eberhard Scheiffele, translated by Graham Parkes.[17] Scheiffele argues that the concept of the "foreign" is essential to Nietzsche's perspectivism, and that Nietzsche uses foreign perspectives to render odd that which is his own.[18] He then goes on to develop four levels at which Nietzsche uses the foreign to criticise his own, the strongest of which is that European culture can be shown to be strange when seen from the perspective of "foreign" Asian cultures.[19] However, for Scheiffele, although Nietzsche ranks the foreign as higher, he is concerned primarily with the criticism of his own from the perspective of the foreign.[20] Nietzsche's heavy use of optical metaphors encourages the reader to deliberately and consciously step outside of their own tradition, allowing them to view it from multiple angles that would otherwise have been impossible. This allows them to develop the most potent form of "seeing"; that is, a "simultaneous seeing" in which an individual is simultaneously able to see their tradition from both within the tradition and from outside it.[21]

FOUR WORKS BY NIETZSCHE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Untimely_Meditations

Untimely Meditations (German: Unzeitgemässe Betrachtungen), also translated as Unfashionable Observations[1] and Thoughts Out Of Season[2]) consists of four works by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, started in 1873 and completed in 1876.

 

The work comprises a collection of four (out of a projected 13) essays concerning the contemporary condition of European, especially German, culture

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Schopenhauer

Schopenhauer noted a correspondence between his doctrines and the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism.[93] Similarities centered on the principles that life involves suffering, that suffering is caused by desire (taṇhā), and that the extinction of desire leads to liberation. Thus three of the four "truths of the Buddha" correspond to Schopenhauer's doctrine of the will.[94] In Buddhism, however, while greed and lust are always unskillful, desire is ethically variable – it can be skillful, unskillful, or neutral.[95]

SCHOEPENHAUR FOUR CLASSES OF OBJECTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/On_the_Fourfold_Root_of_the_Principle_of_Sufficient_Reason

The four classes[edit]

Four classes of explanation fall under the principle’s rubric. Hence, four classes of objects occur always and already only in relation to a known subject, according to a correlative capacity within the subject. These classes are summarized as follows:

KANTS FOUR ANTINOMIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kant%27s_antinomies

These antinomies are four: two "mathematical" and two "dynamical". They are connected with (1) the limitation of the universe in respect of space and time, (2) the theory that the whole consists of indivisible atoms (whereas, in fact, none such exist), (3) the problem of free will in relation to universal causality, and (4) the existence of a necessary being.[1]f

MCLUHAN EXTREMELY FAMOUS SPLIT HISTORY INTO FOUR PERIODS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media_ecology

McLuhan split history into four periods:[6] the tribal age, the literary age, the print age, and the electronic age. Throughout the structure of their distinctive methods of communication (e.g., oral, written, printed, electronic), different media arouse patterns in the brain that are distinctive to each and every particular form of communication.[6]

 

Tribal age[edit]

The first period in history that McLuhan describes is the Tribal Age, a time of community because the ear is the dominant sense organ. This is also known as an acoustic era because the senses of hearing, touch, taste, and smell were far more strongly developed than the ability to visualize. During this time, hearing was more valuable because it allowed you to be more immediately aware of your surroundings, which was extremely important for hunting. Everyone hears at the same time making listening to someone in a group a unifying act, deepening the feeling of community. In this world of surround sound, everything is more immediate, more present, and fosters more passion and spontaneity. During the Tribal Age, hearing was believing.

 

Literary age[edit]

The second stage is the Literary Stage, a time of private detachment because the eye is the dominant sense organ; also known as the visual era. Turning sounds into visible objects radically altered the symbolic environment. Words were no longer alive and immediate, they were able to read over and over again. Hearing no longer becomes trustworthy; seeing was believing. Even though people read the same words, the act of reading is an individual act of singular focus. Tribes didn't need to come together to get information anymore. This is when the invention of the alphabet came about. During this time, when people learned to read, they became independent thinkers.

 

Print age[edit]

The third stage is the Print Age, when individual products were mass produced due to the invention of the printing press. It gave the ability to reproduce the same text over and over again. With printing came a new visual stress: the portable book. It allowed people to carry books, so they could read in privacy isolated from others. Libraries were created to hold these books and also gave freedom to be alienated from others and from immediacy of their surroundings.

 

Electronic age[edit]

Lastly, the Electronic Age is an era of instant communication and a return to an environment with simultaneous sounds and touch. It started with a device created by Samuel Morse's invention of the telegraph and led to the telephone, the cell phone, television, internet, DVD, video games, etc. This ability to communicate instantly returned us to the tradition of sound and touch rather than sight. Being able to be in constant contact with the world becomes a nosy generation where everyone knows everyone's business and everyone's business is everyone else's. This phenomenon is called the global village

MCLUHAN WELL KNOWN FOR TETRAD TETRA IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetrad_of_media_effects

Generally speaking, a tetrad is any set of four things. In Laws of Media (1988) and The Global Village (1989),[1] published posthumously, Marshall McLuhan summarized his ideas about media in a concise tetrad of media effects.[2] The tetrad is a means of examining the effects on society of any technology/medium (put another way: a means of explaining the social processes underlying the adoption of a technology/medium[3]) by dividing its effects into four categories and displaying them simultaneously. McLuhan designed the tetrad as a pedagogical tool, phrasing his laws as questions with which to consider any medium:

 

What does the medium enhance?

What does the medium make obsolete?

What does the medium retrieve that had been obsolesced earlier?

What does the medium reverse or flip into when pushed to extremes?

Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Arguments_for_the_Elimination_of_Television

1st edition (publ. William Morrow)

Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television (1978) is a book by Jerry Mander, who argues that many of the problems with television are inherent in the medium and technology itself, and thus cannot be reformed.

MCLUHAN EXTREMELY FAMOUS SEEN BY MANY AS ONE OF THE GREATEST PHILOSOPHERS TALKS ABOU THE FOUR EPOCHS OF HISTORY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Gutenberg_Galaxy

Four epochs of history[edit]

The book may also be regarded as a way of describing four epochs of history:

 

Oral tribe culture

Manuscript culture[13]

Gutenberg galaxy

Electronic age

KEN WILBERS FOUR QUADRANTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integral_theory_(Ken_Wilber)

Ken Wilber's AQAL, pronounced "ah-qwul", is the basic framework of Integral Theory. It suggests that all human knowledge and experience can be placed in a four-quadrant grid, along the axes of "interior-exterior" and "individual-collective". According to Wilber, it is one of the most comprehensive approaches to reality, a metatheory that attempts to explain how academic disciplines and every form of knowledge and experience fit together coherently.[29]

 

AQAL is based on four fundamental concepts and a rest-category: four quadrants, several levels and lines of development, several states of consciousness, and "types", topics which don't fit into these four concepts.[30] "Levels" are the stages of development, from pre-personal through personal to transpersonal."Lines" are lines of development, the several domains of development, which may process uneven, with several stages of development in place at the various domains.[note 2] "States" are states of consciousness; according to Wilber persons may have a terminal experience of a higher developmental stage.[note 3] "Types" is a rest-category, for phenomena which don't fit in the other four concepts.[31][non-primary source needed] In order for an account of the Kosmos to be complete, Wilber believes that it must include each of these five categories. For Wilber, only such an account can be accurately called "integral". In the essay, "Excerpt C: The Ways We Are in This Together", Wilber describes AQAL as "one suggested architecture of the Kosmos".[32]

STEVEN JOHNSON FOUR QUADRANTS- I JUST LISTENED TO THIS BOOK AUDIO BOOK- I ALSO JUST LISTENED TO AUDIOBOOK WHERE GUY WAS IN ISRAELI PRISON AND IT HAD FOUR PARTS IN IT THE FOURTH WAS DIFFERENT

http://ragesoss.com/blog/2010/10/24/where-good-ideas-come-from/

It’s the concluding chapter that leaves me frustrated. Here, Johnson tries to generalize about innovative environments using a framework from Yochai Benkler’s The Wealth of Networks. He plots four “quadrants” where innovation might take place: market-focused individual environments (the entrepreneur inventor working alone), market-focused network environments (the group of firms or individual entrepreneurs sharing ideas and collaborating), non-market individual environments (the amateur inventor, the cloistered academic), and non-market network environments (the academic community, amateur open-source projects). He categorizes two hundred “good ideas” (with no defined criteria for how they were selected) according to these four quadrants, and concludes that markets (with their intellectual property regimes that produce artificial scarcity for ideas) are not the ideal drivers of innovation they are often characterized as.

NOAH REALLY LIKES THIS GUY- FOUR BOOKS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nassim_Nicholas_Taleb

Taleb's four volume philosophical essay on uncertainty, titled the Incerto, covers the following books: Fooled by Randomness (2001), The Black Swan (2007–2010), The Bed of Procrustes (2010), and Antifragile (2012).

 

His first non-technical book, Fooled by Randomness, about the underestimation of the role of randomness in life, published in 2001, was selected by Fortune as one of the smartest 75 books known.[39]

 

His second non-technical book, The Black Swan, about unpredictable events, was published in 2007, selling close to 3 million copies (as of February 2011). It spent 36 weeks on the New York Times Bestseller list,[40] 17 as hardcover and 19 weeks as paperback, [10][41] and was translated into 31 languages.[10] The book has been credited with predicting the banking and economic crisis of 2008.[42] A book of aphorisms, The Bed of Procrustes: Philosophical and Practical Aphorisms, was released in December 2010.

 

The fourth book of his Incerto series—Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder—was published in November 2012.[43] In the introduction of the book, Taleb describes it as follows: "Some things benefit from shocks; they thrive and grow when exposed to volatility, randomness, disorder, and stressors and love adventure, risk, and uncertainty. Yet, in spite of the ubiquity of the phenomenon, there is no word for the exact opposite of fragile. Let us call it antifragile. Antifragility is beyond resilience or robustness. The resilient resists shocks and stays the same; the antifragile gets better."[43]:3 (A mathematical parallel version of the Incerto Quadrilogy is available on Taleb's website.[44])

FOUR PART BOOK- TALEB TALKS ABOUT HOW THE FOURTH QUADRANT IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Black_Swan_(Taleb_book)

The book's layout follows "a simple logic"[4] moving from literary subjects in the beginning to scientific and mathematical subjects in the later portions. Part One and the beginning of Part Two delve into psychology. Taleb addresses science and business in the latter half of Part Two and Part Three. Part Four contains advice on how to approach the world in the face of uncertainty and still enjoy life.

 

Taleb's black swan is different from the earlier philosophical versions of the problem, specifically in epistemology, as it concerns a phenomenon with specific empirical and statistical properties which he calls "the fourth quadrant".[10] Taleb's problem is about epistemic limitations in some parts of the areas covered in decision making. These limitations are twofold: philosophical (mathematical) and empirical (human known epistemic biases). The philosophical problem is about the decrease in knowledge when it comes to rare events as these are not visible in past samples and therefore require a strong a priori, or an extrapolating theory; accordingly, predictions of events depend more and more on theories when their probability is small. In the fourth quadrant, knowledge is both uncertain and consequences are large, requiring more robustness.

FOUR CANDIDATES FOR SUBSTANCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metaphysics_(Aristotle)

Book Zeta begins with the remark that ‘Being’ has many senses. The purpose of philosophy is to understand being. The primary kind of being is what Aristotle calls substance. What substances are there, and are there any substances besides perceptible ones? Aristotle considers four candidates for substance: (i) the ‘essence’ or ‘what it was to be a thing’ (ii) the Platonic universal, (iii) the genus to which a substance belongs and (iv) the substratum or ‘matter’ which underlies all the properties of a thing. He dismisses the idea that matter can be substance, for if we eliminate everything that is a property from what can have the property, we are left with something that has no properties at all. Such 'ultimate matter' cannot be substance. Separability and 'this-ness' are fundamental to our concept of substance.

10 IS THE TETRACTYS FOUR LINES OF DOTS--- ARISTOTLE STARTS BY GIVING FOUR FORMS OF PREDICATION----- HE THEN TALKS ABOUT THE TEN CATEGORIES BUT THE WRITER OF THE ARTICLE DISCUSSES HOW ARISTOTLE REALLY ONLY TALKS ABOUT THE FIRST FOUR AND DEIDCATES FOUR CHAPTERS TO THEM AND HE GLOSSES OVER THE REST- SO ARISTOTLE ONLY REALLY TALKS ABOUT FOUR AND THEN HE TALKS ABOUT FOUR WAYS THINGS MAY BE CONSIDERED CONTRARY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Categories_(Aristotle)

 

 

Of all the things that exist,

 

Some may be predicated[further explanation needed] of a subject, but are in no subject; as man may be predicated of James or John, but is not in any subject.

Some are in a subject, but cannot be predicated of any subject. Thus a certain individual point of grammatical knowledge is in me as in a subject, but it cannot be predicated of any subject; because it is an individual thing.

Some are both in a subject and able to be predicated of a subject, for example science, which is in the mind as in a subject, and may be predicated of geometry as of a subject.

Last, some things neither can be in any subject nor can be predicated of any subject. These are individual substances, which cannot be predicated, because they are individuals; and cannot be in a subject, because they are substances.

The praedicamenta[edit]

Then we come to the categories themselves, whose definitions depend upon these four forms of predication.[2][3] Aristotle's own text in Ackrill's standard English version is:[4][5]

 

The first four are given a detailed treatment in four chapters, doing and being-affected are discussed briefly in a single small chapter, the remaining four are passed over lightly, as being clear in themselves. Later texts by scholastic philosophers also reflect this disparity of treatment[citation needed].

 

The postpraedicamenta[7][edit]

After discussing the categories, four ways are given in which things may be considered contrary to one another

ARISTOTLE TALKS ABOUT THE FOUR VIRTUES- THERE ARE SAID TO BE THREE ARISTOTLE ETHICS BOOKS BUT THE AUTHOR OF THE ARTICLE DISCUSSES HOW THERE IS A DIFFERENT FOURTH

 

Three Aristotelian ethical works survive today which are considered to be either by Aristotle, or from relatively soon after:

 

Nicomachean Ethics, abbreviated as the NE or sometimes (from the Latin version of the name) as the EN. The NE is in 10 books, and is the most widely read of Aristotle's ethical treatises.

Eudemian Ethics, often abbreviated as the EE.

Magna Moralia, often abbreviated as the MM.

The exact origins of these texts is unclear, although they were already considered the works of Aristotle in ancient times. Textual oddities suggest that they may not have been put in their current form by Aristotle himself. For example, Books IV–VI of Eudemian Ethics also appear as Books V–VII of Nicomachean Ethics. The authenticity of the Magna Moralia has been doubted,[3] whereas almost no modern scholar doubts that Aristotle wrote the Nicomachean Ethics and the Eudemian Ethics himself, even if an editor also played some part in giving us those texts in their current forms.

 

The Nicomachean Ethics has received the most scholarly attention, and is the most easily available to modern readers in many different translations and editions. Some critics consider the Eudemian Ethics to be "less mature," while others, such as Kenny (1978),[4] contend that the Eudemian Ethics is the more mature, and therefore later, work.

 

Traditionally it was believed that the Nicomachean Ethics and the Eudemian Ethics were either edited by or dedicated to Aristotle's son and pupil Nicomachus and his disciple Eudemus, respectively, although the works themselves do not explain the source of their names. Although Aristotle's father was also called Nicomachus, Aristotle's son was the next leader of Aristotle's school, the Lyceum, and in ancient times he was already associated with this work.[5]

 

A fourth treatise, Aristotle's Politics, is often regarded as the sequel to the Ethics, in part because Aristotle closes the Nicomachean Ethics by saying that his ethical inquiry has laid the groundwork for an inquiry into political questions (NE X.1181b6-23). Aristotle's Ethics also states that the good of the individual is subordinate to the good of the city-state, or polis.

 

Four Cardinal Virtues[edit]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristotelian_ethics

I. Prudence

 

II. Temperance

 

III. Courage

 

IV. Justice

 

I. Prudence, also known as practical wisdom, is the most important virtue for Aristotle. In war, soldiers must fight with prudence by making judgments through practical wisdom. This virtue is a must to obtain because courage requires judgments to be made.

 

II. Temperance, or self-control, simply means moderation. Soldiers must display moderation with their enjoyment while at war in the midst of violent activities. Temperance concerning courage gives one moderation in private which leads to moderation in public.

 

III. Courage, the one we will focus on in this article, is “moderation or observance of the mean with respect to feelings of fear and confidence.” Courage is “observance of the mean with regard to things that excite confidence or fear, under the circumstances which we have specified, and chooses its course and sticks to its post because it is noble to do so, or because it is disgraceful not to do so.” Concerning warfare, Aristotle believes soldiers are morally significant and are military and political heroes. War is simply a stage for soldiers to display courage, and is the only way courage can be exemplified. Any other action by a human is simply them copying a soldier’s ways; they are not actually courageous.

 

IV. Justice means giving the enemy what is due to them in the proper ways; being just toward them. In other words, one must recognize what is good for the community and one must undertake a good course of action.

FOUR GRADES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_philosophy

The occasions of experience are of four grades. The first grade comprises processes in a physical vacuum such as the propagation of an electromagnetic wave or gravitational influence across empty space. The occasions of experience of the second grade involve just inanimate matter. The occasions of experience of the third grade involve living organisms. Occasions of experience of the fourth grade involve experience in the mode of presentational immediacy, which means more or less what are often called the qualia of subjective experience. So far as we know, experience in the mode of presentational immediacy occurs in only more evolved animals. That some occasions of experience involve experience in the mode of presentational immediacy is the one and only reason why Whitehead makes the occasions of experience his actual entities; for the actual entities must be of the ultimately general kind. Consequently, it is inessential that an occasion of experience have an aspect in the mode of presentational immediacy; occasions of the grades one, two, and three, lack that aspect.

ARISTOTLE TALKS ABOUT THE QUADRANT OF THE FOUR ELEMENTS AND THEN TALKS ABOUT THE FOUR CAUSES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristotelian_physics

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Four_elements_representation.svg

Unlike the eternal and unchanging celestial aether, each of the four terrestrial elements are capable of changing into either of the two elements they share a property with: e.g. the cold and wet (water) can transform into the hot and wet (air) or the cold and dry (earth) and any apparent change into the hot and dry (fire) is actually a two-step process. These properties are predicated of an actual substance relative to the work it is able to do; that of heating or chilling and of desiccating or moistening. The four elements exist only with regard to this capacity and relative to some potential work. The celestial element is eternal and unchanging, so only the four terrestrial elements account for "coming to be" and "passing away" – or, in the terms of Aristotle's De Generatione et Corruptione (Περὶ γενέσεως καὶ φθορᾶς), "generation" and "corruption".

 

Elements[edit]

According to Aristotle, the elements which compose the terrestrial spheres are different from that constituting the celestial spheres.[3] He believed that four elements make up everything under the Moon, i.e. everything terrestrial: earth, air, fire and water.[a][4] He also held that the heavens are made of a special weightless and incorruptible (i.e. unchangeable) fifth element called "aether".[4] Aether also has the name "quintessence", meaning, literally, "fifth being".[5]

 

Four causes[edit]

Main articles: Four causes and Teleology

According to Aristotle, there are four ways to explain the aitia or causes of change. He writes that "we do not have knowledge of a thing until we have grasped its why, that is to say, its cause."[8][9]

 

Aristotle held that there were four kinds of causes.[9][10]

 

Material[edit]

The material cause of a thing is that of which it is made. For a table, that might be wood; for a statue, that might be bronze or marble.

 

“In one way we say that the aition is that out of which. as existing, something comes to be, like the bronze for the statue, the silver for the phial, and their genera” (194b2 3—6). By “genera,” Aristotle means more general ways of classifying the matter (e.g. “metal”; “material”); and that will become important. A little later on. he broadens the range of the material cause to include letters (of syllables), fire and the other elements (of physical bodies), parts (of wholes), and even premisses (of conclusions: Aristotle re-iterates this claim, in slightly different terms, in An. Post II. 11).[11]

 

— R.J. Hankinson, "The Theory of the Physics" in Blackwell Companion to Aristotle

Formal[edit]

The formal cause of a thing is the essential property that makes it the kind of thing it is. In Metaphysics Book Α Aristotle emphasizes that form is closely related to essence and definition. He says for example that the ratio 2:1, and number in general, is the cause of the octave.

 

"Another [cause] is the form and the exemplar: this is the formula (logos) of the essence (to ti en einai), and its genera, for instance the ratio 2:1 of the octave” (Phys 11.3 194b26—8)... Form is not just shape... We are asking (and this is the connection with essence, particularly in its canonical Aristotelian formulation) what it is to be some thing. And it is a feature of musical harmonics (first noted and wondered at by the Pythagoreans) that intervals of this type do indeed exhibit this ratio in some form in the instruments used to create them (the length of pipes, of strings, etc.). In some sense, the ratio explains what all the intervals have in common, why they turn out the same.[12]

 

— R.J. Hankinson, "Cause" in Blackwell Companion to Aristotle

Efficient[edit]

The efficient cause of a thing is the primary agency by which its matter took its form. For example, the efficient cause of a baby is a parent of the same species and that of a table is a carpenter, who knows the form of the table. In his Physics II, 194b29—32, Aristotle writes: "there is that which is the primary originator of the change and of its cessation, such as the deliberator who is responsible [sc. for the action] and the father of the child, and in general the producer of the thing produced and the changer of the thing changed".

 

Aristotle’s examples here are instructive: one case of mental and one of physical causation, followed by a perfectly general characterization. But they conceal (or at any rate fail to make patent) a crucial feature of Aristotle’s concept of efficient causation, and one which serves to distinguish it from most modern homonyms. For Aristotle, any process requires a constantly operative efficient cause as long as it continues. This commitment appears most starkly to modern eyes in Aristotle’s discussion of projectile motion: what keeps the projectile moving after it leaves the hand? “Impetus,” “momentum,” much less “inertia,” are not possible answers. There must be a mover, distinct (at least in some sense) from the thing moved, which is exercising its motive capacity at every moment of the projectile’s flight (see Phys VIII. 10 266b29—267a11). Similarly, in every case of animal generation, there is always some thing responsible for the continuity of that generation, although it may do so by way of some intervening instrument (Phys II.3 194b35—195a3).[12]

 

— R.J. Hankinson, "Causes" in Blackwell Companion to Aristotle

Final[edit]

The final cause is that for the sake of which something takes place, its aim or teleological purpose: for a germinating seed, it is the adult plant,[13] for a ball at the top of a ramp, it is coming to rest at the bottom, for an eye, it is seeing, for a knife, it is cutting.

 

Goals have an explanatory function: that is a commonplace, at least in the context of action-ascriptions. Less of a commonplace is the view espoused by Aristotle, that finality and purpose are to be found throughout nature. which is for him the realm of those things which contain within themselves principles of movement and rest (i.e. efficient causes); thus it makes sense to attribute purposes not only to natural things themselves, but also to their parts: the parts of a natural whole exist for the sake of the whole. As Aristotle himself notes, “for the sake of” locutions are ambiguous: "A is for the sake of B" may mean that A exists or is undertaken in order to bring B about; or it may mean that A is for B’s benefit (An II.4 415b2—3, 20—1); but both types of finality have, he thinks. a crucial role to play in natural. as well as deliberative, contexts. Thus a man may exercise for the sake of his health: and so “health,” and not just the hope of achieving it, is the cause of his action (this distinction is not trivial). But the eyelids are for the sake of the eye (to protect it: PA II.1 3) and the eye for the sake of the animal as a whole (to help it function properly: cf. An II.7).[14]

 

— R.J. Hankinson, "Causes" in Blackwell Companion to Aristotle

ARISTOTLE FIRST TALKS ABOUT THE FOUR CAUSES THEN HE TALKS ABOUT THE FOUR SPECIES OF MOVEMENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physics_(Aristotle)

Books V and VI deal with how motion occurs. Book V classifies four species of movement, depending on where the opposites are located. Movement categories include quantity (e.g. a change in dimensions, from great to small), quality (as for colors: from pale to dark), place (local movements generally go from up downwards and vice versa), or, more controversially, substance. In fact, substances do not have opposites, so it is inappropriate to say that something properly becomes, from not-man, man: generation and corruption are not kinesis in the full sense.

 

Book VI discusses how a changing thing can reach the opposite state, if it has to pass through infinite intermediate stages. It investigates by rational and logical arguments the notions of continuity and division, establishing that change—and, consequently, time and place—are not divisible into indivisible parts; they are not mathematically discrete but continuous, that is, infinitely divisible (in other words, that you cannot build up a continuum out of discrete or indivisible points or moments). Among other things, this implies that there can be no definite (indivisible) moment when a motion begins. This discussion, together with that of speed and the different behavior of the four different species of motion, eventually helps Aristotle answer the famous paradoxes of Zeno, which purport to show the absurdity of motion's existence.

 

In chapter 3, Aristotle presents his theory of the four causes (material, efficient, formal, and final[11]). Material cause explains what something is made of (for example, the wood of a house), formal cause explains the form which a thing follows to become that thing (the plans of an architect to build a house), efficient cause is the actual source of the change (the physical building of the house), and final cause is the intended purpose of the change (the final product of the house and its purpose as a shelter and home).[12]

 

Of particular importance is the final cause or purpose (telos). It is a common mistake to conceive of the four causes as additive or alternative forces pushing or pulling; in reality, all four are needed to explain (7.198a22-25). What we typically mean by cause in the modern scientific idiom is only a narrow part of what Aristotle means by efficient cause.[13]

 

He contrasts purpose with the way in which "nature" does not work, chance (or luck), discussed in chapters 4, 5, and 6. (Chance working in the actions of humans is tuche and in unreasoning agents automaton.) Something happens by chance when all the lines of causality converge without that convergence being purposefully chosen, and produce a result similar to the teleologically caused one.

 

In chapters 7 through 9, Aristotle returns to the discussion of nature. With the enrichment of the preceding four chapters, he concludes that nature acts for an end, and he discusses the way that necessity is present in natural things. For Aristotle, the motion of natural things is determined from within them, while in the modern empirical sciences, motion is determined from without (more properly speaking: there is nothing to have an inside).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_causes#The_four_causes_in_modern_science

 

The four causes in modern science[edit]

See also: Teleology § Teleology and science

Francis Bacon wrote in his Advancement of Learning (1605) that natural science "doth make inquiry, and take consideration of the same natures : but how? Only as to the material and efficient causes of them, and not as to the forms." According to the demands of Bacon, apart from the "laws of nature" themselves, the causes relevant to natural science are only efficient causes and material causes in terms of Aristotle's classification, or to use the formulation which became famous later, all nature visible to human science is matter and motion. Using the terminology of Aristotle, he divided knowledge into physics and metaphysics in The New Organon.

 

From the two kinds of axioms which have been spoken of arises a just division of philosophy and the sciences, taking the received terms (which come nearest to express the thing) in a sense agreeable to my own views. Thus, let the investigation of forms, which are (in the eye of reason at least, and in their essential law) eternal and immutable, constitute Metaphysics; and let the investigation of the efficient cause, and of matter, and of the latent process, and the latent configuration (all of which have reference to the common and ordinary course of nature, not to her eternal and fundamental laws) constitute Physics. And to these let there be subordinate two practical divisions: to Physics, Mechanics; to Metaphysics, what (in a purer sense of the word) I call Magic, on account of the broadness of the ways it moves in, and its greater command over nature. Francis Bacon The New Organon, Book II, Aphorism 9, 1620

 

Bacon's position became the standard one for modern science.

SOCRATES SAYS THERE ARE FOUR TYPES OF MADNESS AND THE FOURTH IS DIVINE- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phaedrus_(dialogue)

Madness (244a–245c)[edit]

Socrates begins by discussing madness. If madness is all bad, then the preceding speeches would have been correct, but in actuality, madness given as a gift of the gods provides us with some of the best things we have.[Note 18] There are, in fact, several kinds of divine madness (theia mania), of which he cites four examples:[2]

 

From Apollo, the gift of prophecy;

From Dionysus, the mystic rites and relief from present hardship;

From the Muses, poetry;

From Aphrodite, love.

As they must show that the madness of love is, indeed, sent by a god to benefit the lover and beloved in order to disprove the preceding speeches, Socrates embarks on a proof of the divine origin of this fourth sort of madness. It is a proof, he says, that will convince "the wise if not the clever".[Note 19]

FOUR SYLLOGISTIC FIGURES- KANT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_False_Subtlety_of_the_Four_Syllogistic_Figures

The False Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The False Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures Proved (German: Die falsche Spitzfindigkeit der vier syllogistischen Figuren erwiesen) is an essay published by Immanuel Kant in 1762.

 

 

The Logical Division of the Four Figures is a Mistaken Subtlety.

 

Legitimate conclusions can be drawn in all four figures. Only the first figure determines the conclusion by pure, unmixed reasoning. The other figures use unspoken, inserted inferences. Logic should consist of open, not covert, reasoning. It should be simple and unmixed, with no hidden inferences.

 

Previous logicians incorrectly considered all four figures as being simple and pure. The four figures were created by playfully changing the middle term’s position. This retained the rational conclusion but increased obscurity. Time should not be wasted on the study of the three mixed ratiocinations.

IT HAS FOUR PARTS FOUR PIECES- KANT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religion_within_the_Bounds_of_Bare_Reason

Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason (German: Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) is a 1793 book by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant. Although its purpose and original intent has become a matter of some dispute, the book's immense and lasting influence on the history of theology and the philosophy of religion is indisputable. It consists of four parts, called "Pieces" (Stücke), originally written as a series of four journal articles.

 

Contents [hide]

1 Royal censorship

2 Title meaning and translations

3 English translations

4 See also

5 Further reading

Royal censorship[edit]

The First Piece originally appeared as a Berlinische Monatsschrift article (April 1792). Kant's attempt to publish the Second Piece in the same journal met with opposition from the king's censor. Kant then arranged to have all four pieces published as a book, routing it through the philosophy department at University of Jena to avoid the need for theological censorship. Kant was reprimanded for this action of insubordination. When he nevertheless published a second edition in 1794, the censor was so irate that he arranged for a royal order that required Kant never to publish or even speak publicly about religion.

THE BOOK HAS FOUR SECTIONS- KANT TRIES TO FIT HIS THEORY INTO GALEN'S FOUR HUMOURS- VERY FAMOUS FOUR PARTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observations_on_the_Feeling_of_the_Beautiful_and_Sublime

"A profound feeling for the beauty and dignity of human nature and a firmness and determination of the mind to refer all one's actions to this as to a universal ground is earnest, and does not at all join with a changeable gaiety nor with the inconstancy of a frivolous person." With this observation, Kant will attempt to fit the various feelings of the beautiful and sublime, and the resulting moral characters, into Galen's rigid arrangement of the four humours or human temperaments: melancholic, sanguine, choleric, and phlegmatic.

 

Section Four[edit]

Of National Characteristics, so far as They Depend upon the Distinct Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime

 

Here Kant describes the different ways that various people have finer feelings. He qualifies his remarks by stating, "[W]hether these national differences are contingent and depend upon the times and the type of government, or are bound by a certain necessity to the climate, I do not here inquire."

FOUR POSSIBLE REFLECTIVE JUDGEMENTS- FOUR CRITIQUES THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critique_of_Judgment

The first part of the book, the Critique of Aesthetic Judgment, discusses the four possible "reflective judgments": the agreeable, the beautiful, the sublime, and the good. Kant makes it clear that these are the only four possible reflective judgments, as he relates them to the Table of Judgments from the Critique of Pure Reason.

 

The fourth Critique. Italian writings about Kant's "fourth" Critique (Italian)

KANTS DISCUSSION IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR PARTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Groundwork_of_the_Metaphysic_of_Morals

In section one, Kant argues from common sense morality to the supreme principle of morality, which he calls the categorical imperative. Kant thinks that uncontroversial premises from our shared common sense morality, and analysis of common sense concepts such as ‘the good’, ‘duty’, and ‘moral worth’, will yield the supreme principle of morality, namely, the categorical imperative. Kant’s discussion in section one can be roughly divided into four parts: (1) The good will (2) The teleological argument. (3) The three propositions regarding duty and (4) The categorical imperative.

ON THE BASIS OF MORALITY IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR SECTIONS- SCHOEPENHAUER AND KANT ARE THE MOST FAMOUS PHILOSOPHERS AND ALL OF THEIR WORKS ARE COMPLETELY FULL OF QUADRANT PATTERNS- throughout- IT WAS LIKE MY ANALYSIS OF THE TALMUD IF I SHOW YOU WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE YOU COULDNT SEE THAT THE QUADRANT MODEL IS EVERYWHERE IN IT BUT THEN I READ YOU THROUGH IT AND YOU SAW

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/On_the_Basis_of_Morality

On the Basis of Morality is divided into four sections. The first section is an introduction in which Schopenhauer provides his account of the question posed by the Royal Danish Society and his interpretation of the history of western ethics. In the second section, Schopenhauer embarks on a criticism of Kantian ethics, which he viewed as the orthodoxy in ethics. The third section of the work is Schopenhauer's positive construction of his own ethical theory. The final section of the work provides a brief description of the metaphysical foundations of ethics.

FOUR TYPES FOUR STEPS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akrasia

Another contemporary philosopher, Amélie Rorty (1980) has tackled the problem by distilling out akrasia's many forms. She contends that akrasia is manifested in different stages of the practical reasoning process. She enumerates four types of akrasia: akrasia of direction or aim, of interpretation, of irrationality, and of character. She separates the practical reasoning process into four steps, showing the breakdown that may occur between each step and how each constitutes an akratic state.

KANT PRODUCED A LOT OF QUADRANT MODELS

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critique_of_Pure_Reason

 

Logicians prior to Kant had concerned themselves to classify the various possible logical forms of judgment. Kant, with only minor modifications, accepts and adopts their work as correct and complete, and lays out all the logical forms of judgment in a table, reduced under four heads:

 

1. Quantity of Judgements

2. Quality

3. Relation

4. Modality

Under each head, there corresponds three logical forms of judgement[36]:

 

1. Quantity of Judgements

Universal

Particular

Singular

2. Quality

Affirmative

Negative

Infinite

3. Relation

Categorical

Hypothetical

Disjunctive

4. Modality

Problematic

Assertoric

Apodeictic

MORE QUADRANT TABLES BY KANT - FOUR CATEGORIES

 

This Aristotelian method for classifying judgments is the basis for his own twelve corresponding concepts of the understanding. In deriving these concepts, he reasons roughly as follows. If we are to possess pure concepts of the understanding, they must relate to the logical forms of judgement. However, if these pure concepts are to be applied to intuition, they must have content. But the logical forms of judgement by themselves abstract and contentless. Therefore, to determine the pure concepts of the understanding we must identify concepts which both correspond to the logical forms of judgement, and are able to play a role in organising intuition. Kant therefore attempts to extract from each of the logical forms of judgement a concept which relates to intuition. For example, corresponding to the logical form of hypothetical judgement ('If p, then q'), there corresponds the category of causality ('If one event, then another'). Kant calls these pure concepts 'categories', echoing the Aristotelian notion of a category as a concept which is not derived from any more general concept. He follows a similar method for the other eleven categories, then represents them in the following table[37]

 

1. Categories of Quantity

Unity

Plurality

Totality

2. Categories of Quality

Reality

Negation

Limitation

3. Categories of Relation

Inherence and Subsistence (substance and accident)

Causality and Dependence (cause and effect)

Community (reciprocity between agent and patient)

4. Categories of Modality

Possibility—Impossibility

Existence—Non-existence

Necessity—Contingency

These categories, then, are the fundamental, primary, or native concepts of the understanding. These flow from, or constitute the mechanism of understanding and its nature, and are inseparable from its activity. Therefore, for human thought, they are universal and necessary, or a priori. As categories they are not contingent states or images of sensuous consciousness, and hence not to be thence derived. Similarly, they are not known to us independently of such consciousness or of sensible experience. On the one hand, they are exclusively involved in, and hence come to our knowledge exclusively through, the spontaneous activity of the understanding. This understanding is never active, however, until sensible data are furnished as material for it to act upon, and so it may truly be said that they become known to us "only on the occasion of sensible experience." For Kant, in opposition to Christian Wolff and Hobbes, the categories exist only in the mind.[38]

ANOTHER QUADRANT MODEL BY KANT FOUR CATEGORIES

 

In the Transcendental Deduction, Kant aims to show that the categories derived in the Metaphysical Deduction are conditions of all possible experience. He achieves this proof roughly by the following line of thought: all representations must have some common ground if they are to be the source of possible knowledge (because extracting knowledge from experience requires the ability to compare and contrast representations that may occur at different times or in different places). This ground of all experience is the self-consciousness of the experiencing subject, and the constitution of the subject is such that all thought is rule-governed in accordance with the categories. It follows that the categories feature as necessary components in any possible experience.[39]

 

1.Axioms of intuition

2.Anticipations of perception

3.Analogies of experience

4.Postulates of empirical thought in general

KANTS DOCTRINE OF METHOD CONTAINS FOUR SECTIONS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critique_of_Pure_Reason

The Doctrine of Method contains four sections. The first section, Discipline of Pure Reason, compares mathematical and logical methods of proof, and the second section, Canon of Pure Reason, distinguishes theoretical from practical reason.

 

The Divisions of Critique of Pure Reason

 

Dedication

 

1. First and second Prefaces

2. Introduction

3. Transcendental Doctrine of Elements

A. Transcendental Aesthetic

B. Transcendental Logic

(1) Transcendental Analytic

a. Analytic of Concepts

i. Metaphysical Deduction

ii. Transcendental Deduction

b. Analytic of Principles

i. Schematism (bridging chapter)

ii. System of Principles of Pure Understanding

a. Axioms of Intuition

b. Anticipations of Perception

c. Analogies of Experience

d. Postulates of Empirical Thought (Refutation of Idealism)

iii. Ground of Distinction of Objects into Phenomena and Noumena

iv. Appendix on the Amphiboly of the Concepts of Reflection

(2) Transcendental Dialectic: Transcendental Illusion

a. Paralogisms of Pure Reason

b. Antinomy of Pure Reason

c. Ideal of Pure Reason

d. Appendix to Critique of Speculative Theology

4. Transcendental Doctrine of Method

A. Discipline of Pure Reason

B. Canon of Pure Reason

C. Architectonic of Pure Reason

D. History of Pure Reason

KANT THEN TALKS ABOUT THE FOUR PARALOGISMS AND HOW THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT AND DOES NOT BELONG THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critique_of_Pure_Reason

The soul is not separate from the world. They exist for us only in relation to each other. Whatever we know about the external world is only a direct, immediate, internal experience. The world appears, in the way that it appears, as a mental phenomenon. We cannot know the world as a thing-in-itself, that is, other than as an appearance within us. To think about the world as being totally separate from the soul is to think that a mere phenomenal appearance has independent existence outside of us. If we try to know an object as being other than an appearance, it can only be known as a phenomenal appearance, never otherwise. We cannot know a separate, thinking, non-material soul or a separate, non-thinking, material world because we cannot know things, as to what they may be by themselves, beyond being objects of our senses. The fourth paralogism is passed over lightly or not treated at all by commentators. In the first edition of the Critique of Pure Reason, the fourth paralogism is addressed to refuting the thesis that there is no certainty of the existence of the external world. In the second edition of the Critique of Pure Reason, the task at hand becomes the Refutation of Idealism. Sometimes, the fourth paralogism is taken as one of the most awkward of Kant's invented tetrads. Nevertheless, in the fourth paralogism, there is a great deal of philosophizing about the self that goes beyond the mere refutation of idealism. In both editions, Kant is trying to refute the same argument for the non-identity of mind and body.[47] In the first edition, Kant refutes the Cartesian doctrine that there is direct knowledge of inner states only and that knowledge of the external world is exclusively by inference. Kant claims mysticism is one of the characteristics of Platonism, the main source of dogmatic idealism. Kant explains skeptical idealism by developing a syllogism called "The Fourth Paralogism of the Ideality of Outer Relation:"

 

If that whose existence can be inferred only as a cause of given perceptions has only a doubtful existence.

And the existence of outer appearances cannot be immediately perceived but can be inferred only as the cause of given perceptions.

Then, the existence of all objects of outer sense is doubtful.[48]

Kant may have had in mind an argument by Descartes:

 

My own existence is not doubtful

But the existence of physical things is doubtful

Therefore, I am not a physical thing.

It is questionable that the fourth paralogism should appear in a chapter on the soul. What Kant implies about Descartes' argument in favor of the immaterial soul is that the argument rests upon a mistake on the nature of objective judgement not on any misconceptions about the soul. The attack is mislocated.[49]

THEN KANT INTRODUCES THE FOUR ANTINOMIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critique_of_Pure_Reason

The antinomy of pure reason[edit]

Kant presents the four antinomies of reason in the Critique of Pure Reason as going beyond the rational intention of reaching a conclusion. For Kant, an antinomy is a pair of faultless arguments in favor of opposite conclusions. Historically, Gottfried Leibniz and Samuel Clarke (Newton's spokesman) had just recently engaged in a titanic debate of unprecedented repercussions. Kant's formulation of the arguments was affected accordingly.[51]

 

The Ideas of Rational Cosmology are dialectical. They result in four kinds of opposing assertions, each of which is logically valid. The antinomy, with its resolution, is as follows:

 

Thesis: The world has, as to time and space, a beginning (limit).

Antithesis: The world is, as to time and space, infinite.

Both are false. The world is an object of experience. Neither statement is based on experience.

Thesis: Everything in the world consists of elements that are simple.

Antithesis: There is no simple thing, but everything is composite.

Both are false. Things are objects of experience. Neither statement is based on experience.

Thesis: There are in the world causes through freedom.

Antithesis: There is no freedom, but all is nature.

Both may be true. The thesis may be true of things-in-themselves (other than as they appear). The antithesis may be true of things as they appear.

Thesis: In the series of the world-causes there is some necessary being.

Antithesis: There is nothing necessary in the world, but in this series all is contingent.

Both may be true. The thesis may be true of things-in-themselves (other than as they appear). The antithesis may be true of things as they appear.

According to Kant, rationalism came to fruition by defending the thesis of each antinomy while empiricism evolved into new developments by working to better the arguments in favor of each antithesis.[52]

HERE IS A DIAGRAM OF SOME OF KANTS FOURFOLD DIVISIONS

THIS IS KANTS MOST FAMOUS BOOK AND IT IS BASICALLY REPETITIONS OF THE QUADRANT MODEL FOURFOLD DIVISIONS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critique_of_Pure_Reason

FUNCTION OF THOUGHT IN JUDGMENT CATEGORIES OF UNDERSTANDING PRINCIPLES OF PURE UNDERSTANDING

Quantity Quantity 

Universal

Particular

Singular Unity

Plurality

Totality Axioms of Intuition

Quality Quality 

Affirmative

Negative

Infinite Reality

Negation

Limitation Anticipations of Perception

Relation Relation 

Categorical

Hypothetical

Disjunctive Of Inherence and Subsistence (substantia et accidens)

Of Causality and Dependence (cause and effect)

Of Community (reciprocity between the agent and patient) Analogies of Experience

Modality Modality 

Problematical

Assertorical

Apodeictical Possibility-Impossibility

Existence-Non-existence

Necessity-Contingence Postulates of Empirical Thought in General

KANT MAKES ANOTHER FOURFOLD- EMPERICAL INTUIITON AND PURE INTUTION AND EMPIRICAL CONCEPT AND PURE CONCEPT- YOU WOULD BE SURPRISED THERE IS WAY MORE FOURFOLDS THAN PRESENTED IN THIS WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE IT IS BASCICALLY ALL THE QUADRANT MODEL- ALL THE BIGGEST PHILOSOPHERS BIGGEST RELIGIONS EVERYTHING IT IS ALL THE QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critique_of_Pure_Reason

DELINKant-taxonomy.svg

Kant-taxonomy.svg

Kant divides intuitions in the following ways:

 

Kant distinguishes intuitions into pure intuitions and empirical intuitions. Empirical intuitions are intuitions that contain sensation. Pure intuitions are intuitions that do not contain any sensation (A50/B74). An example of an empirical intuition would be one's perception of a chair or another physical object. All such intuitions are immediate representations that have sensation as part of the content of the representation. The pure intuitions are, according to Kant, those of space and time, which are our mind's subjective condition of coordinating sensibilia. Our representations of space and time are not objective and real, but immediate representations that do not include sensation within those representations. Thus both are pure intuitions.

FOURFOLD DIVISION

I ACTUALLY POSTED EVERY CHAPTER OF THIS BOOK BEFORE BUT I WILL DO IT AGAIN- WHEN I FIRST MET NOAH HE ACTUALLY GAVE ME THIS BOOK NOT KNOWING WHAT THE THEORY OF EVERYTHING WAS AND I TOLD HIM THAT THE BOOK RELATED TO THE THEORY OF EVERYTHING I DISCOVERED BUT I TOLD HIM I WUOLDNT TELL HIM WHAT IT IS- NOAH REALLY LIKED THIS GUY

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Categories of knowing

 

What are the elements of an act of knowing?

 

At least two are immediately obvious: that which is known, and the consciousness which knows it. The knower's status is at least as important as that of the known, a point which modern physics has been forced to recognize in the uncertainty principle, which reveals the fact that, in order to know something about it, an observer must act upon, and thus disturb, an object. The act of knowing is thus a transaction between the object and the knower which involves physical exchanges of energy. Thus the concept of pure "parallelism" a reflection within the knower of the known - is not tenable. We cannot think of the known as pure reflection within the knower, like the image of a flying swan on the smooth surface of a pond. When the swan lights on the water, its pure image is shattered by the broken surface.

 

Between observer and observed, then, there exists more than a simple duality. The complete description includes not only the actual physical impingements, the so-called sense data, of the known upon the observer, but also the projections of the observer upon the object. These projections are the source of error, and without them there would be no problem of correct knowledge. But they are not always erroneous. If I recognize a friend by the sound of his voice, I evoke an image of him that is substantially correct. We continually project properties on people and objects that we have learned to expect in them. It requires great mental effort to divest the world we experience of preconceptions and associations, if indeed it is possible at all.

 

The dynamic confrontation between knower and known, with the addition of the two kinds of relation between them - the objective information (sense data) coming from the object, and the nonobjective qualities projected by the knower upon the object - may be represented diagrammatically:

 

 

 

At least four kinds of relationship are involved:

 

1. AA - The relationships contained within the object itself: that it is, for example, an equilateral triangle, having three equal angles and sides. Such interrelationship provides the definition of the object. It holds for all equilateral triangles.

 

2. AB - The data which the knower receives from the object as sensations: its weight, color, texture, etc. This is factual, and concerns the particular object. It tells us that one particular triangle is dented, or broken, or that another triangle is blue.

 

3. BA - The qualities which the knower projects upon the object: that the triangle is beautiful or ugly, good or bad. This includes characteristics like solidity because such qualities are in part projected by the knower. Solidity is not entirely objective since atomic structure is thought to be ninety-nine percent pure space.

 

4. BB- The function of the object for the knower: he uses the triangle for a watch fob or to illustrate an argument. This category consists essentially of relations of the knower to himself which he creates for the object, and would include his purpose in making it.

 

While there is no assurance that this approach will solve all problems, it has the merit of including all possible permutations of the relations between knower and object.

 

Only the first category (AA) is considered valid and useful in the scientific view. I propose that a complete description necessarily includes the three alternatives to this view.

 

The first category, that of the relationships contained within the object, conforms to the scientific requirement for a valid description; i.e., one to which all observers agree: a square has four sides, etc. The second category, sense perception of the object, while also objective and the basis for all scientific experiments, provides only a transition to scientific knowledge. It comprises the immediate data obtained from a particular object or experiment and, before it is applicable to new situations, must be formulated and generalized.

 

Hence, scientific knowledge is derived from observations, but is different from them. The observations consist of particulars, while scientific knowledge is general and belongs in the first category, not the second.

 

Thus we may describe the objectivity of the first category as general, that of the second category as particular.

 

The third category consists of values projected upon the object; for instance, its beauty or ugliness. When Hamlet says, "There is nothing good or bad but thinking makes it so," the implication is that value is not inherent in the object itself. This is the usual view, which I do not contest. But the further implication that value, because it is not inherent in the object, is subjective, or limited to the particular consciousness of a particular knower, deserves closer scrutiny. For the moment, I will simply point out that I am replacing "subjective" with the more accurate word "projective" for reasons that will shortly develop.

 

The fourth category, the function of the object, we also refer to as projective. An alternative key word is orientation, which may be interpreted both metaphorically and literally. It refers not only to the function of the object, which we described as a relation projected for the object rather than upon it, but also to the way in which the object relates to a larger context. It concerns "which way up" the carburetor is installed in the engine or the key is inserted in the lock. This aspect of the object is not objective. We cannot determine it by inspection of the object alone, but only by an awareness of the larger context of which the object is a part.

 

Such reasoning indicates the appropriateness of supplanting the word "subjective" by "projective." "Subjective" implies a personal description, with the possibility of illusion, while "projective" implies only that which is not objective, and leaves aside the question of reality.

 

Thus we say that an image is projected on a screen, or that the earnings of a corporation are projected for the year to come. The projective aspect can be of very practical significance. When Thiokol, a synthetic rubber intended for tires, was proposed as rocket fuel (changing its projective aspect), the price of stock in the company soared.

 

The distinction between general and particular, demonstrated for the first two categories, also applies to the third and fourth. We may call the third projective and general, the fourth projective and particular.

 

In the third category, valid projections, such as "Where there's smoke there's fire," are possible only because such projection is general. The generality of projections also causes illusion. I see the beautiful tulips and imagine their smell and texture, only to discover that they are wax.

 

As for the fourth category, since function or purpose is an individual matter (my friend uses parking tickets to light the fire), the projection is particular. The word "orientation" implies this particularity; an orientation is by its very nature particular.

 

To illustrate the categories of knowing, let us use the example of an elephant:

 

1. The formal description. The structure of the elephant. The elephant as an object of scientific study. His anatomy, biology, behavior. Objective general.

 

2. The sense data which we experience by direct encounter with an elephant. The smell, the hairiness, the warm breath through the trunk. Objective particular.

 

3. The values we project on the elephant. How big he is! He seems kind, or patient, or terrifying, as the case may be. Projective general.

 

4. The function. The knower's interest in the elephant, what use he will make of him, as a circus attraction, a beast of burden, a zoological specimen, a source of meat or ivory. Projective particular.

 

 

The four aspects of a situation

 

In extending the method to deal with situations as well as objects, we must use more complicated examples. Suppose that a person is lost, but has a map. What kinds of information does he need to find his way?

 

1. The map itself. This, like the scientific description of the elephant, is an objective statement of the relationship of the distance between cities, of the location of roads, rivers, etc. The map is general and objective.

 

2. Where he is on the map. This information is different from the preceding. The person's position is particular as to place and time. It changes as he moves about. It is objective information but, unlike the map as a whole, it is particular and objective.

 

3. The scale of the map. Again, a different kind of information. It involves not just the scale in miles per inch on the map but the means of travel at the person's disposal. It is general and projective.

 

4. Orientation of the map. This different kind of information must be supplied by a compass. It also changes as the traveler moves about and is therefore particular. Note that it is an orientation, a direction, and that the direction of north and the direction in which the traveler wants to go are not necessarily the same. But in order to know in which direction to go, one must know how to orient the map. It is a relation of the map to the larger context. It is particular and projective.

 

In this example, there are again four aspects which correlate with four kinds of relationship:

 

Form correlates with the interrelationship of the parts of the known to one another.

 

Position correlates with the relationship of the traveler to points on the map.

 

Scale correlates with the relationship between a distance on the map and the effort the traveler is called upon to make.

 

Orientation correlates with the relationship of the traveler to a more ultimate reference which is not objective, his goal. This relationship is particular and projective.

 

 

Aristotle's causes

 

The concept of four basic categories of knowing, or four aspects of a situation, is not new - as is evident by reference to the famous four causes of Aristotle. Aristotle described an object (for example, a table) as having:

 

1. A formal cause. The blueprint or concept of the table, its shape and proportion. Corresponds to the objective general.

 

2. An efficient cause. The work of the carpenter in making the table. Corresponds to the objective particular. His particular work produced this particular table.

 

3. A material cause. The wood or other raw substance of which the table is made. The projective general. Wood is general because it can make many things besides tables. There is some ambiguity here since one might choose a particular piece of wood to make a table. However, both the work and the wood have general and particular aspects.

 

4. A final cause. The purpose of the table. Its function of holding things. The projective particular.

 

Whether we refer to them as causes, categories, or kinds of relationships between an observer and an object, we can recognize that the examples we have listed all involve an observer and an object or situation.

 

We need not expect exact correspondences between the different examples, but notice only that they are all subject to analysis in terms of the particular-general and objective-projective dichotomies, and demonstrate the sufficiency of a fourfold analysis.

 

The next step is to display the four categories graphically. If, in fact, we call the categories aspects, the graphic portrayal is almost mandatory, since the word "aspect" implies a direction from which something is viewed. The apparent sufficiency of exactly four categories suggests representing them as pairs of opposites on a cross axis. But before we attempt this, we must decide which categories should be considered opposites. For instance, should the formal cause be opposite the material cause, or the final cause? Other alternatives, such as in what direction to have each aspect face, or in what order to have the aspects, are arbitrary.

 

To decide which pairs are opposite, we shall refer to the two dichotomies of general versus particular, and projective versus objective. Since formal cause is objective and general, and final cause is projective and particular, they are doubly opposite and hence their relationship should be represented by the maximum angle, a full diameter of difference. Thus we have:

 

 

 

Several important properties of the four categories are made apparent by this graphic representation which, by correlating the aspects with directions in space, permits us to say:

 

1. Four aspects are sufficient for the analysis of a situation. If there were a fifth, it would be compounded of two others.

 

2. Four aspects are necessary to a situation. If, for example, we know of three, we should expect to be able to find a fourth.

 

3. Aspects can be formally related. Aspects 90 degrees apart are independent of one another. On the other hand, aspects at opposite ends of an axis are mutually opposed. This idea can be illustrated by reference to the four directions. We can move due east without moving north or south, but not without moving away from, or negating, west.

 

 

 

To illustrate the first point, we may refer again to the map. One could say, "In addition to the four aspects of the map already given, there is a fifth, the direction in which the traveler wants to go." But this direction is like a compass reading. It is an orientation, hence it is not a new category.

 

The second and third points will be illustrated later.

 

 

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A mathematical method

 

The calculus, discovered simultaneously by Leibniz and Newton, is an important technical device which greatly enlarges the scope and power of the fourfold analysis. Since it is a foundation for the argument to come, I should describe it briefly.

 

The concept of the calculus consists of the recognition that, besides the measurement of space and time, we may also employ the ratio of space to time; that is, speed, or velocity. In these days of high-speed travel, it is difficult to understand why the discovery of a formal expression for such a household word as "velocity" raised such a fuss. But Bishop Berkeley, the philosopher, insisted that Newton's "fluxions," which were the ratio of an infinitesimally small increment of distance to an infinitesimally small increment of time, were "logical absurdities." "For," said the Bishop, "an infinitesimal is bad enough, but a ratio of infinitesimals is preposterous."

 

The person who insists he was not driving sixty miles an hour because he was traveling for only ten minutes is using the same reasoning.

 

Newton's great discovery was that we can speak of a velocity as having instantaneous value at a point, despite the fact that to measure velocity we have to take a finite distance and divide it by a finite interval of time.

 

Newton went further. "Not only may we speak of the rate of change of distance with time, which is velocity," he said, "but we may speak of the rate of change of velocity with time, which is acceleration." Velocity is expressed as dl/dt, which means the derivative (or ratio) of length (distance) with respect to time (dl signifies an arbitrarily small increment of length, dt an arbitrarily small increment of time); acceleration is expressed as (d/dt)(dl/dt), the derivative of a derivative, or As position is measured by length (l), we will

 

use the words interchangeably.

 

The calculus enabled Newton to solve the problem of planetary motion. Even more significant is the fact that the calculus, through its concept of derivatives, is able to give a precise definition to elusive notions like force, and hence makes possible the whole science of motion.

 

In following the use of the calculus to explore the four categories of knowing, the non-mathematically grounded reader should not permit a horror of formulae to spoil what can be an interesting adventure. Readers familiar with mathematics will hopefully be tolerant if their equipment is borrowed for a purpose that takes it beyond its usual employment.

 

To illustrate the interrelation of the concepts of the calculus - position, velocity, and acceleration - let us take the example of a swinging pendulum.

 

 

 

Assume that the bob of the pendulum is released at point A and swings from A through midpoint B to point C opposite A and back again. When it is to the right of midpoint B, its position is positive; when to the left, negative. A and C are thus its maximum positive and negative positions.

 

If we chart the position of the pendulum with respect to the passage of time, we may refer to the completion of one swing to the left and its return to A as a cycle of action, the halfway point of which is C and the first quarter of which is midpoint B. The third quarter will be B again but, to distinguish the midpoint of the return swing from that of the outgoing swing, the latter is called D. This can be represented by a new diagram on which the right and left positions of the pendulum are represented by a vertical distance above and below a horizontal line upon which A, B, C, D, A' represent successive time intervals.

 

This vertical distance, or swing, will be maximum positive at A, zero at B, maximum negative at C, zero at D, and back to maximum positive at the end of the line, A'. A smooth curve is drawn through these points.

 

 

 

Note the slope, or "steepness," of this curve, which represents the rate at which the position changes.* At A it is zero (fiat) because the position of the pendulum is changing very slowly; at the 1/4 point B, the slope is steep and downward (negative), at midpoint C it is zero again, at the 3/4 point D it is steep and upward (positive), and at the end it is again zero. These values are marked on the same diagram to obtain a new curve, which represents the value of the slope of the first curve.

 

 

 

 

*If we take a short section of the position curve, for example, where it first crosses the line, we can see that slope is the ratio of the vertical distance dl to the horizontal distance dt. and this ratio has a definite value.

 

 

 

In the diagram we have made dl and dt large for visibility. But when dl and dt are large, the curve between them is not a straight line. However, if we make dl and dt small enough, the curve between them will approach a straight line, and the slope of the curve at point B will equal the ratio dl/dt, which is called the derivative of l with respect to t. Since l is distance and t is time, dl/dt is velocity. This was Newton's discovery. It permits us to deal with an entity that is not an immediate fact of sense experience. (Since an instantaneous picture of the pendulum would not reveal its velocity or even that it is moving, we have to take at least two pictures and plot their relationship.)

 

 

 

This second curve, showing the rate at which the position changes, depicts the velocity of the pendulum. Since position has been designated as positive when the pendulum is to the right, velocity is negative (moving to the left) in the first half of the swing. This is shown by the curve of velocity being below the line in the first half.

 

Going a step further, the slope of the velocity curve, which is to say the rate at which velocity is changing, is charted. This produces a third curve, which represents acceleration.

 

 

 

Observe that the acceleration curve is exactly opposite to the position curve. At the start, position is maximum and positive, acceleration maximum and negative. One may experience this by holding the pendulum at position A (positive), and feeling it pull back (negative). The pull is acceleration. If one lowers the pendulum into a vertical position, this pull reduces to zero (at B). The pull becomes maximum and positive (pulling toward A) when in position C and so on.

 

Note that these curves are all of the same shape but the curve for velocity is displaced 114 of a cycle* back from the position curve, and the curve for acceleration is displaced 114 cycle back from the velocity curve and therefore 112 cycle from the curve of position. Acceleration is thus "out of phase" with position by 112 cycle. Velocity is out of phase with both acceleration and position by 114 cycle. Note that the peak of velocity comes at D, acceleration at C and so on.

 

*A to A' is a full cycle, so A to B is 1/4 cycle.

 

 

The cycle of action

 

To take a final step, the cycle of action is represented as a full circle. To do this, we simply bend the line ABCDA' around into a circle, with A' falling on A, and the points of maximum positive position, velocity, and acceleration falling on three points 90 degrees apart.

 

 

 

This charting presents the phase relationship between the three measures under discussion. Velocity lags behind position by 90 degrees, acceleration by 180 degrees, making acceleration opposite to position. The fourth point on the circle has no measure assigned to it. What could this measure be?

 

Since it is 90 degrees "beyond" acceleration, and each right angle has signified an additional derivative of position, we could expect it to be the third derivative, That is to say, the rate of change of acceleration.

 

But what name and what meaning can we give to this?

 

The name given to the third derivative by aeronautical engineers is jerk, probably because when acceleration is changed by an automatic control, it does so in an all-or-nothing fashion which results in a jerk. But in the general case, as in human control, it need not be a jerk.

 

In any case, because this control factor is not described in the textbooks, we should give it special attention. Let us take the case of driving an automobile.

 

To increase the speed of an automobile, we push on the accelerator, causing positive acceleration. To decrease the speed, we step on the brake, causing negative acceleration. We may also alter the direction of the car by steering.* What is the process by which the accelerator, brakes, and steering change the acceleration of the car? Clearly, a change of acceleration is what we mean by the word control, which now goes in the diagram's fourth position.

 

 

 

Reading clockwise, each measure is the change of the one before. This raises a question: what factor changes control?

 

*This is also a change of its acceleration, which may be understood as follows: Suppose we are traveling at a constant speed and make a U-turn without slowing down. We are now moving in the opposite direction, and our velocity, as measured from a point outside the vehicle, has changed from positive to negative. As this implies, a change of direction of velocity is, in fact, an acceleration. The force of this acceleration is what pushes objects in the car toward the outside of the curve. If we hold the wheel in one position so that the car travels in a circle, we are not changing the acceleration - we have simply imposed a constant acceleration.

 

What causes us to turn the automobile, or start it in the first place, or finally to stop it? The answer is "the destination." The destination is a place, or position. Thus the fifth step, the fourth derivative of position, that which determines control, is the same as the first step. This position is not the same position we started with but has the same category of measure (distance, or length), just as the direction in which the traveler wants to go is not a new category in the example of the map.

 

The examples of the map and the automobile both demonstrate the sufficiency of four categories. We need no fourth derivative. Position and its three derivatives are sufficient for analysis; and, I might add, necessary when there is control, human or otherwise.

 

It may be recalled that the problems of classical mechanics always exclude the possibility of a free agent "interfering with" the system. These problems employ only position and its two derivatives, velocity and acceleration, and in the case where friction can be ignored, may even omit velocity (for friction depends on velocity).

 

Thus the basic predictive equation that is used for treatment of the motion of all bodies, from atoms to spaceships, is:

 

 

 

The presumption in excluding a free agent is that there could be no prediction in such a case - the equation would be too complicated or would not apply.

 

However, the above argument shows that there is a formal expression which covers the "free agent," namely, the third derivative. This, of course, does not mean that prediction is possible. On the contrary, it means that freedom (or unpredictability) is part of the system. In certain cases, prediction is theoretically possible, as in the case of feedback wherein a predetermined position regulates control. One example of this is a target-seeking missile - but even here, although the control is not itself free, it has been set in advance by an agent who is free to choose the target.

 

One might suppose such a situation altogether too complicated for complete analysis, but at least it can be shown that the four categories are again sufficient:

 

1. To know the position of a body in space, we need one instantaneous observation (for instance, the photo finish of a race).

 

2. To know its velocity, which is computed from the difference in position of the body and the difference in time between the two observations, we need two such observations.

 

3. To know its acceleration, we need three observations.

 

4. To know that a body, for example, a vehicle, is under control, and thus distinguish it from one in which the controls are stuck, we need at least four observations. That is, we need three to know acceleration and one more to know that acceleration has been changed. (This still does not tell us the body's destination or goal.)

 

5. To know the destination, provided the operator does not change his mind or try to fool us, we need five observations.

 

6. To know the operator has changed his mind or is trying to fool us, we need six observations.

 

Note that the fifth observation is to establish a position (the destination) and the sixth a change of position. Thus categories five and six repeat the cycle, the fifth falling into the position category and the sixth into the velocity category. As in the case of the map, the sufficiency of four categories is demonstrated.

 

 

Use of the measure formulae

 

We have shown that the motion of a body, even one controlled by an operator, may be formally described by the four categories of measure. The form we have used to represent these measures is that employed in the calculus:

 

 

There is an alternative, and simpler, representation in which the d's are omitted and capital letters employed; thus:

 

 

 

This is the form used in so-called measure formulae, the ten formulae used in physics to describe the motion of a body. Since I will discuss these formulae at some length, I will use the simpler representation.

 

In describing these measures - position and its derivatives ­ we have sought to establish:

 

1. That four categories of measure are necessary and sufficient for the analysis of motion of a moving body.

 

2. That the graphic representation of these measures as four right angles dividing the circle has a special significance - each right angle is a phase shift of 90 degrees and correlates with the derivative of the one before.

 

In the course of the above demonstration, we uncovered another point which has philosophical significance and suggests further implications:

 

3. That the measure technique of science can be extended to include free will, an aspect of a situation generally thought of as nonscientific.

 

What is going on? We have been standing on the sidelines watching the scientist ply his trade with some technical measurements that do not appear to concern philosophy; they are just the tools of his trade. But one of these, the third derivative, turns out to be the very thing discredited by science - the human, or free will, factor!*

 

*It has been suggested that rather than saying the third derivative is free will, I should say that the third derivative is where free will enters - but I would protest that this implies free will is something more than control.

 

Perhaps we should take a closer look at these measure formulae. Do they have a more general significance?

 

 

Categories of knowing represented by the measure formulae

 

What are these measure formulae, position and its derivatives, velocity and acceleration? Are they just the simple "physical quantities," as they are referred to in the textbooks?

 

Not so. Closer examination reveals fundamental qualitative differences between them. To understand this, consider how each of these measures is known. Position can only be observed visually or by less direct processes. Velocity is an intellectual abstraction: it cannot be known from direct experience. It must be computed. To know velocity, we must make two observations of position, determine their differences, and divide the time elapsed, thus obtaining a ratio. (Though velocity can be read from a speedometer, the only accurate speedometer, a chronometric tachometer, is itself a computer.) The velocity of the airplane even at six hundred miles an hour is something that one is completely unaware of. The earth is "hurtling" through space at eighteen miles per second, yet we have no feeling of it.

 

Acceleration, however, is felt. For example, when an elevator suddenly starts down, you feel it in the pit of your stomach; when the airplane comes in for a landing and the jets are reversed, you are thrown forward in your seat. Acceleration may also be computed, but it can be directly and physically experienced by the knower because the nervous system registers change, not a steady state.

 

The notion of velocity is so far removed from direct human experience that it was not until after Newton's discoveries that it became a formally recognized concept. And for all its acceptance by modern civilizations, velocity is nevertheless denied by many philosophers, because it is neither an "event" nor an "individual."*

 

*For an example of the confusion that exists over this question. see Smart. J. J. C.. Problems of Time and Space. New York: Macmillan. 1964.

 

We may deny the reality if we wish, although it would then be hard to know which of the formulae we might endow with reality. In any case, this misses the point. What is important is that:

 

1. Position, velocity, and acceleration are separate and different aspects of the total situation.

 

2. They are all necessary.

 

3. They are included in the scientific description.

 

4. And most important, they are different categories of knowing. Position is observed, velocity is computed, acceleration is felt. Control, the fourth category, is essentially indeterminate.

 

 

The scientific basis for the human faculties

 

The fundamental differences between the measure formulae, demonstrated by the different ways they are known, suggest that the origin of feeling, thought, and sensation may not be merely human, but may lie much deeper.

 

When we describe the human organism in this way, however, we are in double jeopardy. The behaviorist says: "You see, the human organism is merely a machine"; while the vitalist counters: "When you try to prove that man is merely a machine, you deny free will."

 

We would answer both points of view by referring to the fourth aspect, control. In a machine, this would include all the devices provided for its control: the accelerating, braking, and steering mechanisms. But all the mechanisms, no matter how elaborate, do not complete the control. Control must be initiated by an operator. And this absolutely essential element is indeterminate and unknowable to an observer.

 

Thus the complete account, far from denying free will, shows both the possibility of free will and the requirements for its effective operation. For if any of the three "mechanical" aspects does not function properly or is tampered with by an enemy agent or even a behaviorist, free will cannot manifest itself.

 

 

The learning cycle

 

The learning cycle further illustrates the cycle of action. An infant begins with a spontaneous act. He reaches out to grab something (1). Then he encounters a painful contact, perhaps a hot stove, and he reacts by withdrawing his hand (2). After the pain subsides, he takes stock, associates the stove with pain, observes the situation (3). Finally, he controls his action by avoiding hot stoves (4).

 

The four types of action in the learning cycle correspond to the four measure formulae:

 

Spontaneous act (impulse) = acceleration

 

Reaction (also spontaneous) = velocity (i.e., change)

 

Observation = position (the observable factor)

 

Control = control

 

The same diagram that we used to depict the cycle of action may be used to represent the learning cycle, but it is necessary to reverse the clockwise order and to start at the left:

 

 

While it is satisfying that the same scheme serves to represent such dissimilar activities as an operator's controlling a machine and a child's learning about the world, the fact that the order must be reversed is important and will be discussed later. Another indication of incompleteness is that, so far, we have dealt only with actions, each of which is part of a larger cycle which begins with a stimulus and leads to a result. The behaviorists, in their dependence on the duality of stimulus and response (a form of action), fail to recognize the necessity of a third factor: when a dog's hunger is satisfied, it may no longer respond to the stimulus of food.

 

But when the stimulus causes wrong action and the result is not achieved, the learning cycle becomes necessary. Thus the learning cycle occurs only when there is an obstacle in the larger, threefold cycle.

MORE FOURFOLDS

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By multiplication of a new parameter M, we have obtained a second set of four measure formulae. If we now multiply the second set by L, we will obtain a third set of formulae:

 

 

 

*The term "action" here is not to be confused with the "four kinds of action" in group I. This term, is rate of change of inertia.

 

These twelve formulae include all of the ten used to analyze the dynamics of a moving body, plus two not presently recognized in physics textbooks, but used in engineering.

 

 

Formal device for "reducing" M, L, and T

 

In the physical sciences, M, L, and T are considered basic, that is, not capable of further reduction. In our search for the origin of meaning, however, we are interested in the possibility of reducing them to the even more basic unity or totality. We have already reduced a total situation (the cycle of action) into its four aspects by operation of the derivative. In the cycle of action, and in each of the other groups shown above, the operation of T (time) resulted in a division into four. T, then, may be considered as one-fourth of unity: it quarters the whole.

 

If we want to reduce M and L to aspects of the whole, we need similar conventions for representing them on the diagram. What part of totality is M?

 

I will not take the time here to conduct the reader through the process of trial and error which finally convinced me that M is 120 degrees.* My clue was in the threefold cycle, where the shift from act to result may be seen as equivalent to embodiment or incorporation (thus "massing") - literally, as in eating a meal, and also metaphorically, as in the accumulation of experience. Action X mass = result.

 

*One hint is that mass is volume times density, Since volume is and density is a number equivalent to another L, we can suppose As we shall later show, L = 30 degrees so M = 120 degrees.

 

Since division (or differentiation) in the case of T was represented by clockwise rotation, multiplication (or integration) should be counterclockwise:

 

 

 

Using this device, representing multiplication by M, we may transpose to the diagram of the fourfold:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Then we may set down the remaining group II formulae on the circle representing totality.

 

 

 

The placement signifying multiplication by L is not so difficult, because there are now only four spaces remaining on the diagram for the four formulae in group III. Of the four available spaces, only two (30 degrees and 120 degrees) would divide the circle an integral number of times. And since 120 degrees is already used to represent M. this leaves 30 degrees, or one-twelfth of the circle, to represent L.

 

By putting in the formulae of group III at 30 degrees from their corresponding group II formulae, we have completed the diagram of totality in terms of M, L, and T.

 

 

 

Here, then, is the division of the whole into three and four parts, referred to in the Introduction. (We will not deal with the twofold division until later.)

 

When I first attempted to find a division of the whole into parts, I tried to make these divisions M, L, and T, plus one more to be discovered. But this did not work, and finally it became clear to me that M, L, and T are three different ways by which the whole is divided: by T into four parts, by M into three, and by L into twelve.

 

These discoveries, as I have attempted to show, were accompanied by the recognition of angular relationships between the different fundamental terms, the measure formulae.

A COMBINATION OF A TON OF FOURFOLDS QUADRANT

 

http://mindfire.ca/The%20Geometry%20of%20Meaning/Chapter%20Five%20-%20%20The%20Rosetta%20Stone%20of%20Meaning.htm

 

http://mindfire.ca/The%20Geometry%20of%20Meaning/pg49.jpg

 

The learning cycle has given us four basic categories of act:

 

1. Spontaneous Act

 

2. Change (reaction)

 

3. Observation

 

4. Control

 

Considering the threefold cycle, we may expect each kind of act to have a preceding stimulus and an ensuing result or, as we generalized, an appropriate relationship and state. But in Chapter I, we already disclosed four categories of relationship, so now we need only reexamine these four and see to which acts they properly correspond. We may then find states corresponding to the four acts.

 

Our analysis of the four relationships is best done through the two dichotomies of objective-projective and particular-general. By considering the permutations of these dichotomies, we can explore the meaning of each kind of relationship, and then look for an appropriate word to describe it.

 

I. Objective general. General information which is objective, definitions, scientific laws, etc., we will simply call KNOWLEDGE, in the sense of a "body of knowledge."

 

2. Objective particular. Particular objective information, on the other hand, such as "This triangle is dented," is factual. We will call this category FACT.

 

3. Projective general. Knowledge which is projective and general, such as "All redheads are talkative," might be called belief. Since "belief' suggests a particular situation, however, we would use the more generalized word FAITH, remembering that the projection can be correct or incorrect.

 

4. Projective particular. This category is inherently subtle and difficult, containing relationships within the person himself. For the moment, we will leave it unnamed, but later we will find that it is possible to name it.

 

We must now decide which of the four acts corresponds to each of these relationship categories, and what would be the state resulting from each act.

 

1. KNOWLEDGE. The act immediately appropriate to knowledge (as it is meant here-a body of knowledge) is OBSERVATION. By observation we mean not only "looking," but other kinds of consideration as well. A body of general knowledge is useless until it is considered.

 

The state immediately resulting from the consideration of knowledge is SIGNIFICANCE.

 

2. FACT. The act appropriate to a particular fact is CONTROL. Upon encounter with fact - the traffic light is red - one controls the situation by stopping the car. Recall that control cannot become manifest without certain objective facts at its disposal.

 

The word I have tentatively chosen for the state resulting from control is ESTABLISHMENT. It could also be called "accomplishment" or "consolidation."

 

3. FAITH. Because faith is a presumption or an expectation, it is likely to produce CHANGE (reaction) upon confrontation with actuality: I meet a redhead who isn't talkative. (Change here is in the passive sense of being changed, the active sense, producing change, would be "control.")

 

The state immediately resulting from change is the TRANSFORMATION of one's original faith.

 

4. IMPULSE. This is the name which, in deference to our method, we refrained from assigning to the "projective particular" relationship. Now we can see the difficulty: what is the antecedent to a "spontaneous act"? Here we must think of spontaneity as being in the relationship category, where we will call it "impulse." Other possibilities would be "insight" or "intuition." Since a spontaneous act is projective, directed toward the future, its stimulus is not apparent. It is equivalent to purpose (within the person himself).

 

The state which results from the spontaneous act, for instance, a playful act, is very simply BEING.

 

The foregoing is summarized thus:

 

Relationship Act State

 

Impulse (purpose) Spontaneous act Being

 

Faith Change (reaction) Transformation

 

Knowledge (form) Observation Significance

 

Fact Control Establishment

 

To complete the "Rosetta Stone," we must show the correspondence of these twelve human categories to the twelve measure formulae. We shall use the cross axis as a format for analysis to bring out the meaning implicit in the angular relationship between the terms. Recall that factors at opposite ends of an axis are mutually opposed, that those at right angles to one another are independent, and that rotation signifies change in time.

 

 

The four relationships

 

Impulse/Action : In physics, the quantum of action exists in its pure state as a quantum (discrete particle) of radiation, having an undividedness which makes it unique among physical measures. These "quanta of action" are the origin of matter, and in having the power to alter the state of an atom, they are the origin of change.

 

Impulse, like the quantum, is the initiating factor in a process. Also like the quantum, it is instantaneous and quantized - occurring in discrete units. Two of its forms, decision and recognition, emphasize this - you cannot recognize somebody, nor make a decision, one and a half times.

 

Impulse and action are particular, potential, unknown, projecting into the future.

 

Faith/Moment of inertia : In science, the moment of inertia is the tendency of a thing to continue in a given state of rest or motion. In mechanical systems, it serves the function of maintaining steady motion and canceling out fluctuations, as with the flywheel of an engine.

 

Its human equivalent, faith, is the tendency to maintain a given credo without examination. Like the flywheel, it serves to maintain steady motion, carrying us through the vicissitudes of life.

 

Faith and inertia are in the present. Faith is the projection we put upon the present situation.

 

Fact/Work Work is energy - the amount of energy expended to perform a task. It is opposite to inertia.

 

For the mind, work is the readjustment of its implicit beliefs when confronted with fact. Like work, it is a physical exchange of energy, as when a scientist tests his theory on physical objects.

 

Work and fact are in the present - they are the impingements of the physical world upon the person. Fact is equivalent to work because the word is derived from factus, past participle of facere, "to make," as in "factory."

 

Knowledge/Power Knowledge, or data, is objective descriptive information which sits in the library or in our minds until it is used.

 

Power is an objective measure - the description of the dimensions of an engine, for example. By itself it is nothing; power has no actuality until it operates for a time to produce work. Power x time = work.

 

Knowledge and power manifest through application.

 

 

The four relationships

 

The foregoing diagram should be compared with the four types of relationships outlined earlier. It is worthwhile to play around with the interrelationships involved in order to get a sense of how together they constitute the totality of the object.

 

 

 

Note that faith and fact are opposite. This does not imply that all belief is false, but that the element that operates in faith is a projection of what has gone before. Like inertia, faith is the continuation of the state of rest or motion that has held before, whereas fact is the confrontation with what is particular to the present.

 

Similarly, function and form are opposite. Function is the purpose which the self projects for the object (I use a stone for a hammer). Form is the definition that would limit this freedom (I ask for bread and you give me a stone). Again, we may note that either form or function may mediate to determine whether something is or is not what it is called. Are these your glasses? No, mine are bifocal (form or definition decides). No, but they will do (function decides).

 

A difference between vertical and horizontal is that the horizontal is bound to time. It concerns what is immediate or phenomenal. The vertical axis is not bound to time. It concerns the ideal, either the definition, which is ideal in the sense of a standard for manufacture; or the function, which is ideal in the sense of the cause that gives the object its value.

 

 

The four acts

 

Control/Control Control is the final stage of the learning cycle, and in a moving body it is the rate of change of acceleration. Control is free; it is at the disposition of an operator and correlates with will.

 

As the reaction to observation, it is conscious action.

 

Spontaneous act/Acceleration The spontaneous act is primary and simple, without antecedent. In motion, the initiating factor is acceleration, as in starting a car from rest.

 

Both the spontaneous act and acceleration are unconscious action.

 

Observation/Position (L): The midpoint in the learning cycle is observation - the consideration of what has taken place. For the scientific term, we may equate it with the thing observed: position.

 

All the other measures ultimately involve a measure of observable position, such as a needle on a dial.

 

The observation of position is a conscious reaction.

 

Change/Velocity Velocity is the change of position, and we may generalize it as the change of any observable property. In the learning cycle, it is the point of reaction to the initial act.

 

Velocity and change (passive) are unconscious reaction.

 

 

The four acts

 

Here too there is value in drawing out the implications of opposite and of complementary aspects. It is clear that observation on the right is opposite spontaneous act on the left, and it is also clear that control at the top is the opposite of the passive change at the bottom of the chart.

 

This oppositeness is confirmed by the literal oppositeness, in the case of the pendulum, of acceleration and position. When the pendulum is at the extreme position, acceleration is at a maximum and is pulling in the opposite direction.

 

If one experiments with a pendulum hung from the hand, it will be found that one can control the pendulum by timing the motion which produces control so that it is exactly opposite to the velocity. In other words, control is most effective at the midpoint of the swing. Here a control motion in the direction

 

 

 

of the pendulum will stop it, and a motion in the opposite direction will increase its swing.

 

 

 

Such control motions, which do not have to lift the pendulum, can be effected with a minimal energy reduceable in theory without limit. This, of course, confirms the independence of the control aspect and the motion aspect, because were the control not independent of the motion, it would not be possible to induce motion in either direction.

 

 

The four states

 

Because they are not conceptual, the human states must be apprehended through feelings. While each physical state is the rate of change of the one before. it would appear that the human states do not change into one another except through the appropriate relationships and acts; and we are reminded that the fourfold is essentially secondary to the threefold.

 

Significance/Moment (ML): These two terms come together when we refer to "matters of great moment." meaning significance. In a broader sense, it is the extent to which things come into focus on an issue. In science, moment is leverage - the "state" of a mass at a distance - as when a man uses a crowbar to move a stone many times his own weight.

 

Establishment/Mass control (): Recent aeronautical practice refers to this product of mass times control as "power control," but strictly it is "force control" or "mass control." One can recognize the difference between controlling a small mass, say, a pencil, and bringing a ship into dock. The control of a greater mass is a greater accomplishment. "Establishment" is a tentative general name for this product. We could also use "accomplishment" or "consolidation."

 

Transformation/Momentum (): By "transformation," we mean the state resulting from a change - a certain condition within an overall "state of flux." It is distinct from "establishment," which is a final state of control, usually changeless. Thus the woman admiring her new hairdo is celebrating a transformation, rather than the possession of beauty. In science, this "state of changing" is called "momentum," as the momentum of the hammer drives the nail, or the momentum of the car breaks the telephone pole.

 

Being/Force (): Like "impulse" and "spontaneous act," "being" is elusive as a concept. Insofar as it can be objectively described, it is the result (within the actor) of a spontaneous act - the incorporation of spontaneous action. It is helpful to contrast it with "having." It may be more easily understood in its scientific guise as force, a condition which is caused simply by the presence of something - as the force of gravity is caused by the presence of the earth. So "being" is like the force of personality.

 

 

 

The four states

 

The four states can be seen most simply as the dichotomies of being and nonbeing and of having and not having.

 

Establishment, or mass control, is easily correlated to having, but many things that one may have are not desirable, for example, sickness, impediments, flaws. Transformation is the state in which such undesirable limitation has been

 

 

 

removed (not having). Transformation includes the destruction necessary to construction; in addition, it includes the breakdown of waste products, making them available for new growth.

 

Nonbeing is consciousness of being because it is opposite to being. But to be conscious of being is to realize the significance of being; hence, nonbeing is significance.

 

This use of negation (as in giving importance to nonbeing) is perhaps awkward in comparison with the usual words, but it is a technique that can handle meaning and can reduce two words to one or even four words to one, if we could find word pairs as we did for relationships and action.

 

The four states are difficult because they are, as noted, not conceptual, nor are they apparent in the sense that actions are. It is especially important to recognize that states are represented in the measure formulae, and hence have status in science coequal with the relationships and actions. So great is their importance in current science, in fact, that it is sometimes stated that science consists solely in the observation of states.

 

We have had examples of actions and of relationships, so we should have one of states. We can think of the four stages of an internal combustion engine as bringing about four different conditions, or states, of the contained gases.

 

First there is the compression stroke in which the mixture of fuel and air is compressed, second the firing stroke in which the gases explode and push the cylinder to do work, third the exhaust stroke in which the waste products are discharged, and fourth the intake stroke in which new fuel and air is drawn in. These follow the sequence in counterclockwise order:

 

Compression Gases compressed (Establishment)

 

Ignition Explosion and expansion (Being)

 

Exhaust Wastes discharged (Transformation)

 

Intake Gas is drawn in (Non-being)

 

 

 

 

 

 

The diagram above is the same as that at the end of Chapter IV, except that to it have been added the words that we have been dealing with in this chapter. As with the measure formulae, we can move around the circle in threefold or fourfold manner.

 

We have now completed the diagram by adding the four stimuli and the four results (or relations and states).

 

We should also realize - a point which will be discussed in more detail later - that there are two directions in which to go around, counterclockwise and clockwise. The motion is counterclockwise for the learning cycle, moving from blind action (acceleration) through reaction to control. It is clockwise in the operation of a machine because the operator anticipates what happens.

 

The learning cycle is natural or naive, but teaches control; the other is informed and applies the knowledge gained.

 

 

Illustration from Peirce

 

I will close this chapter with an analysis by the philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce (referred to in the Introduction). In his essay "How To Make Our Ideas Clear,"* Peirce describes four steps which lead to action. We begin with sensations, of which we are immediately conscious. These, he maintains, occur in succession and create a thought, just as the succession of musical notes creates a melody. The goal of thought is belief; we continue the activity of thought until we reach a belief, the "demi-cadence which closes a musical phrase in the symphony of our intellectual life." He goes on to say that belief establishes a rule for action, so that the final upshot of thinking is the exercise of volition.

 

*Philosophical Writings of Peirce (p. 314). Justus Buchler, ed. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1955.

 

Thus we have the sequence: sensation --» thought --» belief --» action.

 

This is precisely the sequence we would have on a diagram of the four relationship categories if we were to proceed clockwise from "fact":

 

Here, as with the aspects of motion, each right-angle shift is the slope or trend in the previous category. With relationship, we have, first, awareness of isolated facts; then, with repetition of fact, knowledge of generalities; then, confidence in such knowledge; and finally, we decide on action based on this confidence.

 

This succession moves in the direction of a conscious search for valid principles of action (clockwise); it is opposite to the learning cycle (counterclockwise), which advances by trial and error.

 

Piaget has found this sequence in children. Over a period of years, they become able to (1) move from observation to recognition of law, (2) act on the assumption that law holds despite counterfactual evidence.

HE RELATES THE FOURFOLD TO THE IMAGINARY AND TRANSCENDENTAL NUMBERS- I ALREADY POSTED A LOT ON THAT

http://mindfire.ca/The%20Geometry%20of%20Meaning/Chapter%20Six%20-%20The%20Roots%20of%20Unity.htm

Negative and imaginary numbers

 

I will now venture into another discipline, algebra. The use of negative and imaginary numbers in algebra confirms the fourfold nature of analysis, and also provides additional insight into the threefold. Here again, I should acknowledge that I am using the concepts of a discipline for purposes outside their usual application, but there are certain discoveries of mathematics which make valuable contributions to our study.

 

The evolution of mathematics was given great impetus by the discovery that it was possible to use negative numbers, negative quantities. If we represent positive numbers extending to the right of zero, we can represent negative numbers extending to the left:

 

etc. . . . -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 . . . etc.

 

With this device, we may describe addition as moving to the right, and subtraction as moving to the left. This makes it possible to subtract a larger number from a smaller one; for instance, if we take 3 from 1, we get -2, which is a real (although negative) quantity.

 

Another important concept was that of imaginary numbers. They were not so much discovered as encountered.

 

Mathematics had arrived at the concept of a number as having roots; numbers which, multiplied together, will produce that number. When the concept of negative numbers came along, there was a clash. What would be the two numbers which multiplied together would produce a negative quantity, -1, for example? For a time there was no answer. The square root of a negative quantity must be impossible. So it was called imaginary. But when Gauss, called by Bell the prince of mathematicians, found a method for representing imaginary numbers, it was not long before their value was appreciated, and today they are just as important as real numbers. This method uses the Argand diagram, which, in essence, correlates unity to the circle, and roots of unity to fractions of the circle.

 

Recall that negative numbers were pictured as extending in a direction opposite to positive numbers. In this way, the square roots of unity, +1 and -1, can be expressed as the opposite ends of a line with center zero. This line can be thought of as an angle of 180 degrees, or a diameter.

 

 

 

Gauss extended the idea further and pictured as halfway between

 

+ 1 and - 1, or an angle of 90 degrees from the line -1 and +1. Thus, if the division of unity into plus and minus is a diameter, or 180 degrees, a second division leads to an axis which "mediates" this diameter, or an angle of 90 degrees.

 

Thus we have two axes - the horizontal representing positive and negative real numbers, and the vertical representing positive and negative imaginary numbers. These two axes form the complex coordinate system, and a number on the plane described by these axes is a number having a real part and an imaginary part.

 

 

 

Using the Argand diagram, this circle of unit radius (radius = 1) on the complex coordinate system, the other roots of unity (cube roots, fifth roots, etc.) are found simply by dividing the circle into three, five, etc., equal parts. Finding the roots of unity becomes simply a matter of inscribing polygons within the unit circle: a triangle for cube roots, a pentagon for fifth roots, etc. The roots are the points on the circle; their values have a real part and an imaginary part, and are measured along the horizontal and vertical coordinates respectively. This means that they are measured in terms of square roots and fourth roots.

 

From this extremely powerful simplification, it follows that all analysis is fourfold - any situation can be analyzed in terms of four factors or aspects. This not only confirms Aristotle (his four causes) but explains why quadratic (literally, "four-sided") equations occur so frequently in mathematics.

 

But the important generalization that all analysis is fourfold works both ways. It shows both the extent of the fourfold and the limitations of analysis, for there are things in the content of experience that are beyond analysis.

 

Staying within the geometrical method already set up, we can show that these non-analytic factors involve three-ness, five-ness, and seven-ness. Despite the fact they can be described analytically, this description fails to capture their true nature.

 

 

Cube roots and the threefold operator

 

As I said, we can express the cube roots of unity analytically in terms of square roots; that is, using the two-dimensional diagram.

 

These roots are obtained by inscribing an equilateral triangle within the circle. One of these roots is +1; the other two are points half a unit to the left of the vertical diameter, and half a side (of the triangle) above and below the horizontal diameter. Since the side of the triangle is ,

 

the vertical coordinates are

 

the i being used to indicate that we are measuring in the vertical direction. (The imaginary is commonly represented by i.)

 

 

 

By this we see that the values for the cube roots of unity can be expressed as square roots.

 

But is an irrational number, meaning that it is not a ratio of whole

 

numbers. Since is the diagonal of a unit square,* we might expect to

 

find some expression for in units. We need not look far to find what

 

this is, for is the diagonal of the unit cube.**

 

* A unit square is a square whose side is 1.

 

**A unit cube is a cube whose side is 1.

 

So in order to represent in unitary fashion,

 

 

 

we must leave the two-dimensional plane. Full representation of the cube roots of unity ultimately involves the three dimensions of space. The threefold operator, represented analytically as equidistant points on the circle, is actually a three-dimensional activity, whose measure gives only its analytic aspect. The analytic aspect, which is in two dimensions, does not convey the full meaning of the cube root; it is like the shadow of a solid figure.

 

The threefold nature of the cube root is nonanalytic. It involves categories which differ from one another more profoundly than those of the fourfold.

 

Here we have a formal device to show the inadequacy of analysis for a complete account of the world. This is but one example of the fundamental distinction between the threefold and fourfold operators, a distinction so important to our theory and to life that I will devote the next chapter to a comparison between these two operators.

THEN YOUNG DISCUSSES THE FOUR LEVELS---- THE UNITY THE THREE FOLD THE FOUR FOLD AND THE TWELVEFOLD- THE FOURTH LEVEL IS DIFFERENT WITH NO DIMENSIONS FREE

http://mindfire.ca/The%20Geometry%20of%20Meaning/Chapter%20Nine%20-%20Purposive%20Intelligence%20and%20the%20Twofold%20Operator%20etc..htm

We have already, in Chapter VII, shown the progressive loss of freedom at successive levels.

 

Level

 

I (Light)                   Unity                 Three dimensions free 

 

II (Nuclear)            Threefold          Two dimensions free

 

III (Atoms)             Fourfold             One dimension free

 

IV (Molecules)        Twelvefold         No dimensions free

 

This declension, however, depicts only the process of generation produced by the counterclockwise rotation, toward manifestation. The clockwise rotation, away from manifestation, is of course toward goals; but it is also toward greater freedom (more degrees of freedom, fewer degrees of limitation).

 

At the fourth, or molecular, level, a reversal can occur in the evolutionary process, and the appropriate direction moves now toward goals (what we have called clockwise rotation). Further counterclockwise rotation results only in molar aggregates, which do not participate in the process. The molar aggregates do not comprise another level because they are not fundamentally different from molecules in terms of the theory. As aggregates, they have lost that trace of the original potency which appeared in individuals on the molecular level as the phase dimension, or choice of timing. They constitute the inert "furniture" which is used by process to fulfill itself.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me.

HERE YOUNG TALKS ABOUT THE FOUR ELEMENTS

 

http://mindfire.ca/The%20Geometry%20of%20Meaning/Chapter%20Eleven%20-%20The%20Four%20Elements.htm

quadrant

easy.

HERE HE TALKS MORE ABOUT FOURFOLDS AND THE FOUR LEVELS

http://mindfire.ca/The%20Geometry%20of%20Meaning/Free_W7.jpg

http://mindfire.ca/The%20Geometry%20of%20Meaning/Chapter%20Twelve%20-%20%20Free%20Will.htm

He explains that his reference to the Laplacean spirit is not made because it is appropriate as a picture of a universe, but because it is not. For were it possible for human understanding to raise itself to this ideal intelligence, it would still be but "one aspect of the total of being." Here we can back up Cassirer, for of the three modalities - relation, action, and state - all the knowledge of the Laplacean spirit is confined to relationship, and of the four kinds of relationship, it accounts only for the self-contained, or objective general, type of information. So we can say that even if such a degree of knowledge were possible, it would have access only to one-twelfth of reality.

 

So far, so good. But Cassirer now says that the vast and important domains contained by reality dissolve into nothingness when we depart from this idealized objectivity. Perhaps I misunderstand him, but I would insist we do have access to these vast and important domains, not only through the other kinds of knowing, emotional, intuitive, etc., but through four kinds of action and four kinds of experience of states. In fact, the notion of objective structure can never do more than share totality with eleven other aspects.

We have now made our last circuit of the four types of knowledge. Let us enumerate some of the many forms the fourfold divisions of categories take, listing them in reverse order:

http://mindfire.ca/The%20Geometry%20of%20Meaning/Chapter%20Thirteen%20-%20Types%20of%20Philosophy.htm

http://mindfire.ca/The%20Geometry%20of%20Meaning/Types_of_Philosophy_-_pg_154.jpg

 

In Chapter IX we indicated that the grand scheme of evolution followed this V-shaped arc from photons, through atoms, molecules, and cells, to animals and man. But each one of these stages itself involves a process of development, one that goes through stages (which we may call substages in order to avoid confusion with the major stages). Such is the case for man's evolution. According to the Hindus and, to some extent, the West (for example, Plato and Christianity before A.D. 553*), this evolution requires many lifetimes and, according to the scheme suggested by the geometry of meaning, it moves through four levels: first "down," then back "up," the change from down to up constituting man's "rebirth," or self-determined growth to higher status and eventual godhood.

 

*When the belief in the preexistence of the soul was declared a heresy.

 

Man's evolution and, for that matter, all evolution, follows, and is closely related to, the scheme of ontology represented in the four levels, but we cannot develop this subject here. Here we have been concerned with ontological and epistemological foundations. As in the foundation for a building, this has involved a great emphasis on the square, the compass, the level, and the plumb bob. It has been primarily a geometrical exercise.

 

In the last four chapters, we have engaged in a tentative and preliminary exercise by applying the scheme, set out in Chapter X, to human situations.

 

In Chapter XI, we indicated how steps can be taken toward correcting the piecemeal rationalism of Western thought by invoking the ancient concept of the four elements, followed by a demonstration of the correlation of the zodiac with what we call the Rosetta Stone: the arrangement of the twelve measure formulae of physics in a circular format.

 

In Chapter XII, we took up a typical philosophical problem, that of free will, using as a reference Cassirer's Determinism and Indeterminism in Modern Physics. Our endeavor here was, again, to show the use of square and compass to deal adequately with the ineffable and necessarily irrational aspect of existence.

 

In Chapter XIII, we went still further to indicate the scope of the four elements, or aspects of totality, and their ability to interrelate different schools of philosophy. This chapter closes with the indication that despite the fixity of structural relationship, the circle of meaning is dynamic, the basis for an evolving process.

 

Not only must we recognize the variety of mutually contradictory qualities which go to make up the whole circle, but we must acknowledge two possible directions for moving around the circle. The first or counterclockwise, direction, is the natural one and carries us deeper and deeper into involvement. The second, or clockwise, direction comes about when, having become involved, we are able to learn the law, put it at the service of the will, and thus evolve to a higher state.

THIS BOOK TALKS MORE ABOUT THE FOUR LEVELS

http://www.arthuryoung.com/ruexc.html

Chapter IV

The Four Levels

 

In the concept of a fall followed by an ascent, process takes on a shape and becomes something we can describe.

 

 

The description begins with the recognition of a purposiveness in process--a goal. To reach the goal, means must be found which to be effective must be predictable, must operate according to law.

 

 

Process and Purposiveness

We thus by the single concept of purposiveness, account for a number of apparently different aspects: that process has direction, that it builds on itself, that it must use means, that means must be determinate.

 

We can now begin to feel a theory taking shape, and as I have noted in the Introduction, if we add that process has seven stages, we have a definite prescription to be filled; we have a set of instructions.

 

It was at this point that my investigations began in earnest. But before going further, I would like to plead the case for the experimenter with a theory, in order to correct what I believe to be an erroneous concept of how one proceeds with a theory. The usual assumption is that one adopts a theory and goes out to test it, and if it breaks down, one gets a new theory. This might indeed be the case, but, if so, only over a very long period. Most of the time it is just the other way about; when you believe you have a good theory you test it, run into trouble, then you fix the theory. It's very like a helicopter: the first time you rev it up, it has the shakes, so you study vibration problems until you find a solution. Or like raising a child: he fails his geometry--you don't get a new child,1 you reinforce the weak point.

 

Actually, some research programs are operated on the alternative method: if a project is failing, drop the project. But little comes of this except the absorption of funds. Anything that counts is achieved only after much effort both creative and supportive, and I insist that this is the case with theories.

 

But as applied to cosmology, these observations may seem like generalizing without adequate evidence, for there have not been many overall cosmological theories to judge by. Current theory, with a great show of learning, has moved from naive interpretations of the myth of Genesis to naive interpretations of 19th-century science and has left it at that. There is no comprehensive cosmology based on quantum physics. Almost everyone, within the scientific disciplines, from behaviorists to physicists, is mentally conditioned to think in terms of classical science and fails to appreciate the possibilities offered by quantum physics for a theory which can transcend the limits of classic determinism.

 

In any case, we now have a theory, or a basis for a theory, and I would like to take the reader through the steps by which I forced out of this theory the reasons for its "structure." (I put this word in quotes, for I've already explained the inadequacy of structure to describe the true development of process.) I use the word structure to denote the relations of symmetry and other properties of what I call the levels through which process descends and subsequently ascends, as we will demonstrate.

 

Loss of Freedom (an illustration)

In the descent, process loses its freedom in three downward steps. Let us imagine that you are trying to capture a wildcat that has climbed a tree. You lasso him with a rope and make the rope secure. The wildcat can still move about, but he can't get away. Then you lasso him again and make the second rope fast. The wildcat can still move, but whereas his movement was first confined to a sphere, the pull of the two ropes will constrain it to a circular orbit on a plane. (A circle is the locus of a point equidistant from two given points.) A third rope will complete the process and hold the wildcat in one position.

 

Similarly, the step down from light to the level of nuclear particles constrains the particle to motion within a sphere (which is the orbit of uncertainty of the electron as described by Heisenberg); the second downward step confines the electron to movement in a circle around the nucleus of the atom; the third to a fixed position of the atom, as in a crystal.

 

Levels of Descent

The descent is not continuous; it occurs in three steps. But why necessarily three? In the case of the wildcat, it is clearly because there are three dimensions of space. In the case of process, this three-dimensionality carries over into something more abstract, but still threefold. To demonstrate, I would like to present three ways of describing the entities of physics in four stages involving three downward steps. The individual levels will be described in more detail later in the book; here we are concerned only with a method for structuring this concept.

 

1. Division of initial unity

Described one way, the descent is, as we've mentioned (see pp. 18ff.), a division of the initial unity or wholeness in the quantum of action into Energy times Time, and Energy into Length times Force.

 

2. From homogeneity to heterogeneity

But there is another kind of division. This is the decline from homogeneity to heterogeneity of the entities themselves:

 

1. One kind of photon, which has unit spin 2 and no charge.

 

2. Two kinds of nuclear particles, which have half-spin

and are charged positively or negatively; i.e. proton and electron.

 

3. One-hundred-odd kinds of atom, with various chemical properties.

 

4. Countless kinds of molecule, with many kinds of properties: mechanical,

electrical, chemical, physiological.

 

3. Change in degrees of certainty

The levels also represent the degrees of certainty which it is possible to have about the entities at the respective stages of process, and these degrees can be correlated to electron volts, a measure of energy.

 

 

Level I. The photons at level I are complete in their uncertainty: they are unpredictable. As we have noted, the observation of a photon annihilates it, so that there is nothing left to predict. The energy of a photon that can create a proton is about a billion electron volts, to create an electron about one-half million volts. All photons have total freedom.

 

 

Level II. The nuclear particles, electron and proton, created by photons, are the first occurrence of permanent mass and charge, the basic substance of the universe, as compared with the activity of the light that created them. But not all of this activity (or, more correctly, angular momentum) is condensed into mass. For reasons which are still unknown, 1/137 of the angular momentum remains uncommitted, and free. (This 1/137 is known as the fine structure constant.) It is this "freedom" which manifests itself in the uncertainty of position and momentum that characterizes the fundamental particles.

 

 

Level III. The atom entails a further reduction, not only in the sense that the charge of the contributing particles is neutralized, but in that the free energy which it radiates or absorbs is drastically reduced to about 10 electron volts (for hydrogen).

 

 

Level IV. In the molecule, it is the bonds that have energies, which cover a wide range. We will be interested in the energies of approximately 1/25 of an electron volt, which is that of the average molecule at room temperature. Why? Because according to our theory, it is at this energy level that life becomes possible.

 

This last energy level, it would appear, is the working base that process has to reach before it can start building up again. By this, we mean building the complex organic molecules such as proteins and DNA that are the basis of life, which requires a temperature between O and 45 degrees centigrade.

 

Necessity for Free Will

The reader may perhaps be familiar with current ideas of how life arose from electrical discharges in the early atmosphere of methane. Such discharge has been experimentally tested and found to produce minute amounts of many of the amino acids necessary to life. This may indeed have been an important step in the creation of life, but in our view it could by no means have been sufficient. Our position is that life requires, in addition to materials and conditions, an act of will comparable to the purposiveness of the quantum of action. I am afraid this will seem unscientific, but I hope to show the contrary: that the hypothesis I am setting forth requires a minimum of assumptions. And it does not hide the problem under the rug, as do current interpretation of the Darwinian theory.

 

Neither of the preceding ways of distinguishing the levels lends itself in any clear-cut fashion to the higher kingdoms, plants, animals (man). (I am putting man in parentheses to indicate that he is not to be thought of as the sole representative of the seventh kingdom. In fact, part of the job is to arrive at a definition of the seventh kingdom, or at least a description that will distinguish it categorically from the others. It is not enough to make man a "naked ape" or "an ape with a club" or even an animal that "communicates through language" or "is capable of abstract thought." We have in the theory a tool that provides for more basic distinctions, and we should use it. This is what the levels provide. And it is perhaps not too early to point out that what is emerging is a scheme of the cosmos in which life, far from being "a green scum on a minor planet," as one scientist put it, is inherent in several levels of organization that are intrinsic to cosmology. The seventh kingdom, which includes man, is one of these levels of organization.)

 

So how can we show that the higher kingdoms are categorically distinct and occur on separate levels?

 

Symmetry of Descent and Ascent

There are several possibilities, but the one that is clearest, because it is visual, draws on the well-known, though neglected, symmetries of minerals, plants, and animals. This was first brought to my attention by Fritz Kunz, who discussed the subject in his article "On the Symmetry Principle." 3

 

While D'Arcy Thompson in Growth and Form4 devotes a large part of his thousand-page work to the subject of symmetry, he does not appear to notice the eloquently simple fact that the kingdoms may be distinguished by symmetry.

 

Molecules--level IV, stage four:

Crystals, in the molecular kingdom, have what is known as complete symmetry: they comprise molecules in rows, columns, and layers monotonously and indefinitely repeated; three axes of symmetry and no freedom. By the term "axis," I mean a direction of symmetry.

 

It seems beyond comprehension how a virus molecule, having a molecular weight in the millions, can be marshaled into the strict order of a crystal, yet this is true. All molecules can occur as crystals.

 

Plants--level III, stage five:

Plants exhibit their one degree of freedom by growing vertically. The top of the plant differs from the roots, but right and left are similar, front and back are similar. This is known as radial or cylindrical symmetry; two axes of symmetry.

 

Animals--level II, stage 6:

Animals differ front and rear, and also top and bottom, but are similar right and left. This is bilateral symmetry; one axis of symmetry.

 

Note that the greatest symmetry (three axes) occurs with molecules, the least with animals, suggesting a correlation of symmetry with constraint. We have here a simple way to make a quantitative distinction among these three kingdoms by counting the axes of symmetry, or conversely the degrees of freedom. We may say of crystals that they have no freedom, while plants have one degree of freedom (their ability to grow) and animals two degrees of freedom (their ability to move about two-dimensionally on the surface of the earth). The flight of birds is also two-dimensional in the present sense, since birds steer vertically or horizontally.

 

But there is a position open for a kingdom with three degrees of freedom and no symmetry. (Kunz indicates a tendency toward asymmetry in the human face. There is also left- and right-handedness and the recently discovered fact that the two sides of the human brain have different functions. As already mentioned, however, the seventh kingdom is not to be thought of as limited to humans.)

 

The question now arises: can a similar quantitative distinction be applied to the left-hand side of the arc--to atoms, to nuclear particles, and to light?

 

Atoms. level III, stage three

While the image of electrons traveling around a central nucleus like planets around a sun has been supplemented by more abstruse models, the radial symmetry of the atom still holds, as is brought out by its magnetic properties.

 

 

 

What gives the atom one degree of freedom (like the plant) is the fact that it can absorb or release energy without any prompting from outside. Its energy state is unpredictable (or free). The same can be said of plants, since growth correlates with energy storage by carbohydrates, etc.

 

Nuclear particles. level II, stage two

Let me first take up freedom. Recall Heisenberg's observation that we are uncertain of the position and momentum of the nuclear particle: hence it has two "degrees" of freedom. The product of the uncertainty of position and momentum is a unit of action and may not be less than the value h. The formula for this is L x ML/T = ML2/T = h. This situation is similar to that of an animal at large: we can know only an area (L2) in which the animal (M) would be after a given time (1/T). The product cannot be less than a given value, ML2/T = h.

 

As to the symmetry, this question cannot be answered with finality, but the experiments proposed by Lee and Yang, and completed by Mme. Wu, which discovered that chirality, or handedness, characterizes nuclear particle reactions, suggest this possibility, for only that which has bilateral symmetry can have handedness. (One could not have a right-handed circle or cone, but one can have a right-handed thread or spiral.)

 

 

Light: level I, stage one

To carry out the scheme, we should show that light has no symmetry and complete freedom. I can't see how to establish its asymmetry. 5 Light is certainly the most completely free form of existence there is: a photon released at a certain point could be anywhere within a radius of 186,000 miles a second later. In addition, we can again point out that since observation annihilates the photon, it cannot be predicted.

 

As for the seventh kingdom, we will make lack of symmetry and complete freedom a definition of the kingdom. Since this is the highest form of existence, we cannot expect to define it anyway, and this, while a negative definition, is as good as we can expect.

 

We may put this all together in a chart:

 

Anticipating the Character of the Kingdoms

Now let us take advantage of this charting. Notice that there is a considerable economy of definition. The "degrees of freedom" describe the levels applied to kingdoms at the same level on both the right and the left side of the arc. And we can extend the correspondences further. Thus it would be expected of the atom that its position can be determined, as can that of plants. This is the case: the atom can be fixed in a crystal. The nuclear particle, unlike the atom, should have a fixed (internal) energy. This is the case: the energy fixed in the mass of the proton or electron is quite exact (known to the fifth decimal point). Correspondingly, the animal, once grown to maturity, retains a fixed weight in a way that is not true of the plant, which continues to grow.

 

A further point: animals and plants interchange position and energy in respect to which is free and which is constrained. Thus the animal is free to move but unable to create its own energy, while the plant is fixed in position but able to synthesize energy from sunlight.

 

Likewise, nuclear particles are free to move in the sense that their position cannot be determined. But their mass is fixed, while the atom, which can be fixed in a crystal, is able to absorb or radiate energy.

 

As we have noted, motion requires two degrees of freedom, while energy absorption requires one degree of freedom. Of course, it was the descent or "fall" into constraint followed by an ascent that was our basis for the arc. The inclusion of degrees of freedom adds precision to this conception by providing a quantitative measure.

 

We can now recognize that the kind of determinism which the behaviorist talks about has quite a different meaning from that of the physicist. Thus, to say that an animal is attracted by food or conditioned by drives in the sense that a weight is attracted by gravity is quite erroneous. The animal may be attracted to the water hole because of thirst, but it isn't going to move in accord with an exact "law" as would a freely falling weight, subject to a force proportional to the inverse square of the distance. A drive, such as hunger, does not wholly determine animal behavior as law determines the behavior of an inert object.

 

The Reflexive Universe

We have discussed similarities between the left and right sides of the arc. What is the difference between the two?

 

Notice again that the entities of exact science are on the left. Life, on the right, is not accounted for by science.6 The higher kingdoms on the right have acquired an ability not present in those on the left--an ability we describe as voluntary, as distinct from random. Thus the movement of animals is voluntary, whereas that of nuclear particles is random; the storage and release of energy of plants is voluntary, whereas that of atoms is random.

 

This distinction, obvious to common sense, is difficult to maintain in the framework of current science because there is at present no formal expression for control. Such an expression can, however, be developed with the tools available from science.

 

Formal Expression for Control: Position and its Three Derivatives

Science depends on providing formulations for describing otherwise elusive concepts. Recall the paradox of Zeno which pictured a race in which Achilles was to overtake the tortoise, who had a head start. Achilles could never pass the tortoise since he would first have to get to where the tortoise was, by which time the tortoise would have moved on, and so on. Silly, but without a formal expression for velocity, which would permit a comparison of rates rather than of positions, the problem remained baffling.

 

Newton provided the necessary formal expression in the calculus, where he defined velocity as the rate of change of position with respect to time, and acceleration as the rate of change of velocity with respect to time.

 

Velocity is known as the first derivative (of position), acceleration as the second derivative. These two expressions laid the basis for the theory of gravitation.

 

While Newton mentioned a third derivative, he made no attempt to give it a physical meaning. What is it? Since each derivative is the rate of change of the quantity derived (i.e., velocity is the rate of change of position, acceleration the rate of change of velocity), we may conclude that the third derivative is the rate of change of acceleration.

 

Every automobile driver has direct experience with the third derivative, for in controlling the car by pushing the accelerator, applying the brake, or changing its direction with the steering wheel, he is changing its acceleration. This, in fact, is control. So we can say, just as acceleration is change of velocity, so control is change of acceleration and is the third derivative, and hence has status.

The neglect of the third derivative by classical physics is traceable to the fact that it cannot be used for prediction. We may, of course, as in a guided missile, lock the controls to home in on a target and hence render control determinate, and this is the special case covered by cybernetics. But in the general case, we must go a step further and recognize that control is "outside the system." It is indeterminate--the driver is free to steer the car where he wishes. This does not deny its existence as a factor in evolution.

We can diagramatically represent the derivatives by a circle on which position is shown at the right and its three derivatives in sequence clockwise.

 

 

Such a circle is also representative of the cycle of action, and applies to any repeating cycle, such as the swing of a pendulum.

 

Here, however, we are interested in the fact that the representation implies that derivation returns to itself after four applications. Is this the case? Does the fourth derivative reduce to a position? Yes.

 

For example, when you're driving a car, your control of the car is governed by position, for that is what your destination is, a position in space. Or again, the control of a guided missile is directed by the position of the target. Therefore, the fourth derivative is position. In other words, if we divide by T four times, we are back at the start: 1/T4 = 360 degrees = O degrees. (Standing still, known as the identity operator in science.)

 

We propose to make control a criterion for the description of entities on the right-hand side of the arc (see p. 41 ). Our right to do this stems from the fact that control can be identified with the third derivative and is therefore equal in status with other derivatives (velocity and acceleration). Or, again, control is evident to observation: an automobile, a paramecium, a flying saucer can be observed to be under control or not under control. And control is evidence of life.7

 

Footnotes:

1 Newton flunked his mathematics.

2Spin is an additional property of particles.

3 Kunz, Fritz 1. "On the Symmetry Principle." Main Currents in Modern Thought, vol. 22, no. 4 (March-April 1966).

4Thompson, D'Arcy W. On Growth and Form. London: Cambridge University Press, 1917, 1963.

5We might point out that symmetry requires measure, and light is before measure.

http://www.arthuryoung.com/ruarc.gif

6Biology, the "science" of life, is solely descriptive. It does not explain the life force, why things are alive, or why they move.

7I have recently learned (January, 1971 ), thanks to an interesting volume by Marjorie Grene entitled Approaches to a Philosophical Biology (New York: Basic Books, 1968) of the ideas of a German biologist, Helmuth Plessner. Plessner's concepts stem from the recognition of the way in which an organism bounds itself, its "self-limitation," which Grene translates as "positionality." Not only is this quite similar to what I call "control," but it leads Plessner to postulate three levels of "positionality": vegetation, animals, and humans.

THERE HAVE BEEN FOUR WAVES OF FEMINISM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourth-wave_feminism

The fourth wave of feminism refers to various, conflicting assessments of recent developments within the feminist movement. The definition and boundaries of the term are currently much contested. In 2005, Pythia Peay first argued for the existence of a fourth wave of feminism, combining justice with religious spirituality.[1] However, this spiritual component is not present in most other definitions for the term, which tend instead to focus on technological components. Jennifer Baumgardner identifies fourth-wave feminism as starting in 2008 and continuing into the present day.[2] In her view fourth-wave feminism was inspired partly by Take Our Daughters to Work Days, incorporates online resources such as social media, in turn inspired the Doula Project for children's services and inspired after-abortion talk lines, pursuit of reproductive justice, plus-size fashion support, transgender support, and sex work acceptance; and led to developing media including Feministing, Racialicious, blogs, and Twitter campaigns.[3] Researcher Diana Diamond defines fourth-wave feminism as a movement that "combines politics, psychology, and spirituality in an overarching vision of change." [4] Kira Cochrane, author of All the Rebel Women: The Rise of the Fourth Wave of Feminism,[5] defines fourth-wave feminism as a movement that is connected through technology.[6][7] In a 2009 interview with the New York Times, feminist author Jessica Valenti was asked whether or not she considered herself a third wave feminist, where she responded, "I don’t much like the terminology, because it never seems very accurate to me. I know people who are considered third-wave feminists who are 20 years older than me." After the interviewer's suggestion that perhaps we had moved forward into a fourth wave of feminism, Valenti stated that maybe the fourth wave was online.[8]

As a child, Veblen was a notorious tease, and an inveterate inventor of malicious nicknames. As an adult, Veblen developed this aptitude into the abusive category and the cutting analogy. In this volume [The Theory of the Leisure Class] the most striking categories are four in number: [i] Conspicuous Consumption, [ii] Vicarious Consumption, [iii] Conspicuous Leisure, and [iv] Conspicuous Waste. It is amazing what a very large proportion of social activity, higher education, devout observance, and upper-class consumer goods seemed to fit snugly into one, or another, of these classifications.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Theory_of_the_Leisure_Class

— Robert Lekachman, Introduction to The Theory of the Leisure Class (1967 ed.)

FOUR CONDITIONS PHILOSOPHY- FOUR DOMAINS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alain_Badiou

 

According to Badiou, philosophy is suspended from four conditions (art, love, politics, and science), each of them fully independent "truth procedures." (For Badiou's notion of truth procedures, see below.) Badiou consistently maintains throughout his work (but most systematically in Manifesto for Philosophy) that philosophy must avoid the temptation to suture itself (that is, to hand over its entire intellectual effort) to any of these independent truth procedures. When philosophy does suture itself to one of its conditions (and Badiou argues that the history of philosophy during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is primarily a history of sutures), what results is a philosophical "disaster." Consequently, philosophy is, according to Badiou, a thinking of the compossibility of the several truth procedures, whether this is undertaken through the investigation of the intersections between distinct truth procedures (the intersection of art and love in the novel, for instance), or whether this is undertaken through the more traditionally philosophical work of addressing categories like truth or the subject (concepts that are, as concepts, external to the individual truth procedures, though they are functionally operative in the truth procedures themselves). For Badiou, when philosophy addresses the four truth procedures in a genuinely philosophical manner, rather than through a suturing abandonment of philosophy as such, it speaks of them with a theoretical terminology that marks its philosophical character: "inaesthetics" rather than art; metapolitics rather than politics; ontology rather than science; etc.

IN SOCIOLOGY CLASS WE LEARN ABOUT THREE TYPES WITH SAUSSURE BUT THERE IS ACTUALLY FOUR TYPES- I POSTED AN ARTICLE AND DIAGRAM A LONG TIME AGO ON THIS BUT I CANT FIND IT NOW ITS SOMEWHERE IN MY TIMELINE- BUT HIS FAMOUS SEMIOLOGY IS BASED ON A QUADRANT MODEL

 

http://users.rcn.com/bmetcalf.ma.ultranet/Hjelmslevs_Univocity_diagram_1.jpg

Quadrant

FOURFOLD

http://psy.dmu.ac.uk/drhiles/DivSigns.htm

http://psy.dmu.ac.uk/drhiles/images/Division%20of%20signs%201.jpg

2.1 Roman Jakobson's classification of signs

A quite different view of the symbol emerges in the work of Jakobson (1968 [1971]; 1980). Indeed, the semiotic literature has overlooked Jakobson's proposal for a four-fold division of signs. His classification is based upon the idea of there being two underlying dichotomies to sign function, and "this interplay of the two dichotomies, Contiguity-Similarity and Factual-Imputed, admits a fourth variety, namely, imputed similarity" (Jakobson, 1968: 704). In effect, Peirce's triadic division of signs is extended to a four-fold classification. Such a division does not alter Peirce's notion of icon and index, but clarifies them as factual/similarity and factual/contiguity respectively. What is radically different in Jakobson's proposal is that two completely distinct sign functions, imputed/similarity and imputed/contiguity, underlie the symbol. The verbal sign is clearly the imputed/contiguity type, while a second type of symbol is admitted, such that "the factual similarity which typifies icon finds its logically foreseeable correlative in the imputed similarity [and] fits into the whole which is forever a four part entity of semiotic modes" (Jakobson, 1980: 22).

http://projects.chass.utoronto.ca/semiotics/cyber/thi3.html

Initially, Saussure proposes four principles for specifying the differentiating values of phonemes. These are: expiration, oral articulation, vibration of the larynx, and nasal resonance (CLG: 69). Saussure then excludes expiration on the grounds that it is a "positive factor", which is present in all acts of phonation. Consequently, it has no "differentiating value". This means that the remaining terms all have differentiating value. Initially, Saussure puts aside the category of oral articulation and proposes the schema of the possible variations which is shown in Figure 1.

 

chart

 

Thus, the symbols in Saussure's notation serves to indicate whether the sound is larygneal (~), or not ( [] ); whether there is nasal resonance ( ..... ) or not ( []) (CLG: 69). Thus, the four vertical columns indicate whether the four types of sound, as classified by the four columns, are differentiated by the features [+ laryngeal vibration] or [- laryngeal vibration] and [+ nasal vibration] or [- nasal vibration]. Each of these pairs of phonic terms constitutes what Saussure calls a 'binary group' (CLG: 78).

THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH WAY- EXTREMELY FAMOUS POPULAR BOOK

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Fourth_Way_(book)

The Fourth Way (1957) is a book about the Fourth Way system of self-development as introduced by Greek-Armenian philosopher G.I. Gurdjieff and is a compilation of the lectures of P. D. Ouspensky at London and New York City, 1921–1946, published posthumously by his students in 1957.[1][2]

 

The term "The Fourth Way" has also come to be used as a general descriptive term for the body of ideas and teachings which Gurdjieff brought to the west from his study of eastern schools.[3]

 

Ouspensky was given the task of bringing these ideas to a wider audience in an unadulterated form by Gurdjieff. The Fourth Way is considered to be the most comprehensive statement of Gurdjieff's ideas as taught by Ouspensky.

 

The book consists of adaptations of Ouspensky's lectures, and the accompanying question and answer sessions.

 

Contents [hide]

1 The Fourth Way

2 References

3 Further reading

4 External links

The Fourth Way[edit]

The 'Fourth Way' to which the title refers is a method of inner development - "the way of the sly man," as Gurdjieff described it. This way is to be followed under the ordinary conditions of everyday life, as opposed from the three traditional ways that call for retirement from the world: those of the fakir, the monk, and the yogi, which Gurdjieff maintained could only result in partial, unbalanced development of man's potential.

FOUR POSSIBLE BODIES- FOURTH DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centers_(Fourth_Way)

 

Subtle bodies[edit]

The Fourth Way says that there are four possible bodies of man, composed of increasingly rarefied matter, interpenetrating one another;[3] all people have the first body., while the other three are obtained through the correct type of effort. The bodies are as follows:

 

The Material Body (Normal Human Physical Body). This body is considered the seat of the lower five centers: intellectual, emotional, physical, instinctual, and sexual. The material body's actions are purely automatic and depend completely on the influences coming from outside factors, and its perception is confined to observation in a "subjective" manner. When the material body dies, then it returns to the earth from which it came, and nothing of it remains.

The Astral Body This body is also sometimes called the Emotional body or the Kesdjan Body. This body, by itself is not subject to the laws of automation; that is to say, the astral body is capable of a degree of free will. Also, the perceptions of the astral body are capable of being of an objective nature in matters regarding one's self. An astral body is considered a prerequisite to maintaining a state of "self-consciousness". The lifespan of the astral body is unknown exactly, but it is far larger than the lifespan of the Material Body because it continues living after the death of the material body. According to the Fourth Way, a man is not born with an astral body and an average man does not have one, while even if someone does, it's in a very immature state, and has no contact with it whatsoever in his daily life.

The Intellectual Body This body, by itself is not subject to the laws of automation; that is to say, the intellectual body is capable of a degree of free will beyond that of the astral body. Also, the perceptions of the intellectual body are capable of being of an objective nature in matters regarding both one's self, and things outside of one's self. An intellectual body is considered a prerequisite to maintaining a state of "objective consciousness" which is the fourth possible state of man. The lifespan of the intellectual is also rather incalculable. According to Gurdjieff, an average man does not have one.

The Causal Body

16 SQUARES QMR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_World%27s_Sixteen_Crucified_Saviors

The World's Sixteen Crucified Saviors

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

The World's Sixteen Crucified Saviors (1875)

The World's Sixteen Crucified Saviors; Or, Christianity Before Christ, Containing New, Startling, and Extraordinary Revelations in Religious History, which Disclose the Oriental Origin of All the Doctrines, Principles, Precepts, and Miracles of the Christian New Testament, and Furnishing a Key for Unlocking Many of Its Sacred Mysteries, Besides Comprising the History of 16 Heathen Crucified Gods is an 1875 book written by American freethinker Kersey Graves,[1] which asserts that Jesus was not an actual person, but was a creation largely based on earlier stories of deities or god-men saviours who had been crucified and descended to and ascended from the underworld. Parts were reprinted in The Book Your Church Doesn't Want You to Read edited by Tim C. Leedom in 1994, and it was republished in its entirety in 2001.

THE QUADRANT THAT SOCRATES DREW IN THE SAND TO "PROVE THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL"

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Meno_(Socrates)_drawing_29.gif

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meno

 

Socrates responds to this sophistical paradox with a mythos (poetic story) according to which souls are immortal and have learned everything prior to transmigrating into the human body. Since the soul has had contact with real things prior to birth, we have only to 'recollect' them when alive. Such recollection requires Socratic questioning, which according to Socrates is not teaching. Socrates demonstrates his method of questioning and recollection by interrogating a slave who is ignorant of geometry.

 

Socrates begins one of the most influential dialogues of Western philosophy regarding the argument for inborn knowledge. By drawing geometric figures in the ground Socrates demonstrates that the slave is initially unaware of the length that a side must be in order to double the area of a square with two-foot sides. The slave guesses first that the original side must be doubled in length (four feet), and when this proves too much, that it must be three feet. This is still too much, and the slave is at a loss.

 

Socrates claims that before he got hold of him the slave (who has been picked at random from Meno's entourage) might have thought he could speak "well and fluently" on the subject of a square double the size of a given square.[11] Socrates comments that this "numbing" he caused in the slave has done him no harm and has even benefited him.[12]

 

Socrates then draws a second square figure using the diagonal of the original square. Each diagonal cuts each two foot square in half, yielding an area of two square feet. The square composed of four of the eight interior triangular areas is eight square feet, double that of the original area. He gets the slave to agree that this is twice the size of the original square and says that he has "spontaneously recovered" knowledge he knew from a past life[13] without having been taught. Socrates is satisfied that new beliefs were "newly aroused" in the slave.

SOCRATES DREW A QUADRANT IN THE SAND THEN DID A FAMOUS PROOF WHERE HE ACTUALLY SHOWED THE EXISTENCE OF IRRAITONAL NUMBERS NUMBER THEORIESTS ARE STILL INTERESTED TODAY- THIS WAS WHEN PLATO WAS "PROVING THE WORLD OF FORMS EXISTS BY SHOWING THE BOY REMEMBERS THE GEOMETRY FROM THE WORLD OF FORMS- NO COINCIDENCE THE FORM HE DREW WAS THE QUADRANT- THE FORM OF BEING

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meno%27s_slave

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Meno_(Socrates)_drawing_29.gif

The discussion of Socrates and the house slave[edit]

 

Meno's young house-slave receives a lesson in geometry under Socrates in Plato's dialogue Meno.

By drawing geometric figures in the ground Socrates demonstrates that the slave is initially unaware of how to find twice the area of a square.

 

Socrates notes that before he questioned the slave, who had been picked haphazardly from Meno's entourage, the boy would have thought himself able to speak "well and fluently" on the subject of a square double the size of a given square.[1] Without Socratic questioning, the slave boy would have remained confident in his ignorance and not have "attempted to look for, or learn, what he thought he knew (though he did not [know])." Socrates comments that this "numbing" he caused in the slave did him no harm.[2]

 

Socrates then draws a second square figure on the diagonal so that the slave can see that by adding vertical and horizontal lines touching the corners of the square, the double of its area is created. He gets the slave to agree that this is twice the size of the original square and says that he has "spontaneously recovered" knowledge he knew from a past life[3] without having been taught. Socrates is satisfied that new beliefs were "newly aroused" in the slave.

FOUR LAWS THAT APPLY TO REALITY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolai_Hartmann

In Hartmann's ontological theory, the levels of reality are: (1) the inorganic level (German: anorganische Schicht), (2) the organic level (organische Schicht), (3) the psychical/emotional level (seelische Schicht) and (4) the intellectual/cultural level (geistige Schicht). In the Structure of the Real World (Der Aufbau der realen Welt), Hartmann postulates four laws that apply to the levels of reality.

 

The law of recurrence: Lower categories recur in the higher levels as a subaspect of higher categories, but never vice versa.

The law of modification: The categorial elements modify in their recurrence in the higher levels (they are shaped by the characteristics of the higher levels).

The law of the novum: The higher category is composed of a diversity of lower elements, but it is a specific novum that is not included in the lower levels.

The law of distance between levels: Since the different levels do not develop continuously but in leaps, they can be clearly distinguished.

FOUR SEPARATE AFFECTIONS VERY FAMOUS THE FOURTH CONTAINS PREVIOUS THREE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analogy_of_the_divided_line

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DividedLine.svg

The Analogy of the Divided Line (Greek: γραμμὴ δίχα τετμημένη) is presented by the Greek philosopher Plato in the Republic (509d–511e). It is written as a dialogue between Glaucon and Socrates, in which the latter further elaborates upon the immediately preceding Analogy of the Sun at the former's request. Socrates asks Glaucon to not only envision this unequally bisected line but to imagine further bisecting each of the two segments. Socrates explains that the four resulting segments represent four separate 'affections' (παθήματα) of the psyche. The lower two sections are said to represent the visible while the higher two are said to represent the intelligible. These affections are described in succession as corresponding to increasing levels of reality and truth from conjecture (εἰκασία) to belief (πίστις) to thought (διάνοια) and finally to understanding (νόησις). Furthermore this Analogy not only elaborates a theory of the psyche but also presents metaphysical and epistemological views.

 

Tabular summary of the Divided Line[edit]

Segment Type of knowledge or opinion Affection of the psyche Type of object Method of the psyche or eye Relative truth and reality

DE Noesis (νόησις) Knowledge (Understanding): understanding of only the Intelligible (νοητόν) Only Ideas, which are all given existence and truth by the Good itself (τὸ αὐτὸ ἀγαθόν) The Psyche examines all hypotheses by the Dialectic making no use of likenesses, always moving towards a First Principle Highest

CD Dianoia (διάνοια) Knowledge (Thought): thought that recognizes but is not only of the Intelligible Some Ideas, specifically those of Geometry and Number The Psyche assumes hypotheses while making use of likenesses, always moving towards final conclusions High

BC Pistis (πίστις) Opinion (Belief): belief concerning visible things visible things (ὁρατά) The eye makes probable predictions upon observing visible things low

AB Eikasia (εἰκασία) Opinion (Imagination): conjectures concerning likenesses likenesses of visible things (εἰκόνες) The eye makes guesses upon observing likenesses of visible things lowest

The Allegory of the Divided Line is the cornerstone of Plato's metaphysical framework. This structure, well hidden in the middle of the Republic, a complex, multi-layered dialogue, illustrates the grand picture of Plato's metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics, all in one. It is not enough for the philosopher to understand the Ideas (Forms), he must also understand the relation of Ideas to all four levels of the structure to be able to know anything at all.[6][7][8] In the Republic, the philosopher must understand the Idea of Justice to live a just life or to organize and govern a just state.[9]

 

The Divided Line also serves as our guide for most past and future metaphysics. The lowest level, which represents "the world of becoming and passing away" (Republic, 508d), is the metaphysical model for a Heraclitean philosophy of constant flux and for Protagorean philosophy of appearance and opinion. The second level, a world of fixed physical objects,[10][11] also became Aristotle's metaphysical model. The third level might be a Pythagorean level of mathematics. The fourth level is Plato's ideal Parmenidean reality, the world of highest level Ideas.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phaedo

Phædo or Phaedo (/ˈfiːdoʊ/; Greek: Φαίδων, Phaidōn, Greek pronunciation: [pʰaídɔːn]), also known to ancient readers as On The Soul,[1] is one of the best-known dialogues of Plato's middle period, along with the Republic and the Symposium. The Phaedo, which depicts the death of Socrates, is also Plato's fourth and last dialogue to detail the philosopher's final days, following Euthyphro, Apology, and Crito.

PLATO FOUR LEVELS OF KNOWLEDGE--- IF YOU GO IN MY BOOKS YOU SEE I POSTED TON OF OTHER PHILOSOPHERS WHO HAD SAME QUADRANT SYSTEM

http://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Allegory_of_the_cave

Plato essentially believed that there are four "levels" of knowledge. Speaking allegorically, the first one is the shadows of the objects the prisoners see; the second is the objects themselves seen in the dim light of the cave; the third is the objects seen in clear daylight; and the fourth is an up close examination of the objects. The former two stages are considered 'below the line' and the latter are 'above the line'

Now all of this is only moderately interesting until we examine the book we find the allegory in - The Republic. The Republic is actually a work that analyzes a subject, namely justice, through these four levels of knowledge and provides an analysis at all stages.

FOUR STAGES IN PROCESS OF KNOWLEDGE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT FITS THE QUADRANT PATTERN- FIRST QUADRANT IN THE QUADRANT MODEL IS SENSATION AND PERCEPTION SECOND IS BELIEF WHICH IS LIKE HIS ASSENT- THIRD IS COMPREHENSION WHICH IS THINKING- FOURTH IS KNOWLEDGE WHICH IS THE FOURTH QUADRANT OF THE QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeno_of_Citium

Zeno said that there were four stages in the process leading to true knowledge, which he illustrated with the example of the flat, extended hand, and the gradual closing of the fist:

 

Zeno stretched out his fingers, and showed the palm of his hand, – "Perception," – he said, – "is a thing like this."- Then, when he had closed his fingers a little, – "Assent is like this." – Afterwards, when he had completely closed his hand, and showed his fist, that, he said, was Comprehension. From which simile he also gave that state a new name, calling it katalepsis (κατάληψις). But when he brought his left hand against his right, and with it took a firm and tight hold of his fist: – "Knowledge" – he said, was of that character; and that was what none but a wise person possessed.[32]

THE FOUR INFERENCE RULES- YOU LEARN THIS IN EVERY BEGINNING LOGIC CLASS BUT THEY DON'T TELL YOU IT IS THE QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrysippus

Syllogistic[edit]

Chrysippus developed a syllogistic or system of deduction in which he made use of five types of basic arguments or argument forms called indemonstrable syllogisms, which played the role of axioms, and four inference rules, called themata by means of which complex syllogisms could be reduced to these axioms.[30] The forms of the five indemonstrables were:[31]

 

Name[32] Description Example

Modus ponens If A, then B. A. Therefore, B. If it is day, it is light. It is day. Therefore, it is light.

Modus tollens If A, then B. Not B. Therefore, not A. If it is day, it is light. It is not light. Therefore, it is not day.

Modus ponendo tollens i Not both A and B. A. Therefore, not B. It is not both day and night. It is day. Therefore, it is not night.

ii Either A or B. A. Therefore, not B. It is either day or night. It is day. Therefore, it is not night.

Modus tollendo ponens Either A or B. Not A. Therefore, B. It is either day or night. It is not day. Therefore, it is night.

Of the four inference rules, only two survived. One, the so-called first thema, was a rule of antilogism. The other, the third thema, was a cut rule by which chain syllogisms could be reduced to simple syllogisms.[33] The purpose of Stoic syllogistic was not merely to create a formal system. It was also understood as the study of the operations of reason, the divine reason (logos) which governs the universe, of which human beings are a part.[34] The goal was to find valid rules of inference and forms of proof to help people find their way in life.[21]

THE FOUR STOIC CATEGORIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stoic_categories

The term Stoic categories refers to Stoic ideas regarding categories of being: the most fundamental classes of being for all things. The Stoics believed there were four categories (substance, quality, disposition, relative disposition) which were the ultimate divisions. Since we do not now possess even a single complete work by Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes or Chrysippus what we do know must be pieced together from a number of sources: doxographies and the works of other philosophers who discuss the Stoics for their own purposes.[1]

 

Overview[edit]

The present information comes from Plotinus and Simplicius, with additional evidence from Plutarch of Chaeronea and Sextus Empiricus. According to both Plotinus and Simplicius there were four Stoic categories, to wit:

 

substance (ὑποκείμενον [ypokeímenon {"underlying"}])

The primary matter, formless substance (ousia) which makes up things.

quality (ποιόν [poión {"whom"}])

The way in which matter is organized to form an individual object. In Stoic physics, a physical ingredient (pneuma: air or breath) which informs the matter.

somehow disposed (πὼς ἔχον [pós échon {"how haves"]})

Particular characteristics, not present within the object, such as size, shape, action, and posture.

somehow disposed in relation to something (πρός τί πως ἔχον [prós tí pos échon {"why that having"}])

Characteristics which are related to other phenomena, such as the position of an object within time and space relative to other objects.

THREE VALUED LOGIC IS MORE NORMAL- FOUR VALUE LOGIC IS DIFFERENT TRANSCENDENT THE HIGHEST

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four-valued_logic

In logic, a four-valued logic is any logic with four truth values. Multiple such logics were invented to deal with various practical problems.

 

Applications[edit]

Four-valued logic taught in technical schools is used to model signal values in digital circuits: the four values are 1, 0, Z and X. 1 and 0 stand for boolean true and false, Z stands for high impedance or open circuit and X stands for don't care (e.g., the value has no effect). This logic is itself a subset of the 9-valued logic standard of the IEEE called IEEE 1164 and implemented, e.g., in VHDL's std_logic.

 

Another four-valued logic is Belnap's relevance logic. Its possible values are true, false, both (true and false), and neither (true nor false). Belnap's logic is designed to cope with multiple information sources such that if only true is found then true is assigned, if only false is found then false is assigned, if some sources say true and others say false then both is assigned, and if no information is given by any information source then neither is assigned.

 

There is also a SAE J1939 standard, used for CAN data transmission in heavy road vehicles, which has four logical (boolean) values: False, True, Error Condition, and Not installed (represented by values 0–3). Error Condition means there is a technical problem obstacling data acquisition. The logics for that is for example True and Error Condition=Error Condition. Not installed is used for a feature that does not exist in this vehicle, and should be disregarded for logical calculation. On CAN, usually fixed data messages are sent containing many signal values each, so a signal representing a not-installed feature will be sent anyway.

EMPEDOCLES FOUR PART MODEL OF EXISTENCE- HE BELIEVED EVERYTHING WAS MADE OF THE FOUR ELEMENTS AND ALSO THAT THE FOUR COMBINATIONS OF LOVE AND STRIFE CREATE THE FOUR PARTS OF THE COSMIC CYCLE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Empedocles_cosmic_cycle_concept_map.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empedocles

Love and Strife[edit]

Not to be confused with the Greek deities of love and strife.

 

Empedocles cosmic cycle is based on the conflict between love and strife

The four elements, however, are simple, eternal, and unalterable, and as change is the consequence of their mixture and separation, it was also necessary to suppose the existence of moving powers to bring about mixture and separation. The four elements are both eternally brought into union and parted from one another by two divine powers, Love and Strife. Love (φιλότης) is responsible for the attraction of different forms of matter, and Strife (νεῖκος) is the cause for their separation.[35] If these elements make up of the universe, then Love and Strife explain their variation and harmony. Love and Strife are attractive and repulsive forces, respectively, which is plainly observable in human behavior, but also pervade the universe. The two forces wax and wane their dominance but neither force ever wholly disappears from the imposition of the other.

EMPDEDOCLES ASSOCIATED THE FOUR ELEMENTS WITH FOUR GODs

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empedocles

The four elements[edit]

Empedocles established four ultimate elements which make all the structures in the world—fire, air, water, earth.[31] Empedocles called these four elements "roots", which he also identified with the mythical names of Zeus, Hera, Nestis, and Aidoneus[32] (e.g., "Now hear the fourfold roots of everything: enlivening Hera, Hades, shining Zeus. And Nestis, moistening mortal springs with tears."[33]) Empedocles never used the term "element" (Greek: στοιχεῖον, stoicheion), which seems to have been first used by Plato.[34] According to the different proportions in which these four indestructible and unchangeable elements are combined with each other the difference of the structure is produced. It is in the aggregation and segregation of elements thus arising, that Empedocles, like the atomists, found the real process which corresponds to what is popularly termed growth, increase or decrease. Nothing new comes or can come into being; the only change that can occur is a change in the juxtaposition of element with element. This theory of the four elements became the standard dogma for the next two thousand years.

EMPEDOCLES SAID THAT FIRE WAS DIFFERENT FROM EARTH AIR AND WATER- HE SAID THAT EARTH AIR AND WATER WAS SIMILAR AND FIRE WAS DIFFERENT--- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT- FIRE IS THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH

http://www.mycrandall.ca/courses/grphil/empedocles.htm

As Aristotle makes clear, Empedocles identifies not one archê but four archai. Although it is not clear what is meant, Aristotle further clarifies his statement by saying that that actually these four elements are really two archai: fire and the other three elements, earth air and water, which are said to be the opposite of fire. Empedocles was the first of the pre-Socratics to posit that there was a plurality of archai to explain all movement or becoming.

 

Empedocles departs from Eleatic philosophy insofar as he asserts that Being is not one, but many. In fact, for him, there are four basic elements, each of which is imperishable and unchanging, from which all things are composed; he calls these "the roots of all things" (Fr. 6), and they are identified with fire, earth, water, and air (Fr. 17; Metaphysics, 1. 7; 987a 26-27). Similarly, Clement of Alexandria quotes Empedocles as follows, “The four roots of all things first do you hear—Fire, water, earth, and ether's boundless height: For of these all that was, is, shall be, comes” (Strom. 6.2). Aristotle explains Empedocles' view:

 

Empedocles, then, in contrast with his predecessors, was the first to introduce the dividing of this cause, not positing one source of movement, but different and contrary sources. Again, he was the first to speak of four material elements; yet he does not use four, but treats them as two only; he treats fire by itself, and its opposite—earth, air, and water—as one kind of thing. We may learn this by study of his verses. (Metaphysics 1.4; 985a 29-985b 3

As Aristotle makes clear, Empedocles identifies not one archê but four archai. Although it is not clear what is meant, Aristotle further clarifies his statement by saying that that actually these four elements are really two archai: fire and the other three elements, earth air and water, which are said to be the opposite of fire. Empedocles was the first of the pre-Socratics to posit that there was a plurality of archai to explain all movement or becoming.

EMPEDOCLES ASSOCIATED THE FOUR ELEMENTS WITH FOUR GODS

http://www.mycrandall.ca/courses/grphil/empedocles.htm

In Fr. 6, Empedocles identifies the four elements with four gods: "Hear first the four roots of all things: shining Zeus, lifebringing Hera, Aidoneus and Nestis whose tear-drops are a well-spring to mortals." With the exception of Nestis (probably Persephone), who represents water, it is not immediately obvious to which elements these divine beings refer. Hippolytus, however, identifies Zeus with fire, Hera with earth and Aidoneus with air (Ref. 7. 17). It is probable that Empedocles actually thinks that the elements are divine, for Aristotle reports that Empedocles considers the elements to be prior to the gods and to be gods (Gen. et Corr. 333b 20-22). He means that the traditional Greek gods, like everything else, are composed of the elements, and that the elements of which they are composed are, as it were, more divine than they are, since they have this ontological priority (see Fr. 21). Presumably the four elements are gods because they are eternal and indestructible. As divine, the elements are also sentient, as the gods are depicted in Greek mythology. The attribution of sentience to the four elements explains the enigmatic sayings in which Empedocles affirms that all things have thought:

 

The cosmos began in a state of unity in which Love has brought the four elements together into complete homogenization; Strife was relegated to outmost boundary of the cosmic sphere. The next stage in cosmic cycle state sees Strife beginning to affect the sphere from its banishment to outmost boundary: strife begins to move from the periphery to the center of the sphere; in so doing it causes disintegration of the homogeneous whole. In another fragment, Empedocles explains, "But when Strife was grown great in the limbs of the god and sprang forth to claim his prerogatives, in the fullness of the alternate time set for them by the mighty oath…. for all the limbs of the god in turn quaked" (Fr. 31). Simplicius interprets this statement to mean, "As Strife begins to gain once more, motion begins again in the Sphere" (Phys. 1184. 2). Strife disturbs the motionless unity of the divine sphere, the complete homogenization of the four elements effected by Love; thereby the elements begin to move and are then free to become all things by recombining under the influence of Love, which is not yet relegated to the outmost boudary of the sphere. Aristotle points out therefore that, for Empedocles, Strife is as much a cause of existence as of destruction, because without Strife there would be only eternal, motionless homogeneity; he also points out that Empedocles nowhere explains why this cosmic cycle is necessary, beyond saying that it is the nature of Love and Strife to do what they do (Metaphysics, 3.4; 1000a 22-1000b 22). Eventually, Strife gains full ascendancy over Love, so that the four elements are separated from one another presumably into four motionless groups. The cycle then begins again with a new advance of Love.

NOSTRADAUMUS WROTE IN QUATRAINS FOUR LINES

Most academic sources maintain that the associations made between world events and Nostradamus's quatrains are largely the result of misinterpretations or mistranslations (sometimes deliberate) or else are so tenuous as to render them useless as evidence of any genuine predictive power.[5]

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nostradamus_CI_1.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nostradamus

He then began his project of writing a book of one thousand mainly French quatrains, which constitute the largely undated prophecies for which he is most famous today. Feeling vulnerable to opposition on religious grounds,[29] however, he devised a method of obscuring his meaning by using "Virgilianised" syntax, word games and a mixture of other languages such as Greek, Italian, Latin, and Provençal.[30] For technical reasons connected with their publication in three installments (the publisher of the third and last installment seems to have been unwilling to start it in the middle of a "Century," or book of 100 verses), the last fifty-eight quatrains of the seventh "Century" have not survived in any extant edition.

 

The quatrains, published in a book titled Les Propheties (The Prophecies), received a mixed reaction when they were published. Some people thought Nostradamus was a servant of evil, a fake, or insane, while many of the elite evidently thought otherwise. Catherine de Médicis, wife of King Henry II of France, was one of Nostradamus' greatest admirers. After reading his almanacs for 1555, which hinted at unnamed threats to the royal family, she summoned him to Paris to explain them and to draw up horoscopes for her children. At the time, he feared that he would be beheaded,[31] but by the time of his death in 1566, Queen Catherine had made him Counselor and Physician-in-Ordinary to her son, the young King Charles IX of France.

 

In The Prophecies Nostradamus compiled his collection of major, long-term predictions. The first installment was published in 1555 and contained 353 quatrains. The third edition, with three hundred new quatrains, was reportedly printed in 1558, but now only survives as part of the omnibus edition that was published after his death in 1568. This version contains one unrhymed and 941 rhymed quatrains, grouped into nine sets of 100 and one of 42, called "Centuries".

 

Astrology itself is mentioned only twice in Nostradamus's Preface and 41 times in the Centuries themselves, but more frequently in his dedicatory Letter to King Henry II. In the last quatrain of his sixth century he specifically attacks astrologers.

 

Most of the quatrains deal with disasters, such as plagues, earthquakes, wars, floods, invasions, murders, droughts, and battles—all undated and based on foreshadowings by the Mirabilis Liber. Some quatrains cover these disasters in overall terms; others concern a single person or small group of people. Some cover a single town, others several towns in several countries. A major, underlying theme is an impending invasion of Europe by Muslim forces from farther east and south headed by the expected Antichrist, directly reflecting the then-current Ottoman invasions and the earlier Saracen equivalents, as well as the prior expectations of the Mirabilis Liber.[53] All of this is presented in the context of the supposedly imminent end of the world—even though this is not in fact mentioned[54]—a conviction that sparked numerous collections of end-time prophecies at the time, including an unpublished collection by Christopher Columbus.[55] [56]

 

Thus, no Nostradamus quatrain is known to have been interpreted as predicting a specific event before it occurred, other than in vague, general terms that could equally apply to any number of other events.[58] This even applies to quatrains that contain specific dates, such as III.77, which predicts "in 1727, in October, the king of Persia [shall be] captured by those of Egypt"—a prophecy that has, as ever, been interpreted retrospectively in the light of later events, in this case as though it presaged the known peace treaty between the Ottoman Empire and Persia of that year.[59] Similarly, Nostradamus's notorious '1999' prophecy at X.72 (see Nostradamus in popular culture) describes no event that commentators have succeeded in identifying either before or since, other than by dint of twisting the words to fit whichever of the many contradictory happenings they are keen to claim as 'hits'.[60] Moreover, no quatrain suggests, as is often claimed by books and films on the alleged Mayan Prophecy, that the world would end in December 2012.[61] In his preface to the Prophecies, Nostradamus himself stated that his prophecies extend 'from now to the year 3797'[62]—an extraordinary date which, given that the preface was written in 1555, may have more than a little to do with the fact that 2242 (3797 − 1555) had recently been proposed by his major astrological source Richard Roussat as a possible date for the end of the world.[63][64]

 

There have also been several well-known Internet hoaxes, where quatrains in the style of Nostradamus have been circulated by e-mail as the real thing. The best-known examples concern the collapse of the World Trade Center in the 11 September attacks, which led both to hoaxes and to reinterpretations by enthusiasts of several quatrains as supposed prophecies.[82]

NOSTRADAUMUS QUATRAINS FOUR LINES IN FOUR DIFFERENT LANGUAGES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Man_Who_Saw_Tomorrow

Welles, though he agreed to host the film, was not a believer in the subject matter presented. Welles' main objection to the generally accepted translations of Nostradamus' quatrains (so called because Nostradamus organized all his works into a series of four lined prose, which were then collected into "centuries", or groups of 100 such works) relates in part to the translation efforts. While many skilled linguists have worked on the problem of translating the works of Nostradamus, all have struggled with the format the author used.

 

Nostradamus lived and wrote during a period of political and religious censorship. Because of this it is said he disguised his writings not only with somewhat cryptic language, but in four different languages (Latin, French, Italian and Greek). Not content with such obfuscation, Nostradamus is also said to have used anagrams to further confuse potential inquisitors (particularly with respect to names and places).

PLATO FOUR ELEMENTS AND THE FOUR SOLIDS AND THE FOUR PRIMARY CORPUSCLES

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/plato-timaeus/

In the “pre-cosmic” state (the state “prior to” the intervention of the Craftsman) the receptacle is subject to erratic and disorderly motions, and its contents are mere “traces” (ichnê, 53b2) of the subsequently articulated four “kinds” (the so-called elements): fire, air, water and earth. The Craftsman begins by constructing four of the regular solids as the primary corpuscles of each of these four kinds. These solids have faces that are made up (ultimately) of two types of right-angled triangles—the half-equilateral and the isosceles—and it is these triangles that are the ultimate “simples” of the physics of the dialogue. Because their triangles are similar (half-equilateral), only corpuscles of fire, air and water may be transformed into one another. Each of the four kinds has properties that are determined by the constitution of their respective corpuscles, and these properties in turn determine how the particles act upon and react to one another. (It is here that Necessity plays its important role in Timaeus' account.) These actions and reactions are ongoing and perpetuate a state of non-uniformity which itself is a necessary condition for motion, i.e., the continuation of the interactions. Although each of the four kinds has a tendency to move toward its own region of space, the inevitable transformations that occur when their various corpuscles cut or crush one another assures that these migrations are never completed. The account proceeds to explain the various varieties of each of the four kinds, and the sensible properties that they and their compounds manifest. An account of sensible properties calls for a preliminary account of sensation (including pleasure and pain), and it is with that preliminary account that this section of the discourse concludes.

THE AUTHOR SAYS THAT THE FACES COULD BE MADE UP OF TWO ISOSCELES TRIANGLES BUT PLATO CHOOSES TO SAY THEYA RE MADE UP OF FOUR AND HE IS NOT SURE WHY PLATO SAYS FOUR INSTEAD OF TWO- IT IS BECAUSE FOUR IS THE QUADRANT AND THE QUADRANT IS THE FORM OF BEING

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/plato-timaeus/

The faces of the cube are squares composed of four elemental isosceles right-angled triangles and again, it is not clear why four should be preferred to two.

PLATO ARGUES THAT THE CRAFTSMAN WHO CREATED EXISTENCE DID SO USING FOUR OF THE PLATONIC SOLIDS WHICH REPRESENT THE FIRST FOUR ELEMENTS AIR WATER EARTH AND FIRE AND MADE THOSE FOUR PLATONIC SOLIDS INTO THE FOUR KINDS OF PARTICLES THE FOUR CORPUSCLES

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/plato-timaeus/

 

In accordance with the requirements for the construction of the body of the universe previously set out at 31b4–32c4, the Craftsman begins by fashioning each of the four kinds “to be as perfect and excellent as possible…” (53b5–6). He selects as the basic corpuscles (sômata, “bodies”) four of the five regular solids: the tetrahedron for fire, the octahedron for air, the icosahedron for water, and the cube for earth.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

PLATO ACCORDING TO THIS AUTHOR SAW THE X-QUADRANT-CHI AS "DOMINATING THE STRUCTURE OF THE COSMS"- THAT IS WHAT I SAID- THAT IS THE QUADRANT MODEL- AND THE X OR CROSS IN THE "MYSTIC ARK"- HUGH ARGUES THAT IN THE ARK THERE WAS A CROSS IN THE CENTRAL CUBIT

https://books.google.com/books?id=xzeNAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA263&lpg=PA263&dq=Plato+cosmic+cross&source=bl&ots=aTe5198qee&sig=lW2zkaTo_rYKI0EpypL3MIo45mM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjmvqaX3fDTAhVC3WMKHZUIDgsQ6AEIRTAK#v=onepage&q=Plato%20cosmic%20cross&f=false

THE CHI/CROSS- AND PLATOS TWO BANDS THA FORM THE SOUL OF THE WORLD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chi_(letter)

In Plato's Timaeus, it is explained that the two bands that form the soul of the world cross each other like the letter Χ. Plato's analogy, along with several other examples of chi as a symbol occur in Thomas Browne's discourse The Garden of Cyrus (1658).

 

Chi or X is often used to abbreviate the name Christ, as in the holiday Christmas (Xmas). When fused within a single typespace with the Greek letter Rho, it is called the labarum and used to represent the person of Jesus Christ.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elemental
Paracelsus[edit]
In his 16th-century alchemical work Liber de Nymphis, sylphis, pygmaeis et salamandris et de caeteris spiritibus, Paracelsus identified mythological beings as belonging to one of the four elements. Part of the Philosophia Magna, this book was first printed in 1566 after Paracelsus' death.[2] He wrote the book to "describe the creatures that are outside the cognizance of the light of nature, how they are to be understood, what marvellous works God has created". He states that there is more bliss in describing these "divine objects" than in describing fencing, court etiquette, cavalry, and other worldly pursuits.[3] The following is his archetypal being for each of the four elements:[4]

Gnome, being of earth
Undine, being of water
Sylph, being of air
Salamander, being of fire

I WATCHED A DOCUMENTARY ON THIS TOO ON NETFLIX IN COLLEGE- THE TILES HAVE FOUR PARTS FOUR LINES

THE FOUR SEGMENTS

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toynbee_tiles

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Toynbee_tile.jpg

A different style of Toynbee tile, found at the corner of 13th and Chestnut Sts. in Philadelphia

 

The Toynbee tiles (also called Toynbee plaques) are messages of unknown origin found embedded in asphalt of streets in about two dozen major cities in the United States and four South American cities.[1][2] Since the 1980s, several hundred tiles have been discovered. They are generally about the size of an American license plate (roughly 30 cm by 15 cm), but sometimes considerably larger. They contain some variation of the following inscription:

 

TOYNBEE IDEA

IN MOViE `2001

RESURRECT DEAD

ON PLANET JUPITER

 

John Knight Ridder and the media[edit]

 

A different style of Toynbee tile, found at the corner of 13th and Chestnut Sts. in Philadelphia

A complex of four tiles was once located at 16th and Chestnut Streets in Philadelphia, consisting of four panels of barely-legible italic printing. One transcription of its message reads:[20]

 

John Knight Ridder is the Philadelphia thug hellion Jew who'd hated this movements guts- for years- takes money from the Mafia to make the Mafia look good in his newspapers so he has the Mafia in his back pocket. John Knight sent the Mafia to murder me in May 1991 [illegible] journalists [illegible] then gloated to my face about death and Knight Ridder great power to destroy. In fact John Knight went into hellion binge of joy over Knight-Ridder's great power to destroy.

 

I secured house with blast doors and fled the country in June 1991.

 

NBC attorneys journalists and security officials at Rockefeller Center fraudulently under the "Freedom of Information Act" all [illegible] orders NBC executives got the U.S. federal district attorney's office who got FBI to get Interpol to establish task force that located me in Dover England.

 

Which back home Inquirer got union goons from their own employees union to [illegible] down a "sports journalist". Who with ease bashed in lights and windows of neighborhood car- as well as men outside my house. They are stationed there still waiting for me.

 

NBC CBS group "W" Westinghouse, Time, Time Warner, Fox, Universal all of the "Cult of the Hellion" each one were Much worse than Knight-Ridder ever was[,] mostly hellion Jews.

 

When K.Y.W. and NBC executives told John Knight the whole coven gloated in joyous fits on how their Soviet pals found a way to turn it into a...

CORDOSA QUATERNITIES- I POSTED STUFF ON THIS A LONG TIME AGO FROM THIS BOOK TOO SOME OF THE BOOKS I HAD BEFORE NO LONGER ONLINE- FOUR STREAMS FOUR MESSIAHS (FOURTH A MYSTERY)- I POSTED STUFF ON THIS AN A LOT OF OTHER STUFF- HE SAID THAT THERE WERE FOUR TYPES OF RELIGION THE FOURTH WAS DIFFERENT BUT HE SAID NONE WERE TRUE- ALL SORTS OF QUATERNITIES

https://books.google.com/books?id=60uAmpqiu6EC&pg=PA250&lpg=PA250&dq=Sabbatai+Zevi+quaternity&source=bl&ots=kM8b4fmfDi&sig=3NuUMiSwY5lhOgtZkyn5UvoMh5w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiMwurWoPTTAhUqrVQKHViqAYIQ6AEILzAC#v=onepage&q=four&f=false

Quadrant

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opposite_(semantics)#cite_ref-2

There are four types of entailment useful to lexical semantics:

unilateral entailment: It's a fish unilaterally entails It's an animal. (It is unilateral, i.e. one-directional, because It's an animal does not entail It's a fish since it could be a dog or a cat or some other animal.)

logical equivalence (or multilateral entailment): The party commenced at midnight entails The party began at midnight AND The party began at midnight also entails The party commenced at midnight.

contrariety: The sentences 'X is blue all over' and 'X is red all over' are contraries since both cannot be simultaneously true. On the Aristotelian square of opposition, the A and E type propositions ('All As are Bs' and 'No As are Bs', respectively) are contraries of each other. Propositions that cannot be simultaneously false (e.g. 'Something is red' and 'Something is not red') are said to be subcontraries.

contradiction: It's dead entails It's not alive AND It's not alive entails It's dead AND It's alive entails It's not dead AND It's not dead entails It's alive. It's dead and It's alive are said to be in a contradictory relation.

Jump up ^

PLATOS FOUR MUSES- I described in ancient Greece there was discussion of three muses but they added transcendent fourth later

http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog.php?isbn=9780674417229

Plato’s Four Muses reconstructs Plato’s authorial self-portrait through a fresh reading of the Phaedrus, with an Introduction and Conclusion that contextualize the construction more broadly. The Phaedrus, it is argued, is Plato’s most self-referential dialogue, and Plato’s reference to four Muses in Phaedrus 259c–d is read as a hint at the “ingredients” of philosophical discourse, which turns out to be a form of provocatively old-fashioned mousikê.

SEE GREEKS STARTED OUT WITH THREE MUSES THEN IN LATER TRADITIONS A FOURTH MUSE WAS ADDED- THAT IS THE THREE FOUR DYNAMIC- IT SEEMS LIKE THERE IS THREE THEN THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH WHICH IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muse

According to Pausanias in the later second century AD,[9] there were three original Muses, worshiped on Mount Helicon in Boeotia: Aoidḗ ("song" or "tune"), Melétē ("practice" or "occasion"), and Mnḗmē ("memory"). Together, these three form the complete picture of the preconditions of poetic art in cult practice. In Delphi three Muses were worshiped as well, but with other names: Nḗtē, Mésē, and Hýpatē, which are assigned as the names of the three cords of the ancient musical instrument, the lyre. Alternatively they later were called Kēphisṓ, Apollōnís, and Borysthenís, which names characterize them as daughters of Apollo. In later tradition, a set of four Muses were recognized: Thelxinóē, Aoidḗ Archē, and Melétē, said to be daughters of Zeus and Plusia or of Uranus.

http://www.artofmanliness.com/2011/07/31/king-warrior-magician-lover-introduction/

FOUR ARCHETYPES MANLINESS

Alright, so what are the archetypes that Jung believed existed in each person? While Jung suggested a number of universal archetypes, the four main ones are: the Self, the Shadow, the Animus and Anima, and the Persona. For the purpose of this article, I’m not going to go into detail on all four of these. If it’s something you’re interested in, I’d encourage you to investigate these archetypes on your own.

FOUR ARCHETYPES MANLINESS

http://www.artofmanliness.com/2011/07/31/king-warrior-magician-lover-introduction/

Another way of approaching the cure for the modern male malaise comes from the book King, Warrior, Magician, Lover: Rediscovering the Archetypes of the Mature Masculine, by Jungian psychologist Robert Moore and mythologist Douglas Gillette. Moore argues that masculinity is made up of four archetypal male energies which serve different purposes. All men, whether born in the U.S. or Africa, are born with these archetypal energies. The authors argue that to become a complete man, a man must work to develop all four archetypes. The result of striving to become complete is a feeling of manly confidence and purpose.

 

King, Warrior, Magician, Lover was originally published in 1990, and it has had a pretty big influence on masculinity in America. It, along with Robert Bly’s book, Iron John: A Book About Men, kick-started the mythopoetic men’s movement of the early 1990s. During this time, many men in America started attending men’s groups and weekend retreats where they would take part in rites of passage and discuss ancient myths to gain personal insights about what it means to be a man. You can still see the influence of King, Warrior, Magician, Lover in books like Wild at Heart or weekend men’s retreats like The ManKind Project.

FOUR BOYHOOD ARCHETYPES

http://www.artofmanliness.com/2011/08/23/the-four-archetypes-of-mature-masculinity-the-boyhood-archetypes-part-i/

To understand the four archetypes of mature masculinity, we first need to explore their precursors. There are four boyhood archetypes which develop into the manly archetypes. Properly accessing and harnessing their energies is essential for a boy’s full development. These archetypes instill in boys a sense of wonder, play, and energy–traits that are essential for learning and development.

 

And these boyhood archetypes don’t leave us as we grow up, progress, and access the mature masculine archetypes. While each of the four boyhood archetypes gives rise to the four manly archetypes, they are not discarded once we reach them; the boyhood archetypes remain as building blocks in the structure of our manliness.

THE FOUR BOYHOOD ARCHETYPES

http://www.artofmanliness.com/2011/09/13/the-four-archetypes-of-mature-masculinity-the-boyhood-archetypes-part-ii/

As you may remember, the boyhood archetypes are positive but immature energies that, with proper masculine guidance, develop into the archetypes of mature manhood. Last time we talked about two of the four boyhood archetypes–the Divine Child and the Precocious Child–suggested by Moore and Gillette. Today we’ll talk the other two–the Oedipal Child and the Hero. Let’s just dive right into it.

Psychologist Carl Gustav Jung described several archetypes that are based in the observation of differing but repeating patterns of thought and action that re-appear time and again across people, countries and continents.

http://changingminds.org/explanations/identity/jung_archetypes.htm

Jung's main archetypes are not 'types' in the way that each person may be classified as one or the other. Rather, we each have all basic archetypes within us. He listed four main forms of archetypes:

 

The Shadow

The Anima

The Animus

The Self

THE FOUR ARCHETYPES OF THE FEMININE

https://aquietrevolution.me/2016/12/14/four-archetypes-of-the-feminine-mother-lover-wise-woman-queen/

Four archetypes of the feminine; Mother, Lover, Wise Woman, Queen

FOUR STEP PROCESS EMOTION

https://aquietrevolution.me/2016/12/21/four-steps-for-processing-emotion-kicking-emotional-overwhelm-in-the-butt/

Neither facilitates a healthy processing of life. We can think of processing emotions like emotional detox; not much fun per se, but necessary on a regular basis. Below are four steps to help you work with emotions in an empowered and responsible way (that can also be magic-filled and sacred!); Ground, Release, Self-care, Integration.

 

Four steps for processing emotion

THE FOUR COLORED ORTUS- FOUR QUARTERS FOURTH DIFFERENT

https://aras.org/concordance/content/peregrinatio-michael-maier

When he arrives by the Red Sea, the adept learns that an animal named the Ortus is nearby. This strange creature is composed of four different colors: red, black, white and streaks of yellow. He also learns that the Ortus is thought to be related to, or maybe even identical with, the phoenix ML p.149

 

The first aspect of the story describes a horizontal journey through the four quarters. This corresponds to imagery one encounters now and then in which there'll be a circular field divided into four sections. Life activities of some sort will be going on in three of them but the fourth one will be blank or void, or black and threatening.In some cases the fourth quarter is labeled “terra damnata” or “chaos” or something like that. That's how Maier's journey starts outhe travels north, west and east and has no problems; but when he goes south he runs into this fourth quarter ML p.150

(f)

This corresponds to the fundamental alchemical theme of the three and the four which comes up frequently in every depth analysis. In the course of trying to achieve some consciousness of one's wholeness, one must work his or her way through all four functions. The first function is the superior functionthat doesn't present any trouble because one's there to start with and most of life has been lived there. So the superior function, that's a piece of cake ML p.150

I POSTED THIS A LONG TIME AGO LIKE YEARS AGO- THE BOOK OF PLATONIC TETRALOGIES I FORGOT ABOUT IT

 

One of the

most comprehensive attempts of this kind is the sixteenfold

schema in the Book of Platonic Tetralogies. 109 I have dealt with

 

https://archive.org/stream/collectedworksof92cgju/collectedworksof92cgju_djvu.txt

16 SQUARES QMR

I POSTED YEARS AGO PLATOS TETRALOGIES AND PHILOSOPHERS WHO THOUGHT THAT PLATOS WORKS WERE ORGANIZED INTO TETRADS AND ALL OF THAT I JUST COMPLETELY FORGOT ABOUT THAT THATS WHAT IM TALKINA BOUT THERES A LOT THAT I FORGOT

 

http://plato-dialogues.org/tetralog.htm

Quadrant

THIS IS WHAT IM TALKING ABOUT I REMEMBER SEEING THIS IN COLLEGE I THINK OR A VERY LONG TIME AGO AND BEING AMAZED THAT PLATOS WORKS WERE ARRANGED IN TETRALOGIES AND I POSTED IT ON FACEBOOK A COUPLE YEARS AGO BUT TO BE HONEST I HAD COMPLETELY FORGOT ABOUT THAT I JUST GOT REMINDED BY JUNG- I WATCHED LECTURES AND SURFED THE INTERNET SINCE 2009 ALL DAY EVERYDAY AND SAW SO MUCH QUADRANT MODEL AND I ORIGINALLY RECORDED IT IN NOTEBOOKS I HONESLTY DONT KNOW WHERE THEY ARE- BUT I HAVE SEEN SO MUCH THAT I CANT REMEMBER BUT IT IS THE GREATEST THEORY IN HISTORY REALITY IS THE QUADRANT REALITY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plato

One tradition regarding the arrangement of Plato's texts is according to tetralogies. This scheme is ascribed by Diogenes Laertius to an ancient scholar and court astrologer to Tiberius named Thrasyllus.

 

The following works were transmitted under Plato's name, most of them already considered spurious in antiquity, and so were not included by Thrasyllus in his tetralogical arrangement. These works are labelled as Notheuomenoi ("spurious") or Apocrypha.

 

Axiochus, Definitions, Demodocus, Epigrams, Eryxias, Halcyon, On Justice, On Virtue, Sisyphus.

The oldest surviving complete manuscript for many of the dialogues is the Clarke Plato (Codex Oxoniensis Clarkianus 39, or Codex Boleianus MS E.D. Clarke 39), which was written in Constantinople in 895 and acquired by Oxford University in 1809.[118] The Clarke is given the siglum B in modern editions. B contains the first six tetralogies and is described internally as being written by "John the Calligrapher" on behalf of Arethas of Caesarea. It appears to have undergone corrections by Arethas himself.[119] For the last two tetralogies and the apocrypha, the oldest surviving complete manuscript is Codex Parisinus graecus 1807, designated A, which was written nearly contemporaneously to B, circa 900 AD.[120] A must be a copy of the edition edited by the patriarch, Photios, teacher of Arethas.[121][122][123]A probably had an initial volume containing the first 7 tetralogies which is now lost, but of which a copy was made, Codex Venetus append. class. 4, 1, which has the siglum T. The oldest manuscript for the seventh tetralogy is Codex Vindobonensis 54. suppl. phil. Gr. 7, with siglum W, with a supposed date in the twelfth century.[124] In total there are fifty-one such Byzantine manuscripts known, while others may yet be found.[125]

PLATO 36 BOOKS- 9 TIMES 4 36 NINE TETRALOGIES

http://harpermcalpineblack.blogspot.com/2013/08/the-canon-of-plato-thrasyllus.html

The Canon of Plato (Thrasyllus' Attestation)

The canon of Plato's works has been supplied to us by a certain ancient authority named Thrasyllus, about whom we know very little. He is the source quoted by Diogenes Laertius in his life of Plato and this provides a list of thirty-six works grouped together into nine tetralogies as follows:

 

THE NINE TETRALOGIES

 

*Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phædo

*Cratylus, Theætetus, Sophist, Statesman

*Parmenides, Philebus, Symposium, Phædrus

*Alcibiades, 2nd Alcibiades, Hipparchus, Rival Lovers

*Theages, Charmides, Laches, Lysis

*Euthydemus, Protagoras, Gorgias, Meno

*Hippias major, Hippias minor, Ion, Menexenus

*Clitophon, Republic, Timæus, Critias

*Minos, Laws, Epinomis, [Letters]

PLATO TETRALOGIES

http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/1994/94.03.07.html

Diogenes of Laertius tells us that Thrasyllus claimed that Plato himself 'published' [E)KDOU=NAI] the dialogues in tetralogies in imitation of Greek drama where three thematically related plays plus a satyr play were grouped together. So, there is no question that Thrasyllus invented the tetralogy format, as Tarrant admits. That leaves the question of the relation of the Thrasyllan tetralogies that we possess to whatever arrangement Plato suggested. We must of course also reckon with the possibility that Plato put some of the dialogues into fairly obvious tetralogies on the basis of theme (e.g., Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo = Thrasyllan tetralogy I) but that he did not mandate this approach for all of his work.

 

Tarrant wants to make much of Thrasyllus' intervention in the arrangement, but he can really do no more than speculate. It would be particularly useful to know how the spuria in tetralogies IV and VII got to be included and whether Thrasyllus was responsible. All we know is that Diogenes says that Thrasyllus thought genuine all 36 dialogues in the 9 tetralogies and that he affixed the double titles to the dialogues, the name of the interlocutor and the subject.

 

Even assuming that the present arrangement is Thrasyllus' and that this differs significantly from Plato's or from someone else's earlier than Thrasyllus, the important question is what is the rationale for the arrangement and what influence did it have on the reading of the dialogues.

 

According to Tarrant, the reading order was "intimately connected with Thrasyllus' own view of Platonic philosophy (179)." Tarrant advances the intriguing suggestion that this reading order was made to accord with an interpretation of Plato's educational theory in book 7 of the Republic (101). The first tetralogy is reasonably assumed to be an introduction to this schema. But it seems to me, without direct evidence to the contrary, quite unbelievable that tetralogies II - IX could have been thought by Thrasyllus to constitute the steps of an educational program mirroring that of the Republic. For one thing, the 'visions of the Good' that is said to be the theme of tetralogy III comes too early in the arrangement. For another, the 'paradigms for teacher' said to be the theme of tetralogies IV-V (Alcibiades I, Alcibiades II, Hipparchus, Amatores; Theages, Charmides, Laches, Lysis) does not clearly play a part in the educational system. Indeed, tetralogies VI-VII are tentatively included in this rubric as well. Thrasyllus may have had some Plato-inspired educational system in mind when making his arrangement, but it is difficult to believe that he thought that this arrangement actually represented Plato's philosophy.

THE 16 FOLD BOOK OF PLATONIC TETRALOGIES- 16 SQUARES QMR- JUNG ON THE 16

https://archive.org/stream/collectedworksof92cgju/collectedworksof92cgju_djvu.txt

Quadrant

 

One of the

most comprehensive attempts of this kind is the sixteenfold

schema in the Book of Platonic Tetralogies. 109 I have dealt with

 

109 An anonymous Harranite treatise entitled "Platonis liber quartorum," printed

in Theatr. chem., V (1622), pp. 1 i4ff.; conjectured to have been translated from the

Arabic in the 12 th cent.

 

26l

 

 

 

AION

 

 

 

this in detail in Psychology and Alchemy and can therefore limit

myself here to the basic points. The schematization and analogy-

formation start from four first principles: 1. the work of nature,

2. water, 3. composite natures, 4. the senses. Each of these four

starting-points has three stages of transformation, which to-

gether with the first stage make sixteen parts in all. But besides

this fourfold horizontal division of each of the principles, each

stage has its correspondence in the vertical series:

I told you all I studied a lot of lectures on math the quadrant model pattern where the fourth was different was all of the big theorems- and I read through the Hindu texts the Buddhist all of it in all of it is encoded the quadrant model- It's like when Socrates says "one two three.. wheres number four"- Hints and codes like that to the quadrant pattern are everywhere it is almost like a game---- it is that the quadrant pattern is the form of being

SOCRATES FOUR CLASSES LIMITED UNLIMITED THEIR MIXTURE AND THEIR CAUSE (THE FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT THE CAUSE THAT WHICH CAUSED THE PREVIOUS THREE TO BE- third is most solid)

https://books.google.com/books?id=Fv9AKY_DBVYC&pg=PR9&lpg=PR9&dq=thrasyllus+tetralogies&source=bl&ots=cKs0aXeCW2&sig=Znk1JgTvAZi2PgxPzMSPv4nIdt4&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj4jpb9ioDUAhUO22MKHczfC6sQ6AEITjAH#v=onepage&q=four&f=false

QUADRANT

THRASYLLUS SAID THAT PLATO ARRANGED HIS WORK IN TETRALOGIES--- ARISTOPHENIES ARRANGED THEM IN TRILOGIES THE TETRALOGIES WON- THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THE THREE AND THE FOUR- FOURTH TRANSCENDENT

https://books.google.com/books?id=e9EHOq5azwkC&pg=PA140&lpg=PA140&dq=thrasyllus+tetralogies&source=bl&ots=BH6zq5ikB3&sig=QWE4RCY1jF7Wq_0zTOyQB7KpOS0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj4jpb9ioDUAhUO22MKHczfC6sQ6AEIUzAI#v=onepage&q=thrasyllus%20tetralogies&f=false

Quadrant

Four branches SOCRATES

http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/plato/gorgias.htm

Soc. In my opinion then, Gorgias, the whole of which rhetoric is a

part is not an art at all, but the habit of a bold and ready wit,

which knows how to manage mankind: this habit I sum up under the

word "flattery"; and it appears to me to have many other parts, one of

which is cookery, which may seem to be an art, but, as I maintain,

is only an experience or routine and not an art:-another part is

rhetoric, and the art of attiring and sophistry are two others: thus

there are four branches, and four different things answering to

them. And Polus may ask, if he likes, for he has not as yet been

informed, what part of flattery is rhetoric: he did not see that I had

not yet answered him when he proceeded to ask a further question:

Whether I do not think rhetoric a fine thing? But I shall not tell him

whether rhetoric is a fine thing or not, until I have first

answered, "What is rhetoric?" For that would not be right, Polus;

but I shall be happy to answer, if you will ask me, What part of

flattery is rhetoric?

Four arts

http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/plato/gorgias.htm

Now, seeing that there are these four arts, two

attending on the body and two on the soul for their highest good;

flattery knowing, or rather guessing their natures, has distributed

herself into four shams or simulations of them; she puts on the

likeness of some one or other of them, and pretends to be that which

she simulates, and having no regard for men's highest interests, is

ever making pleasure the bait of the unwary, and deceiving them into

the belief that she is of the highest value to them.

SOCRATES ULTIMATELY ENDS UP DRAWING 16 SQUARES

http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/plato/meno.htm

Soc. And four such lines will make a space containing eight feet?

 

Boy. Yes.

 

Soc. Let us describe such a figure: Would you not say that this is

the figure of eight feet?

 

Boy. Yes.

 

Soc. And are there not these four divisions in the figure, each of

which is equal to the figure of four feet?

 

Boy. True.

 

Soc. And is not that four times four?

 

Boy. Certainly.

 

Soc. And four times is not double?

 

Boy. No, indeed.

 

Soc. But how much?

 

Boy. Four times as much.

 

Soc. Therefore the double line, boy, has given a space, not twice,

but four times as much.

 

Boy. True.

 

Soc. Four times four are sixteen-are they not?

 

Boy. Yes.

 

Soc. What line would give you a space of right feet, as this gives

one of sixteen feet;-do you see?

 

Boy. Yes.

 

Soc. And the space of four feet is made from this half line?

 

Boy. Yes.

 

Soc. Good; and is not a space of eight feet twice the size of

this, and half the size of the other?

 

Boy. Certainly.

 

Soc. Such a space, then, will be made out of a line greater than

this one, and less than that one?

 

Boy. Yes; I think so.

 

Soc. Very good; I like to hear you say what you think. And now

tell me, is not this a line of two feet and that of four?

 

Boy. Yes.

 

Soc. Then the line which forms the side of eight feet ought to be

more than this line of two feet, and less than the other of four feet?

 

Boy. It ought.

 

Soc. Try and see if you can tell me how much it will be.

 

Boy. Three feet.

 

Soc. Then if we add a half to this line of two, that will be the

line of three. Here are two and there is one; and on the other side,

here are two also and there is one: and that makes the figure of which

you speak?

THE FOUR RIVERS SOCRATES

http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/plato/phaedo.htm

Now these rivers are many, and mighty, and diverse, and there are

four principal ones, of which the greatest and outermost is that

called Oceanus, which flows round the earth in a circle; and in the

opposite direction flows Acheron, which passes under the earth through

desert places, into the Acherusian Lake: this is the lake to the

shores of which the souls of the many go when they are dead, and after

waiting an appointed time, which is to some a longer and to some a

shorter time, they are sent back again to be born as animals. The

third river rises between the two, and near the place of rising

pours into a vast region of fire, and forms a lake larger than the

Mediterranean Sea, boiling with water and mud; and proceeding muddy

and turbid, and winding about the earth, comes, among other places, to

the extremities of the Acherusian Lake, but mingles not with the

waters of the lake, and after making many coils about the earth

plunges into Tartarus at a deeper level. This is that

Pyriphlegethon, as the stream is called, which throws up jets of

fire in all sorts of places. The fourth river goes out on the opposite

side, and falls first of all into a wild and savage region, which is

all of a dark-blue color, like lapis lazuli; and this is that river

which is called the Stygian River, and falls into and forms the Lake

Styx, and after falling into the lake and receiving strange powers

in the waters, passes under the earth, winding round in the opposite

direction to Pyriphlegethon, and meeting in the Acherusian Lake from

the opposite side. And the water of this river too mingles with no

other, but flows round in a circle and falls into Tartarus over

against Pyriphlegethon, and the name of this river, as the poet

says, is Cocytus.

SOCRATES FOUR KINDS OF MADNESS RELATED TO FOUR GODS

http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/plato/phaedrus.htm

Soc. The divine madness was subdivided into four kinds, prophetic,

initiatory, poetic, erotic, having four gods presiding over them;

the first was the inspiration of Apollo, the second that of

Dionysus, the third that of the Muses, the fourth that of Aphrodite

and Eros. In the description of the last kind of madness, which was

also said to be the best, we spoke of the affection of love in a

figure, into which we introduced a tolerably credible and possibly

true though partly erring myth, which was also a hymn in honour of

Love, who is your lord and also mine, Phaedrus, and the guardian of

fair children, and to him we sung the hymn in measured and solemn

strain.

Thus far I have been speaking of the fourth and last kind of

madness, which is imputed to him who, when he sees the beauty of

earth, is transported with the recollection of the true beauty; he

would like to fly away, but he cannot; he is like a bird fluttering

and looking upward and careless of the world below; and he is

therefore thought to be mad. And I have shown this of all inspirations

to be the noblest and highest and the offspring of the highest to

him who has or shares in it, and that he who loves the beautiful is

called a lover because he partakes of it

 

Soc. Then follows the statement of facts, and upon that witnesses;

thirdly, proofs; fourthly, probabilities are to come; the great

Byzantian word-maker also speaks, if I am not mistaken, of

confirmation and further confirmation.

SOCRATES FOUR KINDS OF MADNESS RELATED TO FOUR GODS- four only number really mentioned in dialogue

http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/plato/phaedrus.htm

  Soc. The divine madness was subdivided into four kinds, prophetic,

initiatory, poetic, erotic, having four gods presiding over them;

the first was the inspiration of Apollo, the second that of

Dionysus, the third that of the Muses, the fourth that of Aphrodite

and Eros. In the description of the last kind of madness, which was

also said to be the best, we spoke of the affection of love in a

figure, into which we introduced a tolerably credible and possibly

true though partly erring myth, which was also a hymn in honour of

Love, who is your lord and also mine, Phaedrus, and the guardian of

fair children, and to him we sung the hymn in measured and solemn

strain.

Thus far I have been speaking of the fourth and last kind of

madness, which is imputed to him who, when he sees the beauty of

earth, is transported with the recollection of the true beauty; he

would like to fly away, but he cannot; he is like a bird fluttering

and looking upward and careless of the world below; and he is

therefore thought to be mad. And I have shown this of all inspirations

to be the noblest and highest and the offspring of the highest to

him who has or shares in it, and that he who loves the beautiful is

called a lover because he partakes of it

 

  Soc. Then follows the statement of facts, and upon that witnesses;

thirdly, proofs; fourthly, probabilities are to come; the great

Byzantian word-maker also speaks, if I am not mistaken, of

confirmation and further confirmation.

Socrates primeval man four hands

http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/plato/symposiu.htm

In the second

place, the primeval man was round, his back and sides forming a

circle; and he had four hands and four feet, one head with two

faces, looking opposite ways, set on a round neck and precisely alike;

also four ears, two privy members, and the remainder to correspond. He

could walk upright as men now do, backwards or forwards as he pleased,

and he could also roll over and over at a great pace, turning on his

four hands and four feet

Four such

http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/plato/timaeus.htm

There are four such;

one of them is the heavenly race of the gods; another, the race of

birds whose way is in the air; the third, the watery species; and

the fourth, the pedestrian and land creatures. Of the heavenly and

divine, he created the greater part out of fire, that they might be

the brightest of all things and fairest to behold, and he fashioned

them after the likeness of the universe in the figure of a circle, and

made them follow the intelligent motion of the supreme, distributing

them over the whole circumference of heaven, which was to be a true

cosmos or glorious world spangled with them all over.

TSARION ON THE FOUR GREAT HERMETIC ARTS
http://www.michaeltsarion.com/inner-zodiac.html
Tarot, Astrology, Kabala and Numerology are sister disciplines. They are not meant to be studied, taught or practiced separately, as is all too common today.

Those who wish to practice these Arts esoterically, must use the four together. However, the secret of how this is performed is not of interest to most exoteric practitioners. The “glue,” so to speak, that holds the four great Arts together has been ignored and largely forgotten. Fortunately it has been re-discovered and explained in the Taroscopic System. In this regard, the Taroscopic System signals a major revision of what we presently know about the Hermetic Arts of Divination.

TSARION AND THE FOURNESS INTO ONENESS OF THE MAGICIANS CARD- four hemispheres of consciousness four great arts of tarot

http://www.michaeltsarion.com/inner-zodiac.html

In fact, if we study Arcanum I - The Magician - we see four symbols united, as it were, on a single table top. That's right, the Magician is in the process of transmuting Fourness into Oneness.

 

The four objects on his table - the Wand, Cup, Sword and Disk - symbolize the four suits of the Tarot, and also the four elements: Fire, Water, Air and Earth. They also symbolize the four hemispheres of consciousness: Intuition, Emotion, Intellect and Sensation. One might say they symbolize the four great Arts of Tarot, Astrology, Kabala and Numerology which must be harmonized if the Great Work is to proceed successfully.

TSARION AND THE DYNAMIC OF THREE AND FOUR IN THE MAGICIANS TABLE TAROT

http://www.michaeltsarion.com/inner-zodiac.html

That we are right to speak of Tarot's connection to consciousness is confirmed by a study of the Magician's peculiar table. We notice it has a square top and three legs. This is because the card represents, among many things, the Great Pyramid in Egypt. The Pyramid has sides of three and a base of four. The Magician's table has three legs and square top. The letter associated with the card is "B," known in Hebrew as Beth. This term means "house" and connotes the "House of God." In Egypt, the Pyramid was considered the House of God, as was the human body. So we understand the double meaning of the letter associated with Arcanum I. Of course numerically speaking, three times four equals twelve, the number of the zodiac. So, the Magician's table can be regarded as an allusion to the twelve signs of the zodiac, which incidentally are divided into divisions of three and four. In short, Arcanum I emphasizes that the Divination Arts must be combined if consciousness is to be unified. Consciousness is fourfold and so are the Hermetic Arts. When the tools are harmonized, consciousness attains the fifth stage or Quintessence.

QUAD IS FOUR- GEORGE RIPLEY (MAKE THE QUADRANGLE ROUND)- THAT IS MAKE THE FOUR ONE

http://www.michaeltsarion.com/inner-zodiac.html

When thou hast made the quadrangle round, Then is all the secret found - George Ripley (Alchemist, 1490)

KHUNRATHS BEST KNOWN WORK CONSISTS OF FOUR ENGRAVED PLATES- ONE OF THE PLATES IS ENTITLED "THE FOUR THE THREE THE TWO THE ONE"- ANOTHER ONE OF THE PLATES THE COSMIC ROSE FEATUERS A MAN IN THE CENTER STANDING WITH ARMS OUTSTRETCHED IN CRUCIFORM QUADRANT POSE

https://www.library.wisc.edu/specialcollections/collections/history-of-science/khunraths-amphitheatrum-sapientiae-aeternae-1595/

https://www.library.wisc.edu/specialcollections/collections/history-of-science/khunraths-amphitheatrum-sapientiae-aeternae-1595/

 

The work consists of four engraved, hand-colored plates, plus a letterpress title page, 24 pages of letterpress text, plus a final unnumbered page (entitled, in Greek, Epilogos). The plates are signed “Paullus von der Doort Antverp. sculpsit Hamburgi anno a Christo nato 1595 […]”; the last plate is also signed “HF Vriese pinxit.”  Click on the images for larger image files.

 

The four, the three, the two, the one, also from the same volume: Khunrath, Amphitheatrum sapientiae aeternae (Hamburg, 1595). Special Collections, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

 

The cosmic rose, also from the same volume: Khunrath, Amphitheatrum sapientiae aeternae (Hamburg, 1595). Special Collections, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

OUSPENSKY ON THE TETRAGRAMMATON

http://www.michaeltsarion.com/inner-zodiac.html

…the Kabalists hold that these four principles penetrate and create everything. Therefore, when the man finds these four principles in things and phenomena of quite different categories (where before he had not seen similarity), he begins to see analogy between these phenomena. And, gradually, he becomes convinced that the whole world is built according to one and the same law, on one and the same plan. The richness and growth of his intellect consists in the widening of his faculty for finding analogies. Therefore the study of the law of the four letters, or the name of Jehovah presents a powerful means for widening consciousness - P. D. Ouspensky

TSARION DESCRIBES HOW THE QUATERNITY AND QUARTERING CAN BE SEEN IN THE CRUCIFIXION

http://www.michaeltsarion.com/inner-zodiac.html

The Process of Individuation was known, under other names, to Alchemists and mystics. They described the process figuratively as the "Quartering" or "Quaternity." In the discipline of Sacred Geometry, as practiced by Pythagoras, Agrippa, Vitruvius, da Vinci, and other sages, it was depicted by a motif known as "Squaring the Circle." In Christian Scripture the perfected state of consciousness is alluded to in the Book of Ezekiel as the “fourfold vision of God.” In the New Testament the nucleation of four hemispheres is subtextually referenced in the imagery of the crucifixion of Jesus on Golgotha or Skull Hill. Indeed, the phenomenon is to be found in numerous traditions throughout the world.

OUSPENSKY ON THE FOUR SYMBOLS OF MAGIC- OUSPENSKYS MOST FAMOUS BOOK IS CALLED "THE FOURTH WAY" WHERE HE ADDS A TRANSCENDENT FOURTH TO THE THREE WAYS

https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/P._D._Ouspensky

I Saw the Man.

His figure reached from earth to heaven and was clad in a purple mantle. He stood deep in foliage and flowers and his head, on which was the head-band of an initiate, seemed to disappear mysteriously in infinity.

Before him on a cube-shaped altar were four symbols of magic — the sceptre, the cup, the sword and the pentacle.

OUSPENSKY ON THE FOUR SYMBOLS

https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/P._D._Ouspensky

With his hands he unites heaven and earth, and the four elements that form the world are controlled by him.

The four symbols before him are the four letters of the name of God, the signs of the four elements, fire, water, air, earth."

I trembled before the depth of the mysteries A touched... The words I heard seemed to be littered by the Great Magician himself, and it was as though he spoke in me.

OUSPENSKY SAYS THE FOOL CARRIES THE FOUR MAGIC SYMBOLS BUT DOES NOT KNOW WHAT THEY MEAN- TAROT

https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/P._D._Ouspensky

"What has he in the bag?" I inquired, not knowing why I asked. And after a long silence the voice replied: "The four magic symbols, the sceptre, the cup, the sword and the pentacle. The fool always carries them, although he has long since forgotten what they mean. Nevertheless they belong to him, even though he does not know their use. The symbols have not lost their power, they retain it in themselves.

TSARION GAELS CAME FROM FOUR ISLANDS

https://archive.org/stream/MichaelTsarionIrishOriginsOfCivilizationVolume1/Michael%20Tsarion/Michael%20Tsarion%20-%20Ireland%20-%20Temple%20Without%20Walls_djvu.txt

Around 3,000 BC there came to Ireland a people known racially as the Gaels and specifically

as the Tuatha de Danaan (the tribe of the goddess Danu). The word Gael connotes "the pure

ones." They were reputed to be a tribe of powerful Druid-kings, possessed of giant stature,

great physical strength and weapons and instruments of "magical" power. They declared

that they had come from four islands (Falias, Murias, Finias, and Gorias) in the Atlantic that

had been destroyed in a deluge caused by the misuse of "magic." The High King of the

Gaels was, suggestively, called Nuada (pronounced Nuah, like Noah). Upon their arrival

they made for the west country and after meeting with the ambassadors of the indigenous

Iberians, they made war. The de Danaan were victorious but during the conflict Nuada's

arm was cut off. As a result he had to abdicate from the throne, for it was said that none that

THE FOUR DRUIDS THE FOUR ISLANDS THE FOUR TREASURES THE FOUR SAGES

http://blackewood.blogspot.com/2011/11/four-treasures-of-toutai-deuas-danuna.html

There were four islands in which they (Toutai Deuas Danuna) learned science, knowledge and magic; Ualia, Uindia, Goria and Moria (Gaelic: Failias, Findias, Goirias and Murias. Here what are their names: Ualiassos "Close", Goriassos "Enclose", Uindiassos "White" and Moriassos "Isolated".

 

There were four sages in those four islands: Marouesos "Great Knowing", master of Laidion uidia (Knowing of Hymns), which was Ualiassos; Esdrios Alto "diplomat," Master of Ateberton-uidia (Knowing of Sacrifice) at Goriassos; Uisucios "Insightful" master of Brictonon-uidia (Knowing of Spells and Charms), to Uindiassos; and Semiose Bitubarros "The Capricious always Haughty" master of Cantlon-uidia (Knowing the songs) to Moriassos. These are the four druids that Toutai Deuas Danuna learned the wisdom and knowledge.

 

Was brought to Ualiassos Lianca Ualis "the Stone of Destiny" which is Tamra and crying in every legitimate king who seized the Ireland.

 

Was brought to Goriassos Slega Boudis "Spear of Victory", the launches Lugus: we do not deliver battle against one who was in his hand.

 

Was brought to Uindiassos Suleuca Cladios "Bright Sword," the sword of Naudon: no one escaped him, and when we pulled the sleeve of Bodu "Cornelius" no one resisted.

 

Was brought to Moriassos Parios Opos "the Cauldron of Plenty," the cauldron of Dagodeuos "Good God" no company left him unsatisfied.

http://blackewood.blogspot.com/2011/11/four-treasures-of-toutai-deuas-danuna.html

Four times in the year the Great Sabbat

Returns, and the witches are seen

At Lammas and Candlemas dancing,

On May Eve and old Hallowe'en.

 

When day-time and night-time are equal,

When sun is at greatest and least,

The four Lesser Sabbats are summoned,

And Witches gather in feast.

GURDIJEFF FOUR BODIES

 

Four Bodies

http://www.ardue.org.uk/university/system/fig01.jpg

http://www.ardue.org.uk/university/system/lect06.html

According to an ancient teaching, traces of which may be found in many systems, old and new, a man who has attained the full development possible for man, a man in the full sense of the word, consists of four bodies. These four bodies are composed of substances which gradually become finer and finer, mutually interpenetrate one another, and form four independent organisms, standing in a definite relationship to one another but capable of independent action.

The reason why it is possible for four bodies to exist is that the human organism, that is, the physical body, has such a complex organisation that, under certain conditions, a new independent organism can grow in it, affording a much more convenient and responsive instrument for the activity of consciousness than the physical body. The consciousness manifested in this new body is capable of governing it, and it has full power and control over the physical body. In this second body, under certain conditions, a third body can grow, again having characteristics of its own. The consciousness manifested in this third body has full power and control over the first two bodies; and the third body possesses the possibility of acquiring knowledge inaccessible to either of the first two bodies. In the third body, under certain conditions, a fourth can grow which differs as much from the third as the third differs from the second and the second from the first. The consciousness manifested in the fourth body has full control over the first three bodies and itself.

 

These four bodies are defined in different teachings in various ways.

https://archive.org/stream/MichaelTsarionIrishOriginsOfCivilizationVolume1/Michael%20Tsarion/Michael%20Tsarion%20-%20Atlantis,%20Alien%20Visitation%20And%20Genetic%20Manipulation_djvu.txt

QUADRANT- THREE OR FOUR LIGHTS TSARION

One chronicler... was the famous historian, Gregory of Tours, who documented a number of events

from the plague years. Gregory reports that just before Justinian’s plague invaded the Auvergne region

of France in 567 A.D. three or four brilliant lights appeared around the Sun and the heavens appeared to

be on fire. (p. 149)

THE FOUR BIRDS OF ALCHEMY

http://www.levity.com/alchemy/alcbirds.html

In this article I wish to consider a particularly tight knit group of these animal symbols, the birds of alchemy - the Black Crow, White Swan, Peacock, Pelican, and Phoenix - which are descriptive of certain stages of the alchemical process. Of course it would be wrong to suggest that there are fixed rigid meanings with regard to these symbols. The alchemists always integrated the symbols they used, so that one has to look at the total context, the background against which they stand, but when the birds appear in this sequence it is almost certain that the following interpretation can be applied.

THE FIRST CHAPTER OF OUSPENSKYS BOOK ON TAROT IS HIM DESCRIBING HIS REALIZATION THAT THE THE FOUR SYMBOLS OF MAGIC AND LINKING THEM TO THE TETRAGRAMMATON AND HIM DESCRIBING HIS AMAZEMENT

http://sacred-texts.com/tarot/sot/sot02.htm

I Saw the Man.

 

His figure reached from earth to heaven and was clad in a purple mantle. He stood deep in foliage and flowers and his head, on which was the head-band of an initiate, seemed to disappear mysteriously in infinity.

 

Before him on a cube-shaped altar were four symbols of magic--the sceptre, the cup, the sword and the pentacle.

 

His right hand pointed to heaven, his left to earth. Under his mantle he wore a white tunic girded with a serpent swallowing its tail.

 

His face was luminous and serene, and, when his eyes met mine, I felt that he saw most intimate recesses of my soul. I saw myself reflected in him as in a mirror and in his eyes I seemed to look upon myself.

 

And I heard a voice saying:

 

--"Look, this is the Great Magician!

 

With his hands he unites heaven and earth, and the four elements that form the world are controlled by him.

 

p. 22

 

The four symbols before him are the four letters of the name of God, the signs of the four elements, fire, water, air, earth."

 

I trembled before the depth of the mysteries A touched... The words I heard seemed to be littered by the Great Magician himself, and it was as though he spoke in me.

 

I was in deep trepidation and at moment I felt there was nothing, before me except the blue sky; but within me a window opened through which I could see unearthly things. and hear unearthly words.

OUSPENSKY IN HIS FIRT CHAPTER ON HIS BOOK ON TAROT DESCRIBES THE FIRST CARD OF THE TAROT IS ABOUT THE FOUR SYMBOLS OF MAGIC AND HE HAD THE REALIZATION THAT THEY WERE LINKED TO THE FOUR LETTERS OF THE TETRAGRAMMATON- OUSPENSKY ALSO WROTE THE EXTREMELY FAMOUS BOOK THAT MANY PEOPLE LIKE A LOT THE FOURTH WAY- WHICH DESCRIBES A TRANSCENDENT FOURTH WAY BEYOND THE THREE

IN THE SECOND CHAPTER ON HIS BOOK ON TAROT OUSPENSKY DESCRIBES THE SECOND CARD THE FOOL AND HE STATES THAT THE FOOL HAS THE FOUR SYMBOLS OF MAGIC BUT HE JUST DOESNT KNOW HOW TO USE THEM

http://sacred-texts.com/tarot/sot/sot03.htm

why I asked. And after a long silence the voice replied: "The four magic symbols, the sceptre, the cup, the sword and the pentacle. The fool always carries them, although he has long since forgotten what they mean. Nevertheless they belong to him, even though he does not know their use. The symbols have not lost their power, they retain it in themselves.

A COUPLE CHAPTER LATER OUSPENSKY TALKS ABOU THE FOUR BEASTS OF THE APOCALYPSE AND THE FOUR PRINCIPALS- HE HASNT REALLY BEEN MENTIONING OTHER NUMBERS OTHER THAN FOURentered. This is a vision of the world in the circle of Time, amidst the four principles. But thou seest differently because thou seest the world outside thyself. Learn to see it in thyself and thou wilt understand the infinite essence, hidden in all illusory forms. Understand that the world which thou knowest is only one of the aspects of the infinite world, and things and phenomena are merely hierolgyphics of deeper ideas."

 

 

http://sacred-texts.com/tarot/sot/sot05.htm

The circle whirled with a terrifying noise, touching the sun and the earth, and, in the centre of it I saw the naked, dancing figure of a beautiful young woman, enveloped by a light, transparent scarf, in her hand she held a magic wand.

 

Presently the four apocalyptical beasts began to appear on the edges of the circle; one with the face of a lion, another with the face of a man, the third, of an eagle and the fourth, of a bull.

 

The vision disappeared as suddenly as it appeared. A weird silence fell on me. "What does it mean?" I asked in wonder.

 

"It is the image of the world," the voice said, "but it can be understood only after the Temple has been

A COUPLE CHAPTERS LATER OUSPENSKY TALKS ABOUT THE EMPORER CARD AND DESCRIBES "THE GREAT LAW OF FOUR"- WHICH IS "THE ALPHA AND OMEGA OF ALL"- JESUS CALLED HIMSELF THE ALPHA AND THE OMEGA- OUSPENSKY CALLS THE ALPHA AND OMEGA "THE GREAT LAW OF FOUR" WHICH HE DESCRIBES HE LEARNED AFTER HE "LEARNED THE FIRST THREE NUMBERS I WAS GIVEN TO UNDERSTAND THE GREAT LAW OF FOUR" AND HE CAPITALIZES IT- HE DESCIRBES THE EMPOERER HOLDS AN EGYPTIAN CROSS A CROSS IS A QUADRANT- HE SAYS THE FOUR LETTERS ARE THE NAME OF GOD THE FOUR PRINCIPALS THE FOUR ELEMENTS- HE DESCRIBES THE FOURTH LETTER ENCLOSES IN ON ITSELF THE OTHER THREE (THAT IS WHAT I DESCRIBED IN THE QUADRANT MODEL THE FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT YET CONTAINS THE PREVIOUS THREE)

http://sacred-texts.com/tarot/sot/sot08.htm

After I learned the first three numbers I was given to understand the Great Law of Four--the alpha and omega of all.

 

I saw the Emperor on a lofty stone throne, ornamented by four rams' heads. On his forehead shone a golden helmet. His white beard fell over a purple mantle. In one hand he held a sphere, the symbol of his possession, and in the other, a sceptre in the form of an Egyptian cross--the sign of his power over birth.

 

"I am The Great Law," the Emperor said. "I am the name of God. The four letters of his name are in me and I am in all.

 

"I am in the four principles. I am in the four elements. I am in the four seasons. I am in the four cardinal points. I am in the four signs of the Tarot.

 

"I am the beginning; I am action; I am completion; I am the result.

 

"For him who knows how to see me there are no mysteries on earth.

 

"I am the great Pentacle.

 

p. 33

 

"As the earth encloses in itself fire, water and air; as the fourth letter of the Name encloses in itself the first three and becomes itself the first, so my sceptre encloses the complete triangle and bears in itself the seed of a new triangle.

THE HANGED MAN OF THE TAROT THE LAST CARD ACTUALLY IS THE CROSS HE IS HUNG ON THE TREE/CRUCIFIX AND MAKES A CROSS/FOUR WITH HIS LEG

http://www.learntarot.com/bigjpgs/maj12.jpg

http://www.learntarot.com/maj12.htm

The main lesson of the Hanged Man is that we "control" by letting go - we "win" by surrendering. The figure on Card 12 has made the ultimate surrender - to die on the cross of his own travails - yet he shines with the glory of divine understanding. He has sacrificed himself, but he emerges the victor. The Hanged Man also tells us that we can "move forward" by standing still. By suspending time, we can have all the time in the world.

TAROT- THE HANGED MAN IS CRUCIFIED ON A TREE AND MAKES A FOUR WITH HIS LEG ON TAROT

http://www.tarotcardmeanings.net/images/Crucifixion-Peter-Caravaggio-1601.jpg

http://www.tarotcardmeanings.net/majorarcana/tarot-hangedman.htm

The Tarot Hanged Man has a halo, and not a small one at that. Hanging from the wooden structure it makes him look a bit like Jesus on the cross. The martyr. He's probably hanging upside-down not to bear too much resemblance to Christ. That would have been blasphemy in the time when this image took its shape.

 

The Crucifixion of Peter. According to the legend, the disciple asked to be crucified upside-down, feeling unworthy of dying exactly the same way Jesus did. Painting by Caravaggio, 1601.

ARISTOTLE BEGINS BY SAYING FOUR QUESTIONS THAT CAN BE ASKED FOUR KINDS OF THINGS WE CAN KNOW

https://faculty.washington.edu/smcohen/433/anpost.htm

 

Aristotle begins APst. II by listing four questions we can ask, corresponding to four kinds of things we can know:

 

1) the “that” (hoti)

2) the “why” (dioti)

3) whether it is (ei esti)

4) what it is (ti esti)

 

Presumably, these are questions that can be asked about a subject: i.e., a kind, a species something that would show up as a term in a syllogism:

 

1a) Is it the case that S is P?

2a) Why does P belong to S?

3a) Are there S’s (= does S exist?)

4a) What is S?

ARISTOTLE FOUR STAGE PROCESS

https://faculty.washington.edu/smcohen/433/anpost.htm

This is a four-stage process, as Aristotle describes it. (Compare his similar description in Metaph. A.1.)

 

perception

memory

experience

knowledge

ARISTOTLE GIVES A FOUR PART HIERARCHY OF THINGS IN NATURE- THE FOURTH HUMAN IS TRANSCENDENT (the rational of myers brigg) animals the third doers

http://www.pursuit-of-happiness.org/history-of-happiness/aristotle/

The Hierarchical View of Nature

 

In order to explain human happiness, Aristotle draws on a view of nature he derived from his biological investigations. If we look at nature, we notice that there are four different kinds of things that exist in the world, each one defined by a different purpose:

 

Mineral: rocks, metals and other lifeless things. The only goal which these things seek is to come to a rest. They are "beyond stupid" since they are inanimate objects with no soul

 

Vegetative: plants and other wildlife. Here we see a new kind of thing emerge,something which is alive. Because plants seek nourishment and growth, they have souls and can be even said to be satisfied when they attain these goals

 

Animal: all the creatures we study as belonging to the animal kingdom. Here we see a higher level of life emerge: animals seek pleasure and reproduction, and we can talk about a happy or sad dog, for example, to the extent that they are healthy and lead a pleasant life

 

Human: what is it that makes human beings different from the rest of the animal kingdom? Aristotle answers: Reason. Only humans are capable of acting according to principles, and in so doing taking responsibility for their choices. We can blame Johnny for stealing the candy since he knows it is wrong, but we wouldn't blame an animal since it doesn't know any better.

ARISTOTLE FOUR FAULTS

http://rhetoric.eserver.org/aristotle/threeindex.html

Chapter 3 (1406a, 1406b)

Four faults of prose style, with illustrative examples: (1) misuse of compound words; (2) employment of strange words; (3) long, unseasonable, or frequent epithets; (4) inappropriate metaphors.

FOUR PRINCIPALS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Design_thinking

Christoph Meinel and Larry Leifer, of the HPI-Stanford Design Thinking Program, laid out four principles for the successful implementation of design thinking:[17]

 

The human rule, which states that all design activity is ultimately social in nature, and any social innovation will bring us back to the 'human-centric point of view'.

The ambiguity rule, in which design thinkers must preserve ambiguity by experimenting at the limits of their knowledge and ability, enabling the freedom to see things differently.

The re-design rule, where all design is re-design; this comes as a result of changing technology and social circumstances but previously solved, unchanged human needs.

The tangibility rule; the concept that making ideas tangible always facilitates communication and allows designers to treat prototypes as 'communication media'.

Four fields of knowledge[edit]

Schumacher identifies four fields of knowledge for the individual:

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Guide_for_the_Perplexed

 

I → inner

I → other persons (inner)

other persons → I

I → the world

These four fields arise from combining two pairs: Myself and the World; and Outer Appearance and Inner Experience. He notes that humans only have direct access to fields one and four.

SCHUMACHER AGREES WITH ARISTOTLES FOUR LEVELS OF BEING AND SAYS SCIENTISTS STILL HAVENT EXPLAINED HOW THE FOUR LEVELS EMERGE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Guide_for_the_Perplexed

Four Great Truths[edit]

Schumacher put forward what he considers to be the four great truths of philosophical map making:

 

The world is a hierarchical structure with at least four 'levels of being'.

The 'Principle of Adequateness' determines human ability to accurately perceive the world.

Human learning relates to four 'fields of knowledge'.

The art of living requires an understanding of two types of problem: 'convergent' and 'divergent'.

SCHUMACHER VERY FAMOUS MAKES A LOT OF QUADRANT MODELS AGREES WITH ARISTOTLE THERE IS FOUR LEVELS OF BEING (fourth human transcendent- he sees it as such wondering how such a huge leap occurs from animal to human)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Guide_for_the_Perplexed

He agrees with the view that there are four kingdoms: Mineral, Plant, Animal, Human. He argues that there are critical differences of kind between each level of being. Between mineral and plant is the phenomenon of life. Schumacher says that although scientists say we should not use the phrase 'life energy', the difference still exists and has not been explained by science[clarification needed]. Schumacher points out that though we can recognize life and destroy it, we can't create it. Schumacher notes that the 'life sciences' are 'extraordinary' because they hardly ever deal with life as such, and instead content themselves with analyzing the "physico-chemical body which is life's carrier." Schumacher goes on to say there is nothing in physics or chemistry to explain the phenomenon of life.

Chardin set out his cosmic vision in four terse statements:

http://web.csulb.edu/~plowentr/teilhard3.htm

1 I believe that the universe is in evolution.

 

2 I believe that evolution proceeds toward the spiritual.

 

3 I believe that the spiritual is fully realized in a form of personality.

 

4 I believe that the supremely personal is the universal Christ.

CHARDIN EXTREMEELLY FAMOUS FOUR STAGES- FOURTH TRANSCENDENT

https://o-meditation.com/2011/03/12/the-four-spheres-of-teilhard-de-chardin-and-the-heart-sutra-osho/

Teilhard de Chardin divides human evolution into four stages. The first he calls geosphere, the second, biosphere, the third, noosphere, and the fourth, christosphere. These four stages are immensely significant. They have to be understood. Understanding them will help you to understand the climax of the Heart Sutra.

I POSTED IT ALL BEFORE CHARDINS FOUR STAGES OF HUMAN EVOLUTION CORRESPOND TO THE FOUR CHAPTERS OF PHENOMENON OF MAN- FOUR ASPECTS OF OMEGA POINT

http://davidlavery.net/barfield/barfield_scholarship/sherman/Two.htm

Teilhard sees this evolution proceeding through a series of four stages that correspond with the four ‘books’ contained in The Phenomenon of Man. We can describe these stages as: matter, life, humanity, and Christ; or perhaps, the cosmic, the biotic, the noetic, and the Christic;[21] or again, to use terms Teilhard was fond of, the geosphere, the biosphere, the noosphere, and the Christosphere.[22] Fundamental to each stage is its evolutionary nature. These stages are dynamic not static; they are in motion and can therefore be described as cosmogenesis, biogenesis, noogenesis, and Christogenesis. Whatever we call them, describing the advance of evolution through these successive stages or epochs is the heart of The Phenomenon of Man.

 

If evolution progresses (which, as we saw above, is not guaranteed) it must progress along the lines of this increased personalization, that is, it must culminate in Omega Point. Even as a cell is more than the sum of its molecules, or a plant more than the sum of its cells, so too Omega is more than the sum of its persons. Teilhard catalogues four necessary and novel attributes of this Omega Point:[91]

 

1. Actuality: Omega is not an ideal nor a potential, but is rather, ‘present’ and ‘real’. Though it arises out the noosphere, it has its own ontological reality like consciousness which arose out of the biosphere but has its own reality.

 

2. Irreversibility: Each of the thresholds we have encountered has proven to be irreversible, a once for all event that may be destroyed but cannotbe undone (e.g. thought can be destroyed if humanity destroys itself, but will not be undone apart from such a cataclysm). Omega however, escapes from even the potential of destruction by escaping totally from the forces of decay. Because of this it inspires hope and action and leads us to deduce a third attribute:

 

3. Autonomy: Omega is the terminus of evolution, the point on the top of the pyramid of space and time. As such, it transcends both space and time. We saw radial energy progressively gaining increased liberation from tangential decay. At Omega Point, tangential energy is shed completely. Though the earth will, in keeping with entropy, one day perish, the Omega Point will not. “Omega must,” says Teilhard, “be independent of the collapse of the forces with which evolution is woven.”[92]

 

4. Transcendence: Looked at from the historical process, Omega “only reveals half of itself,” says Teilhard. “While being the last term of its series it is also outside all series. Not only does it crown, but it closes.”[93] Escaping time and space, Omega is able to be simultaneously present at all times and at all spaces. Here is the great secret of evolution, long hidden but now revealed: Omega is the Prime Mover ahead.[94] The radial energy of evolution (what we have learned is really love) has been all along the attraction of Point Omega.

https://www.facebook.com/sriaurobindoashrampondicherry/photos/a.163535960423357.31306.114469125330041/859463960830550/?type=3&theater

There are four stages in the pain God gives to us; when it is only pain; when it is pain that causes pleasure; when it is pain that is pleasure; and when it is purely a fiercer form of delight.-Sri Aurobindo

I POSTED AN ARTICLE A LONG TIME AGO COMPARING CHARDIN AND AUROBINDO AND MANY OTHERS ON THEIR FOURFOLDS I CANT FIND IT NOW THOUGH BUT IT WAS POSTED A COUPLE YEARS AGO- AUROBINDO (VERY FAMOUS) AND CHARDINS PARALLEL FOUR STAGES

https://books.google.com/books?id=-u6DCgAAQBAJ&pg=PT23&lpg=PT23&dq=aurobindo+four+stages+chardin+four+stages&source=bl&ots=pj-scDFZNV&sig=0c1c9dRc9xYzfuYgsX4Ziu3SFdc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiX_9y3jYjUAhWCrFQKHZC_BE8Q6AEINTAC#v=onepage&q=aurobindo%20four%20stages%20chardin%20four%20stages&f=false

QUADRANT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudolf_Steiner

Steiner wrote four mystery plays between 1909 and 1913: The Portal of Initiation, The Souls' Probation, The Guardian of the Threshold and The Soul's Awakening, modeled on the esoteric dramas of Edouard Schuré, Maurice Maeterlinck, and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.[98] Steiner's plays continue to be performed by anthroposophical groups in various countries, most notably (in the original German) in Dornach, Switzerland and (in English translation) in Spring Valley, New York and in Stroud and Stourbridge in the U.K.

STEINER FOURFOLD CLASSIFCATION- four present levels and three future ones the four plus three pattern

http://www.kheper.net/topics/Anthroposophy/Steiner-levels_of_self.htm

The Four Kingdoms

Steiner uses the traditional 4-fold classification as his starting point for classifying nature.  According to this, man possesses (that is, has actualised or individualised) all four principles (physical to ego), the animals three (physical to astral), plants two, and minerals one.

 

                                      ego

                          astral      astral

             etheric      etheric     etheric

physical     physical     physical    physical

.............................................

mineral       plant        animal      man

Steiner's "four kingdoms"

Here of course we see the concept of "four kingdoms" - mineral, vegetable, animal, and human - each of which corresponds to a higher soul-level; an idea that goes back at least as far as Aristotle (who divided the soul into three faculties: a plant,  an animal, and a human (or rational) faculty), and  was tremendously influential in Europe and among the Arabs during the Medieval period.  Once again, the Greek influence.  As far as science goes, it has long since been shown to be irrelevant.  It's importance here lies in its metaphoric rather than its literal physical truth.

 

For Steiner, only the "ego", which he considered  the principle of memory and self-consciousness, strongly comparable to psychologist Carl Jung's "Conscious" or "ego" principle, was immortal, and reincarnated.  The three bodies were therefore  "mortal", as in the Hermetic model.

 

As for animals, plants, and minerals, Steiner denied they possessed an individual soul (i.e. ego), but spoke instead of "group-egos"; a concept he derived from Theosophy, and which appears to go back to C. W. Leadbeater, the main Neo-theosophical writer.

 

Levels of Self - Comparative

Provided we get away from the rather absurd clockwork cosmology of culture-periods and reincarnations and just consider the four levels of self and three future stages, there seme to be interesting similarities between Steiner's theory of levels of self, Kabbalistic ideas of divisions of the soul (nefesh), and Barbara Ann Brennan's ultimately theosophically-derived paradigm of seven energy bodies.

 

Looking at the seven-fold model now - with physical body, etheric body, astral body, and consciousness ("ego"), and three future stages, each of these future stages represents a progressive transmormation or metamorphosis of one of the four present stages:

BERRYS FOUR INSTITUTIONS

https://ratical.org/many_worlds/GreatWork.html

In The Great Work, Berry identifies the four human institutions that need to change to facilitate the transition to the Ecozoic Era -- government, religion, the corporation, and the university. Universities need to teach the Universe Story and make ecology a centerpiece of their curricula. Humans need to learn that they are genetically related to all other life and that our future depends upon the well-being of the planet. In The Great Work, Berry discusses the necessary reforms in all of these major institutions, but he has observed that the single most devastating document for the nonhuman world has been the American Constitution, with its exclusive emphasis on human rights (74). Some of the most interesting applications of Berry's ideas have emerged in the area of environmental law, and among the most promising of these developments is a new Earth jurisprudence.

BERRY TALKS ABOUT THE FOUR MAJOR INSTITUTIONS- BERRY WANTED TO CREATE A NEW INSTITUTION BASED ON THE "FOUR WISDOMS"- TRUST ME I LISTENED TO O MANY AUDIO LECTURES AND AUDIO BOOKS IT WAS QUADRANT QUADRANT FOUR FOUR ALL THE TIME IT WAS DOMINANT EVERYTHING I STUDIED THE MATH COURSES IT WAS ALL THE QUADRANT PATTERN I JUST FORGOT A LOT OF IT NOW

http://www.humansandnature.org/the-great-teaching-work-of-thomas-berry

Berry next goes on to indicate that these failures of imagination and vision are to be found not only in the “humanistic-religious traditions,” but also in the practices and policies of our major institutions and professions.

 

All four—the political, religious, intellectual, and economic establishments—are failing in their basic purposes for the same reason. They all presume a radical discontinuity between the nonhuman and the human modes of being, with all the rights and all inherent values given to the human (GW 72).

With this in mind one might then say that Berry’s own “Great Work” was the effort to found a new wisdom tradition drawing on the “Four Wisdoms” he expects to guide humanity in the twenty-first century: “the wisdom of indigenous peoples, the wisdom of women, the wisdom of the classical traditions, and the wisdom of science” (GW 176).[2] Every piece of wisdom literature defines anew the tradition in which it lies. Thus, we may see that Berry’s essays at once identify—and call into being—the tradition into which they (will) fall. This sounds paradoxical but is actually the situation of all wisdom literature. It is just far more difficult to grasp in Berry’s case.

THOMAS BERRY FOUR MAJOR AGES IN HUMAN HISTORY (VERY FAMOUS)

 

http://www.humansandnature.org/biography-of-thomas-berry

 

Berry has defined four major ages in human history, namely, the tribal shamanic, the traditional civilizational, the scientific technological, and the ecological or ecozoic age

JOSEPH CAMPBELL MYTH FOUR STAGES (FIRST GOOD LIKE FIRST SQUARE SECOND STILL GOOD THIRD BAD MASCULINE ACTION NATURE OF THIRD SQUARE FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT PHILOSOPHICAL NATURE OF FOURTH SQUARE)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historical_Atlas_of_World_Mythology

This series was to build on Campbell’s idea, first presented in The Hero with a Thousand Faces, that myth evolves over time through four stages:

 

The Way of the Animal Powers—the myths of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers which focus on shamanism and animal totems. This volume was covered in two parts: Mythologies of the Primitive Hunter-Gathers and Mythologies of the Great Hunt.

The Way of the Seeded Earth—the myths of Neolithic, agrarian cultures which focus upon a mother goddess and associated fertility rites. This volume was to be covered in five parts, of which three were completed: The Sacrifice, Mythologies of the Primitive Planters: The Northern Americas, and Mythologies of the Primitive Planters: The Middle and Southern Americas. Two additional parts were planned: Mythologies of the Primitive Planters: Africa and South-western Asia and Mythologies of the Primitive Planters: Southern Asia.

The Way of the Celestial Lights—the myths of Bronze Age city-states with pantheons of gods ruling from the heavens, led by a masculine god-king.

The Way of Man—religion and philosophy as it developed after the Axial Age (c. 6th century BC), in which the mythic imagery of previous eras was made consciously metaphorical, reinterpreted as referring to psycho-spiritual, not literal-historical, matters. This transition is evidenced in the East by Buddhism, Vedanta, and philosophical Taoism; and in the West by the Mystery Cults, Platonism, Christianity and Gnosticism.

FOUR STAGES

https://www.bu.edu/arion/files/2010/03/Paglia-Great-Mother1.pdf

Neumann laid out what he theorized to be four funda- mental stages in women’s psychological development. The first is an undifferentiated matrix or psychic unity where the ego and the unconscious are still fused. He called this stage matriarchal and symbolized it as the uroboros, an ancient symbol of a snake biting its tail, both devouring and giving birth to itself, an image of either solipsism or fertility. In the second stage, there is spiritual invasion and domination by the Great Father archetype (associated with rationalism and monotheism), who is perceived as a destroyer or rapist. A gloss here might be William Blake’s peculiar, haunting poem, “The Sick Rose,” where a ruthlessly phallic “invisible worm . . . flies in the night / In the howling storm” to “destroy” a virginal rose’s passively self-enclosed “bed / Of crimson joy.” In the engraved plates of The Songs of Innocence and of Ex- perience (1789, 1794), Blake, like Neumann, is picturing an unfolding series of spiritual and psychosexual states.

In his third developmental stage, Neumann embodies the masculine in a normative individual, a rescuing hero who liberates the young woman from the controlling father but yokes her to conventional marriage under new male author- ity. Sex roles are polarized, with masculinity and femininity mutually exclusive. Neumann’s fourth and final stage has feminist implications: here the mature woman discovers her authentic self and voice. As she borrows from the masculine, sex roles are blurred.

BACHOFFEN FOUR STAGES DEVELOPMENT RELIGION- THIRD IS BAD PATRIARCHY THIRD ALWAYS BAD SOLID ACTION FOURTH TRANSCENDENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matriarchal_religion

Bachofen presents a model where matriarchal society and chthonic mystery cults are the second of four stages of the historical development of religion. The first stage he called "Hetaerism", characterized as a paleolithic hunter-and-gatherer society practicing a polyamorous and communistic lifestyle. The second stage is the Neolithic, a matriarchal lunar stage of agriculture with an early form of Demeter the dominant deity. This was followed by a "Dionysian" stage of emerging patriarchy, finally succeeded by the "Apollonian" stage of patriarchy and the appearance of civilization in classical antiquity.[2] The idea that this time period was a golden age that was displaced with the advent of patriarchy was first described by Friedrich Engels in his The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State.[3]

BACHOFFEN FOUR STAGES RELIGION- NOTICE IT FITS QUADRANT PATTERN FIRST IDEAL GOOD IDEALIST COMMUNIST SECOND GOOD THIRD BAD EGO PARTRIARCHY THE NATURE OF THE THIRD SQUARE FOURTH TRANSCENDENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Jakob_Bachofen

Das Mutterrecht[edit]

Bachofen's 1861 Das Mutterrecht proposed four phases of cultural evolution which absorbed each other:

 

1) Hetaerism: a wild nomadic 'tellurian' [= chthonic or earth-centered] phase, characterised by him as communistic and polyamorous, whose dominant deity he believed to have been an earthy proto Aphrodite.

2) Das Mutterecht: a matriarchal 'lunar' phase based on agriculture, characterised by him by the emergence of chthonic mystery cults and law. Its dominant deity was an early Demeter according to Bachofen.

3) The Dionysian: a transitional phase when earlier traditions were masculinised as patriarchy began to emerge. Its dominant deity was the original Dionysos.

4) The Apollonian: the patriarchal 'solar' phase, in which all trace of the Matriarchal and Dionysian past was eradicated and modern civilisation emerged.

ADDS THE FIFTH ULTRA TRANSCENDENT TO THE FOUR ELEMENTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Fifth_Sacred_Thing

The Fifth Sacred Thing is a 1993 post-apocalyptic novel written by Starhawk. The title refers to the classical elements of fire, earth, air, and water, plus the fifth element, spirit, accessible when one has balanced the other four.

FOUR PERSON MARRIAGE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Group_marriage

Several short stories by Ursula K. Le Guin take place on the planet O, where a four-person marriage, called a sedoretu, is common. The sedoretu consists of both a man and a woman from each of two moieties; since it considered incest to have sex with someone of the same moiety, each participant in the marriage has a sexual relationship with only two out of the three other participants.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Radanhaenger-edited.jpg

"Wheel pendants", dating to the second half of the 2nd millennium BCE, found in Zürich, kept in the Swiss National Museum, showing the "sun cross" and variant shapes

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric_religion

Quadrant- SUN CROSS

http://www.grin.com/en/e-book/111307/evolutionary-spiritual-conceptions-of-life-sri-aurobindo-teilhard

2. Holons display four fundamental capacities:

 

a) self-preservation (or agency);

b) self-adaptation (or communion);

c) self-transcendence or self-transformation (or Eros);

d) self-dissolution (or Thanatos).

WILBER FOUR QUADRANT MODEL AND FOUR STAGES FOURTH TRANSCENDENT

http://www.grin.com/en/e-book/111307/evolutionary-spiritual-conceptions-of-life-sri-aurobindo-teilhard

Wilber is constructing a developmental stage model in order to rationally reconstruct the higher stages of transpersonal or contemplative development - stages that continue naturally or normally beyond the ego. He points out four stages:

 

(1) The psychic stage is associated with Nature Mysticism and the Worldsoul and Worldprocess. Nature is an expression of the spirit, e.g. Ralph Waldo Emerson.

(2) The subtle stage with deity mysticism, nature mysticism gives way to Deity Mysticism – the union of the whole soul with God, e.g. St. Teresa of Avila.

(3) The causal stage with Formless Mysticism or Emptiness, e.g. Meister Eckhard. In the subtle level, the Soul and God unite. In the causal level, the Soul and God are both transcended in the prior identity of Godhead. Or pure formless awareness, pure consciousness as such, the pure Self as pure Spirit (Atman = Brahman). This pure formless Spirit is said to be the Goal and Summit and Source of all manifestations. And that is the causal. Wilber cites also Ramana Maharishi as example. He explains the Advaita position rather succinctly. He suggests that Sankara makes three major statements: 1. Brahman is real. 2. The universe is unreal. 3. The universe is brahman. The third statement is meant to explain the significance of the first two. This world is unreal as such, that is, as the world, but is real in so far as it is seen as non-different from brahman – the ground of existence.

(4) The nondual presence with Nondual Mysticism, which is impossible to describe, therefore Wilber reflects upon and repeats the essential wisdom of the nondual traditions: Form is Emptiness and Emptiness is Form. Prior to the split between inside and outside, prior to seer and seen, prior to the rise of the worlds, everpresent as pure Presence, the simple feeling of being: emty awareness in which all worlds arise, ceaselessly. The All is Emptiness. Emptiness is freely manifesting. Freely manifesting is self-liberating. Abide as Emptiness, emprace all Form. The liberation is in the Emptiness, never finally in the Form. Nagarjuna thinks every possible conceivable category to its ultimate end. And always reaches the same conclusion. They contradict each other. And when you insist further, they fall apart. What remains is Emptiness, formless Infinite. When Wilber is asked if there is an absolute omega point, towards which history and cosmogenesis are leading, Wilber’s answers become paradoxical. And that is god so. Ultimately we can enter only a tiny little bit into the realm of paradoxical logic. Wilber’s try to fusion Advaita Vedanta non-dualism with Buddhist Emptiness in this way is an innovative way. But it is also typically Indian: the dialectic of atman and anatman. Or is this insight not so new? – “Only, the positive and synthetic teaching of the Upanishads beheld Sat [being] and Asat [not-being] not as opposites destructive of each other, but as the last antinomy through which we look up to the Unowable.” (Aurobindo, 1920/1990: 41). (But this is of course strictly against classical European thought, like for instance Leibniz: Something can not be and be-not at the same time!) N.B. In Buddhism there is no first cause - just emptiness. All is constantly changing. In Advaita Vedanta Hinduism there is a first cause – Brahman. And nothing is really changing. Both speak of maya-illusion. The question is only what is behind the veil of maya? – Eternal emptiness or eternal Brahman?

BAHAUALLAHS FOUR VALLEYS

http://bahaiteachings.org/four-stages-on-our-mystical-journey

O My eminent friend! Those who progress in mystic wayfaring are of four kinds. I shall describe them in brief, that the grades and qualities of each kind may become plain to thee. – Baha’u’llah, The Four Valleys, p. 49.

Baha’u’llah ends the introduction to his short book on spiritual search and maturation, The Four Valleys, by saying “those who progress in mystic wayfaring are of four kinds.”

 

In this four-step model of spiritual search, growth and maturation, Baha’u’llah reveals an ancient and yet completely new way of seeing our human progression and growth as a journey of the soul. He presents that journey as a path through four separate “valleys.” A valley, according to Cirlot’s Dictionary of Symbols, stands for:

 

…a neutral zone apt for the development of all creation and for all material progress in the world of manifestation. Its characteristic fertility stands in contrast to the nature of the desert (symbolically a place of purification), of the ocean (which represents the Origin of life but which, in relation to man’s existence, is sterile), and of the mountains (the region characterized by snows and the ascetic, contemplative life, or by intellectual illumination). In short, the valley is symbolic of life itself and is the mystic abode of shepherd and priest. – p. 339.

This perennial four-stage philosophy of spiritual growth, which echoes throughout all the major religious traditions, represents the evolving maturity of our being or consciousness as a hierarchy of four steps, stages, dimensions or levels. We move along that maturing path, as the philosopher Ken Wilber says, “from the lowest, densest and most fragmentary realms to the highest, subtlest and most unitary ones.”

 

The ancient wisdom of the four-step or four-fold path has existed throughout religious history, charting our spiritual growth as a maturational quest on the path from self to selflessness.

 

Child-growingWe see those four stages represented scientifically by the earthly classifications of mineral, plant, animal and human, or by the four seasons of the year. They’re often represented symbolically by the four elements: earth, water, fire and air. We see them represented metaphorically as the movement from infant to child to youth to adult. We see them in the traditional four ways of attaining knowledge: the senses, reason, tradition and inspiration. We see them analogically as a gradual progression from inner-directed to other-directed. These four-step cosmologies closely correspond with many of the level-specific psychological and moral growth models like Kohlberg’s and Maslow’s.

 

One of the many ways to look at Baha’u’llah’s The Four Valleys revolves around its suggestion of a four-level hierarchy of personal and spiritual growth, with each level taking its name from the first line in each “valley:” self; reason; love; and finally, the apex of consciousness.

 

The first valley, centered around Baha’u’llah’s emphasis on self-discovery, could be called the valley of self. In the first valley Baha’u’llah says “this station appertaineth to the self…” “On this plane,” he continues, “the self is not rejected but beloved; it is well-pleasing and not to be shunned.” This first valley, which corresponds nicely with the initial one of Baha’u’llah’s Seven Valleys–and the first stage of all the perennial philosophy models–focuses on the discovery of self as the starting place for all spiritual attainment. Here, Baha’u’llah encourages the seeker to study the map of his own soul, and to look within for the deep understanding which guides all search. This valley also represents the central Baha’i principle that asks each person to conduct their own independent investigation of truth.

 

In the second valley, Baha’u’llah writes “this is the station of primal reason….” – p. 52. In other places, notably The Seven Valleys, Baha’u’llah uses the word reason almost interchangeably with the word knowledge. All of the four-level cosmologies use some variant of this concept of knowledge or the discovery of logic and reason to describe the opening of the higher mind, the human intellect, to spiritual search and the promptings of the soul. Accordingly, we could call this stage the valley of reason or the valley of knowledge. Here, in the second valley, the newly-discovered self transcends its self-awareness, supplanting it with a broader consciousness which allows it to see beyond the boundaries of the first valley, and into the mysterious heart of symbols and signs.

 

In the third valley, Baha’u’llah wrote that:

 

…no soul may dwell on this Kingly Throne save the beauty of love… On this plane, neither the reign of reason is sufficient nor the authority of self. – pp. 54-55.

Here he emphasized the attainment of love and pure affection for the Eternal, after the stages of search for self and growing self-knowledge have been surpassed. This stage focuses on the great yearning of the human heart and soul for beauty, transcendence and connection with the Creator. Baha’u’llah clearly says that “This realm is not to be pictured in words,” and spends most of the short duration of his description of the third valley quoting from the Qur’an and Rumi’s Mathnavi: “The lover’s teacher is the Loved One’s beauty.” We could call this stage of human development the valley of the beauty of love.

 

Baha’u’llah calls the fourth valley “the apex of consciousness and the secret of divine guidance,” and “the realm of full awareness, of utter self-effacement.” He says that “Astonishment here is highly prized, and utter poverty essential.” The idea of a highly-developed consciousness striving for selflessness and self-effacement resonates with the Buddhist concept of nirvana, which literally means “non-drawing”, as a fire ceases to draw; with the Hindu idea of nirguna, which means “without qualities”; or the mystical Jewish theory of ‘en-sof, the “not-finite.” This final stage of human development, then, we could refer to as the valley of the apex of consciousness.

WILBERS FOUR DUALISMS

http://personalityjunkie.com/08/framework-human-psychology-integration-ken-wilber-spectrum-of-consciousness/

An Overview of Wilber’s Four Dualisms

 

Primary Dualism: Self vs. Other. The first division in human psychological development—the primary dualism—occurs when the infant begins to differentiate between self and “other,” between subject and object. Herbert Benoit aptly describes this dualism: “Suddenly we become conscious that our principle is not the principle of the universe, that there are things that exist independently of us.”

 

Secondary Dualism: Life vs. Death. Wilber’s secondary dualism, closely connected with the first, is that of life versus death, being versus non-being. Once the infant/child has the conception of being a separate self, she develops a subsequent concern for the continuation of that self, as well as the potential threats posed by the outside world. Benoit describes this as a “fear of death, of the danger which the Not-Self represents for the Self.”

 

Tertiary Dualism: Mind vs. Body. The tertiary dualism involves a split between mind and body. Over the course of development, we increasingly identify with our mind/ego while simultaneously distancing ourselves from our bodies. The very notion of “my body” exemplifies this distinction between the mind (i.e., “I”) and body (i.e., “my body” as an object of my mind).

 

Quaternary Dualism: Conscious Personality vs. Shadow/Unconscious. Wilber’s last dualism might be construed as the “divided mind.” It involves a conscious identification with certain personality characteristics (e.g., “I am serious, disciplined, and hard-working) and disidentification with others (e.g., “I am not lazy or irresponsible.”). In typological terms, this involves identification with the dominant function and concurrent denial of the less conscious functions.

http://www.newdualism.org/papers/G.Adams/Adams-on-Wilber.htm

It is when Wilber moves beyond these levels into what he calls the 'transpersonal band' or the four upper levels of the spectrum that his model ventures into areas that are not considered as 'givens' by the wider academic community. Since these transpersonal modes of consciousness will be the focus of our critique, we will describe each level before proceeding.

FOUR TRANSPERSONAL STATES OF CONSCIOUSENSS

http://www.kenwilber.com/Writings/PDF/SummaryofMyPsychologicalModel_GENERAL_2000_NN.pdf

What types of higher states are there? Considerable cross-cultural comparisons (Forman, 1990, 1998a; Murphy, 1992; Smart, 1984; Smith, 1976; Walsh, 1999; Wilber, 2000b), taken as a whole, suggests that there are at least four higher or transpersonal states of consciousness, which I call psychic, subtle, causal, and nondual. (As we will see in a moment, when these temporary states become permanent traits, these transitory states are converted into permanent structures of consciousness, and I call those permanent structures, levels, or waves by the same four names.)

http://www.kenwilber.com/Writings/PDF/SummaryofMyPsychologicalModel_GENERAL_2000_NN.pdf

 

(Technical point: the lower reaches of the subtle I call the “psychic”; and the union of causal emptiness with all form I call “nondual.” This gives us the four major transpersonal states that I mentioned [psychic, subtle, causal, and nondual]; but they are

all variations on the normal states available to virtually all individuals, which is why they are generally available at almost any stage of development. See Integral Psychology [Wilber, 2000b] for a full discussion of this theme.)

THE FOURTH TRANSCENDENT WAVE OF TRANSPERSONAL THEORY

http://www.kenwilber.com/Writings/PDF/SummaryofMyPsychologicalModel_GENERAL_2000_NN.pdf

The fact that these three great realms/states can be engaged separately; the fact that many contemporary writers equate spirituality predominantly with altered and nonordinary states (which is often called without irony the fourth wave of transpersonal theory); the fact that lines in general can develop unevenly (so that a person can be at a high level of development in some lines and low or pathological in others)—and that this happens more often than not—have all conspired to obscure those important aspects of spiritual development that do indeed show some stage-like phenomena. My point is that all of these aspects of spirituality (four of which I mentioned and will elucidate below)

need to be acknowledged and included in any comprehensive theory of spirituality—and in any genuinely integral spiritual practice.14

WILBER FOUR DEFINITIONS

http://www.kenwilber.com/Writings/PDF/SummaryofMyPsychologicalModel_GENERAL_2000_NN.pdf

Again, that is not the entire story of spirituality. In a moment I will suggest that spirituality is commonly given at least four different definitions (the highest levels of any of the lines, a separate line, an altered state, a particular attitude), and a comprehensive or integral theory of spirituality ought charitably to include all four of them. Thus, the developmental aspects we just discussed do not cover the entire story of spirituality, although they appear to be an important part of it.

WILBER FOUR MEANINGS OF SPIRITUAL

http://www.kenwilber.com/Writings/PDF/SummaryofMyPsychologicalModel_GENERAL_2000_NN.pdf

Four Meanings of “Spiritual”

If we focus for a moment on states, levels, lines, and self, we will find that they appear to underlie four of the most common definitions of “spirituality.”

In Integral Psychology, I suggest that there are at least four widely used definitions of spirituality, each of which contains an important but partial truth, and all of which need to be included in any balanced account: (1) spirituality involves peak experiences or altered states, which can occur at almost any stage and any age; (2) spirituality involves the highest levels in any of the lines; (3) spirituality is a separate developmental line itself; (4) spirituality is an attitude (such as openness, trust, or love) that the self may or may not have at any stage.20

Wilber a FIVE BY FOUR GRID- QUADRANTS FOUR STILL DOMINANT --- A FIVE TIMES FOUR EQUALS 20 TYPES

http://www.kenwilber.com/Writings/PDF/SummaryofMyPsychologicalModel_GENERAL_2000_NN.pdf

For example, let us use Jean Gebser’s (1985) terms for some of the lower-to- intermediate levels of consciousness: archaic, magic, mythic, rational, and aperspectival (there are higher, transpersonal structures, as we have seen, but these will do for now).15 To those five levels, let us add the four states of psychic, subtle, causal, and nondual. The point is that a person at any of those five structures can peak experience any of those four states, and that gives us a grid of twenty types of spiritual, transpersonal, or nonordinary experiences (Wilber, 1983, 2000b).

WILBER FOUR MEANINGS OF SPIRITUALITY- ALSO HAS QUADRANT MODELS

http://www.integralworld.net/schaveling.html

To Wilber, spirituality has a multitude of meanings, which are all necessary and have an equal right to exist. Starting on page 100 he finally offers four meanings for spirituality, which, by the way, he had already covered extensively in one of his previous books, Integral Psychology (IP):

 

Spirituality is about the highest levels in any developmental lines.

Spirituality is a separate line itself.

Spirituality is a particular attitude (such as openness and love) that someone can exhibit at any given stage.

Spirituality is an extraordinary peak experience; about states, not stages.

http://www.integralworld.net/schaveling.html

We are given a brief description of the existence of four separate methodologies in the two right hand quadrants: cognitive science and organisms as autopoietic system (self-referential, self-organizing and self-maintaining) developed by Maturana and Varela (zone 5), neurophenomenology (zone 5), social autopoiesis (zone 7) and the dynamical systems theory and chaos//complexity theory (zone 8).

THE FOUR FORECES OF PSYCHOLOGY- TRANSPERSONAL IS CALLED THE FOURTH FORCE- I WATCHED A DOCUMENTARY ON IT AND THE WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE CALLS TRANSPERSONAL "THE FOURTH FORCE OF PSYCHOLOGY"- the transcendent different fourth

http://www.kenwilber.com/Writings/PDF/SummaryofMyPsychologicalModel_GENERAL_2000_NN.pdf

But it is true that integral psychology fits none of the existing four forces (behavioristic, psychoanalytic, humanistic, or transpersonal). The claim of integral psychology is that it “transcends and includes” those four forces, but that claim is exactly what the four forces all sharply dispute.

 

My hope is that integral psychology, in moving outside of transpersonal psychology and building more bridges to the conventional world, will provide a complementary approach to move consciousness studies forward, while maintaining a respectful and mutually beneficial dialogue with the four forces. I have long been a strong supporter of all four forces of psychology, and I will continue to do so.30

SEE WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE CALLS TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY THE "FOURTH FORCE" THAT TRANSCENDS THE PREVIOUS THREE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transpersonal_psychology

Another important figure in the establishment of transpersonal psychology was Abraham Maslow, who had already published work regarding human peak experiences. Maslow is credited for having presented the outline of a fourth-force psychology, named transhumanistic psychology, in a lecture entitled "The Farther Reaches of Human Nature" in 1967.[19] In 1968 Maslow was among the people who announced transpersonal psychology as a "fourth force" in psychology,[20] in order to distinguish it from the three other forces of psychology: psychoanalysis, behaviorism and humanistic psychology. Early use of the term "transpersonal" can also be credited to Stanislav Grof and Anthony Sutich. At this time, in 1967-68, Maslow was also in close dialogue with Grof and Sutich regarding the name and orientation of the new field.[16] According to Powers[21] the term “transpersonal” starts to show up in academic journals from 1970 and onwards.

GROF FOUR LEVELS OF UNCONSCIOUS- HE ALSO HAD THE FOUR PERINATAL MATRICES FIT THE QUADRANT PATTERN THIRD BAD PHYSICAL FOURTH DIFFERENT TRANSCENDNET

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transpersonal_psychology

His early findings,[87] which were based on observations from LSD research, uncovered four major types of experiences that, according to Grof, correspond to levels in the human unconscious: (1) Abstract and aesthetic experiences; (2) Psychodynamic experiences; (3) Perinatal experiences; (4) Transpersonal experiences

GEBSER FOUR STAGES FOURTH TRANSCENDENT

http://www.mcser.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/viewFile/7510/7192

Consciousness consists of four epochs which are archaic, magic, mythic, and mental.

 

From pre-history era to the ancient Egypt and to the present time, consciousness has evolved to complete. Living in the Stone Age is replaced by the Information Age (Cyberspace). Jean Gebser has found four epochs of consciousness, including archaic, magical, mythical, and mental. He believes that human has been evolving from the beginning

RELATING GEBSERS FOUR EPOCHS TO HOLLINGS FOUR PHASE MODEL OF ECOSYSTEMS (I POSTED THAT BEFORE ALL THIS STUFF IS IN MY OVER 60 QMR BOOKS) TO ODUMS FOUR STAGES OF GROWTH CYCLE

https://integralpermaculture.wordpress.com/2012/07/04/the-wavepulse-of-human-history/

5. Jean Gebser’s Ever Present Origin: I’m new to Gebser’s thinking, but if I understand correctly, he looked at human history in terms of Epochs with wave like movements, very much like Odum’s model. In mythic, oceanic reasoning, there was always a return, never a progression. More like cycles and less like development. Gebser saw Epochs developing through four stages from Defficient to Latent to Efficient back to Defficient. Perhaps there are parallels to Holling’s Four Phase Model of Ecosystems, from Pioneer to Conservation to Collapse/Release to Reorganization. Odum, following Holling, spoke of Four Stages of the Growth Cycle: 1) Growth; 2) Climax and Transition; 3) Descent; and 4) Low Energy Restoration.

https://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol12/iss1/art24/

A four-phase adaptive cycle. Holling and Gunderson (2002:32) suggest that most, although not all, such systems follow a four-phase cycle of (1) “exploitation” (r); (2) “conservation” (K); (3) “release” (Ω) or “creative destruction,” a term derived from Schumpeter (1943); and (4) “reorganization

FOUR COMPONENTS GEOCHEMICAL MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biosphere

Geochemists define the biosphere as being the total sum of living organisms (the "biomass" or "biota" as referred to by biologists and ecologists). In this sense, the biosphere is but one of four separate components of the geochemical model, the other three being geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. When these four component spheres are combined into one system, it is known as the Ecosphere. This term was coined during the 1960s and encompasses both biological and physical components of the planet.[15]

FOUR STAGES OF PRODUCT LIFECYCLE- FOURTH DIFFERENT DEATH TRANSCENDENT- THIRD IS THE MOST MASS THE ACTION- FIRST AND SECOND ARE GOOD THIS IS QUADRANT PATTERN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Product_life-cycle_management_(marketing)

Identifying PLC stages[edit]

Identifying the stage of a product is an art more than a science, but it's possible to find patterns in some of the general product features at each stage. Identifying product stages when the product is in transition is very difficult.[citation needed]

 

Identifying

features Stages

Introduction Growth Maturity Decline

Sales Low High High Low

Investment cost Very high High (lower than intro stage) Low Low

Competition Low or no competition High Very high Very High

Profit Low High High Low

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Product_life-cycle_curve.jpg

QUADRANT

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

POPPER FOUR STEPS

https://svetlogike.files.wordpress.com/2014/02/rethinking-popper-boston-studies-in-the-philosophy-of-science.pdf

My whole view of scientific method may be summed up by saying that it consists of these four steps:

We select some problem perhaps by stumbling over it.

We try to solve it by proposing a theory as a tentative solution.

Through the critical discussion of our theories our knowledge grows by the elimination of some of our errors, and in this way we learn to understand our problems, and our theories, and the need for new solutions.

The critical discussion of even our best theories always reveals new problems.

Or to put these four steps into four words: problems – theories – criticisms – new problems.

https://svetlogike.files.wordpress.com/2014/02/rethinking-popper-boston-studies-in-the-philosophy-of-science.pdf

Popper additionally speaks of “the new faith of the open society, its only possible faith, humanitarianism,” (ibid., p. 183) which he defines as “man’s faith in reason.” (Popper 1996, p. 258). Within this context, his concept of rationalism consists of the following four components:

• Impartiality, which is based on the idea that “everybody is liable to make mistakes. It therefore suggests the idea that nobody should be his own judge” (ibid., p. 238).

• Tolerance, which derives from the idea that “faith in reason is not only a faith in our own reason, but also—and even more—in that of others” (ibid.). Tolerance is thus grounded on the ability to learn “from criticism as well as from [one’s] own and other people’s mistakes and that one can learn in this sense if one takes others and their arguments seriously. Rationalism is therefore bound up with the idea that

the other fellow has a right to be heard, and to defend his arguments” (ibid.).

• Responsibility, which denotes the idea that “we have not only to listen to arguments,

but we have a duty to respond, to answer where our actions affect others” (ibid.).

• Recognition of the necessity of social institutions to protect freedom of criticism, freedom of thought, and thus the freedom of men and women. This involves

“a moral obligation towards the support of these institutions” (ibid.).

A Tessar comprises four elements in three groups, one positive crown glass element at the front, one negative flint glass element at the center and a negative plano-concave flint glass element cemented with a positive convex crown glass element at the rear.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tessar

Despite common belief, the Tessar was not developed from the 1893 Cooke triplet design by replacing the rear element with a cemented achromatic doublet. In fact, Paul Rudolph designed the Anastigmat with two cemented doublets in 1890. In 1899, he separated the doublets in the Anastigmat to produce the four-element, four-group Unar lens. In 1902, he realized that reversing the two rear elements of the Unar and returning to a cemented doublet would improve performance; he named the result "Tessar", from the Greek word τέσσερα (téssera, four) to indicate a four-element design.

FOUR TIERS

http://people.bu.edu/wwildman/relexp/reviews/review_smithh01.htm

The “Primordial Tradition” is perhaps best distinguished by it recognition of the many-layered nature of both reality and the self. Smith narrows these layers down to four tiers: reality is composed of the terrestrial, intermediate, celestial, and infinite tiers, while the self is composed of the body, mind, soul and spirit.

WILBER KOSMOS FOUR DOMAINS

http://www.integralworld.net/zimmerman8.html

Emphasizing that holonic evolution generates emergent qualities, Wilber divides the Kosmos into four grand domains: physiosphere, biosphere, noosphere and theosphere. The physiosphere includes the non-biological features of the universe, including the stars and planets that arose in the billions of years following the Big Bang. The biosphere, the domain of life, depends upon the much older and much vaster physiosphere, but involves features that transcend the physiosphere. Finally, the biosphere gives rise to the noosphere, which includes complex sentient life such as mammals and humans. Again, the noosphere both depends on physiosphere and biosphere, but also transcends them, by exhibiting emergent characteristics, including self-consciousness, language, and rationality. The theosphere, which both includes and transcends the other three domains, refers to dimensions of consciousness that include what is traditionally understood by God.

THE GOVERNMENTS FIT THE QUADRANT PATTERN- First good second good third bad democracy too much freedom action tyranny fourth transcendent fifth like kingdom of God- I had lecture on it that described it as such but dont have dvd player now

https://hadeelnaeem.wordpress.com/2011/12/17/platos-forms-of-political-governance-and-the-best-form/

Although, Plato uses the number four for his stages of governance or forms of government in the Republic,[4] he actually talks about five particular forms. He starts with the best and shows us how one stage transforms into another stage of governance because of deterioration.

http://factmyth.com/platos-five-regimes/

PLATOS FIRST SQUARE WAS IDEALISTS KIND OF COMMUNIST BUT SECRETELY LOVED GOLD SECOND WAS OLIGARCHY VERY RIGID ORDER THIRD DEMOCRACY A LOT OF FREEDOM (THE ARTISAN) FOURTH HE SAID TYRANNY BY A TYRANT PHILOSOPHER (FOURTH THE RATIONAL)- then proposed all be destroyed and kingdom of God established ultra transcendent fifth

 

The four governments of which I spoke, so far as they have distinct names, are, first, those of Crete [monarchy] and Sparta [timocracy], which are generally applauded; what is termed oligarchy comes next; this is not equally approved, and is a form of government which teems with evils: thirdly, democracy, which naturally follows oligarchy, although very different: and lastly comes tyranny, great and famous, which differs from them all, and is the fourth and worst disorder of a State. – Book VIII

http://gaplauche.com/blog/2011/04/13/the-cycle-of-decline-of-regimes-in-platos-republic/

To understand the four imperfect regimes and types of man, it is important to point out that only the best regime and the philosopher are unequivocally oriented toward the Good (or the highest good or summum bonnum). The others are oriented toward a lesser good or, to be more precise, something that might be a good in their proper place in light of the Good if they weren’t made to usurp the place of the Good as the telos of the polis/soul. In the case of a timocracy and the timocratic man, this is honor; of oligarchy and the oligarchic man, wealth; of democracy and the democratic man, freedom; and of tyranny and the tyrannical man, power.

I WATCHED A LECTURE ON THIS PLATO ORDERED IT IN THE QUADRANT PATTERN WHERE HE SAID THERE WERE FOUR EXISTING FORMS OF GOVERNEMENT FIRST TIMOCRACY- (THE FIRST SQUARE GOOD IDEALISTS WHO LIKE COMMUNISM BUT SECRETELY LOVE GOLD)- THE SECOND OLIGARCHY (ORDER THE SECOND SQUARE GUARDIAN GOOD)- THIRD SQUARE BAD (ARTISAN TOO MUCH FREEDOM DO TOO MUCH EVIL)- FOURTH DEGENERATE BUT HE SAID THE TYRANT WOULD BE A PHILOSOPHER (FOURTH RATIONAL AND FOURTH DIFFERENT- in the Republic Plato hypothesizes that there could be a fifth ultra transcendent form of government different from the previous three- he proposes three classes but I watched the lecture he proposed putting the three in a transcendent fourth class

http://www.crf-usa.org/bill-of-rights-in-action/bria-26-1-plato-and-aristotle-on-tyranny-and-the-rule-of-law.html

 

Plato looked at four existing forms of government and found them unstable. The best, in his view, is timocracy, a military state, like Sparta, based on honor. But such a state will fall apart:

 

The accumulation of gold in the treasury of private individuals is the ruin of timocracy; they invent illegal modes of expenditure; for what do they or their wives care about the law? . . . . And then one, seeing another grow rich, seeks to rival him, and thus the great mass of the citizens become lovers of money. . . . And so at last, instead of loving contention and glory, men become lovers of trade and money; they honor and look up to the rich man, and make a ruler of him, and dishonor the poor man.

 

An oligarchy, the rule of a few (the rich), leads to

 

a city of the rich and a city of the poor, dwelling together, and always plotting against one another. . . . [The government] will not be able to wage war, because of the necessity of either arming and employing the multitude, and fearing them more than the enemy, or else, if they do not make use of them, of finding themselves on the field of battle . . . And to this must be added their reluctance to contribute money, because they are lovers of money.

 

The poor will overthrow the oligarchy and set up a democracy, the rule of the people (the poor). Plato thought that democratic “life has neither law nor order.” An unquenchable desire for limitless liberty causes disorder, because the citizens begin to

 

chafe impatiently at the least touch of authority and at length, . . . they cease to care even for the laws, written or unwritten; they will have no one over them.

 

Stressing moderation, Plato warned that “the excessive increase of anything often causes a reaction in the opposite direction,” such that the “excess of liberty, whether in states or individuals, seems only to pass into excess of slavery.”

 

Like an oligarchy, a democracy pits the poor against the rich. The poor see the rich plotting, and they seek protection:

 

The people have always some champion whom they set over them and nurse into greatness. . . . This and no other is the root from which a tyrant springs; when he first appears above ground he is a protector. . . . having a mob entirely at his disposal, he is not restrained from shedding the blood of kinsmen; . . . he brings them into court and murders them . . . at the same time hinting at the abolition of debts and partition of lands. . . . After a while he is driven out, but comes back, in spite of his enemies, a tyrant full grown.

 

Plato deemed tyranny the “fourth and worst disorder of a state.” Tyrants lack “the very faculty that is the instrument of judgment”—reason. The tyrannical man is enslaved because the best part of him (reason) is enslaved, and likewise, the tyrannical state is enslaved, because it too lacks reason and order.

IN THE DIALOGUE THEY DISCUSS FOUR EXISTING TYPES OF GOVERNEMENT AND FOUR TYPES OF MEN THAT CURRENTLY EXIST- (plato offers a three caste model but say it wont work and posits putting the three inside of a fourth (transcendnet fourth that encompasses previous three I had a lecture on it but i don't have dvd player anymore)--- THE ORDER THAT SOCRATES SAYS THE GOVERNEMENTS FITS QUADRANT PATTERN FIRST TWO GOOD THIRD BAD FOURTH DIFFERENT--- The republic is about creating an ideal government different from the existing four a kind of Kingdom of God ultra transcendent fifth

http://www.shmoop.com/the-republic/book-8-summary.html

Now Socrates wants to return to whatever they were talking about way back when, before they got on this tangent. Glaucon reminds him that he was about to outline four types of government and four types of men that are different from what they've created but still worth discussing. This discussion will hopefully help them understand whether the best people are also happy and whether the worst are unhappy.

The four types of governments are: 1) the Cretan and Laconian regimes (the kind of government Sparta was famous for, where athleticism and military ability were the most important things—Socrates later invents a word and calls it a "timocracy," which means "the rule of honor"), 2) oligarchy (when a group of powerful, often wealthy people are in charge), 3) democracy, and 4) tyranny.

Socrates suggests that these four types are more like a general outline of common forms of government; there are actually a huge number of types of governments. There are probably as many kinds of governments as there are types of people—since, you know, people ultimately make up all kinds of government.

http://www.iep.utm.edu/aristotl/

Motion is the passage of matter into form, and it is of four kinds: (1) motion which affects the substance of a thing, particularly its beginning and its ending; (2) motion which brings about changes in quality; (3) motion which brings about changes in quantity, by increasing it and decreasing it; and (4) motion which brings about locomotion, or change of place. Of these the last is the most fundamental and important.

ARISTOTLE FOUR PAIRS

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/sense.1.1.html

The most important attributes of animals, whether common to all or peculiar to some, are, manifestly, attributes of soul and body in conjunction, e.g. sensation, memory, passion, appetite and desire in general, and, in addition pleasure and pain. For these may, in fact, be said to belong to all animals. But there are, besides these, certain other attributes, of which some are common to all living things, while others are peculiar to certain species of animals. The most important of these may be summed up in four pairs, viz. waking and sleeping, youth and old age, inhalation and exhalation, life and death. We must endeavour to arrive at a scientific conception of these, determining their respective natures, and the causes of their occurrence.

CORRELATING THE SENSES WITH THE FOUR ELEMENTS (I described seeing first square hearing order second tough physical third taste transcendent fourth taste is chemical whereas first three are mechanical and points to ultra transcendent fifth smell also chemical)

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/sense.1.1.html

But as to the nature of the sensory organs, or parts of the body in which each of the senses is naturally implanted, inquirers now usually take as their guide the fundamental elements of bodies. Not, however, finding it easy to coordinate five senses with four elements, they are at a loss respecting the fifth sense. But they hold the organ of sight to consist of fire, being prompted to this view by a certain sensory affection of whose true cause they are ignorant. This is that, when the eye is pressed or moved, fire appears to flash from it. This naturally takes place in darkness, or when the eyelids are closed, for then, too, darkness is produced.

ARISTOTLE CORRELATES THE FOUR SENSORY ORGANS WITH THE FOUR ELEMENTS

http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/sense.1.1.html

Hence, if the facts be at all as here stated, it is clear that- if one should explain the nature of the sensory organs in this way, i.e. by correlating each of them with one of the four elements,- we must conceive that the part of the eye immediately concerned in vision consists of water, that the part immediately concerned in the perception of sound consists of air, and that the sense of smell consists of fire. (I say the sense of smell, not the organ.) For the organ of smell is only potentially that which the sense of smell, as realized, is actually; since the object of sense is what causes the actualization of each sense, so that it (the sense) must (at the instant of actualization) be (actually) that which before (the moment of actualization) it was potentially. Now, odour is a smoke-like evaporation, and smoke-like evaporation arises from fire. This also helps us to understand why the olfactory organ has its proper seat in the environment of the brain, for cold matter is potentially hot. In the same way must the genesis of the eye be explained. Its structure is an offshoot from the brain, because the latter is the moistest and coldest of all the bodily parts.

THE FIRST THREE IS ALWAYS SIMILAR THE FOURTH DIFFERENT- SO FIVE IS REPRESENTED AS A 3 PLUS 2 AND A FOUR PLUS ONE I WENT THROUGH THE MYTHOLOGIES AND ALL THAT AND SEVEN IS ALWAYS A FOUR PLUS THREE AND FIVE A FOUR PLUS ONE/THREE PLUS TWO AND THATS NOT JUST MYTHOLOGIES THAT IS IN REALITY- FIVE IS ULTRA TRANSCENDENT LIKE GOD- FOUR IS TRANSCENDENT- AS ARISTOTLE SAID THE FIFTH AETHER DOES NOT INTERACT WITH THE OTHER FOUR ELEMENTS IT IS IN THE HEAVENS- AND HE EXPLICITLY SAID THE FOURTH WAS DIFFERENT

https://books.google.com/books?id=43vymTMJKrsC&pg=PA107&lpg=PA107&dq=jung+god+is+the+number+four&source=bl&ots=HBkf-l7r8i&sig=R8Nf0YguNQisv8ljEcEA04iAEAM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiev9yu-L3UAhURwGMKHfwHDD0Q6AEIYjAJ#v=onepage&q=four&f=false

 

Quadrant

https://books.google.com/books?id=0UPLCQAAQBAJ&pg=PA302&lpg=PA302&dq=jung+god+is+the+number+four&source=bl&ots=Ko0WCVnNtu&sig=F0oU3Ev8vC9fG54sZtRobA5UnTM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwid3Pf9-r3UAhVG8WMKHRmQCVo4ChDoAQg5MAc#v=onepage&q=four&f=false

Quadrant- I DESCRIBED THAT SO MANY PLACES LIKE FROM SCOTLAND TO HAWAII WAS DIVIDED INTO FOUR KINGDOMS ALL THE PLACES IN THE WORLD PRETTY MUCH HAD THE FOUR QUADRANT MODEL DIVISION- jUNG DESCRIBES THE FOUR COMPONENETS OF SWISS POPULATION

http://www.paulhelfrich.com/library/Helfrich_P_AQAL_Overview.pdf

Finally, AQAL-5 IMP clarified four key holonic relationships:

1. Individual: sentient, follows the twenty tenets, is driven by a “dominant monad” (self- system possessing agency) with the ability to make choices, e.g. atoms, molecules, plants, fish, humans, etc. Individual holons must go through mandatory stages of development. They possess or “view from” the four quadrants.

2. Collective/Social: sentient, follows the twenty tenets, are defined by group affiliation/membership with a dominant mode of communication, exchange, or resonance

61 Integral Calculus is based on three core perspective relationships based on the quadrants (“view from” “I,” “We,” “It,” “Its”) and quadrivium (“view through” zones 1-8), and is always situated in reference to first-person (“I”) making a claim, assertion, or interpretation: 1. quadrant perspectives (researcher’s “I,” “We,” “It,” “Its”) on 2. quadrivium perspectives (researcher’s zone #1-8 view) on 3. domain perspectives (holon’s quadrant or quadrivium view). For more information, see Wilber, “Excerpt C: The ways we are in this together, Appendix B,” 2003c, and Wilber, Integral Spirituality, 2006a, pp. 40-42.

Wilber’s AQAL Metatheory 45

(nexus-agency), e.g., galaxies, planets, crystals, ecosystems, flock of geese, human families, tribes, companies, nations, etc. Social holons can skip around various stages of development because they are dependent upon constituent members’ collective center of gravity, which can change significantly depending on overall life conditions. They consist of individual holons and can be “viewed through” the four quadrants or quadrivium.

3. Artifacts: insentient, do not follow the twenty tenets, have no dominant monad, agency, or perspective, though are created by sentient holons and used in some kind of relational exchange, e.g., food, money, art, products and services, etc. They are made of individual holons such as atoms, molecules, cells, organs.... Artifacts consist of individual holons and can be “viewed through” the four quadrants or quadrivium.

4. Heaps: insentient, do not follow the twenty tenets, have no dominant monad, agency, or perspective, but are made of individual holons, e.g., rocks, dead plants, junked cars, ruins, etc. are made of atoms, molecules.... Heaps consist of individual holons and can be “viewed through” the four quadrants or quadrivium.

FOUR STAGES

http://www.kenwilber.com/Writings/PDF/IntroductiontotheIntegralApproach_GENERAL_2005_NN.pdf

Carol Gilligan, in her enormously influential book In a Different Voice, pointed out that both men and women tend to develop through 3 or 4 major levels or stages of moral development. Pointing to a great deal of research evidence, Gilligan noted that these 3 or 4 moral stages can be called preconventional, conventional, postconventional, and integrated. These are actually quite similar to the 3 simple developmental stages we are using, this time applied to moral intelligence.

FOUR SUBSPECIES CHIMPANZEE

http://perspectivesinmedicine.cshlp.org/content/1/1/a006841.full

The upper panel depicts the ranges of the four subspecies of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus, gray; P. t. ellioti, magenta; P. t. troglodytes, red; and P. t. schweinfurthii, blue) and of the bonobo (P. paniscus, orange). The lower panel depicts the ranges of western (Gorilla gorilla, green) and eastern (G. beringei, brown) gorillas (map courtesy of Lilian Pintea, The Jane Goodall Institute). Data were compiled from several studies

FOUR PARTS

http://catholicism.org/gregory-great.html

Pope Gregory’s constant care was for his bishops and priests. Early in his pontificate, he published his Pastoral Rule, on the duties of a bishop. This celebrated book, which for centuries remained the textbook of the clerical life, he divided into four parts. The first part treats of the fact that only one who already is skilled as a physician of the soul is fitted to undertake the supreme task of bishop. The second part describes the ordering of a bishop’s life to the end that he might be a good pastor. The third part sets down rules for the teaching and admonishing by the bishop of those under him. And the fourth part tells the bishop that, in spite of the good works he may have done, he must ever bear in mind his own weakness, since the better his work the greater his danger of falling through self-confidence.

 

It is said of the Pastoral Rule that by its influence Saint Gregory’s ideal of the perfect bishop molded the whole character of the episcopacy, and spread into every land the heavenly stimulus of his own sublime spirit.

 

In 593, Saint Gregory wrote the four books of Dialogues, which, together with the Pastoral Rule, were the two works most universally read and prized throughout the Middle Ages. The Dialogues provide an excellent history of the times. The second of its books is given over entirely to a wonderful life of Saint Benedict, while the other three books contain, in many cases, the only accounts we have of the virtuous lives and the deeds of extraordinary holiness of the courageous and suffering Catholics of those days.