FOUR FREEDOMS IN POPULAR CULTURE
In popular culture
John Crowley's novel Four Freedoms (2009) is largely based on the themes of Roosevelt's speech.
FDR commissioned sculptor Walter Russell to design a monument to be dedicated to the first hero of the war. The Four Freedoms Monument was created in 1941 and dedicated at Madison Square Garden, in New York City, in 1943.
Artist Kindred McLeary painted America the Mighty (1941), also known as Defense of Human Freedoms, in the State Department's Harry S. Truman Building.
Artist Hugo Ballin painted The Four Freedoms mural (1942) in the Council Chamber of the City Hall of Burbank, California.
New Jersey muralist Michael Lenson (1903–72) painted The Four Freedoms mural (1943) for the Fourteenth Street School in Newark, New Jersey.
Muralist Anton Refregier painted the History of San Francisco (completed 1948) in the Rincon Center in San Francisco, California; panel 27 depicts the four freedoms.
Artist Mildred Nungester Wolfe painted a four-panel Four Freedoms mural (complete 1959) depicting the four freedoms for a country store in Richton, Mississippi. Those panels now hang in the Mississippi Museum of Art.
Allyn Cox painted four Four Freedoms murals (completed 1982) which hang in the Great Experiment Hall in the United States House of Representatives; each of the four panels depicts allegorical figures representing the four freedoms.
Since 1986, the fictional Four Freedoms Plaza has served as the headquarters for Marvel Comics superhero team Fantastic Four.
In the early 1990s, artist David McDonald reproduced Rockwell's Four Freedoms paintings as four large murals on the side of an old grocery building in downtown Silverton, Oregon.
In 2008, Florida International University's Wolfsonian museum hosted the Thoughts on Democracy exhibition that displayed posters created by 60 leading contemporary artists and designers, invited to create a new graphic design inspired by American illustrator Norman Rockwell's Four Freedoms posters.
Norman Rockwell's paintings
Main article: Four Freedoms (Norman Rockwell)
Freedom of Speech from the Four Freedoms series by Norman Rockwell
Freedom from Want from the Four Freedoms series by Norman Rockwell
President Roosevelt's Four Freedoms speech inspired a set of four Four Freedoms paintings by Norman Rockwell. The four paintings were published in The Saturday Evening Post on February 20, February 27, March 6, and March 13 in 1943. The paintings were accompanied in the magazine by matching essays on the Four Freedoms.
The United States Department of the Treasury toured Rockwell's Four Freedoms paintings around the country after their publication in 1943. Rockwell's Four Freedoms paintings were reproduced as postage stamps by the United States Post Office in 1941, in 1943, in 1946, and in 1994.
Four Freedoms (European Union)
Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929–1945, a Pulitzer-winning history of the era.
Liberalism in the United States
Second Bill of Rights, proposed by FDR in his 1944 State of the Union Address
The Free Software Definition is often called "the four freedoms" within the free software community in reference to the speech and fundamental principles.
World War II Victory Medal, which includes the Four Freedoms on its reverse.
POMPEIAN STYLES WERE FOUR PERIODS- FOURTH TRANSCENDENT
The Pompeian Styles are four periods which are distinguished in ancient Roman mural painting. They were originally delineated and described by the German archaeologist August Mau, 1840 – 1909, from the excavation of wall paintings at Pompeii, which is one of the largest group of surviving examples of Roman frescoes.
Fresco in the Fourth style, from House of the Vettii
Characterized as a baroque reaction to the Third Style's mannerism, the Fourth Style in Roman wall painting (c. 60–79 AD) is generally less ornamented than its predecessor. The style was, however, much more complex. It revives large-scale narrative painting and panoramic vistas while retaining the architectural details of the Second and First Styles. In the Julio-Claudian phase (c. 20–54 AD), a textile like quality dominates and tendrils seem to connect all the elements on the wall. The colors warm up once again, and they are used to advantage in the depiction of scenes drawn from mythology.
The overall feeling of the walls typically formed a mosaic of framed pictures that took up entire walls. The lower zones of these walls tended to be composed of the First Style. Panels were also used with floral designs on the walls. A prime example of the Fourth Style is the Ixion Room in the House of the Vettii in Pompeii. One of the largest contributions seen in the Fourth Style is the advancement of still life with intense space and light. Shading was very important in the Roman still life. This style was never truly seen again until 17th and 18th centuries with the Dutch. It was also used in the 17th and 18th centuries with the English
ANCIENT GREEK ART FOUR STYLISTIC PERIODS
The earliest art by Greeks is generally excluded from ancient Greek art, and instead known as Aegean art; this includes Cycladic art and the art of the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures from the Greek Bronze Age. The art of ancient Greece is usually divided stylistically into four periods: the Geometric, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic. The Geometric age is usually dated from about 1000 BC, although in reality little is known about art in Greece during the preceding 200 years, traditionally known as the Greek Dark Ages. The 7th century BC witnessed the slow development of the Archaic style as exemplified by the black-figure style of vase painting. Around 500 BC, shortly before the onset of the Persian Wars (480 BC to 448 BC), is usually taken as the dividing line between the Archaic and the Classical periods, and the reign of Alexander the Great (336 BC to 323 BC) is taken as separating the Classical from the Hellenistic periods. From some point in the 1st century BC onwards "Greco-Roman" is used, or more local terms for the Eastern Greek world.
CRUCIFORM MANUSCRIPT- FAMOUS PAINTING
A cruciform manuscript was a form of Anglo-Saxon / Insular manuscript written with the words in a block shaped like a cross.
Chalcolithic cruciform figurines found in Lemba. These are made from picrolite and on display in Gallery 1 of the Cyprus Museum.
The village is one of the most ancient in Cyprus, and since 1976 has been the site of ongoing archaeological excavations by the School of Archaeology at the University of Edinburgh. Lempa is believed to have been first settled in the Chalcolithic Period (c. 3800–2500 BC), and a number of cruciform female figurines, carved in stone, from this period have been found
What is a Four Way Medal?
What is the Catholic four way medal and what is the significance of this devotional medal? Religious medals have been worn by pious Christians since the earliest centuries. A medal bearing the image of Sts. Peter and Paul that was made in the 2nd century has been found, and by the 4th century the newly-baptized were given a medal as a remembrance of the event. In the 16th century, the popularity of wearing the various religious medals we think of today grew and this is the time when indulgences were attached to particular medals. The practice remains popular and widespread today; the four way medal has become one of these favorite devotional medals.
Here are 2 examples of carved cross pillars from Glencolumcille, County Donegal, Ireland
CRUCIFORM IS QUADRANT
The weeks are separated from each other by single beads termed "cruciform beads.
It planned and funded a simple cruciform system that connected major cities, ports and mining areas, and linked to neighboring countries.
—Second Industrial Revolution
CRUCIFORM IS CROSS
The four center ribs terminate eight courses above the shaft at a marble cruciform (cross shaped) keystone, forming two main arches that cross each other.
Four of them- FOURTH is different standing- OTHER THREE SITTING- SNAKE EATERS
CHRIST CRUCIFIED- aND BUDDHA CROSS LEGGED
Christ and Buddha, by Paul Ranson, 1880.
CRUCIFORM TOWERS (QUADRANTS)
Besides the furniture, the pavilion exhibited a model of his "Plan Voisin" his provocative plan for rebuilding a large part of the center of Paris. He proposed to bulldoze a large area north of the Seine and replace the narrow streets, monuments and houses with giant sixty-story cruciform towers placed within an orthogonal street grid and park-like green space. His scheme was met with criticism and scorn from French politicians and industrialists, although they were favorable to the ideas of Taylorism and Fordism underlying his designs. The plan was never seriously considered, but it provoked discussion concerning how to deal with the overcrowded poor working-class neighborhoods of Paris, and it later saw partial realization in the housing developments built in the Paris suburbs in the 1950s and 1960s.
The model of the Plan Voisin for the reconstruction of Paris displayed at the Pavilion of the Esprit Nouveau
French estoc or English tuck was a type of sword in use from the 14th to 17th centuries. It is characterized as having a cruciform hilt with a grip for two handed use and a straight, edgeless but sharply pointed blade of around 0.91 metres (36 in) to 1.32 metres (52 in) in length.
FOUR TIMES FOUR FOUNDERS FOUR LINES
Four Times of the Day
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For series of paintings by Joseph Vernet, see Four Times of the Day (Joseph Vernet).
The paintings of Four Times of the Day (clockwise from top left: Morning, Noon, Night, and Evening)
Four Times of the Day is a series of four paintings by English artist William Hogarth. Completed in 1736, they were reproduced as a series of four engravings published in 1738. They are humorous depictions of life in the streets of London, the vagaries of fashion, and the interactions between the rich and poor. Unlike many of Hogarth's other series, such as A Harlot's Progress, A Rake's Progress, Industry and Idleness, and The Four Stages of Cruelty, it does not depict the story of an individual, but instead focuses on the society of the city. Hogarth intended the series to be humorous rather than instructional; the pictures do not offer a judgment on whether the rich or poor are more deserving of the viewer's sympathies: while the upper and middle classes tend to provide the focus for each scene, there are fewer of the moral comparisons seen in some of his other works.
The four pictures depict scenes of daily life in various locations in London as the day progresses. Morning shows a prudish spinster making her way to church in Covent Garden past the revellers of the previous night; Noon shows two cultures on opposite sides of the street in St Giles; Evening depicts a dyer's family returning hot and bothered from a trip to Sadler's Wells; and Night shows disreputable goings-on around a drunken freemason staggering home near Charing Cross.
Four Times of the Day was the first set of prints that Hogarth published after his two great successes, A Harlot's Progress (1732) and A Rake's Progress (1735). It was among the first of his prints to be published after the Engraving Copyright Act 1734 (which Hogarth had helped push through Parliament); A Rake's Progress had taken early advantage of the protection afforded by the new law. Unlike Harlot and Rake, the four prints in Times of the Day do not form a consecutive narrative, and none of the characters appears in more than one scene. Hogarth conceived of the series as "representing in a humorous manner, morning, noon, evening and night".
The engravings are mirror images of the paintings (since the engraved plates are copied from the paintings the image is reversed when printed), which leads to problems ascertaining the times shown on the clocks in some of the scenes. The images are sometimes seen as parodies of middle class life in London at the time, but the moral judgements are not as harsh as in some of Hogarth's other works and the lower classes do not escape ridicule either. Often the theme is one of over-orderliness versus chaos. The four plates depict four times of day, but they also move through the seasons: Morning is set in winter, Noon in spring, and Evening in summer. However, Night—sometimes misidentified as being in September—takes place on Oak Apple Day in May rather than in the autumn.
Evening was engraved by Bernard Baron, a French engraver who was living in London, and, although the designs are Hogarth's it is not known whether he engraved any of the four plates himself. The prints, along with a fifth picture, Strolling Actresses Dressing in a Barn from 1738, were sold by subscription for one guinea (£156.00 in 2017), half payable on ordering and half on delivery. After subscription the price rose to five shillings per print (£37.00 in 2017), making the five print set four shillings dearer overall. Although Strolling Actresses Dressing in a Barn was not directly connected to the other prints, it seems that Hogarth always envisaged selling the five prints together, adding the Strolling Actresses as a complementary theme just as he had added Southwark Fair to the subscription for The Rake's Progress. Whereas the characters in Four Times play their roles without being conscious of acting, the company of Strolling Actresses are fully aware of the differences between the reality of their lives and the roles they are set to play. Representations of Aurora and Diana also appear in both.
All around are pubs and brothels. The Earl of Cardigan tavern is on one side of the street, and opposite is the Rummer, whose sign shows a rummer (a short wide-brimmed glass) with a bunch of grapes on the pole. Masonic lodges met in both taverns during the 1730s, and the Lodge at the Rummer and Grapes in nearby Channel Row was the smartest of the four founders of the Grand Lodge. The publican is adulterating a hogshead of wine, a practice recalled in the poetry of Matthew Prior who lived with his uncle Samuel Prior, the Landlord successively of both the Rummer and Grapes and the Rummer".
My uncle, rest his soul, when living,
Might have contriv'd me ways of thriving;
Taught me with cider to replenish
My vats, or ebbing tide of Rhenish.
FOUR STAGES OF HUMAN LIFE- FOUR PAINTINGS
The Voyage of Life is a series of paintings created by Thomas Cole in 1842, representing an allegory of the four stages of human life: childhood, youth, manhood, and old age. The paintings depict a voyager who travels in a boat on a river through the mid-19th-century American wilderness. In each painting the voyager rides the boat on the River of Life accompanied by a guardian angel. The landscape, each reflecting one of the four seasons of the year, plays a major role in conveying the story. With each installment the boat's direction of travel is reversed from the previous picture. In childhood, the infant glides from a dark cave into a rich, green landscape. As a youth, the boy takes control of the boat and aims for a shining castle in the sky. In manhood, the adult relies on prayer and religious faith to sustain him through rough waters and a threatening landscape. Finally, the man becomes old and the angel guides him to heaven across the waters of eternity.
THE FOUR SEASONS MOST IMPORTANT SURVIVING WORK
Whether this is true, or whether he accepted is unknown; the best surviving works of the period are four landscape scrolls currently in the collection of Tokyo National Museum.
Perhaps the most important surviving work by the master is the so-called Long Scroll of Landscapes (Sansui Chokan): a 50-feet (15 meters) scroll depicting the four seasons in the sequence spring—summer—autumn—winter. As is usual for the period and the work of Sesshū's teacher Tenshō Shūbun, style and technique are heavily influenced by Song-dynasty Chinese paintings, in particular the works of Xia Gui. However, Sesshū alters the Chinese model by introducing more pronounced contrast between light and shadow, thicker, heavier lines, and a flatter effect of space. There are two other large landscape scrolls attributed to Sesshū. The smaller "Four Seasons" scroll (Short Scroll of Landscapes) exhibits qualities similar to those of Sansui Chokan, only featuring somewhat more free technique. View of Ama-no-Hashidate, painted shortly before the artist's death, is a radical departure from the Chinese tradition: the painting presends a realistic bird's eye view of a particular landscape.
THE FOUR FREEDOMS SERIES
In 1943, during World War II, Rockwell painted the Four Freedoms series, which was completed in seven months and resulted in his losing fifteen pounds. The series was inspired by a speech by Franklin D. Roosevelt, wherein he described four principles for universal rights: Freedom from Want, Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Worship and Freedom from Fear. The paintings were published in 1943 by The Saturday Evening Post. Rockwell used the Pennell shipbuilding family from Brunswick, Maine as models for two of the paintings, Freedom from Want and A Thankful Mother, and would combine models from photographs and his own vision to create his idealistic paintings. The United States Department of the Treasury later promoted war bonds by exhibiting the originals in sixteen cities. Rockwell considered Freedom of Speech to be the best of the four.
The Four Evangelists (painting)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Les quatre évangélistes
English: The Four Evangelists
See adjacent text.
Artist Jacob Jordaens
Medium Oil on canvas
Dimensions 133 cm × 118 cm (52 in × 46 in)
Location Musée du Louvre, Paris
The Four Evangelists (French: Les quatre évangélistes) is an oil on canvas painting by the Flemish Baroque artist Jacob Jordaens, completed in 1625. The painting is 133 by 118 centimeters. and is in the Musée du Louvre, Paris, France.
FOUR PRINCIPAL SCHOOLS
In the last decades of the 16th Century Rajput art schools began to develop distinctive styles combining indigenous as well as foreign influences (Persian, Mughal, Chinese, European) into unique styles. Rajasthani painting consists of four principal schools that have within them several artistic styles and substyles that can be traced to the various princely states that patronised these artists. The four principal schools are as follows:
The Mewar school that contains the Chavand, Nathdwara, Devgarh, Udaipur and Sawar styles of painting
The Marwar school comprising the Kishangarh, Bikaner, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Pali and Ghanerao styles
The Hadoti school with the Kota, Bundi and Jhalawar styles and
The Dhundar school of Amber, Jaipur, Shekhawati and Uniara styles of painting.
CRUCIFIXION CRUCIFIX IS CROSS- CROSS IS QUADRANT
The Chapel paintings consist of a monochrome triptych in soft brown, on the central wall, comprising three 5-by-15-foot panels, and a pair of triptychs on the left and right, made of opaque black rectangles. Between the triptychs are four individual paintings, measuring 11-by-15 feet each. One additional individual painting faces the central triptych, from the opposite wall. The effect is to surround the viewer with massive, imposing visions of darkness. Despite its basis in religious symbolism (the triptych) and less-than-subtle imagery (the crucifixion), the paintings are difficult to attach specifically to traditional Christian motifs, and may act on the viewers subliminally. Active spiritual or aesthetic inquiry may be elicited from the viewer, in the same way a religious icon with specific symbolism does. In this way, Rothko's erasure of symbols both removes and creates barriers to the work.
FOUR DARKS IN RED- QUADRANT
Four Darks in Red, 1958, Whitney Museum of American Art
Four Darks in Red shows Mark Rothko's often used axis of black, brown and red, which is in a number of his easel paintings and in the mural projects for the Seagram Building.
The red field against which the four dark forms float is first tinged with crimson, then with orange, then with brown. The lozenge shapes complement these shifts. The one closest to the lower edge of the canvas is a slightly blackened crimson. Moving vertically upwards, the next is more violet. The large area of black is first shaded with blue and then with green. And finally, squeezed in at the top of the canvas there is a thin strip of a rather nondescript, umberish brown which seems to be holding all the rest in place.
SHAPED AS A CROSS
The Rothko Chapel is a non-denominational chapel in Houston, Texas, founded by John and Dominique de Menil. The interior serves not only as a chapel, but also as a major work of modern art. On its walls are fourteen black but color hued paintings by Mark Rothko. The shape of the building, an octagon inscribed in a Greek cross, and the design of the chapel was largely influenced by the artist.
PULLED AT FOUR PINS
Pulled at 4 pins, 1915. External link
An unpainted chimney ventilator that turns in the wind. The title is a literal translation of the French phrase, "tiré à quatre épingles," roughly equivalent to the English phrase "dressed to the nines." Duchamp liked that the literal translation meant nothing in English and had no relation to the object.
SAYS THREE OR FOUR- THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR THE FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT
Comb (Peigne), 1916. Philadelphia Museum of Art
Steel dog grooming comb inscribed along the edge in white, "3 ou 4 gouttes de hauteur n'ont rien a faire avec la sauvagerie; M.D. Feb. 17 1916 11 a.m." ("Three or Four Drops of Height [or Haughtiness] Have Nothing to Do with Savagery.")
With Hidden Noise (A bruit secret), 1916. Philadelphia Museum of Art
A ball of twine between two brass plates, joined by four screws. An unknown object has been placed in the ball of twine by one of Duchamp's friends.
MATISSE BECAME MORE RELIGIOUS TOWARD THE END OF HIS CAREER AND MADE A CHAPEL WITH CROSSES
Stations of the cross
On the back wall of the chapel are the traditional 14 stations of the cross. Although the 14 stations are usually depicted individually, Matisse incorporated all of them on one wall in one cohesive composition. The series begins at the bottom left as Jesus is brought before Pilate and condemned. The stations follow Jesus' progress carrying the cross. At the top in the center are the three most powerful images - The Raising of the Cross with Jesus' body nailed to it, the actual Crucifixion, and then Taking the Body of Jesus Down. The center panel has a straight vertical and horizontal composition, while the two surrounding stations have strong diagonal lines leading to the head of Jesus on the cross. The French artist Jean Vincent de Crozals served Matisse as model for the Christ.
CROSS IS A QUADRANT
Fragment of a Crucifixion is a 1950 canvas by the Irish-born, English figurative painter Francis Bacon. Typical of his work, it is drawn from a wide variety of sources, including the screaming mouth of nurse in Sergei Eisenstein's 1925 silent film The Battleship Potemkin, and iconography from both the Crucifixion of Jesus and the descent from the cross.
It shows two animals engaged in a bloody and brutal struggle. The upper figure, which may be a dog or a cat, grips a chimera with its mouth and is at the point of kill. It stoops on the horizontal beam of a T-shaped structure, which probably signifies Christ's cross. Blood pours from the animal's mouth onto the head and body of his prey, a chimera rendered as owl-like with human facial characteristics, who unsuccessfully struggles to flee from its capture. The arms of the cross contain thinly sketched passer-by figures, who seem oblivious to the central drama.
The link with the biblical Crucifixion is made through the raised arms of the lower creature, and the T shaped cross. The lower figure's human aspect is seen most notably in the details of its mouth and genitalia. The upper creature is modeled on a dog or a cat, its form merged with pictures Bacon kept of bats. The figures are positioned in the center foreground of the canvas. Both are mutilated and covered in blood, with their physical discomfort contrasted against the flat, neutral background typical of Bacon's work. The figures exhibit many elements typical of his early work, noticeably the expressive broad strokes, set against the tightness of the flat, nondescript background. The painting contains the same white angular rails as the mid-grounds of his 1949 Head II and Head IV, as well as the Study for Portrait of the same year. In this panel, the rails are positioned just below the area where the horizontal and vertical bars of the cross intersect. The rail begins with a diagonal line which intersects the owl at what appears to be the creature's shoulder.
The canvas is mostly stripped of colour. The T-shaped cross is dark blue, the two figures are painted in a mixture of while and black hues, with the white tones dominating. Over half of the canvas is unpainted, and comprises bare canvas. According to theologian and curator Friedhelm Mennekes, the viewer's attention is thus solely focused "on the figure in agony on the cross, or more precisely: on the mouth, gaping and distorted in its cry". The body of the chimera, or hybrid bird, is rendered with light paint, and from it hang narrow red streams of paint, indicating the drips and spatter of blood. Pentimenti is used to depict the animal's death throes.
Matthias Grünewald, "Isenheim Altarpiece", c. 1512–16. Unterlinden Museum, Colmar, Alsace
The panel is one of a number of Bacon's treatments of the biblical crucifixion scene. He also incorporates Greek legend, notably the tale of Aeschylus and the Eumenides—or Furies—found in the Oresteia, suggested by the broad wings of the chimera. Bacon's imagery became less extreme and more imbued with pathos as he got older, and fewer of his canvases contained the sensational imagery that made him famous in the mid-1940s. He admitted that, "When I was younger, I needed extreme subject-matter. Now I don't." According to John Russell, Bacon found it more effective to reflect violence in his brush strokes and colourisation, rather than "in the thing portrayed".
The title refers to Christian iconography of the Passion of Jesus. Crucifixion scenes are found from Bacon's earliest works, and weighted heavily throughout his career. Russell writes that, to Bacon, the crucifixion was a "generic name for an environment in which bodily harm is done to one or more persons and one or more other persons gather to watch".
The painting was commissioned by Eric Hall, Bacon's patron and then lover who asked for a series of three paintings on the crucifixion in 1933. Bacon drew influence from the old masters Grünewald, Diego Velázquez and Rembrandt, but also from Picasso's late 1920s and early 1930s biomorphs, and the early work of the Surrealists. Bacon said that he thought of the scene as a "magnificent armature on which you can hang all types of feeling and sensation". He believed that the imagery of the crucifixion allowed him to examine human behaviour in a unique way, as the armature of the theme had been accumulated by so many old masters.
Peter Paul Rubens 1612–1614 Descent from the Cross. Center panel of a triptych.
Elements of the canvas refer to Grünewald's c. 1512–16 "Isenheim Altarpiece" and Peter Paul Rubens's c. 1612–14 Descent from the Cross. According to art critic Hugh Davies, the open mouth of the victim and the predator leaning over the cross link the painting to Rubens' Descent. The loosely opened mouth in the seventeenth-century painting is taut in Bacon's image. The legs folded out of view and the left arm are passive in the Rubens, but in the Bacon are in violent motion, seemingly wildly flailing up and down.
FOUR BATHERS- I DEMONSTRATED THAT MANET USED THE THEME WHERE THERE WERE THREE PEOPLE AND A FOURHT THAT WAS DIFFERENT IN HIS PAINTING- THAT TROPE HAS BEEN THROUGHOUT ART HISTORY EVERYWHERE FROM ANCIENT ARTWORKS TO MODERN PAINTINGS OF BEARS WHERE THE FIRST THREE FIGURES ARE CONNECTED AND THE FOURHT IS DIFFERENT
Pablo Picasso, 1922, Quatre baigneuses (Four Bathers), egg tempera on vellum, mounted on wood panel, 10.16 x 15.24 cm (4 x 6 in), Collection Paul Allen
CRUCIFIXION- CROSS IS QUADRANT
Three Studies for a Crucifixion is a 1962 triptych oil painting by Francis Bacon. It was completed in March 1962 and comprises three separate canvases, each measuring 198.1 by 144.8 centimetres (6 ft 6.0 in × 4 ft 9.0 in). The work is held by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York.
The triptych is monumental in scale, some 6½ feet tall and nearly 15 feet long, twice the dimensions (four times the area) of the 1944 work, with its human figures depicted near life size. It deliberately associated animal slaughter with the crucifixion. In medieval triptychs, the panels were usually intended to be read in chronological sequence; with Christ carrying the cross in the left panel, the Crucifixion in the central panel, and the descent from the cross to the right; or as three parts of a scene from the same location; Christ on the cross flanked by two crucified criminals. However, Bacon often intends his triptych works to be read as three separate scenes, not linked by temporal or spatial continuity. In this work, the subjects of the three separate canvases do not seem to interact or interrelate, but they are shown with similar simple backgrounds: an orange floor joining a curved red wall which is pierced by black openings.
Here, the left panel appears to show two figures in a butcher's shop with joints of meat on the counter. The centre panel is occupied by a bloodied human body writhing on a bed, with a white dot on the foot possibly a nail scar. The crucifixion is moved from its traditional place in the centre panel to the third panel, where a figure reimagined as a gutted carcass that is sliding down a cross in the right panel; its contorted form is a reference (but inverted) to Christ's body in Cimabue's 13th-century Crucifix and is also influenced by Rembrandt's Side of Beef.
THEIR IS A CONTINUITY IN ARTWORK AS I SAID THE THEME OF FOUR FIGURES IN A PAINTING WITH THE FOURTH DIFFERENT WAS ALL THE WAY FROM ANCIENT ART----- ALSO THE CRUCIFIXION WAS EVEN IN VAN GOHS PAINTINGS BUT IN DIFFERENT FORMATS- CROSS IS QUADRANT
It is sometimes considered a vanitas or memento mori; some commentators make references to the killing of the fatted calf in the biblical story of the Prodigal Son, others directly to the Crucifixion of Jesus.
The carcass is suspended by its two rear legs, which are tied by ropes to a wooden crossbeam
Carracci's "Domine, Quo Vadis" (Jesus and Saint Peter)
THERE ARE FOUR VERSIONS OF THE VERY FAMOUS PAINTING
This painting is held by the North Carolina Museum of Art, but there are at least four versions of the same painting, indicating that it was a famous work at the time, often copied and admired. The different paintings, somewhat differing in size, are: A Meat Stall with the Holy Family Giving Alms at the North Carolina Museum of Art, 115 cm × 165 cm (45.5 in × 65 in); Butcher's Stall with the Flight into Egypt in Gustavianum, University Art Collections, Uppsala University, 123.3 cm × 150 cm (48.5 in × 59.1 in), workshop of the artist; Still Life with Meat and the Holy Family, 111 cm × 165 cm (43.5 in × 65 in), workshop of the artist, hosted at Fundación Banco Santander, and The meat stall with the flight into Egypt, hosted at Bonnefanten Museum, workshop of the artist.
CALLED A "CRUCIFIXION LIKE COMPOSITION"- THE MEAT REPRESENTS JESUS CRUCIFIED- CROSS IS QUADRANT- DERIVED FROM REMBRANDTS "CARCASS OF BEEF" WHICH REPRESENTS CRUCIFIXION
According to Mary Louise Schumacher of the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel,
"Bacon appropriated the famous portrait, with its subject, enthroned and draped in satins and lace, his stare stern and full of authority. In Bacon's version, animal carcasses hang at the pope's back, creating a raw and disturbing Crucifixion-like composition. The pope's hands, elegant and poised in Velázquez's version, are rough hewn and gripping the church's seat of authority in apparent terror. His mouth is held in a scream and black striations drip down from the pope's nose to his neck. It's as if Bacon picked up a wide house painting brush and brutishly dragged it over the face. The fresh meat recalls the lavish arrangements of fruits, meats and confections in 17th-century vanitas paintings, which usually carried subtle moralizing messages about the impermanence of life and the spiritual dangers of sensual pleasures. Sometimes, the food itself showed signs of being overripe or spoiled, to make the point. Bacon weds the imagery of salvation, worldly decadence, power and carnal sensuality, and he contrasts those things with his own far more palpable and existential view of damnation".
Figure with Meat is a 1954 painting by the Irish-born artist Francis Bacon. The figure is based on the Pope Innocent X portrait by Diego Velázquez; however, in the Bacon painting the Pope is shown as a gruesome figure and placed between two bisected halves of a cow. The carcass hanging in the background is likely derived from Rembrandt's Carcass of Beef, 1657. The painting is in the permanent collection of the Art Institute of Chicago.
The Crucifix by Cimabue at Santa Croce (c. 1265) is a wooden crucifix, painted in distemper, attributed to the Florentine painter and mosaicist Cimabue, one of two large crucifixes attributed to him.[
Crucifixion (Francis Bacon, 1965)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Crucifixion, 1965. 197.5cm x 147cm. Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Munich
Crucifixion is a 1965 triptych painted by the Irish-born artist Francis Bacon. Across each of the three panels, the work shows three forms of violent death.
PICASSOS CRUCIFIXION- IT ANTICIPATES PICASSOS THREE DANCERS WHERE ONE OF THE DANCERS IS CRUCIFORM REPRESENTING JESUS AND THE TWO CRIMINALS NEXT TO HIM- ALSO GUERNICA WHERE THE WOMAN SCREAMING IS AN ALLUSION TO THE MOTHER MARY AND CHRISTS CRUCIFIXION- THE CROSS THE QUADRANT IS CENTRAL IN ART HISTORY
One of the unique aspects of the composition is the use of different scales for the figures: the crucified Jesus Christ and barely guessable in sharp contours and color planes Holy Mother and Mary Magdalene are large, and bodies of robbers dropped from the crosses and soldiers playing cards for the coat of the executed are slightly smaller. The most miniature figures are the man nailing the Christ’s hand to the crossbar and the rider poking the nailed body with his lance. The dramatically broken characters of "Crucifixion" anticipate the affected characters of "Guernica".
IT DESCRIBES "PICASSO WAS FIXATED ON THE CRUCIFIXION" (THE CROSS THE QUADRANT)
Picasso was fascinated with the iconography of The Crucifixion throughout his life. Timothy Hilton says that this was a theme “which from the evidence of his drawings must have moved him deeply from early youth to old age . . . being both a violent unspeakable crime and the traditional act of renewal of life.” His particular interest in the crucifixion seems to have been a result of three experiences where he closely encountered death. He seems to have become fixated on the crucifixion as a way to understand and express the raw agony and desperation of human emotion resulting from intense experiences with death.
PICASSO AND THE CRUCIFIXION- IN EVOCATION PICASSO USES IMAGERY OF THE CRUCIFIXION- FIGURE IS OUTSTRETCHED LIKE HE IS CRUCIFIED LIKE IN HIS THREE DANCERS
In Evocation (Burial of Casagemas), Picasso again uses the imagery of the crucifixion in order to cope with the death of his friend. In the lower portion of the painting, mourners surround the shrouded body of Casagemas previous to his burial. In the upper portion, a female nude embraces a figure, presumably Casagemas, who is being carried away on a white horse. Significantly, this figure has outstretched arms as though crucified. Somehow through his mourning, Picasso came to understand the suicide death of his friend as carrying the religious implication of a sacrifice over unrequited love. The image of the crucifixion shows up even more clearly in a drawing from 1904 entitled Christ of Montmartre (Le Suicide). This crucifixion is undoubtedly tied to the suicide of Casagemas as the woman who drove him to suicide was a native of Montmartre. In fact, the features of Christ are considered to be those of Casagemas. In this untraditional portrayal of the crucifixion in which the Christ hangs lifelessly over the city, Picasso certainly succeeds in portraying the tragedy and anguish of the event. These three experiences with death were especially formative in the development of Picasso’s interest in the crucifixion.
CRUCIFIED RIDER IN PICASSOS PAINTING- I ALSO DESCRIBED I WATCHED A COURSE WHERE THEY DESCRIBED HIDDEN SYMBOLISM OF CROSSES IN VAN GOHS PAINTING INCLUDING ONE THAT WHERE HE PUT A FENCE THAT WAS CRUCIFORM IN THE SAME WAY AS A PREVIOUS PAINTER PUT A CROSS IN HIS PAINTING ALLUDING TO THE CRUCIFIXION
In the paintings of Pablo Picasso it's often difficult to say what is conscious- and what is sub-conscious symbolism. An element of deliberate symbolism is probably the crucified rider near the top of the painting. If you look closely you will see that the rider is actually tied to, and carrying a cross. The crucified rider is a symbol with occult origins, which signifies the soul of the deceased.
CRUCIFIXION- QUADRANT CROSS- IN PICASSO
The image of the crucifixion shows up even more clearly in a drawing from 1904 entitled Christ of Montmartre (Le Suicide). This crucifixion is undoubtedly tied to the suicide of Casagemas as the woman who drove him to suicide was a native of Montmartre. In fact, the features of Christ are considered to be those of Casagemas. In this untraditional portrayal of the crucifixion in which the Christ hangs lifelessly over the city, Picasso certainly succeeds in portraying the tragedy and anguish of the event. These three experiences with death were especially formative in the development of Picasso’s interest in the crucifixion.
ALMOST INVISIBLE CROSS ON BLACK BACKGROUND
On October 29, 1957—three years into the series—Merton requested a black painting from Reinhardt as an aid to contemplative prayer. In a journal entry of November 17, Merton described living with the painting. “Almost invisible cross on a black background. As though immersed in darkness and trying to emerge from it . . . You have to look hard to see the cross. One must turn away from everything else and concentrate on the picture as though peering through a window into the night . . . I should say a very ‘holy’ picture—helps prayer—an ‘image’ without features to accustom the mind at once to the night of prayer—and to help one set aside trivial and useless images that wander into prayer and spoil it.”1
THEY CALL IT THE 15 MAOI BUT THERE IS REALLY 16- THERE IS THE 16TH TRAVELLING MAOI- the fourth square of the fourth quadrant very transcendent- HERE IS AN IMAGE WITH THE FIFTEEN PLUS THE TRANSCENDENT 16TH
Ahu Tongariki is the largest ahu on Easter Island. Its moai were toppled during the island's civil wars and in the twentieth century the ahu was swept inland by a tsunami. It has since been restored and has fifteen moai including an 86 tonne moai that was the heaviest ever erected on the island. Ahu Tongariki is one kilometer from Rano Raraku and Poike in the Hotu-iti area of Rapa Nui National Park. All the moai here face sunset during Summer Solstice.
FINLAND HISTORY OF SWASTIKAS FOR FLAGS
Finland also has a history of swastikas for government and military flags. Namely being the Finnish Air Force, Defense Forces and certain regiments of the army. Although the Air Force has phased the symbol out after World War 2, it may still be used ceremonially.
MANY NAZI FLAGS SWASTIKA
Many Nazi flags make use of Hakenkreuz, or swastika symbols; however, the swastika is not always used in connection with the National Socialist German Workers' Party movement or of the German Third Reich or the combined German military of 1933-1945. Use of swastikas pre-dates the German Third Reich by some 3000 years. It is possible to display certain non-Nazi swastikas even in areas where Nazi hakenkreuz swastikas are prohibited.
The ruling military junta of the Thai government produced a 2014 propaganda video made to teach core values of society in Thailand. In the video, a child paints a picture of Hitler with a swastika in the background. The child adjacent sees the work and applauds.
CONFEDERATE FLAG QUADRANT
The display of flags used by and associated with the Confederate States of America (1861–1865) has continued into the present day, with the "Southern cross" used in the battle flag of General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia gaining the most popular recognition as a modern symbol of the Confederacy, and by extension, of the white component of the Southern United States in general
The Confederate States of America used three national flags during the American Civil War. The latter two incorporated the "Southern cross" canton that was widely recognized as a symbol of the Confederacy by 1863.
It is also known as the "rebel flag", "Dixie flag", and "Southern cross" and is often incorrectly referred to as the "Stars and Bars". (The actual "Stars and Bars" is the first national flag, which used an entirely different design.)
SAINT ANDREWS CROSS FLAGS ON STATES
In the years after the end of the American Civil War, many former slave states that were members of the Confederacy during the war adopted new state flags. Incorporating in their new flags' designs were motifs that were used in the Confederacy's flags, such as the St. Andrew's cross. In the case of Mississippi, Florida, and Alabama, these new state flags were adopted around the same time that new Jim Crow segregation laws were being enacted. These laws, combined with poll taxes, literacy tests, and extrajudicial violence such as lynchings, disenfranchised African American voters for the next several decades. According to historian John M. Coski:
Though state legislation described the flag of Alabama as being based on the design of St. Andrew's Cross, it has been hypothesized that the crimson saltire of the flag was designed to resemble the blue saltire of the Confederate Battle Flag. The legislation that created the state flag did not specify if the flag was going to be square or rectangular. The authors of a 1917 article in National Geographic expressed their opinion that because the Alabama flag was based on the Battle Flag, it should be square. In 1987, the office of Alabama Attorney General Don Siegelman issued an opinion in which the Battle Flag derivation is repeated, but concluded that the proper shape is rectangular, as it had been depicted numerous times in official publications and reproductions.
The current flag of Florida, adopted by popular referendum in 1900, with minor changes in 1985, contains the St. Andrew's Cross. It is believed that the Cross was added in memory of, and showing support for, the Confederacy. The addition of the Cross was proposed by Governor Francis P. Fleming, a former Confederate soldier, who was strongly committed to racial segregation.
Main article: Flag of Georgia (U.S. state)
Flag of Trenton, Georgia.
The current state flag of Georgia, adopted in 2003. It is based on the Confederacy's first national flag, the "Stars and Bars".
In 1956 the Georgian state flag was redesigned to incorporate the Confederate battle flag. Following protests over this aspect of the design in the 1990s by the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) and other groups, efforts began in the Georgia General Assembly to remove the battle flag from the state flag's design. These efforts succeeded in January 2001 when Georgia Governor Roy Barnes introduced a design that, though continuing to depict the Battle Flag, greatly reduced its prominence.
The following year, amidst dwindling demands for the return of the 1956 design ("Battle Flag" version) and lesser opposing demands for the continued use of the new "Barnes'" design, the Georgia General Assembly redesigned the flag yet again; it adopted a "compromise" design using the 13-star First National Flag of the Confederacy (the "Stars and Bars"), combined with a simplified version of Georgia's state seal placed within the circle of 13 stars on the flag's canton.
The Cross of Burgundy (Spanish: Cruz de Borgoña, Cruz de San Andrés), a form of St. Andrew's cross, was first used in the 15th century as an emblem by the Valois Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled a large part of eastern France and the Low Countries as effectively an independent state. The Duchy of Burgundy was inherited by the House of Habsburg on the extinction of the Valois ducal line. The emblem was then assumed by the monarchs of Spain as a result of the Habsburgs bringing together, in the early 16th century, their Burgundian inheritance with the other extensive possessions they inherited throughout Europe and the Americas, including the crowns of Castile and Aragon.
In the United States
The Flag of Alabama uses a modified representation of the Spanish Cross of Burgundy. An unmodified version of the cross was used in most of Alabama until the 19th century.
The colors of the Flag of New Mexico are those of the yellow and red battle standard of Spain bearing the Burgundy Cross.
The Cross of Burgundy is still flown over Fort San Cristobal and Fort San Felipe del Morro, both of which are former Spanish fortifications located in San Juan, Puerto Rico, as well as the Castillo de San Marcos in St. Augustine, Florida.
NEO AND VISUAL IMAGE OF CRUCIFIXION- THE MATRIX (matrices are quadrants)
In Matrix-vision we see an obvious visual allusion to the Crucifixion, with Neo depicted as a Christ-like figure sacrificing himself to save all humanity. If Neo doesn't die, there's no sacrifice.
Creation Is Crucifixion is a mathcore band that was formed in early 1997 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The band was known for its complicated sound, which varied from ambient noise to more complex pieces. Their lyrical themes often dealt with technology and various functions of society, such as politics and religion.
PICASSO USES THE TAU CROSS IN HIS IMAGE OF FIGHTING THE BULL- AN ALLUSION TO THE MITHRAIC CULT AND THE CROSS
"The Unknown Masterpiece," due to this influencial period in Picasso's life, contains a high level of Mithraic symbolism. The bullfight, the crucifixion, the seven stepped ladder upon which he is climbing, and the Tau cross above his mistriss, Marie-Therese, and some other more obscure details in the composition, are all, in a sense linked, with the ancient cult of Mithra.
PINE TREE OF ATTIS PARALLEL CROSS CHRIST
PARSIFAL AND CROSS
Klingsor hurls the Spear, but as if stopped by the hand of God, it hovers motionless above Parsifal's head. Parsifal reaches up and grasps the Spear and with it makes the Sign of the Cross, saying these words:
With this sign I rout your enchantment,
As the Spear closes the wound which you dealt him with it
may it crush your lying splendour,
into mourning and ruin.
THE CENTRAL FIGURE IN PICASSOS THREE DANCERS AS WELL AS OTHER TWO REPRESENT THE THREE CRUCIFIED JESUS AND TWO THIEVES
Picasso was very conversant with the Tarot and seems to have identified closely with the card known as the Hanged Man. It depicts a man with his hands tied behind his back hanging by one of his feet from a gibbet placed between two trees.
Though interpretations of the card vary it is generally believed to symbolise a self-sacrifice in which the subject undergoes an important transformation from a materialistic consciousness to a spiritual consciousness.
The Hanged Man is in a state of solitude and submission to divine will, he hangs suspended between the forces of heaven and earth and his sacrifice brings him mystical knowledge and redemption.
The card corresponds astrologically with the sign of Scorpio, Picasso's birth sign, and its number is 12 which is related to inspiration and personal development.
The central figure in Picasso's Three Dancers features the outstretched arms of a traditional Crucifixion in combination with the crossed legs of the Hanged Man.
In the 1934 drawing, whose composition is heavily derived from The Three Dancers, the central figure has one leg raised above the other upon the steps of a ladder.
If imagined from the side, the figure's legs would have the same crossed appearance as the legs of the Hanged Man and those of the central figure in The Three Dancers.
OEDIPUS HUNG IN A TREE TIED TO THE CRUCIFIXION
In Sophocles' play, Oedipus is exposed as a baby boy by his father, the king of Thebes. The king did this to prevent the unfolding of a prophecy that he would die at the hands of his son. Oedipus' feet were pieced by a piece of wood and he was hung in a tree and left to die, but was rescued and bought up by shepherds. Picasso already identified with Crucifixion and so the Crucifixion aspect of the story reinforced his identification with Oedipus. Picasso's identification with Oedipus was strengthened still further because as soon as Oedipus realises that he has unwittingly killed his father and married his mother, he blinds himself and goes into self imposed exile. Blindness was an important theme for Picasso, he once stated that painting was a 'blind man's profession'. Themes of blindness emerged early in his pictures and recurred many times. Associated with soothsaying and prophecy, blindness had personal connotations for Picasso, for he was believed by some of his close friends to have had the power of prophecy.
LAWRENCE THE MAN WHO DIED CRUCIFIXION
MIRROR IMAGES CRUCIFIXION PICASSO
The 1934 drawing contains two extraordinary mirror images that can be seen by placing a mirror vertically down the centre of the composition. The right hand side reveals a bull-like horned demon flanked by two guardians
and the left hand side reveals a terrifying apocalyptic crucifixion.
The use of willow wands, wax dolls, water divining and magic mirrors are well known features of Tao magic which happens to be closely related to European sorcery. Taoist magical practices were bought to Europe centuries ago by Arabs trading with China. Taoist magicians would often possess a magical mirror which he would use to compel his demon to appear to him in his true shape, once this was accomplished the magician would be freed from the demon's power.
This freeing from the demon's power appears to have been Picasso's magical intention in incorporating such images into the drawing. It is especially relevant in the context of Picasso's own overpowering feelings of crucifixion and melancholy in 1934 and to his vision of the European apocalypse that was to be bought about by Hitler.
The images are shown in negative for added impact.
PICASSO AND CRUCIFIXION
Overview of Thoughts on Picasso Drawing
by Dr Ralph Goldstein
"Dated 12/5/34 15" square ink and gouache on paper then laid to card.
The pose and composition, are somewhat reminiscent of The Three Dancers, reproduced by Penrose on p.95. There the LHS figure (a shrieking maenad) has her head tilted back even further than the LHS figure in this drawing. A similar crossing / crucifixion exists in both compositions. But the Dancers was Dionysian in character, unlike this picture. Another immediately striking aspect of the picture is the strong division into a light and a dark side by the use of the gouache. The RHS figure is totally in the dark side.
On the assumption that this picture is by Picasso then, surely, the LHS figure is Marie-Therese Walther and the RHS figure is Olga Koklova, Picasso's then wife (but formal divorce was imminent). She is not represented as sexual, but is forbidding)id( and p posed (haughty dancer?). But perhaps there is a hint of the marital bed in the lower background? And the stretched / crucified figure - psychologically, not physically; there is no cross, more a Brechtian Chalk Circle - is Picasso himself. His figure seems to stand on a ladder (a crucifixion symbol in earlier paintings) with the left foot (RHS) vaguely outlined but on a higher step. Taking account of the left knee and the right foot, it seems as if this figure may be descending the ladder. Compare this compositional device with Minotauromachy, in which an escaping bearded figure on the L.H.S looks back down from a ladder; probably a symbol of Picasso himself.
THIS IS FASCINATING I WROTE A POEM ON THIS PAINTING FOR SCHOOL IN MIDDLE SCHOOL AND MY WHOLE FAMILY THOUGHT IT WAS UNBELIEVABLE AND WANTED TO GET IT PUBLISHED AND EVEN MY CLASS THOUGHT IT WAS INCREDIBLE-- I MAY HAVE THE POEM SAVED ON A COMPUTER- BUT IN IT MY POEM WAS ABOUT THE WINDOW IN THE BACK AND CHILDREN LOOKING FROM IT WELL THE WINDOW IS CRUCIFORM AND THE PITCHFORK THE FARMER IS CARRYING IS THE TRIDENT CRUCIFORM- ALSO THERE ARE TWO OTHER CRUCIFORM WINDOWS THESE MAY SYMBOLIZE CHRIST CRUCIFIED AND THE TWO THIEVES (who knows maybe the farmers are the crucifiers)
THE WINDOW AND THE HAYFORK ARE THE CRUCIFIX
Important compositional elements of the painting are based upon the window. It has two equal arches, capped by the oddly shaped pane that joins them together from the top.
Looking at the painting in its entirety, the window is duplicated with the two halves of the window repeated by the two human figures standing side by side The roof of the house visually joins the man and woman in the same way that the oddly shaped top pane of glass joins the two arches of the window.
In a surviving pre-painting sketch, the male figure holds a rake rather than the three tined hayfork of the painting. Again, this cannot have been an idle choice. Scholars, knowing Wood’s antic sense of humor, speculate endlessly on the significance of the hayfork. Is it an allusion to a devil’s pitchfork or something less sinister? If Wood was making such a statement, he kept it to himself.
One thing that is clear is that he regarded the shape important enough to reinforce it by repeating it in the stitching on the male figure’s bib overalls (continuing into the pattern of his shirt). It also functions compositionally, as it mirrors (upside down) the shape of the panes in the upstairs window. This kind of repetitive pattern enlivens the composition and gives it rhythm.
If you look at the windmill there is four x's four crosses in it. I don't think that is a coincidence
Born Grant DeVolson Wood
GRANT WOOD HAS CROSS CRUCIFORM WINDOWS IN ABOUT ALL OF HIS PAINTINGS- I DONT THINK THATS A COINCIDENCE CONTINUITY CONTINUATION OF THE CROSS/QUADRANT IN ART
CRUCIFIXION DOMINATES THE CENTER
The satin sakkos is embroidered with gold and silver thread and colored silks outlined with pearls. Dozens of religious and secular figures appear on the sakkos in an array of rectilinear, L-shaped, cruciform, and circular frames. The Crucifixion dominates the center of the front, and below is the Anastasis ("the Resurrection"). All around are various Orthodox Church feasts and figures of saints, as well as Old Testament scenes, including the binding of Isaac, linked with the Crucifixion of Christ. Also portrayed are the Grand Prince of Moscow, Vasily Dimitrievich and his wife Sophia Vitovtovna (labeled in Russian), as well as the future emperor John VIII Palaeologus and his wife Anna Vasilyevna (named in Greek). Beside John is Photius, Metropolitan of Kiev and all Rus'. Needleworkers most likely embroidered the sakkos between the time of John's marriage in 1416 and Anna Vasilyevna's death in 1418. The couple probably sent the sakkos to Photius as a gift.
Single canvas depiction of the casta system of racial hierarchy in eighteenth-century Mexico, by Ignacio María Barreda. Most sets of casta paintings were individual canvases showing only one family.
CRUCIFIXION POSE AND STIGMATA (HOLE) ON HAND
In The Third of May the man with raised arms at the focal point of the composition has often been compared to a crucified Christ, and a similar pose is sometimes seen in depictions of Christ's nocturnal Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane. Goya's figure displays stigmata-like marks on his right hand, while the lantern at the center of the canvas references a traditional attribute of the Roman soldiers who arrested Christ in the garden. Not only is he posed as if in crucifixion, he wears yellow and white: the heraldic colors of the papacy. In The Third of May, however, there is no attempt to find transcendence, and no sense that the sacrifice of life will lead to salvation.
FOUR PAINTINGS OF GOYA
The Second and Third of May 1808 are thought to have been intended as parts of a larger series. Written commentary and circumstantial evidence suggest that Goya painted four large canvases memorializing the rebellion of May 1808. In his memoirs of the Royal Academy in 1867, José Caveda wrote of four paintings by Goya of the second of May, and Cristóbal Ferriz—an artist and a collector of Goya—mentioned two other paintings on the theme: a revolt at the royal palace and a defense of artillery barracks. Contemporary prints stand as precedents for such a series. The disappearance of two paintings may indicate official displeasure with the depiction of popular insurrection.
In the work Arcimboldo and archimboldesk, F. Legrand and F. Xu tried to reconstruct philosophical views of the artist. They came to a conclusion that the views represented a kind of Platonic pantheism. The key to reconstruction of Arcimboldo's outlook seemed to them to be in the symbolism of court celebrations staged by the artist, and in his allegorical series. According to Plato's dialogues "Timaeus", an immemorial god created the Universe from chaos by a combination of four elements — fire, water, air and the earth, as defines all-encompassing unity. In T. Dakosta Kauffman's works serious interpretation of heritage of Arcimboldo in the context of culture of the 16th century is carried out consistently. Kauffman in general was skeptical about attribution of works by Arcimboldo, and recognized as undoubted originals only four pictures, those with a signature of the artist. He based the interpretation on the text of the unpublished poem by J. Fonteo "The picture Seasons and Four Elements of the imperial artist Giuseppe Arcimboldo". According to Fonteo, the allegorical cycles of Arcimboldo transfer idea of greatness of the emperor. The harmony in which fruits and animals are combined into images of the human head symbolizes harmony of the empire under the good board of the Habsburgs. Images of seasons and elements are always presented in profile, but thus Winter and Water, Spring and Air, Summer and Fire, Fall and Earth are turned to each other. In each cycle symmetry is also observed: two heads look to the right, and two — to the left. Seasons alternate in an invariable order, symbolizing both constancy of the nature and eternity of board of the Habsburgs' house. The political symbolics also hints at it: at the image of Air there are Habsburg symbols — a peacock and an eagle and Fire is decorated with a chain of the Award of the Golden Fleece, a great master of which by tradition was a head of a reigning dynasty. However it is made of flints and shod steel. Guns also point to the aggressive beginning. The Habsburg symbolics is present in the picture Earth, where the lion's skin designates a heraldic sign of Bohemia. Pearls and corals similar to cervine horns in Water hint at the same. 
Four Seasons in One Head
Arcimboldo died in Milan, where he had retired after leaving the Prague service. It was during this last phase of his career that he produced the composite portrait of Rudolph II (see above), as well as his self-portrait as the Four Seasons. His Italian contemporaries honored him with poetry and manuscripts celebrating his illustrious career.
WATERCOLORS FOUR INGREDIENTS
A set of watercolors
Watercolor paint consists of four principal ingredients:
pigments, natural or synthetic, mineral or organic
gum arabic as a binder to hold the pigment in suspension and fix the pigment to the painting surface
additives like glycerin, ox gall, honey, and preservatives to alter the viscosity, hiding, durability or color of the pigment and vehicle mixture
solvent (water), the substance used to thin or dilute the paint for application, which evaporates when the paint hardens or dries
There are four basic stages in painting: preparation, divide, layer, and touchup.
Preparation: most artists prepare a canvas or other surface. A thin uniform cover or "wash" of white or other colour is laid on the whole surface. This may help the later layers to get the same fix all over the surface. Also, the unseen wash may help the refection of light from the surface, thus improving the effect for the viewer. For really uneven or coloured surfaces, such as wood or rough canvas, a more substantial covering is needed. That is called gesso, traditionally a mixture of chalk and gelatin, but nowadays available as a thick white acrylic. Painting on some surfaces requires a special technique. Painting on plaster uses the fresco method.
In the divide stage, the canvas is divided into a few major areas (depending on the image you paint), and background for those areas are plotted.
In the layer stage, a layer is plotted over another layer, to get the desired shape in each area. By end of this stage, all objects in the image will be clearly identifiable.
The touchup stage needs extra effort. This stage is to provide an extra look to the image, like precise bordering, merging layers and other visual effects.
Abanindranath Tagore's best-known painting, Bharat Mata (Mother India), depicted a young woman, portrayed with four arms in the manner of Hindu deities, holding objects symbolic of India's national aspirations
Bharat Mata by Abanindranath Tagore (1871–1951), a nephew of the poet Rabindranath Tagore, and a pioneer of the movement
The "Four Generals of Zhongxing" painted by Liu Songnian during the Southern Song dynasty. Yue Fei is the second person from the left. It is believed to be the "truest portrait of Yue in all extant materials".
FOUR SURVIVING ORDERS OF REPTILES
Reptiles (Reptilia; from Latin repere, "to creep") are tetrapods and amniotes, animals whose embryos are surrounded by an amniotic membrane. Today they are represented by four surviving orders: Crocodilia (crocodiles, caimans and alligators), Sphenodontia (tuatara), Squamata (lizards, snakes and amphisbaenids), and Testudines (turtles). Reptiles inhabit every continent except for Antarctica, although their main distribution comprises the tropics and subtropics.
Emblems of the four elements, humours and temperaments on the title page of Septem Planetæ
THE FAMOUS FOUR BALLS OF FIRE
A fourfold fire-ball controls the work.
You who imitate the work of Nature must look for four balls,
In which a bright fire is active.
Let the undermost have reference to Vulcan, but let the second one
show Mercury well,
The third circle spans Luna;
The fourth, yours, Apollo, is also called the fire of Nature: Let this chain guide your hands in art.
THE FAMOUS FOUR BALLS OF FIRE
A fourfold fire-ball controls the work.
You who imitate the work of Nature must look for four balls,
In which a bright fire is active.
Let the undermost have reference to Vulcan, but let the second one
show Mercury well,
The third circle spans Luna;
The fourth, yours, Apollo, is also called the fire of Nature: Let this chain guide your hands in art.
MICHAEL MAIER FAMOUS WORKS-- "IF YOU KILL ONE OF THE FOUR EVERYBODY WILL BE DEAD IMMEDIATELY"- THE FOUR ARE ONE
If you kill one of the four, everybody will be dead immediately. If thou killest one of four, all at once will die.
Twice two brothers are standing in a long row,
One of whom holds a lump of earth in his hand and a second one
The share of the others is air and fire,
If you want them to perish, kill only one of them;
And all will be extirpated by the murder of their relative, Because mutual bonds of nature unite them.
THE PHILOSOPHERS STONE REPRESENTED AS FOUR PARTS--- THIS IS HOW IT IS OFTEN REPRESENTED AS A CIRCLE AND THEN A QUADRANGLE AROUND THE CIRCLE AND THEN A TRIANGLE AROUND THE SQUARE AND THEN A CIRCLE AROUND THE TRIANGLE (FOUR PARTS FOUR SHAPES)
SEVEN AS A "THREE AND FOUR TIMES"
The ore of the philosophers is dropsical and wants to be washed seven times in the river, just as Naaman, the leper, washed in the Jordan.
The sick ore of the Wise is entirely swollen by dropsy,
And therefore it yearns for the benefiting waters.
Just as Naaman expelled the traces of leprosy in the Jordan,
It is washed by its waters three and four time:
So throw your body into the sweet water
And soon that will bring the strength of health in cases of disease.
A CRUCIFIX PAINTING WITHIN A CRUCIFIX PAINTING VEMEER
The painting depicts a woman in a fine white and blue satin dress with gold trimmings. She sits on a platform a step higher than the black and white marble floor, her right foot on a terrestrial globe and her right hand on her heart as she looks up, adoringly, at a glass sphere hung from the ceiling by a blue ribbon. Her left arm rests on the edge of a table which holds a golden chalice, a large book, and a dark-wood crucifix. Behind the crucifix is a gilt-leather panel screen. Beneath the book is a long piece of cloth, possibly a priest's stole. Resting on top of the book is a crown of thorns. All of these items are on the platform, which is covered by a green and yellow rug, the edge of which is on the floor. At the bottom of the picture, nearer the viewer, is an apple, and nearer still a snake which has been squashed by a cornerstone. On the dim, far wall behind the woman, a large painting of Christ's crucifixion is hung on the wall behind the woman. To the viewer's left is a multicolored tapestry, pulled back at the bottom and seemingly the closest thing in the painting to the viewer. A chair with a blue cloth on it is immediately beneath and behind the tapestry and to the left of the snake and cornerstone.
The crucifix, painting of the Crucifixion and the glass orb are not mentioned by Ripa, and Vermeer changed some of the iconography that Ripa gave: Instead of Ripa's suggestion that Faith hold the chalice and rest her hand on a book, Vermeer put them on the table next to her. According to Arthur Wheelock, a University of Maryland academic and curator of a Vermeer exhibit at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, this is "an assemblage that gives the image a Eucharistic character not found in the text." By putting the golden chalice against the dark background of the painting's frame and the dark crucifix against the gilt-leather backdrop, the elements are given a greater prominence in the painting. Wheelock, citing his fellow academic at the University of Maryland, Quint Gregory, believes the slight overlapping of the chalice and the gold backdrop of the crucifix "may symbolically suggest the essential role of the Eucharist in bridging the physical and spiritual realms", a very Catholic idea. Selena Cant calls the fact that the book, chalice and crucifix together represent the Catholic Mass.
The pose of the woman (hand on heart and eyes raised) is similar to Ripa's image of Theology. The pose was uncommon in Dutch art, but Vermeer was considered an expert in Italian painting, in which the image was often used (especially those of Guido Reni [1575–1642], whose works were then owned in Holland). Wheelock believes the large book, which has a metal clasp, is a Bible, but the Metropolitan Museum of Art states on its website that the volume may be the Catholic Missale Romanum.
The painting's iconography is not only Catholic, but some believe it is strongly influenced by Jesuit ideas. Departing from Ripa's allusion to the story of Abraham and Isaac (an Old Testament story said to prefigure the faithful sacrifice of Christ on the Cross), Vermeer instead uses an image of the Crucifixion itself — an image dear to the Jesuits. Vermeer used Crucifixion, a painting from about 1620 by Jacob Jordaens (1593–1678). The painter may have owned a copy of the painting. (This may be "the large painting representing Christ on the Cross" described in an inventory of his household at his death. Two other items in the inventory may be in this painting: the "gold-tooled leather on the wall" of his home's kitchen, and an "ebony wood crucifix").
Shot and crucified: The extreme art of Chris Burden
3 May 2017
Infamously, performance artist Chris Burden asked someone to shoot him in a gallery. Another time he was nailed to the roof of a VW Beetle. Later he’d create sculptures of ingenuity and beauty. ALASTAIR McKAY considers the influential artist who is celebrated in a new documentary, Burden.
Burden was certainly uncompromising, and his exploits were celebrated in David Bowie’s song Joe The Lion, with its refrain of ‘Nail me to my car and I’ll tell you who you are,” a reference to the time Burden was “crucified” on the back of a Volkswagen Beetle.
BOXCAR BERTHA CRUCIFIXION
While Boxcar Bertha was a strictly-for-hire project, Scorsese's fingerprints are all over it and you can see his emerging trademark style and thematic interests in various scenes from the use of the zoom lens in a sequence where the gang runs through a tunnel to unexpected bursts of violence to religious iconography that references his Catholic upbringing (Carradine's Christ-like activist character is crucified in the final scene).
16 TILES 16 SQUARES QUADRANT MODEL- QUATERNITY
Fig. 52 – This set of sixteen tiles from the Toussaint Abbey in Chalons-sur-Marne depicts a labyrinth quaternity. The tiles make up a square of fifty by fifty centimeters. The center is a square with four triple pillars pointing towards an empty midpoint. Four (classical) labyrinths fill up the space of the four quadrants. The central quaternity is encircled by a band of eighth bird-like or griffin-type of animals with a spiral decoration. The symbolism of the Fourth Quadrant – as a search for unity in multiplicity – is pushed here to its limits.
QUINCUNX SAN CRISOGONO
SERIES OF QUINCUNXES IN CRYPT OF ANAGNI
GRID OF SANTA MARIA IN TRANSTEVERE IN ROME QUINCUNXES (Quadrants of five elements)
THE SANTI QUATTRO CORONATI PRICIPAL QUINCUNX (Quadrant of five elements)--- THIS IS A CHURCH OF THE FOUR SAINTS
QUINCUNX SAN PIETRO TIVOLI
DOUBLE CROSS ARHITECTURE
SWASTIKA AND CRUCIFORM QUINCUNX DESIGNS- IT DESCRIBES HOW THE SACRED BIRTH OF THE EMPOERER GOD WOULD TAKE PLACE UNDER A CROSS
CONSTANTINE AND QUINCUNX SWASTIKA ARCHITECTURE SAN PIETRO IN ROME
16 SQUARE QUADRANT MODEL AT LA ALMUNIA DE DONA GADONA
16 SQUARE QUADRANT MODEL AT BASILICA OF BELEN AND A DOUBLE CROSS CRICULAR MOTIVE AT DULCIUS (BOTTOM RIGHT)- that is actually a double cross motif two crosses superimpoed
QUINCUNX SAN GIOVANNI EVANGELISTA
QUINCUNX KALENDARHANE KAMI LAYOUT
QUINCUNX QUADRANT PLAN AT THEOTOKOS MOTHER OF GOD CHURCH, HOSIOS LUKAS, HOSIOS MELETIOS, AND SAN NICOLA
PAVEMENT OF ABBEY POMPOSA CROSSES AND DOUBLE CROSSES
This artist has placed the luminaries (the sun and moon) on either side of the crucifix. This brings out the Astro-Theological elements in the story of the crucifixion. Could the four attendees at the foot of the cross then represent the four cardinal points of the zodiac? Could the strange letters above Christ's head be the first letters for Iammim, Nour, Ruach and Ibeshah, or Fire, Water, Air and Earth? Is Jesus the fifth element? For more on this subject, see our book Astro-Theology and Sidereal Mythology.
PHAROAH WITH CROSS ARMS- HOLDING ANKHS
LEFT: Lord Vishnu cruciform. CENTER: Quetzalcoatl on the cross.
RIGHT: A pharaoh with crossed arms and Ankh crosses.
The Four Stages of Cruelty is a series of four printed engravings published by English artist William Hogarth in 1751. Each print depicts a different stage in the life of the fictional Tom Nero.
I POSTED ALL THIS STUFF BEFORE ITS IN MY OVER 60 QMR BOOKS- COLOR PALLETTES TEND TO BE bASED ON FOUR SEASONS UP TO 16 CATEGORIES 16 SQUARES QMR
There are a wide variety of approaches to analyzing personal coloring. The most well-known is "seasonal" color analysis, which places individual coloring into four general categories: Winter, Spring, Summer and Autumn. More recent systems subdivide the seasons into 12 or 16 categories. Many different versions of seasonal analysis have been developed and promoted by image and color consultants worldwide. Some color analysis systems classify an individual's personal combination of hair color, eye color and skin tone using labels that refer to a color's "temperature" (cool blue vs. warm yellow) and the degree to which the hair, skin and eye colors contrast. Color analysis demonstrates how colors are capable of being flattering or, conversely, unflattering. Colors that are unsuitable for the individual can make a person look pale, for instance, or draw attention to such flaws as wrinkles or uneven skin tone.
EXTREMELY FAMOUS DIVIDED AS QUADRANT
Le Premier Disque, 1912-1913, oil on canvas, 134 x 52.7 inches, Private collection
THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH PRIMARY COLOR ADDED TRANSCENDENT FOURTH- I PUT THIS AND A LOT OF OTHER MORE AMAZING STUFF IN MY OVER 60 QMR BOOKS
Ewald Hering (1834-1918), a German physiologist and no relation of mine, published his 4-primary color wheel in 1878.
Ewald Hering color wheel chart
To this day, his model is ...
♦ very influential in the color/paint industries;
♦ great for understanding warm & cool colors, and
♦ full of gorgeous, 'eye candy' color combinations.
Hering added green to the other primary colors (yellow, blue and red), and called all four of them "psychological primaries".
THE THREE V THE FOUR IN COLOR- MANY ARGUED THERE WERE THREE PRIMARY COLORS- DAVINCI THOUGHT THERE WAS FOUR AND HERING MADE THE FOUR COLOR WHEEL ADDING THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH- THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THE THREE AND THE FOUR
4-Primary Color Template
color wheel with 4 primaries
The four-primary color chart is not about mixing primary colors as paints, it is about how our eyes and brains work. That's a different approach from the 3-primary color mixing wheel. Physiologist Ewald Hering (1834-1918) called red, yellow, blue and green the "psychological primaries".
He pointed to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), who had already identified these colors as the basic set of 'simple' colors. (Both men added black and white to their primary color charts.)
Hering was able to show that we physically see these primary colors as opposing pairs (he did not call them 'complementaries'):
Yes, you can mix the four psychological primaries, but you'll end up with a different set of secondary colors (see the illustration above left): Lime green (yellow+green) and turquoise (blue+green) would be tertiary colors on the three-primary color wheel.
This throws the 'old order' of complementary colors out of whack:
Complementary colors: Ewald Hering's 4-primary color wheel chart vs Artist's color mixing wheel
Only red and green remain in their old position - all the other colors on the outer ring of the models face different, new opponents. And on the 4-primary color wheel, we get some lovely "eye candy" combinations! How about, for example ...
yellow-orange + greenish blue?
lime green + deep purple?
plum + lemon?
Ewald Hering's color wheel chart: 'opposing' colors
Fine, you'll say, but where does all this leave us? Is one primary color wheel "better" than the other?
Not at all.
Each of the primary color wheel templates is simply the result of a different question.
The 3-primary color mixing wheel tells us how to mix 3 primary colors as paints, and
the 4-primary color chart shows how we see color.
Both color wheels produce different primary, secondary and 'tertiary' color combinations that can give us attractive color schemes.
And there's really no need to fear the color wheel police when you're decorating your home. The 3-primary color wheel is based on the deeply entrenched dogma that there are only 3 primary colors. But that dogma is now hundreds of years old, and it does not represent the 'truth' about color. It's just a convention.
I say, forget conventions, relax, and go for the eye candy.
AGAIN THERE ARE TETRADIC COLOR SCHEMES V TRIADIC COLOR SCHEMES- THE TETRADIC ADD THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH- TETRADIC THE HIGHEST FOURTH ALWAYS TRANSCENDENT FIFTH ALWAYS QUESTIONABLE
The rectangle or tetradic color scheme uses four colors arranged into two complementary pairs.
This rich color scheme offers plenty of possibilities for variation.
The tetradic color scheme works best if you let one color be dominant.
You should also pay attention to the balance between warm and cool colors in your design.
The square color scheme is similar to the rectangle, but with all four colors spaced evenly around the color circle.
The square color scheme works best if you let one color be dominant.
You should also pay attention to the balance between warm and cool colors in your design.
FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT AND DIFFERENT IT SAYS TETRADIC IS THE RICHEST OF ALL THE SCHEMES HIGHEST IT GOES- FOURTH ALWAYS TRANSCENDENT FIFTH QUESTIONABLE
Tetradic Color Scheme
The tetradic (double complementary) scheme is the richest of all the schemes because it uses four colors arranged into two complementary color pairs. This scheme is hard to harmonize; if all four colors are used in equal amounts, the scheme may look unbalanced, so you should choose a color to be dominant or subdue the colors.
Click the graphic on the right to open a new browser window and view the Tetradic Color Wheel in action.
Mondrian produced Lozenge Composition With Four Yellow Lines (1933), a simple painting that innovated thick, colored lines instead of black ones
MONDRIAN HAS EXTREEMELY FAMOUS QUADRANT PAINTINGS
Wilhelm Ostwald worked out sJll another color circle that was based chiefly on how colors are perceived by the eyes and the brain rather than on the light or pigment mixtures in the world that we experience. In Ostwald’s color theory, the primary colors are red, yellow, sea green, and blue – four in all.
THE BLUE FOUR GROUP
Supported by their dealer Galka Scheyer, Kandinsky, Feininger, Klee and Alexej von Jawlensky formed Die Blaue Vier (the Blue Four) group in 1923. Together they exhibited and lectured together in the United States from 1924.
KANDINSKY FOUR SECTIONS
The broad use of colour in The Blue Mountain illustrates Kandinsky's inclination toward an art in which colour is presented independently of form, and which each colour is given equal attention. The composition is more planar; the painting is divided into four sections: the sky, the red tree, the yellow tree and the blue mountain with the three riders.
KANDINSKY FOUR GREAT CONTRASTS
Red is a warm colour, lively and agitated; it is forceful, a movement in itself. Mixed with black it becomes brown, a hard colour. Mixed with yellow, it gains in warmth and becomes orange, which imparts an irradiating movement on its surroundings. When red is mixed with blue it moves away from man to become purple, which is a cool red. Red and green form the third great contrast, and orange and purple the fourth.
THE CONIC SECTIONS ARE EXTREMELY IMPORTANT I STUDIED DIFFERENT MATH COURES MULTIPLE ONES TAUGHT THEM INCLUDING TEACHING COMPANY THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT THESE ARE HOW BODIES ORBIT IN SPACE
A conic section is the intersection of a plane and a double right circular cone . By changing the angle and location of the intersection, we can produce different types of conics. There are four basic types: circles , ellipses , hyperbolas and parabolas . None of the intersections will pass through the vertices of the cone.
FOUR PRIMARY SHAPES BATAMMALIBA
FORSIUS 16 HUES- 16 SQUARES QMR
GUARINONIUS FOUR MAIN COLORS
FORSIUS 16 COLORS- 16 SQUARES QMR
FOUR CLASSES OF COLOR
Color Vision and the Four-Color-Map Problem Dale Purves, Beau Lotto, and Thomas Polger
Duke University Medical Center
& Four different colors are needed to make maps that avoid adjacent countries of the same color. Because the retinal image is two dimensional, like a map, four dimensions of chromatic experience would also be needed to optimally distinguish regions returning spectrally different light to the eye. We
An abiding puzzle in human color vision is why chro- matic experience is predicated on four classes of color, each defined by a unique hue. Thus, a particular red, green, blue and yellow is seen as being entirely free of any other color, whereas all other hues are perceived as mixtures of these four (Figure 1) (Hurvich, 1981; Hering, 1964; Evans, 1948). Although it is well established that the initial processing of spectral information depends on the different absorption characteristics of three distinct receptor types (short-, medium-, and long-wavelength cones), and that the central processing of this informa- tion involves color-opponent mechanisms (Kaiser & Boynton, 1996; Wandell, 1995; Hurvich, 1981; Hurvich & Jameson, 1957), no clear rationale for this organiza- tion of human color vision has emerged. It is generally supposed that the perceptual quality of these four-color categories and their unique members is an incidental consequence of the color-opponent channels that Her- ing first proposed more than a century ago (Hering, 1964). Perhaps as a result, relatively little attention has been paid to understanding why human color experi- ence is organized in this particular way. Here, we suggest that humans perceive four-color categories de- fined by unique hues because the visual system has evolved to solve a fundamental problem in topology, namely ensuring that no two areas separated by a common boundary in a two-dimensional array will ap- pear the same if they are actually different. In topology, this issue is generally referred to as the ‘‘four-color-map problem’’ (Figure 2).
THE FOUR-COLOR-MAP CONJECTURE
Although cartographers had long known that four colors are needed to make unambiguous maps, the four-color-map problem was first posed as a logical challenge in 1852. In that year, a student at University
therefore suggest that the organization of human color vision according to four-color classes (reds, greens, blues, and yellows) has arisen as a solution to this logical requirement in topology. &
College London asked Augustus de Morgan, a professor of logic and mathematics, if he knew a proof for the apparent sufficiency of four colors to illustrate any map without having adjacent regions of the same color. After a lapse of some years, a friend of de Morgan’s stated the problem formally as a query in the Proceed- ings of the London Mathematical Society (Cayley, 1878). Proving the conjecture that ‘‘four colors are sufficient to color any map drawn in a plane or on a sphere so that no two regions with a common bound- ary [other than a point] are colored with the same color’’ was quickly taken up by scholars around the world. Indeed, most mathematicians during the subse- quent century are said to have devoted at least some thought to the solution of this conundrum, and many a great deal (Saaty & Kainen, 1986; Appel & Haken, 1977; Ore, 1967). Its apparent simplicity notwithstanding, the four-color conjecture resisted efforts at a formal proof until 1976, when it was finally solved using a computer algorithm that required more than 200 pages to pub- lish (Appel & Haken, 1976). Quite apart from the nature of this proof, the four-color-map problem raises the possibility that the four dimensions of human color experience (red, green, blue, and yellow) may have arisen as a means of dealing with this basic require- ment in topology.
GREEK PHILOSOPHY FOUR BASIC COLORS
Greek Color eory and the Four Elements [full text, not including gures]
Greek philosophers thought in terms not of three, but of four, basic colors: black, red, yellow and white: yet little or no attention has been paid to this conception as a system of thought. Almost ironically, it is again Goethe's experiments in color, made in quite conscious opposition to Newtonian principles, which not only led him to color triads, but which also reveal that the Greek system of four colors is theoretically balanced by a second group of four colors: white, blue, violet and black. The earlier Greek painters were thoroughly absorbed in the first “tesserad” of colors, while later painters increasingly experimented with the second group.
Professor Benson has for the first time formulated in scientific terms a comprehensive explanation of four-color painting as well as of the larger issue of a Greek color theory implied in the cosmological vision of Empedokles. The theory itself is anchored in the essentially Greek concepts of polarity and complementation, which of themselves foster definite parameters of meaning for each color. This allows a completely new interpretation of Greek painting.
• Chapter I: How May We Understand Four Elements Philosophy Today? The Idea
of Macrocosmos (World) and Microcosmos (Human Being)
o The Concept of a Fourfold World o The Four Elements
o The Four Members
FOUR MEMBERS QUADRIPARTITE DIVISION GREEK
We find this precondition in Greece at the time Empedokles provided the culmination of the philosophical speculation which had been carried on by the so-called Ionian School. In a poem (or poems) he undertook to explain the nature of the world as consisting of the four elements called earth, water, air and fire, each one being the expression of a deity as the divine force behind its dynamic manifestation in the visible world.
There is written evidence that he and other thinkers of the time associated four colors: black, white, yellow and red with those elements, although the pairing off is not immediately clear. They also took black and white to be the primal colors, all remaining colors being mixtures of these two in some way. That is approximately the extent of what one can compare with the modern physics of color which, with some historical distortion, is generally referred to as Newtonian color theory.
The recurring fantasy in films about “invisible men” demonstrates, moreover, that in the modern artistic imagination, at least, the human being is not limited to physicality but is shot through with invisible processes on which sentience and consciousness rest. It is precisely these processual systems, of which only the effect can be observed, and without which the physical body becomes a corpse, that comprise the upper three levels or souls of the four member system. The four member system is most concretely documented by Aristotle (although he tends to take the physical level for granted and thus does not actually speak of four). Though at present the least regarded aspect of the Four Elements theory, this
CHAPTER I: UNDERSTANDING FOUR COLORS PHILOSOPHY 13
quadripartite articulation of the human being has remained as the essential frame of reference of the western world and still survives—largely unexamined and uncoordinated—in our conceptual life as physical anthropology (study of skeletal systems, among other things), physiology (study of the vital systems, particularly glandular), psychology (study of the emotional and mental capacities, particularly as carried by the nervous system) and ego. Since modern psychology has no concept of soul as such, it overlaps into conclusions about the ego, which in the Greek system corresponds to a separate fourth member, nous, the cogitative faculty, not present in animals. In effect, the crowning term of the four—all derived from the Greek language and fossilized in our time—should be philosophy. The latter, deprived of its former relation to peoples who understand themselves in fourfold terms, has had no choice but to become increasingly abstract and peripheral in human affairs.
AETIUS THE FOUR COLORS AND THE FOUR ELEMENTS
The passage that serves as keystone for this entire study is a fragment of the works of Aëtius, a physician of the late 6th century A.D. Herman Diels 1964, 31, 21 A92 cites Aetius, I, 15, 3 (D. 313:)
Ἐ. χρῶμα εἶναι ἀπεφαίνετο τὸ τοῖς πόροις τῆς ὄψεως ἐναρμόττον. τέτταρα δὲ τοῖς στοιχεῖοις ἰσάριθμα, λευκὸν μέλαν ἐρυθρὸν ὠχρόν.
to Plato, Meno, 76D: “SOC. Well, do you speak of certain effluences from things, in agreement with Empedocles?—MENO. Certainly.—SOC. And pores into which and through which the effluences travel?—MENO. Yes, indeed.—SOC. And some of the effluences fit certain of the pores, others are too small or too large?—MENO. Yes.—SOC. And do you say that there is such a thing as sight?—MENO. Yes, I do.—SOC. Well, “take my meaning” from this, to quote Pindar. Colour is an effluence from shapes which is commensurate with sight and perceptible.” (Plato, Meno Edited with Translation and Notes by R.W. Sharples, Chicago 1985.) To this Aëtius commented: “(Empedokles) declared that color fits the pores of vision. And the four colors: white, black, red, yellow are equal in number to the four elements.”
THE FOUR FRENCH TAPESTRY MAKERS
French artist born into a family that worked for the Manufacture des Gobelins, Paris; he worked as Haut Lissier, eventually becoming a Maître Tapissier; with his young brother François, he was introduced to the Court of the Prince Elector of Munich in 1718 where they were joined by Jean-François Petitjean and François Carré to form the group known as “The Four French Tapestry Makers”.
The Devonshire Hunting Tapestries are a group of four magnificent Flemish tapestries dating from the mid-fifteenth century. These enormous works, each over 3 metres wide, depict men and women in fashionable dress of the early fifteenth century hunting in a forest. The tapestries formerly belonged to the Duke of Devonshire. The 6th Duke described using his 'spare' tapestry to insulate the Long Gallery at Hardwick Hall in the 1840s, a practice which saved these rare Gothic hangings from being discarded. The tapestries depict a Deer Hunt, Falconry, a Swan and Otter Hunt and Boar and Bear Hunt. The hunt was a particularly powerful theme and would have been a familiar pastime to many of the high-born individuals and families who owned tapestries. Hunting was both a stylized sport and an important source of the only meats considered noble.
FOUR FIGURES- fourth different
The picture shows four boys in quasi-Classical costume, three playing various musical instruments or singing, the fourth dressed as Cupid and reaching towards a bunch of grapes.
This was Caravaggio's most ambitious and complex composition to date, and the artist has evidently had difficulties with painting the four figures separately—they don't relate to each other or to the picture-space, and the overall effect is somewhat clumsy. The painting is in poor condition, and the music in the manuscript has been badly damaged by past restorations, although a tenor and an alto part can be made out. Nevertheless, despite considerable paint loss, the work's originality remains undimmed.
HAS STIGMATA FROM CRUCIFIXION- CROSS IS QUADRANT
The painting was the first of Caravaggio's religious canvasses, and is thought to date from 1595, when he had recently entered the household of Cardinal Francesco Maria Del Monte. It was presumably painted at the behest of Del Monte, and is thought to be one of the first paintings done by the artist as "Del Monte's painter", as he is believed to have described himself over the next few years while living in Palazzo Madama. It shows Saint Francis of Assisi (the Cardinal's name-saint) at the moment of receiving the signs of the Stigmata, the wounds left in Christ's body by the Crucifixion. The story is told by one of Francis' companions, Brother Leo. In 1224 Francis retired to the wilderness with a small number of his followers to contemplate God. On the mountainside at night Brother Leo saw a six-winged seraph (one of the higher Orders of angels) come down to Francis in answer to the saint's prayer that he might know both Christ's suffering and His love:
All of a sudden there was a dazzling light. It was as though the heavens were exploding and splashing forth all their glory in millions of waterfalls of colours and stars. And in the centre of that bright whirlpool was a core of blinding light that flashed down from the depths of the sky with terrifying speed until suddenly it stopped, motionless and sacred, above a pointed rock in front of Francis. It was a fiery figure with wings, nailed to a cross of fire. Two flaming wings rose straight upward, two others opened out horizontally, and two more covered the figure. And the wounds in the hands and feet and heart were blazing rays of blood. The sparkling features of the Being wore an expression of supernatural beauty and grief. It was the face of Jesus, and Jesus spoke. Then suddenly streams of fire and blood shot from His wounds and pierced the hands and feet of Francis with nails and his heart with the stab of a lance. As Francis uttered a mighty shout of joy and pain, the fiery image impressed itself into his body, as into a mirrored reflection of itself, with all its love, its beauty, and its grief. And it vanished within him. Another cry pierced the air. Then, with nails and wounds through his body, and with his soul and spirit aflame, Francis sank down, unconscious, in his blood.
REALLY HAS 16 FLOWERS 16 SQUARES QMR FOUR VERSIONS
None meets the descriptions supplied by van Gogh himself in his announcement of the series in every detail. The first version differs in size, is painted on a size 20 canvas—not on a size 15 canvas as indicated—and all the others differ in the number of flowers depicted from van Gogh's announcement. The second was evidently enlarged and the initial composition altered by insertion of the two flowers lying in the foreground, center and right. Neither the third nor the fourth shows the dozen or 14 flowers indicated by the artist, but more—fifteen or sixteen. These alterations are executed wet-in-wet and therefore considered genuine rework—even the more so as they are copied to the repetitions of January 1889; there is no longer a trace of later alterations, at least in this aspect.
In 1891, Friant presented four paintings at the Salon of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. One of these was Cast Shadows which he was careful to place prominently when submitting his works. He had already depicted young couples, outdoors and indoors, always carefully building his composition around an interplay of looks and hands. He did the same in 1891 but in a much more radical way. The protagonists are placed in front of a wall. The frontal light source, directed upwards, highlights the hands and faces. Beneath the dark clothes, their bodies are reduced to silhouettes. This treatment recalls an extract from Pliny's Natural History recounting how painting was invented: "[Dibutade] was in love with a young man; when he left for foreign lands, she traced the shadow of his face, projected on to a wall by the light of a lantern".
QUARTET OF CALANQUE
In 1936, at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-arts, Lévy-Dhurmer exhibited a series of four paintings of calanques (rocky inlets) at different times during the day, with the title Quartet of Calanques: Morning, Six o'clock in the Evening, Dusk and Night. The title, Quartet, a musical reference, emphasises not only the poetic nature of the place but also a desire to acknowledge the passage of time (continuing the idea of listening to music).
We think also of the series by Claude Monet, in particular the series of images of Rouen cathedral (1892-1895). Lévy-Dhurmer, as Monet's prestigious precursor, has taken on an ambitious task here, as nothing is more demanding than capturing a moment that is, by nature, fleeting.
We should be wary of regarding Quartet as an expression of spontaneity or of unconditional acceptance of outward reality. On the contrary, everything in it has been patiently reconstructed. Thus, Lévy-Dhurmer first made numerous rapid notes in situ, before producing, in the calm of the studio, pastels then oils on canvas. As in his series executed on the shores of Alpine lakes between 1925 and 1935, he magnifies this Mediterranean landscape, delighting in the phosphorescent effects. By restricting the field of vision, to the point of eliminating any glimpse of the horizon, he isolates the scene from any precise context. The cliffs are transformed into a precious jewellery box, protecting a mysterious, living liquid.
SERIES OF FOUR LARGE PAINTINGS
This decorative panel is part of a set of four large paintings produced by Bonnard between 1906 and 1910 for the dining room of Misia Sert, a muse for many painters, poets and musicians at the beginning of the 20th century. Already for several years previous to this, Bonnard had been moving away from the Nabi precepts. He no longer painted flat areas of colour, had rediscovered a certain feeling of space by abandoning closed compositions, and had, in some respects, come back to the play of light the Impressionists loved so much. Like his friends Maurice Denis and Ker-Xavier Roussel, he returned to classical tradition and Arcadian themes - the dream of a mythical golden age beloved by Nicholas Poussin and Claude Lorrain, and also depicted by Puvis de Chavannes and Gauguin.
THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT SITTING DOWN
The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit (originally titled Portraits d'enfants) is a painting by John Singer Sargent. The painting depicts four young girls, the daughters of Edward Darley Boit, in their family's Paris apartment. It was painted in 1882 and is now exhibited in the new Art of the Americas Wing of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. The painting hangs between the two tall blue-and-white Japanese vases depicted in the work; they were donated by the heirs of the Boit family.
Edward Boit was the son-in-law of John Perkins Cushing and a friend of Sargent's. Boit was an "American cosmopolite" and a minor painter. His wife and the mother of his five children was Mary Louisa Cushing, known as "Isa". Their four daughters were Florence, Jane, Mary Louisa and Julia.
FOUR MAJOR POST IMPRESSIONISTS
Pissarro is the only artist to have shown his work at all eight Paris Impressionist exhibitions, from 1874 to 1886. He "acted as a father figure not only to the Impressionists" but to all four of the major Post-Impressionists, including Georges Seurat, Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin.
Pieter Brueghel’s “The Way to Calvary” is a large painting of many figures in a surreal landscape. With his master’s eye for detail and perspective, he packed the canvas with the almost hidden story of Christ bearing his cross to Golgotha. Part of the strangeness is that the scene is reimagined as taking place in 16th Century Flanders, and the Roman soldiers are replaced by the Spanish soldiers who currently terrorized the country, crucifying heretics (in the name of the holy church) across wheels jutting into the sky. Thus Brueghel combined an angry political statement with a nominally holy subject, creating a masterpiece with many levels of meaning in his typically beautiful, arresting, intense, numinous, almost grotesque style.
Although Christ is at the center of the picture, the viewer’s eye is distracted by the multifarious dramas around him, and this is part of the painter’s philosophy of how cataclysmic events happen almost unnoticed while life goes on. W.H. Auden expressed this idea in a famous poem on Brueghel’s “Fall of Icarus”.
In a way, Lech Majewski’s The Mill & the Cross is less a film than a tableau bringing the painting to life with actors and revealing the historical context through incidents and direct speeches delivered by the painter (Rutger Hauer) and his patron (Michael York). A Flanders’ version of Christ’s mother Mary (Charlotte Rampling, offering her own weathered intensity) offers voiceovers as she stares upon the proceedings. It’s almost a static series of lectures and living dioramas, yet it’s cinematic through the sheer wondrousness of the multilayered images, which make us feel we enter into the painting and its time.
It’s a “museum piece” of a movie that reminds me of some films of Peter Greenaway (who also makes cinema out of other arts, uses layered images, and has provocatively earthy and bloody images) and Majewski’s fellow Pole Zbigniew Rybczynski (who made amazing layered videos with classical music). Despite these and other resonances (Majewski himself brings up Fellini’s love for grotesque faces), it’s a film influenced most profoundly and obviously by Brueghel, a tribute from one artist to another. A 45-minute making-of and a brief interview with Majewski add good background.
THE ANCHOR AND THE CROSS
The Meaning of the anchor in Early Christian Painting
“We have this hope as an anchor for the soul, firm and secure.” Hebrews 6:19 (NIV)
The anchor has quite a lot of different spiritual connotations in Christian art:
The anchor represents hope in Jesus and is a sign of sanctuary, commitment and hope.
The anchor symbolizes the concept of faithfulness, shelter, and hope because it represents the safe arrival of the ship in harbor after a hazardous voyage at sea.
The anchor is the emblem of St Clement who was the 4th Bishop of Rome. He was martyred just 100 years after the death of Christ by being tossed into the stormy sea with an anchor tied around his neck. The anchor became his usual emblem in art.
The anchor was used as a hidden form of the cross inscribed on the walls the catacombs 9underground burial chambers for early Christians.) In Christian
The anchor hidden in the Cross symbolizes the Christian's salvation in Christ and the arrival of the soul in the harbor of everlasting life.
The anchor is a symbol the commitment of the believer to the Christian faith and the word of God.
The Meaning of Sacred Symbols in Paintings. Most prominently featured symbols and their meaning:
CROSS IS QUADRANT
The Raising of the Cross is part of the Crucifixion of Jesus, and has been a distinct subject of Christian art.
Notable depictions include The Elevation of the Cross by Peter Paul Rubens and The Raising of the Cross by Rembrandt.
In John's gospel, Jesus predicted that he would be "lifted up from the earth" (John 12:32) in order to draw all men to himself. John notes that Jesus was referring to his death (John 12:33).
IN THE NOVEL WANT TO SEE THE PAINTING OF THE CROSS
In Ouida's novel A Dog of Flanders the main characters Nello and Patrasche wish to see both Rubens' "Elevation of the Cross" and "Descent from the Cross" for once in their life. It serves as the climax of the story, as they both sneak inside the Antwerp Cathedral on a freezing Christmas Eve to witness the beauty of the painting. The next day they are found frozen to death in front of the triptych.
The Elevation of the Cross (Rubens)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Elevation of the Cross
Peter Paul Rubens - Raising of the Cross - 1610.jpg
Artist Peter Paul Rubens
Medium Oil on wood
Dimensions 462 cm × 341 cm (182 in × 134 in)
Location Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp
The Elevation of the Cross (also called The Raising of the Cross) is a triptych painting by Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens, completed in 1610-1611.
Peter Paul Rubens painted The Elevation of the Cross after returning to Flanders from Italy. The work shows the clear influence of Italian Renaissance and Baroque artists such as Caravaggio, Tintoretto and Michelangelo. The central panel illustrates a tension between the multitude of finely muscled men attempting to lift the cross and the seemingly unbearable weight of Christ on the cross.
WISHES TO SEE CROSS PAINTINGS
Afterwards, he is accused of causing a fire by Nicholas (the fire occurred on his property) and his grandfather dies. His life becomes even more desperate. Having no place to stay, Nello wishes to go to the cathedral of Antwerp (to see Rubens' The Elevation of the Cross and The Descent of the Cross), but the exhibition held inside the building is only for paying customers and he's out of money. On the night of Christmas Eve, he and Patrasche go to Antwerp and, by chance, find the door to the church open. The next morning, the boy and his dog are found frozen to death in front of the triptych.
Elevation of the Holy Cross
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Elevation of the Cross" redirects here. For other uses, see Elevation of the Cross (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with The Raising of the Cross.
The Elevation of the Holy Cross (also known as the Exaltation of the Holy Cross) is one of the Great Feasts of the Orthodox Church, celebrated on September 14, which corresponds to September 27 on the Gregorian calendar. It is one of the two feast days which is held as a strict fast. The other is the commemoration of the Beheading of John the Forerunner on August 29.
Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1887) by Vasnetsov, St. Vladimir's Cathedral
TRANSCENDENT FOURTH I READ A BOOK ON IT I FROGOT THERE IS TONS OF BOOKS I LOOKED AT FIULL OF QUADRANT EXAMPLES I FORGOT BUT THEY TALKED ABOUT THIS FAMOUS STATUE TYPE THAT SHOWS FOUR HEADS BUT THEY WOULD SAY THE FOURTH HEAD WAS HIDDEN THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH
Vaikuntha Chaturmurti or Vaikuntha Vishnu is a four-headed aspect of the Hindu god Vishnu, mostly found in Kashmir (northern part of the Indian subcontinent). The icon represents Vishnu as the Supreme Being. He has a human head, a lion head, a boar head and a demonic head. Sometimes, even three-headed aspects of Vishnu where the demonic rear head is dropped are considered to represent Vaikuntha Chaturmurti. Though iconographical treatises describe him to eight-armed, he is often depicted with four. Generally, Vaikuntha Chaturmurti is shown standing but sometimes he is depicted seated on his vahana (mount) Garuda.
The concept of a four-headed Vishnu first appears in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, but the complete iconography was first found in a 5th-century Pancharatra text. The icon reflects influences from the Gupta period and the Gandhara architectural tradition. While as per one interpretation, the animal heads represent Vishnu's avatar Narasimha (lion-headed man) and Varaha (boar), another theory based on Pancharatra texts relates the four heads to Chaturvyuha - Vasudeva (Krishna), Samkarshana (Balarama), Pradyumna and Aniruddha - four vyuhas (manifestations) of Vishnu. A cult centered on Vaikuntha Chaturmurti developed in Kashmir in the 8-12th century, when the deity also enjoyed royal patronage in the region. The Lakshmana Temple of Khajuraho suggests his worship in the Chandela kingdom (Central India) in the 10th century.
FOUR MAIN FRESCOES
The School of Athens is one of a group of four main frescoes on the walls of the Stanza (those on either side centrally interrupted by windows) that depict distinct branches of knowledge. Each theme is identified above by a separate tondo containing a majestic female figure seated in the clouds, with putti bearing the phrases: "Seek Knowledge of Causes," "Divine Inspiration," "Knowledge of Things Divine" (Disputa), "To Each What Is Due." Accordingly, the figures on the walls below exemplify Philosophy, Poetry (including Music), Theology, and Law. The traditional title is not Raphael's. The subject of the "School" is actually "Philosophy," or at least ancient Greek philosophy, and its overhead tondo-label, "Causarum Cognitio", tells us what kind, as it appears to echo Aristotle's emphasis on wisdom as knowing why, hence knowing the causes, in Metaphysics Book I and Physics Book II. Indeed, Plato and Aristotle appear to be the central figures in the scene. However, all the philosophers depicted sought knowledge of first causes. Many lived before Plato and Aristotle, and hardly a third were Athenians. The architecture contains Roman elements, but the general semi-circular setting having Plato and Aristotle at its centre might be alluding to Pythagoras' circumpunct.
CROP FORMATION FORM OF X AND 444 CIRCLES AND THESE CROP CIRCLES ARE QUADRANTS IN AND OF THEMSELVES
The formation that appeared at Hundred Acres in 2005 suggested an additional meaning -- the creation of reality in each moment through the Divine Breath. In an incredibly strange twist, a UFO sighting inserted itself into the middle of the story. This was followed by an additional crop formation in the form of an "X" that strongly supported the Divine Breath interpretation. The geometry of the Hundred Acres formation is also found in one of the large land glyphs on the Nazca Planes. A crop formation very similar to the one on the Nazca Planes appeared at Blackland (Morgan's Hill), Wiltshire, in the year 2000.
The two 1999 crop circle formations indicated that the triplet numbers have a relationship to the ancient Gematrian number system. One of the formations had 288 small circles, the other had 156 small circles. The total of the two amounted to 444 circles. The triplet numbers, such as 444, appear in other systems of Gematria. In the ancient system, the number 288 had the "Alpha" or "Word" meaning, "Double Light."
11:11 MOST COMMON COINCIDENTAL IT IS FOUR 1S- THERE IS THE 444 PATTERN SEEN AND THIS IS A QUINCUNX THEY CALL IT THE QUINTUPLE PYRAMIDS- THE PYRAMIDS THEMSELVES ARE QUADRANTS AND THEY ARE A QUINCUNX A QUADRANT WITH A POINT IN THE CENTER
The West Kennet Longbarrow formation fits within the Windmill Hill formation, therefore I saw the pair as symbolically "female and male." The West Kennet Longbarrow formation looked like a pyramid as viewed from above, with four smaller pyramids attached to the corners. For these reasons, I came to call the patterns "quintuplet pyramids."
The "female" formation had 288 small circles (see diagram above). That is a very important ancient number. Several years after the formations appeared, the idea came to count the number of circles in the "male" formation. The total was 156. I was familiar with that number as the number of inches in 13 feet (12 x 13 = 156). On an inspiration, I added the two numbers and was amazed --
288 + 156 = 444
The number 444 and the other triplets are often reported by people to appear in coincidental ways, as if "something" is trying to get their attention. We started collecting pages of such reports in 1996 and continue to do so. The number 11:11 is the most commonly reported "coincidental" number. The triplets are the next most common. Our files with these reports are here.
THE FOUR TRIANGLES AND THE FOUR ELEMENTS AND THE MERKABA AND GRAND CROSS ALLIGNMENT
The four triangles or Trigons making up the twelve-pointed star represent the four types of signs: fire, air, water, and earth. Each Zodiac sign is represented in the Bible by one of the twelve Tribes, as described by the camp positions of the Tribes in Numbers 2.
There are four major Tribes, which are the four living creatures, and relate to the solstices and equinoxes during the Age of Taurus. The following table shows the relationships --
The four living creature are featured in Ezekiel 1 and Revelation 4. As stated previously, the four living creatures are Ezekiel's "Wagon" -- the Merkaba or Merkabah.
When the planets are aligned with the four major Zodiac signs, it is called a Grand Cross Alignment.
CHIASTIC MEANS CROSS/QUADRANT
Scholars have noted what they call the chiastic principle in the composition of the figure of the Doryphoros. The term is derived from the Greek letter chi which is formed by two lines crossing obliquely, but the stroke descending right to left is straight while the other is, like a reversed S, curved at both ends. Thus the upper curve on the left corresponds to a mirror-image curve on the lower right and two straight halves face each other across the sinuous divide. The following illustration imposes the letter chi onto the figure of the Doryphoros:
ARCHEOLOGISTS USE THE METHOD WHERE THEY DIG QUADRANTS
The dig itself is a square that measures four meters by four meters (12.5 feet by 12.5 feet.) The dig is then divided further into smaller and smaller quadrants. The students only dig down about 5 centimeters or 2 inches at a time. Everything is catalogued according to the three dimensional space in which an item is found so it can later be input to a computer program.
ARCHEOLOGISTS USE THE BOX GRID METHOD WHERE THEY MAKE QUADRANTS IN WHILE EXCAVATING
The practice of dividing an archaeological site into squares for ease of recording features and objects during excavation. The term also refers to the two-dimensional intersecting network defining the squares in which archaeologists dig; usually set out with strings, stakes, and a transit. Often a square trench will be cut within each grid square, separated by a balk from each neighboring trench. Each square is suitable for excavation by two or three people. Advantages of the method are in the creation of a number of readily available sections on the site, the ease of spoil removal (along the balk), and the control which can be exercised over excavators.
On open sites with little stratigraphy above the rock surface, the method is often unnecessary. The balks in the grid method may also obscure many of the important stratigraphical relationships, or make impossible the recognition of structures. This technique allows the fast recording of very large areas, but is not as accurate as triangulation for the pinpointing of small objects and features. The use of grid planning and triangulation together often satisfies most of the combined needs of speed and accuracy.
Box Grid Method
provides both horizontal and vertical cut at the same time
full picture can only be seen at the end
Like an Area excavation, but with lots of Baulks (strategically placed pieces of un-excavated ground) dividing the site up
prevent people walking on trowled ground
useful as wheelbarrow 'runs' - planks may be used on other types of excavation
danger that if excavators get too deep or don't support the baulks, they may fall down
danger to excavators
mixes up contexts
lose that piece of stratigraphy
allows stratigraphy in 4 directions to be recorded for each section being excavated
have to be removed to see how features on the site relate to each other
Used at Boxgrove (just think box-grid = Boxgrove)
presence of baulks can prevent communication between archaeologists
means the same context may be numbered many times
means that if one person finds something and another person finds something similar it's not likely to be mentioned until the end
QUADRANT SYSTEM ARCHAEOLOGY
provides both horizontal and vertical cut at the same time
Used on any circular feature
involves dividing a feature into quarters and excavating 2 opposing quarters at the same time
enables stratigraphy in 4 directions
if a layer is seen in all 4 sections, it's likely the layer was throughout the feature
if nothing of interest is found then there may be no need to dig the rest
if there is something of interest (e.g. part of a skeleton) that is partly under the sections left in place, the remaining quadrants may also be excavated
used at Caer Alyn
INVOLVES QUADRANTS USED EXCAVATING JERICHO
The Wheeler -Kenyon method is a method of archaeological excavation. The technique draws its origins from the work of Mortimer Wheeler and Tessa Wheeler at Verulamium (1930–35), and was later refined by Kathleen Kenyon during her excavations at Jericho (1952–58). The Wheeler-Kenyon system involves digging within a series of squares that can vary in size set within a larger grid. This leaves a freestanding wall of earth—known as a "balk" that can range from 50 cm for temporary grids, and measure up to 2 m. in width for a deeper square. The Normal width of a permanent balk is 1 m.—on each side of a unit. These vertical slices of earth allow archaeologists to compare the exact provenance of a found object or feature to adjacent layers of earth ("strata"). During Kenyon's excavations at Jericho, this technique helped discern the long and complicated occupational history of the site. It was believed that this approach allowed more precise stratigraphic observations than earlier "horizontal exposure" techniques which relied on architectural and ceramic analysis.
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FOUR COLORS FOUR TEMPERAMENTS
The "rose of temperaments" (Temperamenten-Rose) compiled by Goethe and Schiller in 1798/9. The diagram matches twelve colors to human occupations or their character traits, grouped in the four temperaments: choleric (red/orange/yellow): tyrants, heroes, adventurers;
sanguine (yellow/green/cyan) hedonists, lovers, poets;
phlegmatic (cyan/blue/violet): public speakers, historians, teachers;
melancholic (violet/magenta/red): philosophers, pedants, rulers.
IN THE SHAPE OF A CROSS
A great deal of thought has gone into the composition however: it is in the shape of a cross, with the bouquet forming a circle in the centre. Derain brought the painting to life using a procedure he held dear: small, very light touches on the flower petals, which give the whole painting a remarkable intensity. A few spots of white - reflections of light - distinguish the vase. Finally, in the bottom right, we can make out a glass bowl filled with water, and a flower floating on top. This motif is reminiscent of 17th century Dutch still life paintings. The writer André Breton (1896-1966) recalled that: "Derain spoke with emotion of this white spot which some 17th century Flemish and Dutch painters used to enhance a vase, a fruit (...) The object that I am painting, the being before me, only comes to life when I add this spot of white." This is indeed one of André Derain's the most original and personal canvases.
REINHARDT CROSSES ALMOST INVISIBLE
Man of Sorrows (c. 1485–95), an especially complex version by Geertgen tot Sint Jans, Dutch, 25 × 24 cm.
The Son is often shown at the Father's right hand.[Acts 7:56] He may be represented by a symbol—typically the Lamb or a cross—or on a crucifix, so that the Father is the only human figure shown at full size.
The Triumphal Quadriga is a set of Roman or Greek bronze statues of four horses, originally part of a monument depicting a quadriga. They date from late Classical Antiquity and were long displayed at the Hippodrome of Constantinople. In 1204 AD, Doge Enrico Dandolo sent them to Venice as part of the loot sacked from Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade.
FOUR HORSES OF SAINT MARK
The Horses of Saint Mark (Italian: Cavalli di San Marco), also known as the Triumphal Quadriga, is a set of Roman bronze statues of four horses, originally part of a monument depicting a quadriga (a four-horse carriage used for chariot racing). The horses were placed on the facade, on the loggia above the porch, of St Mark's Basilica in Venice, northern Italy after the sack of Constantinople in 1204. They remained there until looted by Napoleon in 1797 but were returned in 1815. The sculptures have been removed from the facade and placed in the interior of St Mark's for conservation purposes, with replicas in their position on the loggia.
TERTIARY V TRANSCENDENT QUATENARY
Tertiary- and quaternary-color terms
The terms for the RYB tertiary colors are not set. For the six RYB hues intermediate between the RYB primary and secondary colors, the names amber/marigold (yellow–orange), vermilion/cinnabar (red–orange), magenta (red–purple), violet (blue–purple), teal/aqua (blue-green), and chartreuse/lime green (yellow–green) are commonly found. The names for the twelve quaternary colors are more variable, if they exist at all, though indigo and scarlet are standard for blue–violet and red–vermilion.
In another sense, a tertiary color is obtained by mixing secondary-colored pigments. These three colors are russet (orange–purple), slate (purple–green), and citron (green–orange), with the corresponding three quaternary colors plum (russet–slate), sage (slate–citron), buff (citron–russet) (with olive sometimes used for either slate or citron). Beyond that are shades of grey (blue grey and brown greys), which approach but never quite reach black.
DALI FOUR TIMES FOUR 16 JESUS
Talks aobu the fourth ineffable letter
FINAL LETTER LATIN ALPHABET X
-4 arches of colonnade slightly higher suggesting cross inscribed w/in circle --> assoc w/ christ, ref Constantine's vision, w/in circle means = arms therefore greek cross other cross stuff on sight
Date: ca. 698 - 721
Location: Northumbria, England
Material: Tempera on Vellum
This carpet page of the Lindisfarne Gospels exemplifies the way Hiberno-Saxon illuminated marriage between Christian imagery and animal-interface style of vikings.
Cross was dominating motif with fantastic animals devouring each other on sides.
The detailed symmetry and complex design symbolized stability of church in time of chaos more stuff
HAS A CROSS IN IT
The outer panels of Rogier van der Weyden's Braque Triptych shows the skull of the patron displayed in the inner panels. The bones rest on a brick, a symbol of his former industry and achievement.
VANITAS MOTIF OF SKULL AND CROSS
The Braque Triptych (or the Braque Family Triptych) is a c. 1452 oil-on-oak altarpiece by the Early Netherlandish painter Rogier van der Weyden. When open, its three half-length panels reveal, from left to right, John the Baptist, The Virgin Mary with Jesus and Saint John the Evangelist, and on the right, Mary Magdalene. When the wings are closed, the work shows a vanitas motif of a skull and cross.
Inscription and free floating text play a major role in the work. Each interior panel contains Latin inscriptions issuing from the figures' mouths or floating above them, serving as either speech bubbles or commentary. They are echoed by the words inscribed on the cross of the left exterior panel
When the wings are closed across the central panel, the exterior reveals a memento mori or vanitas motif of a skull and cross with is decorated with Latin inscriptions. The outer left hand wing shows a yellow-brown skull leaning against a broken brick or stone fragment alongside the coat of arms of the Braque family -a sheaf of wheat- seen on the upper right portion of the panel. It has been suggested that the skull is a future state representation of the viewer. The panel is one of the earliest known examples of a skull used in a vanitas, while the broken brick, cross and inscriptions present imagery of death and decay typical of the genre. Brick in such works usually symbolise ruin, either of buildings or a dynasties, in this case given the inclusion of the Braque family crest, it can be assumed to serve as reminder to members of the latter. Other art historians believe that the skull may not have been symbolically relevant to the Braque family, as they were well-established as advisers and financiers to the House of Valois. Instead, the argue, it may represent Adam, or a piece of Golgotha.
The right panel contains a cross with a Latin inscription based on Ecclesiasticus XLI: 1–2. The words read as o mors quam amara est memoria tua homini pacem habenti in substantiis suis. viro quieto et cuius viae directae sunt in omnibus et adhuc valenti accipere cibum (O death, how bitter is the remembrance of thee to a man that hath peace in his possessions! To a man that is at rest, and whose ways are prosperous in all things, and that is yet able to take meat! ).
CRUCIFIXION IN ART
The Fourth Dimension in Painting: Cubism and Futurism
Posted: March 19, 2011 | Author: Theodor Pavlopoulos | Filed under: Visual Arts | Tags: Albert Einstein, Albrecht Durer, Art, Carlo Carra, Chronophotography, Cubism, Eadweard Muybridge, Etienne Jules Marey, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Futurism, Geometry, Giacomo Balla, Gino Severini, Henri Matisse, Hypercube, Jean Metzinger, Kasimir Malevich, Leo Stein, Luigi Russolo, Marcel Duchamp, Mathematics, Mikhail Larionov, Nataliya Goncharova, Pablo Picasso, Painting, Salvador Dali, Spacetime, Thomas Eakins, Umberto Boccioni, Visual Arts, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Zoopraxiscope |4 Comments
A Protocubist anecdote
Henri Matisse’s and Leo Stein’s reaction at first seeing Pablo Picasso’s “Demoiselles D’ Avignon” (1907) at the “Bateau Lavoir” was to half jokingly exclaim that the painter was trying to create a fourth dimension. The art of Painting may indeed be considered as a pathway across dimensions, as it has been for millennia the pursuit of convincingly squeezing the three dimensional world perceived by humans onto a two dimensional surface. Yet any discussion about a fourth dimension in Painting appears paradoxical: Painting is about reducing dimensions rather than expanding them.
Giacomo Balla, “Girl Running on a Balcony”, 1912
Dali’s “Corpus Hypercubus”
Salvador Dali, “Corpus Hypercubus” (1954)
Following the development of Mathematics, where spaces with more than three dimensions are routinely addressed, the unfathomable, metaphysical character of possibly unperceived dimensions attracted wider attention and, not surprisingly, some of these mathematical ideas found their way towards artistic expression. A notorious example is Salvador Dali’s “Crucifixion” or “Corpus Hypercubus” (1954), a painting where Jesus Christ is depicted crucified upon the cross – like three dimensional net of a hypercube, the four dimensional analog of a cube. Though some mental gymnastics have been created to assist, after considerable exercise, towards the understanding of the nature of objects inhabiting a world our mind is not tuned to, full perception of objects such as the hypercube may be even impossible. Yet some at least superficial understanding may be achieved by creating analogs in spaces of lower dimensions. A cube for example, the 3D analog of the hypercube, can be formed by properly folding a 2D net consisting of six squares. When rotated, a cube casts shadows of a variety of geometric shapes on a 2D wall, two of them being a hexagonal shape and a square. Similarly, a hypercube, inhabiting a 4D space, casts “shadows” of a variety of three dimensional shapes upon 3D space and it can be formed by properly folding a 3D net consisting of eight cubes (though this kind of folding is far from possible to imagine), such as the one depicted in “Corpus Hypercubus”. From this point of view, Dali’s painting represents a pathway from 4D space (hypercube) towards 3D space (hypercube net) and then towards 2D space (the canvas surface).
A two dimensional projection of the three dimensional “shadow” cast by a rotating hypercube
A view from a higher dimension
Elementary Mathematics provide the means of understanding any point in 2D space (the plane) as represented by two numbers (coordinates), one for each of the two dimensions of the 2D space, namely length and width. The first number (abscissa) measures the horizontal displacement while the second (ordinate) measures the vertical displacement with respect to a fixed point selected as the origin. A distance in 2D space can be measured by simply applying the Pythagorean Theorem and, as it easily turns out, it is the square root of the sum of squares of the two displacements (coordinates). Similarly, any point in 3D space can be specified using three coordinates, each representing the displacement corresponding to each of the three dimensions of 3D space, namely length, width and height. A distance in 3D space is thus the square root of the sum of squares of these three coordinates. Though it is impossible to visualize where a fourth dimension (beyond length, width and height) would extend to, mathematicians routinely manipulate points and objects in 4D space, represented by four coordinates, and accordingly measure distances as the square root of the squares of those.
Painting reduces dimensions of 3D objects by one, providing an image (projection) of the subject as viewed from a single viewpoint, a process that inevitably creates ambiguities. The painting of a cube for example may be a 2D hexagonal shape properly rendered in order to create the illusion of viewing a cube from a certain viewpoint. In fact, the hexagonal shape is ambiguous and may correspond to an infinite number of 3D objects. Recognizing the object as a cube is a mental process that only emanates from previous experience. It is exactly this previous experience the artist relies upon in order to create a convincing illusion. For example, Albrecht Duerer’s notorious solid depicted on his engraving “Melencolia I” (1514) is of unresolved nature as its 2D rendering does not clearly and undoubtedly correspond to a geometric solid recognizable from previous experience. The same ambiguity holds for any object viewed from a single viewpoint, whether this object inhabits the 3D space or any other space. To clarify the nature of an object one has to be provided with multiple views from different viewpoints. Suppose that a tiny bookworm lives within a single, isolated book page. One may imagine the page, and consequently the bookworm, extremely thin to a degree that both the page and the bookworm may be considered as virtually two dimensional. A square on the page is a 2D object inhabiting the bookworm’s flat world yet, viewed by the bookworm from a specific viewpoint, it is indiscernible from a line segment. The bookworm cannot comprehend the square’s nature unless it follows a path around it in order to catch multiple “views” of it. Remarkably, simultaneous multiple views of the square from a single viewpoint would be also provided were it possible for the bookworm to hover above the page and into 3D space – a journey to the third dimension, something unimaginable for a creature accustomed to the conditions of a 2D world. From there, could the bookworm understand this unnatural perspective, the exact nature of the square would become apparent. By analogy, ambiguity of the image of a 3D object, such as Duerer’s solid, would be eliminated either by going around the object and having multiple views of it from various viewpoints or by hovering somewhere beyond the three dimensions, into 4D space, where simultaneous multiple views of the object would be available from a single viewpoint – though these would require sufficient understanding of this new perspective.
Left: Pablo Picasso, “Demoiselles D’ Avignon” (1907). Right: Jean Metzinger, “Tea Time” (1911)
Cubism and fourth dimension
The Cubist movement, initiated by Picasso with the Protocubist “Demoiselles D’ Avignon”, seemed to allude to similar concepts, as Cubist paintings consisted of amalgamated fragments of the subject’s simultaneous views from various different viewpoints. This is particularly evident in the “Demoiselles”, where a seemingly distorted and somehow disturbing perspective presents female faces displaying simultaneously a side and a frontal view. Similar multiple perspective views of the Eiffel tower can be seen in Robert Delaunay’s “The Tower Behind Curtains” (1910). And a strikingly clear example can be found in Jean Metzinger’s “Tea Time” (1911) where the detail of a teacup is fragmented in half by a frontal and an oblique view. Such unusual images, typical in Cubist paintings, may be interpreted as attempts to catch views of the subjects by hovering into an unimaginable 4D space and then projecting this new perception back onto the 2D canvas.
Time as the fourth dimension
Following the advance of Physics in the beginnings of the 20th century, time came to be accepted as a fourth dimension, though it is of quite different nature than the ordinary three spatial dimensions. For example, any point in spacetime, the 4D space of the ordinary three spatial dimensions together with time, is free to move along any spatial dimension forward or backwards but is obliged to move only forward in time and thus traces a unique path, called its world line. Each one of us similarly traces a unique four dimensional path across spacetime, beginning with birth and ending with death. To create some visual representation of such a path, we may use the usual trick of making an analogy by reducing dimensions. For the 2D bookworm described above, spacetime is a 3D space every point of which can be specified by two spatial and one time coordinate. A time conscious bookworm would understand its own path in spacetime as a 3D world volume, like a long soap bubble, created by the compulsive forward movement in time. Every slice of this volume represents an image of the bookworm at a specific moment in time.
Among the necessary coordinates to specify any point in spacetime, the time coordinate stands out as being measured in time units while all three spatial coordinates are measured in units of length. How could one then measure distances with the usual, Pythagorean – like square root rule when one of the displacements under the radical sign is measured in units incompatible to the others? This issue was addressed by observing that, once an absolute velocity is accepted, time may be used to express distance and vice versa. For example, it is ordinary to say that the distance between two cities is three hours by plane and thus express a distance using time units, where the accepted absolute velocity is that of an airliner. It would not be unusual to similarly express time intervals using units of length, when saying for example that reading a magazine article takes 10km of travelling by train, where the absolute velocity considered is that of a train. The absolute velocity in nature is the speed of light c (approximately 300000 km/s) which means that a spatial distance of 1m is equivalent to 1/300000000 seconds of time and a time interval of 1 second is equivalent to 300000 kilometers. To compensate for the different nature of time dimension, Albert Einstein conceived the idea of expressing distances in 4D spacetime using the ordinary plus signs for the squares of spatial displacements and the unusual minus sign for the square of the time displacement, a choice that permits distances to inhabit the realm of complex numbers yet proves to be particularly successful in conveying the physical properties of time.
Chronophotography and spacetime
The idea of a 4D spacetime is thus intimately connected to the notions of speed and movement, subjects that were also addressed by artists after the development of the technology of photography. Early attempts to capture motion, and thus introduce the time dimension into images, yielded exotic devices with names reminiscent of dinosaurs such as the electrotachyscope, the phenakistoscope, the praxinoscope and the zoopraxiscope, the device employed by Eadweard Muybridge (1830 – 1904) to answer the galloping question (i.e. whether all four hooves of a horse are off the ground during gallop). Muybridge, in collaboration with the French naturalist Etienne Jules Marey (1830 -1904) and the American painter Thomas Eakins (1844 – 1916), succeeded in capturing successive images of a galloping horse and invented the zoopraxiscope to reproduce them in succession, creating the illusion of motion. Marey was later able to capture a number of such images on a single photographic surface to produce sequences of different, successive phases of motion in one picture. The result is an array of overlaid slices of a world volume, similar to that of the 2D bookworm. This was a revolution in image making, either by manual or mechanical means. Up to that early era of chronophotography, painting and the new art and science of photography were exclusively dedicated to capturing fleeting moments. It was the first time that a systematic way of capturing the motion in a specific time interval was introduced and the implications in science and art became immediately obvious.
Up: Eadweard Muybridge’s sequential photographs of a galloping horse (1878). Down: Etienne Jules Marey’s “Flying Pelican”, created by overlaid sequential photographs, allowing the time dimension to enter the picture
The Futurist “dynamic sensation”
The Futurist movement, an offshoot of Cubism initiated by the Italian writer Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (1876 – 1944), displayed an obsession with motion and speed to such an extent that led Marinetti once declare, in a fit of exaggeration, that a racing car was more beautiful than the Nike of Samothrace. Though the Futurists had parallels in several countries (most notable of which was the Russian offshoot, with artists of magnitude such as Kasimir Malevich, Nataliya Goncharova, Mikhail Larionov and even the poet Vladimir Mayakovsky), Futurism was mainly an Italian phenomenon that soon began producing images reminiscent of Marey’s sequential photographs, systematically introducing the time dimension in painting. In a “Futurist Technical Manifesto” signed by Giacomo Balla (1871 – 1958), Gino Severini (1883 – 1966), Umberto Boccioni (1882 – 1916), Carlo Carra (1881 – 1966) and Luigi Russolo (1885 – 1947) in April 1910, a direct reference to world volumes and time as a dimension is made: “The gesture which we would reproduce on canvas shall no longer be a fixed moment in universal dynamism. It shall simply be the dynamic sensation itself […] On account of the persistency of an image upon the retina, moving objects constantly multiply themselves; their form changes like rapid vibrations, in their mad career. Thus a running horse has not four legs, but twenty, and their movements are triangular”. Typically, such Futurist compositions were often followed by descriptions including the term “dynamism”, a half artistic and half scientific terminology referring to evolution in time. For example Giacomo Balla (1871 – 1958) with “Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash” (1912) provides first a conventional pathway from the ordinary 3D space to a 2D image and then a leap towards 3D spacetime by allowing the time dimension to enter the scene and thus breaking the dimension limits of the painting surface: his dog, formed by overlaid slices of the corresponding world volume, appears smudged and multi – legged. Similar attempts to extend painting over the time dimension can be observed in scores of Futurist paintings, such as Balla’s “Rhythm of a Violonist” (1912) and the wonderful Neo – Impressionist “Girl running on a Balcony” (1912). However, the most remarkable work combining both the Cubist simultaneous multiple views and the Futurist world volume slicing technique is Marcel Duchamp’s “Nude Descending a Staircase No. 2” (1912), a geometric depiction of a human form in motion. The exceptionally vibrant picture seems to allude at the same time to a possible new perspective acquired by hovering outside the ordinary 3D space, somewhere in the unimaginable space of four spatial dimensions, and to the necessity of considering time as an additional dimension.
Left: Chronophotographs by Etienne Jules Marey (1880). Right: Giacomo Balla, “Rhythm of a Violonist” (1912)
Left: Giacomo Balla, “Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash” (1912). Right: Marcel Duchamp, “Nude Descending a Staircase No 2” (1912)
Such considerations make Matisse’s and Stein’s intuitive exclamation over a “fourth dimension” in Picasso’s “Demoiselles” appear less puzzling and less paradoxical. Painting has traditionally been the pathway from the 3D world we perceive to the 2D painting surface and, at least during the last century or so, it has also raised the question of other possible dimensions and the corresponding new perspective. Probably from different points of view, either rigorously or intuitively, Painting and Mathematics are both concerned about spaces and dimensions and as the Futurist and Cubist examples indicate, artistic expression has found the way, just like Mathematics, to probe into dimensions far from possible to imagine.
Anger begot rage and rage violence, and in the spring of 1925 Three Dancers was born. It was the beginning of a savage decomposition of the human body, and the evocation of the Crucifixion compounded the sense of doom and destruction that pervaded the picture.
RICHTER CROSS- MONDRIAN PIER AND OCEAN CROSSES
FOUR MASTERPIECES four pillars FOUR RIVERS FOUNTAIN
Bernini's reputation, however, was definitively established by four masterpieces, executed between 1619 and 1625, all now displayed in the Galleria Borghese in Rome. To the art historian Rudolf Wittkower these four works—Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius (1619), The Rape of Proserpina (1621–22), Apollo and Daphne (1622–25), and David (1623–24)—"inaugurated a new era in the history of European sculpture"
The St Peter's Baldacchino was the centerpiece of his ambitious plans for the embellishment of the recently completed but still rather unadorned St. Peter's. Designed as a massive spiraling gilded bronze canopy over the tomb of St Peter, Bernini's four-pillared creation reached nearly 30 m (98 ft) from the ground and cost around 200,000 Roman scudi (about $8m in currency of the early 21st century). "Quite simply", writes one art historian, "nothing like it had ever been seen before". Soon after the St Peter's Baldacchino, Bernini undertook the whole-scale embellishment of the four massive piers at crossing of the basilica (i.e., the structures supporting the cupola) including, most notably, four colossal, theatrically dramatic statues, among them, the majestic St. Longinus executed by Bernini himself (the other three are by other contemporary sculptors François Duquesnoy, Francesco Mochi, and Bernini's disciple, Andrea Bolgi). Bernini also began work on the tomb for Urban VIII, completed only after Urban's death in 1644, one in a long, distinguished series of tombs and funerary monuments for which Bernini is famous and a traditional genre upon which his influence left an enduring mark, often copied by subsequent artists. Indeed, Bernini's final and most original tomb monument, the Tomb of Pope Alexander VII, in St. Peter's Basilica, represents, according to Erwin Panofsky, the very pinnacle of European funerary art, whose creative inventiveness subsequent artists could not hope to surpass.
A few months after completing Urban's tomb, Bernini won, under controversial circumstances, the Pamphilj commission for the prestigious Four Rivers Fountain on Piazza Navona, marking the end of his disgrace and the beginning a yet another glorious chapter in his life.
Memorial to Maria Raggi, 1651.
If there had been doubts over Bernini's position as Rome's preeminent artist, the success of the Four Rivers Fountain
Charity with Four Children is a sculpture by the Italian artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Executed between 1627 and 1628, the work is housed in the Vatican Museums in Vatican City. The small terracotta sculpture represents Charity breast-feeding a child, with three other children playing. There is an imprint of the artist's thumbprint in the clay.
FOUR OF THE PILLARS ARE MUSICAL
A 13th century mandapam with 16 stone pillars situated near Dharapuram is in ruins with trees grown wild around as well as atop the structure. Pillars and roof are in a dilapidated condition due to neglect.
An interesting aspect of the pillars is that four of them at the corners are ‘musical pillars’ producing pleasant musical notes when one tap on them. “Studies denote that this mandapam, erected during the ‘Later Pandyas’ and ‘Hoysala’ period, was used to keep Lord Shiva’s idol before being taken out on processions during the festivals in nearby temples. Besides, the structure was also used by people to discuss development and cultural activities of the village,” R. Poongundran, a retired assistant of Archaeology Department, told The Hindu .
TETRACTYS AND LAST SUPPER
VITRUVIAN MAN LAST SUPPER AND TETRACTYS
Geometry and the Tetractys
Pythagoras made a particular study of geometry, which he apparently learned whilst in Egypt, where there were many geometrical problems that the Egyptians were adept at solving. Every year after the annual flood in the Nile valley had obliterated property lines, the Egyptians were forced to re-measure the land for cultivation. There was therefore a need to perfect the science of geometry, the original meaning of which was “earth measure.” Who doesn’t marvel at the perfection of geometry made manifest in the Pyramids of Giza? What monumental accuracy!
Look at the painting illustrated on page 6; it is The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci (1498), in the church of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan. This master artist and scientist is known to have had links with the Rosicrucian initiatory tradition,
and if you look carefully, the symbolically loaded numbers three and four can be seen in the famous fresco. Looking at the painting, we see that the two side walls converge forming the sides of a triangle whose apex is high above the figure of Christ, who himself appears shaped like a triangle. On each side wall are four large panels in front of which are placed groups of apostles, six on each side of Christ, each side divided into two groups of three, with the Messiah at the centre. The whole painting strongly suggests that Leonardo took deliberate inspiration from the sacred Pythagorean symbolism of the Tetractys.
Leonardo also used the Tetractys as inspiration for his drawing of the Vitruvian Man (page 5). If you look at the image carefully, you will see the visible similarities between this and the sacred Tetractys, expressing the pure perfection and complete harmony of the idealised human body. The symbol of the Tetractys is therefore manifestly inherent in the universe and can be shown in the sequence of geometric dimensions that characterises the physical world: • 1 is a point, the zero dimension.
• 2 represents a line, the first dimension.
• 3 represents a surface, the second dimension. • 4 represents a solid, the third dimension.
The sum of the numbers 1+2+3+4 gives the number 10, the symbol of perfection.
FOUR COLOR BITS- 16 SQUARES QMR
Despite varying bit depths among the CGA graphics modes (see below), CGA processes colors in its palette in four bits, yielding 24 = 16 different colors. The four color bits are arranged according to the RGBI color model: the lower three bits represent red, green, and blue color components; a fourth "intensifier" bit, when set, increases the brightness of all three color components (red, green, and blue). In graphics modes, colors are set per-pixel; in text modes, colors are set per-character, with an independent foreground and background color for each character.
256 IS FOUR TO THE FOURTH POWER
The 256-color mode proved most popular for gaming. 256-color VGA games ran fine on MCGA as long as they stuck to the basic 320×200 256-color mode and didn't attempt to use VGA-specific features such as multiple screen pages.
Games lacking support for 256-color graphics were forced to fall back to four-color CGA mode (or not run at all) due to the incompatibility with EGA video modes (320×200 16 colors). Some adventure games from Sierra On-line and Lucasfilm Games solved this problem by supporting MCGA in its 320×200 256-color mode and picking the colors most resembling the EGA 16-color RGB palette, while leaving the other available colors in that mode unused.
Another contribution to the progress in architectural development was the attention to the dynamics of shape. Von Wersin gives four examples of the dynamic tendencies in basic architectural forms (fig. 820).
MAIN FOUR ARTS
The arts have also been classified as seven: Literature, painting, sculpture, and music comprise the main four arts, of which the other three are derivative; drama is literature with acting, dance is music expressed through motion, and song is music with literature and voice.
FOUR BY FOUR
Ultimate 16: Ultimate Country 4 x 4 features original recordings of songs from Marty Stuart, Vince Gill, Tracy Byrd, and Mark Chesnutt. The set kicks off with "This One's Gonna Hurt You [For a Long Long Time]," a honky-tonk duet from Stuart and Travis Tritt, and continues with Gill's "One More Last Chance," and "Bubba Shot the Jukebox" from Chesnutt. Highlights elsewhere include Byrd's "Lifestyles of the Not So Rich and Famous," the pleasant crooner-meets-country balladry of Gill's "When I Call Your Name," and "Tempted" from Stuart, which has a great early-'60s pop, nearly girl group feel thanks to its shuffling snare drum, big floor tom flourishes, and chiming rhythm guitar. Ultimate Country scores points for keeping this set focused on some of the best voices in contemporary country, and picking solid songs throughout.
“The swastika serves as the most significant symbol of white supremacy and anti-Semitism, and whether intentional or not, the use of the symbol on the boot is deeply offensive,” The Anti-Defamation League, an international organization committed to combating anti-Semitism, said in a statement on Thursday.
“As soon as we learned about the boots leaving swastika-like imprints on the ground, ADL reached out to the merchandiser to alert them to the issue and urged them to recall the product,” said Deborah M. Lauter, Senior VP of Policy and Programs at the ADL, in an email to Vocativ. “They were mortified, and had already taken action to ensure the boots were no longer available for sale.”
The role of the Quaternity in religious symbolism is discussed in depth in the writings of the Swiss psychologist Carl Gustav Jung. In essence, the Layer monument's four figurines represent spiritual entities which agree with Jung's analytical psychology, that the psyche moves toward individuation in fours (made up of pairs of opposites).
The monument is notable on two accounts, firstly, its four figurines housed in its two columns, Pax and Gloria, Vanitas and Labor, are relatively rare examples of Northern Mannerist sculpture extant in Britain; secondly, these four figurines exemplify how, during the era of Elizabeth I, Christian iconography occasionally integrated symbolism which originated from the western esoteric traditions of alchemy and astrology into works of art, including funerary monuments.
FOUR PIECE SET MURAD- I LITERALLY WOULD GO TO PLACES LIKE STORES AND ASK THE PEOPLE WHO SOLD CREAMS AND STUFF THEY OFTEN HAD THREE CREAMS OR WHATEVER I WOULD OFTEN ASK THEM "IS THERE A FOURTH" AND THIS LITERALLY HAPPENED TO ME MANY TIMES THEY WOULD GO INTO THE CUBBARD OR THE DROOR OR WHATEVER AND THEY WOULD SAY YES THERE IS A FOURTH PART OF THE KIT OR A FOURTH CREAM OR WHATEVER IT WAS CONSISTENT AND SOMETIMES THE BOTTLE WOULD EVEN HAVE THE NUMBER FOUR WRITTEN ON IT SHOWING IT WAS THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH COMPONENT- I TOOK PICTURES OF THEM BUT AS I SAID A LOT FO THE PICTURES I DELTED IN ORDER TO GET FARTHER BACK ON MY QUADRANT MODEL OF REALITY GROUP PAGE BECASUE THERE WAS SO MANY EXAMPLES ON THAT PAGE I WAS NOT ABLE TO GO VERY FAR BACK ON IT BECAUSE MY COMPUTER WOULD FREEZE
TATCHA SET OF FOUR
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MARY KAY FOUR PIECE SET
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COCA COLA FREESTYLE MACHINES AT 16 LOCATIONS AND HAVE FOUR CATEGORIES
In late February 2015 Coca-Cola started rolling out a major Operating System redesign that divides the drink selection into four categories: Low/No Calorie, Caffeine-free, Fruit flavored and All drinks.. The Operating System update significantly reduces the amount of available drink combinations. Prior to the update, flavorings could be added to nearly every drink selection, whereas after the update only certain flavorings are available for certain drinks.
In late June 2012 Coca-Cola started a limited trial in the UK (in association with Burger King UK), with the machine initially deployed in 16 locations around Greater London. They are also now in Five Guys UK branches. The selection of brands available from a UK coke freestyle machine is different from the USA's, as only brands that are usually sold in the UK are available. Schweppes Lemonade and still versions of Fanta are brands that are available.
CHINESE THE COLORS ELEMENTS FOUR PLUS ONE
In traditional Chinese art and culture, black, red, qing (青) (a conflation of the idea of green and blue), white and yellow are viewed as standard colors. These colors correspond to the five elements of water, fire, wood, metal and earth, taught in traditional Chinese physics. Throughout the Shang, Tang, Zhou and Qin dynasties, China's emperors used the Theory of the Five Elements to select colors.
THE ELEMENTS FOUR PLUS ONE
Wǔ Xíng is a synthesis of traditional painting with its namesake philosophic tradition Wǔ Xíng – or, more specifically, the use of Chinese Xie Yi painting techniques and the metaphysics of the five Wǔ Xíng elements. Wǔ Xíng painting also inherited some traits from several Wu Shu and Qi Gong schools. The closest in style is Xingyiquan, whose 5 primary movements are balanced with the 5 elements of Wǔ Xíng. Because Wǔ Xíng painting techniques are associated foremost with consciousness and overcoming corporeal restraints, it is common to speak of the manifest art therapy influence of this method.
COLORS RELATED TO FOUR PLUS ONE ELEMENTS RELATED TO FOUR PLUS ONE DIRECTIONS RELATED TO FOUR PLUS ONE SEASONS SO ON CHINESE
TRELLIS IS LATTICE QUADRANTS
A trellis (treillage) is an architectural structure, usually made from an open framework or lattice of interwoven or intersecting pieces of wood, bamboo or metal that is normally made to support and display climbing plants, especially shrubs. There are many types of trellis for different places and for different plants, from agricultural types, especially in viticulture, which are covered at vine training systems, to garden uses for climbers such as grapevines, clematis, ivy, and climbing roses or other support based growing plants. The rose trellis is especially common in Europe and other rose-growing areas, and many climbing rose varieties require a trellis to reach their potential as garden plants. Some plants will climb and wrap themselves round a trellis without much artificial help being needed while others need training by passing the growing shoots through the trellis and/or tying them to the framework.
Four styles of trelliswork
LATTICES ARE QUADRANTS
Latticework is an openwork framework consisting of a criss-crossed pattern of strips of building material, typically wood or metal. The design is created by crossing the strips to form a network. Latticework can be purely ornamental, or can be used as a truss structure such as a lattice girder bridge.
Latticework in stone or wood from the classical period is also called transenna (plural transenne).
In India, the house of a rich or noble person may be built with a baramdah or verandah surrounding every level leading to the living area. The upper floors often have balconies overlooking the street that are shielded by jalis (latticed screens) carved in stone latticework that keeps the area cool and gives privacy.
FOUR POINT IS THE HIGHEST
Four-point perspective, also called infinite-point perspective, is the curvilinear (see curvilinear perspective) variant of two-point perspective. A four-point perspective image can represent a 360° panorama, and even beyond 360° to depict impossible scenes. This perspective can be used with either a horizontal or a vertical horizon line: in the latter configuration it can depict both a worm's-eye and bird's-eye view of a scene at the same time.
MAKES A QUINCUNX
A curvilinear perspective is a drawing with either 4 or 5 vanishing points. In 5-point perspective the vanishing points are mapped into a circle with 4 vanishing points at the cardinal headings N, W, S, E and one at the circle's origin.
FOUR KNOWN GOLDEN HATS
The Berlin Gold Hat is the best preserved specimen among the four known conical Golden hats known from Bronze Age Europe so far. Of the three others, two were found in southern Germany, and one in the west of France. All were found in the 19th and 20th centuries. It is generally assumed that the hats served as the insignia of deities or priests in the context of a sun cult that appears to have been widespread in Central Europe at the time. The hats are also suggested to have served astronomical/calendrical functions.
THE FOUR GOLDEN HATS
Golden hats (or Gold hats) (German: Goldhüte, singular: Goldhut) are a very specific and rare type of archaeological artifact from Bronze Age Europe. So far, four such objects ("cone-shaped gold hats of the Schifferstadt type") are known. The objects are made of thin sheet gold and were attached externally to long conical and brimmed headdresses which were probably made of some organic material and served to stabilise the external gold leaf. The following Golden Hats are known as of 2012:
Golden Hat of Schifferstadt, found in 1835 at Schifferstadt near Speyer, c. 1400–1300 BC.
Avanton Gold Cone, incomplete, found at Avanton near Poitiers in 1844, c. 1000–900 BC.
Golden Cone of Ezelsdorf-Buch, found near Ezelsdorf near Nuremberg in 1953, c. 1000–900 BC; the tallest known specimen at c. 90 cm.
Berlin Gold Hat, found probably in Swabia or Switzerland, c. 1000–800 BC; acquired by the Museum für Vor- und Frühgeschichte, Berlin, in 1996.
FOUR STACKED BOXES
The Four Boxes Gallery is a modern art gallery in the grounds of Krabbesholm Højskole near Skive, Denmark. The gallery was designed by the Japanese architects Atelier Bow-Wow, and is a three-storey building conceived as four stacked boxes used to exhibit work by both students of the Krabbesholm Højskole and invited artists. The school arranges 6-8 exhibitions each year featuring the work of artists, architects and designers from Denmark and abroad.
The 250 square meter gallery is set on the green lawn of the school between the Craftsmen’s School and the red brick Idé-Pro factory. The modern concrete structure is designed as four stacked boxes. The lower two boxes form outdoor galleries and an indoor gallery. The box in the middle is a smaller exhibition room, and the box at the top is a private workshop and living space for the artist in residence. The building has been described as "quintessentially Japanese, yet also strangely oversized and villa-like, as it extends the built vocabulary of the school with its clear-cut concrete edges". According to Momoyo Kaijima, one of the architects, "We tried to obtain a fusion between space and light, in a way to create 'gap spaces', that is the leftover spaces in between the four boxes which bring light into the building".
FOUR MASTED SHIPS
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Four-masted ships.
Pages in category "Four-masted ships"
The following 25 pages are in this category, out of 25 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
SS City of Rome
Falls of Clyde (ship)
Falls of Halladale
Spanish ship Juan Sebastián Elcano
Kings County (barque)
Margaret Todd (schooner)
Minnie A. Caine
USS Robert H. McCurdy (SP-3157)
Msy Wind Song
Msy Wind Spirit
Categories: Ships by number of masts
MANY DIFFERENT CONTROVERSIAL CRUCIFIXIONS INCLUDING PAITNING BY "GAY PERSON"- ALSO INCLUDING GAS MASK CRUCIFIXION
Christian art has been largely eclipsed by secular imagery in the modern era, with important exceptions. Some famous 20th-century artists still used the crucifixion motif to symbolize cruelty and sacrifice, convey emotion, and critique society. Russian avant-garde painter Marc Chagall emphasized Jesus’ Jewish identity to call attention to Nazi persecution in his expressionist “White Crucifixion.” Picasso painted a cubist crucifixion and surrealist Salvador Dali hung Jesus on a multi-dimensional cross in “Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus).” Others made political statements by changing the setting or substituting the standard Jesus with a variety of different figures. For example, German artist George Grosz was tried for blasphemy in the 1920s over his anti-military drawing of the crucified Christ in a gas mask, captioned, “Shut up and obey!” British artist Edwina Sandys caused an international uproar by sculpting a female “Christa” in 1975. Blanchard’s gay Passion series has also been attacked by conservatives as “perverted” and “blasphemous.”
The horrors of the cross resonate with LGBT experience. The crucifixion naturally became the most common subject in contemporary queer Christian art because queer people have been scapegoated, abused, and killed, often in the name of God. Some contemporary artists have made the crucified Christ explicitly gay, confirming that God identifies totally with queer suffering. They have photographed the crucifixion with contemporary LGBT models. They have changed the location to gay cruising areas or AIDS wards, showing how the marginalization of gay men led them to literally die for their sexuality. Atlanta painter Becki Jayne Harrelson and New Mexico iconographer William Hart McNichols placed a “faggot” sign on the cross over his head. Brazilian cartoonist Carlos Latuff wrapped him in a rainbow loincloth. Photographers Elisabeth Ohlson Wallin of Sweden and Fernando Bayona Gonzalez of Spain, working separately, each did a Life of Christ series where the crucifixion scene shows Jesus lying spread-eagle on the ground after a gay bashing. Mary Button of Tennessee pairs the crucifixion of Christ with the murder of a transgender woman. Blanchard takes a more subtle approach. There are no overt gay references in his crucifixion. The viewer needs to look at the subtitle and other paintings in the series to know that this is a “gay vision.”
Blanchard shows the crucifixion for what it was -- one man’s violent death. Like prophets and freedom fighters of every age, Jesus was killed for challenging the status quo. The man who loves too much must die. By witnessing the crucifixion with compassion, viewers can stand symbolically beside all who suffer. They can face their own suffering without losing hope by seeing it in a larger context. The body of Christ represents the Oneness that goes by many names. The god-man dies and God’s identification with humanity, and in this case gay humanity, is complete.
EARLY CHRISTIAN MARTYRS DISGUISE CROSSES AS TRIDENTS
The very name of Blanchard’s crucifixion -- “Jesus Dies” -- expresses the modern spirit of the image. The dying Jesus was not depicted at all in Christianity’s millennium. The cross is one of the world’s most common symbols now, but crucifixion images are not the only or even the original way to worship Jesus. Christians drew strength from the crucifixion story in the era of early Christian martyrs, but back then artists had to disguise crosses as anchors or tridents to avoid Roman persecution.
TWO FISH AND TRIDENT EARLY CHRISTIAN SYMBOL
EARLY CHRISTIANS DISGUISED CROSS AS TRIDENT AND SHIP MAST AND SO ON
During the period of persecutions before Constantine I, we generally don't find the cross on monuments and catacomb sepulchres. It is nearly always disguised -- as an anchor, later a trident, or the mainmast of a ship.1 Other disguised forms of the cross include monograms such as what is called the St. Andrew's cross, in the shape of the Greek letter chi. The Greek cross with equilateral arms appears in some catacomb inscriptions also. The Chi-Rho is seen early as well as the swastica. Even during a century relatively free from persecution after Constantine's Edit of Milan (313 AD) declaring Christianity a tolerated religion didn't make most Christians comfortable enough to display the cross. One of the first appearances of an undisguised cross is on the sarcophagus of Sextus Petronius Probus and his wife, Rome, about 390 AD. Another example is a sarcophagus probably from the Catacomb of Domitilla (mid-fourth century).
TRIED FOR BLASPHEMY CHRIST WITH GAS MASK AND BOOTS CROSS/QUADRANT
Christ With Gasmask And Boots
George Grosz (149 artworks, 707 followers)
Christ With Gasmask And Boots
George Grosz (July 26, 1893 – July 6, 1959) was a German artist known especially for his caricatural drawings and paintings of Berlin life in the 1920s. He was a prominent member of the Berlin Dada and New Objectivity group during the Weimar Republic. He emigrated to the United States in 1933, and became a naturalized citizen in 1938. Abandoning the style and subject matter of his earlier work, he exhibited regularly and taught for many years at the Art Students League of New York. In 1956 he returned to Berlin where he died.
GROSZS SOCIETY COMMENTARIES USING PAINTINGS WITH CROSSES/QUADRANTS
The first clear example of Grosz's commentry on the Church appeared in his 1920 work, 'The Three Pillars of Society'. This clearly showed the decadence of the Army, the school, and the Church. The Church was represented in this drawing by a single figure with duelling scars on his cheek and cross in hand, surrounded by members of the army racing forward with guns. The painting of 1926, 'Pillars of Society', showed a priest representing the Church, blessing' everything without discrimination. The position in the Church hadn't changed; so neither did the comment.
In 1922 Grosz continued the theme of the Church supporting war in the drawing 'They Thunder Sweetness and Light'. His comment is even more clearly aimed at criticising Priests allover the world, not just in Germany. The universal figure of the priest is portrayed praying for victory while dead soldiers scatter the ground beneath his feet. The title of the portfolio to which the work belongs, 'God on our side', makes very direct reference to the same irony.
GROSZ CRUCIFIX END OF NOSE
One plate showed a priest standing with grimfaced representatives of the army and the law and belancing a crucifix on the end of nose
GROSZ CROSS ON NOSE
George Grosz, Seid untertan der Obrigkeit (Bow to the authorities) (published 1928). From Hinterland (Background)
© The Estate of George Grosz, Princeton, New Jersey, USA. Photo: Stephen White
TRIDENT TWIN TOWERS - TRIDENTS ARE CROSSES
MASERATI TRIDENT CROSS
MALAYSIAN AIRLINE AND TRIDENT
WORLD TRADE CENTER TRIDENT (TRIDENT IS CROSS) MEMORIAL
SUPERBOWL HALFTIME SHOW TRIDENT CROSSES
WAYNE ENTERPRISES LOGO TRIDENT CROSS
PICASSO PLAY FOUR LITTLE GIRLS
The Four Little Girls (Les Quatre Petites Filles) is a play written in French by the painter Pablo Picasso. It is the second of two full-length plays written by Picasso, the first being Desire Caught by the Tail. Written between November 24, 1947, and August 13, 1948, it was published in 1949. In 1952 Picasso wrote a second version of the play using the same title.
An octagonal star can be seen as a concave hexadecagon:
16 POINT STARS
Complex girih patterns with 16-, 10- and 8-point stars at different scales in ceiling of the Tomb of Hafez in Shiraz, 1935
16 POINT STAR - HIGHEST IS 16- 16 SQUARES IN THE QUADRANT MODEL
The beginning of the late stage is marked by the use of simple 16-point patterns at the Hasan Sadaqah mausoleum in Cairo in 1321, and in the Alhambra in Spain in 1338–1390. These patterns are rarely found outside these two regions. More elaborate combined 16-point geometrical patterns are found in the Sultan Hasan complex in Cairo in 1363, but rarely elsewhere. Finally, 14-point patterns appear in the Jama Masjid at Fatehpur Sikri in India in 1571–1596, but in few other places. [d]
A doorway in Ben Youssef Madrasa, Marrakech. The wooden doors are carved with a girih pattern of strapwork with a 16-point star. The arch is surrounded with arabesques; to either side is a band of Islamic calligraphy, above colourful geometric zellige tilework with 8-point stars.
The complexity and variety of patterns used evolved from simple stars and lozenges in the ninth century, through a variety of 6- to 13-point patterns by the 13th century, and finally to include also 14- and 16-point stars in the sixteenth century.
6 AT THE PRICE OF FOUR
Earlier marketing efforts touted efficiency combined with savings – ("enormous buying power," 1914; "Quality at low cost," 1923, ""A Six for the Price of a Four," 1929), interspersed with what could be described as "loftier" messages (positioning the automobile –and Chevy by extension—as "Man's conquest of time," 1923). Of the marketing campaigns from more recent decades, "See the U.S.A. in Your Chevrolet" (used in the 50s and 60s) was one of the longest lasting. In 1949 Chevy sponsored "Inside USA" on CBS; while this was a short-lived show, the tune created for it got new life in 1951, when Chevy began sponsoring the Dinah Shore show and Shore sang it at the close of every show.
HAS THE CROSS EMBLEM IN A GLOBE 4- SPEED
The Prizm came in either a base model or a more upscale LSi version that had an optional 1.8 L engine and a 4-speed automatic transmission. Leather interior was also optional on the LSi model. From 1990-1992 the Prizm had a sporty GSi model, with red and black badging. It was equivalent in power and equipment to the Corolla GT-S although the latter was a coupe.The GSi was the most powerful Prizm with 130 hp (97 kW; 132 PS)
For the emergence of young from an egg, see Egg (biology). For the "crosshatch" symbol, see Number sign. For cross-hatching in writing, see Crossed letter.
Albrecht Dürer, Veronica, engraving, 1513. Example of hatching (e.g., background) and cross-hatching in many darker areas (visible if viewed at full size).
Detail of Veronica
Hatching (hachure in French) is an artistic technique used to create tonal or shading effects by drawing (or painting or scribing) closely spaced parallel lines. (It is also used in monochromatic heraldic representations to indicate what the tincture of a "full-colour" emblazon would be.) When lines are placed at an angle to one another, it is called cross-hatching.
Hatching is especially important in essentially linear media, such as drawing, and many forms of printmaking, such as engraving, etching and woodcut. In Western art, hatching originated in the Middle Ages, and developed further into cross-hatching, especially in the old master prints of the fifteenth century. Master ES and Martin Schongauer in engraving and Erhard Reuwich and Michael Wolgemut in woodcut were pioneers of both techniques, and Albrecht Dürer in particular perfected the technique of crosshatching in both media.
Artists use the technique, varying the length, angle, closeness and other qualities of the lines, most commonly in drawing, linear painting and engraving.
2 See also
3.1 Works cited
4 External links
The main concept is that the quantity, thickness and spacing of the lines will affect the brightness of the overall image, and emphasize forms creating the illusion of volume. Hatching lines should always follow (i.e. wrap around) the form. By increasing quantity, thickness and closeness, a darker area will result.
An area of shading next to another area which has lines going in another direction is often used to create contrast.
Line work can be used to represent colours, typically by using the same type of hatch to represent particular tones. For example, red might be made up of lightly spaced lines, whereas green could be made of two layers of perpendicular dense lines, resulting in a realistic image.
Hatching in parallel lines. Normally the lines follow the direction of the described plane.
Layers of hatching applied at different angles to create different textures and darker tones. At its simplest, a layer of linear hatching is laid over another layer at a 90° angle, to which further diagonal layers may be added. Other methods include layering arbitrary intersecting patches. Crosshatching in which layers intersect at slight angles can create a rippled moiré effect.
Hatching using curved lines to describe light and form of contours.
Hatching table of Aegidius Gelenius, published 1645
The Three Crosses, etching by Rembrandt
DANISH FLAG IS QUADRANT
Christen Købke, View of Lake Sortedam, 1838. The Danish flag is frequently seen in paintings of this period.
THREE PLUS ONE PAINTING
YSL marketing geniuses undressed two men who stopped their conversation at once (it often happens to men who suddenly get naked in front of a fully clothed woman), and made Kate Moss open her mouth a bit as if she’s deep in thought, sizing you up. Or, rather, having sized up Exhibits A and B in front of her, is now doing complicated mathematical calculations meant to tell her if yours, given the relative distance, is bigger. What the heck it has to do with clothes or hommage to Manet, I can’t possibly imagine. Perhaps, ultimately, it’s about apples, because – come to think of it – anything anywhere can be reduced just to that damning fruit.
Speaking of fashion, any brand will tell you that true recognition begins when the Chinese start making fakes. I don’t mean those sweat shops that make custom-sized identical copies of historical masterpieces. They never get their colours right anyway.
I mean real artists, like Yue Minjun, who only paints himself in his pictures.
THREE PLUS ONE PAINTING MANET - THE ONE IS THE SHOPPING CART
I am sure a Russian mobster, a gypsy baron, or a British bank robber would shiver with immediate resonance with this photograph.
While staying on the Asian versions, look at this Luncheon:
You know, what’s most surprising about it? The artist is French, and not of Chinese origin. Etienne Cail, 24 y.o.
How great is a European artwork if a Frenchman makes a Chinese copy of it? Or is it Japanese? I am getting lost in this enigma wrapped in mystery.
Another evidence of greatness is becoming a part of feminist discourse.
CROSS SAIL IN BACKGROUND
We’ve already seen a couple of naked men, but here a man takes the place of the nude woman, while women take the places of men.
Don’t yawn, I know you’ve been expecting this to happen to Manet’s Luncheon for quite some time now. Switching gender roles might seem obvious, but the important bit about this painting is the frog.
Yes, there’s a frog in Manet’s painting, and it is absent here. Perhaps, the artist is sending us a subtle message by choosing not to paint it? Or, perhaps, the frog is now covered by the man’s straw hat with a pink ribbon (that makes the observer reconsider the whole gender-role switching thing again)?
Or, perhaps, I just read too much into it.
I wanted to end this gallery with a Luncheon that would offer something more interesting than a trite change of gender, or a reversal of nudity.
This is a Russian version by a Russian artist hated by Russians for the way he shows Russia. Ironically, it is just as scandalous for Russians, as Manet’s original was for the French. And not because it is totally untrue.
PICASSO PAYING TRIBUTE TO THE THREE PLUS ONE MANET LUNCHEON
Paying tribute to Édouard Manet’s Déjeuner sur l’herbe/ Luncheon on the Grass, Picasso produced multitudes of paintings that mimicked the original’s subject matter, yet in his own style.
PICASSO INSPIRATION MANETS THREE PLUS ONE LUNCHEON ON THE GRASS
PICASSOS PLAY ON MANETS THREE PLUS ONE LUNCHEON
In the painting below (it is the last of one series of variations) Picasso retransforms the model into an Arcadian scene: instead of juxtaposing nude and clothed figures, we have here an idyl with four nude figures, shown near a pond in the subdued green light of the foliage. This brings to mind the themes of the Bather, and Figures on the Beach, which turn up so often in Picasso's works. But, via Manet, a new background has been added to these themes - the dimension of mythology - and the link with nineteenth-century painting has deepened the relationship between the figures, endowing them with greater tension and thus bringing them closer to the spirit of our own days.
PICASSO AND THE FOUR CHARACTERS MANET FOUR STAGES
Picasso tackles each of these problems in four stages.
1954 : copy/interpretation/variation
Study after Manet's Lunch on the Grass
© Succession Picasso 2008 - RMN-Grand Palais / Béatrice Hatala
First announced in 1932, it would be twenty-four years before the confrontation began. In 1954, Picasso opened a sketchbook and wrote on the cover: "FIRST drawings/of the Déjeuner sur l'Herbe/1954". The artist completed four drawings in it, based on the Lunch on the Grass, three of which are dated 26th June 1954. The fourth is dated the 29th.
The first drawing captures the whole composition of the Lunch on the Grass. Everything is there: the landscape, the still life and of course, the four characters: the swimmer, the man on the left holding out his arm (Manet's brother in law, Ferdinand Leenhoff), the naked woman (Victorine Meurent, the painter's favourite model), and the second man seated behind her (one of Manet's brothers, Eugène or Gustave).
In the second study, dated 26th June, Picasso concentrated on the positioning of the four characters. In the third, he framed the faces of Victorine and Ferdinand.
Finally, in the study of 29th June, there is a faithful, naturalistic and even affectionate return to the four protagonists.
The cardboard figures were designed and folded, and Picasso could place and move each one of them Lunch on the Grass is a game for swingers, it is a relaxed, happy "foursome". The models were photographed in the order that Manet had chosen. Picasso placed a postcard of Manet's painting alongside them as a reminder of the origin of his composition. To emphasise the natural setting, he made pencil drawings of the trees which would surround the concrete swimmers. It was Carl Nesjar who produced these models, which in 1966 were placed in the grounds of the Moderna Museet in Stockholm.
PICASSO MANET SOMETIMES FOUR SOMETIMES THREE
That year, he took the four characters created by Manet to create a monumental sculpture. Picasso took each of the questions Manet’s painting had provoked during its tumultuous presentation at the Salon des Refusés in 1863, made them his own and responded to them: the question of the nude, the absence of a subject, the plein air issue.
Thus the protagonists in Manet’s Déjeuner become actors in a small theatre which Picasso changes into a landscape which, when all is considered, is just a stage set. He exploits all the possibilities afforded to him by the “partie carrée” (foursome) of Manet’s imagination. The characters, women and men, are re-clothed or undressed. They move closer or further away. One reads, another smokes. One is speaking; another is picking a flower. Sometimes there are four, sometimes three...
“Frog” was the most popular euphemism at the time for prostitute. That too was something the well-heeled men viewing the painting knew a great deal about. Manet himself was involved in many relationships outside of his marriage to a stolid Dutch woman, contracting syphilis in his forties and dying of it in 1883.
The last thing I wish to mention is the afterlife of the painting. Though there are many other paintings with more drama, with more provocative content, this painting was used by several artists since the showing in 1863. Emile Zola’s The Masterpiece takes the painting and its reception as the subject of the story. Picasso, upon first seeing it, remarked that “this is going to cause some trouble later on.” He tackled the work 6o years later, painting numerous interpretations.
BANSKY KATE MOSS QUADRANTS
FOURSOME TITIAN AND MANET THREE PLUS ONE PATTERN
Taking inspired from the composition of ‘The Pastoral Concert’ made by Titan, Edouard Manet painted ‘The Luncheon on the Grass’. Unlike Titan’s mythological theme, Manet’s painting had a contemporary setting. In that era, the art critics considered Manet’s painting obscene, lacking any mythological theme or allegorical precedent a nude and a scantily dressed female along with two fully cloth men in an urban setting couldn’t be passed off as a respectable subject. Claude Monet further inspired by Manet’s painting made his own version of ‘The Luncheon on the Grass’. James Tissot’s version ‘The Foursome’ was more animated but it was much tamer and sober.
‘The Pastoral Concert’ made by Titan (Original)
TETRAGRAMMATON AND T SHAPED CROSSES
The original pronunciation has been lost, but has been transcribed into Roman letters as YHWH – known as the Tetragrammaton – and is usually translated either as Yahweh or Jehovah. A sealed book containing sacred information was mentioned in the biblical Book of Revelations.
If genuine, it seems clear that these books were, in fact, created by an early Messianic Jewish sect, perhaps closely allied to the early Christian church and that these images represent Christ himself.
One plate has been interpreted as a schematic map of Christian Jerusalem showing the Roman crosses outside the city walls. At the top can be seen a ladder-type shape. This is thought to be a balustrade mentioned in a biblical description of the Temple in Jerusalem. Below that are three groups of brickwork, to represent the walls of the city.
A fruiting palm tree suggests the House of David and there are three or four shapes that appear to be horizontal lines intersected by short vertical lines from below. These are the T-shaped crosses believed to have been used in biblical times (the familiar crucifix shape is said to date from the 4th Century). The star shapes in a long line represent the House of Jesse – and then the pattern is repeated.
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A QUADRANT AND CRUCIFIX IN THE PAINTING- HIDDEN
Holbein may have intended the skulls (one as a gray slash and the other as a medallion on Jean de Dinteville's hat) and the crucifix in the upper left corner to encourage contemplation of one's impending death and the resurrection.
Among the clues to the figures' explorative associations are a selection of scientific instruments including two globes (one terrestrial and one celestial), a quadrant, a torquetum, and a polyhedral sundial, as well as various textiles including the floor mosaic, based on a design from Westminster Abbey (the Cosmati pavement, before the High Altar), and the carpet on the upper shelf, which is most notably oriental, an example of Oriental carpets in Renaissance painting. The choice for the inclusion of the two figures can furthermore be seen as symbolic. The figure on the left is in secular attire while the figure on the right is dressed in clerical clothes. Their flanking of the table, which displays open books, symbols of religious knowledge and even a symbolic link to the Virgin, is therefore believed by some critics to be symbolic of a unification of capitalism and the Church.
AGRIPPA HOLDEIN MAGIC SQUARE AND CROSS
Number 6 (top left hand corner of the magic square) is where the crucifix is to be found in "The Ambassadors". Agrippa clearly attributes number 6 to the suffering endured by Christ when crucified. Agrippa also attributes number 6 with the cross itself. It is interesting to note that Kabbalists also associate the word 'nail' with number 6.
Then I realised that the lines did in fact meet, and they met somewhere with more significance than Christ's head or chest - his healing right hand or possibly the nail that impales it on the missing section of the cross.
Quadrant Magic Squares
SKULL AND CRUCIFIX DIRCK JACOBS
at their joint portrait. It is often noted in the literature on the Ambassadors that one of this highly complex painting’s clear- est sources is the pictorial tradition, particularly strong in the North, of the emblematic marriage portrait or, more generally, of the portrait of the married couple [Fig. 7].18 The German, and the German-influenced, e.g., the Venetian, form of portrait of couples not only provides the general scheme for express- ing the inner world of its sitters.19 It also often makes a place for a pictorial meditation on the mortality of its sitters, mani- fested in the juxtaposition of the figures portrayed to a skull, a crucifix, and other symbols of finitude and temporality such as time measuring instruments, a candle, etc.20
In addition to its arrangement of sitters, skull, and crucifix, this portrait tradition also provides a pictorial source for the Ambassadors’s enigmatic concealment of the image of the skull. In considering certain German couple portraits from the second half of the 15th century, we see, as Campbell for exam- ple argues, that they are executed as ‘double-sided pictures showing, on the obverses full length portraits of young cou- ples, and, on the reverses images of their decaying corpses’.21 In other words, these are portraits whose preoccu- pation with mortality does not present itself in the painting’s
And so, if we read the Ambassadors against the back- ground of a pictorial meditation on mortality which we find in portraits of married couples, we also need to recognize that Holbein does not simply ‘borrow’ specific emblematic ele- ments from these portraits but that he imports a whole psy- chological framework which allows him to develop the theme of mortality in a specific manner. Mortality is presented in the Ambassadors in a manner sensitive to the particular context of the relationship between the depicted figures. In this respect, the appearance of such emblems as the skull and crucifix not only tells us about the painting’s concern with death, finitude and salvation, but reflects a specific and prior understanding of the relationship between Dinteville and de Selve, an under- standing resting on the pictorial model of marriage.
GOYA FOUR MAJOR PRINT SERIES
The Disasters of War is the second of Goya's four major print series, which constitute almost all of his most important work in the medium. He also created 35 prints early in his career—many of which are reproductions of his portraits and other works—and about 16 lithographs while living in France. Goya created his first series, the 80-plate Caprichos, between 1797 and 1799 to document "the innumerable foibles and follies to be found in any civilized society, and ... the common prejudices and deceitful practices which custom, ignorance, or self-interest have made usual." Caprichos was put on sale in 1799, but was almost immediately withdrawn after threats from the Inquisition. In The Disasters of War's first two groups of prints, Goya largely departs from the imaginative, synthetic approach of Caprichos to realistically depict life-and-death scenes of war. In the last group, the Caprichos sense of the fantastic returns.
Between 1815 and 1816, Goya produced the Tauromachia, a series of 33 bullfighting scenes, during a break from The Disasters of War. Tauromachia was not politically sensitive, and was published at the end of 1816 in an edition of 320—for sale individually or in sets—without incident. It did not meet with critical or commercial success. In France, Goya completed a set of four larger lithographs, Los toros de Burdeos (The Bulls of Bordeaux). His final series, known as Los Disparates (The Follies), Proverbios (Proverbs), or Sueños (Dreams), contains 22 large plates and at least five drawings that are seemingly part of the series but which were never etched. All these were left in Madrid—apparently incomplete and with only a handful of proofs printed—when Goya went to France in 1823. One plate is known to have been etched in 1816, but little else is established about the chronology of the works, or Goya's plans for the set.
As the series progressed, Goya evidently began to experience shortages of good quality paper and copper plates, and was forced to take what art historian Juliet Wilson-Bareau calls the "drastic step" of destroying two depicting landscapes, from which very few impressions had been printed. These were cut in half to produce four of The Disasters of War's prints. Partly because of the material shortages, the sizes and shapes of the plates vary somewhat, ranging from as small as 142 × 168 mm (5.6 × 6.6 in) to as large as 163 × 260 mm (6.4 × 10.2 in).[a 7]
Plate 34: Por una navaja (For a clasp knife). A garroted priest grasps a crucifix in his hands. Pinned to his chest is a description of the crime for which he was killed—possession of a knife.
POSTURE OF CRUCIFIXION
The Assassination of Five Monks from Valencia is thought to have served as a source for Goya's composition. Points of similarity include a victim in a posture of crucifixion, whose white garment sets him apart from his companions; a tonsured monk with clenched hands who kneels to his left; and an executed corpse lying in the foreground.
Christ on the Cross is a 1782 painting by Jacques-Louis David. It was commissioned by marshal Louis de Noailles and his wife Catherine de Cossé-Brissac for their family chapel in the église des Capucins in Paris. One of David's few religious works, it is now in the église Saint-Vincent in Mâcon.
REPRESENT FOUR CONTINENTS
His Allegory of the Planets and Continents depicts Apollo embarking on his daily course; deities around him symbolize the planets; allegorical figures (on the cornice) represent the four continents.
GOYA CRUCIFIXION- baby cruciform holding mom harkens to Goyas crucifixion pose
Picasso's work is drawn from Francisco Goya's painting The Third of May 1808, which shows Napoleon's soldiers executing Spanish civilians under the orders of Joachim Murat. It stands in the same iconographic tradition of an earlier work modeled after Goya, Édouard Manet's series of five paintings depicting the execution of Emperor Maximilian, completed between 1867 and 1869.
Francisco Goya, The Third of May 1808, 1814, Museo del Prado
As with Goya's The Third of May 1808, Picasso's painting is marked by a bifurcated composition, divided into two distinct parts. To the left, a group of naked women and children are seen situated at the foot of a mass grave. A number of heavily armed "knights" stand to the right, also naked, but equipped with "gigantic limbs and hard muscles similar to those of prehistoric giants." The firing squad is rigidly poised as in Goya. In Picasso's representation, however, the group is manifestly helter-skelter – as was often apparent in his portrayals of armored soldiers in drawings and lithographs – which may be taken to indicate an attitude of mockery of the idiocy of war.
THE CRUCIFIX IN AMADEUS
[addressing a crucifix] From now on, we are enemies... You and I. Because You choose for Your instrument a boastful, lustful, smutty, infantile boy and give me for reward only the ability to recognize the incarnation. Because You are unjust, unfair, unkind, I will block You, I swear it. I will hinder and harm Your creature on earth as far as I am able. I will ruin Your incarnation.
HIS LEG AND THE CANE MAKE A QUADRANT/CROSS
‘The Ghost of Vermeer of Delft Which Can Be Used As a Table’ by Dali
FOUR RECTANGULAR PONDS QUADRANT- QUINCUNX AND QUADRANT PATTERNS
The gardens of the palace were formal French Renaissance gardens constructed in 1636. In front of the palace were trees and parterres enclosed by walls. Behind the palace was a larger garden with four rectangular ponds.
The grounds thus enclosed and divided featured a symmetrical suite of six parterres that were planted—rather than with the clipped patterns relieved with colored gravel of Le Nôtre's Garden à la française manner—as formal bosquets of trees laid out quincunx-fashion and separated by wide gravelled walks. In the four outer corners of the grounds that were articulated by these shady sections were four rectangular ponds, the vijvers of which two survive today. At the outside front corners were a pair of mock fortifications with corner bastions all in tightly-clipped evergreens, entered by arched doorways.
Broderies in the gardens of the château de Villandry (Indre-et-Loire)
VERY FAMOUS ARMS AND CALF LEGS MAKE CROSS X
Moscophoros (Greek: μοσχοφόρος "calf-bearer") is an ancient Greek statue of cow-bearer that was found in fragments in the Perserschutt in the Acropolis of Athens. The statue, dated c. 560 BC and estimated to have originally measured 1.65 metres (5.4 ft) in height, is currently housed in the Acropolis Museum in Athens, Greece.
According to an inscription on its base, the statue was a votive offering to the goddess Athena by a certain Rhonbos (although the name is not entirely legible); it is thought to represent Rhonbos himself, bringing sacrifice.
Byzantine art, though producing superb ivory reliefs and architectural decorative carving, never returned to monumental sculpture, or even much small sculpture in the round. However, in the West during the Carolingian and Ottonian periods there was the beginnings of a production of monumental statues, in courts and major churches. This gradually spread; by the late 10th and 11th century there are records of several apparently life-size sculptures in Anglo-Saxon churches, probably of precious metal around a wooden frame, like the Golden Madonna of Essen. No Anglo-Saxon example has survived, and survivals of large non-architectural sculpture from before 1,000 are exceptionally rare. Much the finest is the Gero Cross, of 965–70, which is a crucifix, which was evidently the commonest type of sculpture; Charlemagne had set one up in the Palatine Chapel in Aachen around 800. These continued to grow in popularity, especially in Germany and Italy. The rune stones of the Nordic world, the Pictish stones of Scotland and possibly the high cross reliefs of Christian Great Britain, were northern sculptural traditions that bridged the period of Christianization.
CHIASTIC MEANS CROSS DONATELLOS DAVID
from what I understand 'contrapposto' is when the model subject's torso is twisted on its vertical axis in the opposite direction of of the pelvis. You can see this in a lot of greek sculpture. A 'chiastic' pose is just a pose where the model subject's weight is resting on one leg. An example of this would be Michaelangelo or Donatello's sculptures of David.
The need to preserve multiple adjacent sacred precincts likely explains the complex design. The main structure consists of up to four compartments, the largest being the east cella, with an Ionic portico on its east end. Other current thinking would have the entire interior at the lower level and the East porch used for access to the great altar of Athena Polias via a balcony and stair and also as a public viewing platform.
Two to four Athenian maidens were chosen for the service of the Goddess and lived on the Acropolis for one year. Between the ages of seven and eleven, they were selected from among the noble families. All were called Arrephoroi.
In the 16th century, from the examples engraved for Sebastiano Serlio's treatise on architecture, caryatids became a fixture in the decorative vocabulary of Northern Mannerism expressed by the Fontainebleau School and the engravers of designs in Antwerp. In the early 17th century, interior examples appear in Jacobean interiors in England; in Scotland the overmantel in the great hall of Muchalls Castle remains an early example. Caryatids remained part of the German Baroque vocabulary (illustration, right) and were refashioned in more restrained and "Grecian" forms by neoclassical architects and designers, such as the four terracotta caryatids on the porch of St Pancras New Church, London (1822).
Late Baroque caryatid and atlantid hemi-figures at Sanssouci, Frederick the Great's schloss at Potsdam
Many caryatids lined up on the facade of the 1893 Palace of the Arts housing the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago. In the arts of design, the draped figure supporting an acanthus-grown basket capital taking the form of a candlestick or a table-support is a familiar cliché of neoclassical decorative arts. The John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art in Sarasota has caryatids as a motif on its eastern facade.
In 1905 American sculptor Augustus Saint Gaudens created a caryatid porch for the Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York in which four of the eight figures (the other four figures holding only wreaths) represented a different art form, Architecture, Painting, Sculpture, and Music .
FOUR COMPARTMENTS PARTHENON
FOUR YOUNG GIRLS
Jamauri D. Green holds that the parthenon was the room in which the peplos presented to Athena at the Panathenaic Festival was woven by the arrephoroi, a group of four young girls chosen to serve Athena each year.
BRUNELLESCHI AND GHIBERTI DID QUATREFOILS- QUAT IS FOUR
“Brunelleschi’s work is by far the more dramatic and disturbing, all angles and movement and raw emotion., like nothing that had ever been created before. His Abraham is a tall, powerful figure, grasping a frail Isaac along the jawline with his left hand, the father’s thumb under the boy’s chin to better expose the neck, or perhaps to cut off the flow of oxygen so that his son won’t feel the fatal blow. In his right hand, Abraham holds the knife, driving the blade forward with such forceful commitment that the angel sweeping down from the sky must grab his wrist to stop the sacrifice. The story literally bursts out from the panel, breaking the boundaries of the Gothic quatrefoil within which it is supposed to be contained, just as Brunelleschi burst through the boundaries of the Gothic art with his creation.” -(Robert Paul Walker from his book “The Feud that Sparked the Renaissance”)
Here’s Ghiberti’s panel:
“Ghiberti’s panel is more elegant and more beautiful. His Isaac is a perfectly modeled classical nude while his Abraham is a smaller, more graceful man, his left arm wrapped around the boy’s shoulders while his right hand holds the knife hovering in the air, as if he has not yet made the decision to strike. The angel floats above them, open palm over Abraham’s well-coifed, curly hair, no need to grab the father’s arm but able instead to stop him with a word. The whole scene plays out against an exquisitely cascading mountainside, all neatly contained within its quatrefoil boundary. Whereas Brunelleschi’s piece demonstrates an artist aching to forge a new and more powerful image of reality, Ghiberti’s demonstrates masterful perfection of the art,a s remarkable in its own way for the time and place and age of the artist as is the work of his rival.” -Paul Robert Walker
SHORT FOR FOUR HUNDRED
In fine art, the term "quattrocento" (Italian for 'four hundred') is an abbreviation for "millequattrocento" (Italian for 'fourteen hundred'), meaning the fifteenth century. It therefore embraces cultural and artistic activities in painting, sculpture and architecture during the period 1400-1500. Since the quattrocento coincided with the Florentine Renaissance - the main centre of the early Italian Renaissance - the term is often used as a synonym for early Renaissance art in general - with its new found enthusiasm for classical antique forms from ancient Greece and ancient Rome.
THE FOUR GREATEST FIGURES
The four greatest figures of Italian Renaissance sculpture were Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455), Donatello (1386-1466), Andrea del Verrocchio (1435-88), and of course Michelangelo. In Siena, the leading sculptor was Jacopo della Quercia (1374-1438)
Bernardino Luini, The Holy Family with St. John. Museo del Prado, Madrid
IN ONE OF LEONARDO'S VIRGIN OF THE ROCKS JOHN THE BAPTIZER IS CARRRYING A CROSS/QUADRANT- ON THE OTHER ONE JOHN THE BAPTIZER IS NOT
Artist Leonardo da Vinci
Medium Oil on panel
Dimensions 189.5 cm × 120 cm (74.6 in × 47.25 in)
Location National Gallery, London
FOUR ONE SIDE FOUR THE OTHER
The details of the painting, colouring and gilding are set out in the contract. The central panel was to be a painting showing the Virgin Mary and Christ Child, with two prophets, probably David and Isaiah, surrounded by angels. Above them was to be a lunette containing a relief panel of God the Father and the Virgin Mary, beneath which was a panel showing the crib. The relief figures were to be brightly painted and gilded. To either side of the central painting were to be painted panels showing four angelic musicians on one side and four singing angels on the other. A number of sculptured relief panels were to depict the life of the Virgin Mary. Details of the colours and the gilding of the major parts were specified in the contract.
JOHN THE BAPTIZER CARRIES A CRUCIFORM REED STAFF IN ONE OF HIS PAINTINGS AND NOT THE OTHER
The London version contains traditional attributes missing from the Louvre version, the haloes and John's traditional cruciform reed staff
FOUR FIGURES IN QUADRANT FORMATION LEONARDO
Both paintings show a grouping of four figures, the Virgin Mary, the Christ Child, the infant John the Baptist and an angel arranged into a triangular composition within the painting and set against a background of rocks, and a distant landscape of mountains and water. In both paintings the Virgin Mary makes the apex of the pyramidal figure group, stretching one hand to include John the Baptist and raising the other above the head of the Christ Child in a blessing. John the Baptist kneels, gazing towards the Christ Child with his hands together in an attitude of prayer. The Christ Child sit towards the front of the painting, supported by the angel, and raising his right hand in a sign of Benediction towards the kneeling John.
LEONARDO INSPIRED LUINI
Holy Family with the Infant St John, by Bernardino Luini in the Prado
MAKES CROSS WITH VIOLIN
Angel by an unknown painter, perhaps Bernardino Luini or Francesco Napoletano
Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, mosaico della Madre di Dio in trono con il Bambino, circondata da quattro angeli. - panoramio
A wax copy of the Czechoslovakian image of Infant of Prague.
Pious legends claim that the image once belonged to Saint Teresa of Avila of the Carmelite Order, here portrayed under religious ecstasy as pierced in the heart by a cherub.
CROSS ON GARMENT
An early German copy of the statue, note the white wig as opposed to the traditional blonde hair. circa. 1870
COFFERED CEILINGS ARE QUADRANTS
Coffered Ceiling Costs
Coffered ceilings do not look cheap and that’s because they aren’t. However, they pay back greatly in aesthetic appeal and resale value since they add a touch of luxury to any plain room. The cost to install coffered ceilings varies depending on the type of wood and the size of the room, but is usually about $25 per square foot. For a basic ceiling of 150 square feet, the total cost may be around $3,750. Installation costs are high because the work is extensively customized and has to be done by a master craftsman.
COFFERED CEILIGN QUADRANTS
Giuliano da Sangallo's flat caisson ceiling, Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome.
Coffering on the ceiling of the Pantheon, Rome
Coffered ceilings of Mir Castle, Belarus.
CARRYING GLOBUS CRUCIGER- GLOBE WITH A CROSS/QUADRANT
Infant Jesus of Prague
The Infant Jesus of Prague or Child of Prague (Czech: Pražské Jezulátko; Spanish: Niño Jesús de Praga) is a 16th-century Roman Catholic wax-coated wooden statue of child Jesus holding a globus cruciger, located in the Discalced Carmelite Church of Our Lady Victorious in Malá Strana, Prague, Czech Republic. Pious legends state that the statue once belonged to Saint Teresa of Avila.
Polidoro da Lanciano (1515-1565), Holy Family with an Angel, c. 1540. (Private collection)
A THREE PLUS ONE PAINTING- THREE FOREGROUND JESUS FOURTH BACKGROUND
The Agony in the Garden is an early painting by the Italian Renaissance master Giovanni Bellini, who painted it around 1459–65. It is in the National Gallery, London.
It portrays Christ kneeling on the Mount of Olives in prayer, with his disciples Peter, James and John sleeping near to him.
THREE PLUS ONE ANGELS CARRYING CROSS/QUADRANT
Jesus praying in the garden after the Last Supper, while the disciples sleep, by Andrea Mantegna c. 1460
William Blake's The Agony in the Garden completed in 1799–1800. The painting is Tempera on tinned iron and 27 cm x 38 cm. The tempera blackens when exposed to sunlight for long periods of time (hence the shadowed image). Currently the painting is held by the Tate
AGONY OF THE GARDEN TWO INNER LINES FORESHADOW THE NAILS AND THE CRUCIFIXION IN CRUCIFORM POSE
The Agony in the Garden is a small painting by William Blake, completed as part of his 1799-1800 series of Bible illustrations commissioned by his patron and friend Thomas Butts. The work illustrates a passage from the Gospel of Luke which describes Christ's turmoil in the Garden of Gethsemane before his arrest and Crucifixion following Judas's betrayal. In Blake's painting a brilliantly coloured and majestic angel breaks through the surrounding darkness and descends from a cloud to aid and physically support Jesus in his hour of agony. The work is dominated by vertical lines, formed both from the trees and from the two arms of the angel. Two inner lines converge on Christ's palms, evoking the nails driven through him during his crucifixion.
The Crowning with Thorns is a painting by the Italian painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. Made probably in 1602/1604 or possibly around 1607, it is now located in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
The four greatest figures of Italian Renaissance sculpture were Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455), Donatello (1386-1466), Andrea del Verrocchio (1435-88), and of course Michelangelo. In Siena, the leading sculptor was Jacopo della Quercia (1374-1438).
THREE FIGURES AND THE RAM ANOTHER CARAVAGIO THREE PLUS ONE IN QUADRANT FORMATION
The three figures and the ram are shown without background or context, with nothing to distract from the powerful psychological drama as God's promise is delivered.
However, despite conflicting contemporary critical reports and Beethoven's own misgivings about the libretto, "...after its premier in 1803 the work was performed four times in 1804, and repeated every year, always drawing full houses, until it was banned in 1825 by the Hofmusikgraf."
Lotto’s most powerful and dramatic work was a Crucifixion* that still stands in its original site in the little church of Santa Maria in Telusiano in the small out of the way hill town of Monte San Giusto in the Marche. It is not too far from Loreto, the religious center where Lotto eventually spent the last years of his life.
HIDDEN CROSSES IN VAN GOHS PAINTING- IN OTHERS AS WELL LIKE IN FENCES ID HAVE TO FIND THE VIDEOS THAT I SAW A LONG TIME AGO SHOWING OTHER HIDDEN CROSSES IN DIFFEREN VAN GOH PAINTINGS AND HOW THEY RELATE TO OLD WORKS WITH CROSSES
Exactly twelve people are sitting at the cafe in Van Gogh’s painting, all of them centered around a long-haired figure that is either their waiter or Jesus himself. To make the theory more believable, there are several hidden crosses scattered around the composition, one of which is above the Christ-like figure.
“Sfide” (Challenges), the following section, contains seven Giorgionesque works, among them “Christ Carrying the Cross” from the Scuola di San Rocco in Venice (often attributed to Titian), and “Concerto” (Concert) from the Mattioli Collection in Milan, which has been held to be by Giorgione by some, especially Italian, art historians.
THREE PLUS ONE
Four Scenes from the Passion
Artist: Follower of Bernard van Orley (Netherlandish, ca. 1520)
Medium: Oil on wood
Dimensions: 11 3/4 x 11 3/8 in. (29.8 x 28.9 cm)
Credit Line: Bequest of George Blumenthal, 1941
Accession Number: 41.190.14
Justice Minister Brigitte Zypries wants to legalize anti-Nazi paraphernalia featuring crossed-out swastikas -- a symbol banned in Germany in any form.
Flag with crossed-out swastika
Such symbols should be legal, the justice minister said
Zypries made the announcement Monday, just days after a regional court in Stuttgart fined the owner of a mail order business for selling anti-Nazi T-shirts and badges. The law banning the use of "unconstitutional symbols" needed to be revised, the justice minister told die tageszeitung daily on Monday.
Should Germany's highest court uphold Friday's ruling by a regional court in Stuttgart, there was "something wrong" in the law itself, she said, and the government would be forced to change the legislation.
QUADRANT- CATACOMB OF PETRUS
CATACOMB PETRUS QUATENARY
Illusionistic ceiling painting, which includes the techniques of perspective di sotto in sù and quadratura, is the tradition in Renaissance, Baroque and Rococo art in which trompe l'oeil, perspective tools such as foreshortening, and other spatial effects are used to create the illusion of three-dimensional space on an otherwise two-dimensional or mostly flat ceiling surface above the viewer
Ceiling of the Jesuit church in Vienna by Andrea Pozzo (1703)
Quadratura, a term which was introduced in the seventeenth century and is also normally used in English, became popular with Baroque artists. Although it can also refer to the "opening up" of walls through architectural illusion, the term is most-commonly associated with Italian ceiling painting. Unlike other trompe-l'oeil techniques or precedent di sotto in sù ceiling decorations, which often rely on intuitive artistic approaches to deception, quadratura is directly tied to seventeenth-century theories of perspective and the representation of architectural space. Due to its reliance on perspective theory, it more fully unites architecture, painting and sculpture and gives a more overwhelming impression of illusionism than earlier examples.
The artist would paint a feigned architecture in perspective on a flat or barrel-vaulted ceiling in such a way that it seems to continue the existing architecture. The perspective of this illusion is centered towards one focal point. The steep foreshortening of the figures, the painted walls and pillars, creates an illusion of deep recession, heavenly sphere or even an open sky. Paintings on ceilings could, for example, simulate statues in niches or openings revealing the sky.
Quadratura may also employ other illusionistic painting techniques, such as anamorphosis.
Examples of illusionistic painting include:
Andrea Pozzo at San Ignazio in Rome and the Jesuit church in Vienna. He wrote the standard theoretical work of his artistic ideas in the two volumes of : Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum Andreae Putei a societate Jesu (Rome, 1693–1700).
Holy Cross Church in the town of Brzeg, Poland,
Pietro da Cortona at the Palazzo Barberini,
Gianbattista Tiepolo in the Ca' Rezzonico in Venice, Villa Pisani at Stra, and the throne room at the Royal Palace of Madrid.
Other examples were by Paolo Veronese at Villa
Other examples were by Paolo Veronese at Villa Rotonda in Vicenza and Baldassare Peruzzi in the Villa Farnesina of Rome.
Perspective theories in the 17th century allowed a more fully integrated approach to architectural illusion, which when used by painters to "open up" the space of a wall or ceiling is known as quadratura. Examples include Pietro da Cortona's Allegory of Divine Providence in the Palazzo Barberini and Andrea Pozzo's Apotheosis of St Ignatius  on the ceiling of the Roman church of Sant'Ignazio.
Pozzo was best known for his grandiose frescoes using illusionistic technique called quadratura, in which architecture and fancy are intermixed. His masterpiece is the nave ceiling of the Church of Sant'Ignazio in Rome. Through his techniques, he has become one of the most remarkable figures of the Baroque period. He is also noted for the architectural plans of the Ljubljana Cathedral (1700), inspired by the designs of the Jesuit churches Il Gesù and S. Ignazio in Rome.
On the flat ceiling he painted an allegory of the Apotheosis of S. Ignatius, in breathtaking perspective. The painting, 17 m in diameter, is devised to make an observer, looking from a spot marked by a brass disc set into the floor of the nave, seem to see a lofty vaulted roof decorated by statues, while in fact the ceiling is flat. The painting celebrates the apostolic goals of Jesuit missionaries, eager to expand the reach of Roman Catholicism in other continents. The Counter-Reformation also encouraged a combative Catholicism. For example, rather than placing the usual evangelists or scholarly pillars of doctrine in the pendentives, Pozzo depicted the victorious warriors of the old testament: Judith and Holofernes; David and Goliath; Jael and Sisera; and Samson and the Philistines. It is said that when completed, some said (sic)Sant'Ignazio was a good place to buy meat, since four new butchers are now there.
In the nave fresco, light comes from God the Father to the Son who transmits it to St. Ignatius, whence it breaks into four rays leading to the four continents. Pozzo explained that he illustrated the words of Christ in Luke: I am come to send fire on the earth, and the words of Ignatius: Go and set everything aflame. A further ray illuminates the name of Jesus (2). The attention to movement within a large canvas with deep perspective in the scene, including a heavenly assembly whirling above, and the presence space-enlarging illusory architecture offered an example which was copied in several Italian, Austrian, German and Central European churches of the Jesuit order.
REPRESENT THE FOUR AGES OF MAN
Cortona had been patronized by the Tuscan community in Rome, hence it was not surprising when he was passing through Florence in 1637, that he should be asked by Grand Duke Ferdinando II de' Medici to paint a series of frescoes intended to represent the four ages of man in a small room, the Sala della Stufa, in the Palazzo Pitti. The first two represented the "ages" of silver and gold.
The Golden Age by Pietro da Cortona
GREEK CROSS LAYOUT
Among Cortona's more important architectural projects are the church of Santi Luca e Martina (completed in 1664, the church of the Accademia di San Luca, located in the Roman Forum. While Cortona was principe or director of the Accademia from 1634–38, he obtained permission to dig in the crypt of the church, which led the likely mistaken finding of remains attributed to the first century Roman martyr and Saint Martina. This discovery led to further patronage for construction of the church. The layout is almost a Greek cross, with four nearly identical wings extending from the striking central dome. Much of the ground structure is undecorated, above intricately decorated. The overwhelmingly vertical decoration of the facade is granted liveliness by horizontal convexity. In his will, this bachelor called this church his beloved daughter.
THE FOUR CONTINENTS
His Allegory of the Planets and Continents depicts Apollo embarking on his daily course; deities around him symbolize the planets; allegorical figures (on the cornice) represent the four continents.
VELIKOVSKY FOUR WORLD AGES FOUR CATASTROPHES
FOUR WORLD WIDE CATASTROPHES
Sagan asks, “And what of the archaeological…evidence?” The reader will recall that earlier, Velikovsky claimed that there were four world ages or four world-wide catastrophes of varying intensity. In Worlds in Collision, he cites Hesiod in his chapter titled “The World Ages”. “Hesiod, one of the earliest Greek authors, wrote about four ages.” In Tibet, Velikovsky writes,
“Analogous traditions of four expired ages persist on the shores of the Bengal Sea and in the highlands of Tibet.” In the Americas, Velikovsky cites Brasseur’s Histoire des Nations Civilisées de Mexique (1857-1859), Vol. I p. 53, which states, “The ancients [of Mexico] knew that before the present sky and earth were formed, man was already created and life had manifested itself four times.”
Therefore, if the world experienced four catastrophes, there should be evidence of at least these four events and even of earlier ones as well.
Claude F.A. Schaeffer, the greatest archaeologist of the twentieth century, carried out an archaeological survey across a vast area of the Middle East. Velikovsky, in Earth in Upheaval, in a chapter titled “The Ruins of the East” summarizes Professor Schaeffer’s work.
TRIDENT IS CROSS
Christian symbols of two fish and what appears to be a trident, which was probably a disguise for the cross symbol, which might identify the person as a Christian and subject his family to persecution. Catacombs.
CHI RO CHI IS X
Chi and Rho are the first two letters (ΧΡ) of "Christ" in Greek ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ. (Christos). Sometimes it is called the Monogram of Christ or Chrismon or Labarum. While it was used very early by persecuted Christians in the catacombs, when Constantine I was struggling to become emperor, he used the symbol at the front of his armies and was victorious (see below).
Catacomb pictures of Peter and Paul with the Chi-Rho symbol between them.
Gravestone for the boy Asellus. Catacomb picture of Peter and Paul with the Chi-Rho symbol between them. Marble catacomb inscription, Pio Cristiano: Vatican Museum
Chi-Rho symbol from catacombs
Chi-Rho symbol as part of a marble catacomb gravestone of Seberus, Pio Cristiano: Vatican Museum. Notice the Omega and Alpha symbols to the left and right of the Chi-Rho.
The Chi-Rho is often shown with the Greek letters Alpha (A) and Omega (lower case ώ or upper case Ω), the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. Jesus refers to himself: "I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End." (Revelation 22:13).
Monogram of Christ, Vatican (Chi-Rho)
Monogram of Christ, Museo Pio Cristiano, Vatican, undated. Notice the Alpha and Omega symbols as part of the Chi-Rho monogram.
The story goes that in In 312 AD, Constantine (ruled 306 - 337) was about to lead his army in a battle with his enemy Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge outside Rome. The winner would become emperor of the whole empire. Oiginally Constantine had been a pagan, but he was worried about the coming battle. He says he started to pray to the "Supreme God" for help.There was a sign in the sky "above the sun" and with it the words "conquer by this". That night in a dream he said he saw Jesus telling him to use the chi-rho sign "as a safeguard in all battles". Constantine ordered it to be put on his soldier's shields -- and won the battle. Eusebius writes about this symbol:
AE2 bronze coin issued by Magnentius in 353 AD.
Obverse of a bronze coin issued in 353 AD by Magnentius with the Chi-Rho symbol. Alpha and Omega are also shown. Larger image.
"Now it was made in the following manner. A long spear, overlaid with gold, formed the figure of the cross by means of a transverse bar laid over it. On the top of the whole was fixed a wreath of gold and precious stones; and within this, (2) the symbol of the Saviour's name, two letters indicating the name of Christ by means of its initial characters, the letter P being intersected by X in its centre...." (Eusebius, Life of Constantine, 1.31)
Chi-Rho in Book of Kells. Larger image.
The Chi-Rho also appears in a different form as a monogram (folio 344r) in the famous illuminated manuscript, the Book of Kells produced by Celtic monks about 800 AD. Also in the Book of Deer, the Book of Durrow, the Corpus Irish Gospel,
AE 2 of Magnentius. In 353 AD, near the end of his losing battle with Constantius II, the usurper Magnentius issued bronze coins showing the Chi-Rho between the letters Alpha and Omega (REV. 22:13).
Sarcophogas with chi-rho flanked by two peacocks.
Christian sarcophogas with two lambs flanking a chi-rho surrounded by a wreath.
Sarcophagus with the Monogram of Christ Pio Christiano Museum, Vatican, Rome.
Vatican sarcophagus with Chi Rho, #171, mid 4th century, Rome
Chi Rho marking a tomb in the Roman catacombs
Chi-Rho in a wall painting in 4th century Roman villa, Lullingstone, Kent
Wall painting in 4th century Roman villa, Lullingstone, Kent. (British Museum) More. Chi-rho, Fish, and Anchor symbols, Catacombs of St. Sebastian.
Dove and Chi-rho inscribed in stone, Inscription of Bincentia, flanked by chi-rho, basket (signifying good works), and dove with olive branch; Catacomb of S. Sebastiano, Rome
Chi rho symbol accompinied by the letter alpha and omega inscribed in its upper half, adorns the roof of a Baldacchino tomb at Abbatija tad-Dejr in Rabat, Malta.
The Chi-Rho symbol appears as a wall painting in a 4th Century Roman villa, Lullingstone, Kent, England. The circle diameter is 90 cm. Now in the British Museum.
The Chi-Rho with vines and grape clusters appears on the Sarcophagus of Drausin, 6th Century, Marble, Soissons, died 680 AD (Louvre Museum, Paris).
Labarum, Wikipedia article.
Christogram, Wikipedia article.
Chi-Rho, Alpha and Omega, Anchor, and leaf symbols from catacomb inscription
This copy of a catacomb inscription shows four symbols -- the Chi-Rho, Alpha and Omega, anchor, and leaf (unknown catacomb location). Notice that the Chi character is vertical, strongly suggesting the cross.
IMAGES OF WINEPRESS PREFIGURATION OF CRUCIFIXION
The image was first used as a typological prefiguration of the Crucifixion of Jesus, and appears from the 11th century as a paired subordinate image for a Crucifixion, as in a painted ceiling of c. 1108 in the "small monastery" ("Klein-Comburg", as opposed to the main one) at Comburg. Here Isaiah stands just outside the winepress with a banderole; Christ stands erect, in front of the press's heavy beam, which is level with his waist. In another example, a miniature from Hildesheim of 1160-80, there is no mechanical press and Christ just treads in a small vat which is, for once, circular. He is flanked by figures with banderoles, perhaps Isaiah and John the Evangelist. Christ's banderole has part of Isaiah 63:3, and those of the flanking figures Genesis 49:11 and Numbers 13:18. The monastic context of the Comburg example is typical of these early examples, and at this period only monasteries and wealthy lords were likely to have such expensive equipment as a large screw press; often they were made available to smaller growers for a share of the juice. The Comburg area in Baden-Württemberg continues to have vineyards as a major element of its agriculture.
From around 1400 the conception of the figure changed and the Christ figure became a Man of Sorrows, with the weight of the press bearing down on him, often shown as a bent figure as in a depiction of Christ Carrying the Cross. He usually wears only a cloth round his waist and blood from his wounds may be shown falling to join the grape juice in the treading-floor. In many examples the beam has a cross-member, spelling out the identification of beam and cross, or Christ carries a cross on his back under the beam. The image has become focused on the Eucharist, and also part of the suite of late-medieval andachtsbilder imagery emphasizing the sufferings of Christ.
The "mystic winepress" was common in hymns and sermons of the late medieval period, but rarer in the visual arts. Most examples are from north of the Alps, and representations in stained glass seem to have been popular. In England, where little wine was made, they were probably very rare. Examples include several French and Flemish tapestries, and stained glass windows including the "Vitrail du pressoir mystique" at the church of Saint-Etienne-du-Mont in Paris (illustrated below). This has Christ lying down beneath a cross with three screws fixed through its extremities; as in other examples he brings an arm up to pull the shaft down upon him. To the left of the main press Saint Peter treads in his own circular tub. Troyes Cathedral has a somewhat similar window from about 1625.
The Hours of Catherine of Cleves (Utrecht about 1440, now Morgan Library and Metropolitan Museum of Art) has a bas-de-page image in a typological context, paired with a typically idiosyncratic main miniature of a standing Christ beside a cross resting diagonally on the ground. Another example is in a fifteenth-century book of hours in the Victoria and Albert Museum.
As a eucharistic image, it had a counterpart in the much rarer image, essentially restricted to German-speaking lands, of the Hostienmühle or "host-mill", where a grain mill turns out hosts for the Eucharist. In winepress images the juice now often flows into a chalice, though it may also flow into a bucket. Angels, farm-workers or sometimes a Lamb of God (apparently drinking it) may attend to its collection. A third "mechanized allegory" completes the group of "these strange pictorial inventions in which theology and technology celebrate their unlikely marriage" and depict Eucharistic themes. This is the fountain, which may be shown running with the blood of Christ; a metaphor more in line with the daily life of urban people.
Preparatory drawing for a print, by the Dutch Calvinist Karel van Mander, 1596. The cross is nearly erect, in the "triumphal" position typical of Protestant versions
The image survived the Protestant Reformation and, despite some Catholic disapproval in the Counter-Reformation, "persisted into the eighteenth century in the art of both confessions. Whereas the Catholic image gave greater prominence to the doctrine of the sacrament, the Protestant stressed Christ's obedient sacrifice". For example, the Dutch Protestant artist Karel van Mander, in his drawn design of 1596 for a print, shows Christ under a large rectangular winepress plate in the usual fashion, but with a cross carried nearly upright on his shoulder "in triumph". Van Mander incorporated three short Biblical quotations in the decorative framework; as well as Isaiah 63:3 above, there are below "For the joy set before him he endured the cross, scorning its shame" (Hebrews 12:2) opposite "Surely he took up our pain and bore our suffering" (Isaiah 53:4).
A 17th-century German development expanded the image into a wider allegory of "God's work of Redemption in his church", placing Christ in the Winepress on a hill at the top of an image in vertical format, with his juice-blood running down or sprinkling groups of the redeemed standing to each side, which may include donor portraits, Adam and Eve, saints, prophets, kings and prelates. This is seen in the frontispiece to a Protestant Bible of 1641, printed in Nuremberg, which has room for a multitude of the ordinary faithful above the major figures in the foreground. As in many images from the 16th-century onwards Christ carries the "pennon of the Resurrection" (red cross on white) and here uses the end of the shaft to stab a dragon representing Satan, showing the increasing Protestant emphasis on the Winetreader as conqueror of his enemies, from Isaiah 63. Similar images decorate some German funerary monuments (example illustrated below).
Scriptural and patristic background
An depiction by Cosmas Damian Asam (1718-20) omits the figure of Christ
Numerous texts were used in support and elucidation of the motif. The key scriptural passage was Isaiah, 63, where verse 3, taken as spoken by Christ, says "I have trodden the winepress alone", and wine-stained clothes are mentioned. This passage was closely echoed in Apocalypse 19, where verse 15 reads: "He treads the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God Almighty", and the clothes are also soaked, this time with blood. Another passage was Apocalypse 14:19–20:
And the angel thrust in his sickle into the earth, and gathered the vine of the earth, and cast it into the great winepress of the wrath of God. And the winepress was trodden without the city, and blood came out of the winepress, even unto the horse bridles, by the space of a thousand and six hundred furlongs."
In Genesis 49:10–11 Jacob tells his sons:
The sceptre will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, until he to whom it belongs[d] shall come and the obedience of the nations shall be his.
He will tether his donkey to a vine, his colt to the choicest branch; he will wash his garments in wine, his robes in the blood of grapes.
The idea of Christ as both the treader and the trodden wine is found in St Gregory the Great: "He has trodden the winepress alone in which he was himself pressed, for with his own strength he patiently overcame suffering". It is also found in typology: in Numbers 13, 26ff the "spies" who came back from the Promised Land with a bunch of grapes carried on a pole resting on their shoulders were also used as a type prefiguring the antitype of the Crucifixion; following Justin Martyr and Augustine the pole was understood as the cross, the grapes as Christ, and the two bearers as Ecclesia and Synagoga. The Klosterneuburg Altar by Nicholas of Verdun (1181) includes the scene with this meaning.
Another biblical theme linked to the winepress references by commentators was the allegory of the "Vineyard of God" or "True Vine", found in Isaiah 27:2–5, John 15:1 and Matthew 21:33–45, understood as a metaphor for the Church. All these elements came together in the image of Christ in the winepress.
German memorial of 1649, with the allegory of Christ redeeming his Church. The press is relatively realistic, with a central screw, but the cross replaces a plate pressing on Christ.
OMITS THE FIGURE OF CHRIST ONLY HAS THE CRUCIFIX CROSS QUADRANT
An depiction by Cosmas Damian Asam (1718-20) omits the figure of Christ
Preparatory drawing for a print, by the Dutch Calvinist Karel van Mander, 1596. The cross is nearly erect, in the "triumphal" position typical of Protestant versions
THE PRESS PREFIGURING THE CRUCIFIXION
God the Father turning the press and the Lamb of God at the chalice. Prayer-book of 1515-1520
MONETS FOUR LONDON SERIES
Between 1883 and 1908, Monet traveled to the Mediterranean, where he painted landmarks, landscapes, and seascapes, including a series of paintings in Venice. In London he painted four series: the Houses of Parliament, London, Charing Cross Bridge, Waterloo Bridge, and Views of Westminster Bridge. Helen Gardner writes:
"Monet, with a scientific precision, has given us an unparalleled and unexcelled record of the passing of time as seen in the movement of light over identical forms."
THE CRUCIFIED CHRIST IN COURBETS PAINTING
The left side of the painting depicts people of everyday life in France. The Jewish man and the Irishwoman were seen on a trip Courbet took to London in 1848, according to a letter Courbet wrote to Champfleury detailing what the painting would look like. There is also a "lay figure"/"crucified figure" directly to the left of Courbet's easel. This figure appears contorted and potentially mangled. Art historians Benedict Nicolson and Georges Riat both interpret this figure as a symbol of the "death" of the art of the Royal Academy of Art in France.
16 APPLES VISIBLE 16 SQUARES QUADRANT MODEL
Courbet did another painting in 1866, La belle Irlandaise (Portrait of Jo), whose model was Hiffernan. During his whole career, Courbet did four portraits of Hiffernan.
Destroyed Baronci altarpiece (the Crowning of Saint Nicholas of Tolentino) Raphael Raphael's first recorded commission, it was made for Andrea Baronci's chapel in the church of Sant'Agostino in Citta di Castello, near Urbino Earthquake 1700–99 At least four fragments survive (Louvre, Capodimonte)
THE WHOLE ROOM SHOWS FOUR AREAS OF KNOWLEDGE
The whole room shows the four areas of human knowledge: philosophy, religion, poetry and law, with The Parnassus representing poetry. The fresco shows the mythological Mount Parnassus where Apollo dwells; he is in the centre playing an instrument (a contemporary lira da braccio rather than a classical lyre), surrounded by the nine muses, nine poets from antiquity, and nine contemporary poets. Apollo, along with Calliope, the muse of epic poetry, inspired poets.
FOUR FEMALE SAINTS
Destroyed Virgin and Child with Four Female Saints Cranach the Elder Friedrichshain flak tower fire
Destroyed Fresco of God the Father and the Four Evangelists Pontormo In the Capponi Chapel, Church of Santa Felicita, Florence Remodeling in the 18th century 1700–99
Crucifixion of Christ, 1503.
Tracey Re:fragmented is a project by the director and producers that made available all footage from the film shoot to download and remix into "their own related projects, including music videos, new trailers or to re-edit the entire movie themselves". The footage was released under a Creative Commons licence as four torrents, each approximately four gigabytes in size. A contest was held for the best use of the footage from August 2007 until January 2008, with the winning material being included on the DVD release, including a video by Ottawa-based punk band Sedatives.
VAN GOH ORIGINALLY HAD FOUR POTATO EATERS IN QUDRANT FORMATION THERE IS HIDDEN RELIGIOUS SYMBOLISM IN THE ONE WHERE HE ADDS THE FIFTH THE QUESTONABLE FIFTH
Study for The Potato Eaters, 1885, Private collection (F77r)
VAN GOH FOUR PEASANTS
Vincent Van Gogh Four Peasants at a Meal (also known as Study for \'The Potato Eaters\') - 21.5" x 26.5" Matted Framed Premium Archival Print
Post by Vaughan Copestick from AMAZON
21.5" x 26.5" Vincent Van Gogh Four Peasants at a Meal (also known as Study for \'The Potato Eaters\') matted framed premium archival print reproduced to meet museum quality standards. Our museum quality archival prints are produced using high-precision print technology for a more accurate reproduction printed on high quality, heavyweight matte presentation paper with fade-resistant, archival inks. Our progressive business model allows us to offer works of art to you at the best wholesale pricing, significantly less than art gallery prices, affordable to all. This artwork has a 3" white mat and premium clear acrylic front covering for protection, then mounted into our 3" wide gold finish frame by one of our expert framers. Our matted framed print comes with hardware, ready to hang on your wall. We present a comprehensive collection of exceptional art reproductions by Vincent Van Gogh.
VAN GOH FOUR FIGURES
Potato Grubbers, Four Figures
Van Gogh: Potato Field in the Dunes Back to List Find Potato Grubbers, Four Figures Print or Poster Van Gogh: Potato Harvest with Two Figures
Vincent van Gogh's Potato Grubbers, Four Figures Drawing
Vincent van Gogh
The Hague: 10-Jun, 1883
F: ;1034, ;JH: ;372
FOUR FIGURES INSPIRES VAN GOH
Rembrandt's 1648 depiction of the Supper builds on the etching that he did six years earlier, in which the disciple on the left had risen, hands clasped in prayer. In both depictions, the disciples are startled and in awe but not in fear. The servant is oblivious to the theophanic moment taking place during the supper.
Christ at Emmaus by Rembrandt, 1648, Louvre.
The Four Evangelists, 1615, Princeton University Art Museum
Quadrant CARAVAGGIO FOUR FIGURES
CROSS IN MOUNTAINS
Caspar David Friedrich, The Cross in the Mountains 1808, Gemaldegalerie, Dresden, Germany
This was one of Caspar David Friedrich’s earliest and most controversial paintings. The frame was made by the artist himself, it’s also an important part of the masterpiece. The whole was designed to serve as the centerpiece of an altar and it’s also known as the Tetschen Altar. It was the first time in art history when the Christian altarpiece was presenting only a pure landscape. The cross, viewed obliquely from behind, is an insignificant element in the composition. More important are the dominant rays of the evening sun, which the artist said depicted the setting of the old, pre-Christian world. The mountain symbolizes an immovable faith, while the fir trees are an allegory of hope. Pure Romanticism!
Caspar David Friedrich, The Abbey in the Oakwood, 1808–10, Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin
A procession of monks, some of whom bear a coffin, head toward the gate of a ruined Gothic church in the center of the painting. Only two candles light their way. A newly dug grave yawns out of the snow in the foreground, near which several crosses can be faintly discerned. This lower third of the picture lies in darkness—only the highest part of the ruins and the tips of the leafless oaks are lit by the setting sun. The waxing crescent moon appears in the sky.
DAVINCIS PAINTING WAS FOUR GROUPS OF THREE
“When photographers, both Israelis and from the international arena, deal with the conflict, they arrive, almost naturally, at Christian iconography. It’s very natural for the photographic medium and also resonates universally,” the curator explains. “Adi Nes’ recreation of the Last Supper will be understood even by people who have no connection with Israeli culture. It’s a language everyone knows.”
SHOEBOX FLATTENED OUT AS A CROSS
Tumarkin’s contemporary, Moshe Gershuni, who died on January 22, also felt a personal closeness to Christian images, particularly the blood theme. Says Mendelsohn: “Blood is an essential element of Christian iconography and at the base of Christianity: the blood of Jesus, the wounds of Jesus. Before Gershuni, the symbolic use of this motif was not very present in Israeli art. Gershuni’s attitude toward European culture and Christian iconography passes through Jewish texts and the story of the binding of Isaac. He combined a biblical text, the yellow patch, and a shoebox flattened out in the form of a cross. He is both personal, collective and also physical. Everything is there in something that is simple but complex.”
Among the more recent items on display in the current show are video works by Sigalit Landau and Erez Israeli, respectively, a series of pieces in wood done between 2011 to 2016 by Joshua Borkovsky and works by several photographers. These include Adi Nes’ famous evocation of Leonardo’s “Last Supper” using Israeli soldiers, Boaz Tal’s “Self-Portrait with My Family,” and a photograph by Micha Kirshner evoking Madonna and child, in which a woman from the Khan Yunis refugee camp in Gaza holds on her knees a sleeping infant covered in a tallit-like cloth.
Even though the present day is represented only by Borkovsky (Landau's and Israeli's works are from over a decade ago), Mendelsohn is convinced that the influence of the figure of Jesus and of the Christian religion continue to be represented in Israeli art, albeit in different modes from the past, perhaps in a more introverted form. Where he does find frequent use of Christian iconography – as a universal element – is in work by photographic artists who document the Israeli-Palestinian conflict or other political issues. Along with the well-known works by Nes, Mendelsohn mentions the photographers Michal Heiman and Miki Kratsman, and even cites a Last Supper-like shot by the Jerusalem portrait photographer Emil Salman of Benjamin Netanyahu, together with ministers and advisers, that appeared on the front page of Haaretz several weeks ago.
JEWISH ARTIST WITH CROSSES AND CRUCIFIXIONS
“In a well-known work from 1984,” Mendelsohn says, “Tumarkin takes a soldier’s cot and turns it into a crucifixion situation. This was at the height of the first Lebanon War, and he’s effectively saying that the government is sending soldiers to be sacrificed, that they are pointless victims. To express a social or political protest, he uses a symbol that is almost anathema.”
For his 1982 work “Bedouin Crucifixion,” Tumarkin collected objects that were left behind in unrecognized villages, whose inhabitants were evacuated by the state. He attached the objects to steel plates, creating a crucifixion image.
'The Wandering Jew,' by Samuel Hirszenberg (1899). Eli Posner
NAVAJO SWASTIKA SAND SYMBOL
The following picture of a Navajo Sand Painting provides and authentic illustration of the Yei spirits with the central cross which also display the features of the Swastika symbol.
Navajo Sand Painting
Navajo Yei Swastika Sand Painting
DEATH OF GENERAL WOLFE'
AS A CHRISTIAN ALLEGORY OF THE CRUCIFIXION WITH THE FLAG STANDING AS THE CRUCIFIX/CROSS
Observe how the General lays on the ground. He looks up to the clear sky, up to the heavens as Christ did when he was brought down from the cross. The British flag leans to the right, as did the Cross itself after Jesus’ crucifixion. His lieutenant sits by his side, dressed in a somber blue, clutching a starch white handkerchief to where the General appears to have suffered a grievous wound but take notice of how clean his shit remains. As Our Lord was crucified upon the cross, Roman soldiers skewered him several times in his abdomen but it is said that he bled clean, pure water. General Wolfe oddly enough lacks a suspicious amount of blood stains but perhaps he bleeds water.
CROSS NATIVE AMERICANS
Native American Indians were a deeply spiritual people and they communicated their history, thoughts, ideas and dreams from generation to generation through Symbols and Signs such as the Cross symbol. The origin of the Cross symbol derives from the ancient Mississippian culture of the Mound Builders of North America and were major elements in the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex of American prehistory (S.E.C.C.). Some of the Native Indian tribes still retain some elements of the Mississippi culture and the symbolism of Cross. Their sacred rites, myths and symbols and are presumed to descend from the Mississippians. The simple shape of the cross sign was easy to depict on any raw materials such as rock, stone, wood, shell and animal hides and it was often combined with other symbols to create different meanings. We have detailed some of the ancient meanings of the cross symbol used by the indigenous population of North America.
Meaning of the Cross Symbol to the Mound Builders
The cross symbol apparently reflected the Mississippian Mound Builder's worldview of the division of order between the Underworld, Middleworld (Earth) and the Upper world (Heaven). In the following picture the cross features with the twins and a Raccoon symbol. The central bottom half of the cross has a Striped Pole Motif, with alternating bands of red and white, represent the central axis on which all the worlds rotated and were connected. The striped pole forms part of the cross symbolizing the earth's forces, their origin and the manner in which they work. The horizontal line of the picture consists of many different cross symbols. Our grasp of Mississippian symbolism is only rudimentary. The true meanings of their motifs can never really be known and the meanings of the symbols are based on best guesses.
Cross Symbol with full picture of raccoon and twins Cross Symbol with raccoon and twins
The Meaning of the Broken Cross Symbol to the Native Americans - the Swastika
The swastika is a broken cross symbol, a type of solar cross, with arms bent at right angles, suggesting a whirling or turning motion. To Native American Indians, the swastika is a symbol of the sun, the four directions, and the four seasons.
Feathered Serpents and Cross in a Circle Symbol
The third image depicts the full image of the Feathered Serpent symbol where the right angles are depicted as gentle curves and the entire symbol is slightly slanted.. The swastika shape is clearly evident in this depiction by the Mound Builders. The broken cross symbol or the Swastika, is commonly known as the "whirling log" to many Native Indians, though the literal meaning in the Navajo language "that which revolves".
Cross Symbols on Native American Rock Paintings
The following Native American Cross and Circle Symbols are depicted on ancient Rock Paintings that were found at Santa Barbara. The rock paintings which include various circle and cross symbols and signs were created by the Chumash people of southern California. The cross symbols are believed to be associated with religion and astronomy.
Native American Circle Symbols are depicted on ancient Rock Paintings
The Meaning of the Cross Symbol to the Native Americans - the Solar Cross
The four elements is represented by Native American tribes, notably the Hopi, with the following Cross in the Circle - Solar Cross Symbol or sign which means or signifies the world (also referred to as the Cosmic Cross). The four bars of the cross represent north, south, east and west.
Solar Cross Symbol
The individual elements of Air, Fire, Water and Earth are each represented by a circle.
Air Fire Water Earth
The elements are the four great primary forces, or the Sacred Four, emanating from the Creator and these are depicted in the 'Solar Cross' representing the first four tribes of mankind which came to the world to keep balance.
The Meaning of other Cross Symbols to the Native Americans
There are many other cross symbols that have been used by both the Mound Builders and the Native Americans. many are presented in combinations with other symbols such as the circle. The following cross symbols relate to the Four Great Primary Forces.
These additional cross symbols also symbolize the Four Great Primary Forces and their interaction with the sun.
The Cross Symbol Sand Painting
The following picture of a Navajo Sand Painting provides and authentic illustration of the Yei spirits with the central cross which also display the features of the Swastika symbol.
Navajo Sand Painting
Navajo Yei Swastika Sand Painting
The Cross Symbol - Mississippian culture
The most ancient Native American Indian symbols, like the Cross symbol, came from the Mississippian culture which was established in 1000AD and continued to 1550AD onward. The Mississippian Native Americans were the last of the mound-building cultures of North America in the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States. The Mississippian culture was based on warfare, which was represented by an array of emblems, motifs and symbols. The Mississippian culture Cross icons like the Cross symbol provides interesting history and ideas for tattoos that include cosmic imagery depicting animals, humans and mythical beasts. The Mississippian Native Americans practiced body painting, tattooing and piercing.
Weapons Symbols Religion Images Cherokee native americans American Indian Clothes Patterns
Interesting Facts Animal Weapons Symbols Religion Images Cherokee native americans American Indian
Native American Indians - Cross Symbol
Native American Indians of the Mississippian culture were sun worshipers and had a highly complex warfare culture. Their symbols, such as the Cross symbol, reflect the warfare culture and the religious beliefs and cosmologies of the different historic tribes who existed at the time of the first European contact. Items displaying symbols, like the Cross symbol, from the Mississippian culture have been found in burial sites that contained war axes, knives and other weapons. This type of symbol was embossed in valuable materials such as rare shells, copper and lead and depicted on pottery and stone tools and weapons.
Cross symbol on buckskin bag
Cross symbol on buckskin bag
Shaman ritually vomiting Black drink
Shaman ritually vomiting Black drink
Attribution: Herb Roe
The Cross symbol of Native Americans
Meaning, symbolism and interpretation of the Cross symbol
Interesting facts and info for kids and schools
Pictures, meanings, patterns and designs of symbols
Native American Cross symbol meaning
Pictures and Videos of Native Americans
Cross. Discover the vast selection of pictures which relate to the History of Native Americans and illustrate many symbols used by American Indians. The pictures show the clothing, war paint, weapons and decorations of various Native Indian tribes that can be used as a really useful educational history resource for kids and children of all ages. We have included pictures and videos to accompany the main topic of this section - Cross. The videos enable fast access to the images, paintings and pictures together with information and many historical facts. All of the articles and pages can be accessed via the Native Indian Tribes Index - a Horned educational resource for kids.
Sand painting by Navajo artist Glen Nez from Shiprock, New Mexico and living on the Navajo Reservation. The sand painting is in a 18 inches x 18 inches walnut wood frame with triple matting. Shipping is Free.
American Indian with cross
CROSS HATCH AND CROSSED HANDS
There are other claims of Middle Paleolithic sculpture, dubbed the "Venus of Tan-Tan" (before 300 kya) and the "Venus of Berekhat Ram" (250 kya). In 2002 in Blombos cave, situated in South Africa, stones were discovered engraved with grid or cross-hatch patterns, dated to some 70,000 years ago. This suggested to some researchers that early Homo sapiens were capable of abstraction and production of abstract art or symbolic art. Several archaeologists including Richard Klein are hesitant to accept the Blombos caves as the first example of actual art.
Kotosh, a site in the Andean highlands, is especially noted as the site of the Temple of the Crossed Hands, in which there are two reliefs of crossed forearms, one pair male, one pair female. Also of note is one of South America's largest ceremonial sites, Sechín Alto. This site's crowning work is a twelve-story platform, with stones incised with military themes. The architecture and art of the highlands, in particular, laid down the groundwork for the rise of the Chavín culture.
TREE MAKES A CROSS
THE THREE PLUS ONE PAINTING BY WINSLOW HOMER
CRUCIFORM WINSLOW HOMER
Summer Afternoon by Winslow Homer.jpg 1,024 × 710; 756 KB
WINSLOW HOMER FOUR OF THEM
Winslow Homer - In Charge of Baby.jpg 2,000 × 1,267; 1.15 MB
CARRYING WOOD MAKES ME THINK OF CRUCIFIX
FOUR BOYS THREE PLUS ONE
Winslow Homer - Boys in a Dory.jpg 3,744 × 2,656; 2.57 MB
WINSLOW HOMER FOUR BOYS ON BEACH
Four Boys on a Beach by Winslow Homer, c1873.png 1,366 × 571; 1.77 MB
CALLED BOYS AND KITTEN- IT IS THREE BOYS AND ONE KITTEN THEREFORE A THREE PLUS ONE
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ANOTHER WINSLOW HOMER FOUR BOYS ON THE BEACH THREE PLUS ONE
Winslow Homer - Children on the beach (1873).jpg 2,000 × 1,490; 1.17 MB
FOUR BOYS HOMER WINSLOW
Breezing Up (A Fair Wind) by Winslow Homer, 1873-76.png 1,024 × 683; 1.84 MB
Winslow Homer (American, 1836–1910), Farmer with a Pitchfork. Oil on board.jpg 1,548 × 1,125; 594 KB
Brooklyn Museum - In the Mountains - Winslow Homer - overall.jpg 2,000 × 1,254; 1.11 MB
Harnsberger, R. Scott. Four Artists of the Stieglitz Circle: A Sourcebook on Arthur Dove, Marsden Hartley, John Marin, and Max Weber [Art Reference Collection, no. 26]. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002.
HARTLEY X UNSTILLED LIFE
Portrait of a German Officer
Artist: Marsden Hartley (American, Lewiston, Maine 1877–1943 Ellsworth, Maine)
Medium: Oil on canvas
Dimensions: 68 1/4 x 41 3/8 in. (173.4 x 105.1 cm)
Credit Line: Alfred Stieglitz Collection, 1949
Accession Number: 49.70.42
This monumental painting is the centerpiece of a series that evokes the dynamism, pageantry, and danger of life in Berlin during World War I. The painting’s collagelike appearance, dramatic color, and emotional brushwork attest to Hartley’s skillful synthesis of Cubism and German Expressionism. Hartley’s composition is an abstract portrait of Karl von Freyburg, a Prussian lieutenant whom the artist loved and who died in the war. Von Freyburg is portrayed symbolically with the initials, "K.v.F."; his regiment number, 4; his age at death, 24; and the Iron Cross that he received posthumously.
Indian Composition, Marsden Hartley, 1914–15. Photo courtesy of the Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center, Vassar College
HARTLEY THE IRON CROSS- THE NUMBER FOUR IS IN THE PAINTING AS WELL
The Iron Cross, Marsden Hartley, 1915. Photo courtesy of Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Washington University in St. Louis
MARSDEN HARTLEY CROSSES
HARTLEY BERLIN ANTE WAR CROSSES
HARTLEY CRUCIFIED FIGURE IN CENTER SUSTAINED COMEDY
HARTLEY CROSS- AERO
HARTLEY CROSS- AERO
VENUS AND THREE GRACES THREE PLUS ONE
Mars Disarmed by Venus and the Three Graces (1824)
Artwork description & Analysis: Mars Disarmed by Venus and the Three Graces was David's last painting, one he intended to be a final statement about his oeuvre. When he began it in 1821, he announced, "It is the last of the paintings I want to do, but I want to surpass myself in it. I will inscribe it with the date of my seventy-fifth year, and after that I never want to touch a brush again."
SPIRE OF TALLEST CHRYSLER BUILDING FOUR SECTIONS
The spire was delivered to the site in four different sections. On October 23, 1929, the bottom section of the spire was hoisted to the top of the building's dome and lowered into the 66th floor of the building. The other remaining sections of the spire were hoisted and riveted to the first one in sequential order in just 90 minutes
FOUR PILLARS - ON THE FOUR ROOTS- FOUR GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS
Le Corbusier, as always, was rhapsodic about his project; “It will be a city of trees,” he wrote, “of flowers and water, of houses as simple as those at the time of Homer, and of a few splendid edifices of the highest level of modernism, where the rules of mathematics will reign.”. His plan called for residential, commercial and industrial areas, along with parks and a transportation infrastructure. In the middle was the capitol, a complex of four major government buildings; the Palace of the National Assembly, the High Court of Justice; the Palace of Secretariat of Ministers, and the Palace of the Governor. For financial and political reasons, the Palace of the Governor was dropped well into the construction of the city, throwing the final project somewhat off-balance. From the beginning, Le Corbusier worked, as he reported, “Like a forced laborer.” He dismissed the earlier American plan as “Faux-Moderne” and overly filled with parking spaces roads. His intent was to present what he had learned in forty years of urban study, and also to show the French government the opportunities they had missed in not choosing him to rebuild French cities after the War. His design made use of many of his favorite ideas; an architectural promenade, incorporating the local landscape and the sunlight and shadows into the design; the use of the Modulor to give a correct human scale to each element; and his favorite symbol, the open hand; (“the hand is open to give and to receive'.”) He placed a monumental open hand statue in a prominent place in the design.
In 1912, he began his most ambitious project; a new house for his parents. also located on the forested hillside near La-Chaux-de-Fonds. The Jeanneret-Perret house was larger than the others, and in a more innovative style; the horizontal planes contrasted dramatically with the steep alpine slopes, and the white walls and lack of decoration were in sharp contrast with the other buildings on the hillside. The interior spaces were organized around the four pillars of the salon in the center, foretelling the open interiors he would create in his later buildings. The project was more expensive to build than he imagined; his parents were forced to move from the house within ten years, and relocate in a more modest house. However, it led to a commission to build an even more imposing villa in the nearby village of Le Locle for a wealthy watch manufacturer. Georges Favre-Jacot. Le Corbusier's interior designed the new house in less than a month. The building was carefully designed to fit its hillside site, and interior plan was spacious and designed around a courtyard for maximum light, significant departure from the traditional house.
During the War and the German occupation of France, Le Corbusier did his best to promote his architectural projects. He moved to Vichy for a time, where the collaborationist government of Marshal Philippe Petain was located, offering his services for architectural projects, including his plan for the reconstruction of Algiers, but they were rejected. He continued writing, completing Sur les Quatres routes (On the Four Routes) in 1941. After 1942, Le Corbusier left Vichy for Paris. He became for a time a technical adviser at Alexis Carrel's eugenic foundation, he resigned from this position on April 20, 1944. In 1943, he founded a new association of modern architects and builders, the Ascoral, the Assembly of Constructors for a renewal of architecture, but there were no projects to build.
Mies designed a series of four middle-income high-rise apartment buildings for developer Herbert Greenwald: the 860–880 (which was built between 1949 and 1951) and 900–910 Lake Shore Drive towers on Chicago's Lakefront. These towers, with façades of steel and glass, were radical departures from the typical residential brick apartment buildings of the time. Mies found their unit sizes too small for him, choosing instead to continue living in a spacious traditional luxury apartment a few blocks away. The towers were simple rectangular boxes with a non-hierarchical wall enclosure, raised on stilts above a glass-enclosed lobby.
The interior design by Donald Deskey used glass, aluminum, chrome, and leather to create a colorful escape from reality The Paramount Theater in Oakland, California, by Timothy Pflueger, had a colorful ceramic facade a lobby four stories high, and separate Art Deco smoking rooms for gentlemen and ladies
Four-story high grand lobby of the Paramount Theater, Oakland (1932)
The exterior and interior walls contain Egyptian-style paintings and hieroglyphs. The four massive columns that mark the theatre's main entrance are 4 1⁄2 feet (1.4 m) wide and rise 20 feet (6 m).
FOUR STYLIZED TOWERS
Built by event promoters Phillip and Cliff Henderson and designed by Los Angeles architects Wurdeman & Becket, the Pan-Pacific Auditorium opened to a fanfare of Boy Scout bugles on May 18, 1935 for a 16-day model home exhibition. Noted as one of the finest examples of Streamline Moderne architecture in the United States, the green and white facade faced west, was 228 feet (69 m) long and had four stylized towers and flagpoles meant to evoke upswept aircraft fins. The widely known and much photographed facade belied a modest rectilinear wooden structure resembling an overgrown gymnasium inside and out. The auditorium sprawled across 100,000 square feet (9,300 m2) and had seating for up to 6,000.
Philips Art Deco radio set (1931)
BOUCHER FAMOUS PAINTING FOUR FIGURES THREE PLUS ONE
Madame de Pompadour, mistress of Louis XV, admired Boucher and was his patroness from 1747 until her death in 1764. This famous work was commissioned for the dressing room at Bellevue, her château near Paris. In 1750 she had acted the title role in a play, staged at Versailles, called The Toilet of Venus, and while this is not a portrait, a flattering allusion may have been intended.
The bodies of the goddess and her cupids are soft, supple, and blond. The carved and gilded rococo sofa, the silk, velvet, and gold damask drapery, are heavy and elaborate enough for the Victorian era.
Putti with Birds, c. 1730-1733, Honolulu Museum of Art
Venus Consoling Love is a painting by François Boucher, from 1751. The painting depicts a mythological scene, where Venus, the goddess of Love, depicted as a young, charming and supple young woman is impersonating the French Rococo's beauty ideals. She is about to disarm Cupid, by taking away his arrows, that he uses when shooting at people to make them fall in love.
"In Enlightenment France the dedicated search to define truth engendered a re–evaluation of the natural. The belief that it was right to follow nature, and that the pursuit of pleasure was natural, influenced the prevailing conception of the nude ...
Venus sits beside the pond with doves, the goddess symbol. The white doves at her feet, her complexion, the pearls in her hair are just as luxurious like the silk draperies that were wrapped around her, but now are lying on the ground. Boucher painted the artwork with soft pastel tones using a dim silvery light. The painting was made with high technical skill. The principal charm of Rococo art is its sensuality and seductivity.
HE MADE FOUR OF THESE PAINTINGS AND CROSS IN BACK SAIL
RENOIR FOUR FIGURES THREE PLUS ONE- FOURTH FIGURE IN THE BACKGROUND ON THE BOAT LIKE MANETS LUNCHEON
Pierre-Auguste Renoir’s Lunch at the Restaurant Fournaise
RENOIRS RIGHT LUNCH IS A THREE PLUS ONE- HIS OTHER WAS LUNCHEON AT THE BOATING PARTY
There are at least four known snowscapes by Renoir: Skaters in the Bois de Boulogne (1868); Winter Landscape (1868); Snowy Landscape (1870–75); and another work also titled Snowy Landscape (1875).[note 1] Along with Skaters in the Bois de Boulogne, Renoir would return to the imagery of the Bois de Boulogne years later with a large painting called The Morning Ride (1873), alternatively titled Madame Henriette Darras, which was rejected by the Salon in that year.
FOUR MAIN FIGURES -three plus one
The Swing (French: La balançoire) is an oil on canvas painting by the French artist Pierre-Auguste Renoir who was a leading exponent of the Impressionist style. The painting was executed in 1876. The painting measures 92 x 73 centimetres and is in the Musée d’Orsay. Renoir executed the painting in what are now the Musée de Montmartre gardens. He had rented a cottage in the gardens so that he be could closer to the Moulin de la Galette where he was engaged in painting Bal du moulin de la Galette.
Renoir's people seem to stand on a forest floor of blossoms. The girl on the swing could be fifteen, her pink dress with a hat on head increases the charm of painting. The quivering light is rendered by the patches of pale colour, particularly on the clothing and the ground. This particularly annoyed the critics when the painting was shown at the Impressionist exhibition of 1877.
The muyer was the model called Jeanne, a favourite of Renoir's who nevertheless could not be persuaded to model for Bal. It was her sister Estelle who modelled the girl in the pink and blue striped dress in that painting. The two men are Renoir's brother Edmond and a painter friend Norbert Goeneutte (also appearing in Bal).
CROSS ON FACE
Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, detail of the figure to the lower right
YOLNGU NUMBERS USE QUINCUNX CROSS OF FIVE ELEMENTS
THE FIFTH WOMAN IS HOLDING BACK THE CURTAIN TO REVEAL HER FOUR SISTERS PROSTITUTES THAT YOU ARE TO CHOSE FROM CHOSE FROM THE FOUR- ORIGINALLY THAT WOMAN WAS SUPPOSED TO BE A MAN
In the months leading up to the painting's creation, Picasso struggles with the subject -- five women in a brothel. He creates more than 100 sketches and preliminary paintings, wrestling with the problem of depicting three-dimensional space in a two-dimensional picture plane. The original composition includes two men -- a patron surrounded by the women, and a medical student holding a skull, perhaps symbolizing that "the wages of sin are death." In the final composition, the patron is gone and the medical student -- who has been called a stand-in for the painter himself -- has become a fifth woman with a primitive mask, holding back the crimson curtain to reveal her "sisters." The painting is described as a battleground, with the remains of the battle left on the canvas. The Iberian women in the center of the canvas clash with the hideously masked creatures standing and squatting on the right.
WAS SUPPOSED TO BE A MAN HOLDING BACK CURTAIN SHOWING THE FOUR WOMEN CHANGED THAT MAN INTO WOMAN SHOWING FOUR WOMEN PROSTITUTES YOU ARE TO CHOSE FROM THE FOUR PICASSO
Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907)
Influence of painting- this wasn't exhibited publicly until the 20s, Picasso only showed in his studio to colleagues, friends. Confrontational nature. 5 nude female figures- Avignon was a prostitute street in Barcelona. Adventure of a collision with art . Man holding back curtain has had a sex change. Folds don't look like drapery but like crystal/glass that has been shattered. Proto-cubism- so many different angles being depicted at once
FIFTH PULLS BACK CURTAIN TO REVEAL THE FOUR PROSTITUES YOU ARE TO CHOSE FROM
Les Demoiselles d’Avignon shows five nude prostitutes in a brothel. On the left side of the painting are three women, the one on the leftmost side is shown (supposedly) drawing back a curtain to reveal the rest, while the second and the third are depicted frontally; they stare straight out of the canvass, fixing their gaze on the viewer (or voyeur, or even a client, since they are supposed to be prostitutes). As many art critics have argued, the portrayal of the three women, most especially the head of the one on the furthest left, is, as it were, influenced by ancient Iberian sculpture that Picasso was reported to have seen in 1906 in the Louvre (Paris). The two other women on the right hand side of the canvass (i.e. the one standing rather slightly in the background between the curtains, and the other squatting in the foreground) have been given heads that clearly resemble the African sculptures or masks that Picasso must have seen in the Museé d’Ethnographie du Trocadéro, also in Paris
GRAHAM SUTHERLAND CRUCIFIXION
While the depiction of Christ and the other figures as black represents a significant departure from the western canon, such critics as Edwin Mullins and David Sylvester compared the expressionist vernacular of Souza's work with that of Graham Sutherland (1903-80) and Francis Bacon (1909-92), both of whom had depicted religious subject matter in a similarly brutal style shortly after the Second World War. Indeed, Sutherland painted several crucifixions in the postwar period which referred directly to the Isenheim Altarpiece, 1515 (Unterlinden Museum, Colmar, France) by the German Renaissance painter Matthias Grunewald (c1475-1528), among them Crucifixion, 1946 (Tate N05774). Comparisons were also made to Pablo Picasso's (1881-1973) work of the late 1930s and the 1940s, though the distorted faces in Crucifixion may equally be compared to those of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, 1907 (Museum of Modern Art, New York).
The Tomorrowland dwelling had a cruciform floor plan, a more elegant solution to bringing light and air into a "machine for living" than Le Corbusier had been able to devise. Each side of each arm of the cross was glazed, sill to ceiling. The mullions and rails between the panes were as pleasingly orchestrated as Mondrian's black stripes.
Soutine's Poissons et Tomates. Photo: Flickr/Playing Futures: Applied Nomadology
CHAIM SOUTINES PAINTINGS RERESENT CRUCIFIXION CRUCIFIED POSITION
Referring to the Christian imagery commonly used in Medieval and Renaissance paintings sheds an interesting light on how the animals in both of these paintings are carefully posed; the flayed rabbit is in the crucified position or possibly as a St. Sebastian, tied to a tree and awaiting the many arrows. And the fact that the one rabbit is flayed points to the fate of more than one saint and also most famously the painting by Titian, The Flaying of Marsyas. Yet there is still a sense of defiance in the upraised arms and stretched legs.
REMBRANDT SLAUGHTERED OX AND CRUCIFIXION
Rembrandt reached his highest artistic level in this work of a hanging carcass of beef. He painted in great detail the rough and ragged carcass, the revealed rib cage, slabbed and ridged drying meat, and knots of lumpy fat; the knobby elbows, joints and bones of the thin legs which were once strong enough to support this massive body, now trimmed of their hooves, the hide and head, of course, removed as well (Gray). This painting of a slaughtered ox or beef, hanging upside down in a darkened storeroom, can't help but be compared to a crucifixion, with the spreading rear legs like arms attached to a cross.
FOUR BASIC COLORS
After seeing Jewish expressionist painter, Chaim Soutine’s the Flayed Rabbit portrait; many people were disgusted by the portrait, due to the graphic details. The portrait was a quite disturbing to the human eye. The title of the piece is self explanatory, the English word Flayed means to strip off the skin or outer covering. The Flayed Rabbit is a painting of a rabbit lying on its back, on a white cloth or sheet. The insides of the rabbit are being exposed. It appears the artist used a heavy thick brush stroke for this piece. The artist uses four basic colors that are very dark such as, orange, red, brown, and black. Colors and brushstroke can tell a lot about a paintings meaning. The dark colors the artist chose to use can predict how he was feeling. The brushstrokes whether appear to be thick and heavy or thin and soft, can determine the emotion of the painter. While observing the painting closer, some critiques notice an image behind the original image. Focusing on the center of the portrait you can see an image of Lucifer. The image is vivid to some, more than it is to others. There are explicit details including his sharp horns and evil eyes.
THE CRUCIFIXION FIGURE OF THE MEAT IN BATMAN
Batman, the Joker, and Francis Bacon's Figure with Meat
In Bacon's version, animal carcasses hang at the pope's back, creating a raw and disturbing Crucifixion-like composition.
In the 1918 watercolor painting Einst dem Grau der Nacht enttaucht, a compositional implemented poem, possible written by Klee, he incorporated letters in small, in terms of color separated squares, cutting off the first verse from the second one with silver paper. At the top of the cardboard, which carries the picture, the verses are inscribed in manuscript form. Here, Klee did not lean on Delaunay's colors, but on Marc's, although the picture content of both painters does not correspond with each other. Herwarth Walden, Klee's art dealer, saw in them a "Wachablösung" (changing of the guard) of his art. Since 1919 he often used oil colors, with which he combined watercolors and colored pencil. The Villa R (Kunstmuseum Basel) from 1919 unites visible realities such as sun, moon, mountains, trees and architectures, as well as surreal pledges and sentiment readings.
Red Balloon, 1922, oil on muslin primed with chalk, 31.8 x 31.1 cm. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
RED BALOON YOU SEE A CROSS/QUADRANT USED SQUARES
The exhibition catalogue also stresses this equivalency with a timeline that places Soutine and Bacon side by side. This allows the reader to cross-reference year by year, learning what works are being produced, what articles written, what books read, as we journey through time. So we read that between 1927-29 Bacon is in Paris improving his French, studying Poussin’s Massacre of he Innocents at Chantilly, and reading surrealist writers like Georges Bataille. In the same period, Soutine is enjoying success with shows and attention whilst painting meat hung in butcher’s shops. Onwards to 1933 when Bacon essays his first Crucifixion, a motif in which flesh becomes almost metaphysical, descending from the bones, a visual theme which the French critic Gilles Deleuze, in his Francis Bacon: Logique de la sensation, read as a deformation holding consequences not only for modern art, but the Christian figurative tradition overall. Bacon certainly didn’t see his art as “spiritual”; Cimabue’s Crucifixion, and the whole gallery of carnal and holy suffering that followed it was nothing more than “ a worm crawling down the cross”, in Bacon’s memorable phrase. Meanwhile across the page, we’re learning that a few years earlier (1924-5) Soutine produced six “almost life-size” canvases of beef paintings, all developed from what is looking like a paint/flesh blueprint, or even ur-carcass, Rembrandt’s Dead Ox. They’re reproduced on the page like a Warholian series, but rendered with sympathy, not detachment. You’d have paid a high price for seeing them painted though: by all accounts, Soutine’s studio stunk to high heaven, and the decomposing meat attracted the flies thus causing consternation to Soutine’s visitors. This was long before Damien Hirst!
DUCHAMPS QUINCUNX VERSION- CROSS WITH FIVE HOLES
AGAINS SEE QUADRANTS
JEAN ARP UNTITLED DUO COLLAGE
ANOTHER JEAN ARP COLLAGE LAWS OF CHANCE WITH NICE QUADRANT TOP RIGHT AND BOTTOM RIGHT
QUINCUNX OBJECTS ARRANGED ACCORDING OT LAWS OF CHANCE JEAN ARP
JEAN ARP ANOTHER QUADRANT GEOMETRIC COLLAGE- FOURTH QUADRANT DIFFERENT
JEAN ARP ANOTHER QUADRANT WITH THE FOURTH SQUARE DIFFERENT
SOPHIE TAEUBER ARP CROSSES POMPEI SERIES AS DESCRIBED BY HUGO WEBER
JEAN ARP AGAIN YOU CAN SEE A SORT OF QUADRANT FORMATION IN THE TOP RIGHT
SOPHIE TAEUBER ARP QUADRANT AGAIN THE TOP RIGHT CORNER UNTITLED HANGING
JEAN ARP CROSS FORMATION
40 SECONDS CRUCIFIX
THREE PLUS ONE
Vier Holzplastiken, 1912, Dallas Museum of Art
FIRST STATE SECOND STATE KIRCHNER
KIRCHNER BATHERS AT THE BEACH THREE PLUS ONE
CARD PLAYERS KIND OF THREE PLUS ONE
BATHERS THROWING REEDS KIRCHNER
Composition with window with coloured glass III
Quadrant window Doesburg
Travel back to the beginning of the twentieth century with Theo van Doesburg and inhale the revolutionary atmosphere of the avant-garde in the exhibition Theo van Doesburg: A New Expression of Life, Art and Technology. Having founded the art movement De Stijl in the Netherlands with Piet Mondrian in 1917, Van Doesburg set off across Europe to promote their abstract visual language internationally. In Paris he encountered the art of the Dadaists and began writing Dadaist poetry himself. In Weimar he presented his new awareness of beauty to the Bauhaus architects. He travelled round Europe and made his pioneering visual language appear not only in paintings, but also in buildings, furniture and interiors.
Theo van Doesburg
Contra-Composition XV 1925
Museum Sztuki, Lodz
Theo van Doesburg
Composition in Half-Tones 1928
In 1924, just as he was publishing a manifesto in De Stijl claiming that ‘painting which is separate from architectural construction (that is, easel painting) has no raison d’être,’ Van Doesburg began actively painting again. Over the next couple of years he produced a series of ‘Counter-compositions’ intended to move even further beyond the non-figurative compositional practice he had developed before leaving the Netherlands for Germany in 1921.
Since settling in Paris in 1923, van Doesburg had spent a lot of time with Mondrian, and began to question the basic tenets of his colleague’s concept of Neo-Plasticism. His new approach, Elementarism, was intended to dispense with what he called classical-abstract composition, suggesting that the arrangement of lines and colours according to standards of taste and judgment was simply the refinement of a traditional concept of art rather than a new one.
THERES A QUADRANT
Simultaneous Composition XXIV
Theo van Doesburg
Date: 1929; Germany *
QUADRANTS IN THE PAINTING
KIRCHNER PORTRAIT FOUR MEMBERS OF THE BRIDGE THREE PLUS ONE