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Very famous tempera- The fourth is different. The face is erased

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severan_Tondo

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Severan_dynasty_-_tondo.png

 

The Severan Tondo, from circa AD 200, is one of the few preserved examples of panel painting from Classical Antiquity. It is a tempera or egg-based painting on a circular wooden panel (tondo), with a diameter of 30.5 cm. At present, it is on display at the Antikensammlung Berlin (inventory number 31329).

 

The panel depicts the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus with his family: to the left his wife Julia Domna, in front of them their sons Geta and Caracalla. All are wearing sumptuous ceremonial garments; Septimius Severus and his sons are also holding sceptres and wearing gold wreaths decorated with precious stones. Geta's face has been removed, probably after his murder by his brother Caracalla and the ensuing damnatio memoriae.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fayum_mummy_portraits

The situation from the "Tomb of Aline" is interesting in this regard. It contained four mummies: those of Aline, of two children and of her husband. Unlike his wife and children, the latter was not equipped with a portrait but with a gilt three-dimensional mask. Perhaps plaster masks were preferred if they could be afforded.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_art

 

Ranuccio also describes the oldest painting to be found in Rome, in a tomb on the Esquiline Hill:

 

It describes a historical scene, on a clear background, painted in four superimposed sections. Several people are identified, such Marcus Fannius and Marcus Fabius. These are larger than the other figures ... In the second zone, to the left, is a city encircled with crenellated walls, in front of which is a large warrior equipped with an oval buckler and a feathered helmet; near him is a man in a short tunic, armed with a spear...Around these two are smaller soldiers in short tunics, armed with spears...In the lower zone a battle is taking place, where a warrior with oval buckler and a feathered helmet is shown larger than the others, whose weapons allow to assume that these are probably Samnites.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Venice_–_The_Tetrarchs_03.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portrait_of_the_Four_Tetrarchs

The Portrait of the Four Tetrarchs is a porphyry sculpture group of four Roman emperors dating from around 300 AD. Since the Middle Ages it has been fixed to a corner of the façade of St Mark's Basilica in Venice, Italy. It probably originally formed part of the decorations of the Philadelphion in Constantinople, and was removed to Venice in 1204 or soon after.

 

Contents [hide]

1 Subject

2 Style

3 History

4 References

5 External links

Subject[edit]

The Roman Empire was for a time after 293 ruled by a tetrarchy (a group of four rulers), instituted by Emperor Diocletian. The tetrarchy consisted of two Augusti (senior emperors) and two Caesars (junior emperors). The empire was territorially divided into western and eastern halves, with a senior and a junior emperor in each half. After Diocletian and his colleague, Maximian, retired in 305, internal strife erupted among the tetrarchs. The system finally ceased to exist around 313.

 

The Portrait of the Four Tetrarchs symbolizes the concept of the tetrarchy, rather than providing four personal portraits. Each tetrarch looks the same, without any individualized characteristics, except that two, probably representing the older Augusti, have beards, and two do not who might have symbolized the Caesars. The group is divided into pairs, each embracing, which unites Augusti and Caesars together. The overall effect suggests unity and stability. The very choice of material, the durable porphyry (which came from Egypt), symbolizes a permanence of the kind reminiscent of Egyptian statuary and the early Kouros figures. Porphyry was rare and reserved for imperial use.[1][2]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pompeian_Styles

The Pompeian Styles are four periods which are distinguished in ancient Roman mural painting. They were originally delineated and described by the German archaeologist August Mau, 1840 – 1909, from the excavation of wall paintings at Pompeii, which is one of the largest group of surviving examples of Roman frescoes.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greek_art

 

The earliest art by Greeks is generally excluded from ancient Greek art, and instead known as Aegean art; this includes Cycladic art and the art of the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures from the Greek Bronze Age.[1] The art of ancient Greece is usually divided stylistically into four periods: the Geometric, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic. The Geometric age is usually dated from about 1000 BC, although in reality little is known about art in Greece during the preceding 200 years, traditionally known as the Greek Dark Ages. The 7th century BC witnessed the slow development of the Archaic style as exemplified by the black-figure style of vase painting. Around 500 BC, shortly before the onset of the Persian Wars (480 BC to 448 BC), is usually taken as the dividing line between the Archaic and the Classical periods, and the reign of Alexander the Great (336 BC to 323 BC) is taken as separating the Classical from the Hellenistic periods. From some point in the 1st century BC onwards "Greco-Roman" is used, or more local terms for the Eastern Greek world.[2]

http://self.gutenberg.org/articles/eng/Primary_color

The fourth is always different/transcendent and points to the fifth which is questionable and ultra transcendent

 

Painters have long used more than three "primary" colors in their palettes—and at one point considered red, yellow, blue, and green to be the four primaries.[23] Red, yellow, blue, and green are still widely considered the four psychological primary colors,[24] though red, yellow, and blue are sometimes listed as the three psychological primaries,[25] with black and white occasionally added as a fourth and fifth.

Matisse painted squares. Squares are in quadrants. His final works were Christian and featured crosses and a cross in his chapel.

The fourth is always different

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_scheme

 

The tetradic (double complementary) colors scheme is the richest of all the schemes because it uses four colors arranged into two complementary color pairs. This scheme is hard to harmonize and requires a color to be dominant or subdue the colors.; if all four colors are used in equal amounts, the scheme may look unbalanced.

Rectangle

The rectangle color scheme uses four colors arranged into two complementary pairs and offers plenty of possibilities for variation. Rectangle color schemes work best when one color is dominant.

Square

The square color scheme

The fourth is always different.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complementary_colors

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complementary_colors

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Vincent_Willem_van_Gogh_076.jpg

 

Describing his painting, The Night Café, to his brother Theo in 1888, Van Gogh wrote: "I sought to express with red and green the terrible human passions. The hall is blood red and pale yellow, with a green billiard table in the center, and four lamps of lemon yellow, with rays of orange and green. Everywhere it is a battle and antithesis of the most different reds and greens."[18]

There are four potato eaters in Van Gohs painting, The Potato Eaters, arranged in a quadrant. The fourth is always different and points to an ultra transcendent fifth that is questionable. The second painting added a fifth figure. The fifth is facing opposite of the four and is very different.

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Potato_Eaters

 

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5c/The_Potato_Eaters_-_Vincent_van_Gogh_-_.jpg

Four paintings
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunflowers_(Van_Gogh_series)
The fourth is different, with four sunflowers, the fourth sunflower is different
https://en.wikipedia.org/…/File:Four_Withered_Sunflowers.jpg

The Paris Sunflowers[edit]
See also: Still life paintings by Vincent van Gogh (Paris)
Little is known of Van Gogh's activities during the two years he lived with his brother, Theo, in Paris, 1886–1888. The fact that he had painted Sunflowers already is only revealed in the spring of 1889, when Gauguin claimed one of the Arles versions in exchange for studies he had left behind after leaving Arles for Paris. Van Gogh was upset and replied that Gauguin had absolutely no right to make this request: "I am definitely keeping my sunflowers in question. He has two of them already, let that hold him. And if he is not satisfied with the exchange he has made with me, he can take back his little Martinique canvas, and his self-portrait sent me from Brittany,[1] at the same time giving me back both my portrait[2] and the two sunflower canvases which he has taken to Paris. So if he ever broaches this subject again, I've told you just how matters stand."[3]

The two Sunflowers in question show two buttons each; one of them was preceded by a small study, and a fourth large canvas combines both compositions.

ALL OF THIS IS IN MY OVER FIFTY QMR BOOKS

Van Gogh's famous fourth version of his FOUR VERSIONS of the Arles Sunflowers. What is fascinating to note is that in his fourth version he has 16 sunflowers. 16 is the squares of the quadrant model

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunflowers_(Van_Gogh_series)

The initial versions, August 1888[edit]
None meets the descriptions supplied by van Gogh himself in his announcement of the series in every detail. The first version differs in size, is painted on a size 20 canvas—not on a size 15 canvas as indicated[5]—and all the others differ in the number of flowers depicted from van Gogh's announcement. The second was evidently enlarged and the initial composition altered by insertion of the two flowers lying in the foreground, center and right.[6] Neither the third nor the fourth shows the dozen or 14 flowers indicated by the artist, but more—fifteen or sixteen.[7] These alterations are executed wet-in-wet and therefore considered genuine rework—even the more so as they are copied to the repetitions of January 1889; there is no longer a trace of later alterations, at least in this aspect.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crucifixion_(Corpus_Hypercubus)

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dali_Crucifixion_hypercube.jpg

 

Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus) is a 1954 oil-on-canvas painting by Salvador Dalí which depicts the Crucifixion of Jesus, though it deviates from traditional portrayals of the Crucifixion by depicting Christ on the polyhedron net of a hypercube and adding elements of Surrealism. It is one of his most well known paintings from the later period of his career.

Dalí’s inspiration for Corpus Hypercubus came from his change in artistic style during the 1940s and 1950s. Around that time, his interest in surrealism diminished and he became fascinated with nuclear science, feeling that “thenceforth, the atom was [his] favorite food for thought.” His interest grew from the bombing of Hiroshima at the end of World War II which left a lasting impression on him. In his 1951 essay “Mystical Manifesto”, he introduced an art theory he called “nuclear mysticism” that combined Dalí’s interests in Catholicism, mathematics, science, and Catalan culture in an effort to reestablish Classical values and techniques, which he extensively utilizes in Corpus Hypercubus.[1] That same year, to promote nuclear mysticism and explain the “return to spiritual classicism movement” in modern art,[2] he traveled throughout the United States giving lectures. Before painting Corpus Hypercubus, Dalí announced his intention to portray an exploding Christ using both classical painting techniques along with the motif of the cube and he declared that “this painting will be the great metaphysical work of [his] summer.” Juan de Herrera’s Treatise on Cubic Forms was particularly influential to Dalí.[3]

Dali was inspired by nuclear physics, and once again, art was influenced by science, and Dali began making paintings that he felt reflected the quantum world.

In his painting of Christ on the hypercube, he sought to portray the fourth dimension time in the painting. Remember that time is an illusion. The fourth square is always different. The first three spatial dimensions are similar, but the fourth, time, is different.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tesseract2.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Net_(polyhedron)

For example, a net of a 4-polytope, a four-dimensional polytope, is composed of polyhedral cells that are connected by their faces and all occupy the same three-dimensional space, just as the polygon faces of a net of a polyhedron are connected by their edges and all occupy the same plane. The above net of the tesseract, the four-dimensional hypercube, is used prominently in a painting by Salvador Dalí, Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus) (1954).[11]

https://en.wikipedia.org/…/Christ_of_Saint_John_of_the_Cros…

https://en.wikipedia.org/…/File:Christ_of_Saint_John_of_the…
Christ of Saint John of the Cross is a painting by Salvador Dalí made in 1951. It depicts Jesus Christ on the cross in a darkened sky floating over a body of water complete with a boat and fishermen. Although it is a depiction of the crucifixion, it is devoid of nails, blood, and a crown of thorns, because, according to Dalí, he was convinced by a dream that these features would mar his depiction of Christ. Also in a dream, the importance of depicting Christ in the extreme angle evident in the painting was revealed to him.

Contents [hide] 
1 Title
2 Inspiration
3 History
4 Critical reception
5 References
Title[edit]

Crucifixion sketch by St. John of the Cross, c. 1550, which inspired Dalí
The painting is known as the Christ of Saint John of the Cross, because its design is based on a drawing by the 16th-century Spanish friar John of the Cross. The composition of Christ is also based on a triangle and circle (the triangle is formed by Christ's arms; the circle is formed by Christ's head). The triangle, since it has three sides, can be seen as a reference to the Trinity, and the circle may be an allusion to Platonic thought. The circle represents Unity: all things do exist in the "three" but in the four, merry they be.[1]

A cross is a quadrant

https://en.wikipedia.org/…/File:John_of_the_Cross_crucifixi…
https://en.wikipedia.org/…/Christ_of_Saint_John_of_the_Cros…
Crucifixion sketch by St. John of the Cross, c. 1550, which inspired Dalí

https://redice.tv/a/i/n/07/1721quaternity4.png

 

mormon quaternity - Google Search

One Trinity that was completed in the last century, with the bodily assumption of the Virgin Mary into heaven (defined as dogma in 1950 by Pope Pius XII), transformed the Christian Trinity into a Quaternity, and one that Jung believes was achieved by the overwhelming insistence of the Catholic masses (CW 9ii, 142). “… the quaternity is the sine qua non of divine birth and consequently of the inner life of the trinity. Thus circle and quaternity on one side and the threefold rhythm on the other interpenetrate so that each is contained in the other” (CW 11 125). Jung believes that this was the most significant religious event since the reformation (quoted in EJ 321).

Picasso's Guernica has a mother carrying her dead child. It is argued that this is a continuation of the Madonna motif in which Mary holds Jesus after his crucifixion. The cross never leaves art even in so called secular art. For instance, in Van Gohs secular paintings he purposefully places crosses, like in window, where in previous eras there would have been actual crosses. This was intentional according to art historians.
Andy Warhol is a modern artist who would make pictures of celebrities as if they were iconic religious images. It is not a coincidence growing up he was a devout catholic, and his modern images the feel as though the celebrities were religious icons, while also their cartoonish character undermined it.

https://en.wikipedia.org/…/File:Edvard_Munch_-_Four_Girls_i…
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edvard_Munch

Painting by Munch- who painted the four versions of the famous The Scream- (the movie Scream uses that mask)

Four Girls in Åsgårdstrand. 1903. 87 × 111 cm. Munch Museum, Oslo

Painting by Munch, who painted four versions of the scream.

 

The cross is a quadrant

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Edvard_Munch_-_Golgotha_(1900).jpg

Jesus on the cross.

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The cross is a quadrant

The Three Dancers is similar to Les Demoiselles a'Avignon in its revolutionary impact - yet it is not the elements of primitivism but the women's psychotic frenzy that is disturbing. The bodily distortions and maniacal grimaces, combined with the figures' pyramidal structure, surface again in the equally ferocious Crucifixion (1930).The characters are life size, as this massive picture measures seven feet by five feet.

The Crucifixion has no particular religious significance, although its interpretation of pain and suffering is intensely captured and it is a fascinating forerunner, with the use of certain shapes and expressions, to Picasso's most famous work, Guernica

I discussed that in Guernica, the mother holding the son is supposed to represent the Mother Mary holding Jesus after the Crucifixion.

http://www.pablopicasso.org/crucifixion.jsp

http://www.pablopicasso.org/images/paintings/crucifixion.jpg

http://www.pablopicasso.org/three-dancers.jsp

http://www.pablopicasso.org/ima…/paintings/three-dancers.jpg

The Three Dancers (French: Les Trois Danseuses[1]) is a painting by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso, painted in June 1925. It is an oil on canvas and measures 84.8 in x 56 in (215.3 cm x 142.2 cm).
I read an article that said that one of the dancers was being crucified, and the crucifixion was what Picasso was portraying.

The cross is the quadrant

 

http://totallyhistory.com/the-three-dancers/

The Three Dancers shows a small group of ballet dancers, painted in a style that deliberately emphasizes uncertainty. The central dancer, for example, has a slit on her face that might be either a mouth or an eye. The work was produced at a time when Picasso’s own marriage was failing, and the painting strongly hints at his private unhappiness. The uneven, jagged shapes of the three dancers show intense energy, although with wildly uneven emotional expression. The central dancer’s raised arms are a deliberate link with the imagery of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ.

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/03/06/van-gogh-last-supper_n_6753294.html

Cross is a quadrant

Some of Van Goh's cross symbolism

 

Around the time of working on “Cafe Terrace at Night,” van Gogh wrote to his brother, Theo van Gogh, explaining that he had a “tremendous need for, shall I say the word — for religion,” with direct reference to the painting. In his first sketch of the work (above right), van Gogh essentially outlined a cafe terrace at night, but the finished work (above left) has some alterations.

 

In the final work, a shadowy figure can be seen leaving through the doorway. Still others, golden-hued, watch the group of a dozen from the corner. Van Gogh’s trademark yellow lends itself to the heavenly appearance of the scene, and the lantern above the central figure serves as a halo. The awning is drawn back across the terrace to reveal a cross in the distance.

 

Multiple crosses appear in the painting, a subtle symbolism experienced before by van Gogh.

 

464222936

 

Van Gogh’s friend and fellow artist, Émile Bernard, shared “A Woman Washing Herself” with van Gogh, a painting that uses a window to give the perception that the subject is bearing a cross. To his brother, van Gogh described it as “Rembrandtesque,” alluding to the painter’s notorious use of religious symbolism.

 

For “Cafe Terrace at Night,” van Gogh included a similar cross above the central subject, as a singular horizontal muntin holds the panes of glass, unlike the window just across the street. Reaching a bit more, considerable zooming is required to see another cross emblazoned upon the central figure’s chest.

 

In Letter 649, van Gogh wrote that Baudelaire “knew more or less nothing about Rembrandt” because he hadn’t truly looked closely at the symbolism. Van Gogh makes a direct reference to Rembrandt’s “Slaughtered Ox,” housed at the Louvre, which he seems to believe had religious significance. (St. Luke’s symbol was the ox and he’s considered the patron saint of butchers, doctors, students and, you guessed it, artists.) Further interpretations, such as Boston College professor Kenneth Craig’s, have suggested that the ox is a depiction of Christ’s crucifixion. Van Gogh admonished Bernard for similarly failing to look closely enough and would go on to paint multiple depictions of an ox himself.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gauguin_Il_Cristo_giallo.jpg

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Yellow_Christ

 

The Yellow Christ

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Yellow Christ

Gauguin Il Cristo giallo.jpg

Artist Paul Gauguin

Year 1889

Medium Oil on canvas

Dimensions 91.1 cm × 73.4 cm (35.9 in × 28.9 in)

Location Albright-Knox Art Gallery

The Yellow Christ (in French: Le Christ jaune) is a painting executed by Paul Gauguin in 1889 in Pont-Aven. Together with The Green Christ, it is considered to be one of the key works of Symbolism in painting.

 

 

The Crucifix of Trémalo, Pont-Aven, an anonymous wood sculpture, 189 x 133 cm

Gauguin first visited Pont-Aven in 1886. He returned to the village in early 1888 to stay until mid-October, when he left to join Vincent van Gogh in Arles, for little more than two months. Early in 1889, Gauguin was back to Pont-Aven to stay there until spring 1890. It was only for a short visit in summer 1889 to Paris to see the Exposition universelle and to arrange the Volpini Exhibition that Gauguin interrupted this sojourn. Soon after his return to Pont-Aven he painted The Yellow Christ:

 

The Yellow Christ is a symbolic piece that shows the crucifixion of Christ taking place in nineteenth-century northern France as Breton women are gathered in prayer. Gauguin relies heavily on bold lines to define his figures and reserves shading only for the women. The autumn palette of yellow, red and green in the landscape echoes the dominant yellow in the figure of Christ. The bold outlines and flatness of the forms in this painting are typical of the cloisonnist style.

 

A study for The Yellow Christ in pencil is preserved in the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, and a version in watercolor is in the collection of the Art Institute of Chicago, gift of Elizabeth F. Chapman.[1]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Christ_jaune_Tremalo.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Yellow_Christ
The Crucifix of Trémalo, Pont-Aven, an anonymous wood sculpture, 189 x 133 cm

http://blog.godreports.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Van-Gogh-Sunflowers.jpg

 

Four Cut Sunflowers by Van Goh

 

http://blog.godreports.com/2012/11/vincent-van-goghs-unappreciated-journey-with-christ/

 

Havlicek even sees the work of Christ in van Gogh’s famous painting of sunflowers. “In 1886 van Gogh found sunflowers thrown in a street gutter in Paris. He went home and painted these beautiful cast-off flowers. The way the flowers were transformed through love shows redemption.”

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Van Goh- hidden symbolism

The cross is the quadrant

 

http://www.vangoghcontroversy.com/hiddenimages.htm

 

http://www.vangoghcontroversy.com/images/apricot-treeWfeet.gif

 

"Apricot Tree in Blossom", April 1888.

The depiction of the Feet of Crucifixion and the Snake.

The Potato Eaters, of April 1885.

One of two paintings, the distinction being the lady on the right pouring the( tea?).

http://www.vangoghcontroversy.com/images/potato-eatersv2.gif

 

http://www.vangoghcontroversy.com/hiddenimages.htm

 

the potato eaters

The theme of the painting:

Christ speaking: “ I am the light of the world.

Pick up your cross ( your burdens) and follow me. ”

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http://i0.wp.com/think.iafor.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Rembrandt-The-Slughtered-Ox-van-Gogh-Think-IAFOR.jpg?zoom=2&resize=534%2C626

 

http://think.iafor.org/van-gogh-rembrandt-slaughtered-ox/

 

Van Goh interpretation of quatrain- and seeing Rembrandt and the portrait "Slaughtered Ox" as a symbol of crucifixion- the cross is the quadrant

 

Although he died 126 years ago, Vincent (as he preferred to be called) remains the poster child for tortured artists everywhere. The icon of tormented genius, he sacrificed everything for his art – his health, his sanity and even his life – earning next to nothing while alive. A labyrinthine creative, he held specific ideas about sacrifice, torment and suffering, values that were grounded in his deeply religious youth. His visage of the archetypal tortured artist was not that man in his mirror but rather, Jesus Christ; whom he tried lifelong to imitate.

 

Rembrandt – sad hospital filled full with murmurings

Decorated only with a great crucifix

Where the tearful prayer exhales from the filth,

And brusquely traversed by a ray of winter.

 

This quatrain by 19th-century Symbolist pioneer Charles Baudelaire began a heated discussion between Vincent and his pen pal, the artist Émile Bernard. The discourse would ultimately disintegrate their friendship. Bernard, who was less talented with brush and palette than those comrades of the Petit Boulevard (Vincent, Gauguin, Toulouse Lautrec and others), was arguably the greatest theorist and innovator, laying claim to originating two artistic movements: Cloisonnism and Symbolism. Vincent’s interpretation of Rembrandt’s Slaughtered Ox, with its multiplicity of metaphors, reveals his syncretic ideation of Symbolist art – a definition that won’t please pedantic art critics – but should illuminate how he perceived and worked within the movement.

 

Vincent’s reaction to the quatrain was seething and contemptuous:

 

Ah… Rembrandt… all admiration for Baudelaire aside — I venture to assume, especially on the basis of those verses…. that he knew more or less nothing about Rembrandt […] But see, have you ever looked closely at ‘the ox’ or the interior of a butcher’s shop in the Louvre? You haven’t looked closely, and Baudelaire, infinitely less so.

 

Rembrandt, The Slaughtered Ox van Gogh Think IAFOR

The Slaughtered Ox – Rembrandt (1655)

 

Art historian Kenneth Craig published the most compelling interpretation of the Slaughtered Ox, explicating it is a religious painting by demonstrating Rembrandt distilled the essence of a storied Flemish vanitas tradition that depicted the Prodigal Son parable by prominently featuring a flayed carcass as allegorical of Christ’s crucifixion. He concluded:

 

The killing of the fatted calf at the joyous return of the Son is the symbolic equivalent of the sacrifice of Christ on the cross. Sermon after sermon as well as innumerable commentaries on Luke 15 make this point: the ox stands for Christ.

 

Craig uses the “fatted calf” and “slaughtered ox” interchangeably here and several other times. And so it begs the question: does the calf stand for Christ or is it the ox, or is it maybe both?

 

Digging into the various lexical histories doesn’t really solve the problem. The original Greek word from the parable is “moschos,” in the Latin Vulgate it’s “vitulum” and in the 1637 Dutch Bible, it’s “kalf” and all clearly denote a young bovine, not an ox. While there appears to be a conflation, dating back thousands of years, perhaps the argument should be made that the calf stands for the infant Christ and the ox, His passion.

 

Vincent, in all likelihood, embraced this crucifixion representation. However, he also perceived a lost interpretation heretofore unpublished by art historians. He explained to Bernard:

 

The symbol of Saint Luke, the patron of painters, is, as you know, an ox; we must therefore be as patient as an ox if we wish to labor in the artistic field.

 

The ox also stands for Luke, an important nuance, especially when we consider Luke is also the patron saint of butchers, compounding the correspondence within Rembrandt’s depiction all the more richly. Correspondences, or, multiplicities of metaphors are a cornerstone of Symbolist art. Interestingly, a similar tradition was practiced by Vincent’s Dutchmen. Bijschriftenpoëzie, or “imagepoetry” is the marriage of poem and picture, in which a theologian would take a reverent image and ascribe to it, poetic thoughts, typically from the scriptures, or hymn books of his day. The idea is that a poem is a picture, and a picture, a poem. Artistic lines between genres are blurred, ideally, synesthetically. This was also an important tenet of Symbolist art: to evoke a state of mind within the viewer in which the senses are completely bedazzled.

 

“Art is jealous and demands all our time, all our strength” – Van Gogh/Delacroix

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Vincent’s beliefs about St. Luke illustrate his feeling that the artist’s plight begins with labor. About his own laborious, artistic endeavors, he lamented, quoting Delacroix, “Art is jealous and demands all our time, all our strength,” echoing this sentiment from Flaubert in a later letter, “‘talent is long on patience’ – and originality an effort of will and intense observation.” Art takes strength. Art takes patience. In short, art takes work. It takes all the exertion of an ox to become a great artist, the greatest of whom, in Vincent’s opinion was not Rembrandt, Michelangelo or St. Luke, but Christ; as he explained to Bernard, “he made neither statues nor paintings nor even books….. he states it loud and clear.. he made.. living men, immortals.”

 

As the ox struggles ever through the field, labor leads to suffering. This doubleedged sword for Vincent was reflected in his mantra to be “sorrowful yet always rejoicing” and illustrated in his view that artists were beasts of burden, including his several references to “the poor Impressionists” as “Parisian cabhorses.” His friend and rival, Paul Gauguin wrote him during this nascent creative period:

 

The artist’s life is one long Calvary to go through! And that’s perhaps what makes us live. Passion enlivens us, and we die when it has nothing more to feed on. Let’s leave these paths full of thorny bushes, but they have their wild poetry all the same. I’m studying young Bernard, whom I don’t know as well as you do; I believe you’ll do him good, and he needs it. He has suffered, of course, and he’s starting out in life full of bile…

 

These artists embraced as a prerequisite that one must suffer to create art. It follows that the greater the suffering, the greater the artistic output. Which artist had suffered the most? He whom had earned the symbol of the ox through His passion, Christ. The result of which – according to Vincent – was the creation of humanity and immortality for all those who believe in Him.

 

“These artists embraced as a prerequisite that one must suffer to create art. It follows that the greater the suffering, the greater the artistic output.”

When Vincent fled to the south of France, he had given up hopes of a wife or children, empathizing with his brother, “we try to create thoughts instead of children; in that way, we’re part of humanity all the same.” Humbled in the Arlesian brothels, Vincent felt impotent in the physical world, “creating thoughts instead of children.” Oxen, castrated, are also unable to procreate. The abandonment of the physicality for the creative, was now Vincent’s destiny. But he was in good company. Those beasts of burden, St. Luke and Christ had been celibate, rejecting their physical selves in favor of discovering their spiritual perfections.

 

“labor, suffering, castration, and crucifixion”

From the asylum at St. Remy, a year after lambasting the Baudelaire quatrain, his relationship with Bernard and Gauguin all but dissolved; Vincent derided their attempts at Symbolist art as rife with crude Catholic iconography, exhorting, “in order to give an impression of anxiety, you can try to do it without heading straight for the historical garden of Gethsemane.” His point was to be more subtle, was to be more sublime. The greatest artists challenge their viewers to discover elusive, symbolic meanings, as evidenced in the myriad of epiphanies experienced while closely examining the Slaughtered Ox. Thus, Vincent interpreted the Rembrandt as an allegorical self-portrait and mirroring of the artist’s plight and destiny: labor, suffering, castration, and crucifixion, but ultimately, salvation.

I'm a

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Els_Quatre_Gats

 

El Quarte Gats is the name of a café in Barcelona, Spain that famously became a popular meeting place for famous artists throughout the modernist period in Cataluña. The café opened on June 12, 1897 in the famous Casa Martí, and served as a hostel, bar and cabaret until it eventually became a central meeting point for Barcelona’s most prominent modernist figures, such as Pablo Picasso and Ramon Casas I Carbó. The bar closed due to financial difficulties in June 1903, but was reopened and eventually restored to its original condition in 1989.

List of Famous Patrons[edit]

Ramon Casas (Artist)

Santiago Rusiñol (Artist)

Rubén Dario (Poet)

Pablo Picasso (Artist)

Isaac Albéniz (Pianist and composer)

Enric Granados (Pianist and composer)

Lluís Millet (Musician and composer)

Antoní Gaudí (Architect)

Ricard Opisso (Cartoonist, illustrator and painter)

Miquel Utrillo (Artist)

Julio González (Sculptor)[8]

. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2017/01/03/11/3BCDC6E000000578-4083952-image-a-19_1483444122861.jpg

 

Hundreds of killer Japanese Samurai may have been secret Christians who expressed their faith with codes hidden in their sword hilts, researchers have found.

The deadly warriors were banned from following religions after feudal Japan introduced strict anti-Christian measures in the 16th century.

But the devout swordsmen commissioned metalsmiths to produce sword guards with crucifixes and other symbols skillfully hidden in their sacred weapons.

Historians conducted painstaking tests to estimate when the weapons were created based on their designs, materials, and techniques used to produce them. They show crosses, crucifixes and religious symbols carefully concealed in the intricate designs (pictured)

 

 

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4083952/Hundreds-killer-Japanese-Samurai-secret-Christians-hid-religious-codes-sword-hilts.html#ixzz4bCHK2W00

Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

 

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4083952/Hundreds-killer-Japanese-Samurai-secret-Christians-hid-religious-codes-sword-hilts.html#ixzz4bCGw06W2

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https://markmeynell.wordpress.com/2009/07/21/holbein’s-the-ambassadors-unlocking-hidden-mysteries/

 

Holbein’s THE AMBASSADORS: unlocking hidden mysteries

by quaesitor

 

 

Have been captivated by John North’s extraordinary book on Hans Holbein’s painting The Ambassadors. If you’ve never seen the painting in the flesh, it’s in the National Gallery in London – well worth a peek, not least because it’s free. It is monumental and captivating – and one of (if not THE) Holbein’s masterpieces.

 

THE POLYHEDRAL DIAL – next to the bishop’s right elbow is this strange scientific-looking instrument (surrounded by strange instruments) which has a number of different faces, and sticky-out things (called gnomons) like the cylindrical sundial above. Quite apart from what it all means (and I was slightly lost here), notice the angle of the gnomon facing us. If you draw a line tracing its angle back and forth, you come across something remarkable. It will intersect off-canvas to the right with the line where your eye should go in order to see the skull correctly. And if your eye is there, looking up this trajectory, your eye will ‘pass through’ a number of key objects. It will intersect perfectly with the horizon line on the astronomical globe on the upper shelf. (see below) That is no accident. But as your eye travels further, you intersect with the Ambassador’s left eye, and then, lo and behold… The crucifix – at Christ’s left eye, to be precise.

 

THE CRUCIFIX – this is entirely appropriate for a Catholic painting of 2 Men on Good Friday. Notice it is partially hidden by the curtain. Allusions to the Temple curtain, perhaps…? As my friend Gavin McGrath rightly mentioned, this part of the picture is often cut off by over-zealous photo-editors. But there is also another reason – it doesn’t quite fit into the square. As noted above, the whole image is not a perfect square. If you were to draw one, flush against the right side, it would include everything in the painting, except the crucifix. North suggests in his book that this is because there are also astrological designs informing the structure: renaissance horoscopes were apparently often drawn in a perfect square, dissected by various lines and segments. He speculates that Holbein felt it inappropriate to include the crucifix in a horoscope square…

http://www.reidsitaly.com/…/floren…/sights/brunelleschi.html

http://www.reidsitaly.com/…/donatello_brunelleschi-christs.…

Breaking some eggs in the Christ competition

Donatello had carved a small wood Crucifix for Santa Croce and asked Brunelleschi's opinion of it.

Now, Donatello was ahead of his time in incorporating naturalism and exacting verisimilitude in his art, and he had carved a very life-like Christ (as opposed to the stylized, Byzantine models that had come before).

However, when Brunelleschi saw it—perhaps expect something a bit more graceful (and known for being blunt)—he told Donatello it seemed he had "put on the cross the body of a peasant, not the body of Jesus Christ."

Donatello was usually a pretty easy-going guy, but these words from his friend and artistic confident must have stung, because he replied, "If it was as easy to make something as it is to criticize, my Christ would really look to you like Christ. So you get some wood and try to make one yourself."

Secretly, Brunelleschi did just that.

Several months went by, and the two were back to being best buds. One day, Brunelleschi asked Donatello to come over for dinner, and on their way to Brunelleschi's place they stopped for some eggs. Brunelleschi asked Donatello to gather these in his apron and go on to the studio ahead of him, as Brunelleschi still had a few more things to pick up.

Crucifixions by Filippo Brunelleschi (left) and Donatello (right). (Photos by Sailko)
Crucifixions by Filippo Brunelleschi (left) and Donatello (right). (Photos by Sailko)When Donatello entered Brunelleschi's place, he saw Brunelleschi's Crucifix—placed so Donatello couldn't miss it upon entering. He was so astonished and overwhelmed by its beauty that he dropped his hands, and the eggs smashed the the floor. Brunelleschi found him this way, still admiring the work.

Brunelleschi asked Donatello what he thought, and he replied humbly, "Your job is making Christs, and mine is making peasants."

(Of course, to modern sensibilities, Donatello's "peasants" are far more interesting than the lithe and graceful but more ethereal likes of Brunelleschi's works. Suffice to say: they were both supremely talented. Donatello was simply more original.)

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

http://www.jesus-story.net/images/Bacon-crucifixion.jpg

 

http://www.jesus-story.net/painting_crucifixion.htm

 

The figure at the foot of the cross is horrific: half-human, half-beast. Its screaming mouth protests against man's inhumanity to man. Some critics say that Bacon's inspiration for this image came from the wounded nurse in Eisenstein's 1925 film Battleship Potemkin - see the movie clip of this scene. The gaping mouth breathing black air may also reflect Bacon's severe asthma,

which eventually killed him in 1992.

Crucifixion, Francis Bacon, 1933

 

 

Crucifixion, Francis Bacon, 1933

 

http://www.jesus-story.net/images/crucifixion_Francis_Bacon_1933.jpg

The cross is a quadrant

http://www.jesus-story.net/painting_crucifixion.htm

 

Hidden meanings in paintings of the Crucifixion

In Roman times crucifixion was a widely used form of capital punishment, reserved for baser criminals and slaves. It was probably carried out differently from the way it is presented in art. At the site of the execution the upright post was already set into the ground; it could be used many times.

 

The condemned man was led to the place of execution carrying only the horizontal piece to which his hands were already tied to prevent resistance. On arrival his hands (or wrists) were nailed to the ends of the cross-bar which was then lifted on to the upright. It either rested across the top, to form a 'T' or was set somewhat lower down, forming the familiar crux immissa (intersecting). In either case the pieces were secured by some form of mortise and tenon. Finally the feet were nailed to the upright.

 

The early Church avoided images of the Crucifixion, because they showed that Jesus had died as a criminal.

 

At the time when Christianity was forbidden by the Romans, the crucifixion was represented symbolically by the lamb of Christ juxtaposed with a cross. Even after the age of Constantine the Great, when Christians were allowed to practise their religion without interference, the cross itself was still represented without the figure of Christ.

 

Later paintings show Jesus on the cross, but no-one else nearby; they were aids to devotion, a focus for prayer, not pictures of the scene.

 

Other paintings tell the story of the Crucifixion; they are crowded with people, as in the work of Italian Renaissance artists. There were figures from the gospels who became a permanent feature of the crucifixion: the Virgin Mary and St John the Evangelist, the centurion and the sponge-bearer, the two thieves, the soldiers casting lots.

 

For many centuries Christ was shown alive and open-eyed, a triumphant Saviour wearing a royal crown. In the 11th century however there appeared a new type, the emaciated figure with its head fallen on one shoulder and wearing a crown of thorns.

 

In art up to the 13th century the usual number of nails was four (including one for each foot), but after this it was usually three, (one foot nailed over the other).

 

In antiquity an inscription stating the nature of the condemned man's offence was hung round his neck as he was led to execution, and was afterwards fixed to the head of the cross. John (19:19-20) tells how Pilate 'wrote an inscription to be fastened to the cross; it read, "Jesus of Nazareth King of the Jews" . . . in Hebrew, Latin and Greek.' In Renaissance art it is usually given in Latin only, 'Iesus Nazarenes Rex Iudaeorum', abbreviated to `INRI'.

 

The medieval Church debated whether Christ was naked on the cross; in ancient Rome this was standard practice. Usually he is shown with a thin band of cloth extending round the waist and under the crotch. The loincloth was an invention of artists in the early Middle Ages.

 

The two thieves were crucified with Christ, one on each side. Luke adds that one rebuked the other saying that their punishment was deserved whereas Christ was innocent, and was told by the Saviour, 'Today you shall be with me in Paradise.' Art distinguished between the penitent and impenitent thief. The good is on Christ's right (the 'good' side); his expression is peaceful where the other's is anguished. The names by which they are generally known, Dismas and Gestas (good and bad), are taken from the apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus.

 

The soldiers who crucified Christ divided his clothes into four parts, one for each soldier. Of the seamless tunic, woven in one piece, they said, 'We must not tear this; let us toss for it.' They are either at the foot of the cross or in a corner of the picture. One is in the act of throwing dice while the others look on.

 

The Virgin and St John stand by the cross. This scene was originally intended to express the scene from John's gospel (19:26-27) in which Christ, while he still lived, entrusted the Virgin to the care of the apostle John. The Virgin stands on the right of Christ, St John on the left. Their heads are inclined. She may have raised her left hand to her cheek, supporting the elbow with the other hand, a traditional gesture of sorrow dating back to Hellenistic times.

The Virgin swoons into the arms of the holy women. There is no mention of this in the gospels - it is a creation of later medieval preachers and writers. They assumed that she was overcome with anguish, and suggested she swooned three times: on the Road to Calvary, at the crucifixion and after the descent from the cross.

 

In early paintings Mary Magdalene wears a red cloak. Later she appears richly attired and with her usual copious hair, kneeling at the foot of the cross or embracing it in passionate grief. She may kiss the bleeding feet or wipe them with her hair.

http://www.jesus-story.net/painting_descent.htm

 

http://www.jesus-story.net/images/RobustiTintoretto-11.jpg

 

Tintoretto presented the people in his paintings as individuals, capturing the moment as they experienced it. The descent from the cross was no longer a tableau with static figures, as it had been in Botticelli's paintings. Look at Mary's face. Unlike Jesus, she is still living, and suffering terribly. Her eyes have seen more than a mother can endure, and she has retreated into a semi-conscious state.

http://www.jesus-story.net/painting_descent.htm

 

The fourth is always different- fifth ultra transcendent

 

Hidden meanings in paintings of the Descent from the Cross

 

There are usually four people involved: Nicodemus with pincers drawing the nail from the left hand, Joseph taking the weight of the body, Mary holding the right hand which is already free, and the apostle John standing sorrowfully a little apart.

http://www.jesus-story.net/painting_descent.htm

 

From the 16th century and especially in later painting of the Spanish Netherlands the cross is viewed aslant, there are often four ladders, and two unidentified men lean over the cross-bar lowering the body to Joseph and Nicodemus. Mary Magdalene kneels, and there is a third woman, Mary the wife of Clopas. The instruments of the Passion lie on the ground: the crown of thorns, nails, and sometimes the inscripion and sponge. The body may be lowered to the ground by sliding it down a long winding-sheet.

http://www.jesus-story.net/painting_descent.htm

 

Hidden meanings in paintings of the Descent from the Cross

Joseph of Arimathaea, a rich and respected member of the Sanhedrin - the Jewish legislative council in Jerusalem - and secretly a disciple, obtained permission from Pilate, the Roman governor, to take the body of Christ from the cross. He brought a linen sheet and together with Nicodemus who brought myrrh and aloes to preserve the body, took it down from the cross.

 

We see the nails being removed from the body, or the body being lowered from the cross.

 

There are usually four people involved: Nicodemus with pincers drawing the nail from the left hand, Joseph taking the weight of the body, Mary holding the right hand which is already free, and the apostle John standing sorrowfully a little apart.

 

From the 16th century and especially in later painting of the Spanish Netherlands the cross is viewed aslant, there are often four ladders, and two unidentified men lean over the cross-bar lowering the body to Joseph and Nicodemus. Mary Magdalene kneels, and there is a third woman, Mary the wife of Clopas. The instruments of the Passion lie on the ground: the crown of thorns, nails, and sometimes the inscripion and sponge. The body may be lowered to the ground by sliding it down a long winding-sheet.

 

Joseph and Nicodemus can be distinguished by their dress. The former is richly clad, in contrast to the latter who is of more lowly appearance. In supporting the body Joseph takes the upper part, Nicodemus the lower. St John is of youthful appearance, often long-haired.

 

Prior to the Counter- Reformation the Virgin is sometimes seen swooning into the arms of her companions, but in later works she stands, perhaps clasping her hands.

 

Mary Magdalene, important in the Counter-Reformation as an example of Christian repentance, is a major figure.She is richly dressed and may wipe Jesus' feet with her luxuriant hair.

Jesus still cruciform arms

https://en.wikipedia.org/…/File:Rogier_van_der_Weyden_013.1…

Roger van der Weyden, Lamentation (ca. 1460–1463), Uffizi Gallery, Florence

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamentation_of_Christ

In Early Netherlandish painting of the 15th century the three crosses often appear in the background of the painting, a short distance from the scene.

From these different images another type, the Lamentation itself, arose from the 11th century, always giving a more prominent position to Mary, who either holds the body, and later has it across her lap, or sometimes falls back in a state of collapse as Joseph and others hold the body. In a very early Byzantine depiction of the 11th century,[7] a scene of this type is placed just outside the mouth of the tomb, but around the same time other images place the scene at the foot of the empty cross - in effect relocating it in both time (to before the bearing, laying-out and anointing of the body) as well as space. This became the standard scene in Western Gothic art, and even when the cross is subsequently seen less often, the landscape background is usually retained. In Early Netherlandish painting of the 15th century the three crosses often appear in the background of the painting, a short distance from the scene.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NKh7bEPFjlg

Famous paintings of crucifixion

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Alexorig.jpg

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexamenos_graffito

The Alexamenos graffito (also known as the graffito blasfemo, or blasphemous graffito)[1]:393 is a piece of Roman graffiti scratched in plaster on the wall of a room near the Palatine Hill in Rome, which has now been removed and is in the Palatine Hill Museum.[2] It may be the earliest surviving depiction of Jesus and, if so, competes with an engraved gem as the earliest known pictorial representation of the Crucifixion of Jesus.[3] It is hard to date, but has been estimated to have been made c. 200.[4] The image seems to show a young man worshipping a crucified, donkey-headed figure. The Greek inscription approximately translates to "Alexamenos worships [his] God," indicating that the graffito was apparently meant to mock a Christian named Alexamenos.[5]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Caspar_David_Friedrich_-_Das_Kreuz_im_Gebirge.jpg

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caspar_David_Friedrich

 

The cross is the quadrant

 

The Tetschen Altar, or The Cross in the Mountains (1807). 115 × 110.5 cm. Galerie Neue Meister, Dresden. Friedrich's first major work, the piece breaks with the traditions of representing the crucifixion in altarpieces by depicting the scene as a landscape.

 

Friedrich completed the first of his major paintings in 1807, at the age of 34. The Cross in the Mountains, today known as the Tetschen Altar (Galerie Neue Meister, Dresden), is an altarpiece panel commissioned by the Countess of Thun for her family's chapel in Tetschen, Bohemia. It was to be one of the few commissions the artist received.[27] The altar panel depicts a Gipfelkreuz, or a gilded cross, in profile at the top of a mountain, alone, and surrounded by German and Austrian pine trees.[28] The cross reaches the highest point in the pictorial plane but is presented from an oblique and a distant viewpoint. Nature dominates the scene and for the first time in Christian art, an altarpiece showcases a landscape. According to the art historian Linda Siegel, the design of the altarpiece is the "logical climax of many earlier drawings of his which depicted a cross in nature's world."[27]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caspar_David_Friedrich

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Caspar_David_Friedrich_-_Abtei_im_Eichwald_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

 

The cross is a quadrant

 

Friedrich said, "The artist should paint not only what he sees before him, but also what he sees within him. If, however, he sees nothing within him, then he should also refrain from painting that which he sees before him. Otherwise, his pictures will be like those folding screens behind which one expects to find only the sick or the dead."[54] Expansive skies, storms, mist, forests, ruins and crosses bearing witness to the presence of God are frequent elements in Friedrich's landscapes. Though death finds symbolic expression in boats that move away from shore—a Charon-like motif—and in the poplar tree, it is referenced more directly in paintings like The Abbey in the Oakwood (1808–10), in which monks carry a coffin past an open grave, toward a cross, and through the portal of a church in ruins.

 

He was one of the first artists to portray winter landscapes in which the land is rendered as stark and dead. Friedrich's winter scenes are solemn and still—according to the art historian Hermann Beenken, Friedrich painted winter scenes in which "no man has yet set his foot. The theme of nearly all the older winter pictures had been less winter itself than life in winter. In the 16th and 17th centuries, it was thought impossible to leave out such motifs as the crowd of skaters, the wanderer... It was Friedrich who first felt the wholly detached and distinctive features of a natural life. Instead of many tones, he sought the one; and so, in his landscape, he subordinated the composite chord into one single basic note".[51]

 

 

The Sea of Ice (1823–24), Kunsthalle Hamburg. This scene has been described as "a stunning composition of near and distant forms in an Arctic image".[55]

Bare oak trees and tree stumps, such as those in Raven Tree (c. 1822), Man and Woman Contemplating the Moon (c. 1833), and Willow Bush under a Setting Sun (c. 1835), are recurring elements of Friedrich's paintings, symbolizing death.[56] Countering the sense of despair are Friedrich's symbols for redemption: the cross and the clearing sky promise eternal life, and the slender moon suggests hope and the growing closeness of Christ.[57] In his paintings of the sea, anchors often appear on the shore, also indicating a spiritual hope.[58] German literature scholar Alice Kuzniar finds in Friedrich's painting a temporality—an evocation of the passage of time—that is rarely highlighted in the visual arts.[59] For example, in The Abbey in the Oakwood, the movement of the monks away from the open grave and toward the cross and the horizon imparts Friedrich's message that the final destination of man's life lies beyond the grave.[60]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Caspar_David_Friedrich_-_Kreuz_an_der_Ostsee_(Schloss_Carlottenburg,_Neuer_Pavillon).jpg

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caspar_David_Friedrich

 

The Cross Beside The Baltic (1815), 45 × 33.5 cm. Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin. This painting marked a move away by Friedrich from depictions in broad daylight, and a return to nocturnal scenes, twilight and a deeper poignancy of mood.[97]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Stages_of_Life

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lebesstufen_detail.jpg

The swedish flag being played with by the children in the center of the painting (the focal point) has a cross on it

The Stages of Life (German: Die Lebensstufen) is an allegorical oil painting of 1835 by the German Romantic landscape painter Caspar David Friedrich. Completed just five years before his death, this picture, like many of his works, forms a meditation both on his own mortality and on the transience of life.

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lebesstufen_detail.jpg

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/20/Utro_v_sosnovom_lesu.jpg/1920px-Utro_v_sosnovom_lesu.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morning_in_a_Pine_Forest

The painting has the same theme/structure as The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe), 1863 by Manet, where there are three figures in the foreground, and a fourth, diffferent figure, in the background. But the painting by Savitsky has three bears in the foreground and a fourth in the background, separated- the quadrant pattern.

 

The Morning in a Pine Forest turned very popular, being reproduced on various items, including the "Clumsy Bear" chocolates by Krasny Oktyabr.[3] According to one poll, the painting is the second most popular in Russia behind Bogatyrs by Viktor Vasnetsov.[4] Shishkin's similar paintings are the Forest in Spring (1884) and The Sestroretsk Forest (1896).

 

It is believed that Shishkin painted the pine trees near Narva-Jõesuu in Estonia, where he often liked to rest in summers.[5]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apulian_vase_painting#Apulian_pottery_schools

 

Four schools- four shapes- and the swastika is one of the principal motives

Contents [hide]

1 Geometric pottery

1.1 Four Apulian pottery schools

1.1.1 Daunian

1.1.2 Peucetian

1.1.3 Messapian

1.1.4 Canosan

1.2 Gallery

2 Red figure pottery

3 Notes

4 Literature

5 External links

Canosa and Ruvo have yielded the greatest quantity of early Daunian pottery, and were perhaps the principal, though not the only centers for its production. It is found over the whole of Daunia from Bitonto in the south to Lucera and Teanum in the north, occasionally in Picenum, and even in Istria. In Campania also the site of Suessula has yielded several vases, produced apparently under Daunian influence.[1]

 

There are four principal forms. The first is a round-bottomed footless krater with side handles and a plate-like rim (cf. example 1); the second is a similar krater on a pedestal. This latter is the shape known in Picenum, where its occurrence at Novilara puts its date at least as early as 600BC. From the round-bottomed krater is evolved the most peculiar and characteristic product of Canosa, that is, the double-storied jar. The plate-like rim has been developed into a deep bowl, which becomes more and more exaggerated during the 5th century until eventually it takes up nearly half the height of the entire jar. Strange fanciful additions are then made in the way of plastic ornament. To the ordinary ring handles are added a third and even a fourth, of increasingly fantastic kind.They may take the shape of an animal's face, most like a cat or an owl, or be formed like a thumbless human hand, which had probably some talismanic value. The fourth principal shape of pot is that which is known in Greece as an askos (cf. example 2), derived originally from an ordinary goatskin, and know at an early date over much of Sicily and Italy, but perhaps introduced by the Greeks.[1][3]

 

Entirely different from the Daunian pottery, both in spirit and in choice of shape and subject, is the Peucetian pottery. Fantastic ritual vases are unknown in Peucetia; kraters, bowls and jugs are the only forms permitted, and these are decorated in a style which is both simple and harmonious. There are two main classes of peucetian ware, the one painted in red and black (...), contemporary with imported Corinthian vases and considerably influenced by them, the other in plain black and white with a more restricted range of motives (cf. Gallery). There are four principal motives in the black and white, two of which, the swastika and the comb, overshadow the others. Swastikas began to appear at just the same period on pottery in the north of Italy, and are probably an imported conception from the Danube to the Balkans. The other chief motives are the festoon, and the zigzag. Cross-hatched lozenges are common to all these geometric schools but the Maltese cross, though only occasional, is peculiar to the Peucetians. This black and white ware goes back to 650BC and has a range of about 150 years from that point downwards.[1][4]

I PUT THIS STUFF ALREADY ITS IN OVER 50 BOOKS AND MY TIMELINE

 

http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/citi/images/standard/WebLarge/WebImg_000356/189094_4228695.jpg

 

White Crucifixion

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

White Crucifixion

Artist Marc Chagall

Year 1938

Location Art Institute of Chicago

The White Crucifixion is a painting by Marc Chagall depicting the Crucifixion of Jesus. It was painted in 1938 after Chagall had visited Europe, and can be viewed at the Art Institute of Chicago.

 

Contents [hide]

1 Description

2 Reception

3 References

4 External links

Description[edit]

The painting emphasizes the suffering of Jesus and the Jewish people. At the sides violent acts against Jews occur such as the burning of a synagogue and invaders. And in the center, Jesus is shown crucified wearing a prayer shawl as a symbol that he is Jewish.[1] The work is startling as the crucifixion, often seen by the Jewish people as a symbol of oppression, is instead being used to represent their suffering.[2]

 

Many of Chagall’s paintings could be described as lively, romantic, humorous, imaginative, and filled with brilliant colors, but the White Crucifixion is largely drained of color. Chagall painted it in 1938 while living in Paris, in response to the horrifying events of Kristallnacht, the “Night of Broken Glass,” an anti-Jewish pogrom of official decree by propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels in Nazi Germany (including Austria and Sudetenland) from the 9th until the 10th of November 1938.

 

A green figure carrying a bundle is shown crossing the foreground. This figure, who appears in several of Chagall's works, has been interpreted as being either a Jewish wanderer from Yiddish tradition or the Prophet Elijah.[2]

 

Two changes were made by Chagall to the work, a swastika on the armband of the soldier burning the synagogue was overpainted as well as the words "Ich bin Jude" on a placard around the neck of a man.[1]

 

There is also a Lithuanian flag in the upper right hand of the painting, which is not unexpected due to Chagall's Litvak roots. Also, in the upper left hand portion of the painting there are the red flags of communism.

http://www.marcusreichert.com/crucifixions.html

 

THE CRUCIFIXION BY MARCUS REICHERT

 

Exhibited at Canterbury Cathedral (1999) and Winchester Cathedral (1999-2000), these massive paintings confront one with what Sister Wendy Beckett has called their terribilita. Described by Richard Harries, the Bishop of Oxford, as being among the most disturbing painted in the 20th century, Reichert's Crucifixions command the viewer's attention not only with their depiction of the magnitude of Christ's agony but also with the eloquence of their painterly qualities. The American critic Donald Kuspit has written that both Picasso's and Bacon's Crucifixions, in their singular lack of commitment to the subject, pale when compared with Reichert's. Kuspit writes: 'The image of an isolated human being in the process of being annihilated by the world and his own anxiety is one that speaks to every person in our anomic society. What makes Reichert's crucified Christ modern is his angry incomprehension at his suffering.'

 

 

Crucifixion X 1991, oil and charcoal on linen, 74 x 66ins / 188 x 167.6cms

Marcus Reichert: 'As a subject to paint, the Crucifixion has preoccupied me since I was eleven years old. I should explain that my father was a painter and I began painting with oils when I was just eight. It was not until 1990, when I was forty-two, that I felt wholly compelled to begin work on the Crucifixion. For me, the question will always be: to what extremes is one willing to go to express the agony -- physical, psychological, and spiritual. No one knows what Jesus suffered. We do know however that such a death is the ultimate expression of man's cruelty. The anxiety and despair of being subjected to such forms of torture and annihilation at the hands of one's fellow human beings is nearly beyond comprehension. Although it is impossible to truly express such suffering, this was my intention.'

Crucifixion VI 1991, oil, charcoal, and newsprint collage on linen,

74 x 62ins / 188 x 157.5cms

THE CRUCIFIXION BY MARCUS REICHERT, COLLECTORS' PRINTS AVAILABLE

ENQUIRIES: REICHERT ARCHIVE

These works acknowledge, either knowingly or inadvertently, the impact of several painters of the Crucifixion of real note. As Reichert is of German background on his father's side of the family, his access to the greatest works of this subject of northern europe was considerable. He was especially aware of Matthias Grunewald's harrowing depiction of the event, and to a less potent degree Jan van Eycks's. Having spent his childhood in Pennsylvania, Reichert occasionally visited the Philadelphia Museum of Art where he admired Rogier van der Weyden's superbly elegant and strangely minimalist rendering of the Crucifixion, and also Thomas Eakins' dark version, which is not dissimilar to that of Peter Paul Rubens. Perhaps most poignantly he was moved by the inverted Crucifixion of Cimbue, which verges on the surreal. Paradoxically, he found Salvador Dali's most famous version less surreal in character. Reichert often admired Dali's painting when living in New York. Although the critic Donald Kuspit has written in a mildly disparaging vein when referring to the Crucifixions of Francis Bacon and Pablo Picasso when compared to Reichert's, it is only fair to say that Reichert was fascinated by the Crucifixions of both painters, but found Bacon's classic work Three Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion (1946) far more moving than Picasso's characteristically "cubist" approach; however he found Picasso's weeping heads of Dora Maar (of 1937 in particular) of much greater consequence with regard to his own vision of Christ's torment.

Crucifixion I 1990, oil and charcoal on linen, 74 x 66ins / 188 x 167.6cms

REICHERT: THE CRUCIFIXIONS

Catalogue for Touring Exhibition to Benefit the AIDS Services of North Carolina

Texts by Sister Wendy Beckett and Michael J. Florescu

 

The Greenville Museum of Art, North Carolina, 1993

pp16 - 4 full-page colour reproductions / 1 black and white reproduction (photograph by George Stavrinos)

available from the Reichert Archive

UK £5.95 US $7.95

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Grunewald_Isenheim1.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Studies_for_Figures_at_the_Base_of_a_Crucifixion

The figures at the base of The Crucifixion from Grünewald's Isenheim Altarpiece were an influence on Bacon's Three Studies. The British painter knew this picture since at least 1929.

16 is the squares of the quadrant model

 

http://www.garywimmer.com/writer/litholoops.jpg

http://www.garywimmer.com/writer/litho_book.htm

 

Lithomancy, the Psychic Art of Reading Stones (55,000 words), the only comprehensive book on Lithomancy, empowers the reader to understand different ways to interpret meaning from the Pattern formed by Sixteen Stones dropped or tossed into a Circle (which represents the environment) of leather, lace, or similar material. This book explains the basic system and variations to it, and inspires an individual to develop a personalized system of Lithomancy. It contains 24 pictures and detailed descriptions of all sixteen Planet and Personal Stones.

Psychic energy can be channeled, used and interpreted in a multitude of ways. Accordingly, many different methods of Lithomancy, like other psychic arts, have existed and evolved throughout the ages. The method discussed herein is based on interpreting the Pattern formed when a Subject or the Reader drops or tosses Sixteen Stones into a Circle of leather, lace, string or similar material. The Sixteen Stones consist of Six Personal Stones and Ten Planet Stones. SEE: Planet and Personal Stones

 

The Six Personal Stones represent personal issues: Life, Luck, Love, Commitment, Magic and Place. The Ten Planet Stones represent the ten planets and their astrological associations: the Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. The Sun and the Moon are considered planets in astrology. This basic system of Lithomancy covers a period of three months or longer, though a Reader can make adaptations and read for longer or shorter time periods.

 

To make use of this art, a Reader should first become familiar with the meanings, influences and attributes associated with each Stone. The Reader then needs to learn various ways of ‘seeing’ Patterns in terms of the relationships between the Stones, the flow of energies, and the timing and sequence of events, people, experiences, situations, etc. The Pattern formed by the Sixteen Stones visually and symbolically represents the Subject’s life and present situation, as well as the most likely possibilities and events that will unfold over the next three months or so. It is up to the Reader to interpret meaning, and this ability is attained through intuition and experience.

http://margaretryall.blogspot.com/2009/11/compose-quadrant-test.html

 

Compose: The quadrant test

Do you have any techniques you use to determine if you have an interesting composition? One that I learned early in my practice was the quadrant test. I've long forgotten where I first read about it, but I came upon it again the other day in a wonderful book called A painter's guide to design and composition: 26 masters reveal their secrets by Margot Schulzke. This book is well organized and illustrates many of the points discussed using paintings through their stages of development.

 

Years ago I created a quadrant "mat" out of a large sheet of clear plastic that I cut from a heavy weight plastic bag art stores often use when you purchase sheets of paper. I used a permanent black marker and a ruler to divide the plastic into quadrants . I can place the mat over many different size paintings by laying it on top of the painting. Because my work is often intimate in scale I created a smaller one to. When you overlay it the quadrants are visible underneath. The idea is to look at each quadrants to see if there is visual interest in each areas (no dead spots).

Mondrian's paintings are full of squares and quadrants. There are even Mondrian dresses with crosses.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mondriaanmode_door_Yves_St_Laurent_(1966).jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piet_Mondrian

Mondrian produced Lozenge Composition With Four Yellow Lines (1933), a simple painting that innovated thick, colored lines instead of black ones. After that one painting, this practice remained dormant in Mondrian's work until he arrived in Manhattan, at which time he began to embrace it with abandon. In some examples of this new direction, such as Composition (1938) / Place de la Concorde (1943), he appears to have taken unfinished black-line paintings from Paris and completed them in New York by adding short perpendicular lines of different colors, running between the longer black lines, or from a black line to the edge of the canvas. The newly colored areas are thick, almost bridging the gap between lines and forms, and it is startling to see color in a Mondrian painting that is unbounded by black. Other works mix long lines of red amidst the familiar black lines, creating a new sense of depth by the addition of a colored layer on top of the black one. His painting Composition No. 10, 1939–1942, characterized by primary colors, white ground and black grid lines clearly defined Mondrian's radical but classical approach to the rectangle. Mondrian dresses by Yves Saint Laurent shown with a Mondrian painting in 1966..

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Fourth dimension in art
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/…/File:Jean_Metzinger,_1912-1913,_…
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourth_dimension_in_art
An illustration from Jouffret's Traité élémentaire de géométrie à quatre dimensions. The book, which influenced Picasso, was given to him by Princet.
New possibilities opened up by the concept of four-dimensional space (and difficulties involved in trying to visualize it) helped inspire many modern artists in the first half of the twentieth century. Early Cubists, Surrealists, Futurists, and abstract artists took ideas from higher-dimensional mathematics and used them to radically advance their work.[1]

Contents [hide] 
1 Early influence
2 Dimensionist manifesto
3 Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus)
4 Abstract art
5 Other forms of art
6 See also
7 References
8 Sources
9 Further reading
10 External links
Early influence[edit]
Further information: Proto-Cubism and Mathematics and art

Picasso's Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, 1910, The Art Institute of Chicago

Jean Metzinger, 1912-1913, L'Oiseau bleu, (The Blue Bird), oil on canvas, 230 x 196 cm, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris
French mathematician Maurice Princet was known as "le mathématicien du cubisme" ("the mathematician of cubism").[2] An associate of the School of Paris, a group of avant-gardists including Pablo Picasso, Guillaume Apollinaire, Max Jacob, Jean Metzinger, and Marcel Duchamp, Princet is credited with introducing the work of Henri Poincaré and the concept of the "fourth dimension" to the cubists at the Bateau-Lavoir during the first decade of the 20th century.[3]

Princet introduced Picasso to Esprit Jouffret's Traité élémentaire de géométrie à quatre dimensions (Elementary Treatise on the Geometry of Four Dimensions, 1903),[4] a popularization of Poincaré's Science and Hypothesis in which Jouffret described hypercubes and other complex polyhedra in four dimensions and projected them onto the two-dimensional page. Picasso's Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler in 1910 was an important work for the artist, who spent many months shaping it.[5] The portrait bears similarities to Jouffret's work and shows a distinct movement away from the Proto-Cubist fauvism displayed in Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, to a more considered analysis of space and form.[6]

Early cubist Max Weber wrote an article entitled "In The Fourth Dimension from a Plastic Point of View", for Alfred Stieglitz's July 1910 issue of Camera Work. In the piece, Weber states, "In plastic art, I believe, there is a fourth dimension which may be described as the consciousness of a great and overwhelming sense of space-magnitude in all directions at one time, and is brought into existence through the three known measurements."[7]

Another influence on the School of Paris was that of Jean Metzinger and Albert Gleizes, both painters and theoreticians. The first major treatise written on the subject of Cubism was their 1912 collaboration Du "Cubisme", which says that:

"If we wished to relate the space of the [Cubist] painters to geometry, we should have to refer it to the non-Euclidian mathematicians; we should have to study, at some length, certain of Riemann's theorems."[8]

In a review of the 1913 Armory Show for the Philadelphia Enquirer, the influence of the fourth dimension on avante-garde painting was discussed; the paper's art-critic describing how the artists' employed "..harmonic use of what may arbitrarily be called volume".[9]

Dimensionist manifesto[edit]
In 1936 in Paris, Charles Tamkó Sirató published his Manifeste Dimensioniste,[10] which described how

the Dimensionist tendency has led to:

Literature leaving the line and entering the plane.
Painting leaving the plane and entering space.
Sculpture stepping out of closed, immobile forms.
…The artistic conquest of four-dimensional space, which to date has been completely art-free.
The manifesto was signed by many prominent modern artists worldwide. Hans Arp, Francis Picabia, Kandinsky, Robert Delaunay and Marcel Duchamp amongst others added their names in Paris, then a short while later it was endorsed by artists abroad including László Moholy-Nagy, Joan Miró, David Kakabadze, Alexander Calder, and Ben Nicholson.[10]

Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus)[edit]

Dalí's 1954 painting Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus)
In 1953, the surrealist Salvador Dalí proclaimed his intention to paint "an explosive, nuclear and hypercubic" crucifixion scene.[11][12] He said that, "This picture will be the great metaphysical work of my summer".[13] Completed the next year, Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus) depicts Jesus Christ upon the net of a hypercube, also known as a tesseract. The unfolding of a tesseract into eight cubes is analogous to unfolding the sides of a cube into six squares. The Metropolitan Museum of Art describes the painting as a "new interpretation of an oft-depicted subject. ..[showing] Christ's spiritual triumph over corporeal harm."[14]

Abstract art[edit]
Some of Piet Mondrian's (1872–1944) abstractions and his practice of Neoplasticism are said to be rooted in his view of a utopian universe, with perpendiculars visually extending into another dimension.[15]

Other forms of art[edit]
Main article: Fourth dimension in literature
The fourth dimension has been the subject of numerous fictional stories.[16]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy_of_space_and_time

 

According to special relativity each point in the universe can have a different set of events that compose its present instant. This has been used in the Rietdijk–Putnam argument to demonstrate that relativity predicts a block universe in which events are fixed in four dimensions.[citation needed]

http://hiddengem.catholicfaith.co.uk/images/stationstn.jpg

 

http://hiddengem.catholicfaith.co.uk/stations.html

 

Norman Adams Fourteen Stations of the Cross

 

By Sir Philip Dowson CBE RA, President, Royal Academy of Arts

 

Cover of the Stations of the Cross Book

 

Norman Adams Fourteen Stations of the Cross is one of the great ecclesiastical commissions in our country this century, and is an act of inspired patronage on the part of Canon Denis Clinch for St. Mary's, The Hidden Gem, Manchester. Norman Adams considered them to be the greatest work of his life and I believe this to be true.

There is in these canvasses an expression of compassion intensely felt, which communicates immediately to people. Gentleness, terror, pain and suffering, within a frame of deep understanding and sympathy, distinguish these works. The events of the tragedy are told with the horror which leads from innocence to the Cross. It is a brave man who looks straight into the death mask in the crucifixion, or a man without feeling who would not be deeply moved by the tenderness of the laments in the Women of Jerusalem.

It is wonderful that these stations of the cross will have a permanent home in St. Mary's Church, known as the "Hidden Gem" of Manchester. The Royal Academy is proud to have such a distinguished painter as a Member, and recognises the dedicated life-time's work and experience which lies behind this great achievement.

 

The Devotion and The Commission for St. Mary's

 

By Canon Denis Clinch, Parish Priest of St. Mary's, The Hidden Gem

 

In the Gospels, Our Lord calls upon his disciples to follow his way of the cross. 'If anyone wants to be a follower of mine, let him renounce himself and take up his cross everyday and follow me' (Luke 9:23). From the time of the Apostles, there has been a devotion to our Lord's Cross. 'As for me,' says St. Paul, 'the only thing I can boast about is the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom the world is crucified to me, and I to the world' (Galatians 6:14).

The devotion of the Way of the Cross, the fourteen Stations of the Cross, arose in the Western Church during the 14th century. Most folk, then as now, could not make the pilgrimage to Jerusalem to follow the Via Dolorosa in the actual place of Our Lord's Passion, the Way of the Cross allowed them to do so in their parish church. The devotion is known too as the Stations of the Cross because traditionally it entails fourteen stops or stations for meditation, beginning with our Lord's condemnation and ending with his burial in the tomb. From that last station one turns to our Saviour's abiding risen presence in the blessed Eucharist.

station1 station2 station3 station4 station5

Enlarged pictures are available on the Adams Stations photo album pages.

 

In 1993, I asked Sister Wendy Beckett for her advice on the new Stations of the Cross needed for St. Mary's. She very kindly supplied me with a list of possible artists. From the list, after careful interview with those named and much thought, I chose Norman Adams RA. Sister Wendy wrote to tell me that the decision was an inspired one. Not only that, but Sister Wendy then wrote a profound piece on the Adams Stations that is published as part of the book on St. Mary's stations that is sold for the benefit of the church. That means so much because she is justifiably recognised as one of the world's greatest connoisseurs of art. Her praise and endorsement constitute a supreme accolade.

 

Professor Adams said himself that St. Mary's Stations of the Cross is the great work of his life. It was always clear to me, as I saw the pictures taking shape, that a masterpiece was being created. I came to know Norman and Anna as friends. The gentle goodness with which they face life is inspiring and, I believe, inspires Norman's painting genius to produce work of such remarkable spiritual quality and depth.

 

station6 station7 station8 station9 station10

A special honour for me too, during the enterprise, has been that I have made the acquaintance of the President of the Royal Academy of Arts, Sir Philip Dowson. One does not have to spend long in Sir Philip's company to know that a very great and good man heads that revered and illustrious national institution.

 

From the beginning, in my quest for the new Stations of the Cross for St. Mary's, I have received the strong backing of Bishop Kelly. For this, I am most deeply indebted.

 

In his letter to the Colossians, St. Paul writes of Christ and the Church:

Now the Church is his body, he is its head

The Adams Stations, it seems to me, by their concentration on Christ's head, not only express the interior sufferings of Our Lord, but also the unity of his Passion, through his Mystical Body the Church, with all the world's sufferings. In the Gospels, it is Jesus' solemn teaching that what is done to even the least is done to him. 'Jesus will be in agony until the end of the world. There must be no sleeping during that time.'

(Pascal: Pensees: 919).

station11 station12 station13 station14

The power of the Adams Stations ensures wakefulness. They demand too the contemplative attention that all great art must be given if one is to enter into its meaning. No less careful attention is demanded than one would give to Beethoven's Missa Solemnis or Gerald Manley Hopkins' sonnets. The reward is equally sublime.

Crucifixion images

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2000/apr/21/fiachragibbons

Artist exhibits fruits of Good Friday ritual

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Fiachra Gibbons, Arts correspondent

Thursday 20 April 2000 21.59 EDT

This morning the artist Maggi Hambling will go to her studio, chain-smoke her way through a few pages of the Bible and create an image of the crucifixion.

Each Good Friday for 14 years Hambling has followed this curious ritual, using accounts of the Passion culled from the gospels for inspiration.

 

Last year she used a power tool to file the head of Christ out of plywood, touching it up here and there with paint and gold leaf. The result looks like a kind of B&Q Turin shroud.

 

Hambling became fascinated by the death of Christ when she was a student. This Easter, art galleries are thick with scenes of Calvary. The National Gallery is staging a vast Seeing Salvation show, and Damien Hirst is showing a crucifixion scene of a type - his Christ is a skeleton with ping-pong ball eyes - at the new White Cube 2 in Hoxton, east London.

 

Eighteen of Hambling's images are on show at Gainsborough's House in Sudbury, Suffolk. They include the first in her series, Head of Christ 1986, her early Blue Christ, and what remains of two canvasses of Christ and the devil, painted using a model who looked remarkably like the comedian Frankie Howerd. Hambling destroyed both works, keeping only the devil's crotch and one of Christ's hands.

 

Hugh Belsey, curator of Gainsborough's House, said Hambling would not describe herself as a Christian but "she has beliefs which this work explores". She prefers to think of herself as a humanist who believes in something larger than humanity. The exhibition runs until May 21.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Southwell_minster_008.JPG

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Eugene_Ball

 

Peter Eugene Ball (19 March 1943) is an English sculptor. He is best known for his religious work which can be seen in churches and cathedrals throughout Britain. He also produces secular sculpture using predominantly driftwood and found objects.

 

Christus Rex and other works portray cruciform images

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross_in_front_of_the_Presidential_Palace,_Warsaw

 

Cross in front of the Presidential Palace, Warsaw

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Cross in front of Presidential Palace in Warsaw)

 

The cross, 23 July 2010, in front of the Presidential Palace.

 

The cross, 10 September 2010, visible in the background. In front, the barricade wall decorated by the "defenders" movement.

The cross in front of the Presidential Palace in Poland (also known as the Smolensk Cross, Polish: krzyż smoleński) is a wooden cross which was erected as a memorial to the 96 casualties of the 2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154 crash.[1][2] It was first moved to a chapel in the Presidential Palace on 16 September 2010 and, on 10 November 2010, was again moved, this time to St. Anne's Church, Warsaw, where it currently resides. The cross was controversial, provoking debate in Polish society and media about the issues of politics, religion and patriotism.

 

Contents [hide]

1 History

2 Debate

3 See also

4 References

History[edit]

The cross was erected spontaneously by a group of Polish Scouts on 15 April 2010, five days after the plane accident.[1][2] Among those killed in the crash was Polish President Lech Kaczyński of the conservative Law and Justice (PiS) party.[2][3] Soon after the presidential election, in July 2010, the new Polish president, Bronisław Komorowski, from the more centrist Civic Platform (PO) party, requested that the cross be moved to nearby St. Anne's Church.[1][4] The move was supported by the Scouts who erected the cross in the first place and the archbishop of Warsaw, but criticized by certain groups, as the issue gained notoriety in the Polish media.[4]

 

The cross was to be moved on 3 August but this caused increasingly vocal protests from the PiS supporters, known as the "defenders of the cross" (pol. obrońcy krzyża).[1][3] Most of the defenders believed that the Smolensk air crash was the result of a conspiracy, in which the new Polish government was involved.[5] The defender movement guarded the cross around the clock.[2] The protesters clashed with the police and the cross was not moved on that day.[1][6] The situation became a contentious issue in Polish politics, as the defenders gained the support of the PiS party.[5]

 

The defenders of the cross clashed with the young supporters of a secularist counter movement, which maintained that in a secular state a cross has no place in a public space and that it should be removed from its prominent position in front of the Presidential Palace.[3][4] As the defenders, many of them armed with crucifixes, prayed and sang hymns around the cross, their opponents chanted "Go to church" and declared the defenders to be "Catholic fanatics".[1][4] One of the opponents carried a cross made of beer cans.[2] The two groups were separated by the police who set up metal barriers to prevent clashes.[3] Many were shocked by the rise of the counter movement, as Poland's younger generation had not been considered politically active.[2]

 

On 16 September 2010, the cross was moved to a chapel in the Presidential Palace, this time without a prior announcement, as the government did not want to give the defenders movement an opportunity to prepare for their action.[7] On 10 November 2010, it was moved to St. Anne's Church, Warsaw, where it currently resides.

 

Debate[edit]

The cross provoked a major debate in Polish society and the media about the correct way to honor the victims of the April air crash, the positioning of a cross in a public place, relations between the Polish State and the Catholic Church, and the actions taken by the Polish government.[3][5][8][9][10] The cross was seen as a symbol of this debate.[3]

 

Polish media devoted significant attention to the event.[11] In August, all of the major Polish news networks had teams monitoring the situation 24 hours a day. An analysis by the National Broadcasting Council revealed that Polish stations devoted a significant amount of time to coverage of the related events.[11] In regard to news coverage on regular channels, the lead was taken by TVP1 (57 min.), followed by TVP2 (42 min.), TVN (39 min.) and Polsat (35 min.), and for the dedicated Polish news channels, TVN24 (366 min.) was ahead of TVP Info (95 min.).[11] For non-news coverage (discussions, analysis, etc.), the lead was taken by TVN24 (279 min.), followed by TVP Info (249 min.), TVP2 (33 min.).[11]

 

The Catholic Church in Poland was split on the issue; support by many church officials for the removal of the cross has led to their estrangement from the defenders movement.[1][3]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auschwitz_cross

Auschwitz cross
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the Polish decoration, see Auschwitz Cross.

The Auschwitz Cross in June 2008, with Block 11 behind
The Auschwitz cross is a cross erected near the Auschwitz concentration camp.

Carmelite nuns opened a convent near Auschwitz I in 1984. Edgar Bronfman, president of the World Jewish Congress called for the removal of the convent. Public statements from Theo Klein, president of the Council of Jews in France, Jewish activist Serge Klarsfeld, and Dr. Gerhard Riegner, representative of the World Jewish Congress, also demanded the removal of the convent. The American branch of the World Jewish Congress also protested with statements from chairman Rabbi Wolfe Kelman and the Orthodox faction representative Rabbi Zvi Zakheim. Representatives of the Catholic Church agreed in 1987. One year later the Carmelites erected the large cross ostensibly to commemorate Pope John Paul II's 1979 Mass on the grounds of the Auschwitz II (Birkenau) extermination camp for some 500,000 people.[1] the 1979 Mass near their site, just outside Block 11, a torture prison in Auschwitz I, visible from within the camp. The Catholic Church ordered the Carmelites to move by 1989. They remained until 1993; however, the cross was not removed.

Contents [hide] 
1 Controversy
2 New crosses
3 See also
4 References
5 Further reading
6 External links
Controversy[edit]
Tensions escalated into 1989 when two notable protests occurred. In May 1989, the Women's International Zionist Organization led a protest of 300 members carrying signs and Israeli flags. In July 1989, New York City Rabbi Avraham Weiss traveled with six supporters and led a protest that earned international notoriety. Weiss and his supporters scaled the fence of the convent wearing concentration camp uniforms. The group then harassed the nuns with banging and shouting until local Polish workers ran them off with buckets of water. Representatives of the Council of Jews and the World Jewish Congress stated that mostly Jews were killed at Auschwitz and demanded that religious symbols be kept away from the site. Ian Kagedan of B'nai Brith Canada called the erection of the cross, "an obvious gap in understanding."[2]

The central issue in the controversy over the Auschwitz cross was articulated by the author and former Catholic priest James Carroll:[3]

If Jewish responses to the Holocaust, which range from piety to nihilism, are complex and multifaceted, Christian interpretations of the near elimination of Jews from Europe, however respectfully put forth, must inevitably be even more problematic. The [Auschwitz] cross signifies the problem: When suffering is seen to serve a universal plan of salvation, its particular character as tragic and evil is always diminished. The meaningless can be made to shimmer with an eschatological hope, and at Auschwitz this can seem like blasphemy. [...]

Once, for Christians to speak among ourselves about the murder of six million as a kind of crucifixion would have seemed an epiphany of compassion, paying the Jews the highest tribute, as if the remnant of Israel had at last become, in this way, the Body of Christ. Yet such spiritualizing can appear to do what should have been impossible, which is to make the evil worse: the elimination of Jewishness from the place where Jews were eliminated.

The Body of Christ? If Jesus had been bodily at Auschwitz, as protesting Jews insisted, he would have died an anonymous victim with a number on his arm, that is all. And he would have done so not as the Son of God, not as the redeemer of humankind, not as the Jewish Messiah, but simply as a Jew. And in a twist of history folding back on itself, his crime would have been tied to the cross — "He killed our God!" That indictment, first brought as an explicit charge of deicide as early as the second century by a bishop, Melito of Sardis, was officially quashed by the bishops of the Second Vatican Council in 1965, yet it remains the ground of all Jew hatred. That, at bottom, is why it is inconceivable that any Jew should look with equanimity on a cross at Auschwitz, and why no Christian should be able to behold it there as anything but a blow to conscience.
— James Carroll, Constantine's Sword
In March 1998 the Plenipotentiary for Relations with the Jewish Diaspora, Krzysztof Śliwiński, was quoted in a French newspaper as saying that the cross would be removed, because its presence was disrespectful of the Jewish legacy at Auschwitz. By the end of March 1998, a large group of government and nongovernment leaders, including then Chief of the Prime Minister's Cabinet Wiesław Walendziak, 130 Sejm deputies, 16 senators, former President Lech Wałęsa, Cardinal Józef Glemp, and Gdańsk Archbishop Tadeusz Rakoczy, went on record as opposing the removal of the cross. The cross is clearly visible from the former camp's Block 11 and marks the site where Polish political prisoners (including Catholic priests) and later Jewish prisoners were murdered by the Germans. The leader of the Defenders of the Pope's Cross, Kazimierz Świtoń, and Mieczysław Janosz, leader of the Association of War Victims, which leased the land on which the cross stood, distributed leaflets opposing the removal of the cross.

New crosses[edit]
In August 1998, the erection of some hundreds of additional smaller crosses outside Auschwitz, despite the opposition of the country's bishops, sparked intense controversy in the Polish Catholic and international Jewish community. Government efforts to resolve the situation in the fall of 1998 through the courts by revoking the lease on the land held by the Association of War Victims was met with little success. The government wanted the local courts to agree to appoint an administrator for the former convent site pending a legal decision on the validity of the lease revocation. In October 1998, the local court refused the request to appoint such an administrator, a decision upheld in December 1998 by an appeals court in Bielsko-Biała, which returned the lease issue to the local court. At the end of 1998, complicated legal maneuverings continued, and two separate cases were before the local court—the government's effort to break the lease and the tenants' effort to have the government action ruled illegal.

In May 1999, the Parliament passed a government-sponsored law to protect the sites of all the former camps in the country. The government consulted with international Jewish groups in preparing the law, which gave the government the power it needed to resolve the issue of the "new crosses."

In late May 1999, Świtoń announced that he had laid explosives under the site where the crosses were erected, and that he would detonate them if the government attempted to remove him or the crosses. Police officers quickly arrested Świtoń for possessing explosives and making public threats. After Świtoń's arrest, local authorities removed the crosses to a nearby Franciscan monastery, under the supervision of the local bishop, and sealed off the site to prevent the erection of additional crosses. The large cross is not to be removed from the site for the time being.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sejm_cross

 

four legal opinions

 

The Sejm cross is a Roman Catholic crucifix in the building of the Sejm of the Republic of Poland, the dominant house of the Polish parliament.

 

The Sejm cross hangs above the door on the left-hand side of the rostrum in the Sejm Plenary Hall. It was hung there by a Solidarity Electoral Action (AWS) MP Tomasz Wójcik and his colleague in the night between October 19 and 20 1997, shortly after the AWS and the Freedom Union signed a coalition agreement. The cross was a gift from the mother of Fr. Jerzy Popieluszko, priest and martyr murdered by the Służba Bezpieczeństwa (communist political police) in 1984.

 

The spokesman of the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) protested against the presence of the cross in the Sejm, saying that it was hung there in order to provoke a brawl. Other opponents called it a violation of the Constitution (which came into effect two days before the act) which states that the Republic of Poland is neutral in religious matters. Nobody disputed the fact that the hanging of the cross was illegal - Wójcik got into the Sejm chamber without any approval and other MPs had never discussed about that topic before. The cross, has been hanging in the chamber ever since - even when the Democratic Left Alliance won the elections in 2001.

 

In 2011 the Chancellery of the Sejm commissioned and published [1] four legal opinions concerning the presence of the cross in the Sejm Plenary Hall.

http://artway.eu/userfiles/Roger%20Wagner%20Menorah%202.png

 

http://www.artway.eu/content.php?id=1615&lang=en&action=show

 

Famous painting depicting the crucifix and the gas chambers by Roger Wagner

 

Wagner does not preach, but he offers us the answer that Scripture gives: between the Menorah and the misery of the human condition stands the cross of Jesus. Here are in fact two images of the power of God, so radically different in their manifestations: the awesome power of God who creates and sustains the universe and the equally awesome power of God who conquers sin and death through humility, weakness and self-sacrifice on the cross.

 

Sin has made an inextricable mess of the world. Evil is piled on evil. We are all sinners and sinned-against. Are those figures in front of the cross pointing to Jesus in hope or jeering at him? Above all, God himself is always the most offended party. The crucifixion is the culmination of God’s brilliant plan of salvation, by which God himself, against whom all the rebellion of sin is ultimately directed, cuts through the mess of sin by taking on himself the weight and consequences of evil.

 

We often struggle to articulate quite how the cross ‘works’, but we understand full well that God is anything but impassive and uninvolved. He has sacrificed his own Son to do for us what we were powerless to do: to roll back the frontiers of Satan’s kingdom, to overcome evil, to liberate captives and ultimately, to make all things new again.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_Déjeuner_sur_l’herbe

Notice the three figures interconnected. The fourth is transcendent/different- in the background. This is a common theme throughout Art history.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_Déjeuner_sur_l’herbe

Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe (English: The Luncheon on the Grass) – originally titled Le Bain (The Bath) – is a large oil on canvas painting by Édouard Manet created in 1862 and 1863. It depicts a female nude and a scantily dressed female bather on a picnic with two fully dressed men in a rural setting. Rejected by the Salon jury of 1863, Manet seized the opportunity to exhibit this and two other paintings in the 1863 Salon des Refusés[1] where the painting sparked public notoriety and controversy.[2] The piece is now in the Musée d'Orsay in Paris.[3] A smaller, earlier version can be seen at the Courtauld Gallery, London.[4]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fiesta_campestre.jpg

 

Titian's Pastoral Concert is said to have inspired Manet's Luncheon on hte Grass. It too has the three figures that are interconnected (the first three of the quadrant model are always intertwined)- and the fourth which is different/transcendent. If you look far in the background there is a miniature man. That is the ultra transcendent fifth that the fourth points to.

 

The Pastoral Concert, Fête champêtre or Le Concert champêtre is an oil painting of c. 1509 attributed to either of the Italian Renaissance masters, Titian (more usually today) or Giorgione. It is in the Musée du Louvre in Paris.

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pastoral_Concert

 

The subject was perhaps the allegory of poetry and music: the two women would be an imaginary apparition representing the ideal beauty, stemming from the two men's fantasy and inspiration. The woman with the glass vase would be the muse of tragic poetry, while the other one would be that of the pastoral poetry. Of the two playing men, the one with the lute would represent the exalted lyric poetry, the other being an ordinary lyricist, according to the distinction made by Aristotle in his Poetics. Another interpretation suggests that the painting is an evocation of the four elements of the natural world (water, fire, earth and air) and their harmonic relationship.[5]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Antoine_Watteau_-_La_Partie_carrée.jpg

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_Déjeuner_sur_l’herbe

 

Watteau's, La Partie Carrée, c. 1713, also reflects the quadrant image, and is thought to have inspired Manet. It has three figures sitting (the first three squares of the quadrant model are always very connected) and a fourth figure different and standing (the fourth is transcendent, and never seems to belong)

 

There may be a strong connection between Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe and the work of Jean Antoine Watteau.[11] Manet’s original title, Le Bain, initially drew the main attention to the woman near the water. This bathing figure alone is quite similar to the figure in Watteau’s Le Villageoise, as both women crouch or lean over near water, simultaneously holding up their skirts. It’s possible that Manet adapted this pose, which is more clearly seen in a sketch of his years before his creation of Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe.[11]

The Luncheon, 1868, Städel, which features Camille Doncieux and Jean Monet, was rejected by the Paris Salon of 1870 but included in the first Impressionists' exhibition in 1874.[33]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Claude_Monet_-_The_Luncheon_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

 

Monet has a work entitled The Luncheon, like Manet's Luncheon on the Grass, that has four figures. The duality is sitting. The third is close to them, but more solid and standing. The third is always more physical. The fourth figure is transcendent and does not seem to belong, in the background.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_Déjeuner_sur_l’herbe

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Monet_dejeunersurlherbe.jpg

Claude Monet's own version of Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe from 1865–1866, was inspired by Manet's masterpiece.

 

Monet's Le déjeuner sur l'herbe (right section), 1865–1866, with Gustave Courbet, Frédéric Bazille and Camille Doncieux, first wife of the artist, Musée d'Orsay, Paris[12], similarly has four figures. The first two kind of represent the duality. The third is kind of different, but not as different. The fourth figure is tran

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Brooklyn_Museum_-_Jesus_Found_in_the_Temple_(Jesus_retrouvé_dans_le_temple)_-_James_Tissot_-_overall.jpg

 

James Joseph Tissot has a painting, Jesus Found in the Temple, wherein Jesus' arms are held outstretched in a cruciform shape.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:James_Tissot_-_La_Partie_carrée.jpg

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_Déjeuner_sur_l’herbe

 

Paul Cézanne painted the same theme in his Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe (1876–1877), Musée de l'Orangerie, Paris. It is not certain, however, that Cézanne was responsible for the title of the work, but it does incorporate many of the same elements of subject in the piece. For example, Cézanne’s clothed female subject poses similarly to the model of Manet in which her chin rests in her hand. The male figure, meant to resemble the painter himself, mimics the hand gesture of the man furthest right in Manet’s piece.[18] The composition of Cézanne's painting also bears resemblance to Bacchanal (between 1627 and 1628), by Nicolas Poussin, whose works in the Louvre were periodically copied by Cézanne. It is possible that Cézanne's Déjeuner represents nothing more than the joyful memories of outings in the countryside around Aix-en-Provence, known especially from the testimony of a childhood friend of the painter, Émile Zola.[19]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_Déjeuner_sur_l’herbe

 

The fourth figure in Picasso's painting is kneeling and different from the first connected three. The first three squares of the quadrant model are always connected. The fourth square, which is different and transcendent, always points to an ultra transcendent fifth.

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Les_Demoiselles_d%27Avignon.jpg

 

Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, 1907, MoMA

 

 

Manet’s painting inspired Picasso immensely as he completed the largest concentration of art prompted by a single work during the 20th century, consisting of 27 paintings, 140 drawings, 3 linogravures and cardboard marquettes for sculpture carried out between 1949 and 1962.[20] Picasso also adopted some of Manet’s techniques involving exploitation of the nude in the foreground as evident in his work Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, 1907.[5]

I described how the Luncheon, by Manet, clearly depicts the quadrant pattern.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_Déjeuner_sur_l’herbe
https://en.wikipedia.org/…/Where_Do_We_Come_From%3F_What_Ar…
Gauguin was clearly inspired by this piece in creating his work Where do we come from? Who are we? Where are we going?, as there is a clear connection and similarity of Manet’s depiction of the nude woman and Gaugin’s Tahitian woman.[5]

The painting has three groups of four, and each fourth figure is different from the previous three.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_Déjeuner_sur_l’herbe
Again, the fourth figure is transcendent

Déjeuner also inspired the 1959 film by Jean Renoir, the cover of the Bow Wow Wow LP See Jungle! See Jungle! Go Join Your Gang, Yeah. City All Over! Go Ape Crazy and EP The Last of the Mohicans, which caused additional controversy since the naked girl (lead singer Annabella Lwin) was only 14 at the time.

The album cover depicted the band in the style of Édouard Manet’s Le déjeuner sur l'herbe. Posing nude was lead singer Annabella Lwin, who was 14 at the time of the album's release. Photographed by Andy Earl, the cover caused outrage that led to an investigation by Scotland Yard, instigated by Lwin's mother,[3] and never appeared on US releases.

https://en.wikipedia.org/…/See_Jungle!_See_Jungle!_Go_Join_…!

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Seejungle.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Paul_Cézanne,_Pyramid_of_Skulls,_c._1901.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyramid_of_Skulls

 

The fourth skull is different/ kind of hidden. The first three are more connected and visible. The nature of the quadrant pattern is the fourth is different.

Pyramid of Skulls is a c. 1901 oil painting by French Post-Impressionist artist Paul Cézanne. It depicts four human skulls stacked in a pyramidal configuration. Painted in a pale light against a dark background, Pyramid of Skulls is exceptional in the artist's oeuvre, for "in no other painting did Cézanne place his objects so close to the viewer."[1] For art historian Françoise Cachin, "these bony visages all but assault the viewer, displaying an assertiveness very much at odds with the usual reserve of domestic still-life tableaux."[2]

Henri Edmond Cross has a painting Le Bois, 1906–1907, that is like Manet's Luncheon, with the fourth figure in the background, and different

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cross-Le-Bois-Annonciade.jpg

Henri Cross has another painting with four figures, the fourth transcendent.

https://upload.wikimedia.org/…/1920px-La_fuite_des_nymphes.…

La fuite des nymphes, c. 1906, Musée d'Orsay

https://www.andyparkinson.co.uk/resources/indoor%20new.JPG.opt394x354o0%2C0s394x354.JPG

 

Andy Parkinson is a painter known for drawing quadrants.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perspective_(graphical)

 

Of the many types of perspective drawings, the most common categorizations of artificial perspective are one-, two- and three-point. The names of these categories refer to the number of vanishing points in the perspective drawing. There is also four point perspective though, although this is a lot different from the previous three. The fourth is always different/ transcendent. The fifth is always ultra transcendent/questionable.

The way that one point perspective is pictorially represented is usually by drawing an X on the paper, with the midpoint of the X representing the horizon/ vanishing point. The X is the quadrant.

Perspective is very important in drawing and painting and revolutionized painting, especially during the Renaissance.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Vermeer_-_Diana_en_haar_gezelschap_(19th_version_with_a_blue_sky).jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diana_and_Her_Companions

 

Another painting by Vermeer in which one can perceive the quadrant model pattern is Diana and Her Companions. Again there are three girls very close to each other. There is a fourth a little bit farther away with her back turned. Finally in the back there is a fifth who is in the dark. The fifth is ultra transcendent (and sometimes leads to a new quadrant).

 

The painting depicts the Greek and Roman goddess Diana ("Artemis" in Ancient Greece) with four of her companions. She wears a loose fitting, yellow dress with an animal-skin sash and, on her head, a diadem with a symbol of the crescent moon. As she sits on a rock, a nymph washes her left foot. Another, behind Diana, sits with her partially bare back to the viewer (the most skin Vermeer shows on a figure in any of his extant paintings), a third nymph, sitting at Diana's left, holds her own left foot with her right hand.[1] A fourth stands in the rear, somewhat apart from the rest of the group and facing them and the viewer at an angle, her eyes cast down, her fists in front of her.[2] A dog sits in the lower left-hand corner near Diana, its back to the viewer as it faces the goddess, her attendants and, immediately in front of it, a thistle.[1]

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/four-moral-qualities/

 

From the website quadriformisratio

The Seven Sins and the Four Last Things’, painted by Hieronymus (Jeroen) Bosch (c. 1450 – 1516) on a wooden panel. Prado Museum, Madrid. In: HAZELZET (1994).

‘Visibility’ is in this picture a primary theme. The seven individual images of the sins are centered on the all-seeing Eye. The pupil of the eye showed Christ, rising from the grave and the words ‘Cave cave deus videt‘ (be careful, God will see you).

Bosch gave wrath (ira) a central position at the bottom, with the largest measurements (21 x 49 cm). The scene depicts two men in a quarrel before a public house. A woman tries to interfere by stopping the man with a knife.

To the right of this picture is an illustration of Superbia (or vanity), measuring 25 x 21 cm. A single woman faces a mirror (held by the devil) and a piece of furniture with precious objects, with her back turned towards the observer. It is the well-known motif of Vanitas, which was popular in the sixteenth century (often in relation to the temporaries of life, the spirit of ‘momento mori‘).

Luxuria (or indecency/lechery) is the next sin, given a fairly big stake in the circle (measuring 21 x 43 cm.). A tent is a central theme, with a couple inside and a woman at the entrance, accompanied by three men (one is dressed as a fool). All participants seem to have great fun. Bosch only hints to the effects of such behavior.

Accidia (or laziness, more generally written as ‘acedia‘, with a connotation to ‘melacholia‘, according to Hieronymus (Epist. 4), or ‘tristitia‘ (Gregory the Great, Liber Moralium, Lib. XXXI, Cap. XXXIX; MIGNE (1844/64), PL 76, Sp. 621) is positioned in the top right-hand part of the circle. It figures twice on the painting: one time in the circle of sins and another time in the Hell, one of the ‘Four Last Things’.

Acedia is symbolized as a man, sitting on a chair near an open fire, taking a nap, or – in the interpretation of GERLACH (1988) – being ill and ready to take his life with the dagger he holds in his hand. A woman (a ‘Zuster van het Gemene Leven‘?) comes to his rescue.

The topic has been relatively little used, in contrast to the next sin: Gula or gluttony, which was well known by the monks and occasionally by the common people when a party was organized. The picture (25 x 43.5 cm) is right on the top, opposite ‘ira‘ and therefore, ‘upside down’. It shows an interior with two eating and drinking man and a woman serving food. A child tries to stop the orgy.

Hieronymus Bosch associated Avaritia (or avarice) with the judges, who were willing to change their verdict for money. Two pairs of man are dealing with each other in the village-square. A fifth person, looking like a beggar, is clearly losing out.

The circle is completed by a representation of the seventh sin, Invidia or envy. Gregory distinguished in his ‘Liber moralium’ (XXXI, cap. 17) five ‘filiae‘ (daughters) of this basic sin: 1. Odium (hatred), by wishing someone the worst; 2. Susurratio (suggestions, gossip); 3. Denigratio (slander); 4. Exsultatio (delight), in someone else’s misery and 5. Afflictio (sorrow), because of another man’s happiness.

Hieronymus Bosch pictured six people in a panel of 25 x 49 cm. An (open) house occupies the left side, maybe a toll house, with four persons, and two dogs. There is an opposition between the younger couple to the left and the older couple to the right. Jealousy is the name of the game. The right half of the picture is filled with a street, with two men: one a falconer – representing the rich leisure-class – and the other (a miller?) carrying a heavy bag on his shoulder being a member of the poor working class.

The style of the ‘Table‘ suggests an early work of Bosch, but details of the clothing points to a date around 1490 (BOSING, 1973/1995). The addition of the ‘Four Last Things‘ in the corners is interesting. They are, most likely, a later addition not by the hand of Bosch, showing Heaven, Last Judgement, Death and Hell. The theme was a popular one around the year 1500, and remained so for a long time.

Whereas Jeroen Bosch kept certain modesty in his pictures of the Seven Sins (also due to the small size of the painting), it was Peter Breugel (c. 1525 – 1569), who went the full way in his representation of the subject (fig. 354).

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/four-moral-qualities/

 

From the website quadriformisratio

The four cardinal virtues. 1. Codex Aureus of St. Emmeram, Late 10th century; 2. Gospel of Hitda of Meschede, c. 1030. 3. Rhenish Sacramentarium, early 11th century; 4. Sacramentarium of Marmoutier, Autun. 1/2/3 in: KATZENELLENBOGEN (1939). 4. HUBERT et al. (1968/1970).

The ‘quadriga virtutum‘ was in Carolingian times the symbol of the human soul as a carriage with four horses. The wheels gave a further reference to the dynamic character. The cardinal virtues referred to a ‘cardo‘ or pivot, which makes a door turn. The virtues should be regarded, in a metaphorical sense, as the pivot in a human life. In the process of self-knowledge (‘gnothi seauton‘) the division was thought of in qualities, which could improve the quality of life.

‘Num, inquid, currui tuo quartam deese non sentis rotam?’ (Can’t you see that you don’t have the fourth wheel of the wagon), that is the strong remark of count Liuthar to Ekkehard of Meissen and recorded by the German historian Thietmar of Merseburg. It was said on a meeting in the year 1002 AD, concerning the succession to the throne after the sudden death of Otto III in Italy.

HLAWITSCHKA (1978) made an in-depth survey what this expression could mean. He quoted the classical understanding that Ekkehard was no direct relative of the king and had no chance of succession (mangelnde Verwantschaft). Modern investigations resulted in a better insight in the family-relations of the German king and this view did not support the classical interpretation of the expression of Liuthar.

So one has to look further. Searching for an expression which consists of four parts (of which Ekkehard is clearly one missing). There is the (modern) phrase ‘the fifth wheel’, meaning ‘the odd one out’, but this does not refer to a fourth wheel. May be the expression was an invention of the historian Thietmar himself. But what did it mean?

Hlawitschka suggested that the lack of a fourth element (in the character of Ekkehard of Meissen) was a reference to the four cardinal virtues: Prudentia (wisdom/caution), Iustitia (justice), Fortitudo (fortitude/courage) and Temperantia (temperance). His interpretation was based on a common knowledge of the four virtues (‘quadratura mistica‘) in the centuries before and after the first millicennium. Alcuin, Hrabanus Maurus, Halitgar of Cambrai, Ermenrich of Ellwangen and many others used the motif. In particular the Carolingian illustrations provided many examples (‘Besonders sprechend sind die Bildzeugnisse für die Kardinaltugenden in der Karolingischen Malerei‘). Hlawitschka referred to the article of KATZENELLENBOGEN (1939) on the allegories of the virtues and vices in mediaeval art.

The motif of the wheel in relation to the quadripartite division was known to Julianus Pomerius (end fifth century), who recorded in his book ‘De Vita Contemplativa‘: ‘Sed et quatuor flumina quae de paradisi fonte procedunt, vel quatuor Evangelia, divini currus rotae quatuor, et animalia, alae eorum quatuor et facies, dignitatem numeri hujus abunde commendant‘ (MIGNE, 1844/64, PL. 59, Sp. 501). And to the question why there are four is the answer: ‘Quaternarium numerum perfectioni sacratum pene nullus ignorat‘ (EHRHARDT, 1945).

The expression of the historian Thietmar about the fourth wheel should be read as follows: ‘Ekkehard, you are not fit for the kingship, because you lack one of the four cardinal virtues’. Which virtue can only be guessed at, but Thietmar despised Ekkehard’s egocentric actions and blamed him for his lack of humility (‘humilitas‘). The most likely deficient virtue would therefore, be Justitia or Temperantia. In the end, Ekkehard efforts to gain the throne failed, because he was soon afterwards killed by rivaling parties.

This story proves to a certain extend also the importance of tetradic thinking around the year 1000, because it was not necessary to explain this frame of mind to the readers. The same holds for the illustration of the four Christian nations (Slavonia, Germania, Gallia, and Roma), bringing honor to emperor Otto III (fig. 348). Apparently, the symbolism of the tetrad was so strongly embedded in the mind of the intelligentsia at the beginning of the eleventh century, that no further explanation was necessary, being it either four wheels on a carriage or four women bowing for a throne.

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/tag/gnothi-seauton/

From kulliman's website quadriformisratio

Jaffa Cemetary, Delft. The ‘Horns of Consecration’ – a name given in 1901 by the archaeologist Arthur Evans, who studied the Minoan building complex (‘labyrinth’) at Knossos (Crete) – point to a representation of a set of horns. He inferred, by giving this particular name, that the symbolism of the horns had a religious context. In the Knossos-case the number is two (a pair), solitary positioned like a sculpture. However, there is also a tradition related to the Four Corners (of the earth), depicted as elevations at the corners of a rectangular (tomb)stone. The association with a consecration holds in the case of the funerary culture, but its general, historical reference is to the fourfold (of the universe). p. 463 in: Quadralectic Architecture – Marten Kuilman.

A comparison of Rivers of Paradise, virtues and world periods was given by O’REILLY (1972/1988; p. 114):

Rivers of Paradise Virtue World period

——————————————————————————————————————————–

Phison Prudentia Abel, Henoch, Noach

Geon Temperantia Abraham, Izaak, Jacob

Tigris Fortitudo Moses and the prophets

Euphrates Justitia Christ till present

The sequence gives, again, an insight in the preference of the author. The connection of the virtues to a dualistic-linear time-scale indicates a hierarchical order. Prudentia is in all divisions number one. Temperantia (as number two by Ambrosius) is number three by Zenon and number four by Cicero. Ambrosias followed Cicero in placing Fortitudo number three and adhered to Zenon in placing Justitia as number four.

The appearance of the virtues seemed less obvious after the fourth century, but they return in the early-Scholastic times as ‘ritterlichen Standes ethik‘ (knightly hierarchical ethic)(MÄHL, 1969). The four virtues were from 750 to 900 AD part and parcel of the early European cultural environment (fig. 346/347).

Eriugena, in the ninth century, repeated the common knowledge of virtues in his ‘Periphyseon‘ (The Division of Nature, Book II, 603D; SHELDON-WILLIAMS, 1987): ‘Moreover, none of the wise denies that that source in paradise, which is divided into the four cardinal rivers, interpreted typologically, signifies the Holy Spirit, from Whom, as from their principal and unique and inexhaustible source flow the four cardinal virtues in the paradise of the rational soul, I mean prudence, temperance, courage, and justice…’ Eriugena’s sequence was similar to the one used by Ambrosius, putting most emphasis on the courage as the prime virtue in the field of (tetradic) visibility

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/tag/equilibrium-theory/

 

From the website quadriformisratio

The temperaments of Francisco Goya (1746 – 1828). Four pen drawings by Goya (1797/1798). Prado, Madrid. In: NORDSTROM (1961; 1962) and WYNDHAM LEWIS (1968).

A comparison between the different interpretations of the temperaments and their associated animals is given below:

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/tag/four-humours/

From the website quadriformisratio

Another association of the four human types with animals was given in a sixteenth century edition of ‘The Shepheardes Calendar’ (fig. 342). This was a poetic work by Edmund Spenser (c. 1552 – 1599), written in a deliberate archaic style to suggest a connection with medieval literature. He became known for his epic poem ‘The Faerie Queene’.

The personifications of the four human types related to animals. From an English edition of ‘The Shepheardes Calendar’, a work by Edmund Spenser, first published in 1579. In: TAPLIN (1990).

The choleric personality to the left is tempted to use force: he draws his sword (with a reference to Mars, the ruler of this temperament). His hot-tempered and aggressive complexion is connected with fire and a lion. Schön made use of a number of quarrelsome men with swords, but associated the temperament with a dog.

The sanguine character is a gentleman, a falconer, but also a fool. He is riding high with a lady on a horse (in fig. 340), but behaves like a monkey. Erhard Schön associated him with a lamb.

The phlegmatic personality is characterized by subtlety and friendliness and, normally, associated with a lamb. However, he can also lose decorum, is foolish and act like a pig (in Schön’s parody).

Finally, the melancholic character is associated with a pig on ‘The Shepheardes Calendar’. Erhard Schön used – forty years earlier – this animal for the phlegmatic character.

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/four-humores/

 

The four temperaments on a woodcut from an anonymous artist, 1519. Top-left: phlegmatic; top-right: sanguinistic; below-left: choleric and below right: melancholic. In: BASTIAN, et al (1960).

The temperaments were used in an illustration of Erhard Schön, accompanying a poem of Hans Sach (fig. 341). The poem was a parody on the worldly behavior of the pope Clement VII, or Giulio di Giuliano de’ Medici (KUNZLE, 1973). The occupation of the Holy Chair (from 1523 – 1534) of this Renaissance aristocrat and grandson of Lorenzo the Magnificent (1523 – 1534) was hallmarked by the Sack of Rome by the troops of Charles V in 1527.

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/four-humores/

 

The four temperaments on a German calendarium, around 1480, as given in Guido Majno’s book ‘The Healing Hand: Man and Wound in the Ancient World’ (1991). The subtitles interrelate the temperaments with elements and character: (1) phlegmatic with water and subtility, (2) sanguinistic with air and pride, (3) melancholic with earth and depressiveness and (4) choleric with fire and adventure. In: HOES (1994).

In the Western church four eminent Fathers of the Church attained this honour in the early Middle Ages: Saint Gregory the Great, Saint Ambrose, Saint Augustine, and Saint Jerome. The "four Doctors" became a commonplace among the Scholastics, and a decree of Boniface VIII (1298) ordering their feasts to be kept as doubles in the whole Church is contained in his sixth book of Decretals (cap. "Gloriosus", de relique. et vener. sanctorum, in Sexto, III, 22).

In art there is a lot of work portraying the four Latin doctors.

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pier_Francesco_Sacchi_-_Dottori_della_Chiesa_-_ca._1516.jpg

The Four Great Doctors of the Western Church were often depicted in art, here by Pier Francesco Sacchi, c. 1516. From the left: Saint Augustine, Pope Gregory I, Saint Jerome, and Saint Ambrose, with their attributes.

 

Until 1970, no woman had been named a doctor in the church, but since then four additions to the list have been women: Saints Teresa of Ávila (St. Teresa of Jesus) and Catherine of Siena by Pope Paul VI; Thérèse de Lisieux[2] (St. Therese of the Child Jesus and of the Holy Face), "the Little Flower" by Pope John Paul II; and Hildegard of Bingen by Benedict XVI. Saints Teresa and Therese were both Discalced Carmelites, St. Catherine was a lay Dominican, and Hildegard was a Benedictine.

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Teresa_of_Avila_dsc01644.jpg

St. Teresa of Ávila (1515–1582) by Peter Paul Rubens (Kunsthistorisches Museum)

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Isidor_von_Sevilla.jpeg

 

St. Isidore of Seville, a 7th-century Doctor of the Church, depicted by Murillo (c. 1628) with a book, common iconographical attribute for a doctor.

The Four Doctors of the Western Church: Saint Jerome

https://static.artuk.org/w800h800/NTI/NTI_KLA_1257048.jpg

https://artuk.org/discover/artworks/the-four-doctors-of-the-western-church-saint-jerome-100494

 

Gerard Seghers (1591–1651) (attributed to)

 

National Trust, Kingston Lacy

The Four Doctors of the Western Church: Saint Gregory the Great
https://artuk.org/…/the-four-doctors-of-the-western-church-…
https://artuk.org/…/the-four-doctors-of-the-western-church-…

Gerard Seghers (1591–1651) (attributed to)

National Trust, Kingston Lacy

The Four Doctors of the Church by Abraham Bloemaert acquired by the Catharijneconvent Museum in Utrecht

http://www.thearttribune.com/spip.php?page=docbig&id_document=3488

http://www.thearttribune.com/The-Four-Doctors-of-the-Church-by.html

 

19/3/11 – Acquisition – Utrecht, Museum Catharijneconvent –On 8 December 2010, the Museum Catharijneconvent of Utrecht acquired a painting by Abraham Bloemaert representing The Four Doctors of the Church (ill. 1), at Sotheby’s London for 49.250 £ (including charges) [1].

The canvas, signed and dated 1632, is a replica of an engraving executed by the artist in 1629 (ill. 2). The Four Doctors, from left to right Saint Augustine, Saint Jerome, Saint Ambrose and Saint Gregory, are discussing the Eucharist before an altar with a retable representing the Last Supper. There does not seem to be another example in his oeuvre of a replica of an engraving on a canvas. The main difference between the two compositions consists in the replacement of the two angels by ten or so small seraphim and putti.

 

1. Abraham Bloemaert (1564-1651)

The Four Doctors of the Church, 1632

Oil on canvas - 206.2 x 155 cm

Utrecht, Museum Catharijneconvent

Photo : Sotheby’s

 

2. Abraham Bloemaert (1564-1651)

The Four Doctors of the Church, 1629

Engraving

Photo : Sotheby’s

This Bloemaert, probably an altarpiece intended for an unknown destination, had resided at the Auckland Palace, the Episcopal palace in Durham since the 19th century and was sold in 1972, proving that the threat of deaccessioning for the Zurbarán paintings owned by the Anglican Church (see news item of 9/12/10) has other precedents. As concerns the latter, during a debate in the House of Lords, a former Labor minister, Lord Howarth, compared the church figures to a bunch of simoniacs [2]. The sale of the Zurbaráns, which would be a disaster for British heritage, is still planned for this summer (at Sotheby’s apparently) but its legality is still being debated.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:The_Four_Latin_Church_Fathers_in_art

 

This category has the following 8 subcategories, out of 8 total.

 

A

► Vault of the Doctors of the Church‎ (29 F)

B

► Kirchenväteraltar (Klosterkirche Bordesholm)‎ (9 F)

H

► The Four Church Fathers (Haguenau)‎ (12 F)

M

► Cappella di Sant'Aquilino (Milan) - Ceiling of the altar chapel‎ (24 F)

N

► Processional poles of Sankt Laurentius (Neustadt an der Donau)‎ (6 F)

P

► Altarpiece of the Church Fathers (Pacher)‎ (13 F)

► The Doctors of the Church - Pier Francesco Sacchi - Louvre INV 598‎ (3 F)

V

► Pulpit in St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna‎ (1 P, 86 F)

fter more than a century of searching, archaeologists believe they are closer to finding out the location of their resting place. A worker for the Israel Antiquities Authority shows a cross designed on a mosaic floor at an archaeological site

 

 

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3244011/Is-tomb-Maccabees-Byzantine-cross-Modi-vault-suggests-resting-place-famed-Jewish-rebels.html#ixzz4bHtogHxc

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Is this the tomb of the Maccabees? Byzantine cross at Modi'in vault suggests it is the resting place of famed Jewish rebels

Strange, pillared structure was found at the ancient Horbat Ha-Gardi site

Archaeologists recently exposed a simple mosaic cross on the structure

The Maccabees are considered heroes in both Judaism and Christianity

Cross indicates that it may have marked the spot of an important figure

The Antiquities Authority is hoping to raise funds to find more evidence

 

 

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3244011/Is-tomb-Maccabees-Byzantine-cross-Modi-vault-suggests-resting-place-famed-Jewish-rebels.html#ixzz4bHtw4KI4

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French scholar Charles Clermont-Ganneau first excavated it in the late 1800s and found a mosaic floor featuring a Byzantine Christian cross.

The site was then abandoned. This month, Israeli archaeologists and volunteers cleared away rubble and exposed the simple mosaic cross for the first time in more than 100 years.

Amit Reem, a government archaeologist who helped lead the dig, said the cross is a clue.

It appears on the floor of a burial niche at the site.

It is the only Byzantine-era site where a cross decorates the floor of a burial vault, he said, indicating that it may have marked the spot of an important figure.

He thinks it is likely that the Byzantines - early Christians - identified this site as the Maccabees' tomb.

 

 

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3244011/Is-tomb-Maccabees-Byzantine-cross-Modi-vault-suggests-resting-place-famed-Jewish-rebels.html#ixzz4bHu1dWTa

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Four Masters of the Ming dynasty

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

The Four Masters of the Ming dynasty (Chinese: 明四家; pinyin: Míng Sì Jiā) are a traditional grouping in Chinese art history of four famous Chinese painters of the Ming dynasty.[1] The group are Shen Zhou (1427-1509), Wen Zhengming (1470-1559), both of the Wu School, Tang Yin (1470-1523), and Qiu Ying (c.1494-c.1552). They were approximate contemporaries, with Shen Zhou the teacher of Wen Zhengming, while the other two studied with Zhou Chen. Their styles and subject matter were varied.[2]

 

Contents [hide]

1 Other names

2 The painters

3 See also

4 External links

5 Notes

6 References

Other names[edit]

There are several alternative terms for these four leading painters:[1]

 

Four Great Masters of the Ming (Chinese: 明四大家; pinyin: Míng Sì Dàjiā)

Four Masters of Suzhou: all four came from the vicinity of Suzhou.[2]

Four Masters of Wu (simplified Chinese: 吴门四家; traditional Chinese: 吴門四傢; pinyin: Wúmén Sìjiā): all four came from the region of Wu, which surrounds the city of Suzhou.[3]

The "Four Masters" designation was first used in the mid-Ming dynasty, probably during the Jiajing era, and has continued to be applied since then.

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:T%27ang_Yin_001.jpg

 

Clearing after Snow on a Mountain Pass by Tang Yin (1470-1524)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Masters_of_the_Yuan_dynasty

 

The Four Masters of the Yuan dynasty is a name used to collectively describe the four Chinese painters Huang Gongwang, Wu Zhen, Ni Zan, and Wang Meng, who were active during the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368). They were revered during the Ming dynasty and later periods as major exponents of the tradition of “literati painting” (wenrenhua), which was concerned more with individual expression and learning than with outward representation and immediate visual appeal.[1]

 

The work of the Four Masters spurred experimentation with novel brushstroke techniques, with a new attention to the vocabulary of brush manipulation.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Wangs

 

The Four Wangs (Chinese: 四王; pinyin: Sì Wáng; Wade–Giles: Ssŭ Wang) were four Chinese landscape painters in the 17th century, all called Wang (surname Wang). They are best known for their accomplishments in shan shui painting.

 

Contents [hide]

1 The painters

2 References

3 Further reading

4 External links

5 See also

The painters[edit]

They were Wang Shimin (1592-1680), Wang Jian (1598-1677), Wang Hui (1632-1717) and Wang Yuanqi (1642-1715).[1] They were members of the group known as the Six Masters of the early Qing period.[1]

The fourth is transcendent- the fifth is ultra transcendent- and the directions make a quadrant with the fifth in the center

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shan_shui

Elements and colors[edit]

Shan shui is painted and designed in accordance with Chinese elemental theory with five elements representing various parts of the natural world, and thus has specific directions for colorations that should be used in 'directions' of the painting, as to which should dominate.[7]

 

Direction Element Colour

East Wood Green

South Fire Red

NE / SW Earth Tan or Yellow

West / NW Metal White or gold

North Water Blue or Black

Positive interactions between the Elements are:

 

Wood produces Fire

Fire produces Earth

Earth produces Metal

Metal produces Water

Water produces Wood.

Elements that react positively should be used together. For example, Water complements both Metal and Wood; therefore, a painter would combine blue and green or blue and white. There is a positive interaction between Earth and Fire, so a painter would mix Yellow and Red.[3]

 

Negative interactions between the Elements are:

 

Wood uproots Earth

Earth blocks Water

Water douses Fire

Fire melts Metal

Metal chops Wood

Elements that interact negatively should never be used together. For example, Fire will not interact positively with Water or Metal so a painter would not choose to mix red and blue, or red and white.[1]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Reticles_vector.svg

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reticle

 

A reticle, or reticule (from Latin reticulum, meaning "net"), also known as a graticule (from Latin craticula, meaning "gridiron"), is a net of fine lines or fibers in the eyepiece of a sighting device, such as a telescope, a telescopic sight, a microscope, or the screen of an oscilloscope. Today, engraved lines or embedded fibers may be replaced by a computer-generated image superimposed on a screen or eyepiece. Both terms may be used to describe any set of lines used for optical measurement, but in modern use reticle is most commonly used for gunsights and such, while graticule is more widely used for the covers of oscilloscopes and similar roles.

There are many variations of reticles; this article concerns itself mainly with a simple reticle: crosshairs. Crosshairs are most commonly represented as intersecting lines in the shape of a cross, "+", though many variations exist, including dots, posts, circles, scales, chevrons, or a combination of these. Most commonly associated with telescopic sights for aiming firearms, crosshairs are also common in optical instruments used for astronomy and surveying, and are also popular in graphical user interfaces as a precision pointer. The reticle is said to have been invented by Robert Hooke, and dates to the 17th century.[1] Another candidate as inventor is the amateur astronomer William Gascoigne, who predated Hooke.

Telescopic sights for firearms, generally just called scopes, are probably the device most often associated with crosshairs. Motion pictures and the media often use a view through crosshairs as a dramatic device, which has given crosshairs wide cultural exposure.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grid_illusion

 

The Hermann grid illusion is probably the most famous perceptual illusions. I discussed that perception is the first quadrant of the quadrant model (the second square of the first quadrant) and therefore it is kind of weird and should not be entirely trusted.

A grid illusion is any kind of grid that deceives a person's vision. The two most common types of grid illusions are the Hermann grid illusion and the scintillating grid illusion. A grid illusion is any kind of grid that deceives a person's vision. The two most common types of grid illusions are the Hermann grid illusion and the scintillating grid illusion.

Some patterns to prove, that a new visibility (induced brightness) appears on the junctions of a grid – if the dimensions are chosen properly: A) Grey squares at the intersections of the white lines; B) The same effect against a grey background. C) The effect is lost due to distance; D) A reversal of A) with the same effect.

‘Such effects induced by the grids – often called Hermann grids – are not completely understood’ stated MURCH (1973, p. 225), ‘although the mechanism of lateral inhibition certainly plays a part

The grids in the grid illusion represent quadrants.

The scintillating grid illusion is an optical illusion, discovered by E. Lingelbach in 1994, that is usually considered a variation of the Hermann grid illusion.

It is constructed by superimposing white discs on the intersections of orthogonal gray bars on a black background. Dark dots seem to appear and disappear rapidly at random intersections, hence the label "scintillating". When a person keeps his or her eyes directly on a single intersection, the dark dot does not appear. The dark dots disappear if one is too close to or too far from the image.

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/703/

From the website quadriformisratio
A seventeenth century view of the ‘Rebis‘-man in the cosmos. This representation of an androgyn man expresses an alchemistic interpretation of division thinking. The human being is connected with the five planets (Venus-Mars, Mercury, Jupiter-Saturn) and the sun (Sol) and moon (Luna). The man is carrying a compass (Ratio), while the woman holds a rectangle (Sensus). The dragon of darkness is conquered. The (winged) earth – as a reference to Hermes/ Mercury – is divided in four parts. Superimposed on this (weak) division are a square (4) and a triangle (3), indicating the four- and threefold division as the main building stones of the ‘Magnum Opus‘. In: KELLER (1912).

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

From the website quadriformisratio

http://vodevil15.tumblr.com/post/87508255083/blackpaint20-the-theme-of-the-dance-of-death

 

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/in-search-of-extremes/

QMR

The theme of the ‘Dance of Death’ emerged in the middle of the fifteenth century. This ‘Totentanz mit Figuren’ was printed by Knocblochtzer (ca. 1485). 1. The death and the young boy; 2. The death and the abbot; 3. The death and the bishop; 4. The death and the friar. The death uses different musical instrument to introduce the living into the afterlife. In: GRIJP (1989). Op. cit.

From the website quadriformisratio

QMR

The search of extremes was on. The ultimate was a target to reach if it was positive and to avoid if it was negative. This belief was embodied in the symbolism of the four last things (De quatuor novissimis). The four last things refer to a passage in the book of Ecclesiastes (Chapter 7), where a list of oppositions is given (It is better to go to the house of mourning, then to go to the house of feasting: for that is the end of all men). The text on the extremes (Eccl. 7: 20) has been modified in later translations (like the King James Version of 1611) into: ‘For there is not a just man upon earth, that doeth good, and sinneth not.’

C. Plantijn in Antwerp printed an influential edition of ‘De vier wterste’ by J.B. Houwart in 1583. VAN VINCKENROYE (1965), in an extensive text edition, traced Houwart’s source back to the so-called ‘Cordiale‘ (probably by Geeraert van Vliederhoven), printed by Geeraert Leeu in Gouda in 1477 and titled ‘Die vier uterste’ (reprints in 1479, 1482 and 1488). Often the message is brought in four sermons, like the editions of Robertus Bellarminus in 1586 (reprinted in 1706) and Thomas Green (in 1749):

——————————— 1. The first sermon of death

——————————— 2. The second sermon of judgement

——————————— 3. The third sermon of torment and hell

——————————— 4. The fourth sermon of holy delight and heaven

A small catechism with the common prayers, the enumeration of virtues and vices, and an elaboration on the four last things was part of the repertory. The description was in a vivid style, not unlike the paintings of Jeronimus Bosch, where cruel punishments awaiting those who did not listen (STEPPE, 1967).

The most acquainted description of the theme of the ‘The four last Things’ was by Thomas More (1478 – 1535), who wrote the work in 1521, but left the manuscript unfinished. ‘Remember your last Things and you will never commit a sin’ was the leading text, which referred to death, judgement, pain and happiness. Thomas More did not go further than a remembrance of the dead and his admonition was limited to the seven sins. He concluded his sermon as a real dualist: ‘There are, as you know, two things essential to reach salvation, namely the rejection and avoidance of evil and the doing of good. While on one side all six capital sins must be avoided, as there is pride, envy, wrath, intemperance, avarice and lechery, because if we indulge in them, we can spoil the other half of the way to heaven.’

GERLACH (1988) pointed in his book on Jheronimus Bosch (c. 1450 – 1516) to Dionysius the Carthusian as the writer of the ‘Four Last Things’. This priest was the leader of a Carthusian order, from 1466 in Olland and thereafter in Den Dungen (Ten Eikendonk), until his dead in 1472. The four Latin editions of the ‘Quatuor novissima’ before 1500 were followed, with an interruption until 1532, by thirteen editions until 1693. The Belgian Jesuit William Stanyhurst (1602 – 1663) was very successful with his edition of the ‘Veteris Hominis . . . quatuor novissima metamorphosis et novi genesis’, dedicated to James van Baerlant (Antwerp, 1661; Prague, 1700; Vienna, 1766). The theme was still popular at the end of the eighteenth century.

Titles like ‘Spiegel der Vernunft‘ (Mirror of Knowledge) and ‘Spiegel der kerstenen menschen‘ or ‘Der Kerstenen Spieghel’ (The Cristian Mirror, by friar Dirk of Munster) were very popular at the same period – around the pivotal point (1500) – as ‘The Four Last Things’. Theodorus Galle followed Hendrick Goltzius in a picture of Prudentia, showing a young boy the four last things in a mirror: Heaven, Last Judgement, Death and Hell (HAZELZET, 1994; fig. 159).

‘De quatuor novissimis’ or the Last Four Things (Heaven, Last Judgement, Death and Hell) are shown here in a mirror to a young boy by the goddess Prudentia. Engraving by Theodorus Galle (1571 – 1633) after Hendrick Goltzius (1558 – 1617).

From the website quadriformisratio

 

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/the-garden-of-eden/

QMR

Bernini’s ‘Fountain of the Four Rivers’ in the Piazza Navona in Rome. The Piazza is situated in an old Roman circus, which can still be recognized, in its oval shape. Later it became a marketplace. Pope Innocent X (1574 – 1655) assigned the building of a fountain to Bernini in the fall of 1647. The construction of the fountain, with the glorification of an Egyptian obelisk, took place during the Holy Year 1650. In: SCHAMA, (1995).

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https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/the-garden-of-eden/

From website quadriformisratio

The first illustration (fig. 286) is from the monastery of Ratisbon (Germany) and dated from between AD 1170 and AD 1185. The Lamb (Agnus Dei) takes a central place, surrounded by the personification of the Paradise: Paradysus. From here the four rivers of Paradise flow to the Northwest (Tigris), Northeast (Euphrates), Southeast (Geon) and Southwest (Physon). Their personifications hold the church fathers in a medallion: Tigris clasps Augustine, Euphrates Gregory, Geon Jeronimus and Physon Ambrosius.

The second example – from a breviary in the monastery of Zwiefalten also dating from the twelfth century (fig. 287) – uses the same elements, again with the Holy Lamb in the centre. This time the paradise does not have a personification. The ‘IIII flumina paradisi’ flow in four directions: Physon to the north, Tigris to the east, Euphrates to the south and Geon to the west. Their personifications carry a jug, which was the usual way in this period to depict the rivers of Paradise.

Quadripartite symbolism as a representation of the earthly paradise. From a twelfth century breviary in the monastery of Zwiefalten, Germany. The rivers of paradise are personified as water carriers, pouring their water out of a jug, and placed in square medallion indicating their ‘earthly’ connection. The cardinal virtues are placed in the corners in round medallions, pointing to a ‘holy’ combination. The four Evangelists are given as scribes and accompanied by their symbols: man (angel), eagle, lion, bull. Carl JUNG (1973) compared this diagram with a mandala, the Boeddhistic cosmic view used as an aid for meditation.

The ‘quattuor virtutes cardinales’ are drawn in the round medallions at the corners: Prudentia (left) and Justitia (right) at the top, Fortitudo (left) and Temperantia (right) at the bottom. They hold their traditional attributes: Prudentia a book, Justitia a scale, Fortitudo some armory and Temperantia a cup.

The third example is a page from a Psalter from Thüringen (Germany) showing the rivers as personifications in circles

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/the-garden-of-eden/

From the website quadriformisratio

The theme of the four rivers of paradise was sometimes depicted as a cross (fig. 289), figuring as the four oceans. ‘Mare Rubius‘ (Red Sea) is marked, flowing to the east. North of it lies Africa. Rome is drawn prominently in a castle-like fashion with three towers, just right of the center. The southeastern quadrant represents Europe, mainly with Spanish city names. Little is shown of the geography of other European countries (could this map be a forgery?).

QMR

 

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/the-garden-of-eden/

From website quadriformisratio

The first illustration (fig. 286) is from the monastery of Ratisbon (Germany) and dated from between AD 1170 and AD 1185. The Lamb (Agnus Dei) takes a central place, surrounded by the personification of the Paradise: Paradysus. From here the four rivers of Paradise flow to the Northwest (Tigris), Northeast (Euphrates), Southeast (Geon) and Southwest (Physon). Their personifications hold the church fathers in a medallion: Tigris clasps Augustine, Euphrates Gregory, Geon Jeronimus and Physon Ambrosius.

The second example – from a breviary in the monastery of Zwiefalten also dating from the twelfth century (fig. 287) – uses the same elements, again with the Holy Lamb in the centre. This time the paradise does not have a personification. The ‘IIII flumina paradisi’ flow in four directions: Physon to the north, Tigris to the east, Euphrates to the south and Geon to the west. Their personifications carry a jug, which was the usual way in this period to depict the rivers of Paradise.

Quadripartite symbolism as a representation of the earthly paradise. From a twelfth century breviary in the monastery of Zwiefalten, Germany. The rivers of paradise are personified as water carriers, pouring their water out of a jug, and placed in square medallion indicating their ‘earthly’ connection. The cardinal virtues are placed in the corners in round medallions, pointing to a ‘holy’ combination. The four Evangelists are given as scribes and accompanied by their symbols: man (angel), eagle, lion, bull. Carl JUNG (1973) compared this diagram with a mandala, the Boeddhistic cosmic view used as an aid for meditation.

The ‘quattuor virtutes cardinales’ are drawn in the round medallions at the corners: Prudentia (left) and Justitia (right) at the top, Fortitudo (left) and Temperantia (right) at the bottom. They hold their traditional attributes: Prudentia a book, Justitia a scale, Fortitudo some armory and Temperantia a cup.

The third example is a page from a Psalter from Thüringen (Germany) showing the rivers as personifications in circles

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/the-garden-of-eden/

 

The fourfold motif (of the rivers) was conventionalized in the emblems (‘gul‘), which were used by the carpet makers of the Turkmen tribes in Central Asia (CURATOLA, 1981/1983). They all have a strong quadripartite scheme in common, often with a contrast between the quadrants

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/the-garden-of-eden/

 

From the website quadriformisratio

The spirited theme of rivers and gardens was further elaborated on Persian carpets. The shape of a carpet induces the design of rectangular forms, and there is often a (religious) meaning in the patterns, since many of the older carpets wee made as means of contemplation. The rivers of Paradise divide the carpet into four quarters

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/the-garden-of-eden/

 

From the website quadriformisratio

The spirited theme of rivers and gardens was further elaborated on Persian carpets. The shape of a carpet induces the design of rectangular forms, and there is often a (religious) meaning in the patterns, since many of the older carpets wee made as means of contemplation. The rivers of Paradise divide the carpet into four quarters

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/the-garden-of-eden/

From the website quadriformisratio

The theme of the quadripartite fountain, and the start of Creation in general, was in the alchemical tradition related to Mercurius (JUNG, 1953). Mercurius pointed the way, as a communicator, swift in mind and body, with wings on his shoes and a golden staff. Plato described him in the ‘Phaedrus‘ as the celestial scribe and guardian of the files and records ‘and he was the inventor of many arts, such as arithmetic and calculation and geometry and astronomy and draughts and dice, but his great discovery was the use of letters.’ Fig. 282 gives the source of life as a source of Mercurius.

The source of life as the ‘source of Mercurius’. This illustration is from the ‘Rosarium philosophorum’ (1550), in a compilation entitled ‘Artis auriferae, quam Chemiam vocant, Volumina duo‘ (printed by Conrad Waldkrich in Basel, 1593 and 1610). The picture is full of alchemical symbolism related to Mercurius ‘descending into the fountain’, or the act of creation.

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The Takeda clan (武田氏 Takeda-shi?) is a Japanese clan active from the late Heian Period (794 – 1185). The clan was historically based in Kai Province in present-day Yamanashi Prefecture.[1

Their crest was the four diamonds/ cross

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Takeda_clan

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Takeda_mon.svg

quadrant

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http://thubtenchodron.org/1994/02/conditions-stabilization-meditation-retreat/

 

Swastika is a quadrant

The Tibetans have a custom of putting a swastika under your meditation seat or cushion. You draw it with chalk or on a piece of paper and put it under your seat. It’s a swastika that doesn’t go the same direction as the Nazi one. This one goes clockwise. Don’t get worried. It’s quite interesting. It’s a symbol of Buddhism. If you go to China you’ll see swastikas all over. It’s an ancient, Asian symbol and it’s for auspiciousness, hope and well-being.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/My_Scene:_Jammin%27_in_Jamaica

 

My Scene: Jammin' in Jamaica is the first My Scene film, released On May 15, 2004 in the United States. It was sold together with the My Scene "Jammin' in Jamaica" dolls. When Madison and Urban Desire go to Jamaica for a contest, Barbie, Nolee and Chelsea raise money to go there too and support their friends. The film was directed by Eric Fogel, who also directed The Barbie Diaries.[1][2][3]

Madison is manager of a band called Urban Desire, which is made up of the four male characters. When the band wins a contest, they make a trip to Jamaica for the finals, but Barbie, Nolee, and Chelsea are left behind so they decide to raise the money to travel to Jamaica. After all the characters arrive in Jamaica, Barbie feels left out as her boyfriend, the lead guitarist, begins spending more time with Madison. This causes a rift between the friends but is eventually resolved.

Quadrant circles

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sonia_Delaunay,_1914,_Prismes_électriques,_oil_on_canvas,_250_x_250_cm,_Musée_National_d%27Art_Moderne.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orphism_(art)

 

Sonia Delaunay, 1914, Prismes électriques, oil on canvas, 250 x 250 cm, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystal_Cubism#Painting_and_its_Laws

 

FOURTH DIMENSION ART

This range of styles of painting and sculpture, especially significant between 1917 and 1920 (also referred to as the Crystal Period, classical Cubism, pure Cubism, advanced Cubism, late Cubism, synthetic Cubism, or the second phase of Cubism), was practiced in varying degrees by a multitude of artists; particularly those under contract with the art dealer and collector Léonce Rosenberg—Henri Laurens, Jean Metzinger, Juan Gris and Jacques Lipchitz most noticeably of all. The tightening of the compositions, the clarity and sense of order reflected in these works, led to its being referred to by the French poet and art critic Maurice Raynal as 'crystal' Cubism.[2] Considerations manifested by Cubists prior to the outset of World War I—such as the fourth dimension, dynamism of modern life, the occult, and Henri Bergson's concept of duration—had now been vacated, replaced by a purely formal frame of reference that proceeded from a cohesive stance toward art and life.

 

The divers Cubist considerations manifested prior to World War I—such as the fourth dimension, dynamism of modern life, and Henri Bergson's concept of duration—had now been replaced by a formal reference frame which constituted the second phase of Cubism, based upon an elementary set of principles that formed a cohesive Cubist aesthetic.[2] This clarity and sense of order spread to almost all of the artists exhibiting at Léonce Rosenberg's gallery—including Jean Metzinger, Juan Gris, Jacques Lipchitz, Henry Laurens, Auguste Herbin, Joseph Csaky, Gino Severini and Pablo Picasso—leading to the descriptive term 'Crystal Cubism', coined by Maurice Raynal,[2] an early promoter of Cubism and continuous supporter during the war and post-war phase that followed.[13] Raynal had been associated with Cubists since 1910 via the milieu of Le Bateau-Lavoir.[14] Raynal, who would become one of the Cubists most authoritative and articulate proponents,[15] endorsed a wide range of Cubist activity and for those who produced it, but his highest esteem was directed toward two artists: Jean Metzinger, whose artistry Raynal equated with Renoir and who was 'perhaps the man who, in our epoch, knows best how to paint'. The other was Juan Gris, who was 'certainly the fiercest of the purists in the group'.[15]

 

After two years of study I have succeeded in establishing the basis of this new perspective I have talked about so much. It is not the materialist perspective of Gris, nor the romantic perspective of Picasso. It is rather a metaphysical perspective—I take full responsibility for the word. You can't begin to imagine what I've found out since the beginning of the war, working outside painting but for painting. The geometry of the fourth space has no more secret for me. Previously I had only intuitions, now I have certainty. I have made a whole series of theorems on the laws of displacement [déplacement], of reversal [retournement] etc. I have read Schoute, Rieman (sic), Argand, Schlegel etc.

 

The 'new perspective' according to Daniel Robbins, "was a mathematical relationship between the ideas in his mind and the exterior world".[22] The 'fourth space' for Metzinger was the space of the mind.[22]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Cubism

 

FOURTH DIMENSION ART

 

Princet is credited with introducing the work of Henri Poincaré and the concept of the "fourth dimension" to artists at the Bateau-Lavoir.[59] Princet brought to the attention of Picasso, Metzinger and others, a book by Esprit Jouffret, Traité élémentaire de géométrie à quatre dimensions (Elementary Treatise on the Geometry of Four Dimensions, 1903),[60] a popularization of Poincaré's Science and Hypothesis in which Jouffret described hypercubes and other complex polyhedra in four dimensions and projected them onto the two-dimensional surface. Picasso's sketchbooks for Les Demoiselles d'Avignon illustrate Jouffret's influence on the artist's work.[61]

 

Louis Vauxcelles along similar lines dubbed Princet, sarcastically, the 'father of Cubism': "M. Princet has studied at length non-Euclidean geometry and the theorems of Riemann, of which Gleizes and Metzinger speak rather carelessly. Now then, M. Princet one day met M. Max Jacob and confided him one or two of his discoveries relating to the fourth dimension. M. Jacob informed the ingenious M. Picasso of it, and M. Picasso saw there a possibility of new ornamental schemes. M. Picasso explained his intentions to M. Apollinaire, who hastened to write them up in formularies and codify them. The thing spread and propagated. Cubism, the child of M. Princet, was born".[65]

 

"Here the nights of the Blue Period passed... here the days of the Rose Period flowered... here the Demoiselles d'Avignon halted in their dance to re-group themselves in accordance with the golden number and the secret of the fourth dimension... here fraternized the poets elevated by serious criticism into the School of the Rue Ravignan... here in these shadowy corridors lived the true worshippers of fire ... here one evening in the year 1908 unrolled the pageantry of the first and last banquet offered by his admirers to the painter Henri Rousseau called the Douanier."[74][76]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Cubist_Painters,_Aesthetic_Meditations

In his analysis of the new art movement, Apollinaire makes a distinction between four different types of Cubism;[7] scientific, physical, orphic and instinctive. The first, Scientific Cubism, is the art of painting new ensembles with elements borrowed not from the reality of vision, but from the reality of knowledge. It is the tendency of 'pure' painting. The painters Apollinaire places in this category are: Picasso, Braque, Metzinger, Gleizes, Laurencin and Gris.[28]

 

The second, Physical Cubism, is the discipline of constructing painting with elements borrowed mostly from the reality of vision. Its social role is well marked, but it is not a pure art. The 'physicist' who created this trend is Le Fauconnier.[28]

 

Orphic Cubism is the art of painting with elements borrowed not from visual reality, but entirely created by the artist and endowed by him with a powerful reality. The works of the Orphic artists simultaneously present a pure aesthetic pleasure, a construction to the senses and a sublime meaning. This is pure art, according to Apollinaire, that includes the work of R. Delaunay, Léger, Picabia and M. Duchamp.[28]

 

Instinctive Cubism is, according to Apollinaire, the art of painting elements borrowed not from visual reality, but suggestive of the artist's instinct and intuition. Instinctive Cubism includes a very large number of artists. Derived from French Impressionism, the movement spans ("is spreading") across all of Europe.[28]

FOUR WOMEN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Cubist_Painters,_Aesthetic_Meditations

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Marie_Laurencin,_1910-11,_Les_jeunes_filles,_Jeune_Femmes_(Young_Girls),_oil_on_canvas,_115_x_146_cm,_Moderna_Museet,_Stockholm.jpg

 

Marie Laurencin, 1910–11, Les jeunes filles (Jeune Femmes, Young Girls), oil on canvas, 115 x 146 cm. Exhibited Salon des Indépendants, 1911, Moderna Museet, Stockholm

FOUR PIECES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_art#Modern_period

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locmariaquer_megaliths

 

The four pieces of the Broken Menhir, seen from the tumulus of Er Grah

It is not known what caused the menhir to topple and break into the four pieces that are now seen. At one time it was believed that the stone had never stood upright, but archaeological findings have proven that it did. The most popular theory is that the stone was deliberately pulled down and broken. Certainly other menhirs that accompanied it were removed and reused in the construction of tombs and dolmens nearby. However, in recent years, some archaeologists have favoured the explanation of an earthquake or tremor, and this theory is supported by a computer model.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Leonard_French_La_Trobe_05.jpg

The Four Seasons (1978) by Leonard French at La Trobe University Sculpture Park in Melbourne. Australia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stained_glass

Quadrant

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadlight
LEADLIGHTING QUADRANT WINDOWS
https://en.wikipedia.org/…/File:Karlstads_domkyrka_window_s…
Post Modern leadlighting combining traditional diamond pane form with the squareness of an iron armature and the arch of a church window in a design of great precision and subtlety. Karlstad Cathedral, Sweden.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

LOOK AT THE QUADRANT GRIDS OF THE FAMERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Center_pivot_irrigation

 

A satellite image of circular fields characteristic of center pivot irrigation, Kansas.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_family_of_scripts

Zhou, Youguang (September 1991). "The Family of Chinese Character-Type Scripts (Twenty Members and Four Stages of Development)". Sino-Platonic Papers

IT HAS A CROSS ON IT- A CROSS IS A QUADRANT

The inscription consists of runic text on two serpents or lindworms that bracket a Christian cross and some beasts.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:U_240,_Lingsberg.JPG

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lingsberg_Runestones

The Lingsberg Runestones are two 11th century runestones,[1] [2] listed as U 240 and U 241 in the Rundata catalog, and one fragment, U 242, that are engraved in Old Norse using the younger futhark and located at the farm at Lingsberg,[3] which is about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) east of Vallentuna (halfway to Kusta), which is about 24 kilometres (15 mi) north of the center of Stockholm, Stockholm County, Sweden, which was part of the former province of Uppland.

The inscription consists of runic text carved on an intertwined serpent that is under a cross. Similar to U 240, U 241 is classified as being carved in runestone style Pr3 and is attributed to the runemaster Åsmund.[

THORS HAMMER AND THE CROSS (QUADRANT) WERE SEEN AS THE SAME THING BY THE NORSE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stenkvista_runestone

The Stenkvista runestone in Södermanland, Sweden, shows Thor's lightning hammer instead of a cross. Only two such runestones are known.[13]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sö_111,_Stenkvista.jpg

The Stenkvista runestone, which currently lies in a churchyard, is made of granite and is 2.2 meters in height. It is classified as being in runestone style Fp. This is the classification for inscriptions where the runic text is characterized by runic bands that end with serpent or animal heads depicted as seen from above. The runemaster who carved this runestone placed a dot between the words in the runic text, arranged the design so that the runes þiuþmunt for the man's name Þjóðmundr and faþur * sin for the words fôður sinn ("their father") are located below the Thor's hammer. Thor's hammer was used on several memorial runestones in Sweden and Denmark, perhaps as a parallel to or a pagan reaction to the use of the cross by Christians.[1] Other surviving runestones or inscriptions depicting Thor's hammer include runestones U 1161 in Altuna, Sö 86 in Åby, Sö 140 in Jursta, Vg 113 in Lärkegapet, Öl 1 in Karlevi, DR 26 in Laeborg, DR 48 in Hanning, DR 120 in Spentrup, and DR 331 in Gårdstånga.[2][3]

A CROSS WITH NORSE MYTHOLOGY ON IT- CROSSES AARE QUADRANTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gosforth_Cross

The Gosforth Cross is a large stone Anglo-Saxon cross in St Mary's churchyard at Gosforth in the English county of Cumbria. Formerly part of the kingdom of Northumbria, the area was settled by Scandinavians some time in either the 9th or 10th century. The cross itself dates to the first half of the 10th century.

 

Contents [hide]

1 Description

2 Galleries

3 Notes

4 References

5 External links

Description[edit]

The Gosforth Cross has elaborate carvings which have been interpreted as representing characters and scenes from Norse mythology. The Gosforth Cross was first identified in 1886 by the amateur antiquarian Charles Arundel Parker in his book The Ancient Crosses at Gosford and Cumberland. He demonstrated that the cross showed scenes described in the Poetic Edda.[1] Those include images identified as:

 

Loki bound with his wife Sigyn protecting him.

The god Heimdallr holding his horn.

The god Víðarr tearing the jaws of Fenrir.

Thor's failed attempt to catch Jörmungandr, the Midgard Serpent.

The cross also has Christian symbolism, including a depiction of the crucifixion of Christ. The combination of Christian and Norse pagan symbolism on the cross may be evidence of the use of pagan stories to illustrate Christian teachings.[1]

 

The cross is 4.4 metres tall and made out of red sandstone. It is estimated to date from 920-950 and is still in fairly good condition. The importance of the Gosforth Cross (as well as the Irton Cross) caused the Victoria and Albert Museum to have replicas made in 1882.[2] They are on display in the Cast Hall at the museum. In 1887, the Rev. William Slater Calverley commissioned a replica life-sized copy of this cross and erected it in the churchyard at Aspatria, Cumbria.[3]

 

The church also has important hogback tombs, and what appears to be a fragment of another cross, showing the god Thor fishing.

 

Galleries[edit]

The following images depict the 10th century Gosforth Cross and related artifacts at St Mary's church in Gosforth in the English county of Cumbria. The region was formerly part of the kingdom of Northumbria, an area settled by Scandinavians in the 9th or 10th century. The images were published by Finnur Jónsson in Goðafræði Norðmanna og Íslendinga eftir Heimildum in 1913. The identifications of the figures are those suggested by Jónsson in 1913.

Four sides of the Gosforth Cross- SHOW NORSE MYTHOLOGY

http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~catshaman/25pictst/Gosforth.htm

Viking Age England Julian D Richards

 

Let us begin at right and the upper picture with the man could be seen as "the Hero and the Beast". However he has a staff in his hand so we could also see it as the Ferryman with his staff. On the symbol stones of Gotland we see the same motif.

 

Christians surely would see next scene as crucifixion since they compare with the Bible. The allegory could be the same but I am not so sure that the story is that. There are frames around the man so I associate to Gunnar Gjukeson in the Snake Pit. His enemies put him in the pit and her wife Gudrun gave him a harp. He played it with his feet and as long as he played the snakes were pacified. But one snake did not feel asleep. In the legends they love to point out that always some fool destroy the joy. Under this we have the battling snakes of Underworld that get the remains.

 

On next side we have maybe the "fun of life" with the big snake looking upon. On third side the chain from first side is used as body for the odd triple snake. The same kind we find at Isle of Man but also on the door post to Vindblaes Church near Randers Jutland. Hard to tell what the man on horse and the man with staff are doing. But under that we see the fettered Loke and his wife Sigyn trying to spare him from the poison that otherwise drop into his mouth.

 

On forth side there is two snakes maybe the seasons. Under that The Stag that was instead of Pegasus and it was asterism of spring equinox and the other half year symbol could be the Ulven / the Wolf and we see some snakes from the Underworld there. At the bottom we see Thor lifting the Midgaard Snake that surround the world. The hero was lured to fight the impossible and that is what life is about.

FOUR STONES LINKED TO THE MOTIF

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hørdum_stone

The Hørdum stone was discovered in 1954 during trench work adjacent to the church in Hørdum.[1] Before the historical significance of runestones and picture stones was understood, they were often reused as materials in the construction of roads, bridges, walls, and buildings. The image on the stone illustrates a legend recorded in the Hymiskviða of the Poetic Edda, in which the Norse god Thor fishes for Jörmungandr, the Midgard serpent.[2] Thor goes fishing with the jötunn Hymir using an ox head for bait, and catches Jörmungandr, who then either breaks loose[3] or, as told in the Gylfaginning of the Prose Edda, the line is cut loose by Hymir.[4] The Prose Edda provides the additional detail that while Thor was pulling on the line with Jörmungandr on the hook, his feet went through the bottom of the boat.[4] The image on the Hørdum stone shows Hymir, Thor, his fishing line and a portion of the serpent. Thor's foot has been pushed through the hull of the boat.[2] The ox head bait is not shown, but may have been on a section of the image that has been worn away.[5] Hymir is depicted holding a tool, apparently in preparation to cut the fishing line, consistent with the version of the myth told in the Gylfaginning. It has also been suggested that an image of the head of the serpent can be seen in the natural fracture edges of the stone under the boat.[6]

 

This encounter between Thor and Jörmungandr seems to have been one of the most popular motifs in Norse art. Three other picture stones (FOUR IN ALL) that have been linked with the myth are the Ardre VIII image stone, the Altuna Runestone, and the Gosforth Cross.[5] A stone slab that may be a portion of a second cross at Gosforth also shows a fishing scene using an ox head for bait.[7] Several other Scandinavian runic inscriptions from the Viking Age depict ships but not this myth, including DR 77 in Hjermind, DR 119 in Spentrup, DR 220 in Sønder Kirkeby, DR 258 in Bösarp, DR 271 in Tullstorp, DR 328 in Holmby, DR EM85;523 in Farsø, Ög 181 in Ledberg, Ög 224 in Stratomta, Ög MÖLM1960;230 in Törnevalla, Sö 122 in Skresta, Sö 154 in Skarpåker, Sö 158 in Österberga, Sö 164 in Spånga, Sö 351 in Överjärna, Sö 352 in Linga, Vg 51 in Husaby, U 370 in Herresta, U 979 in Gamla Uppsala, U 1052 in Axlunda, and Vs 17 in Råby.[8] Two other stones, the Långtora kyrka stone and U 1001 in Rasbo, depict ships but currently do not have any runes on them and may never have had any.[8]

THE BEARD MAKES A QUADRANT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danish_Runic_Inscription_66
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Runestone
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aarhus_mask_stone.jpg
Danish Runic Inscription 66 or DR 66, also known as the Mask stone, is a granite Viking Age memorial runestone that was discovered in Aarhus, Denmark. The inscription features a facial mask and memorializes a man who died in a battle.

The runic text indicates that the stone was raised as a memorial by four men in memory of a man named Fúl

FOUR RUNESTONES CALLED THE ITALY RUNESTONES- THE FOURTH RUNESTONE IS DIFFERENT- THEY HAVE CROSSES (QUADRANTS) ON THEM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:U_141,_Fittja.jpg

Runestone U 141 in a 17th-century drawing by Johan Hadorph

 

The Italy Runestones are three or four Varangian Runestones from 11th-century Sweden that talk of warriors who died in Langbarðaland ("Land of the Lombards"), the Old Norse name for Italy

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy_runestones#S.C3.B6_65

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sö_Fv1954;22,_Lagnö.JPG

HAS A CROSS/QUADRANT ON IT

Runestone Sö Fv1954;22

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Runestone

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sö_65,_Djulefors.jpg

Runestone Sö 65

HAS A CROSS ON IT/QUADRANT- MOST OF THE RNESTONES HAVE THE CROSS AS THE CENTRAL MOTIF

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England_runestones#dr_337

U 194[edit]

 

U 194.

This secluded runestone is located in a grove near Väsby, Uppland, Sweden. It was raised by a Viking in commemoration of his receiving one danegeld in England. It is classified as being carved in runestone style Pr3 and, together with U 344, it has been said to be the earliest example of an Urnes style inscription in Uppland.[5] The runic text follows a common rule to only carve a single rune for two consecutive letters, even when the letters were at the end of one word and the beginning of a second word.[6] When the text shown as Latin characters, the transliterated runes are doubled and separate words are shown. For U 194 has three examples where this occurred, þinoftiʀ is transliterated as þino| |oftiʀ, tuknuts as tuk| |knuts, and anklanti as a| |anklanti.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

al|i| |l|it raisa stain þino| |oftiʀ sik sialfan ' hon tuk| |knuts kialt a| |anklanti ' kuþ hialbi hons ant

Old Norse transcription:

 

Ali/Alli let ræisa stæin þenna æftiʀ sik sialfan. Hann tok Knuts giald a Ænglandi. Guð hialpi hans and.

English translation:

 

"Áli/Alli had this stone raised in memory of himself. He took Knútr's payment in England. May God help his spirit."[7]

 

HAS A CROSS ON IT TOO

U 812[edit]

 

U 812.

This runestone is carved in runestone style Pr2 and was raised at the church of Hjälsta. It was raised in memory of a man's father who died in England. Based on its size and runic text, it has been suggested that U 812 was once part of a coupled monument located in a cemetery, but that the runestone with the first half of the overall text has been lost.[21] Other pairs of runestones that may have formed a coupled monument in a cemetery are U 49 and U 50 in Lovö and Sö Fv1948;282 and Sö 134 in Ludgo.[21]

 

Latin transliteration:

 

× faþur × sin × saʀ × uarþ × tauþr × o eg×loti ×

Old Norse transcription:

 

faður sinn. Saʀ varð dauðr a Ænglandi.

English translation:

 

"his father. He died in England."[22]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:U_812,_Hjälsta.jpg

 

U 978[edit]

 

U 978

This stone is located in the wall of the church of Gamla Uppsala. It is carved in runestone style Pr2 and made of sandstone. It was made by a man who called himself "traveller to England" in memory of his father.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

sihuiþr ...-i + stain + þina + iklats+fari + iftir + uitarf + faþ(u)(r) [+ -... ...sia]... ...ku---

Old Norse transcription:

 

Sigviðr [ræist]i stæin þenna Ænglandsfari æftiʀ Vidiarf, faður ... ... ...

English translation:

 

"Sigviðr, traveller to England, raised this stone in memory of Védjarfr, (his) father ... ... ..."[23]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:U_978,_Gamla_Uppsala.JPG

HAS A CROSS ON IT

Sö 55[edit]

 

Sö 55.

This runestone in Bjudby was raised by a man in memory of his son Hefnir who went to England and back, and instead of having a warrior's death overseas, he died at home. Due to the use of the ansuz rune for the o phoneme, Erik Brate argues that Hefnir participated in a late 11th-century expedition to England.[26] He suggests that Hefnir was part of the invasion force sent to England by Sweyn Estridsson, in 1069, and which was intended to defeat William the Conqueror's Normans.[27] The invasion had been planned for two years, but William the conqueror bought off the commander of the force who was Sweyn Estridsson's brother Asbjörn.[27] The inscription is in runestone style Pr2 and was carved by two runemasters whose names are normalized as Slode and Brune. Brune's signature is also on Sö 178 at Gripsholm Castle.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

þorstain (l)(i)... ...sa : stain : þena : ... sik : sialfan : auk : sun : sin : hefni : uaʀ til : enklans : ukr : trenkr : farin : uarþ : þa * haima : at : harmi tauþr kuþ hialbi : sialu : þaima bruni : auk : sloþi : þaiʀ ...(u) stan þena

Old Norse transcription:

 

Þorstæinn le[t ræi]sa stæin þenna [æftiʀ] sik sialfan ok sun sinn Hæfni. Vaʀ til Ænglands ungʀ drængʀ farinn, varð þa hæima at harmi dauðr. Guð hialpi sialu þæiʀa. Bruni ok Sloði þæiʀ [rist]u stæin þenna.

English translation:

 

"Þorsteinn had this stone raised in memory of himself and his son Hefnir. The young valiant man travelled to England; then died grievously at home. May God help their souls. Brúni and Slóði, they carved this stone."[28]

HAS A CROSS ON IT

Sö 160[edit]

 

Sö 160.

This runestone is located at the church of Råby. Like the Kolsta Runestone, it is raised in memory of a man who died in the assembly retinue (þingalið) in England.[15]

 

Latin transliteration:

 

: aybirn : raisþi : stain : þansi : at : karþi : han uarþ : tauþr : o| |oklati i liþi

Old Norse transcription:

 

Øybiorn ræisþi stæin þannsi at Skærði. Hann varð dauðr a Ænglandi i liði.

English translation:

 

"Eybjǫrn raised this stone in memory of Skerðir. He died in the retinue in England."[30]

HAS A CROSS ON IT

 

Sö 166[edit]

 

Sö 166.

This runestone which is located in Grinda is in the style RAK. It is raised in memory of a father who divided up gold in England and attacked some towns in northern Germany. According to Omeljan Pritsak, the gold which was divided was part of the danegeld,[31] and Erik Brate argues that it was the same expedition as the one mentioned on the Berga Runestone.[32]

 

Latin transliteration:

 

: kriutkarþr : ainriþi : suniʀ : kiarþu : at : faþur : snialan : kuþuiʀ : uaʀ uastr : a : aklati : kialti : skifti : burkiʀ : a : sahks:lanti : suti : kaula

Old Norse transcription:

 

Griutgarðr, Æinriði, syniʀ, giærðu at faður sniallan. Guðveʀ vaʀ vestr a Ænglandi, gialdi skifti, borgiʀ a Saxlandi sotti karla.

English translation:

 

"Grjótgarðr (and) Einriði, the sons made (the stone) in memory of (their) able father. Guðvér was in the west; divided (up) payment in England; manfully attacked townships in Saxony."[33]

HAS A CROSS ON IT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sö_166,_Grinda.JPG

Sö 207[edit]

 

Sö 207.

This runestone is located at the church of Överselö. It is made of sandstone and carved in runestone style Fp. It is in memory of a father who travelled to England.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

kuþr... ... (f)aþur sin * fur * hfila * hn * til * iklans * kuþ halbi * sil hns

Old Norse transcription:

 

Guð... ... faður sinn. For hæfila hann til Ænglands. Guð hialpi sal hans.

English translation:

 

"Guð-... ... his father. He competently travelled to England. May God help his soul."[34]

HAS A CROSS ON IT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sö_207,_Överselö.JPG

HAS A CROSS ON IT

 

Vs 9[edit]

 

The runestone Vs 9.

This runestone is located near the bridge of Saltängsbron and it is in the style Pr3. It is in memory of a man who died in England.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

× kisl × lit × kera × buru × eftʀ × osl × sun × sin × han u(a)[rþ] × tyþr × a eklati × kuþ ialbi × has × ont auk × selu

 

Old Norse transcription:

 

Gisl let gærva bro æftiʀ Asl/ǫsl, sun sinn. Hann varð dauðr a Ænglandi. Guð hialpi hans and ok selu.

English translation:

 

"Gísl had the bridge made in memory of Ásl/ǫsl, his son. He died in England. May God help his spirit and soul."[36]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Vs_9,_Saltängsbron.JPG

Vg 187[edit]

 

Vg 187.

This runestone is located at the church of Vist. It is carved in runestone style RAK and it is thus one of the older runestones. It was raised in memory of a brother who died in England.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

+ giʀi * sati * stin * þana * eftiʀ * kuþa * bruþur * sin * eʀ * a ok*lanti * altri * tynþi ×

Old Norse transcription:

 

Gæiʀi satti stæin þenna æftiʀ Guða, broður sinn. Eʀ a Ænglandi aldri tynði.

English translation:

 

"Geiri placed this stone in memory of Guði, his brother, who forfeited his life in England."[53]

HAS A CROSS ON IT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Vg_187,_Vist.JPG

DR 337[edit]

 

Both sides of DR 337.

This runestone is located in Valleberga at "runestone hill" in Lund. It is one of the older runestones as it is classified as being carved in runestone style RAK.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

A : suin : auk : þurgutr : kiaurþu : kubl : þisi ¶ eftiʀ : mana ¶ auk * suina

B kuþ : hialbi : siaul : þeʀa : uel : ian : þeʀ : likia : i : luntunum

Old Norse transcription:

 

A Swen ok Þorgotr/Þorgundr gærþu kumbl þæssi æftiʀ Manna ok Swena.

B Guþ hialpi siol þeʀa wæl, æn þeʀ liggia i Lundunum.

English translation:

 

A "Sveinn and Þorgautr/Þorgunn made this monument in memory of Manni and Sveini."

B "May God well help their souls. And they lie in London."[54]

HAS A CROSS ON IT

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Runestone

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Vallebergastenen_lund_2006.jpg

HAS A CROSS ON IT

HAS A CROSS ON IT/QUADRANT- MOST OF THE RUNESTONES HAVE THE CROSS AS THE CENTRAL MOTIF

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England_runestones#dr_337

U 194[edit]

 

U 194.

This secluded runestone is located in a grove near Väsby, Uppland, Sweden. It was raised by a Viking in commemoration of his receiving one danegeld in England. It is classified as being carved in runestone style Pr3 and, together with U 344, it has been said to be the earliest example of an Urnes style inscription in Uppland.[5] The runic text follows a common rule to only carve a single rune for two consecutive letters, even when the letters were at the end of one word and the beginning of a second word.[6] When the text shown as Latin characters, the transliterated runes are doubled and separate words are shown. For U 194 has three examples where this occurred, þinoftiʀ is transliterated as þino| |oftiʀ, tuknuts as tuk| |knuts, and anklanti as a| |anklanti.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

al|i| |l|it raisa stain þino| |oftiʀ sik sialfan ' hon tuk| |knuts kialt a| |anklanti ' kuþ hialbi hons ant

Old Norse transcription:

 

Ali/Alli let ræisa stæin þenna æftiʀ sik sialfan. Hann tok Knuts giald a Ænglandi. Guð hialpi hans and.

English translation:

 

"Áli/Alli had this stone raised in memory of himself. He took Knútr's payment in England. May God help his spirit."[7]

 

HAS A CROSS ON IT TOO

U 812[edit]

 

U 812.

This runestone is carved in runestone style Pr2 and was raised at the church of Hjälsta. It was raised in memory of a man's father who died in England. Based on its size and runic text, it has been suggested that U 812 was once part of a coupled monument located in a cemetery, but that the runestone with the first half of the overall text has been lost.[21] Other pairs of runestones that may have formed a coupled monument in a cemetery are U 49 and U 50 in Lovö and Sö Fv1948;282 and Sö 134 in Ludgo.[21]

 

Latin transliteration:

 

× faþur × sin × saʀ × uarþ × tauþr × o eg×loti ×

Old Norse transcription:

 

faður sinn. Saʀ varð dauðr a Ænglandi.

English translation:

 

"his father. He died in England."[22]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:U_812,_Hjälsta.jpg

 

U 978[edit]

 

U 978

This stone is located in the wall of the church of Gamla Uppsala. It is carved in runestone style Pr2 and made of sandstone. It was made by a man who called himself "traveller to England" in memory of his father.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

sihuiþr ...-i + stain + þina + iklats+fari + iftir + uitarf + faþ(u)(r) [+ -... ...sia]... ...ku---

Old Norse transcription:

 

Sigviðr [ræist]i stæin þenna Ænglandsfari æftiʀ Vidiarf, faður ... ... ...

English translation:

 

"Sigviðr, traveller to England, raised this stone in memory of Védjarfr, (his) father ... ... ..."[23]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:U_978,_Gamla_Uppsala.JPG

HAS A CROSS ON IT

Sö 55[edit]

 

Sö 55.

This runestone in Bjudby was raised by a man in memory of his son Hefnir who went to England and back, and instead of having a warrior's death overseas, he died at home. Due to the use of the ansuz rune for the o phoneme, Erik Brate argues that Hefnir participated in a late 11th-century expedition to England.[26] He suggests that Hefnir was part of the invasion force sent to England by Sweyn Estridsson, in 1069, and which was intended to defeat William the Conqueror's Normans.[27] The invasion had been planned for two years, but William the conqueror bought off the commander of the force who was Sweyn Estridsson's brother Asbjörn.[27] The inscription is in runestone style Pr2 and was carved by two runemasters whose names are normalized as Slode and Brune. Brune's signature is also on Sö 178 at Gripsholm Castle.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

þorstain (l)(i)... ...sa : stain : þena : ... sik : sialfan : auk : sun : sin : hefni : uaʀ til : enklans : ukr : trenkr : farin : uarþ : þa * haima : at : harmi tauþr kuþ hialbi : sialu : þaima bruni : auk : sloþi : þaiʀ ...(u) stan þena

Old Norse transcription:

 

Þorstæinn le[t ræi]sa stæin þenna [æftiʀ] sik sialfan ok sun sinn Hæfni. Vaʀ til Ænglands ungʀ drængʀ farinn, varð þa hæima at harmi dauðr. Guð hialpi sialu þæiʀa. Bruni ok Sloði þæiʀ [rist]u stæin þenna.

English translation:

 

"Þorsteinn had this stone raised in memory of himself and his son Hefnir. The young valiant man travelled to England; then died grievously at home. May God help their souls. Brúni and Slóði, they carved this stone."[28]

HAS A CROSS ON IT

Sö 160[edit]

 

Sö 160.

This runestone is located at the church of Råby. Like the Kolsta Runestone, it is raised in memory of a man who died in the assembly retinue (þingalið) in England.[15]

 

Latin transliteration:

 

: aybirn : raisþi : stain : þansi : at : karþi : han uarþ : tauþr : o| |oklati i liþi

Old Norse transcription:

 

Øybiorn ræisþi stæin þannsi at Skærði. Hann varð dauðr a Ænglandi i liði.

English translation:

 

"Eybjǫrn raised this stone in memory of Skerðir. He died in the retinue in England."[30]

HAS A CROSS ON IT

 

Sö 166[edit]

 

Sö 166.

This runestone which is located in Grinda is in the style RAK. It is raised in memory of a father who divided up gold in England and attacked some towns in northern Germany. According to Omeljan Pritsak, the gold which was divided was part of the danegeld,[31] and Erik Brate argues that it was the same expedition as the one mentioned on the Berga Runestone.[32]

 

Latin transliteration:

 

: kriutkarþr : ainriþi : suniʀ : kiarþu : at : faþur : snialan : kuþuiʀ : uaʀ uastr : a : aklati : kialti : skifti : burkiʀ : a : sahks:lanti : suti : kaula

Old Norse transcription:

 

Griutgarðr, Æinriði, syniʀ, giærðu at faður sniallan. Guðveʀ vaʀ vestr a Ænglandi, gialdi skifti, borgiʀ a Saxlandi sotti karla.

English translation:

 

"Grjótgarðr (and) Einriði, the sons made (the stone) in memory of (their) able father. Guðvér was in the west; divided (up) payment in England; manfully attacked townships in Saxony."[33]

HAS A CROSS ON IT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sö_166,_Grinda.JPG

Sö 207[edit]

 

Sö 207.

This runestone is located at the church of Överselö. It is made of sandstone and carved in runestone style Fp. It is in memory of a father who travelled to England.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

kuþr... ... (f)aþur sin * fur * hfila * hn * til * iklans * kuþ halbi * sil hns

Old Norse transcription:

 

Guð... ... faður sinn. For hæfila hann til Ænglands. Guð hialpi sal hans.

English translation:

 

"Guð-... ... his father. He competently travelled to England. May God help his soul."[34]

HAS A CROSS ON IT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sö_207,_Överselö.JPG

HAS A CROSS ON IT

 

Vs 9[edit]

 

The runestone Vs 9.

This runestone is located near the bridge of Saltängsbron and it is in the style Pr3. It is in memory of a man who died in England.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

× kisl × lit × kera × buru × eftʀ × osl × sun × sin × han u(a)[rþ] × tyþr × a eklati × kuþ ialbi × has × ont auk × selu

 

Old Norse transcription:

 

Gisl let gærva bro æftiʀ Asl/ǫsl, sun sinn. Hann varð dauðr a Ænglandi. Guð hialpi hans and ok selu.

English translation:

 

"Gísl had the bridge made in memory of Ásl/ǫsl, his son. He died in England. May God help his spirit and soul."[36]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Vs_9,_Saltängsbron.JPG

Vg 187[edit]

 

Vg 187.

This runestone is located at the church of Vist. It is carved in runestone style RAK and it is thus one of the older runestones. It was raised in memory of a brother who died in England.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

+ giʀi * sati * stin * þana * eftiʀ * kuþa * bruþur * sin * eʀ * a ok*lanti * altri * tynþi ×

Old Norse transcription:

 

Gæiʀi satti stæin þenna æftiʀ Guða, broður sinn. Eʀ a Ænglandi aldri tynði.

English translation:

 

"Geiri placed this stone in memory of Guði, his brother, who forfeited his life in England."[53]

HAS A CROSS ON IT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Vg_187,_Vist.JPG

DR 337[edit]

 

Both sides of DR 337.

This runestone is located in Valleberga at "runestone hill" in Lund. It is one of the older runestones as it is classified as being carved in runestone style RAK.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

A : suin : auk : þurgutr : kiaurþu : kubl : þisi ¶ eftiʀ : mana ¶ auk * suina

B kuþ : hialbi : siaul : þeʀa : uel : ian : þeʀ : likia : i : luntunum

Old Norse transcription:

 

A Swen ok Þorgotr/Þorgundr gærþu kumbl þæssi æftiʀ Manna ok Swena.

B Guþ hialpi siol þeʀa wæl, æn þeʀ liggia i Lundunum.

English translation:

 

A "Sveinn and Þorgautr/Þorgunn made this monument in memory of Manni and Sveini."

B "May God well help their souls. And they lie in London."[54]

HAS A CROSS ON IT

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Runestone

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Vallebergastenen_lund_2006.jpg

HAS A CROSS ON IT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Vaksalastenen.jpg

CROSS ON IT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Runes

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaksala_Runestone

The Vaksala Runestone, designated as U 961 under the Rundata catalog, is a Viking Age memorial runestone that is located close to Vaksala Church, near Uppsala, Sweden.

HAS A CROSS ON IT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ledberg_stone

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Runestone

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ledbergsstenen_20041231.jpg

The Ledberg stone, designated as Ög 181 under Rundata, is an image-stone and runestone located in Östergötland, Sweden.

ALL RUNESTONE CROSSES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ledberg_stone

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manx_runestones#Br_Olsen.3B185A_.28Andreas_.28III.29.2C_MM_128.29

 

Br Olsen;183 (Andreas (I), MM 99)[edit]

 

Br Olsen;183

This runestone is a stone cross that is located in the church Andreas. The inscription is in short-twig runes and it commemorates a father.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

... (þ)[an](a) : [aft] (u)(f)(a)ik : fauþur : sin : in : kautr : kar[þ]i : sunr : biarnar f(r)(a) : (k)(u)(l)(i) [:]

Old Norse transliteration:

 

... þenna ept Ófeig, fǫður sinn, en Gautr gerði, sonr Bjarnar frá Kolli.

English translation:

 

"... this [cross] in memory of Ófeigr, his father, but Gautr made (it), the son of Bjǫrn from Kollr."[5]

Br Olsen;184 (Andreas (II), MM 131)[edit]

 

Br Olsen;184

This stone cross is located in the church Andreas. It is engraved with short-twig runes, and it is dated to c. 940. It was erected in memory of a wife.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

sont:ulf : hin : suarti : raisti : krus : þona : aftir : arin:biaurk * kuinu : sina (u) [*] k : au [*]: (o)ks/(b)ks

Old Norse transliteration:

 

Sandulfr hinn Svarti reisti kross þenna eptir Arinbjǫrgu, konu sína. ... ... ... ...

English translation:

 

"Sandulfr the Black erected this cross in memory of Arinbjǫrg his wife. ..."[6]

Thorwald's Cross: Br Olsen;185A (Andreas (III), MM 128)[edit]

 

Br Olsen;185A

Referred to as Thorwald's Cross, this stone cross is found in the church Andreas. Only attribution to the one who raised the stone—Þorvaldr—remains of the message inscribed on the cross.[7] It has been badly damaged since it was recorded.[8] The stone depicts a bearded human holding a spear downward at a wolf, his right foot in its mouth, while a large bird sits at his shoulder.[9] Rundata dates it to 940,[7] while Pluskowski dates it to the 11th century.[9]

 

This depiction has been interpreted as the Norse pagan god Odin, with a raven or eagle at his shoulder, being consumed by the wolf Fenrir during the events of Ragnarök.[10] Next to the image is a depiction of a large cross and another image parallel to it that has been described as Christ triumphing over Satan.[11] These combined elements have led to the cross as being described as "syncretic art"; a mixture of pagan and Christian beliefs.[9] Andy Orchard comments that the bird on Odin's shoulder may be either Huginn or Muninn, Odin's ravens.[12]

 

Latin transliteration:

 

þurualtr ÷ (r)[aisti] (k)(r)(u)(s) ÷ (þ)[...]

Old Norse transliteration:

 

Þorvaldr reisti kross þe[nna].

English translation:

 

"Þorvaldr raised (this) cross."[7]

Br Olsen;185B (Andreas (IV), MM 113)[edit]

This stone cross is located in the church Andreas. It is engraved with short-twig runes and it is dated to the 10th century. What remains of the message informs that it was raised in memory of someone.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

[... ...ai]s[t]i : [k]rus : þaina : aftiʀ ...

Old Norse transliteration:

 

... reisti kross þenna eptir ...

English translation:

 

"... raised this cross in memory of ..."[13]

Br Olsen;189 (Ballaugh, MM 106)[edit]

 

Br Olsen;189, Ballaug

This stone cross is located in Ballaugh. The inscription consists of short-twig runes and they are dated to the second half of the 10th century. It was raised in memory of a son.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

oulaibr ÷ liu(t)ulbs| |sunr : r[ai](s)[ti k]rs * þ-na : ai(f)(t)ir * ...-b : sun [s]in

Old Norse transliteration:

 

Áleifr/Óleifr Ljótulfs sonr reisti kross þ[e]nna eptir [Ul]f, son sinn.

English translation:

 

"Áleifr/Óleifr, Ljótulfrs son raised this cross in memory of Ulfr, his son."[17]

Lezayre parish[edit]

Br Olsen;190A (Balleigh)[edit]

These fragments of a stone cross are found at Balleigh, and they are dated to the Viking Age. Only traces of runes remain and they cannot be read.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

...

Old Norse transliteration:

 

...

English translation:

 

"..."[18]

Braddan parish[edit]

Br Olsen;190B (Braddan (I), MM 112)[edit]

This stone cross is located in the church Braddan. The inscription consists of short-twig runes and they are dated to 930–950. It was raised in memory of a man.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

(þ)(u)(r)... : raisti : krus : þono : ift : ufaak : sun : krinais

Old Norse transliteration:

 

Þorsteinn reisti kross þenna ept Ófeig, son Krínáns.

English translation:

 

"Þorsteinn raised this cross in memory of Ófeigr, the son of Krínán."[19]

Br Olsen;191A (Braddan (II), MM 138)[edit]

 

Br Olsen;191A

This stone cross is found in the church Braddan. The inscription consists of short-twig runes and it is dated to the second half of the 10th century. It reports betrayal.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

... ...(n) roskitil : uilti : i : triku : aiþsoara : siin

Old Norse transliteration:

 

... [e]n Hrossketill vélti í tryggu eiðsvara sinn.

English translation:

 

"... but Hrosketill betrayed the faith of his sworn confederate."[20]

Br Olsen;191B (Braddan (III), MM 136)[edit]

 

Br Olsen;191B

This stone cross is found in the church Braddan. The inscription consists of short-twig runes and it is dated to the 980s. The runemaster is identified as man named Thorbjörn, who also made Br Olsen;193A, below.[21] It has been badly damaged since it was recorded.[8]

 

Latin transliteration:

 

utr : risti : krus : þono : aft : fro(k)(a) [: f](a)(þ)[ur sin : in :] (þ)[urbiaurn : ...]

Old Norse transliteration:

 

Oddr reisti kross þenna ept Frakka, fǫður sinn, en Þorbjǫrn ...

English translation:

 

"Oddr raised this cross in memory of Frakki, his father, but ... ..."[21]

Br Olsen;193B (MM 118)[edit]

This stone cross is found in the church Bride. The inscription consists of short-twig runes and it is dated to between 930 and 950. It was raised in memory of a wife.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

[t]ruian : sur [t]u(f)kals : raisti krs þina : a(f)[t] aþmiu... : kunu si[n...]

Old Norse transliteration:

 

Druian, sonr Dufgals, reisti kross þenna ept Aþmiu[l], konu sín[a].

English translation:

 

"Druian, Dufgal's son raised this cross in memory of Aþmiu[l], his wife."[25]

Br Olsen;199 (German (I), MM 107)[edit]

 

Br Olsen;199

This stone cross is located in the chapel of Saint John. The inscription is in short-twig runes and it is dated to between 930–950. The inscription is secondary and it is poorly preserved. Only a few main staffs are visible.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

... in o(s)(r)(u)(þ)(r) : raist : runar : þsar × ¶ ----- -

Old Norse transliteration:

 

... En Ásrøðr reist rúnar þessar. ... ...

English translation:

 

"... and Ásrøðr carved these runes. ... ..."[27]

Br Olsen;200A (German (II), MM 140)[edit]

 

Br Olsen;200A

This stone cross is found in Manx Museum. The inscription is in short-twig runes, but it may be later than the Viking Age. It was inscribed in memory of a wife.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

... ... ...(u)s * þense * efter * asriþi * kunu sina * (t)(u)(t)ur * ut... ...-

Old Norse transliteration:

 

... ... [kr]oss þenna eptir Ástríði, konu sína, dóttur Odd[s]. ...

English translation:

 

"... ... this cross in memory of Ástríðr, his wife, Oddr's daughter ..."[28]

Jurby parish[edit]

Br Olsen;200B (MM 127)[edit]

 

Br Olsen;200B

This stone cross is found in Jurby and the short-twig runes are dated to the second half of the 10th century.[29] It has been badly damaged since it was recorded.[8] One of the figures depicted on the cross holds a small sword in his right hand and an Alpine horn in his left while a raven flies overhead. It has been suggested that this figure represents the Norse pagan deity Heimdall holding the Gjallarhorn, used to announce the coming of Ragnarök.[30]

 

Latin transliteration:

 

[... ... ...un * si]n : in : onon : raiti ¶ --- * aftir þurb-...

Old Norse transliteration:

 

... ... [s]on sinn, en annan reisti/rétti [hann](?) eptir Þor...

English translation:

 

"... ... his son and raised(?) another ... in memory of Þorb-..."[29]

Marown parish[edit]

Br Olsen;201 (MM 139)[edit]

This stone cross is located in Saint Trinian's chapel. The short-twig inscription is dated to the Viking Age.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

þurbiaurn : risti : krus : þ(o)-...

Old Norse transliteration:

 

Þorbjǫrn reisti kross þe[nna].

English translation:

 

"Þorbjǫrn raised this cross."[31]

Br Olsen;208A (Kirk Michael (I), MM 102)[edit]

 

Br Olsen;208A

This fragment of a stone cross is located in the church Kirk Michael. The inscription in short-twig runes is dated to the Viking Age.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

... [kru](s) : þna : af[tir : ...]

Old Norse transliteration:

 

... kross þenna eptir ...

English translation:

 

"... this cross in memory of ..."[37]

Br Olsen;208B (Kirk Michael (II), MM 101)[edit]

 

Br Olsen;208B

This stone cross is located in the church Kirk Michael, and it is dated to the Viking Age. The inscription is in short-twig runes and it was dedicated to a man while he was alive.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

× mail:brikti : sunr : aþakans : smiþ : raisti : krus : þano : fur :¶ salu : sina : sin:bruku in : kaut ׶ kirþi : þano : auk ¶ ala : i maun ×

Old Norse transliteration:

 

Melbrigði, sonr Aðakáns Smiðs, reisti kross þenna fyr sálu sína synd...(?), en Gautr gerði þenna ok alla í Mǫn.[38]

English translation:

 

"Melbrigði, the son of Aðakán the Smith, raised this cross for his sin ... soul, but Gautr made this and all in Man."

Br Olsen;215 (Kirk Michael (III), MM 130)[edit]

 

Br Olsen;215

This is an old Irish stone cross that received an inscription in long branch runes, and it was probably by a Danish visitor in the 11th century. There are ogham inscriptions on both sides.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

mal:lymkun : raisti : krus : þena : efter : mal:mury : fustra : si(n)e : tot(o)r : tufkals : kona : is : aþisl : ati + ¶ ...etra : es : laifa : fustra : kuþan : þan : son : ilan +

Old Norse transliteration:

 

<mallymkun> reisti kross þenna eptir <malmury> fóstra sín, dóttir Dufgals, kona er Aðísl átti. Betra er leifa fóstra góðan en son illan.

English translation:

 

"<Mallymkun> raised this cross in memory of <Malmury>, his foster(-mother?), Dufgal's daughter, the wife whom Aðísl owned (= was married to). (It) is better to leave a good foster-son than a wretched son."[39]

Br Olsen;217A (Kirk Michael (IV), MM 126)[edit]

 

Br Olsen;217A

This is a stone cross that is found in the church Michael. The inscription with short-twig runes was made in the second half of the 11th century.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

[k](r)i(m) : risti : krus : þna : ift : rum(u)... ...

Old Norse transliteration:

 

Grímr reisti kross þenna ept Hróðmu[nd] ...

English translation:

 

"Grímr raised this cross in memory of Hróðmundr ... his ..."[40]

Br Olsen;217B (Kirk Michael (V), MM 132)[edit]

 

Br Olsen;217A

This is a stone cross that is located in the church Michael. The inscription in short-twig runes was made in the 980s by a runemaster named Thorbjörn.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

+ iualfir : sunr : þurulfs : hins : rauþa : ris(t)i : krus : þono : aft : friþu : muþur : sino +

Old Norse transliteration:

 

<iualfir>, sonr Þórulfs hins Rauða, reisti kross þenna ept Fríðu, móður sína.

English translation:

 

"<iualfir>, the son of Þórulfr the Red, raised this cross in memory of Fríða, his mother."[41]

Br Olsen;218A (Kirk Michael (VI), MM 129)[edit]

 

Br Olsen;218A

This stone cross is located in the church Michael. It was engraved with short-twig runes in the second half of the 10th century.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

... (k)rims : ins : suarta ×

Old Norse transliteration:

 

... Gríms/...gríms hins Svarta.

English translation:

 

"... (of) Grímr/-grímr the Black."[42]

Br Olsen;218B (Kirk Michael (VII), MM 110)[edit]

This fragment of a stone cross is located in the church Kirk Michael. The inscription was made in short-twig runes between 930 and 950.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

... runar ...

Old Norse transliteration:

 

... rúnar ...

English translation:

 

"... runes ..."[43]

Br Olsen;219 (Kirk Michael (VIII), MM 123)[edit]

This fragment of a stone cross is located in the church Kirk Michael. The inscription was made during the Viking Age with short-twig runes.

 

Latin transliteration:

 

... : [ai](f)(t)(i)(r) * (m)(u)... * (u)...

Old Norse transliteration:

 

... eptir <mu-> ...

English translation:

 

"... in memory of <mu-> ..."[44]

FOUR SIGHTS OF OLMEC HEADS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olmec_colossal_heads

 

The discovery of a colossal head at Tres Zapotes in the nineteenth century spurred the first archaeological investigations of Olmec culture by Matthew Stirling in 1938. Seventeen confirmed examples are known from four sites within the Olmec heartland on the Gulf Coast of Mexico.

CROSS

http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2015/10/30/18/2DF371C100000578-0-Big_Ashsutastinsky_cross-m-15_1446228061414.jpg

The Ashsutastinsky cross is seen here. The shapes were first spotted in Google Earth in 2007 by Kazakh economist, Dmitriy Dey. They are created from mounds of dirt only three feet high and roughly 30 feet wide (0.9 metres high and 9 metres wide).

 

http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2015/10/30/18/2DF371C100000578-0-Big_Ashsutastinsky_cross-m-15_1446228061414.jpg

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3297282/Mystery-ancient-patterns-Kazakhstan-Space-images-reveal-remarkable-structures-including-cross-swastika.html#ixzz4cHsnJt7k

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pornocrates

FOUR ALLEGORIES OF THE ARTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Félicien_Rops_-_Pornokratès_-_1878.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Félicien_Rops_-_Pornokratès_-_1878_-_Frieze_with_the_Arts.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Degeneration_theory

The woman and pig are walking on top of a marble stage,[7] with a frieze depicting four allegories of the arts: sculpture, music, literature and painting. The fine arts are depicted as grey, classical male figures, looking desperate. This might be interpreted as the victory of sensuousness and eroticism of the art that Rops and his contemporaries of the Decadent movement created, in contrast with the boredom of the academic art of that era.[4]

16 is the squares of the quadrant model

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_video_game_console_palettes

The NES could select 4 palettes each containing one of these colors (however, color 0 of each palette has to be the same, so technically, 13 different colors are available at a time) to be applied to the background. A background palette is applied to a 16x16 pixel area, however through a special video mode of the MMC5 mapper it is possible for every 8x8 pixel tile to have its individual palette. As for sprites, 4 different palettes can be used at a time (with color 0 being transparent in each) and every 8x8 or 8x16 pixels can have their own palette, allowing for a total of 12 different colors to use for sprites at any given time.

FOUR SHADE PALLETTE
https://en.wikipedia.org/…/List_of_video_game_console_palet…
Game Boy[edit]
The original Game Boy uses a monochrome 4-shades palette. Due to the fact that the non-backlighted LCD display background is greenish, this results in a greenscale graphic display, as it is shown in the simulated image (at Game Boy display resolution), below. The Game Boy Pocket uses a monochrome 4-shades palette using actual gray.

64 is four quadrant model 16s

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_video_game_console_palettes

Master System[edit]

The Master System had a palette (64 colors), with 32 colors on-screen at once. It is possible to display all 64 colors at once using raster effects (line interrupts).

 

There are only 512 different 8x8 tile patterns to cover the screen though, when 768 would be required for a complete 256x192 screen. This means that at least 1/3 of the tiles will have to be repeated. To help maximize tile reuse, they can be flipped either vertically or horizontally. The 64 sprites of 8x16 pixels can also be used to help to cover the screen (max 8 per scanline).

 

Because of the constraints mentioned above, there are no current simulated screen images available for the Sega Master System.

16 IS THE SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_video_game_console_palettes

Mega Drive/Genesis[edit]

The Mega Drive/Genesis used a 9-bit RGB palette (512 colors, 1536 including shadow and highlight mode) with up to 61 colors on-screen at once without raster effects (4 palette lines of 16 colors each, palette indices $x0 are definable but considered as transparent, and can only be used as the background color).

16 SPRITE PALLETTES- 16 IS THE SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_video_game_console_palettes

TurboGrafx-16[edit]

The TurboGrafx-16 used a 9-bit RGB palette, like the Mega Drive/Genesis, consisting of 512 colors with 482 colors on-screen at once (16 background palettes of 16 colors each, with at least 1 common color among all background palettes, and 16 sprite palettes of 15 colors each, plus transparent which was visible as the overscan area).

16 IS THE SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL- 64 IS FOUR 16s

6-bit RGB systems include the following:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_monochrome_and_RGB_palettes#16-bit_RG_palette

Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA) for IBM PC/AT (only 16 colors can be displayed simultaneously)

Sega Master System videogame console

GIME for TRS-80 Color Computer 3 (only 16 colors can be displayed simultaneously)

Pebble Time smartwatch which has a 6-bit (64 color) e-paper display

Systems with a 6-bit RGB palette use 2 bits for each of the red, green, and blue color components. This results in a (22)3 = 43 = 64-color palette as follows:

16 SQUARES QUADRANT MODEL

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atari_Lynx

 

Atari STe (16 colors)

Atari Lynx (16 colors)

16 simultaneous colors (4 bits) from palette per scanline (more than 16 colors can be displayed by changing palettes after each scanline)

16 SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_color_palettes

 

CGA for IBM-PC (1981)

16 color text mode (unofficially adjustable to give a 160x100 16 color bitmap mode), 4 color medium and monochrome high resolution graphic modes; medium resolution modes select from six preset palettes (four official, two undocumented; actually three main palettes in low and high intensity form) for the three "foreground" colors, with a free choice amongst the 8 low intensity colors for the fourth, "background" color. All modes work within the same 16 color master palette as text mode.

16 IS THE SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_color_palettes
Commodore 64 (1982)
Low-resolution "Multicolor" (4 colors per sprite or character cell) and medium resolution (2 color per sprite/cell) graphic modes, choosing from 16 color master palette.

16 IS THE SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_color_palettes

Mattel Aquarius (1983)

- Similar character block and "pixel" arrangement to Teletext, but resolution is a true 80x72 (2x3 pixels on 40x24 grid) and master palette is expanded to 16 colors.

16 IS THE SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_color_palettes

Thomson MO5 (1984)

- Fixed 16-color palette, with 2 colors per block on a 8x1 pixel attribute grid.

16 IS THE SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_color_palettes

Commodore Plus/4 (1984)

Multicolor and High resolution 16 color graphic modes, from 128 color master palette.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

16 IS THE SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_color_palettes

16-bit machines[edit]

Main article: List of 16-bit computer hardware palettes

Screen color test EGA 16colors.png EGA for IBM-AT (1984)

Medium and high resolution 16-color graphic modes, out of 64.

16 IS THE SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_color_palettes

Commodore Amiga OCS (1985)

2-, 4-, 8-, 16- and 32-color standard graphic modes, EHB 64- and HAM 4096-color enhanced modes; 2 to 64 color modes pick from a 4096 color master palette, with 64 color mode constructed from 32 normally chosen colors plus a second set of 32 fixed at half the intensity of the first. HAM mode restricted by only being able to change one color channel (Red, Green or Blue) per pixel.

Screen color test AppleIIgs 16x16colors.png Apple IIgs (1986)

Super High Res 4-, 8-, 16- and 256-color graphic modes, from 4096, with some palette choice restrictions in 80-column modes.

Screen color test VGA 256colors.png MCGA and VGA for IBM-AT (1987)

Medium 256- and high resolution 16-color graphic modes, from 262,144.

RGB 16bits palette sample image.png Sharp X68000 (1987)

Medium 65,536-color and high resolution 16-color graphic modes, from 65,536.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_color_palettes

 

THE FIRST

 

Nintendo Game Boy (1989)

4 grayscales, rendered as shades of green on the original model's screen (and later, true grayscales, on the GameBoy Pocket).

16 is the squares of the quadrant model

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/16:9

16:9 (1.77:1) (16:9 = 42:32) is an aspect ratio with a width of 16 units and height of 9. Since 2009 it has become the most common aspect ratio for televisions and computer monitors, and is also the international standard format of HDTV, Full HD, non-HD digital television and analog widescreen television. It is also used universally (16:9) as the ratio for mobile phone screens. This has replaced the old 4:3 aspect ratio.

16 SQUARES QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_monitor

The common aspect ratio of televisions, and computer monitors, has changed from 4:3 to 16:10, to 16:9.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/16:10

16 IS THE SQUARS OF THE QUADRANT MODEL

16:10, also known as 8:5, is an aspect ratio mostly used for computer displays and tablet computers. The width of the display is 1.6 times its height. This ratio is close to the golden ratio "

φ\varphi " which is approximately 1.618.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Merian%27s_Daniel_7_engraving.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Daniel

Engraving of Daniel's vision of the four beasts in chapter 7 by Matthäus Merian, 1630.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_7

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_7

Daniel's vision of the four beasts - woodcut by Hans Holbein the Younger

http://www.artnet.com/artists/marcel-dzama/sixteen-squares-a-t2lmnArkgcfdfsANZbBlLw2

Sixteen squares quadrant model sixteen squares by Marcel Dzama

CRUX IS A CROSS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_of_New_Zealand

The flag of New Zealand is a defaced Blue Ensign with the Union Flag in the canton, and four red stars with white borders to the right. The stars' pattern represents the asterism within the constellation of Crux, the Southern Cross.[1]

Thomas Banchoff recognised the shape of an unfolded four-dimensional cube in this sketch by French astronomer Edme-Sebastien Jeaurat (Credit: YouTube)

http://ichef.bbci.co.uk/wwfeatures/wm/live/1600_900/images/live/p0/3t/t0/p03tt0tl.jpg

http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20160511-the-painter-who-entered-the-fourth-dimension

Yet Banchoff recognised the shape as soon as he saw Jeaurat’s sketches. “I said: ‘That’s it. That’s the 4D unfolded cross. That’s the Corpus Hypercubus.’” Dalí was able to enter the fourth dimension with the help of astronomers and mystics as well as mathematicians.

And he brought with him the fears of his age. “Corpus Hypercubus was not an easy problem to solve,” says Banchoff. “It took him four years… before he was satisfied with the painting.” Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus) was completed in 1954: the year Cern in Geneva was founded. “Cold War fears of nuclear annihilation were accelerating,” says Grovier. “Atomic structure, in other words, was on everyone's mind and how tampering with such mysteries might bring about either our destruction or survival.”

For Dalí, geometry could be a route to eternal salvation. “In Dalí’s work, atomism and science appear to be the very fabric on which redemption and salvation are stitched,” says Grovier. “The tesseractic crucifix would seem to extend beyond the dimensions of this world into planes unknown.”

It’s something the artist himself acknowledged. As he said in The Dalí Dimension, “Thinkers and literati can’t give me anything. Scientists give me everything, even the immortality of the soul.”

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LAUBARU IS A CROSS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lauburu

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Francisco_de_Goya_y_Lucientes_108.JPG

The lyre of Joaquina Téllez-Girón, Marchioness of Santa Cruz by Francisco de Goya (around 1805) is decorated with a lauburu.

FOUR CLUSTERS OF STATUES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tourist_attractions_in_Kolkata

Writers' Building - It is the secretariat building of the State Government of West Bengal in India.[2] The Writers' Building originally served as the office for writers of the British East India Company, hence the name. Designed by Thomas Lyon in 1777 the Writers' building has gone through several extensions over the years. In 1821 A 128 ft-long verandah with ionic style columns, each 32 ft high, were added on the first and second floors. From 1889 to 1906 two new blocks were added. It acquired its Greco-Roman look, complete with the portico in the central bay and the red surface of exposed brick. The parapet was put in place and the statues sculpted by William Fredric Woodington in 1883, that line the terrace, were installed.[3] The giant pediment at the centre is crowned with the statue of Minerva. The terrace also contains several other statues and notable among them are four clusters of statues, christened 'Justice', 'Commerce', 'Science' and 'Agriculture', with the Greek Gods and Goddesses of these four streams (Zeus, Hermes, Athena and Demeter respectively) flanked by a European and an Indian practitioner of these vocations, adorn the building.[4] The 150 meter long Writers' Building covers the entire northern stretch of the a water body locally called Lal Dighi in B.B.D. Bagh area. Various departments of the West Bengal government are housed in this building. It is an edifice of great political significance and memories of the Indian Independence Movement. Writer's building was used as Chief Minister's Office and secretariat. However, from October 2013 certain departments and the office of Chief Minister moved to Nabanna, in Howrah to facilitate restoration of Writers Building.[5][6][7]

TONS OF QUADRANT CROSS FLAGS AND TONS OF FOUR COLOR FLAGS AND ALL THAT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_style_of_national_flags#Divide_four_equal_squares_from_center

Four-pointed[edit]

Aruba (a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

NATO (an organization)

 

 

Southern Cross[edit]

 

National flag of New Zealand

[The Southern Cross]

 

Australia

Brazil

New Zealand

Papua New Guinea

Samoa

Tokelau

 

 

Four equal horizontal stripes in four colors[edit]

 

National flag of Mauritius

Central African Republic

Comoros

Mauritius

 

Four unequal vertical stripes in four colors[edit]

South Moluccas

Sápmi

Zambia

Two crossing horizontal and vertical stripes[edit]

 

National flag of Switzerland

Denmark

Dominica

Dominican Republic

England

Finland

Georgia

Greece

Iceland

Malta

Norway

Sweden

Switzerland

Tonga

United Kingdom

 

Cross[edit]

Upright centred cross[edit]

 

National flag of the Dominican Republic

Switzerland

England (UK constituent country)

Dominica

Dominican Republic

Kingdom of Great Britain

Quebec (Canadian province)

United Kingdom

Diagonal cross[edit]

 

National flag of Jamaica

Scotland (UK constituent country)

Burundi

Jamaica

Seychelles (1976–1977)

United Kingdom

Nordic Cross[edit]

Further information: Nordic Cross

Nordic Cross in two colours[edit]

 

National flag of Finland

Denmark

Finland

Sweden

Nordic Cross in three colours[edit]

 

National flag of Iceland

Åland Islands (Autonomous region of Finland)

Faroe Islands (Self-governing country in the Kingdom of Denmark)

Iceland

Norway

One cross in upper left corner[edit]

 

National flag of Greece

Greece

Tonga

One cross in emblem[edit]

 

National flag of Slovakia

Kyrgyzstan

Marshall Islands

Moldova

Montenegro

Portugal

San Marino

Serbia

Slovakia

Spain

Vatican City

Upright and diagonal centred crosses[edit]

 

National flag of the United Kingdom

Naval Jack of Estonia (Naval Jack)

Naval Jack of Bulgaria (Naval Jack)

Naval Jack of Latvia (Naval Jack)

Naval Ensign of Georgia (Naval Ensign)

Basque Country (Autonomous Community of Spain and France)

Lord Howe Island

Macedonia

United Kingdom

Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1801)

Union Jack[edit]

See also: British ensign and Flags of the British Empire

 

National flag of Fiji

 

flag of Bermuda

 

flag of the United Kingdom

 

flag of South Africa (1928–1994

 

National flag of Canada 1957–1965

Australia

Australia (1901–1903)

Australia (1903–1909)

Bermuda (1910–1999)

Canada (1868–1921)

Canada (1921–1957)

Canada (1957–1965)

Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1801)

Fiji

New Zealand

Newfoundland (1907–1949)

South Africa (1928–1994)

South Africa (1910–1928)

Tuvalu

Tuvalu (1976-1978)

Tuvalu (1978-1996)

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

United States (1775-1777)

Additionally, the Union Jack features in many territorial and sub-national flags. These are often Red Ensigns (e.g., Bermuda) or Blue Ensigns (e.g., New South Wales). A small number have backgrounds of other colours (e.g. British Antarctic Territory and Niue) or a unique pattern in the field (e.g. British Indian Ocean Territory and Hawaii). A small number put the Union Jack somewhere other than the canton (e.g. British Columbia). Unofficial flags, such as Ross Dependency also use it.

 

Crosses of different sizes[edit]

 

National flag of Georgia

Georgia

 

Divide four equal squares from center[edit]

 

National flag of the Dominican Republic

Ceuta

Dominican Republic

Panama

Maryland

Divide four equal triangles from center[edit]

 

National flag of Jamaica

Burundi

Grenada

Jamaica

Seychelles (1976–1977)

FOUR PAINTINGS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Voyage_of_Life

The Voyage of Life is a series of paintings created by Thomas Cole in 1842, representing an allegory of the four stages of human life: childhood, youth, manhood, and old age. The paintings depict a voyager who travels in a boat on a river through the mid-19th-century American wilderness. In each painting the voyager rides the boat on the River of Life accompanied by a guardian angel. The landscape, each reflecting one of the four seasons of the year, plays a major role in conveying the story. With each installment the boat's direction of travel is reversed from the previous picture. In childhood, the infant glides from a dark cave into a rich, green landscape. As a youth, the boy takes control of the boat and aims for a shining castle in the sky. In manhood, the adult relies on prayer and religious faith to sustain him through rough waters and a threatening landscape. Finally, the man becomes old and the angel guides him to heaven across the waters of eternity.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White

 

FOUR COLORS

The ancient Greeks saw the world in terms of darkness and light, so white was a fundamental color. According to Pliny the Elder in his Natural History, Apelles (4th century BC) and the other famous painters of ancient Greece used only four colors in their paintings; white, red, yellow and black;[12] For painting, the Greeks used lead white, made by a long and laborious process.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green

Four classic colors of Greek painting; red, yellow, black and white, and is rarely found in Greek art.[54]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parables_of_Jesus

Of the thirty or so parables in the canonical Gospels, four were shown in medieval art almost to the exclusion of the others, but not mixed in with the narrative scenes of the Life of Christ. These were: the Ten Virgins, the Rich man and Lazarus, the Prodigal Son and the Good Samaritan.[

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Die_Brücke#cite_note-ra-4

The founding members of Die Brücke in 1905 were four Jugendstil architecture students: Fritz Bleyl (1880–1966), Erich Heckel (1883–1970), Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880–1938) and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff (1884–1976). They met through the Königliche Technische Hochschule (technical university) of Dresden, where Kirchner and Bleyl began studying in 1901 and became close friends in their first term.[3] They discussed art together and also studied nature,[3] having a radical outlook in common.[4] Kirchner continued studies in Munich 1903–1904, returning to Dresden in 1905 to complete his degree.[5] The institution provided a wide range of studies in addition to architecture, such as freehand drawing, perspective drawing and the historical study of art.[6] The name "Die Brücke" was intended to "symbolize the link, or bridge, they would form with art of the future".[7]

BOOK OF KELLS HAS ENORMOUS CHI RO QUADRANT/CROSS IN IT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Kells

In the Book of Kells, the Chi Rho monogram has grown to consume the entire page. The letter chi dominates the page with one arm swooping across the majority of the page. The letter rho is snuggled underneath the arms of the chi. Both letters are divided into compartments which are lavishly decorated with knot work and other patterns. The background is likewise awash in a mass of swirling and knotted decoration. Within this mass of decoration are hidden animals and insects. Three angels arise from one of the cross arms of the chi. This miniature is the largest and most lavish extant Chi Rho monogram in any Insular Gospel Books and is the culmination of a tradition that started with the Book of Durrow.[47]

THE FAMOUS SCHOOL OF ATHENS IS IN A GROUP OF FOUR FRESCOES- THAT DEPICT THE FOUR BRANCHES OF KNOWLEDGE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_School_of_Athens

The School of Athens is one of a group of four main frescoes on the walls of the Stanza (those on either side centrally interrupted by windows) that depict distinct branches of knowledge. Each theme is identified above by a separate tondo containing a majestic female figure seated in the clouds, with putti bearing the phrases: "Seek Knowledge of Causes," "Divine Inspiration," "Knowledge of Things Divine" (Disputa), "To Each What Is Due." Accordingly, the figures on the walls below exemplify Philosophy, Poetry (including Music), Theology, and Law.[3] The traditional title is not Raphael's. The subject of the "School" is actually "Philosophy," or at least ancient Greek philosophy, and its overhead tondo-label, "Causarum Cognitio", tells us what kind, as it appears to echo Aristotle's emphasis on wisdom as knowing why, hence knowing the causes, in Metaphysics Book I and Physics Book II. Indeed, Plato and Aristotle appear to be the central figures in the scene. However, all the philosophers depicted sought knowledge of first causes. Many lived before Plato and Aristotle, and hardly a third were Athenians. The architecture contains Roman elements, but the general semi-circular setting having Plato and Aristotle at its centre might be alluding to Pythagoras' circumpunct.

QUATERNITY

The monument is notable on two accounts, firstly, its four figurines housed in its two columns, Pax and Gloria, Vanitas and Labor, are relatively rare examples of Northern Mannerist sculpture extant in Britain; secondly, these four figurines exemplify how, during the era of Elizabeth I, Christian iconography occasionally integrated symbolism which originated from the western esoteric traditions of alchemy and astrology into works of art, including funerary monuments.[1]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Layer_Monument

The Layer Quaternity[edit]

 

'The Philosophers' Stone' from 'Alchemia' (1606) by Andreas Libavius

The four figurines of The Layer Quaternity share a number of iconographical details to an illustration found in Alchemia (1606) by the German academic Andreas Libavius in a chapter entitled De Lapide Philosophorum (The Philosophers' Stone) including - an identical pairing of a lower mortal pair with an immortal pair of bare-legged male and draped female above them, the shared titled captions of Gloria and Labor, along with both monument and illustration also depicting a palm branch, sun, moon and rotundum.

 

Symbolically, the Layer Quaternity correspond to the alchemical 'deities' of Apollo, Luna, Mercurius and Vulcan as named in Atalanta Fugiens (1617) by the German alchemist-physician Michael Maier (Emblem XVII).[2]

 

Collectively the Layer Quaternity are a unique alchemical mandala.[3] Through polarized symbolism they delineate essential coordinates associated with Mandala art, namely Space (Heaven and Earth) and Time (Young and Old). Utilizing variety and multiplicity, key attributes of Northern Mannerist art, they also represent fundamental aspects of the human condition, namely, gender, youth and age, pleasure and suffering. A fifth, uniting symbol, a skull, is located at the very centre of the monument. The skull is the commonest of all momento mori symbols in funerary art. It was also defined as the philosophical vessel (Vas Philosophorum) in Renaissance-era alchemy.

 

The role of the Quaternity in religious symbolism is discussed in depth in the writings of the Swiss psychologist Carl Gustav Jung. In essence, the Layer monument's four figurines represent spiritual entities which agree with Jung's analytical psychology, that the psyche moves toward individuation in fours (made up of pairs of opposites).[4][5][6][7]

QUATERNITIES- GROUPS OF FOUR AND THE FOUR ABDUCTIONS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grande_Commande

The grande commande was a commission ordered by Louis XIV for statues intended to decorate the parterre d’eau of the gardens of the Palace of Versailles, as initially conceived in 1672. The commission, which included 24 statues and four groups,[1] was ordered in 1674. Designed by Charles Le Brun from Cesare Ripa’s Iconologia, the statues were executed by the foremost sculptors of the day (Blunt, 1980; Friedman, 1988, 1993; Nolhac, 1913; Thompson, 2006; Verlet, 1985).

 

Owing to concerns of the effects of the vertical lines of the statues in relations to the garden façade of the château, the statues of the grande commande were transferred to other locations in the gardens in 1684 (Berger, 1985; Blunt, 1980; Friedman, 1988, 1993; Marie, 1968; Nolhac, 1901, 1913; Thompson, 2006; Verlet, 1985; Weber, 1993).

 

 

Charles Le Brun, The Four Parts of the Day

 

Le Brun, The Four Seasons

 

Le Brun, The Four Elements

 

Le Brun, 'The Four Humors of Man

 

Le Brun, 'The Four Forms of Poetry

The 24 statues were personifications of the classic quaternities:

 

The Four Humors of Man

Melancholic

Phlegmatic

Choleric

Sanguine

The Four Parts of the Day

Dawn

Noon

Evening

Night

The Four Parts of the World

Europe

Africa

Asia

America

The Four Forms of Poetry

Lyric

Pastoral

Satirical

Epic

The Four Seasons

Spring

Summer

Autumn

Winter

The Four Elements

Fire

Air

Earth

Water

The four groupings represented the four classic Abductions:

 

The Four Abductions:

Persephone by Pluto

Cybele by Saturn

Orethyia by Boreas

Coronis by Neptune

QUATERNITY

http://jungcurrents.com/jung-mercurial-fountain-mercurius

This picture goes straight to the heart of alchemical symbolism, for it is an attempt to depict the mysterious basis of the opus. It is a quadratic quaternity characterized by the four stars in the four corners. These are the four elements. Above, in the centre, there is a fifth star which represents the fifth entity, the “One” derived from the four, the quinta essentia. The basin below is the vas Hermeticum, where the transformation takes place. It contains the mare nostrum, the aqua permanens or, the “divine water.” This is the mare tenebrosum, the chaos. The vessel is also called the uterus in which the foetus spagyricus (the homunculus) is gestated. This basin, in contrast to the surrounding square, is circular, because it is the matrix of the perfect form into which the square, as an imperfect form, must be changed. In the square the elements are still separate and hostile to one another and must therefore be united in the circle. The inscription on the rim of the basin bears out this intention. It runs (filling in the abbreviations): “Unus est Mercurius mineralis, Mercurius vegetabilis, Mercurius animalis.” (Vegetabilis should be translated as “living” and animalis as “animate” in the sense of having a soul, or even as “psychic.” ) On the outside of the basin there are six stars which together with Mercurius represent the seven planets or metals. They are all as it were contained in Mercurius, since he is the pater metallorum. When personified, he is the unity of the seven planets, an Anthropos whose body is the world, like Gayomart, from whose body the seven metals flow into the earth. Owing to his feminine nature, Mercurius is also the mother of the seven, and not only of the six, for he is his own father and mother.

FOUR CARYATIDS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caryatid
In the 16th century, from the examples engraved for Sebastiano Serlio's treatise on architecture, caryatids became a fixture in the decorative vocabulary of Northern Mannerism expressed by the Fontainebleau School and the engravers of designs in Antwerp. In the early 17th century, interior examples appear in Jacobean interiors in England; in Scotland the overmantel in the great hall of Muchalls Castle remains an early example. Caryatids remained part of the German Baroque vocabulary (illustration, right) and were refashioned in more restrained and "Grecian" forms by neoclassical architects and designers, such as the four terracotta caryatids on the porch of St Pancras New Church, London (1822).

Charity with Four Children- FOURTH DIFFERENT SUCKING BREAST

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charity_with_Four_Children

Charity with Four Children is a sculpture by the Italian artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Executed between 1627 and 1628, the work is housed in the Vatican Museums in Vatican City. The small terracotta sculpture represents Charity breast-feeding a child, with three other children playing. There is an imprint of the artist's thumbprint in the clay.[1]

CRUCIFORM IS CROSS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cruciform_tail

The cruciform tail is an aircraft empennage configuration which, when viewed from the aircraft's front or rear, looks much like a cross. The usual arrangement is to have the horizontal stabilizer intersect the vertical tail somewhere near the middle, and above the top of the fuselage.[1]

 

Applications[edit]

 

Avro Canada CF-100 showing its cruciform design tail.

A-4 Skyhawk

Avro Canada CF-100

B-1 Lancer

British Aerospace Jetstream 41

Britten-Norman Trislander

Canadair CL-215

Cessna T303 Crusader

Cessna T-37 Tweet

Dassault Falcon

de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter

Dornier Do 335

F-84 Thunderjet

F-84F Thunderstreak

Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner

Gloster Meteor - Allies first operational jet fighter.

Hawker Hunter

Ivanov ZJ-Viera

Jetstream 31

Lake Buccaneer

Lockheed Jetstar

Lockheed XFV Salmon tail-sitter fighter (X-form tail)

McDonnell FH Phantom

McDonnell F2H Banshee - early variants only[N 1]

Messerschmitt 262 - the first operational jet fighter.

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15

Northrop YC-125 Raider

PBY Catalina

Piccard Eureka

Roberts Cygnet

Rockwell Commander 112

Scaled Composites White Knight Two

Stratos 714

Sud Aviation Caravelle

SZD-50 Puchacz

US Aviation Cumulus

Westland Whirlwind

TETRA IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reuleaux_tetrahedron

One of Man Ray's paintings, Hamlet, was based on a photograph he took of a Meissner tetrahedron,[7] which he thought of as resembling both Yorick's skull and Ophelia's breast from Shakespeare's Hamlet.[8]