Cross motif

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Liszt's cross motif About this sound Play (help·info).


Tchaikovsky's "Cross"-motive, About this sound Play (help·info).

In music, the cross motif is a motif.


A motif (Crux fidelis) was used by Franz Liszt to represent the Christian cross ('tonisches Symbol des Kreuzes' or tonic symbol of the cross) and taken from Gregorian melodies.[1]


Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky associated a motif with the crucifixion, himself, and Tristan, a variation of which first appears in mm.1-2 of his Pathétique Symphony.[2] Tchaikovsky identified with and associated the cross-motif with "star-cross'd lovers" in general, such as in Romeo and Juliet.[2]


Cruciform melody[edit]

In music, a melody of four pitches where a straight line drawn between the outer pair bisects a straight line drawn between the inner pair, thus forming a cross (as in the red lines in the example to the right). In its simplest form, the cruciform melody is a changing tone, where the melody ascends or descends by step, skips below or above the first pitch, then returns to the first pitch by step. Often representative of the Christian cross, such melodies are cruciform in their retrogrades or inversions. Johann Sebastian Bach, whose last name may be represented in tones through a musical cryptogram known as the BACH motif that is a cruciform melody, employed the device extensively. The subject of the fugue in c-sharp minor from The Well-Tempered Clavier Book I is cruciform. See also: Cross motif.


Tchaikovsky's "Cross"-motive, associated with the crucifixion, himself, and Tristan, first appearing in mm.1-2 of his Pathétique Symphony[2] About this sound Play (help·info). Tchaikovsky associated the cross-motif with "star-cross'd lovers", such as in Romeo and Juliet.[2]–V–vi–IV_progression


Four chord progression


A 2009 song by the comedy group The Axis of Awesome, called "Four Chords", parodied the ubiquity of the progression in popular music. It was written in D major (thus using the chords D major, A major, B minor, and G major) and was subsequently published on YouTube.[8] As of August 2016, the most popular version has been viewed over 40 million times.[9]


The I–V–vi–IV progression is a common chord progression popular across several genres of music. It involves the I, V, vi, and IV chords; for example, in the key of C major, this would be: C–G–Am–F.[1] Uses based on a different starting point but with the same order of chords, include:


I-V-vi-IV (known as Optimistic)


vi-IV-I-V (known as Pessimistic)


The 50s progression uses the same chords but in a different order (I–vi–IV–V), no matter the starting point.


Contents [hide]

1 Variations

2 Examples

3 See also

4 References

5 Further reading

6 External links



\new Staff \with { \remove "Time_signature_engraver" }

\repeat volta 2 {<c' e' a'>2 <c' f' a'> <c' e' g'> <b d' g'>}


"Sensitive female chord progression" ordering, in C major


\new Staff \with { \remove "Time_signature_engraver" }

\clef "bass"

\repeat volta 2 {<c g>16 <c g> <c g> <c g> <c g> <c g> <b, fis> <b, fis> <g, d> <g, d> <g, d> <g, d> <g, d> <g, d> <gis, dis> <gis, dis> <a, e> <a, e> <a, e> <a, e> <a, e> <a, e> <g, d> <ges, des> <f, c> <f, c> <f, c> <f, c> <f c'> <f c'> <e b> <e b>}


"Pop-punk progression" variation in C major, based on Bennett[1]

A common ordering of the progression, "vi–IV–I–V", was dubbed the sensitive female chord progression by Boston Globe Columnist Marc Hirsh.[2] In C major this would be Am–F–C–G. Hirsh first noticed the chord progression in the song "One of Us" by Joan Osborne,[3] and then other songs. He named the progression because he claimed it was used by many performers of the Lilith Fair in the late 1990s.[2]


Dan Bennett claims the progression is also called the "pop-punk progression" because of its frequent use in pop punk.[1]


The vi–IV–I–V progression has been associated with the heroic in many popular Hollywood movies and movie trailers, especially in films released since 2000.[4]


The chord progression is also used in the form IV–I–V–vi, as in songs such as "Umbrella" by Rihanna[5] and "Down" by Jay Sean.[6] Numerous bro-country songs followed the chord progression, as demonstrated by Greg Todd's mash-up of several bro-country songs in an early 2015 video.[7]



Main article: List of songs containing the I–V–vi–IV progression

Examples of use of the I–V–vi–IV progression include:


U2 – "With or without you"[10]

Adele – "Someone Like You" (chorus)[11]

Alanis Morissette – "Head Over Feet"[12]

The All-American Rejects – "Night Drive" from Move Along[13]

The Rolling Stones – "Beast of Burden"[1]

The Beatles – "Let It Be"[1]

Blink-182 – "Dammit",[1] "Feeling This",[1] "Always", "Carousel", "What's My Age Again?"

Bob Marley & The Wailers – "No Woman, No Cry" (verse) (chorus too, but followed by I–IV–I–V)

Green Day – "When I Come Around"[1]

Idina Menzel – "Let It Go" (Chorus)[14]

James Blunt – "You're Beautiful"[8]

Kelly Clarkson and Jason Aldean – "Don't You Wanna Stay"[15]

Mika – "Happy Ending"[16]

P!nk – "Perfect"[17]

Songs using the vi–IV–I–V progression:


Anselmo Ralph – "Não Me Toca"[18]

Beyoncé – "If I Were a Boy"[19]

Bon Jovi – "It's My Life"[20]

Bruno Mars – "Grenade"[21]

The Cranberries – "Zombie"[22]

Don Omar – "Danza Kuduro"[23]

Eagle Eye Cherry – "Save Tonight"[24]

Eminem – "Not Afraid"[25]

Eminem and Rihanna – "Love the Way You Lie"[26]

Enrique Iglesias – "Bailando"[27]

Flo Rida – "Whistle"[28]

Green Day - "Holiday"

Guy Sebastian and Lupe Fiasco – "Battle Scars"[29]

Iggy Pop - "The Passenger"

Jack & Jack – "Tides"

Jessie J – "Nobody's Perfect"[30]

Justin Bieber – "Love Me"[31]

Kelly Clarkson – "Stronger (What Doesn't Kill You)"[32]

Lady Gaga – "Poker Face"[33]

The Lonely Island and Akon – "I Just Had Sex"[34]

Maroon 5 – "Never Gonna Leave This Bed" [35]

Nelly – "Just a Dream"[36]

Nicki Minaj – "Marilyn Monroe"[37]

The Offspring – "The Kids Aren't Alright"[38]

The Offspring – "Self Esteem"[2]

Sia – "Cheap Thrills"

Toto – "Africa"[39]

Train – "Drive By"[40]


"With or Without You" is a song by the Irish rock band U2. It is the third track from their fifth studio album, The Joshua Tree (1987), and was released as the album's lead single on 16 March 1987. The song was the group's most successful single at the time, becoming their first number-one hit in both the United States and Canada by topping the Billboard Hot 100 for three weeks and the RPM national singles chart for one week, with a further three weeks at number two.


The song begins with a minimal drum beat of eighth notes played by Mullen, while a backing track—Eno's synthesiser—plays a "rippling" triplet arpeggio of the chord D major.[8] A high sustained guitar part (played by The Edge's Infinite Guitar) enters, played "dry" in the left channel before reverberating on the right.[8] At 0:09, Clayton's bass guitar begins to play eighth notes in time with the kick drum, and the song's four-bar sequence of the chord progression D–A–Bm–G, begins.[8] This chord progression is never explicitly played but is "implied" by the root notes played by Clayton and the guitar parts of The Edge.[8]


"Feeling This" is a song recorded by American rock band Blink-182 for their eponymously titled fifth studio album (2003). The song was released as the lead single from Blink-182 on October 2, 2003 through Geffen Records. It was written by guitarist Tom DeLonge, bassist Mark Hoppus, and drummer Travis Barker, and was produced and mixed by Jerry Finn. The song originated on the first day of producing the album. Its lyrics are purely sexual in nature; the band attempted to juxtapose lust and passion between verses and choruses, thematically connected with a wistful, regretful tone.


The lyrics were written with Hoppus and DeLonge going into separate rooms—Hoppus writing the choruses and DeLonge writing the verses. The two had not spoken to each other about the lyrics ahead of time, and it turned out that the two had both written about sex. When put together, the song represents the lustful side of sex during the verses, the passionate side in the bridge and the romantic side in the chorus, creating a juxtaposition between both voices.[1][4][5] It has been interpreted as a description for failed romance, one that "illustrates a scenario of lust, ambivalence and regret."[6] For Barker, the song's drum track was "super in respect to John Bonham. [...] We were kind of messing around with the verse. It’s like, 'Well, I want to do a four-bar drum intro and just see how it works for the song.' And we never second-guessed it. We were like, 'That sounds rad.'"[3]


According to engineer Ryan Hewitt, the track contains "four distinct drum sounds created by old school tape editing." The song was recorded "part-by-part, committing to different sounds by changing relative levels, EQ, and compression throughout," and the engineers would slightly move microphones used to record Barker's drum kit to tailor the natural ambience of the home it was recorded in.[7] Upon playback of a rough mix of the song, the engineer automated the music to fade at the song's conclusion, but mistakenly forgot to do the same for the vocal tracks. Hoppus, who had been listening to the Beach Boys at the time, liked the a cappella interplay of their voices. All agreed to keep it in the final version of the song.[2]


"Carousel" is a song by American rock band Blink-182, first recorded for the band's 1994 demo Buddha, and later commercially released on the group's debut studio album, Cheshire Cat (1995). The song originated during the very first jam session between band members guitarist Tom DeLonge and bassist Mark Hoppus.


Consequence of Sound, in a 2015 top 10 of the band's best songs, ranked it as number five, commenting, "The song may very well have perfected the '90s pop-punk formula: unlike the audience, four-chord sugar and the caffeinated heartbeat of Scott Raynor’s drum fills never age."[5]


Dakota song structure is made up of two halves. In melody, the second half usually echoes the first half. A song typically starts out rather high as the lead singer sings out the lead phrase alone, then is echoed by the rest of the group. After the lead line, the music will often cascade to a lower pitch as the song goes on. At the end of the first half of the song, there is a short pause, then the second half is sung. During the course of the second half of the song usually there are honor beats placed at a specific time during the song. The style of honor beats varies some, but is usually four loud beats representing cannon fire in battle.


After a song is sung through a full time, the lead singer will bring out the lead line once again as the song will then be repeated. This can continue as long as the singers feel necessary. Commonly, a song will be sung through four times then ended. At that point, the lead singer may decide to add a tail to the song. The tail would then pick up at the beginning of the second half of the song. If the lead singer decides to end the song after that, it would be called a bob tail. The lead singer may then choose to continue the song many more times after that.

There are a few different styles of drum beats used in Dakota music. The most common is the regular beat with a very slight syncopation. This is what you will hear on any of the traditional or grass dance songs posted on this site. The next most common beat is the parade beat which is mostly used in honor songs. You will hear this style of beat used with the flag song. Another common type is a heavily syncopated beat that would be used in a round dance, or 49er song. A fourth type of beat is a combination of a rolling random beat followed by a fast regular beat. This is used in competition songs like the Winnebago's pipe and rattle, or a sneak up.


Sneak Up: This is a scout's dance. It is often sung after the veteran's song in a pow wow. The dance is a story of how a warrior would go ahead of the party to scout out the area for the enemy or game. Four times the song is sung through, starting with a rolling beat while the dancers attempt to sneak up on their target. The song then goes into a fast steady beat that stops instantly. The dancers must stop on the beat or retreat to try again. After the fourth stop of the song, the singers will continue two more times through the song until the end.


Sundance Song: These are very sacred songs. The only place that these songs should be sung is in ceremony. Most commonly in the sundance. There are entrance songs, pipe songs, and others. They are usually sung in groups of four, typically seven times through only during the dance.

"Crucified" by Army Of Lovers is featured on Just Dance 4, Just Dance Now and Just Dance Unlimited.


Just dance pads are shaped as a quadrant


The Fairfield Four is an American gospel group that has existed for over 90 years. They started as a trio in Nashville, Tennessee's Fairfield Baptist Church in 1921.[2] They were designated as National Heritage Fellows in 1989 by the National Endowment for the Arts. The group won the 1998 Grammy for Best Traditional Soul Gospel Album. As a quintet, they featured briefly in the motion picture O Brother, Where Art Thou?.

The group gained more popular recognition after appearing on John Fogerty's 1997 album Blue Moon Swamp, singing on the track "A Hundred and Ten in the Shade". They also undertook live appearances with Fogerty. They also appeared on the song "There Will Be Peace in the Valley for Me" by Dolly Parton on her 2003 studio album For God and Country. They were later featured on the song "Rock of Ages" by Amy Grant & Vince Gill on Grant's 2005 studio album Rock of Ages... Hymns and Faith.

The Fairfield Four's newest album Still Rockin' My Soul! will be released on March 10, 2015.


16 is the squares of the quadrant model


im going to show u how to count bars with help from the emcee mind

The Bars and The Beats



Everyone into hip hop has heard the phrase 16 bars. This refers to the length of the standard rap verse, but can you answer these questions? What’s a bar? Can you count them properly? Why 16 in the first place? In this post I will answer these questions for you.

I’ve heard the bar described from the emcee’s prospective. This description is, with one rhyme….

(i.e. “I stabbed moments of idle and got time on my hands.

its dripping down my arms as I try to make a plan”)

a bar would be half of the rhyme or one line ( I stabbed moments of idle and got time on my hands = 1 bar). While this is true it is not completely accurate. The length of rap lines can vary. A rhyme can occur within a bar, meaning half a rhyme is half a bar. Listen to some Tribe Called Quest for excellent examples of this kind rhyme scheme.

What is a bar? Simply stated a bar is one complete measure of music. Just like a ruler can measure the size of your shell toe Adidas with inches, we can measure music with beats. Just like 12 inches equals a foot, well in hip hop 4 beats equals a bar. There are exceptions of course. Music can be measured by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 beats per bar and so on, but most common “boom bap” hip hop is measured by 4 beats per bar. If you are listening to music right now, I want you to try something. Just nod your head in sync with the music. If you are doing this right, your head is moving at an even pace and certain sound patterns begin to emerge. When you feel the beginning of the pattern, begin counting to 4 starting with 1 every time your head nods, then repeat after you reach 4.

The next time you listen to a rap verse, start counting the bar. After you complete the count of the first bar, instead of repeating with 1, 2, 3, 4, repeat with 2, 2, 3, 4, then 3, 2, 3, 4 and so on. The first number represents the bar you are on. A 16 bar verse counted would look like….




1,2,3,4 2,2,3,4 3,2,3,4 4,2,3,4

5,2,3,4 6,2,3,4 7,2,3,4 8,2,3,4

9,2,3,4 10,2,3,4 11,2,3,4 12,2,3,4

13,2,3,4 14,2,3,4 15,2,3,4 16,2,3,4

This is the same technique used by orchestras, brass, and marching bands to count measure rest in a piece of music. I teach this method to my freestyle students because it is effective for understanding what a bar is from the prospective of music, not just the emcee. I know rappers like to think they are the center of the world.

Speaking of music, why is “16 bars” the standard for rap music? There are many theories behind this formula. Some feel it’s a music industry influence on hip hop meaning shorter, catchier songs equals more radio play. So they apply a song writing formula to hip hop. 16 bar verse, 8 bar hook, but why 16? Why 8? Does the industry just have a fetish for multiples of four?

Nas’ father said it best it all comes from the blues. Really, it all comes from the negro spiritual, but the blues is a good place to start for hip hop and the discussion of 16 bars. The 16 bar format comes from the blues. I doubt there was a man, who spoke like Moses read the commandments and declared “From this forward, all rap verses shall be 16bars (Throws a mic down and parts the seas)!” It is true that hip hop needed a shorter format. The original version of “Rapper’s Delight” is over 14 minutes long! Hip hop borrowed from the same sources it always borrows from (jazz, Latin, funk, rock, which all have roots in the blues) and the 16 bar formula is born.


16 is the squares of the quadrant model


Choirs are often led by a conductor or choirmaster. Most often choirs consist of four sections intended to sing in four part harmony, but there is no limit to the number of possible parts as long as there is a singer available to sing the part: Thomas Tallis wrote a 40-part motet entitled Spem in alium, for eight choirs of five parts each; Krzysztof Penderecki's Stabat Mater is for three choirs of 16 voices each, a total of 48 parts. Other than four, the most common number of parts are three, five, six, and eight.


The amateur chorus (beginning chiefly as a social outlet) began to receive serious consideration as a compositional venue for the part-songs of Schubert, Schumann, Mendelssohn, Brahms, and others. These 'singing clubs' were often for women or men separately, and the music was typically in four-part (hence the name "part-song") and either a cappella or with simple instrumentation. At the same time, the Cecilian movement attempted a restoration of the pure Renaissance style in Catholic churches.
Ukrainian composer Mykola Leontovych also explored new ways of harmonizing and arranging Ukrainian folk songs, producing masterpieces such as Dudaryk and Shchedryk, the latter of which featured a four-note ostinato theme and became a popular Christmas carol known as Carol of the Bells after it was translated by Peter J. Wilhousky.

Four note motif


"Carol of the Bells" is a popular Christmas carol composed by Ukrainian composer Mykola Leontovych in 1914[1] with lyrics by Peter J. Wilhousky. The song is based on a Ukrainian folk chant called "Shchedryk".[2] Wilhousky's lyrics are copyrighted, although the original musical composition is not.


The song is recognized by a four-note ostinato motif (see image to the right). It has been arranged many times for different genres, styles of singing and settings and has been covered by artists and groups of many genres: classical, metal, jazz, country music, rock, and pop. The piece has also been featured in films, television shows, and parodies.


Conductor of the Ukrainian Republic Choir Oleksander Koshyts (also spelled Alexander Koshetz) commissioned Leontovych to create the song based on traditional Ukrainian folk chants, and the resulting new work for choir, "Shchedryk", was based on four notes Leontovych found in an anthology.[3]

Symphony No. 5


The fourth note is different


The first of the four movements opens with the four-note motif (da-da-da-daaaa), one of the most famous in classical music.
I don't care if its as old as Rachmaninov.. James Horner's "4 note motif" in Avatar gives me shiver
The four note motif starts at 5:40. I don't care if its used in one way or another in virtually every movie score he makes, it's soo good here [face_tongue]

Four note motif- the fourth note is different.

A kind of signature in my opinion, instead of a ripoff. It's too recurrent. Like Bach who had transcribed his own name into four notes and used them over and over in his music.

James Horner four note motif

The fourth note is different





The Mask of Zorrow

James Horner four note motif


Battle Beyond the Stars


Star Trek II



Project X


Honey I Shrunk the Kids

I Love You to Death


Swing Kids

Jack the Bear

Searching for Bobby Fisher

The Pelican Brief

The Mask of Zorro

Bicentennial Man

The Perfect Storm

Enemy at the Gates


Four Feathers


The Legend of Zorro

The Boy in the Striped Pajamas


For Greater Glory

Spider Man


BACH signature cross: BACH motif's cruciform melody, depicted at least as early as the 19th century,[citation needed] but not known to have been used by Bach himself

Four notes of the Bach Motif

In music, the BACH motif is the motif, a succession of notes important or characteristic to a piece, B flat, A, C, B natural. In German musical nomenclature, in which the note B natural is written as H and the B flat as B, it forms Johann Sebastian Bach's family name. One of the most frequently occurring examples of a musical cryptogram, the motif has been used by countless composers, especially after the Bach Revival in the first half of the 19th century.




BACH motif in the last fugue of The Art of Fugue


BACH signature cross: BACH motif's cruciform melody, depicted at least as early as the 19th century,[citation needed] but not known to have been used by Bach himself

Johann Gottfried Walther's Musicalisches Lexikon (1732) contains the only biographical sketch of Johann Sebastian Bach published during the composer's lifetime. There the motif is mentioned thus:[1]


...all those who carried the name [Bach] were as far as known committed to music, which may be explained by the fact that even the letters b a c h in this order form a melody. (This peculiarity was discovered by Mr. Bach of Leipzig.)


This reference work thus indicates Bach as the inventor of the motif.


Bach used the motif in a number of works, most famously as a fugue subject in the last Contrapunctus of The Art of Fugue. The motif also appears in the end of the fourth variation of Bach's Canonic Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch da komm' ich her", as well as in other pieces.[2] For example, the first measure of the Sinfonia in F minor BWV 795 includes a transposed version of the motif (a♭'-g'-b♭'-a') followed by the original in measure 17.[3]


Later commentators wrote: "The figure occurs so often in Bach's bass lines that it cannot have been accidental."[4] Hans-Heinrich Eggebrecht goes as far as to reconstruct Bach's putative intentions as an expression of Lutheran thought, imagining Bach to be saying, "I am identified with the tonic and it is my desire to reach it ... Like you I am human. I am in need of salvation; I am certain in the hope of salvation, and have been saved by grace," through his use of the motif rather than a standard changing tone figure (B♭-A-C-B) in the double discant clausula in the fourth fugue of The Art of Fugue.[5]


The motif was used as a fugue subject by Bach's son Johann Christian, and by his pupil Johann Ludwig Krebs. However, the motif's wide popularity came only after the start of the Bach Revival in the first half of the 19th century.[2] Later composers found that the motif could be easily incorporated not only into the advanced harmonic writing of the 19th century, but also into the totally chromatic idiom of the Second Viennese School; so it was used by Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern, and their disciples and followers. Today, composers continue writing works using the motif, frequently in homage to Johann Sebastian Bach.[2]


Use of the motif from the 19th-century Bach Revival[edit]


BACH motif followed by transposed version from Schumann's Sechs Fugen über den Namen B-A-C-H, Op. 60, No. 4, mm. 1–3[6] About this sound Play (help·info).

Note that C and H are transposed down, leaving the spelling unaffected but changing the melodic contour.


Schumann, Sechs Fugen for organ, Op. 60, No. 5, mm. 1–4 About this sound Play (help·info).

The motif may be used in different ways: here it is only the beginning of an extended melody.[7]


Charles Ives, 3-Page Sonata (1905), first mvt., first fugal complex About this sound Play (help·info).

The BACH motif from The Art of Fugue Contrapunctus XIXc is the "'1st Theme'/fugue subject" of Ives' combined sonata-allegro and fugal procedures.[8]


"b-a-c-h is beginning and end of all music" (Max Reger 1912)


Webern's String Quartet, Op. 28, tone row, composed of three tetrachords: P I RI, with P = the BACH motif, I = it inverted, and RI = it inverted and backwards.


Attila Szervác: Bach-20-22

In a comprehensive study published in the catalogue for the 1985 exhibition "300 Jahre Johann Sebastian Bach" ("300 years of Johann Sebastian Bach") in Stuttgart, Germany, Ulrich Prinz lists 409 works by 330 composers from the 17th to the 20th century using the BACH motif (ISBN 3-7952-0459-3). A similar list is available in Malcolm Boyd's volume on Bach; it also contains some 400 works. A few works that feature the motif prominently are:


1845 – Robert Schumann: Sechs Fugen über den Namen: Bach, for organ, pedal piano, or harmonium, Op. 60[6][9]

1855 – Franz Liszt: Fantasy and Fugue on the Theme B-A-C-H, for organ (later revised, 1870, and arranged, 1871, for piano)[10]

1856 – Johannes Brahms: Fugue in A-flat minor for organ, WoO 8[9]

1878 – Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov: Variations on BACH, for piano

1900 – Max Reger: Fantasia and Fugue on B-A-C-H for organ

1910 – Ferruccio Busoni: Fantasia contrappuntistica for piano (first version; later versions 1912 and 1922)[citation needed]

1926–28 – Arnold Schoenberg: Variations for Orchestra, Op. 31[11]

1930 – Marios Varvoglis: Canon, Chorale and Fugue on BACH

1932 – Arthur Honegger: Prélude, arioso, and fughetta on the name BACH for piano, H 81

1932 – Alfredo Casella: Due Ricercari sul nome B-A-C-H, Op. 52

1932 – Francis Poulenc: Valse-improvisation sur le nom Bach for piano

1934 – Hanns Eisler: Prelude and Fugue on B-A-C-H, Op. 46 for string trio

1937 – Marios Varvoglis: Prelude, Chorale and Fugue on BACH

1937–38 – Anton Webern: String Quartet (the tone row is based on the BACH motif)[12]

1942–46 – Charles Koechlin: Offrande musicale sur le nom de B-A-C-H, Op. 187

1952 – Jean Coulthard: Variations on BACH for piano

1952 – Luigi Dallapiccola: Quaderno musicale di Annalibera for piano[13]

1954 – Dallapiccola: Variazioni ("Variations", orchestral version of Quaderno musicale di Annalibera)[13]

1951–55 – Dallapiccola: "Canti di liberazione"[13]

1955 – Kenneth Leighton: Fantasia on the name Bach, Op. 29

1963 – Ronald Stevenson "Passacaglia on DSCH" (The second fugue is built on the DSCH motif and the BACH motif)

1964 – Arvo Pärt: Collage over B-A-C-H for strings, oboe, harpsichord and piano

1966 – Krzysztof_Penderecki: St_Luke_Passion_(Penderecki).

1968 – Alfred Schnittke: Quasi Una Sonata (repeated motif, one reviewer, "noting that B-A-C-H is the victor of the composition")[14]

1974 – Rudolf Brucci: Metamorfosis B-A-C-H for strings

1981 – Schnittke: Symphony No. 3 – used alongside the monograms of several other composers.[15]

1993 – Ron Nelson: Passacaglia (Homage on B-A-C-H) for concert band

2001–02 – Rami Bar-Niv:

Improvisation for trumpet (or any single-staff instrument) and piano, measures 110-111[16]

Wrapped in Yellow, song #2 from Longing for my Father, song cycle for soprano (or baritone or any single-staff instrument) and piano (or orchestra), measures 56-57, also appearing backwards[17]

Ancient Melody, song #6 from Longing for my Father, song cycle for soprano (or baritone or any single-staff instrument) and piano (or orchestra), measure 107[18]

Black Carriage, song #7 from Longing for my Father, song cycle for soprano (or baritone or any single-staff instrument) and piano (or orchestra), appearing often in the song.[19]

2004 – Pamela Decker: "Passacaglia on B-A-C-H" for organ

2010 – Zsolt Gárdonyi: Hommage à J. S. Bach for organ[20]

2010 – Mateus Araujo: Bachmazonia – Symphonic Overture for Orchestra [21]

2011 – Kit Armstrong: Fantasy on B–A–C–H

2011 – Dave Soldier: Fractals on the names of BACH and Haydn for piano

2012 – Hilarion (Alfeyev): Fugue on the BACH motif for orchestra[22]

2015 – Roberto Piana: Tre movimenti sul nome BACH for flute solo

2016 – Attila Szervác: Bach-20-22


This motive always consists of four notes, and the outer notes are on the same line or space. One of the middle notes is above that line or space and the other middle note is below. Using the notes B-A-C-H, the cross motive could be expressed in several ways, such as the following:


Bach's Musical Signature

Question: How do I calculate Bach’s musical signature?




Alfi M.

Albert’s reply: Bach often wrote his name in musical notation, sometimes hiding it in his works. In German, the note B-flat is called B, and B natural is called H. Thus, B-A-C-H in German is played B-flat, A, C, B natural:



Usually the B-A-C-H motive is written in that order, though sometimes Bach rearranged the notes, as in the ascending (A-B-H-C) and descending (C-H-B-A) examples you posted.


A particularly meaningful motive for Bach is the cross motive, of which the B-A-C-H is an example:



This motive always consists of four notes, and the outer notes are on the same line or space. One of the middle notes is above that line or space and the other middle note is below. Using the notes B-A-C-H, the cross motive could be expressed in several ways, such as the following:




Other composers often pay tribute to Bach by using the B-A-C-H motive. Sometimes they call direct attention to this motive in their titles, such as Liszt’s Fantasy and Fugue on the Theme B-A-C-H for organ or Schumann’s 6 Fugues on the Name Bach.


More often, however, the B-A-C-H motive is a hidden secret. A little-known example I once discovered is in the opening of the very first piece of Schumann’s Scenes from Childhood:



As it’s in the accompaniment and not melodic, this is an example of a musical detail that should remain the performer’s secret. Even if the notes spell B-A-C-H, it doesn’t necessarily mean that we have to spell it out to our audience!

Four note motif!/story/277113-top-five-deployments-b-a-c-h/


Top Five Deployments of the B-A-C-H Motif


Friday, March 22, 2013

By Amanda Angel


Ricercare From Bach's A Musical Offering Enlarge

Ricercare From Bach's A Musical Offering

Bach 360°

WQXR presents Bach 360°, a ten-day festival that explores how J.S. Bach resonates with today’s audiences.



It’s no secret that Johann Sebastian Bach hid a musical cryptogram in many of his works. Spelling out his name in B-flat, A, C, and B-natural (which is an H in German conventions), the composer left his mark in bass lines, fugues and many of his other works.


Since then, hundreds of composers have paid the father of classical music homage by incorporating this motif in their music. We’ve gathered our favorite five.


1. Pärt: Collage über Bach


Arvo Pärt expressed his reverence for Bach in his seminal work Credo, which liberally uses the chord progression from Bach’s Prelude in C. However, Pärt’s Collage über Bach, completed four years before Credo, is more obvious with its references. In this work the composer developed the collage technique he would employ in the Credo, while paying tribute to Johann Sebastian. In addition to the B-A-C-H theme, the three movements, toccata, sarabande, and ricercar are all allusions to baroque conventions.


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2. Liszt: Fantasia and Fugue on the Theme of B-A-C-H


Like Bach, Franz Liszt was celebrated for his keyboard-playing skills, and the latter composer paid homage to his Baroque predecessor with virtuosic pieces for both the organ and piano. Liszt’s Fantasia and Fugue on the Theme of B-A-C-H, uses the musical cryptogram as an anchor for his piece, and reins in his usual abundance of flourishes. The work has become a staple of the organ repertoire.


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3. Schoenberg: Variations for Orchestra


Written from 1926 to 1928, Arnold Schoenberg’s Variations for Orchestra, Op. 31 melds the composer’s forward-thinking process with his respect for the history of musical composition. Though the composer bristled when The New York Times suggested that the B-A-C-H motif is the theme of the piece, it is nonetheless quite prominent. It’s first carried by the trombones and becomes more present throughout. Wolfgang Rihm points out that Schoenberg also seems to incorporate Bach-like inventions and polyphony as well.


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4. Schumann: Six Fugues on the Name of B-A-C-H


In 1845, Schumann, gripped by what he called Fugenpassion, spent much the year completing the cycle Six Fugues on the Name of B-A-C-H. Each of the six pieces is meant to showcase a character of Bach, within Schumann’s own Romantic style. Though, Schumann predicted these pieces would be among his most beloved works, they are in fact among his lesser-known ones.


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5. Schnittke: Quasi una sonata


Perhaps no composer quoted Bach within his own compositions as liberally as Alfred Schnittke. The 20th-century Russian composer and proponent of “polystylism” paid homage to Bach, among numerous composers, including Haydn, Mozart, Stravinsky, Shostakovich, and others within his works. Quasi una sonata, a work for violin and piano that translates to “like a sonata,” experiments with the B-A-C-H motif as a unifying theme. The composer said, somewhat cryptically that the theme, “stands out clearly as the solution. The solution consists of the fact that nothing is solved.”


This and a lot of other stuff is in my over 50 QMR books


Channel Allan Holdsworth with Four-Note-Per-String Scales

Posted 12/13/2016 by Matt Warnock , photo by Frans Schellekens/Getty Images




Channel Allan Holdsworth with Four-Note-Per-String Scales

I often get asked about two topics: How to play in a modern style and how to break out of box patterns.

Though these are two separate ideas, I often start by giving one answer: Check out four-note-per-string scales.



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Used by modern players such as Allan Holdsworth, whose playing inspired me to check out these fingerings, four-note-per-string scales can help bring a more modern flavor to your lines, expand your knowledge of the neck and allow you to cover a large amount of fretboard real estate with just one scale shape, all of which are beneficial to players looking to explore non-traditional scale fingerings in their playing.

In this lesson, we’ll be looking at how to play and practice four-note-per-string scales, as well as how to add slurs into the mix in order to get a bit of that “slippery” Holdsworth legato sound into your lines.

Four-Note-Per-String Scales

These scales are built exactly as their name suggests, by playing four notes on each string as you climb up the neck, then simply reversing this approach on the way down. While these scales lie nicely under the fingers once you get them down, there are two roadblocks many players face when exploring these scales for the first time, finding the notes and finding a fingering that works for you.

When first digging into a new four-note-per-string scale, such as the F major scale below, you will need to figure out the notes on the scale and build your fingering up from there. Here is the process I used to work out the notes in the example below.

• Pick a scale, in this case F major

• Write out the notes of that scale, F G A Bb C D E

• Start on the tonic, F, and play the first four notes of the scale on the 6th string, F G A Bb

• Then, move to the next note in the scale, C, on the 5th string and play the next four notes, C D E F

• Repeat this process up all 6 strings So the process for learning the fingering for this scale is different from a typical box pattern or in-position two-octave scale, which can make it a bit tricky at first.

But it does have the added side effect of shoring up your knowledge of the notes on the neck at the same time that you learn the scale, so it’s a worthwhile exercise for both of these reasons. As far as the fingering is concerned, it will depend on your hand and finger size and dexterity. I play these scales with one finger per note, 1-2-3-4 across each string, but not everyone will feel comfortable with this fingering.

If you find that the 1-2-3-4 fingering on each string is uncomfortable, you also can try 1-1-2-4, 1-2-4-4 or other combinations of these fingers that sit well with your hands on the guitar. Check out this scale below, and then take it to as many keys as you can across the neck before moving on to the slur exercises that follow.

Depending on how many frets you have, you may be able to get it up to the key of C, if you have 24 or Bb if you have 22.

Example 1 JPG_1.jpg

Adding One Slur to 4NPS Scales

Now that you’ve checked out a four-note-per-string fingering on the guitar, we’ll begin to add in slurs, hammers and pull-offs in order to give these scales that “slippery” sound you hear when they’re used by players such as Holdsworth. All of the exercises below are also great for building fretting-hand technique, but they can also be very tiring on the fingers and fretting hand.

So go slow with these exercises, and if your hand begins to feel sore or overtired, just take a break, go have a cup of coffee or take the dog for a walk, then come back to this exercise when your hands are fresh. We’ll being the slur exercises with three different ways to add one hammer on the way up the scale and one pull-off on the way down. In the first example you will see a slur added between the first and second notes on each string. When you are coming down the scale, keep that same approach, putting a slur between the first and second notes on each string, but just use a pull-off when descending the scale fingering.

Example 2 JPG_1.jpg

The next variation will feature a slur between the second and third notes on each string. Again, use a hammer going up the scale and a pull-off on the way back down. To get the most out of these exercises, make sure to use a metronome, starting at a slow tempo and slowly increasing the speed as you work these scale and slur variations in different keys across the neck.

Example 3 JPG_2.jpg

The last one-slur example we’ll check out features a slur between the third and fourth notes. Once you have any/all of these slurs under your fingers, put on a backing track, maybe a static Fmaj7 chord or a ii-V-I progression in the key of F major, then improvise using this scale fingering and slur variations. The best way to see if you have really learned a new concept is to take it out and make some music with it. So, don’t feel like you have to get all of these ideas down before you begin to solo with them, just learn one slur option then go blow with it for a bit over a backing track. Then when that’s comfortable move on to the next slur and repeat the technique-improv loop.

Example 4 JPG_1.jpg

Adding Two Slurs to 4NPS Scales

Since there are four notes on every string when using these fingerings, you can also practice adding two slurs in a row on each string of the scale. The concept is the same as when you added one slur, use hammers on the way up and pull-offs on the way down to complete the exercise. In the first example you will be adding a slur between the first, second and third notes on each string. If you are using the 1-1-2-4 fingering instead of 1-2-3-4, you can use a slide between the first two notes so that the slur becomes a slide plus a hammer on the way up and a slide plus a pull-off on the way down. This will allow you to work these slurs into the scale if you use an alternate fingering.

Example 5 JPG_0.jpg

You also can add two slurs to the back end of each string but placing a slur between the second, third and fourth notes on each string in the scale. Again, if you are using the 1-2-4-4 fingering for each string, then you could do a hammer plus a slide going up and a pull-off plus a slide going down to achieve the same effect.

Example 6 JPG.jpg

Adding Three Slurs to 4NPS Scales

Lastly, you can use slurs on all of the notes on each string, so only picking the first note and then slurring for the rest of the notes on each string in the scale. This type of legato approach is indicative of the Holdsworth style, so if you are going for that sound, this is a variation that you will want to check out and get under your fingers. Since there are more slides than picks, many players tend to lose focus on the time and rhythm with this exercise. A good way to avoid this is to set the metronome to 8th notes and then play one note per click to make sure each note is accurately placed within the bar.

Example 7 JPG.jpg

Though not as common as in-position, the CAGED system or three-note-per-string scales, using four notes on each string can help you learn the notes of the neck, add more legato to your lines and break you out of box patterns at the same time. Do you use four-note-per-string scales in your playing or have a favorite way to practice them in the woodshed? Please share your thoughts in the comment section below.


Matt Warnock is the owner of, a free website that provides hundreds of lessons and resources designed to help guitarists of all experience levels meet their practice and performance goals. Matt lives in the UK, where he is a senior lecturer at the Leeds College of Music and an examiner for the London College of Music (Registry of Guitar Tutors).


The engine of "Greensleeves" is the steady lilting rhythm in the style of the time's romanesca. It's got an A idea of two lines and a B idea likewise. The main melodic motifs are a four-note bit of scale that goes up and down throughout, and three notes descending a chord. The tune has an especially elegant, rolling contour, highlighted by the passionate and climactic B idea ("Greensleeves was all my joy") that starts on the melody's highest note.

"The World's Most-Used Musical Sequence"- four note progression

What do Beethoven, David Bowie, Green Day, Mozart, *NSYNC, Pete Seeger, Michael Jackson, Ray Charles, The Beatles, Bob Dylan, Duke Ellington, The Supremes, Rihanna, and many others all have in common? The Andalusian Cadence! Also known as the Diatonic Phrygian Tetrachord--sometimes written as i-bVII-bVI-V (or, in the key of A, the descending sequence A, G, F, E)--this sequence of four notes, this musical pattern, chord progression, or bass line shows up throughout the ages in all styles and genres, underlying music that ranges from sad to joyful, delicate to badass.

David Garland has assembled more than 50 recordings of music from over five centuries to vividly make the case that this four-note progression, the Andalusian Cadence, is the world's most-used musical sequence.


"The World's Most-Used Musical Sequence"- four note progression


What do Beethoven, David Bowie, Green Day, Mozart, *NSYNC, Pete Seeger, Michael Jackson, Ray Charles, The Beatles, Bob Dylan, Duke Ellington, The Supremes, Rihanna, and many others all have in common? The Andalusian Cadence! Also known as the Diatonic Phrygian Tetrachord--sometimes written as i-bVII-bVI-V (or, in the key of A, the descending sequence A, G, F, E)--this sequence of four notes, this musical pattern, chord progression, or bass line shows up throughout the ages in all styles and genres, underlying music that ranges from sad to joyful, delicate to badass.


David Garland has assembled more than 50 recordings of music from over five centuries to vividly make the case that this four-note progression, the Andalusian Cadence, is the world's most-used musical sequence.



----Set 1

Heinrich Ignatz Frans von Biber - Passagalia For Solo Violin - Andrew Manze, violin

Louis Armstrong - It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing) (composed by Duke Ellington) - The Great Summit: The Master Takes

Manitas de Plata - Mi Sentimiento

The Beach Boys - Good Vibrations

Del Shannon - Runaway

Benny Goodman - Topsy - The Great Benny Goodman, Vol. 2

Tennessee Ernie Ford - Sixteen Tons - Vintage Collections

King Crimson - Epitaph - In the Court of the Crimson King

Paul Simon - Anji (composed by Davy Graham) - Simon & Garfunkle Live from New York City, 1967

Simon & Garfunkel - A Hazy Shade Of Winter

Moondog - Stamping Ground - Moondog

Richard Hell & The Voidoids - Blank Generation

Nina Simone - Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood

Meredith Monk - Greensleeves

U2 - Twilight - Boy

The Four Tops - Bernadette

Rihanna - The Hotness

Zager and Evans - In the Year 2525 (Exordium & Terminus)

Ray Charles - Hit the Road Jack - Anthology

----Set 2

The Ventures - Walk Don't Run - Walk Don't Run

Lallo Gori - Seq. 3 - Operazione Luna 

Herman Stein - Stranger - The Intruder

Hans Reichel - Bubu And His Friend - Yuxos

Matti Bye - The Girl In the Tree - Faro

Carl Orff - Ruhiger Tanz - Orff-Schulwerk Volume One/Musica Poetica

Mozart - String Quartet #15 In D Minor, K 421: 1. Allegro Moderato (performed by the Cleveland Quartet

Chuck Willis - Night of Misery - A Tribute to Chuck Willis

Green Day - Hitchin' a Ride - Nimrod

Hall & Oates - Maneater - The Essential Daryl Hall & John Oates

The Grass Roots - I'd Wait a Million Years - The Millennium Collection: The Best of the Grass Roots

Shakira - Objection (Tango) - Laundry Service

Jerry Jeff Walker - The Ballad of the Hulk - Mr. Bojangles

Beethoven - Piano Sonata No. 14 In C Sharp Minor, Op. 27, No. 2, "Moonlight": I. Adagio Sostenuto (performed by Alfred Brendel)

Pete Seeger - Waist Deep In The Big Muddy - The Essential Pete Seeger

Henry Mancini - Top Shelf - Bachelor In Paradise

The Lovin' Spoonful - Summer In the City - Platinum & Gold Collection: The Lovin' Spoonful

Jeff Gibbs - Fahrenheit 9/11 trk 4 - Fahrenheit 9/11

----Set 3

101 Strings Orchestra - Carol of the Bells (Shchedryk) - Home for the Holidays

The Turtles - Happy Together - Happy Together

Ennio Morricone - L'ultima Volta - I Malamondo

David Bowie - China Girl - Let's Dance

Ennio Morricone - Two Nice Tramps - Occhio Alla Penna (aka Buddy Goes West)

Ennio Morricone - At The Tailor - Occhio Alla Penna (aka Buddy Goes West)

Quilapayun - ¡El pueblo unido jamas sera vencido! - The People United Will Never Be Defeated!

Johnny Dankworth & Cleo Lane - Let's Slip Away - 'Saturday Night and Sunday Morning'

*NSYNC - Bye Bye Bye - No Strings Attached

Dave Van Ronk - One Meatball - Van Ronk

Paco de Lucía - Punta Umbria - Antología, Vol. 1

----Set 4

Bob Dylan - One More Cup of Coffee - Desire

Michael Jackson - Smooth Criminal - Bad

Maury Laws - The Baron - Mad Monster Party

Mötley Crüe - God Bless the Children of the Beast - Shout At the Devil

Diana Ross & The Supremes - Love Child - Number 1's: Diana Ross & The Supremes

Joe Meek & the Blue Men - Orbit Around The Moon - I Hear a New World

Dick Dale - Miserlou - Guitar Legend: The Very Best of Dick Dale

The Beatles - I'll Be Back - A Hard Day's Night

Claudio Monteverdi - Lamento della ninfa: "Amor dov’è la fe" (performed by Montserrat Figueras & Hespèrion XXI

Disney Chorus - Pink Elephants On Parade - Dumbo


The Andalusian cadence (diatonic phrygian tetrachord) is a term adopted from flamenco music for a chord progression comprising four chords descending stepwise—a vi–V–IV–III progression with respect to the major mode or i–VII–VI–V progression with respect to the minor mode.[1] It is otherwise known as the minor descending tetrachord. Traceable back to the Renaissance, its effective sonorities made it one of the most popular progressions in classical music About this sound Play (help·info).


Despite the name it is not a true cadence (i.e., occurring only once, when ending a phrase, section, or piece of music[2]); it is most often used as an ostinato (repeating over and over again). It is heard in rock songs such as "Runaway" by Del Shannon.[3]


Contents [hide]

1 Structure

2 Origins

3 Analysis

3.1 Melody

3.2 Modal vs. tonal

3.3 Harmonic peculiarities

4 Denominations in Flamenco music

4.1 Basic keys

4.2 Derivative keys

5 Music examples featuring Andalusian cadences

5.1 Popular music

6 Altered progressions

6.1 Reordered or repeated chords

6.2 Foreign chords, bassline unchanged

6.3 Dominant chord substituted

7 See also

8 References

9 External links

9.1 Free scores

9.2 Analyses and essays


For further explanation see Chord progression

The Andalusian cadence may be notated vi – V – IV – III with respect to a major key; i – VII – VI – V with respect to a natural or melodic minor key, the two being identical in descent; or i – ♭VII – VI – V with respect to a harmonic minor key, in which the reversal of the raising of the subtonic (VII) to a leading tone (which would be noted in non-harmonic minor keys as ♯VII) must be noted.[4][2] In the third degree of the final chord (III or V, depending on key signature), the subtonic is sharpened by a semitone into a leading note in order to lead back into the minor chord that begins the sequence.



See also: Andalusian classical music


A typical Andalusian cadence por arriba (i.e. in A minor). G is the subtonic and G♯ is the leading tone. About this sound (Listen) (help·info)

A popular melodic pattern of Ancient Greece[5] offers a possible starting point for the Andalusian cadence. Called the Dorian tetrachord, the sequence resembles the bass line of the chord progression developed centuries later. Some theorists consider that the same structure may have occurred earlier in Judah.[5][6] A sequence more or less close to the Greek tetrachord structure might have been known to the Moors in Southern Spain and spread from there through Western Europe. The French troubadours were influenced by the Spanish music.[5]


The Andalusian cadence known today, using triad chords, may be no earlier than the Renaissance, though the use of parallel thirds or sixths occurred from the 13th century.[7] Some sources state that the chord sequence was noted for the first time by Claudio Monteverdi in a choral work, Lamento della Ninfa, first published in the Eighth Book of Madrigals (1638) – other works in the same collection are known to have been played as soon as 1607.


The progression resembles the first four measures of the 15th century Passamezzo antico; i – ♭VII – i – V. The use of the ♭VI chord may suggest a more recent origin than the Passamezzo antico since the cadences i – ♭VII and ♭VII – i were popular in the late Middle Ages,[7] (see also double tonic) while ♭VII – ♭VI arose as a result of advancement in music theory.[citation needed] However, the absence of the leading tone from the ♭VII chord suggests that the progression originated before the tonal system in the modal approach of the time of Palestrina, where the tonic must be approached from chord V[8] whereas typical Baroque style would have avoided the flat VII and introduced dominant chords (♮VII or V chords,[2] to form cadences resolving upon a i chord).




A minor seventh would be added to the dominant "V" chord to increase tension before resolution (V7-i).[2] The roots of the chords belong to a modern phrygian tetrachord (the equivalent of a Greek Dorian tetrachord,[9] the latter mentioned above), that is to be found as the upper tetrachord of a natural minor scale (for A minor, they are: A G F E).


A remarkable fact about tetrachords was noticed since the Ancient times and rediscovered in early Renaissance: when a tetrachord features a semitone (half-step) between two of its tones, it is the semitone that will determine the melodic tendency of the given tetrachord or mode (when combining tetrachords).[10] If the semitone falls between the highest two steps, the melody tends to be ascending (e.g. major scales); a semitone between the lowest tones in the tetrachord involves a melody "inclined" to descend. This said, the Phrygian tetrachord, borrowed from traditional music of Eastern Europe and Anatolia,[10] is to be found also in the Andalusian cadence and sets the mentioned character (the semitone falls between [the roots of] V and ♭VI).


Modal vs. tonal[edit]


Andalusian cadence in E Phrygian[11] About this sound Play (help·info).

A rigorous analysis should note that many chord progressions are likely to date back from an epoch prior to early Baroque (usually associated with birth of tonality).[10] In such cases (also, that of the Andalusian cadence), explanations offered by tonality "neglect" the history and evolution of the chord progression in question. This is because harmonic analyses in tonal style use only two scales (major and minor) when explaining origins of chord moves. In exchange, the luxuriant modal system (i.e., the entirety of musical modes ever created and their specific harmonies – if existing[10]) offers various plausible origins and explanations for every chord move. However, most classical (Baroque or subsequent) and popular music which makes use of the given chord progression might treat it itself in a tonal manner.[2]


A number of musicians and theorists (including renowned guitarist Manolo Sanlúcar) consider the Andalusian cadence as a chord progression built upon the Phrygian mode.[12] Since tonality took the first chord in the progression for a tonic ("i"), the Phrygian notation (modal) of the cadence writes as following: iv – ♭III – ♭II – I (or, more commonly, but less correctly, iv – III – II – I[1]). Though tonal functions have little in common with the Phrygian mode, the four chords could be roughly equalized. (The Phrygian mode is like a natural minor with step two lowered;[4] however, step three switches between major and minor third, an equivalent to the subtonic/leading tone conflict in the tonal acceptation.) Thus, the "iv" corresponds to a subdominant chord, while "♭III" is the mediant and "I" is the tonic. The "♭II" chord has a dominant function,[11][12] and may be thought of as a tritone substitution of "V", i.e., the Neapolitan sixth chord.[4] (The only purpose for highlighting these "functions" is to compare between the modal and tonal views of the cadence. The mode involved in the cadence is not a pure Phrygian, but one whose third step occurs in both instances, minor and major third. This is unacceptable in tonality;[9] hence, tonal functions cannot be used. A common mistake occurs when the given mode is thought of as major, given that the tonic chord is major.[1] However, the Phrygian mode features a minor third and the "I" chord may be taken for a borrowed chord, i.e., a Picardy third.)


When the VI chord, which may be added between III and ♭II (iv-III-VI-♭II-I) and cadenced upon, is the most characteristic contrasting tonal area, similar by analogy to the relative major of a minor key.[11]


Harmonic peculiarities[edit]

The tonal system sets three main functions for the diatonic tertian chords: tonic (T), dominant (D) and subdominant (SD). Any sequence through different functions is allowed (e.g. T→D, SD→D), except for D→SD.[13] A tonal scale's degrees are as following: "I" and "VI" are tonic chords (of which, "I" is stronger; all final cadences end in "I"), "V" and "VII" are dominants (both feature the leading tone and "V" is more potent), "IV" and "II" are subdominant chords ("IV" is stronger).[2] ("III" isn't given a precise function, although it may replace a dominant in some cases.) All sequences between same-function chords, from the weaker member to the stronger (e.g. VII – V), are forbidden. When using the natural minor, dominant chords exchange their leading tone for a subtonic; as a result, their dominant quality is strongly undermined.[2]


A tonal insight on the Andalusian cadence leads to considering the "♭VII" a local exception: the subtonic it uses for a root should be, however, re-replaced by the leading tone before returning to "i". (The leading tone is heard in the "V" chord, as the chord's major third.) A "♭VII" would leave the dominant category (compare: "♮VII") and start acting to the contrary.[2] That is, a "♭VII" chord would now prefer moving to a subdominant rather than to a tonic chord. Yet, the Andalusian cadence brings about a limit condition for tonal harmony, with a ♭VII – ♭VI chord move.[13]


The Andalusian is an authentic cadence, because a dominant chord ("V") comes just before the tonic "i". (Using modal harmonies, the third, and not the fourth chord – "♭II" – acts as the dominant, substituted to tritone. Even so, the cadence stays authentic. The fourth chord itself is the tonic, so the cadence need not return to the tonal tonic, i.e. modal "iv".)[2]


Denominations in Flamenco music[edit]

Basic keys[edit]

The standard tuning in guitars determines most Flamenco music to be played only in a few keys. Of those, the most popular are the A minor and D minor (equivalent to E and A Phrygian, respectively).[1] They are as following:


por arriba, which corresponds to the A minor, where an Andalusian cadence consists of the following chord progression: Am – G – F – E

por medio names the D minor key, in which the Andalusian cadence is built of a Dm – C – B♭ – A progression[1]

Derivative keys[edit]

Using a capotasto or scordature, other keys can be obtained, mainly derived from the two basic keys. Flamenco guitarist Ramon Montoya and singer Antonio Chacón were among the first to use the new keys, and given distinctive names:[12]


Term used in Flamenco Tonal key Modal (Phrygian) key Chord progression Construction

por granaína E minor B Phrygian Em – D – C – B por medio, capo on 2nd fret

por Levante B minor F♯ Phrygian Bm – A – G – F♯ por arriba, capo on 2nd fret

por minera C♯ minor G♯ Phrygian C♯m – B – A – G♯ por arriba, capo on 4th fret

por rondeña F♯ minor C♯ Phrygian F♯m – E – D – C♯ scordature

Music examples featuring Andalusian cadences[edit]

Popular music[edit]

Main article: List of popular music songs featuring Andalusian cadences

Songs of the early 1960s, such as the Ventures' 1960 hit "Walk, Don't Run",[3] turned the Andalusian cadence iconic for surf rock music.


Altered progressions[edit]

Reordered or repeated chords[edit]

"California Dreamin'" (1965) by The Mamas & the Papas, where two chords have changed places: i (– i2) – ♭VI – ♭VII – V5

4-3. (Note: the "i2" notation represents a tonic chord whose seventh falls in the bass; a "5

4-3" notation suggests a suspended chord resolving to a triad[13])

Foreign chords, bassline unchanged[edit]

Progression by fourths or the addition of VI between III and ♭II: Am–G7–C–F–E or iv-III7-VI-♭II-I.[11]

Dominant chord substituted[edit]

A most unusual way of altering the cadence can be heard in Pink Floyd's "Comfortably Numb" (1979)[citation needed], where the "V" chord is skipped for a "iv". It is as follows: i – ♭VII – ♭VI (– ♭VI2) – iv (and back to "i"). The resulting progression is on the edge between tonal and modal, where the subtonic doesn't change back into a leading-tone, but the obtained cadence is suitable for tonality (called plagal or backdoor[13]).


Also known as the TETRACHORD- four chord progression


Following is a list of popular music songs which feature a chord progression commonly known as Andalusian cadences.


Items in the list are sorted alphabetically by the band or artist's name. Songs which are familiar to listeners through more than one version (by different artists) are mentioned by the earliest version known to contain Andalusian cadences (which is most frequently the original version). Songs whose composers are unknown were put at the bottom of the list, sorted alphabetically in their turn by title.


Contents :

0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z



"Heat of the Night" (1997) by Aqua (band)

"Torero" (1985) by Aria

"Without You" (2000) by Aria

"Big in Japan" (1984) by Alphaville

"Cruel Summer" by Ace of Base

"Anthropology" (2012) by Awkward Marina


Angelo (1977) by Brotherhood of Man

"Good Vibrations" (1966) by The Beach Boys

"I'll Be Back" (1964) by The Beatles[1]

"Oh Yeah" (2003) by Big Bad Voodoo Daddy

"War Pigs" (1970) by Black Sabbath

"Mordred's Song" (1995) by Blind Guardian

"Then Came the Last Days of May" (1972) by Blue Öyster Cult

"One More Cup of Coffee" (1976) by Bob Dylan

"Holding out for a Hero" (1983) by Bonnie Tyler


"Basketball Jones" (1973) by Cheech & Chong

"Wild World" (1970) by Cat Stevens

"Supernature" (1977) by Cerrone


"China Girl" (1983) by David Bowie and Iggy Pop

"Moonage Daydream" (1971) by David Bowie

"Hey Joe" (1968) by Deep Purple

"April" (1969) by Deep Purple

"Runaway" (1961) by Del Shannon[2]

"Nour El Ain" (1996) by Amr Diab

"Sultans of Swing" (1978) by Dire Straits

"You Think You're a Man" (1984) by Divine

"Green Slime" (1968) by Richard Delvy

"Politicians In My Eyes" (1975) by Death


“Ticket to the Moon” (1981) by Electric Light Orchestra

“Believe” (1995) by Elton John


"Blue Morning, Blue Day" (1978) by Foreigner

"Feels Like the First Time" (1977) by Foreigner

"Eye of the Hurricane" (1971) by Fraction


"14 Years" (1991) by Guns N' Roses

"Jazz à gogo" (1964) by France Gall

"Twilight Zone" (1982) by Golden Earring

"Feel Good Inc." (2006) by Gorillaz

"El Mañana" (2006) by Gorillaz

"Anji" (1961) by Davey Graham

"Heartbreaker" (1969) by Grand Funk Railroad

"Feeling Good" (1965) by Cy Grant

"Wait a Million Years" (1969) by The Grass Roots

"Hitchin' a Ride" (1997) by Green Day

"Groovin' Hard" (1970) by the Buddy Rich Big Band

"I Will Survive" (1978) by Gloria Gaynor


"Maneater" (1982) by Hall & Oates

"A Louse is not a Home" (1974) by Peter Hammill

"A Tale That Wasn't Right" (1987) by Helloween

"How Can We Hang On to a Dream?" (1966) by Tim Hardin

"Mad About You" (2000) by Hooverphonic

"Mad Pat" (1974) by Horslips


"Blue Spanish Sky" (1989) by Chris Isaak


"Smooth Criminal" (1987) by Michael Jackson


"The Ketchup Song" a.k.a. "Aserejé" (2002) by Las Ketchup

"Epitaph" (1969) by King Crimson

"Rosey Won't You Please Come Home" (1966) by The Kinks

"This Time Tomorrow" (1970) by The Kinks


"Sleeping Beauty" (1978) by Lene Lovich

"The World Is Stone" (1992) by Cyndi Lauper

"Babe I'm Gonna Leave You" (1969) by Led Zeppelin


"El Gringo" (2012) by Manowar

"Grendel" by Marillion

"Coffee Cold" (1966) by Galt MacDermot

"Nights in White Satin" (1967) by The Moody Blues

"God Bless the Children of the Beast" (1983) by Mötley Crüe

"Citizen Erased" (2001) by Muse

"Resistance" (2009) by Muse

"House of Wolves" (2006) by My Chemical Romance


"Purple Lips" (1981) by Nico

"Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood" (1964) by Nina Simone

"Feeling Good" (1965) by Nina Simone


"Never Learn" (1966) by The Odds & Ends

"California Demise" pt. 1 and 2 (1994) by The Olivia Tremor Control

"Define a Transparent Dream" (1996) by The Olivia Tremor Control

"A Sleepy Company" (1999) by The Olivia Tremor Control


"Balanţa inimii" (1979) by Margareta Pâslaru

"Kissing You Goodbye" (2011) by The Pierces

"Secret" (2007) by The Pierces

"Matilda Mother" (1967) by Pink Floyd

"Roads" (1997) by Portishead

"Hasta Siempre" (1965) by Carlos Puebla

"Hush Hush" (2009) by The Pussycat Dolls


"Innuendo" (1991) by Queen


"Hit the Road, Jack" (1961) by Ray Charles

"Subterranean Homesick Blues" (1989) by Red Hot Chili Peppers

"Blank Generation" (1977) by Richard Hell

"Disturbia" (2008) by Rihanna

"If There Is Something" (1972) by Roxy Music

"Both Ends Burning" (1975) by Roxy Music


"Just One Last Dance" (2004) by Sarah Connor & Marc Terenzi

"Guitar Tango" (1962) by The Shadows

"Objection (Tango)" (2001) by Shakira

"50 Ways to Leave Your Lover" (1976) by Paul Simon

"Hazy Shade of Winter" (1966) by Simon & Garfunkel

"Put A Lid On It" (1996) by Squirrel Nut Zippers

"Made of Stone" (1989) by The Stone Roses

"Nice 'n' Sleazy" (1978) by The Stranglers

"Ice" (1979) by The Stranglers

"Stray Cat Strut" (1981) by Stray Cats

"Love Child" (1968) by The Supremes

"Che" (1977) by Suicide

"Stark Raving Love" (1981) by Jim Steinman


"My Foolish Friend" (1983) by Talk Talk

"Blackjack" (2001) by Tortoise

"No Easy Way Out" (1985) by Robert Tepper

"Black Eyed Boy" (1997) by Texas

"Happy Together" (1967) by The Turtles

"Breathe" (2007) by The Cinematic Orchestra


"Scream" (2012) by Usher


"Don't Burn The Witch" (1983) by Venom

"Walk, Don't Run" (1960) by The Ventures[2]

"Pipeline" by The Ventures

"Lost" by Van Der Graaf Generator


"Dicke" (1978) by Marius Müller-Westernhagen

"Daydream" (1968) by Wallace Collection

"Gethsemane (I Only Want to Say)" (1970) by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice


"Like a Hurricane" (1977) by Neil Young


"In the Year 2525 (Exordium and Terminus)" (1969) by Zager and Evans


some variations of the children's song “And the Cat Came Back,” such as Fred Penner’s rendition


Foreshadowing "The Imperial March" in "Anakin's Theme"
4/25/2014 1 Comment

The four notes that conclude "Anakin's Theme" are nearly identical to the opening few notes of "The Imperial March", sharing pitches, intervals, and contour, and differing only in rhythm (and only slightly at that) and character ("Anakin's Theme", of course, doesn't have the ominous power that "The Imperial March" has).


"Smells Like Teen Spirit" is a song by American rock band Nirvana. It is the opening track and lead single from the band's second album, Nevermind (1991), released on DGC Records. Written by Kurt Cobain, Krist Novoselic, and Dave Grohl (lyrics by Cobain, music by Nirvana) and produced by Butch Vig, the song uses a verse-chorus form where the main four-chord riff is used during the intro and chorus to create an alternating loud and quiet dynamic. The sound of the song (as Cobain admitted) is modeled after the sound of the Pixies.


"Smells Like Teen Spirit" follows a Fmin–B♭min–A♭–D♭ chord progression,[17] with the main guitar riff constructed from four power chords played in a syncopated sixteenth note strum by Cobain.[18] The guitar chords were double tracked because the band "wanted to make it sound more powerful," according to Vig.[19] The chords occasionally lapse into suspended chord voicings as a result of Cobain playing the bottom four strings of the guitar for the thickness of sound.[18] Listeners made many comments that the song bore a passing resemblance to Boston's 1976 hit "More Than a Feeling".[6] Cobain himself held similar opinions, saying that it "was such a clichéd riff. It was so close to a Boston riff or [The Kingsmen's] 'Louie Louie.'"[4] However, Rikky Rooksby points out that "Smells Like Teen Spirit" and "More Than a Feeling" follow different chord progressions.[17]

Tetra is four- Greek/Pythagorean music was based around the tetrachord

Pythagorean tuning (Greek: Πυθαγόρεια κλίμακα) is a tuning of the syntonic temperament[1] in which the generator is the ratio 3:2 (i.e., the untempered perfect fifth), which is 702 cents wide.


The system had been mainly attributed to Pythagoras (sixth century BC) by modern authors of music theory, while Ptolemy, and later Boethius, ascribed the division of the tetrachord by only two intervals, called "semitonium", "tonus", "tonus" in Latin (256:243 x 9:8 x 9:8), to Eratosthenes. The so-called "Pythagorean tuning" was used by musicians up to the beginning of the 16th century. "The Pythagorean system would appear to be ideal because of the purity of the fifths, but other intervals, particularly the major third, are so badly out of tune that major chords [may be considered] a dissonance."[2]


The Pythagorean scale is any scale which may be constructed from only pure perfect fifths (3:2) and octaves (2:1)[4] or the gamut of twelve pitches constructed from only pure perfect fifths and octaves, and from which specific scales may be drawn. In Greek music it was used to tune tetrachords and the twelve tone Pythagorean system was developed by medieval music theorists using the same method of tuning in perfect fifths, however there is no evidence that Pythagoras himself went beyond the tetrachord.[5]


Indeed, it began with Gilmour attempting - and pulling off - a wholly implausible feat: a solo acoustic version of Shine on You Crazy Diamond. How could that epic four-note motif possibly come across as anything other than utterly feeble on an acoustic guitar? And yet what came through was not so much the motif as the song, stripped down to its essence and laid bare.

Four note motif

Beethoven, the Great Architect


The form of the Heiliger Dankgesang is another great example of Beethoven expressing his music in new, creative structural forms.


The form can of the movement can best be described as double variations on a theme. Two themes alternate with each other, and each time they are performed, they are changed. The first theme is in F Lydian, the alternating theme in D Major. (Beethoven used this form in many of his other works, including the Adagio from his Symphony #9.


What is unique here is the way the two themes end up absorbing each other with each variation, becoming more alike, until, at the very end, they are merged. If we label the two themes A and B, the first appearance of A consists of long, slow, sustained notes, making it hymn-like, churchish. The major key B theme, marked on the score to be played "Neue Kraft fühlend" (/with renewed strength/), beginning with four strongly punctuated notes and syncopation, stuns us by its contrast,


But both themes are tied together by a four-note motif, one that recurs throughout the whole string quartet, although we are just concentrating on this one movement. From the beginning, buried in the A theme, we hear it, low-high-lower-higher. In the animated score video we're going to watch, it's the first three notes, three red and then one pink. Sometimes it is turned upsid down (high to low), sometimes it is ornamented. But it is usually buried within the hymnlike harmony. It reappears in the B theme as the first four notes.


Robert Kapilow of Stanford School of Medicine has an hour-long Youtube lecture on this work analyzing it not just musically, but attempting to explain it as a musical allegory on recovery from illness. It's worth listening to, but I suggest doing it after you've read the diary and listened to the whole piece. Kapilow follows the different transformations that this same four-note motif takes.


"Heiliger Dankgesang" movement of the Beethoven String Quartet #15 in A minor, performers unknown.


9. "Out of Limits" - The Marketts


This February '64 smash from the Los Angeles based outfit, incorporates a sci-fi B-movie twang to the classic surf rock instrumental. In fact, the story goes that Twilight Zone creator Rod Serling thought the song's opening lick rode the wave of his hit TV show a little too closely and sued the band for copying the title music's opening four note motif. However, this remains a classic of the surf rock era.

Today’s SotW is the first movement of the four-part suite – “Acknowledgement.”



Wikipedia describes the piece like this:


The album begins with the bang of a gong (tam-tam), followed by cymbal washes. Jimmy Garrison follows on bass with the four-note motif which structures the entire movement. Coltrane’s solo follows. Besides soloing upon variations of the motif, at one point Coltrane repeats the four notes over and over in different modulations. After many repetitions, the motif becomes the vocal chant “A Love Supreme”, sung by Coltrane (accompanying himself via overdubs).

This information is in my over 50 qmr books
four note motif twilight zone and Marketts----

The Marketts' surfer sound started with "Surfer's Stomp",[7] which was by written by and produced by Gordon[7] and Saraceno. Gordon also wrote their biggest hit, "Out of Limits",[8] which was originally entitled "Outer Limits", named after the television program of the same name. Rod Serling sued the Marketts for quoting the four-note motif from his television show, The Twilight Zone, without his approval, which resulted in the change of the title to "Out of Limits".[9] It reached No. 3 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in 1964. It sold over one million copies, and was awarded a gold disc.[10] The band name was used as late as 1977 for further releases, though their last hit came in 1966.

Four note motif of Twilight Zone and Out of Limits


"Out of Limits" is a 1963 surf rock instrumental piece written by Michael Z. Gordon[1] and performed by The Marketts.


While on tour with a band called the Routers, Gordon wrote the Marketts’ first release on the Warner Bros. label and their biggest hit, an instrumental called “Outer Limits”. First pressings were issued as "Outer Limits", named and surf-styled after the television program of the same name. However, Rod Serling sued the Marketts for quoting the four note motif from his television show, The Twilight Zone, without his approval, which resulted in the change of the title to "Out of Limits".[2][3] The record has been described as "an intriguing up-beat disc with a galloping rhythm".[4]

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.…/happy-50th-anniversary-twilight-zo…
Much like the "dum-de-DUM-dum"� Dragnet theme, the opening notes of The Twilight Zone theme song have become a pop culture icon. Any time something frightening or inexplicable is mentioned in conversation, odds are someone will intone the iconic four repetitive notes composed by Marius Constant. The French avant-garde composer was never commissioned to write the theme song; it was instead cobbled together from two different short "cues"� he had previously written for CBS. "Etrange 3 (Strange No. 3)" and "Milieu 2 (Middle No. 2)" were two different short pieces Constant had written and recorded for the CBS music library in 1959 with a small ensemble featuring two guitars, bongo drums, a saxophone and French horns. When The Twilight Zone was picked up for a second season, the show's producers were looking to replace the original Bernard Hermann theme, which CBS execs had described as "too down."� By splicing together the two rarely-heard short pieces composed by Constant which were already owned by CBS, the network managed to create a theme song legend without having to pay a truckload of royalty fees.

Dragnet four note motif

Following the outbreak of World War II, Schumann enlisted, eventually becoming the musical director of the Armed Forces Radio Service. He worked with most of the major acts of the war on all the radio shows AFRS produced during this time. After the war, he returned to Los Angeles and worked in the movie and television industry as a composer and arranger, mostly on several Abbott & Costello films. In 1949, Schumann was asked to compose a new theme for a police detective show about to make its debut on the NBC Radio network. He began his theme with a four note motif—quite possibly the second most famous four-note motif after Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. Dragnet became a smash hit on the radio, and then television, and Schumann's theme quickly became instantly recognizable.[citation needed]

Dragnet --- famous four note motif

Four note motif

Miklos Rozsa, ‘Dragnet’ & a ‘dumb-de-dumb-dumb’ mistake

By Steve Crum


THIS was the city. Los Angeles, California. Home of movies, TV, and the people who make them. Sometimes they break laws, by mistake or on purpose. That’s part of my job: report them. 


My name’s not Friday. I’m not a cop. These are just the facts, ma’am...


In 1954, composer Walter Schumann (1913-58) won the first Emmy ever awarded to a composer for original television music. It was for his memorable theme to the popular cop series, Dragnet, which was created and produced by Jack Webb (pictured at left), and starred Webb as Sgt. Joe Friday. Dragnet had begun on radio in 1949 (running until 1957), and segued into TV (1951-58) in its first of several versions.


The “dum-de-dum-dum” theme was so familiar and popular that satirist Stan Freberg sold millions of records in 1951 using the theme in his comedy take-off, St. George and the Dragonet. Ray Anthony’s jazz version of the Dragnet theme was another best seller in 1953. The four “dum” notes even made the cover of Time Magazine in March, 1954, along with Jack Webb’s photo.


The Dragnet music would be Schumann’s musical legacy, even though he scored the cult classic thriller, Night of the Hunter, and fronted his own choral group, The Voices of Walter Schumann, on several albums.


All was rosy-cozy, except for Rozsa, Miklos Rozsa.


Miklos Rozsa (1907-95) wrote numerous film scores throughout the golden years of Hollywood and beyond. The Hungarian-born, award winning composer wrote stunning music for Ben-Hur, Spellbound, A Double Life, and Madame Bovary, among dozens more from 1936-82. No one was more stunned, however, than Walter Schumann when he was served papers by Rozsa’s lawyers for allegedly stealing the Dragnet “dum-de-dum-dum” notes from Miklos Rozsa.


Schumann was accused of plagiarism and copyright infringement, the claim being the Dragnet four-note motif was lifted from Rozsa’s score of The Killers (1946). Both Schumann and his orchestrator, Nathan Scott, plead that the similarity was totally unintentional. In other words, the four famous notes were accidentally, subconsciously borrowed. Schumann’s lawyers counter-claimed that Rozsa had lifted his notes from both Dvorak and Brahms.


That counter-claim went nowhere. However, the two composers agreed to settle the “dum-de-dum-dum” issue out of court for $100 thousand (to Rozsa), plus a 50-50 split between Schumann and Rozsa of future Dragnet theme royalties.


It was the closest Miklos Rozsa came to scoring a TV show or series.


This has (not) been a Mark VII Production. Fade out.

Show Boys record and Tango and Triggerman use the four note motif- the same as Dragnet

Dragnet, tango, Show Boys, Triggerman, Dragnet four note motif…

Four note motif


The song is based on a traditional folk chant whose language was thought to have magical properties. The original traditional Ukrainian text used a device known as hemiola in the rhythm (alternating the accents within each measure from 3/4 to 6/8 and back again). The chant based on an ostinato four-note pattern within the range of a minor third is thought to be of prehistoric origins and was associated with the coming New Year which in Ukraine before the introduction of Christianity was originally celebrated in April.


The four-note melody over a minor third of the chant was used by Ukrainian composer Mykola Leontovych as an ostinato theme in a number of arrangements he made. The arrangement for mixed voice choir a cappella was popularized by the Ukrainian Republic Capella directed by Oleksander Koshetz when it toured the West after 1920.îla-Symphonie


The Turangalîla-Symphonie is a large-scale piece of orchestral music by Olivier Messiaen (1908–92). It was written from 1946 to 1948 on a commission by Serge Koussevitzky for the Boston Symphony Orchestra


In writing about the work, Messiaen identified four "cyclic" themes that reappear throughout; there are other themes specific to each movement.[9] In the score the themes are numbered, but in later writings he gave them names to make them easier to identify, without intending the names to have any other, literary meaning.


The composer's initial plan was for a symphony in the conventional four movements, which eventually became numbers 1, 4, 6, and 10. Next, he added the three Turangalîla movements, which he originally called tâlas, a reference to the use of rhythm in Indian classical music. Finally, the 2nd, 5th, and 8th movements were inserted.[10] Early on, Messiaen authorized separate performance of movements 3, 4, and 5, as Three tâlas (not to be confused with the original use of the term for the three Turangalîla movements), but later came to disapprove of the performance of extracts.

Four multiplied four times is 16


The first major motif in Bat Boy is a short motif (just four notes) repeated four times as the introduction to the opening number, "Hold Me, Bat Boy," and it accompanies and often presages danger throughout the show.

Four note signature motive

The fiasco may have had more than just professional significance for Rachmaninoff. His distraught reaction becomes understandable when the import of the symphony’s dedication to a mysterious “A. L.” is factored in. “A. L.” was Anna Aleksandrovna Lodizhenskaya, a woman of gypsy heritage whose husband had received the dedication of Rachmaninoff’s earlier Capriccio on Gypsy Themes. The composer also affixed to the title page of the score a quotation from Leo Tolstoy’s tragic story of a passionate young woman married to a much older man, Anna Karenina. The possibility of a romantic connection between the young composer and this gypsy Anna makes it an intriguing game to search for clues to a private subtext for the work: the exotic, Oriental cast of some of the melodies, the passages of fiery turbulence and impulsive lovelorn yearning, the strange little “fate” motive that pops up in various places throughout the work. In any case, it’s not a bad piece. In fact, the brilliant, stormy first movement, with its melodic reference to the plainchant Dies Irae from the Requiem Mass, clearly points forward to the composer’s later masterworks. The magically orchestrated second movement is a delicate, light-footed dance that alternates between seductively swaying waltz rhythms and quicksilver splashes of mercurial passagework for strings and woodwinds that seem to fly by on whirring wings. The third movement is a yearning love-song in Rachmaninoff’s familiar full-throated Romantic style and he pours out all the ‘Russian’ colors on his composer’s palette for the finale. After a rousing fanfare, the movement surges along with the combination of rousing march rhythms and soaring lyrical outpourings that would become Rachmaninoff’s personal stylistic signature. One curious note: each movement begins with the above-mentioned ominous four-note signature motive that seems to have had some personal symbolic significance for the composer. The motive returns at various times throughout the symphony, but doesn’t connect with the rest of the melodic material. Is it a symbol of ill-fated passion? Who knows? In any case, the symphony ends powerfully with a grand peroration based on the motive.


The sign that had been hanging from the balcony since I started going to see the Dead, with its ever changing number: “___ days since last SF Dark Star” was taken down amid general mayhem and craziness. It had been 1,535 days. I had pretty much figured that I would never ever get to hear “Dark Star” performed live. Probably a lot of us felt the same way. Of course, the rumors had been flying that night—“They’re gonna play ‘Dark Star’!”—but I just plain didn’t believe it. So when the third set opened with the song, it was pure magic. That four-note motif resonates more deeply, to a Deadhead, than the opening four-note motif of Beethoven’s Fifth, promising brand-new, magical musical adventures ahead.

four note motif

Petulia is one of Barry's finest albums, a deeply moving and almost unbearably melancholy work which shows the depths of his emotional gifts. The album is a very different musical experience from the film, featuring several cues not included in the movie, and even some of the cues that were included were partially dialed out or mixed so quietly as to be nearly inaudible -- overall the musical approach of the film is much more European than Hollywood. The Petulia score is dominated by a simple main theme, a variation on a four note motif, which (especially given the tone of the film) is more of a loneliness theme than a love theme. (If you really tried, you could sing the name Pe-tu-li-a to the theme, but given the nature and tone of the film, the lyrics would likely be incredibly depressing). Barry himself was quoted in the book John Barry: A Life in Music (by Geoff Leonard, Pete Walker and Gareth Bramley) as saying of his score that "the interpretation was cold and icy, but worked in a strange way." Barry would win his third Oscar for another 1968 score, The Lion in Winter, and though the film Petulia was not a success at the time, its reputation has soared over the intervening years, now regarded by some critics as one of the finest American films of the sixties.


Side One begins with MAIN TITLE - PETULIA (1:55), though the cue in the film is about a minute shorter than on the album. It starts with a two-note horn motif, heard repeatedly in the story (a little like the "Hypersleep" theme from Goldsmith's Alien, but played faster), which sounds rather like a European siren, and which deftly evokes Petulia's feeling of urban anomie, with its characters like cars passing in the night. The film begins with simple titles on black, each one positioned below the previous one like a list being checked off, and a shot of what at first appears to be a moon on the horizon but which is actually the lit end of a tunnel at night as an ambulance appears. The Petulia theme plays through the credits, the four notes performed in a uniform tempo and punctuated with brooding chords, until the siren motif closes out the cue.

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The standard symphony has three or four movements (the fourth is different, was added later by Haydn and became popular):
1. Allegro (lively and fast) usually in sonata form (see page 10 for description)
2. A slow movement, adagio (slow)
3. A minuet or scherzo, a dance-like movement in triple time (3 beats to a bar). This is
the movement that is not included in a three movement symphony.
4. The final movement; usually allegro (lively and fast), or often presto (very fast) in rondo (A B A C A D A) or sonata form.…/attachme…/explore_meet_the_symphony.pdf



A SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA is a large instrumental ensemble containing instruments from the four families; strings, woodwind, brass and percussion. A symphony orchestra is led by a conductor and plays not only symphonies but music of all eras and styles from around the world.

A symphony orchestra will also accompany opera, ballet and musicals and play the sound tracks for movies . Orchestras often play concertos. This is when a soloist performs a special part in front of the orchestra.


A tetrad is a set of four notes in music theory. When these four notes form a tertian chord they are more specifically called a seventh chord, after the diatonic interval from the root of the chord to its fourth note (in root position close voicing). Four-note chords are often formed of intervals other than thirds in 20th- and 21st-century music, however, where they are more generally referred to as tetrads (see, for example, Hanson 1960,[page needed], Gamer 1967, 37 & 52, and Forte 1985, 48–51, 53). Allen Forte in his The Structure of Atonal Music never uses the term "tetrad", but occasionally employs the word tetrachord to mean any collection of four pitch classes (Forte 1973, 1, 18, 68, 70, 73, 87, 88, 21, 119, 123, 124, 125, 138, 143, 171, 174, and 223). In 20th-century music theory, such sets of four pitch classes are usually called "tetrachords" (Anon. 2001; Roeder 2001).

A tetratonic scale is a musical scale or mode with four notes per octave. This is in contrast to a heptatonic (seven-note) scale such as the major scale and minor scale, or a dodecatonic (chromatic 12-note ) scale, both common in modern Western music. Tetratonic scales are not common in modern art music, and are generally associated with primitive music

American Indian music[edit]
Tetratonic scales were common among the Plains Indians, though less common than the pentatonic scale.[4] Amongst the Arapaho, Blackfoot, Crow, Omaha, Kiowa, Pawnee, and Sioux, as well as some Plateau tribes, especially the Flathead, the tetratonic and pentatonic scales used are anhemitonic (that is, they do not include semitones).[5] Tetratonic scales have also been noted among the music of the Creek Indians,[6] and in the Great Basin region among the Washo, Ute, Paiute, and Shoshone.[7] In the Southwest, the Navajo people also largely used the pentatonic and tetratonic, occasionally also tritonic scales.[8]

Tetratonic music was known among the Inuit, including the Greenlandic peoples.[9]

A 1969 study by ethnomusicologist Mervyn McLean noted that tetratonic scales were the second-most common type among the Maori tribes surveyed, accounting for 31% of scales used. The most common were tritonic (3-note) scales at 47%, while the third-most was ditonic (two-note) scales at 17%.[10]

Tetratonic music was noted as common in Polynesia and Melanesia.[11] On Guadalcanal in particular, anhemitonic pentatonic and tetratonic scales are the predominant types, although the minor second does nevertheless occasionally appear as a melodic interval. The most often used melodic intervals, however, are the major second, minor third, perfect fourth, perfect fifth, and octave.[12]

The main instrument in the Lobi area of Ghana is the xylophone, some of which are tuned to a tetratonic scale.[13] In eastern Uganda, the Gwere use for their six-string harp (called tongoli) a tetratonic scale in which all the intervals are nearly equal, which to Western ears sounds like a chain of minor thirds.[14]

Tetratonic, as well as tritonic scales, were commonly used by the tribal peoples of India, such as the Juang and Bhuyan of Orissa state.[15]

The music of the Volga-Finnic Cheremis (Mari people) of central Russia was primarily pentatonic, but used tetratonic scales 20% of the time.[16]

Western Europe[edit]
The second-earliest scales of Scandinavian, German, English, and Scottish folk music are believed to have been pentatonic, themselves developed from an earlier tetratonic scale.[17][not in citation given] Tetratonic scales, along with pentatonic scales, account for 54% of songs in the traditional joik repertoire of the European Arctic Sami people, where the singing range extends to a tenth or eleventh.[18]

The predominant style of traditional music from the Peloponnese region of Greece is a mixture of Christian, Albanian, and Vlach. It employs tetratonic, pentachordal, and pentatonic scales, around the notes of which microtonal ornamentation (stolidia/psevtikes) occurs.[19]

Art music[edit]

Basic five-note unit of Reed Phase, by Steve Reich
A rare example of an art-music composition based entirely on a tetratonic scale is the early minimalist work Reed Phase (1966), by Steve Reich, which is based entirely on a single five-note cell, or "basic unit", repeated continually throughout the entire work. Because the note A occurs twice in this pattern, there are only four pitches in all.[20]


Reed Phase was originally composed for soprano saxophone and two saxophones pre-recorded on magnetic tape, under the title Saxophone Phase. By the time of its publication two years later the possible instrumentation had been extended to include "clarinet, oboe, accordion, reed organ, or any reed instrument that produces the four necessary pitches" (Reich 1968, 69). It may also be played without tape on "any three reed instruments of exactly the same kind", in which case it is titled Three Reeds (Reich 1968, 70).


The basic unit is continually repeated by the instrumentalist and, because the performer must play without any interruption for at least five minutes, Reed Phase requires the use of circular breathing, instructions for which are given in the score (Reich 1968, 69). It is probably the first composition to require the use of circular breathing throughout the entire duration of the piece (Gibson 1992). Although the basic unit consists of five notes, the note A is used twice, so that there are only four pitches in all. The scale of the piece is therefore tetratonal, centered on the low D (Potter 2000, 181).


Potter, Keith. 2000. Four Musical Minimalists: La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-01501-4.


The Four Sections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Not to be confused with The American Four Seasons.

The Four Sections is an orchestral work by the minimalist American composer Steve Reich.


The piece was commissioned for the San Francisco Symphony in honour of its 75th Anniversary by the widow of Ralph Dorfman.[1] It was completed in August 1987 and given its premier that year on 7 October conducted by Michael Tilson Thomas in Davies Hall.[2]


The title of the work refers to the four sections of the orchestra and the four harmonic sections dividing each movement.


The work consists of the following movements:


Strings (with winds and brass) (♩ = 80)

Percussion (♩ = 80)

Winds and brass (with strings) (♩ = 120)

Full orchestra (♩ = 180)

The original idea for The Four Sections was suggested by Tilson Thomas in terms of a Concerto for Orchestra. Reich's approach to the concept of a Concerto for Orchestra was explicitly different from that of Bartok's 'soloist versus orchestra' piece. Instead, Reich saw the orchestra as a means to explore further the ideas presented in works like Six Marimbas and Violin Phase, where identical instruments are interlocked.[1]


The Kronos Quartet is an American string quartet based in San Francisco. They have been in existence with a rotating membership of musicians for over forty years. The quartet specializes in contemporary classical music, with more than 750 works having been written for them.

Mallet Quartet is a composition by Steve Reich scored for two marimbas and two vibraphones; four marimbas; or one percussionist and tape. It was co-commissioned by the Amadinda Quartet in Budapest, on the occasion of its 25th anniversary, by Nexus in Toronto, So Percussion in New York, and Synergy Percussion in Australia. It received its World premiere in December 2009 at the Bela Bartók National Concert Hall in Hungary and its US premiere at Stanford University on January 9, 2010.[1][2]


Triple Quartet is a piece written by Steve Reich in 1998. It was commissioned by and is dedicated to the Kronos Quartet, and was premiered by them on May 22, 1999 in the Kennedy Center, Washington DC. As the name suggests, the triple quartet is written for three string quartets, each containing 2 violins, a viola and a cello. However, it is designed to be performed by only one string quartet through the use of prerecorded tracks for the other 8 voices.



The composer had this to say about the structure of the piece:[citation needed]


The piece is in three movements (fast–slow–fast) and is organized harmonically on four dominant chords in minor keys a minor third apart—E minor, G minor, B-flat minor, C-sharp minor—and then returning to E minor to form a cycle. The first movement goes through this harmonic cycle twice with a section about one minute long on each of the four dominant chords. The result is a kind of variation form.


Rhythmically, the first movement has the second and third quartet playing interlocking chords while the first quartet plays longer melodies in canon between the first violin and viola against the second violin and cello.


The slow movement is more completely contrapuntal, with a long, slow melody in canon eventually in all 12 voices. It stays in E minor throughout.


The third movement resumes the original fast tempo and maintains the harmonic chord cycle, but modulates back and forth between keys more rapidly. The final section of the movement is in the initial key of E minor, and there the piece finally cadences.

Four sections,_Voices_and_Organ


Music for Mallet Instruments, Voices and Organ is a 1973 composition by American composer Steve Reich. The piece is scored for glockenspiels, marimbas, metallophone (vibraphone without resonators), women's voices, and organ, and runs about 17 minutes.


The piece is in four sections, played without a break, marked off by changes in key and meter: 1) F dorian, in 3/4 time; 2) A flat dorian, in 2/4; 3) B flat minor, in 3/4; and 4) D flat, in 3/4.


The piece features two interrelated musical processes: the building up of a duplicate of a preexisting pattern played by the marimbas and the glockenspiels, and the augmenting (lengthening of the duration of notes) of repeated chord cadences of the women's voices and organ. The women's voices sing a simple vowel sound, "ee", doubling upper notes of chords played by the organ.


The decision to double organ and women's voices was made by Reich after several months of experimentation. First he tried doubling four wind instruments with two men's and two women's voices. One attempt along this line was made with two bass clarinets and two clarinets; another involved bass trombone, trombone, flugelhorn, and trumpet. He found that the performers, both the wind players and the vocalists, had difficulty keeping in tune for long chords. Reich substituted organ for the wind instruments, and then eliminated the men's voices to avoid a sound that was "too heavy and slow moving."

Four notes

With the premiere of Reed Phase at Fairleigh Dickinson University in early 1967, Reich and a musician friend, Arthur Murphy, had the opportunity to attempt Piano Phase with two pianos in live concert. Reich discovered that it was possible to dispense with tape and phase without mechanical assistance. Reich experimented phasing with several versions, including a version for four electric pianos titled Four Pianos dating from March 1967, before settling on a final version of the piece written for two pianos.[2] The creation of the version for four pianos was conducted March 17, 1967 at the Park Place Gallery, with Art Murphy, James Tenney, Philip Corner, and Reich himself.[3]


The second pianist then fades out, leaving the first playing the original twelve-note melody. The first pianist adjusts the bottom part to a four-note motif, which changes the pattern to an 8-note repeating pattern. The second pianist re-enters, but with a distinct 8-note pattern. The phasing process begins again; after the full eight cycles, the first pianist fades out, leaving one eight-note melody playing. The section ends at measure 26.


Third section[edit]


Third motive: 4 semiquavers grouped 2x2

The last section introduces the simplest pattern, now in 4/8 meter, built from final four notes of the melody from the previous section,[4] and having only four distinct pitch classes. The other pianist re-enters, the phasing process restarts, and ends when both pianists return to unison. The phase cycle is repeated ad libitum from eight to sixty times according to the score.


First motive: 12 semiquavers grouped 4x3


The first section has five notes but it is grouped four by three

Four divisions



Persian music divides the interval of a fourth differently than the Greek. For example, Al-Farabi describes four genres of the division of the fourth:[20]


The first genre, corresponding to the Greek diatonic, is composed of a tone, a tone and a semitone, as G–A–B–C.

The second genre is composed of a tone, three quarter tones and three quarter tones, as G–A–Bhalf flat–C.

The third genre has a tone and a quarter, three quarter tones and a semitone, as G–Ahalf sharp–B–C.

The fourth genre, corresponding to the Greek chromatic, has a tone and a half, a semitone and a semitone, as G–A♯–B–C.

He continues with four other possible genres "dividing the tone in quarters, eighths, thirds, half thirds, quarter thirds, and combining them in diverse manners".[21] Later, he presents possible positions of the frets on the lute, producing ten intervals dividing the interval of a fourth between the strings:[22]


Ratio: 1/1 256/243 18/17 162/149 54/49 9/8 32/27 81/68 27/22 81/64 4/3

Note name: C C♯ C♯ Cthree quarter sharp Cthree quarter sharp D E♭ E♭ Ehalf flat E F

Cents: 0 90 99 145 168 204 294 303 355 408 498

If one considers that the interval of a fourth between the strings of the lute (Oud) corresponds to a tetrachord, and that there are two tetrachords and a major tone in an octave, this would create a 25-tone scale. A more inclusive description (where Ottoman, Persian and Arabic overlap), of the scale divisions is that of 24 quarter tones (see also Arabian maqam). It should be mentioned that Al-Farabi's, among other Islamic treatises, also contained additional division schemes as well as providing a gloss of the Greek system as Aristoxenian doctrines were often included.[23]


In music theory, traditionally, a tetrachord (Greek: τετράχορδoν, Latin: tetrachordum) is a series of four notes ("chords", from the Greek chordon, "string" or "note") separated by three smaller intervals that span the interval of a perfect fourth, a 4:3 frequency proportion. In modern usage a tetrachord is any four-note segment of a scale or tone row, not necessarily related to a particular system of tuning.


Contents [hide]

1 History

1.1 Ancient Greek music theory

1.2 Pythagorean tunings

2 Variations

2.1 Romantic era

2.2 20th-century analysis

2.3 Atonal usage

3 Non-Western scales

3.1 Indian-specific tetrachord system

3.2 Persian

4 Compositional forms

5 See also

6 Sources

7 Further reading


The term tetrachord derives from ancient Greek music theory, where it signified a segment of the Greater and Lesser Perfect Systems bounded by unmovable notes (Greek: ἑστῶτες); the notes between these were movable (Greek: κινούμενοι). It literally means four strings, originally in reference to harp-like instruments such as the lyre or the kithara, with the implicit understanding that the four strings produced adjacent (i.e. conjunct) notes.


Modern music theory makes use of the octave as the basic unit for determining tuning: ancient Greeks used the tetrachord for this purpose. Ancient Greek theorists recognized that the octave is a fundamental interval, but saw it as built from two tetrachords and a whole tone.[1]


Ancient Greek music theory[edit]

Main article: Genus (music)

Ancient Greek music theory distinguishes three genera (singular: genus) of tetrachords. These genera are characterized by the largest of the three intervals of the tetrachord:



A diatonic tetrachord has a characteristic interval that is less than or equal to half the total interval of the tetrachord (or approximately 249 cents). This characteristic interval is usually slightly smaller (approximately 200 cents), becoming a whole tone. Classically, the diatonic tetrachord consists of two intervals of a tone and one of a semitone, e.g. A–G–F–E.


A chromatic tetrachord has a characteristic interval that is greater than about half the total interval of the tetrachord, yet not as great as four-fifths of the interval (between about 249 and 398 cents). Classically, the characteristic interval is a minor third (approximately 300 cents), and the two smaller intervals are equal semitones, e.g. A–G♭–F–E.



Two Greek tetrachords in the enharmonic genus, forming an enharmonic Dorian scale

An enharmonic tetrachord has a characteristic interval that is greater than about four-fifths the total tetrachord interval. Classically, the characteristic interval is a ditone or a major third,[2] and the two smaller intervals are quarter tones, e.g. A–Gdouble flat–Fhalf flat–E.

Whatever the tuning of the tetrachord, its four degrees are named, in ascending order, hypate, parhypate, lichanos (or hypermese), and mese and, for the second tetrachord in the construction of the system, paramese, trite, paranete, and nete. The hypate and mese, and the paramese and nete are "unmovable", fixed a perfect fourth apart, while the position of the parhypate and lichanos, or trite and paranete, are movable.


As the three genera simply represent ranges of possible intervals within the tetrachord, various shades (chroai) with specific tunings were specified. Once the genus and shade of tetrachord are specified, their arrangement can produce three main types of scales, depending on which note of the tetrachord is taken as the first note of the scale. The tetrachords themselves remain independent of the scales that they produce, and were never named after these scales by Greek theorists.[3]


Dorian scale

The first note of the tetrachord is also the first note of the scale:

Diatonic: E–D–C–B | A–G–F–E

Chromatic: E–D♭–C–B | A–G♭–F–E

Enharmonic: E–Ddouble flat–Chalf flat–B | A–Gdouble flat–Fhalf flat–E

Phrygian scale

The second note of the tetrachord (in descending order) is the first of the scale:

Diatonic: D–C–B | A–G–F–E | D

Chromatic: D♭–C–B | A–G♭–F–E | D♭

Enharmonic: Ddouble flat–Chalf flat–B | A–Gdouble flat–Fhalf flat–E | Ddouble flat

Lydian scale

The third note of the tetrachord (in descending order) is the first of the scale:

Diatonic: C–B | A–G–F–E | D–C

Chromatic: C–B | A–G♭–F–E | D♭–C

Enharmonic: Chalf flat–B | A–Gdouble flat–Fhalf flat–E | Ddouble flat–Chalf flat

In all cases, the extreme notes of the tetrachords, E – B, and A – E, remain fixed, while the notes in between are different depending on the genus.


Pythagorean tunings[edit]

Here are the traditional Pythagorean tunings of the diatonic and chromatic tetrachords:


Diatonic About this sound Play (help·info)

hypate parhypate lichanos mese

4/3 81/64 9/8 1/1

| 256/243 | 9/8 | 9/8 |

-498 -408 -204 0 cents

Chromatic About this sound Play (help·info)

hypate parhypate lichanos mese

4/3 81/64 32/27 1/1

| 256/243 | 2187/2048 | 32/27 |

-498 -408 -294 0 cents

Here is a representative Pythagorean tuning of the enharmonic genus attributed to Archytas:


Enharmonic About this sound Play (help·info)

hypate parhypate lichanos mese

4/3 9/7 5/4 1/1

| 28/27 |36/35| 5/4 |

-498 -435 -386 0 cents

The number of strings on the classical lyre varied at different epochs, and possibly in different localities – four, seven and ten having been favorite numbers. Larger scales are constructed from conjunct or disjunct tetrachords. Conjunct tetrachords share a note, while disjunct tetrachords are separated by a disjunctive tone of 9/8 (a Pythagorean major second). Alternating conjunct and disjunct tetrachords form a scale that repeats in octaves (as in the familiar diatonic scale, created in such a manner from the diatonic genus), but this was not the only arrangement.


The Greeks analyzed genera using various terms, including diatonic, enharmonic, and chromatic. Scales are constructed from conjunct or disjunct tetrachords.


Didymos chromatic tetrachord 16:15, 25:24, 6:5 About this sound Play (help·info)

Eratosthenes chromatic tetrachord 20:19, 19:18, 6:5 About this sound Play (help·info)

Ptolemy soft chromatic 28:27, 15:14, 6:5 About this sound Play (help·info)

Ptolemy intense chromatic 22:21, 12:11, 7:6 About this sound Play (help·info)

Archytas enharmonic 28:27, 36:35, 5:4 About this sound Play (help·info)

This is a partial table of the superparticular divisions by Chalmers after Hofmann.[who?][4]



Romantic era[edit]


Descending tetrachord in the modern B Locrian (also known as the Upper Minor Tetrachord): scale degree 8-♭scale degree 7-♭scale degree 6-♭scale degree 5 (b-a-g-f). This tetrachord spans a tritone instead of a perfect fourth. About this sound Play (help·info).


The Phrygian progression creates a descending tetrachord[5][unreliable source?] bassline: scale degree 8-♭scale degree 7-♭scale degree 6- scale degree 5. Phrygian half cadence: i-v6-iv6-V in c minor (bassline: c -b♭-a♭-g) About this sound Play (help·info).

Tetrachords based upon equal temperament tuning were used to explain common heptatonic scales. Given the following vocabulary of tetrachords (the digits give the number of semitones in consecutive intervals of the tetrachord, adding to five):


Tetrachord Halfstep String

Major 2 2 1

Minor 2 1 2

Harmonic 1 3 1

Upper Minor 1 2 2

the following scales could be derived by joining two tetrachords with a whole step (2) between:[6][7]


Component Tetrachords Halfstep String Resulting Scale

Major + Major 2 2 1 : 2 : 2 2 1 Diatonic Major[citation needed]

Minor + Upper Minor 2 1 2 : 2 : 1 2 2 Natural Minor[citation needed]

Major + Harmonic 2 2 1 : 2 : 1 3 1 Harmonic Major[citation needed]

Minor + Harmonic 2 1 2 : 2 : 1 3 1 Harmonic Minor[citation needed]

Harmonic + Harmonic 1 3 1 : 2 : 1 3 1 Double Harmonic Scale[8][9] or Gypsy Major[10]

Major + Upper Minor 2 2 1 : 2 : 1 2 2 Melodic Major[citation needed]

Minor + Major 2 1 2 : 2 : 2 2 1 Melodic Minor[citation needed]

Upper Minor + Harmonic 1 2 2 : 2 : 1 3 1 Neapolitan Minor[citation needed]

All these scales are formed by two complete disjunct tetrachords: contrarily to Greek and Medieval theory, the tetrachords change here from scale to scale (i.e., the C major tetrachord would be C–D–E–F, the D major one D–E–F♯–G, the C minor one C–D–E♭–F, etc.). The 19th-century theorists of ancient Greek music believed that this had also been the case in Antiquity, and imagined that there had existed Dorian, Phrygian or Lydian tetrachords. This misconception was denounced in Otto Gombosi's thesis (1939).[11]


20th-century analysis[edit]

Theorists of the later 20th century often use the term "tetrachord" to describe any four-note set when analysing music of a variety of styles and historical periods.[12] The expression "chromatic tetrachord" may be used in two different senses: to describe the special case consisting of a four-note segment of the chromatic scale,[13] or, in a more historically oriented context, to refer to the six chromatic notes used to fill the interval of a perfect fourth, usually found in descending bass lines.[14] It may also be used to describes sets of fewer than four notes, when used in scale-like fashion to span the interval of a perfect fourth.[15]


Atonal usage[edit]

Allen Forte occasionally uses the term tetrachord to mean what he elsewhere calls a tetrad or simply a "4-element set" – a set of any four pitches or pitch classes.[16] In twelve-tone theory, the term may have the special sense of any consecutive four notes of a twelve-tone row.[17]


Non-Western scales[edit]

Tetrachords based upon equal-tempered tuning were also used to approximate common heptatonic scales in use in Indian, Hungarian, Arabian and Greek musics. Western theorists of the 19th and 20th centuries, convinced that any scale should consist of two tetrachords and a tone, described various combinations supposed to correspond to a variety of exotic scales. For instance, the following diatonic intervals of one, two or three semitones, always totaling five semitones, produce 36 combinations when joined by whole step:[18]


Lower tetrachords Upper tetrachords

3 1 1 3 1 1

2 2 1 2 2 1

1 3 1 1 3 1

2 1 2 2 1 2

1 2 2 1 2 2

1 1 3 1 1 3

Indian-specific tetrachord system[edit]

See also Carnatic rāga and Hindustani classical music.


Tetrachords separated by a halfstep are said to also appear particularly in Indian music. In this case, the lower "tetrachord" totals six semitones (a tritone). The following elements produce 36 combinations when joined by halfstep.[18] These 36 combinations together with the 36 combinations described above produce the so-called "72 karnatic modes".[19]


Lower tetrachords Upper tetrachords

3 2 1 3 1 1

3 1 2 2 2 1

2 2 2 1 3 1

1 3 2 2 1 2

2 1 3 1 2 2

1 2 3 1 1 3


Persian music divides the interval of a fourth differently than the Greek. For example, Al-Farabi describes four genres of the division of the fourth:[20]


The first genre, corresponding to the Greek diatonic, is composed of a tone, a tone and a semitone, as G–A–B–C.

The second genre is composed of a tone, three quarter tones and three quarter tones, as G–A–Bhalf flat–C.

The third genre has a tone and a quarter, three quarter tones and a semitone, as G–Ahalf sharp–B–C.

The fourth genre, corresponding to the Greek chromatic, has a tone and a half, a semitone and a semitone, as G–A♯–B–C.

He continues with four other possible genres "dividing the tone in quarters, eighths, thirds, half thirds, quarter thirds, and combining them in diverse manners".[21] Later, he presents possible positions of the frets on the lute, producing ten intervals dividing the interval of a fourth between the strings:[22]


Ratio: 1/1 256/243 18/17 162/149 54/49 9/8 32/27 81/68 27/22 81/64 4/3

Note name: C C♯ C♯ Cthree quarter sharp Cthree quarter sharp D E♭ E♭ Ehalf flat E F

Cents: 0 90 99 145 168 204 294 303 355 408 498

If one considers that the interval of a fourth between the strings of the lute (Oud) corresponds to a tetrachord, and that there are two tetrachords and a major tone in an octave, this would create a 25-tone scale. A more inclusive description (where Ottoman, Persian and Arabic overlap), of the scale divisions is that of 24 quarter tones (see also Arabian maqam). It should be mentioned that Al-Farabi's, among other Islamic treatises, also contained additional division schemes as well as providing a gloss of the Greek system as Aristoxenian doctrines were often included.[23]


Compositional forms[edit]

The tetrachord, a fundamentally incomplete fragment, is the basis of two compositional forms constructed upon repetition of that fragment: the complaint and the litany.


The descending tetrachord from tonic to dominant, typically in minor (e.g. A–G–F–E in A minor), had been used since the Renaissance to denote a lamentation. Well-known cases include the ostinato bass of Dido's aria When I am laid in earth in Henry Purcell's Dido and Aeneas, the Crucifixus in Johann Sebastian Bach's Mass in B minor, BWV 232, or the Qui tollis in Mozart's Mass in C minor, KV 427, etc.[24] This tetrachord, known as lamento ("complaint", "lamentation"), has been used until today. A variant form, the full chromatic descent (e.g. A–G♯–G–F♯–F–E in A minor), has been known as Passus duriusculus in the Baroque Figurenlehre.[full citation needed]


There exists a short, free musical form of the Romantic Era, called complaint or complainte (Fr.) or lament.[25] It is typically a set of harmonic variations in homophonic texture, wherein the bass descends through some tetrachord, possibly that of the previous paragraph, but usually one suggesting a minor mode. This tetrachord, treated as a very short ground bass, is repeated again and again over the length of the composition.


Another musical form, of the same time period, is the litany or litanie (Fr.), or lytanie (OE spur).[26] It is also a set of harmonic variations in homophonic texture, but in contrast to the lament, here the tetrachordal fragment – ascending or descending and possibly reordered – is set in the upper voice in the manner of a chorale prelude. Because of the extreme brevity of the theme and number of repetitions required, and free of the binding of chord progression to tetrachord in the lament, the breadth of the harmonic excursion in litany is usually notable.


Greek genera[edit]

Main article: Tetrachord

In ancient Greece there were three standard tunings (known by the Latin word genus, plural genera)[6] of a lyre.[7] These three tunings were called diatonic,[8] chromatic,[9] and enharmonic,[10] and the sequences of four notes that they produced were called tetrachords ("four strings").[11] A diatonic tetrachord comprised, in descending order, two whole tones and a semitone, such as A G F E (roughly). In the chromatic tetrachord the second string of the lyre was lowered from G to G♭, so that the two lower intervals in the tetrachord were semitones, making the pitches A G♭ F E. In the enharmonic tetrachord the tuning had two quarter tone intervals at the bottom: A Gdouble flat Fhalf flat E (where Fhalf flat is F♮ lowered by a quarter tone). For all three tetrachords, only the middle two strings varied in their pitch.[12]

Tetrachord genera of the four-string lyre, from The History of the Arts and Sciences of the Antients, Charles Rollin (1768). The text gives a typically fanciful account of the term chromatic.


It is unclear whether the lyre in question was itself a presumed four-stringed instrument ("τετράχορδον ὄργανον"), as some have suggested (see Peter Gorman, Pythagoras, a Life (London: Routledge & K. Paul, 1979), p. 162: "The fundamental instrument of early Greek music was the tetrachord or four-stringed lyre, which was tuned in accordance with the main concordances; the tetrachord was also the foundation of Greek harmonic theory"). The number of strings on early lyres and similar instruments is a matter of much speculation (see Martin Litchfield West, Ancient Greek music (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), especially pp. 62–64). Many later instruments had seven or perhaps more strings, and in that case the tetrachord must be thought of as based on a selection of four adjacent strings.


The Mass in B minor is Johann Sebastian Bach's only setting of the complete Latin text of the Ordinarium missae.[1] Towards the end of his life, mainly in 1748 and 1749, he finished composing new sections and compiling it into a complex, unified structure.


Bach structured the work in four parts:[2]


No. 1 Missa

No. 2 Symbolum Nicenum

No. 3 Sanctus

No. 4 Osanna, Benedictus, Agnus Dei et Dona nobis pacem

The four sections of the manuscript are numbered, and Bach's usual closing formula (S.D.G = Soli Deo Gloria) is found at the end of the Dona nobis pacem.


The Mass is a compendium of many different styles in vocal composition, in both the "stile antico" reminiscent of Renaissance music (even containing Gregorian chant) and the Baroque concertante style of his own time: fugal writing and dances, arias and a movement for two four-part choirs. Similar to architecture of the period, Bach achieved a symmetry of parts, with the profession of faith (Credo) in the center and the Crucifixus in its center. Bach scored the work for five vocal parts (two sopranos, alto, tenor and bass, SSATB). While some choral movements are for only four parts, the Sanctus is scored for six voices (SSAATB), and the Osanna even for two four-part choirs. Bach called for a rich instrumentation of brass, woodwinds and strings, assigning varied obbligato parts to different instruments.


The work is scored for five vocal soloists, chorus and orchestra. Its movements are listed in a table with the scoring of voices and instruments, key, tempo marking, time signature and source. The movement numbering follows the Bärenreiter edition of the Neue Bach-Ausgabe, first in a consecutive numbering (NBA II), then in a numbering for the four individual parts (NBA I).


The voices are abbreviated S for soprano, A for alto, T for tenor, B for bass. Bach asked for two sopranos. Practical performances often have only one soprano soloist, sharing the parts for the second soprano (SII) between soprano and alto. A four-part choir is indicated by SATB, a five-part choir by SSATB. The Sanctus requires six vocal parts, SSAATB, which are often divided in the three upper voices versus the lower voices. The Osanna requires two choirs SATB.


The second acclamation of God is a four-part choral fugue, set in stile antico, with the instruments playing colla parte.[22] This style was preferred at the court in Dresden.[11] The theme begins with intervals such as minor seconds and major seconds, similar to the motif B-A-C-H. The first entrances build from the lowest voice in the sequence bass, tenor, alto, soprano.[26] According to Christoph Wolff, Bach assimilated the stricter style of the Renaissance only in the early 1730s, after he had composed most of his cantatas, and this movement is his first "significant product" in the style.[13]


A four-part chorus in stile antico illustrates the idea of thanks and praise, again with trumpets and timpani. It is based on the first choral movement of Wir danken dir, Gott, wir danken dir, BWV 29,[9] which also expresses the idea of thanks to God and praise of his creation. The first part of the text, devoted to thanks, is a melody in even tempo that rises gradually and falls again. The voices enter without instrumental support in dense succession. The countersubject on the second line "propter magnam gloriam tuam" (for your great glory), devoted to the glory of God, is more complex in rhythm. Similarly, in the cantata the second line "und verkündigen deine Wunder" (and proclaim your wonders) leads to a more vivid countersubject.[33] Towards the end of the movement, the trumpets take part in the polyphony of the dense movement.[34]


Cross is the quadrant




Incipit of Crucifixus


Passus duriusculus in the ground bass

"Crucifixus" (Crucified), the beginning of the Credo part, is the oldest music in the setting of the Mass, dating back to 1714. It is a passacaglia, with the chromatic fourth in the bass line repeated thirteen times.[57] Wenk likens it to a sarabande.[29] The movement is based on the first section of the first choral movement of Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen, BWV 12.[9] Bach transposed the music from F minor to E minor, changed the instrumentation and repeated each bass note for more expressiveness.[55] Bach begins the movement with an instrumental setting of the bass line, while the cantata movement started immediately with the voices.[58]


The suffering of Jesus is expressed in chromatic melodic lines, dissonant harmonies, and sigh-motifs.[47] The final line, on the 13th repeat of the bass line, "et sepultus est" (and was buried) was newly composed, with the accompaniment silent and a modulation to G major, to lead to the following movement.[55] At the end, soprano and alto reach the lowest range of the movement on the final "et sepultus est" (and was buried).[58] A pianissimo ending of this movement, contrasted by a forte Et resurrexit, follows the Dresden Mass style.[18]


Catching the impulse from Hilary and confirmed in it by the success of Arian psalmody, Ambrose composed several original hymns as well, four of which still survive, along with music which may not have changed too much from the original melodies. Each of these hymns has eight four-line stanzas and is written in strict iambic dimeter (that is 2 x 2 iambs). Marked by dignified simplicity, they served as a fruitful model for later times.

Quadraphonic (or Quadrophonic and sometimes Quadrasonic) sound – similar to what is now called 4.0 surround sound – uses four channels in which speakers are positioned at the four corners of the listening space, reproducing signals that are (wholly or in part) independent of one another. Quadraphonic audio was the earliest consumer product in surround sound and thousands of quadraphonic recordings were made during the 1970s.

It was a commercial failure due to many technical problems and format incompatibilities. Quadraphonic audio formats were more expensive to produce than standard two-channel stereo. Playback required additional speakers and specially designed decoders and amplifiers.

Contents [hide] 
1 Operation
1.1 Discrete (4-4-4) formats
1.2 Matrix (4-2-4) formats
1.3 Derived (2-2-4) formats
2 History
2.1 Discrete tape formats
2.1.1 Quadraphonic open reel tape (Q4)
2.1.2 Quadraphonic 8-Track Tape (Q8)
2.2 Matrix vinyl formats
2.2.1 EV-4/Stereo-4 and Dynaco (DY)
2.2.2 QS Regular Matrix and SQ Quadraphonic
2.3 Discrete vinyl formats
2.3.1 CD-4 or Quadradisc
2.3.2 UD-4 / UMX / BMX
2.4 Radio broadcast formats
2.4.1 Matrix H
2.4.2 Universal SQ
2.5 Live concerts
2.6 Current situation
3 See also
4 References
5 External links

This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (March 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Quadraphonic audio reproduction on vinyl records was problematic, because some systems were based on discrete sound channels (allowing for full separation of the four original recorded channels, albeit with restricted high-frequency response and reduced record life), while others were matrix encoded into two tracks that would also play back in standard, two-channel, stereo on normal audio equipment (so-called "compatible" quadraphonic).[citation needed] Also, there were inexpensive "derived" solutions that only provided back ambience channels, not a defined placement of individual instruments.[1]

Quadraphonic systems based on tape were also introduced, based on new equipment capable of playing four discrete channels.

A full, four-channel (Quadraphonic) system will reproduce the Left Front, Left Back, Right Front, and Right Back audio signals in each of four separate speakers. Regardless of discrete or matrix formats, in four-channel stereo the rear speakers should be of the same or almost-same size or quality and have the same or almost-same frequency range as the front speakers.

Discrete (4-4-4) formats[edit]
Discrete reproduction is the only true Quadraphonic system. As its name suggests, with discrete formats the original four audio channels are passed through a four-channel transmission medium and presented to a four-channel reproduction system and fed to four speakers. This is defined as a 4–4–4 system.

UD-4 / UMX / BMX (1973)
CD-4 (Compatible Discrete 4) / Quadradisc (1972)
Quad-8 (Q8) / Quadraphonic 8-Track (1970)
Q4 / Quadraphonic Reel to Reel (1969)
Matrix (4-2-4) formats[edit]
With Matrix formats, the four channels are converted (encoded) down to two channels. These are then passed through a two-channel transmission medium (usually an LP record) before being decoded back to four channels and presented to four speakers. To transmit 4 individual audio signals in a stereo-compatible manner, there must be four simultaneous linear equations to reproduce the original 4 audio signals at the output. The term "compatible" indicates that:

A single-channel (mono) system will reproduce all four audio signals in its one speaker.
A two-channel (stereo) system will reproduce the Left Front & Left Back audio signals in the Left speaker and the Right Front & Right Back signals in the Right Speaker.
The original systems (DY & EV-4) were basic and suffered from low front L/R separation (around 12db) and a poor rear L/R separation of 2db. The decoders were designed more to give an effect rather than accurate decoding, which was mainly due to limitations in both systems, although as both systems were very closely related mathematically, users only needed one decoder of either system to play back albums of both systems.

The poor decode performance was the main reason for their disappearance once the improved matrix systems arrived based on the work by Peter Scheiber. His basic formula utilized 90-degree phase-shift circuitry to enable enhanced 4-2-4 matrix systems to be developed, of which the two main leaders were Columbia's SQ and Sansui's QS Systems.

The differences between the original systems and the new were so large that it made it impossible to decode DY/EV-4 with either SQ or QS decoders with any accuracy, the results being just a form of artificial quad.

[2][3] This 4:2:4 process could not be accomplished without some information loss. That is to say, the four channels produced at the final stage were not truly identical to those with which the process had begun.

Matrix H (1977)
SQ / Stereo Quadraphonic (1971)
QS (Quadraphonic Sound)/ RM (Regular Matrix) (1971)
DY / Dynaquad (used as an encoding format on some records) (1971)
EV / Stereo-4 (1970)
Derived (2-2-4) formats[edit]
Derived (2-2-4) formats were inexpensive electronic solutions that provided back ambiance channels from regular stereo records. There was not a deliberate placement of individual instruments on the back channels.[1]

DY / Dynaquad (1969)
Hafler circuit (1969)
Discrete tape formats[edit]
Quadraphonic open reel tape (Q4)[edit]

A 4-channel reel-to-reel tape unit from the 1970s, one of the few ways to achieve true 4-channel sound at home
The first medium for 4-channel sound was reel-to-reel tape, used first in European electronic-music studios by 1954,[4] an outstanding example of which was the tape part of Karlheinz Stockhausen’s piece, Kontakte (1958–60), and was introduced to the American market by the Vanguard Recording Society in June 1969 as "Quadraphonic open reel tape (Q4)" tapes.[5][not in citation given] All available 4 tracks were used in one direction on the tape, running at twice the speed of the regular 4-Track reel-to-reel tapes.[6]

Quadraphonic 8-Track Tape (Q8)[edit]
RCA Records followed, in April 1970, with its announcement of a 4 channel version of the 8-track tape, named Quad-8 or Quadraphonic 8-Track Tape (later shortened to just Q8). These eventually appeared in Sept. 1970.[7] There were automobile players as well as home versions.

The format was almost identical in appearance to stereo 8-tracks, except for a small sensing notch in the upper left corner of the cartridge. This signaled a quadraphonic 8-track player to combine the odd tracks as audio channels for Program 1, and the even tracks as channels for Program 2. The format was not backward-compatible with stereo or mono players; although quadraphonic players would play stereo 8-tracks, playing quadraphonic tapes on stereo players resulted in hearing only one-half the channels at a time.

The last release in the quadraphonic 8-track format was in 1978, although most had stopped appearing by the end of 1976.

Matrix vinyl formats[edit]
Quadraphonic records did not remain restricted to the discrete-channel format used in reel-to-reel or 8-track tapes. Quadraphonic vinyl albums appeared, using several different and incompatible recording modes.

EV-4/Stereo-4 and Dynaco (DY)[edit]
The first of these were basic systems with poor performance developed by Electro-Voice (EV-4/Stereo-4) and Dynaco (Dynaquad (DY)). A so-called matrix format, it utilized four sound channels which were "encoded" into two stereo album tracks. These were then "decoded" back into the original four sound channels, but with poor decode performance that failed to match the discrete formats.

QS Regular Matrix and SQ Quadraphonic[edit]

Sansui QS sound decoder
Improved systems based on Peter Scheiber's work on utilizing 90-degree phase-shift circuitry came later, namely the QS and SQ systems.

The first of these, known as QS, was developed by Sansui Electric. A so-called matrix format, it utilized four sound channels, which were "encoded" into two stereo album tracks. These were then "decoded" back into the original four sound channels. The QS system debuted in the United States in March 1971 and be improved by Vario-Matrix system in 1973.[citation needed]

The second, SQ, was developed and marketed by Columbia Records and Sony and entered the US market in April 1971. The SQ format was also used by companies such as EMI in Great Britain, who pressed several SQ album releases. The sound separation of the SQ system was greatly improved by the introduction of SQ Full Logic decoding in 1975 using the Motorola chips MC1312, MC1314 & MC1315.[citation needed]

Discrete vinyl formats[edit]
CD-4 or Quadradisc[edit]

Quadradisc record
The third major format for 4-channel vinyl LPs, known as CD-4 or Quadradisc, was devised by the Japanese JVC Corporation along with its United States counterpart RCA.

This quadraphonic format was first marketed in the United States in May 1972. A fully discrete sound mode, it eschewed the previous matrix systems in favor of a more complex method of 4-channel reproduction.[citation needed]

UD-4 / UMX / BMX[edit]
UD-4/UMX was developed by Nippon/Columbia (Denon). This is a hybrid discrete/matrix system. Only 35 to 40 items are encoded in this format and it was marketed only in the UK, Europe, and Japan.

The system suffered from incompatibility with regular stereo playback due to phase differences between the left and right channels.[8]

UD-4 was less critical in its setup than CD-4 because the carriers did not have to carry frequencies as high as those found in the CD-4 system.[9]

Radio broadcast formats[edit]
There were some experiments done with radio broadcasts (e.g., a Cliff Richard concert by the BBC,[10][11] whose earliest quadraphonic broadcast was in July 1974[12]), but they were short-lived.

One radio series, Double Exposure, was briefly syndicated throughout the United States to various FM stations; it was made up of jazz, rock and pop music that had been commercially released in one of the quadraphonic record or tape systems.

One of the longest-lived radio broadcasts was WQSR-FM "Quad 102½" in Sarasota, Florida.[13] Throughout most of the 1970s this station broadcast a signal which could be tuned as two separate stations with conventional stereo receivers.

In addition, San Francisco classical music station KKHI broadcast the San Francisco Opera in "compatible" (that is, matrix-encoded) quadraphonic format during the 1970s, as did Chicago station WFMT's live "Chicago Lyric Opera" broadcasts.[citation needed].

KRMH-FM ("Good Karma Radio")(San Marcos/Austin, Texas) broadcast in "Quad Stereo" in the early 1970s from its studios and transmitter near Buda, Texas.[citation needed]

KEXL-FM ("KEXL 104.5") (San Antonio, Texas) broadcast in "Quadraphonic" in the early to mid 1970s from its studios in a high-rise office building off Main Plaza. [14]

Sacramento station KWOD 106.5, named after the format, broadcast briefly beginning in 1977.

Matrix H[edit]

Ambisonic mixing equipment
Matrix H was developed by BBC engineers to carry quadraphonic sound via FM radio in a way that would be most compatible with existing mono and stereo receivers.[15]

Quadraphonic test programmes were made for BBC Radio 3 and BBC Radio 4, including plays and The Proms.[16]

The existing matrix formats were tested first. The "H" has no meaning; they called the first matrix assessed Matrix A, and then worked through the alphabet.[17][18] Matrix H emerged as the best solution for mono compatibility and radio transmission,[19] yet there was no specific commercially available decoder for it.

The BBC later cooperated with the developers of Ambisonics to produce BBC/NRDC System HJ. This was based on tolerance zones designed to include modified versions of both Matrix H and the prototype two-channel encoding of Ambisonics, known as System 45J. Subsequently, the Nippon-Columbia UMX matrix was brought into the standard, leading to the final UHJ name now associated with Ambisonics.[20]

Universal SQ[edit]
In 1976, Ben Bauer integrated matrix and discrete systems into USQ, or Universal SQ (others had done this with their quad systems too).

It was a hierarchical 4-4-4 discrete matrix that used the SQ matrix as the baseband for discrete quadraphonic FM broadcasts using additional difference signals called "T" and "Q". For a USQ FM broadcast, the additional "T" modulation was placed at 38 kHz in quadrature to the standard stereo difference signal and the "Q" modulation was placed on a carrier at 76 kHz.

For standard 2-channel SQ Matrix broadcasts, CBS recommended that an optional pilot-tone be placed at 19 kHz in quadrature to the regular pilot-tone to indicate SQ encoded signals and activate the listener's Logic decoder. CBS argued that the SQ system should be selected as the standard for quadraphonic FM because, in FCC listening tests of the various four channel broadcast proposals, the 4:2:4 SQ system, decoded with a CBS Paramatrix decoder, outperformed 4:3:4 (without logic) as well as all other 4:2:4 (with logic) systems tested, approaching the performance of a discrete master tape within a very slight margin. At the same time, the SQ "fold" to stereo and mono was preferred to the stereo and mono "fold" of 4:4:4, 4:3:4 and all other 4:2:4 encoding systems.

Live concerts[edit]

Azimuth Co-ordinator used by Pink Floyd, made by Bernard Speight, 1969 (Victoria & Albert Museum, London)
In 1967 the rock group Pink Floyd performed the first-ever surround-sound rock concert at “Games for May”, a lavish affair at London’s Queen Elizabeth Hall, where the band debuted its custom-made quadraphonic speaker system.[21] The control device they had made, the Azimuth Co-ordinator, is now displayed at London's Victoria and Albert Museum, as part of their Theatre Collections gallery.[22]

Current situation[edit]
The rise of home theatre products in the late 1980s and early 1990s brought multi-channel audio recording back into popularity, although in new digitally based formats. Some of the 1970s quadraphonic recordings have been reissued in modern surround sound formats such as DTS, Dolby Digital, DVD-Audio and Super Audio CD.

A 4-channel reel-to-reel tape unit from the 1970s, one of the few ways to achieve true 4-channel sound at home…/File:4_0_channels_(quadrophonic)…

Form of a quadrant

16 is the squares of the quadrant model


Compact Disc recordings contain two channels of 44.1-kHz 16-bit linear PCM audio. However, creators of the CD originally contemplated a four-channel, or quadraphonic, mode as well.[1]


The proprietary Red Book specification, as published by Sony and Philips, briefly mentions a four-channel mode in its June 1980, September 1983, and November 1991 editions. On the first page, it lays out the "Main parameters" of the CD system, including: "Number of channels: 2 and/or 4 simultaneously[*] sampled." The footnote says, "In the case of more than two channels the encoder and decoder diagrams have to be adapted."


The Red Book also reserved the first bit of the so-called Q subchannel "control field" to signal the presence of four-channel audio, but did not specify a method for using four-channel in the CD system. Had it been later specified, this mode might have included four separate channels of linear PCM audio (requiring some combination of faster rotation, a lower sampling rate, or fewer bits per sample). Alternatively, the "four-channel" bit could have been used merely to indicate the presence of a matrix-encoded recording.


In reality, however, the underspecified "four-channel" mode was dropped from the CD standard when it was adopted by the International Electrotechnical Commission and became IEC 908:1987, and later IEC 60908:1999. (Various national authorities have also adopted the IEC standard. E.g., it is also European Standard EN 60908:1999.)


Neither the 1987 nor the 1999 version of the IEC standard discusses the possibility of four-channel audio. Instead, the IEC document reserves the first bit of the Q subchannel "control field" to a different, although similarly cryptic, purpose—according to clause 17.5 note 2, it is for "Broadcasting use" in "non-audio applications of the Compact Disc."


Since the behavior of the "four-channel" or "Broadcasting use" bit was never specified by either CD standard, no mass-marketed discs have attempted to use the Red Book's four-channel mode, and no players have purported to implement it.
Quadrophenia is a 1979 British drama film, loosely based on the 1973 rock opera of the same name by The Who. It was directed by Franc Roddam in his feature directing début. Unlike the adaptation of Tommy, Quadrophenia is not a musical film, and the band does not appear live in the film.


To illustrate the four-way split personality of Jimmy, Townshend wrote four themes, reflecting the four members of the Who. These were "Bell Boy" (Moon), "Is It Me?" (Entwistle), "Helpless Dancer" (Daltrey) and "Love Reign O'er Me" (Townshend).[19] Two lengthy instrumentals on the album, the title track and "The Rock" contain the four themes, separately and together. The instrumentals were not demoed but built up in the studio.[20] Who author John Atkins described the instrumental tracks as "the most ambitious and intricate music the group ever undertook."[19]

In music composition the four-group is the basic group of permutations in the twelve-tone technique. In that instance the Cayley table is written


Some music is written, in four-part harmony, for small groups of only four instruments, such as a string quartet, a brass quartet, or a woodwind quartet. Each instrument could be scored to mimic the four voices of choral music.[clarification needed] However, due to the range of musical instruments covering more pitches than a typical human voice, a quartet might play some harmonies with very high notes or very low notes, rather than the blended range of choral music.[original research?]

Beyond quartets, in large orchestras or musical bands, the larger sections of instruments, such as violins, cellos, clarinets, flutes, trumpets, or French horns often have music written in four-part harmony.[dubious – discuss] Similar to vocal music, the first part for a section of instruments typically plays the melody line, in some passages of a composition, with the other parts playing the supporting harmonies. The third part is often a harmonic mirror of the first part, which will sound somewhat melodic as well (if played separately). However, the second and fourth parts usually play close harmonies, in a more monotonous range, and rarely sound as melodic as the third part. Because musical instruments typically have a wider range than a human voice, any instrument in each section of a band or orchestra is able to play any of the four parts, although the first part often has high notes, or faster notes, that only a more experienced musician can play well.[original research?]


Barbershop quartets, originally from English-speaking North America, usually consist of four men or women who sing first tenor (called tenor), second tenor (called lead), baritone, and bass parts. A barbershop quartet typically sings with extra focus on emphasizing or exaggerating the harmonies in a piece of music, rather than singing in quiet supporting roles. The supporting voices can provide counter-melodies, close harmonies, or a walking bass to the melody line, which is sung in a middle voice. The harmonies are typically rooted in the chromatic aesthetics of early 20th-century popular music.


The term "four-part harmony" refers to music written for four voices, or four musical instruments, or a keyboard instrument, or some other medium, where the various parts give a different note of each chord of the music. Typically, the first of the four parts will sing (or play) the melody, with the other three parts providing the supporting harmonies. It is unusual for any of the four parts to share the same pitch, although it happens at times. Notice how three do the harmony and one does the melody. The fourth is always different.

The four main voices are typically labelled as: soprano (or treble), alto (contralto or countertenor), tenor, and bass. Because most singers have a relatively limited range, the upper notes of the soprano or tenor part cannot be sung by a bass singer.[3] Conversely, the lower notes of the bass part typically cannot be reached by a soprano voice, with some notes so low that alto and tenor voices cannot reach them either.

Groups of just four people, singing as quartets, can perform in four-part harmony


Frédéric Chopin's four ballades are one-movement pieces for solo piano, composed between 1831 and 1842. They are some of the most challenging pieces in the standard piano repertoire.

There are dramatic and dance-like elements in Chopin's use of the genre, and he may be said to be a pioneer of the ballade as an abstract musical form. The four ballades are said to have been inspired by poet Adam Mickiewicz.The exact inspiration for each individual ballade, however, is unclear and disputed.

The ballades are considered an innovation of Chopin's and cannot[citation needed] be placed into another form (e.g. sonata). Though they do not conform exactly to sonata form, the "ballade form" created by Chopin for his four ballades is a distinct variant of sonata form with specific discrepancies, such as the mirror reprise (presenting the two expositional themes in reverse order during the recapitulation). The ballades have directly influenced composers such as Franz Liszt and Johannes Brahms who, after Chopin, wrote ballades of their own.

The four ballades are among the most enduring of Chopin's compositions and are frequently heard in concerts. They have been recorded many times.

J. Barrie Jones suggests that "amongst the works that Chopin intended for concert use, the four ballades and four scherzos stand supreme".

The tetradic mood took shape in the predilection for the classical sonata. Four-fifth of Beethoven’s music consists of this harmonious form of organization, which could be played by an orchestra or string quartet. Beethoven wrote thirty-two piano sonatas, plus sonatas for cello and piano and violin and piano. The sonata is organized in four parts, expressing the four different ways of communication:

1. A long and slow introduction in the main key, in which a second theme is introduced;

2. A slow part in a contrasting key (Andante, Allegro or Largo);

3. A minuet or gay dance in three-quarter mode. Within the minuet is a trio.

4. A fast dancing finale (Molto allegro) in rondo, with a repetition of the theme.

The majority of the musical compositions of Haydn, Mozart en Beethoven followed this pattern and their work is, either conscious or unconscious, a tribute to the four-fold way of thinking.


The Seasons (German: Die Jahreszeiten) is an oratorio by Joseph Haydn.

The Seasons is written for a fairly large late-Classical orchestra, a chorus singing mostly in four parts.

The oratorio is divided into four parts, corresponding to Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter, with the usual recitatives, arias, choruses, and ensemble numbers.

Haydn was Mozarts mentor and was considered the Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet". The quartet consists of four stringed instruments. Haydn was the mentor of Mozart and was why Mozart was so proficient with string quartets. The quartet reflects the quadrant.

Haydn is known for his work Messiah. Again, art borrows from religious themes as art is the third square form of inquiry and religion is the second, so they are intricately connected. Another religious oratio by Haydn is "the Creation", which celebrates the Creation account of genesis. What is interesting is Haydn stops after the first four days and then moves to movement two. In the region section of this book I describe how the seven days of creation reflect the quadrant model pattern.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

Scrabble is played on a quadrant grid

Scrabble is a word game in which two to four players score points by placing tiles, each bearing a single letter, onto a gameboard which is divided into a 15×15 grid of squares. The tiles must form words which, in crossword fashion, flow left to right in rows or downwards in columns. The words must be defined in a standard dictionary. Specified reference works (e.g., the Official Tournament and Club Word List, the Official Scrabble Players Dictionary) provide a list of officially permissible words.

The first played word must be at least two letters long, and cover H8 (the center square). Thereafter, any move is made by using one or more tiles to place a word on the board. This word may or may not use one or more tiles already on the board, but must join with the cluster of tiles already on the board.

This can be achieved in a number of ways (in what follows, it is assumed that the word JACK has been played on a previous turn; letters in parentheses represent tiles already on the board):

Adding one or more letters to an existing word, e.g. (JACK)S, HI(JACK), HI(JACK)ING.

"Hooking" a word and playing perpendicular to that word, e.g. playing IONIZES with the S hooked on (JACK) to make (JACK)S.

Playing perpendicular to a word, e.g. (JACK), then YEU(K)Y through the K.

Playing parallel to a word(s) forming several short words, e.g. CON played under (JACK) that to make (J)O and (A)N.

Any combination of these is allowed in a play, as long as all the letters placed on the board in one play lie in one row or column and are connected by a main word, and any run of tiles on two or more consecutive squares along a row or column constitutes a valid word.

Either on the first turn or on subsequent turns, words may read either left-to-right or top-to-bottom. Diagonal plays are not allowed.

Scoring Edit

Premium square colors

Square Original and Mattel version Current Hasbro version

Double letter Light blue Blue

Triple letter Dark blue Green

Double word Pink Red

Triple word Red Orange

The score for any play is determined this way:

Each new word formed in a play is scored separately, and then those scores are added up. The value of each tile is indicated on the tile, and blank tiles are worth zero points.

The main word (defined as the word containing every played letter) is scored. The letter values of the tiles are added up, and tiles placed on DLS and TLS are doubled and tripled in value, respectively. Tiles placed on DWS or TWS squares double or triple the value of the word(s) that include those tiles.

If any "hook" words are played (e.g. playing ANEROID while "hooking" the A to BETTING to make ABETTING), the scores for each word are added separately. This is common for "parallel" plays that make up to eight words in one turn.

Premium squares apply only when newly placed tiles cover them. Any subsequent plays do not count those premium squares.

If a player makes a play where the main word covers two DWS squares, the value of that word is doubled, then redoubled (i.e. 4× the word value). Similarly, if the main word covers two TWS squares, the value of that word is tripled, then retripled (9× the word value). Such plays are often referred to as "double-doubles" and "triple-triples" respectively. It is theoretically possible to achieve a play covering three TWS squares (a 27× word score), although this is extremely improbable without constructive setup and collaboration. Plays covering a DWS and a TWS simultaneously (6× the word value, or 18× if a DWS and two TWS squares are covered) are only possible if a player misses the center star on the first turn, and the play goes unchallenged (this is valid under North American tournament rules).

Finally, if seven tiles have been laid on the board in one turn (known as a "bingo" in North America, a "scrabble" in Spain and France, and a "bonus" elsewhere), after all of the words formed have been scored, 50 bonus points are added.

When the letters to be drawn have run out, the final play can often determine the winner. This is particularly the case in close games with more than two players.


Figure 4.8 Four common filter types (clockwise from upper left): low-pass, high-pass, band-reject, band-pass.

Figure 4.8 illustrates four basic types of filters: low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, and band-reject. Low-pass and high-pass filters should already be familiar to you—they are exactly like the "tone" knobs on a car stereo or boombox. A low-pass (also known as high-stop) filter stops, or attenuates, high frequencies while letting through low ones, while a high-pass (low-stop) filter does just the opposite.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.


"Four Sticks" is a song by the English rock band Led Zeppelin from their 1971 fourth album and is the sixth track from the LP. The title came from the fact that drummer, John Bonham, played with two sets of two drumsticks, totalling four.[3] His decision to play the song with four sticks was a result of him being very frustrated with not being able to get the track down right during recording sessions at Island Studios. After he grabbed the second pair of sticks and beat the drums as hard as he could, he recorded the perfect take and that was the one they kept. This song was particularly difficult to record, and required more takes than usual.[3] John Paul Jones played a VCS3 synthesizer on the track.


Album cover of the four members. The fourth is different.
"Four Kicks" is the second single taken from Aha Shake Heartbreak which is the second album by the American rock band Kings of Leon. It peaked at number 24 in the UK singles chart and number 32 in the Irish singles chart.
The song's name is reminiscent of Led Zeppelin's Four Sticks, as is the guitar riff.

four note motif

The Piano Quartet in C minor, Op. 60 (sometimes called the Werther Quartet[1]), completed by Johannes Brahms in 1875, is scored for piano, violin, viola and cello.


Contents [hide]

1 Structure

2 Analysis

2.1 First movement

2.2 Second movement

2.3 Third movement

2.4 Fourth movement

3 References

4 External links


The quartet is in four movements:


Allegro non troppo (C minor)

Scherzo: Allegro (C minor, ends in C major)

Andante (E major)

Finale: Allegro comodo (C minor, ends in C major)



After the first statement of the theme, the piano plays octaves on B♭. The opening motives, again played by the strings, becomes more chromatic and unsettling, until finally coming to rest on the dominant of C, G major. The viola and violin play pizzicato octaves on E-natural before the strings cascade down the C harmonic minor scale that ushers in the first theme, stated forte. After a brief development of this theme, an ascending gesture based on sixteenth-notes alternating between the notes of a minor second serves as the transition to the second theme in the relative major of C minor, E♭ major. This second theme is an uplifting eight-measure theme stated initially in the piano alone. Brahms then uses the technique of theme and variations to construct four variations on this theme, each eight measures long. A short idea based on the opening theme closes the exposition, which is not repeated.


The development begins with an exploration of the descending third that begins the violin's opening theme; when sequenced, this produces a series of descending thirds that recalls the opening theme of the third movement (G♯-E-C-A). The piano accompanies this with its initial theme. Brahms quickly eliminates accidentals from the key signature as the piece progresses to D major and A minor. Interspersed are descending chromatic phrases played by the piano. In measures 117–118, the cello introduces a new four-note idea (E-F-D-E) played pizzicato underneath the piano. This idea is taken from the second half of the first piano theme (G-A♭-F-G). The viola plays the opening of the piano's first theme, which resembles an inversion of the sequenced thirds developed moments earlier. Brahms repeats this pattern almost exactly, moving from A minor to E minor to B minor. In B minor, the piano develops its initial theme to a greater extent. This part of the development section is concluded by syncopated phrases by the viola and piano, which echo the second half of the piano's first theme in B minor.


Karl Geiringer has shown that the next section (mm. 155–188) is an insertion "in order to mitigate the excessive conciseness of this movement."[8] Later insertions were atypical of Brahms because of his "striving after compression," and it seems that he "for once overshot the mark."[8] The later addition explains the motion away from B minor, only to return to the key some thirty measures later. This section continues with the homorhythmic theme in G major, then in E♭ major. What follows is a quick (Tempo I) development of the initial piano theme in C minor, with all strings playing the opening four notes (moving in the often used progression i – I – iv). This exact sequence is used again in the coda to turn the movement from the minor mode to major. A dominant seventh chord in C minor is used as a pivot chord to return to B minor (a similar progression is used in Brahms's Ballade, Op. 118, No. 3, in which a dominant seventh chord built on G moves abruptly to B major). The violin develops its initial theme in B minor and then D minor with all three string instruments. The final notes of the theme (F-E♭) are sequenced and inverted repeatedly, recalling the significance of descending seconds in the first movement of this quartet. This moves from D minor to G minor to C minor. The end of the development section sees a very high and prolonged A♭, which parallels the end of the development section of the first movement.


The recapitulation, which reinstates the key signature of C minor, begins with the initial violin theme stated forte by all strings, accompanied by the piano playing broken octaves in triplets, outlining the main notes of its theme. After the first statement, the piano resumes its original accompaniment and the strings are reduced to a piano dynamic. This proceeds similarly to the exposition, albeit with the themes developed more extensively. Notably, the music turns toward G minor more strongly and the key signature changes to C major, as the relative major section from the exposition is in the tonic major in the recapitulation. The rest of the recapitulation is nearly identical to the exposition, ending in C major.


The coda begins at measure 311, with the piano loudly declaring the homorhythmic theme, alternating with the strings. The violin theme is then played by the strings in C major, but it soon shifts back to C minor (the key signature too returns). The four-note idea from the development section comes back, this time with its first note removed. The chromatic descending scale in the piano, an abbreviation of the violin theme in the viola, the four-note theme, and the chord progression (i – I – iv) indicate that the coda draws more from the development section than from the exposition or recapitulation. The music quietly subsides into a tranquillo section in which the inversion of the violin theme (first stated in measures 21–22 from the exposition) is sequenced across the strings while the piano continues to develop its initial theme. The violin and cello eventually sustain the tonic C for a great amount of time while the piano and viola begin to lean toward the tonic major in a continuing I – iv progression. All instruments continue to die down as the piano plays one last descending chromatic scale, the violin and viola combine the piano's initial theme with the quarter note rhythm of the violin theme, and the cello sustains a low C. As the piano and strings reach their final notes, a C major chord stated pianissimo is held briefly, shining out of the mist. Two sudden forte C major chords complete this quartet.

Scrabble is played on a quadrant grid

Scrabble is a word game in which two to four players score points by placing tiles, each bearing a single letter, onto a gameboard which is divided into a 15×15 grid of squares. The tiles must form words which, in crossword fashion, flow left to right in rows or downwards in columns. The words must be defined in a standard dictionary. Specified reference works (e.g., the Official Tournament and Club Word List, the Official Scrabble Players Dictionary) provide a list of officially permissible words.

The first played word must be at least two letters long, and cover H8 (the center square). Thereafter, any move is made by using one or more tiles to place a word on the board. This word may or may not use one or more tiles already on the board, but must join with the cluster of tiles already on the board.

This can be achieved in a number of ways (in what follows, it is assumed that the word JACK has been played on a previous turn; letters in parentheses represent tiles already on the board):

Adding one or more letters to an existing word, e.g. (JACK)S, HI(JACK), HI(JACK)ING.

"Hooking" a word and playing perpendicular to that word, e.g. playing IONIZES with the S hooked on (JACK) to make (JACK)S.

Playing perpendicular to a word, e.g. (JACK), then YEU(K)Y through the K.

Playing parallel to a word(s) forming several short words, e.g. CON played under (JACK) that to make (J)O and (A)N.

Any combination of these is allowed in a play, as long as all the letters placed on the board in one play lie in one row or column and are connected by a main word, and any run of tiles on two or more consecutive squares along a row or column constitutes a valid word.

Either on the first turn or on subsequent turns, words may read either left-to-right or top-to-bottom. Diagonal plays are not allowed.

Scoring Edit

Premium square colors

Square Original and Mattel version Current Hasbro version

Double letter Light blue Blue

Triple letter Dark blue Green

Double word Pink Red

Triple word Red Orange

The score for any play is determined this way:

Each new word formed in a play is scored separately, and then those scores are added up. The value of each tile is indicated on the tile, and blank tiles are worth zero points.

The main word (defined as the word containing every played letter) is scored. The letter values of the tiles are added up, and tiles placed on DLS and TLS are doubled and tripled in value, respectively. Tiles placed on DWS or TWS squares double or triple the value of the word(s) that include those tiles.

If any "hook" words are played (e.g. playing ANEROID while "hooking" the A to BETTING to make ABETTING), the scores for each word are added separately. This is common for "parallel" plays that make up to eight words in one turn.

Premium squares apply only when newly placed tiles cover them. Any subsequent plays do not count those premium squares.

If a player makes a play where the main word covers two DWS squares, the value of that word is doubled, then redoubled (i.e. 4× the word value). Similarly, if the main word covers two TWS squares, the value of that word is tripled, then retripled (9× the word value). Such plays are often referred to as "double-doubles" and "triple-triples" respectively. It is theoretically possible to achieve a play covering three TWS squares (a 27× word score), although this is extremely improbable without constructive setup and collaboration. Plays covering a DWS and a TWS simultaneously (6× the word value, or 18× if a DWS and two TWS squares are covered) are only possible if a player misses the center star on the first turn, and the play goes unchallenged (this is valid under North American tournament rules).

Finally, if seven tiles have been laid on the board in one turn (known as a "bingo" in North America, a "scrabble" in Spain and France, and a "bonus" elsewhere), after all of the words formed have been scored, 50 bonus points are added.

When the letters to be drawn have run out, the final play can often determine the winner. This is particularly the case in close games with more than two players.


"Sweet Little Sixteen" is a rock and roll song written and first recorded by Chuck Berry, who released it as a single in January 1958. His performance of it at that year's Newport Jazz Festival was included in the documentary film "Jazz on a Summer's Day". It reached number two on the Billboard Hot 100, Berry's second-highest position ever on that chart (surpassed only by his suggestive hit "My Ding-A-Ling", which reached number one in 1972). "Sweet Little Sixteen" also reached number one on the R&B Best Sellers chart.[2] Rolling Stone magazine ranked the song number 272 on its list of the "500 Greatest Songs of All Time" in 2004.


The Four Musketeers is a musical with a score by Laurie Johnson and lyrics by Herbert Kretzmer. It was developed from a book by Michael Pertwee loosely based on The Three Musketeers.
The musical premiered at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, London on 5 December 1967. It was directed by Peter Coe. The sets were designed by Sean Kenny.
Harry Secombe played D'Artagnan, with Aubrey Woods as Richelieu. Also in the original London cast were: Elizabeth Larner, Glyn Owen, John Junkin, Stephanie Voss, Jeremy Lloyd, Sheena Marshe and Kenneth Connor.
The show ran for 462 performances.

December 15 at 11:40am…

Notice on the cover the migos are wearing crosses and quadrants

Quadrant is a 1977 (see 1977 in music) album by American jazz guitarist Joe Pass and vibraphonist Milt Jackson. It was re-issued in 1991 on CD by Original Jazz Classics.

The Saxophone Four was a saxophone quartet that played on Main Street U.S.A.. It consisted of members of the Main Street Philharmonic marching band.
The group that performed as Main Street Saxophone Four now plays during live shows in the Storybook Circus part of Fantasyland: Giggle Gang and Wowzer.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.


Drumming is all around fours

Alan Holdsworth style four notes per string

The 12-bar blues or blues changes is one of the most prominent chord progressions in popular music. The blues progression has a distinctive form in lyrics, phrase, chord structure, and duration. In its basic form, it is predominantly based on the I-IV-V chords of a key.

The blues can be played in any key. Mastery of the blues and rhythm changes are "critical elements for building a jazz repertoire".[1]

Functional notation: T T T T



Roman-numeral notation: I I I I



The first line takes four bars, as do the remaining two lines, for a total of twelve bars. However, the vocal or lead phrases, though they often come in threes, do not coincide with the above three lines or sections. This overlap between the grouping of the accompaniment and the vocal is part of what creates interest in the twelve bar blues.


"W.C. Handy, 'the Father of the Blues,' codified this blues form to help musicians communicate chord changes."[4] However, many variations are possible. The length of sections may be varied to create eight-bar blues or sixteen-bar blues.

In the original form, the dominant chord continued through the tenth bar; later on the V-IV-I-I "shuffle blues" pattern became standard in the third set of four bars:[5]




About this sound Play (help·info)

The common quick to four or quick-change (quick four[6]) variation uses the subdominant chord in the second bar:




These variations are not mutually exclusive; the rules for generating them may be combined with one another (and/or with others not listed) to generate more complex variations.

"4ever" is a song written and produced by Max Martin and Lukasz Gottwald for The Veronicas' debut studio album The Secret Life Of... (2005). It was released as the album's first single in Australia on 15 August 2005 as a CD single. The song reached number two on the ARIA Charts and number seven in New Zealand. In the United States, the single was promoted early in 2006 by Archie Comics through a mention in issue #167 of the group's namesake Veronica's comic, which featured a guest appearance and cover picture of The Veronicas and a card containing a code that could be used to download an MP3 version of the song free. It was also featured on the first episode of the third season of the MTV series Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County. The song was released as promo for the 2008 Ashley Tisdale's movie Picture This!. Similarly, it was also used in the film She's the Man.. It is written in I–V–vi–IV progression

Coronation anthem is music written to accompany the coronation of a monarch.
Many composers have written coronation anthems. However the best known were composed by George Frideric Handel. Handel's four coronation anthems use text from the King James Bible and were designed to be played at the coronation of the British monarch. They are Zadok the Priest, Let Thy Hand Be Strengthened, The King Shall Rejoice, and My Heart Is Inditing. Each was originally a separate work but they were later published together.

Concertos for Four Violins (Telemann)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Georg Philipp Telemann's Concertos for Four Violins (TWV 40:201–204; original title: Concertos à 4 Violini Concertati) is a set of four concertos for four violins without continuo. Each concerto has four movements.


Contents [hide]

1 Concerto in G major TWV 40:201

2 Concerto in D major TWV 40:202

3 Concerto in C major TWV 40:203

4 Concerto in A major TWV 40:204

5 External links

Concerto in G major TWV 40:201[edit]

Largo e staccato




Concerto in D major TWV 40:202[edit]





Concerto in C major TWV 40:203[edit]



Largo e staccato


Concerto in A major TWV 40:204[edit]







The Paris quartets is a collective designation for two sets of chamber-music compositions, each consisting of six works for flute, violin, viola da gamba (or cello), and continuo, by Georg Philipp Telemann, first published in 1730 and 1737, respectively. Telemann called his two collections Quadri and Nouveaux Quatuors. The collective designation "Paris quartets" was only first bestowed upon them in the second half of the twentieth century by the editors of the Telemann Musikalische Werke, because of their association with Telemann's celebrity visit to Paris in 1737–38 (Zohn 2008, 600n37). They bear the numbers 43:D1, 43:D3, 43:e1, 43:e4, 43:G1, 43:G4, 43:g1, 43:A1, 43:A3, 43:a2, 43:h1, 43:h2 in the TWV (catalog of Telemann's works).


Johann Sebastian Bach's chorale harmonisations, alternatively named four-part chorales, are Lutheran hymn settings that characteristically conform to the following:

four-part harmony

SATB vocal forces

homophonic text treatment

In Bach's extant autographs such chorale harmonisations are usually part of a larger vocal work, most typically one of his chorale cantatas, or at least part of a set or collection such as D-B Mus. ms. Bach St 123, a set of three wedding chorales. Most autographs also show a colla parte instrumentation and/or a figured bass accompaniment for Bach's chorale settings.

Yet Chapter 5 of the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis and Series F of the Bach Compendium list around two hundred of these chorale harmonisations as separate compositions without apparent instrumental accompaniment. This results from the history of these chorale settings between their composition in the first half of the 18th century and the publication of most of them in the second half of that century.

Apart from the four-part homophonic SATB chorus settings, Bach's Lutheran hymn harmonisations also appear as:

sung chorale fantasias in some of Bach's larger vocal works

hymn melodies for which Bach composed or improved a thorough bass accompaniment, for instance as included in Georg Christian Schemelli (de)'s Musicalisches Gesangbuch (see List of songs and arias of Johann Sebastian Bach)

harmonisations included in purely instrumental compositions, most typically organ compositions such as chorale preludes or chorale partitas.


In music, SATB is an initialism for soprano, alto, tenor, bass, defining the voice types required by a chorus or choir to perform a particular musical work. Pieces written for SATB (the most common combination, and used by most hymn tunes) can be sung by choruses of mixed genders, by choirs of men and boys, or by four soloists.


There is a lack of general agreement on other initialisms/abbreviations. Tr for Treble, Mz (or similar) for Mezzo-soprano, Ba, Bar or Bari for Baritone are self-explanatory, while C could be taken for canto, the highest part, or for Contralto, usually implying a female alto(s) as opposed to a Countertenor (Ct). SCTB is commonly found in Romantic Italian opera choruses where the Alto singers portray a group of female protagonists on stage.[citation needed]


SATB div. (divisi, or divided) denotes that one or more individual parts divide into two or more parts at some point in the piece, often sharing the same staff. A single choir with two of each voice type should be written SSAATTBB, unless it is laid out for two identical choirs, in which case it is SATB/SATB. Soloists are written in small type, e.g. satb/SATB. In both these instances a space may be substituted for the slash (/).[citation needed] Publishers usually include such descriptions in their catalogues of choral works, although many fail to provide sufficient detail, commonly omitting, for example, the term div. where it is required fully to describe the resources required by the composer. Also misleading can be the use of B for a Baritone part or S for an Mz part as for example in Stanford's motet "Eternal Father" which, though marked SSATBB, is for one each of soprano, mezzo-soprano, alto, tenor, baritone and bass.


Early music[edit]

In early music, particularly that of the Renaissance, the use of the terms soprano, alto, tenor and bass for the voice parts should not be taken in the modern sense of defining which voices are to be used. This is because much 4-voice vocal music of the time possesses the narrower overall range typical of men's voice music with a countertenor on the top (soprano) part. Appropriate downward transposition based on chiavette should always be considered.


Instrumental music[edit]

SATB can also refer to ensembles of four instruments from the same family, such as saxophones (soprano, alto, tenor and baritone) or recorders. Also, the individual contrapuntal parts of many instrumental compositions, particularly fugues, such as those found in Bach's "The Art of Fugue" and "The Musical Offering", may also be called SATB.

Women are typically divided into three groups: soprano, mezzo-soprano, and alto. Men are usually divided into four groups: countertenor, tenor, baritone, and bass.


Vocal pedagogues generally consider four main qualities of a human voice when attempting to classify it: vocal range, tessitura, timbre, and vocal transition points known as passaggio.

There are FOUR parts in Barbershop harmony: bass, baritone, lead, and tenor (lowest to highest), with "tenor" referring to the highest part. The tenor generally sings in falsetto voice, corresponding roughly to the countertenor in classical music, and harmonizes above the lead, who sings the melody. The barbershop tenor range is B♭-below-middle C (B♭3) to D-above-high C (D5), though it is written an octave lower. The "lead" in barbershop music is equivalent to the normal tenor range.[14]


Averill, Gage (2003). Four Parts, No Waiting: A Social History of American Barbershop Harmony. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-511672-4.

Four-part harmony

Four-part harmony existed prior to Bach, but Bach lived pretty much in a time when in Western music traditions Modal music was almost entirely wiped out in favour of the Tonal system. In this system a piece of music progresses from one chord to the next according to certain rules, each chord being characterized by four notes. The principles of four-part harmony can't only be found in Bach's four-part choral music, but he also prescribes it for instance for the figured bass accompaniment.[68] The new system was at the core of Bach's style, and his compositions are to a large extent considered as laying down the rules for the evolving scheme that would dominate musical expression in the next centuries. Some examples of this characteristic of Bach's style and its influence:

When in the 1740s Bach staged his arrangement of Pergolesi's Stabat Mater he upgraded the viola part (that in the original composition plays unisono with the bass part) to fill out the harmony, thus conforming the composition to his four-part harmony style.[69]

When from the 19th century in Russia there was a discussion about the authenticity of four-part Court chant settings, compared to earlier Russian traditions, Bach's four-part Chorale settings, such as those ending his Chorale cantatas, were considered as the model of the foreign influence: such influence was however deemed unavoidable.[70]

Bach putting his foot down on the tonal system, and contributing to its shaping, did not imply he was less at ease with the older modal system, and the genres associated with it: more than his contemporaries (who had "moved on" to the tonal system without much exception) Bach often returned to the then antiquated modi and genres. His Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue, re-emulating the chromatic fantasia genre, as used by earlier composers such as Dowland and Sweelinck, in D dorian mode (comparable to D minor in the tonal system), is an example of this.


The Mass in B minor is Johann Sebastian Bach's only setting of the complete Latin text of the Ordinarium missae (short: mass).[1] Towards the end of his life, mainly in 1748 and 1749, he finished composing new sections and compiling it into a complex, unified structure.

Bach structured the work in four parts:[2]

No. 1 Missa

No. 2 Symbolum Nicenum

No. 3 Sanctus

No. 4 Osanna, Benedictus, Agnus Dei et Dona nobis pacem

The four sections of the manuscript are numbered, and Bach's usual closing formula (S.D.G = Soli Deo Gloria) is found at the end of the Dona nobis pacem.

The work is scored for five vocal soloists, chorus and orchestra. Its movements are listed in a table for the scoring in voices and instruments, key, tempo marking, time signature and source. The movement numbers follow the Bärenreiter editions of the Neue Bach-Ausgabe, first in a consecutive numbering (NBA II), then in numbering for the four individual parts (NBA I).

The voices are abbreviated S for soprano, A for alto, T for tenor, B for bass. Bach asked for two sopranos. Practical performances often have only one soprano soloist, sharing the parts for the second soprano (SII) between soprano and alto. A four-part choir is indicated by SATB, a five-part choir by SSATB. The Sanctus requires six vocal parts, SSAATB, which are often divided in the three upper voices versus the lower voices. The Osanna requires two choirs SATB. Instruments in the orchestra are three trumpets (Tr), timpani (Ti), corno da caccia (Co), two flauti traversi (Ft), two oboes (Ob), two oboes d'amore (Oa), two bassoons (Fg), two violins (Vl), viola (Va), and basso continuo. The continuo is not mentioned in the table as it is present all the time. The other instruments are grouped by brass, woodwinds and strings. If no source for a parody is given, the movement was composed for the Mass, otherwise the title of the original music and a year are provided if known. For several movements, scholars assume that they are a parody, looking at indications such as similarities of text, musical style and the manuscript, where parodies look neater. The Missa of 1733 is not mentioned as the source for the Kyrie and Gloria, but earlier compositions that Bach used as the basis for movements of the Missa are shown.


Incipit of Crucifixus

Passus duriusculus in the ground bass

"Crucifixus" (Crucified), the enter of the Credo part, is the oldest music in the setting of the Mass, dating back to 1714. It is a passacaglia, with the chromatic fourth in the bass line repeated thirteen times.[57] Wenk likens it to the dance Sarabande.[29] The movement is based on the first section of the first choral movement of Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen, BWV 12.[9] Bach transposed the music from F minor to E minor, changed the instrumentation and repeated each bass note for more expressiveness.[55] Bach begins the movement with an instrumental setting of the bass line, while the cantata movement started immediately with the voices.[58]

The suffering of Jesus is expressed in chromatic melodic lines, dissonant harmonies, and sigh-motifs.[47] The final line, on the 13th repeat of the bass line, "et sepultus est" (and was buried) was newly composed, with the accompaniment silent and a modulation to G major, to lead to the following movement.[55] At the end, soprano and alto reach the lowest range of the movement on the final "et sepultus est" (and was buried).[58] A pianissimo ending of the movement, contrasted by a forte Et resurrexit followed the Dresden Mass style.[18]

Et resurrexit

Incipit of Et resurrexit

"Et resurrexit" (And is risen) is expressed by a five-part choral movement with trumpets.[59] The concerto on ascending motifs[47] renders the resurrection, the ascension and the second coming, all separated by long instrumental interludes and followed by a postlude. "Et iterum venturus est" (and will come again) is given to the bass only, for Bach the vox Christi (voice of Christ).[59] Wenk likens the movement to the dance Réjouissance, a "light festive movement in triple meter, upbeat three eighth notes".[


Rathey points out, that the scoring at first glance does not seem to match the text "Domine Deus, Rex coelestis" (Lord God, Heavenly King), but it matches the continuation "Domine Deus, Agnus Dei" (Lord God, Lamb of God), stressing the Lutheran "theologia crucis" (theology of the cross) that the omnipotent God is the same as the one revealed on the cross.[37]


No. 2 Symbolum Nicenum[edit]


Architecture of the Credo


Autograph of the first page of Symbolum Nicenum

The text of the profession of faith, Credo, is the Nicene Creed. It is structured in three sections, regarding Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Bach follows the structure, devoting two choral movements to the first section, beginning the second section with a duet, followed by three choral movements, and opening the third with an aria, followed by two choral movements. The center is the Crucifixus, set in E minor, the lowest key of the part. The Crucifixus is also the oldest music in the Mass, dating back to 1714.[17] The part begins and ends with a sequence of two connected choral movements in contrasting style, a motet in stile antico, containing a chant melody, and a concerto. The chant melodies are devoted to two of the key words of this part: Credo (I believe) and Confiteor (I confess).[47]

Happy birthday is a four part song


A flute quartet is a musical term for a type of chamber music group. They are normally found in two forms: those consisting of a flute, a violin, a viola and a cello; and those consisting of four flutes. This last combination can come in multiple different but distinct arrangements:

a group of four C flutes; or

a group of three C flutes and Alto flute; or

a group consisting of two C flutes, Alto and Bass flute (this grouping is the closest comparable equivalent of a string quartet for four flutes).

a group consisting of piccolo, C flute, Alto and Bass

This form is closely related to the string quartet, but with a flute in place of the first violin. It is generally believed that this type of chamber music reached its pinnacle around the middle of the second half of the 18th century. Notable works for flute quartets consisting of a flute, violin, viola and cello include those by the following composers:

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - four flute quartets:

No. 1 in D major (K. 285)

No. 2 in G major (K. 285a)

No. 3 in C major (K. 285b)

No. 4 in A major (K. 298)

Johann Christian Bach

Christian Cannabich

Domenico Cimarosa

Franz Danzi

François Devienne

Adalbert Gyrowetz

Joseph Haydn

Franz Krommer

Friedrich Kuhlau

Ignaz Pleyel

Anton Reicha

Carlo Giuseppe Toeschi

Georg Abraham Schneider - First Grand Quartet Op.68 in E♭ Major (as well as 32 additional flute quartets).

Adolphe F. Wouters - Adagio and Scherzo (1895)

The interest of the enthusiasts in arrangements of flute with string trio, which at times rivaled the popularity of the string quartet, is shown by contemporary transcriptions of string quartets by publishers, for instance, the quartets of Haydn. Gioachino Rossini also transcribed six of his Sonate a quattro (originally for strings).

In the first decades of the 19th century, the string quartet became far more important than the flute quartet; as a result, very few new works were composed until the 20th century. Until the works of Volkmar Andreae (quartet Op. 43) and Gottfried von Einem (quartet Op. 85), the 20th century was also somewhat lacking in compositions of this type. Works from the 21st century have included the Air and Adorable Blues by Blaž Pucihar and In blauen Linien (2012) by Graham Waterhouse.

Works for four flutes

19th century

Works for four flutes were particularly popular at the turn of the 19th century. Some of the most well-known from this time might include the compositions of Friedrich Kuhlau (quartet in E major) and Anton Reicha (quartets Op. 12, Op. 19). Further quartets came from, for example, Friedrich Hartmann Graf, Anton Bernhard Fürstenau and Luigi Gianella.

Early 20th century

In the 20th century, quartets with four flutes experienced a renaissance. This type of arrangement, with its specific, light tone color, especially appealed to the French wind tradition. Examples of some works from the early 20th century include those of Florent Schmitt (quartet Op. 106), Josef Lauber (vision de Corse, Op. 54), Marc Berthomieu (Arcadie), Joseph Jongen (Elégie, Op. 114.3), Alexander Tcherepnin (Quatuor pour flûtes Op. 60 - 1939), and Colonial Sketches (1940) by Sol B. Cohen.

Late 20th century

The late 20th Century saw a new revival for the flute quartet, including these works:

Eugène Bozza: Jour d'été à la montagne (1953)

Peter Bacchus: Quartet for Diverse Flutes (1985)

Marc Berthomieu: Les Chats (1969) (Berthomieu wrote four other flute quartets as well)

Howard J. Buss: "Festival" (1996) Brixton Publications

Jacques Castérède: Flûtes en vacances (1962)

Ingolf Dahl: Serenade for Four Flutes (1960) (Boosey & Hawkes)

Robert Dick (flutist): Eyewitness (1990)

Daniel Dorff: The Year of the Rabbit (1999)

Pierre Max Dubois: Quatuor pour flûtes (1961/2)

Jennifer Higdon: Steeley Pause (1988)

David Evan Jones: Tibae (Solo for Four) (1983)

Serge Lancen: Quatres Flûtes en Balade (1970) (Chappell)

Paule Maurice: Suite pour quatuor de flûtes (1967))

Anne McGinty: Epigrams (1985)

Catherine McMichael: Floris (1995)

Catherine McMichael: A Gaelic Offering (1995)

Roger Reynolds: Four Etudes (1961) Edition Peters

R. Murray Schafer: Five Studies on Texts by Prudentius (for four flutes and soprano). (Berandol Music)

Alexander Shchetynsky: Con Re for Four Flutes, Alto Saxophone, Violin and Cello (2002)

Harvey Sollberger: Grand Quartet for Flutes (1961) (McGinnis & Marx)

Preston Trembly: Cantelena (1975)

21st century

Richard Arnest: Jacob's Ladder (2007)

Sarah Bassingthwaighte: Echoes of the Ancients (2006)

Elizabeth Brown: The Baths of Caracalla (2007)

Howard J. Buss: Prelude and Intrada (2009) Brixton Publications, Levi's Dream (2014) Brixton Publications

Charles Knox: Music for the Outer Edge (2012)

Sophie Lacaze: Cinq voyelles pour quatre flûtes (2005)

Sophie Lacaze: Het Lam Gods III for four flutes and narrator (2009)

Sophie Lacaze: Estampes for flute quartet (2012)

Catherine McMichael: Falconer (2008)

Anze Rozman: Creatures of the Enchanted Forest (2010)

Anze Rozman: Aqua et Ventus (2011)

Joseph Schwantner: Silver Halo (2007)

William Susman: Seven Scenes for Four Flutes (2011)


Players of chamber music, both amateur and professional, attest to a unique enchantment with playing in ensemble. "It is not an exaggeration to say that there opened out before me an enchanted world", writes Walter Willson Cobbett, devoted amateur musician and editor of Cobbett's Cyclopedic Survey of Chamber Music.[87]

Ensembles develop a close intimacy of shared musical experience. "It is on the concert stage where the moments of true intimacy occur", writes Steinhardt. "When a performance is in progress, all four of us together enter a zone of magic somewhere between our music stands and become a conduit, messenger, and missionary ... It is an experience too personal to talk about and yet it colors every aspect of our relationship, every good-natured musical confrontation, all the professional gossip, the latest viola joke."[88]

The playing of chamber music has been the inspiration for numerous books, both fiction and nonfiction. An Equal Music by Vikram Seth, explores the life and love of the second violinist of a fictional quartet, the Maggiore. Central to the story is the tensions and the intimacy developed between the four members of the quartet. "A strange composite being we are [in performance], not ourselves any more, but the Maggiore, composed of so many disjunct parts: chairs, stands, music, bows, instruments, musicians ..."[89] The Rosendorf Quartet, by Nathan Shaham,[90] describes the trials of a string quartet in Palestine, before the establishment of the state of Israel. For the Love of It by Wayne Booth[91] is a nonfictional account of the author's romance with cello playing and chamber music.

FOUR HELICOPTER STRING QUARTET- originally I saw on Wikipedia

Since the invention of electrical telecommunication devices in the 19th century, players of a string quartet can even conduct a conversation when they are flying over the audience in four separate helicopters, as in the Helicopter String Quartet by Karlheinz Stockhausen. When the piece was performed in 1995, the players had earphones with a click track to enable them to play at the right time.[


In another dream, Stockhausen dreamt he was hovering high above four helicopters in which of each four musicians were playing his music. On waking he saw the potential of such a work and made a series of notes and sketches. However, Stockhausen had never written a quartet, as he later explained in a documentary about the Helicopter Quartet:


lt’s the first and probably the last! All my life, l’ve never composed anything for a classical formation.


ln fact, the string quartet is a prototype from the 18th century. Just as the symphony and the solo concerto are the stamp of a very particular era in composition, both as regards interpretation and form. All my life l’ve kept away from that. l haven’t taken up the classical forms.


l’m a pianist but l’ve never written a concerto, and l’ve refused commissions for concerti for violin or piano. The same goes for symphonies and quartets. This quartet is the result of a dream. When the work was commissioned, l said, ‘‘No way, never!’’ Then l dreamt it.


And that’s when everything changed, because l started imagining the four musicians flying, playing in a completely different room. The show is put on for an audience sitting in a concert hall. They imagine the musicians in the air, playing in four flying objects.


ln the future, they could be in flying objects that go up even higher.



Haydn also settled on an overall form for his chamber music compositions, which would become the standard, with slight variations, to the present day. The characteristic Haydn string quartet has four movements:

An opening movement in sonata form, usually with two contrasting themes, followed by a development section where the thematic material is transformed and transposed, and ending with a recapitulation of the initial two themes.

A lyrical movement in a slow or moderate tempo, sometimes built out of three sections that repeat themselves in the order A–B–C–A–B–C, and sometimes a set of variations.

A minuet or scherzo, a light movement in three quarter time, with a main section, a contrasting trio section, and a repeat of the main section.

A fast finale section in rondo form, a series of contrasting sections with a main refrain section opening and closing the movement, and repeating between each section.

His innovations earned Haydn the title "father of the string quartet",[14] and he was recognized by his contemporaries as the leading composer of his time. But he was by no means the only composer developing new modes of chamber music. Even before Haydn, many composers were already experimenting with new forms. Giovanni Battista Sammartini, Ignaz Holzbauer, and Franz Xaver Richter wrote precursors of the string quartet.

Joseph Haydn playing string quartets

If Haydn created the conversational style of composition, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart greatly expanded its vocabulary. His chamber music added numerous masterpieces to the chamber music repertoire. Mozart's seven piano trios and two piano quartets were the first to apply the conversational principle to chamber music with piano. Haydn's piano trios are essentially piano sonatas with the violin and cello playing mostly supporting roles, doubling the treble and bass lines of the piano score. But Mozart gives the strings an independent role, using them as a counter to the piano, and adding their individual voices to the chamber music conversation.[15]

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: String Quintet No. 4, K. 516

First movement



played by Roxana Pavel Goldstein, Elizabeth Choi, violins; Elias Goldstein, Sally Chisholm, violas; Jocelyn Butler, cello.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Mozart introduced the newly invented clarinet into the chamber music arsenal, with the Kegelstatt Trio for viola, clarinet and piano, K. 498, and the Quintet for Clarinet and String Quartet, K. 581. He also tried other innovative ensembles, including the quintet for violin, two violas, cello, and horn, K. 407, quartets for flute and strings, and various wind instrument combinations. He wrote six string quintets for two violins, two violas and cello, which explore the rich tenor tones of the violas, adding a new dimension to the string quartet conversation.

Mozart's string quartets are considered the pinnacle of the classical art. The six string quartets that he dedicated to Haydn, his friend and mentor, inspired the elder composer to say to Mozart's father, "I tell you before God as an honest man that your son is the greatest composer known to me either in person or by reputation. He has taste, and, what is more, the most profound knowledge of composition."[16]

Many other composers wrote chamber compositions during this period that were popular at the time and are still played today. Luigi Boccherini, Spanish composer and cellist, wrote nearly a hundred string quartets, and more than one hundred quintets for two violins, viola and two cellos. In this innovative ensemble, later used by Schubert, Boccherini gives flashy, virtuosic solos to the principal cello, as a showcase for his own playing. Violinist Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf and cellist Johann Baptist Wanhal, who both played pickup quartets with Haydn on second violin and Mozart on viola, were popular chamber music composers of the period.

Haydn is called the "Father of the string quartet" and taught Mozart

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe described chamber music (specifically, string quartet music) as "four rational people conversing".[3] This conversational paradigm–which refers to the way one instrument introduces a melody or motif and then other instruments subsequently "respond" with a similar motif–has been a thread woven through the history of chamber music composition from the end of the 18th century to the present. The analogy to conversation recurs in descriptions and analyses of chamber music compositions.

Four-on-the-floor (or four-to-the-floor) is a rhythm pattern used in disco and electronic dance music. It is a steady, uniformly accented beat in 4/4 time in which the bass drum is hit on every beat (1, 2, 3, 4) in common time.[1] This was popularized in the disco music of the 1970s[2] and the term four-on-the-floor was widely used in that era: it originated[citation needed] with the pedal-operated, drum-kit bass drum.

Many styles of electronic dance music, particularly those that are derived from house and techno, use this beat as an important part of the rhythmic structure.[1] Sometimes the term is used to refer to a 4/4 uniform drumming pattern for any drum.[3] A form of four-on-the-floor is also used in jazz drumming. Instead of hitting the bass drum in a pronounced and therefore easily audible fashion, it is usually struck very lightly (referred to as 'feathering') so that the sound of the drum is felt instead of heard by the listener. Typically, this is combined with a ride cymbal and hi-hat in syncopation. When a string instrument makes the rhythm (rhythm guitar, banjo), all four beats of the measure are played by identical downstrokes.

In reggae drumming, the bass drum usually hits on the third beat but sometimes drummers play four on the floor. Sly Dunbar from Sly & Robbie was one of the reggae drummers that played mostly in this style. Also Carlton Barrett from Bob Marley & The Wailers played four on the floor on several hits by The Wailers like "Is This Love" and "Exodus". In Reggae, four on the floor usually goes by the hand with a low end and powerful bassline. Four on the floor can be found in more modern Reggae derivative styles like Dancehall, while it is less common to find it in roots reggae.



In popular music, a break is an instrumental or percussion section during a song derived from or related to stop-time – being a "break" from the main parts of the song or piece.

A solo break in jazz occurs when the rhythm section stops playing behind a soloist for a brief period, usually two or FOUR BARS leading into the soloist's first chorus. A notable recorded example is Charlie Parker's solo break at the beginning of his solo on "A Night in Tunisia".

According to David Toop,[4] "the word break or breaking is a music and dance term, as well as a proverb, that goes back a long way. Some tunes, like 'Buck Dancer's Lament' from early in the nineteenth century, featured a two-bar silence in every eight bars for the break—a quick showcase of improvised dance steps. Others used the same device for a solo instrumental break; a well-known example being the FOUR-bar break taken by Charlie Parker in Dizzy Gillespie's tune 'Night in Tunisia'."

However, in Hip Hop, today the term break refers to any segment of music (usually four measures or less) that could be sampled and repeated. A break is any expanse of music that is thought of as a break by a producer. In the words of DJ Jazzy Jay, "Maybe those records [whose breaks are sampled] were ahead of their time. Maybe they were made specifically for the rap era; these people didn't know what they were making at that time. They thought, 'Oh, we want to make a jazz record'".[5][6]



Why do jamming musicians “trade fours” (rather than any other number)?

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I've run across the idea of "trading fours" when playing in (and listening to) jazz groups; i.e. where two or more musicians take it in turns to play four bar licks or solos. I understand that it can encourage creative interaction between musicians.


However, I was wondering why it seems to be specifically four bars? Would trading twos or eights (for example) be less effective?


jazz improvisation band jamming

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asked Dec 18 '13 at 10:37


Peter Bloomfield


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It's just a name: it used to be based on four bars, which probably would comprise one set of chord changes (eg doowop, I vi IV V), but could just as easily be two or eight bars. It's like calling a song's bridge a 'middle eight', even though the number of bars may be different. The Beatles always called their bridges 'middle eights'.


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answered Dec 18 '13 at 11:09


No'am Newman


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In swing setups such (e.g. tenor sax battles), it is not uncommon so see "trades" of varying (typically decreasing) length : trade 16, then trade 8, trade 4 and sometimes even trade 2 then trade 1, each time building up the tension. Things could also end in both musicians improvising simultaneously. Nice example from Robert Altman's Kansas City:


As for the reason behind 4 bars, I think it comes from the structure of the typical 32 bar form AABA, in which the 8 bars of A are often divided in 4 bars (tension / question) often ending in half cadence (V7) + four bars (relief / answer) ending in IMaj7. This means having 4 bar solo by one musician followed by for bars by another is quite natural.


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answered Dec 18 '13 at 13:57


gurney alex


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"Trading twos" is definitely a phrase people use. "Trading eights" might be.


More generally, you can call it "trading licks".


8 bars is long enough to be thought of as a whole solo. Get any longer than this and you're not really "trading" any more; you're just taking it in turns to solo.


When I say "trading", I mean that you base your lick on whatever the player before you played.


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answered Dec 18 '13 at 14:59




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Generally it'll be even numbers, 2, 4 , 8 as a 'line' of a song tends to be that long, so phrasing sounds more balanced. It follows from songs usually being 8, 12, 16 or occasionally 24 bars long. Never heard in a band "Let's trade 7s." Although that could be interesting. Both to play and listen to...


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answered Dec 18 '13 at 15:43




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In most tunes, four bars is the smallest unit you will find a complete phrase, musical idea, or melody. although you will often see it in eight as well (a complete chorus or bridge or A section of the tune), but youll never see it in two because two bars is too short to express a complete musical idea.


The musical selection for breaking is not restricted to hip-hop music as long as the tempo and beat pattern conditions are met. Breaking can be readily adapted to different music genres with the aid of remixing. The original songs that popularized the dance form borrow significantly from progressive genres of jazz, soul, funk, electro, and disco. The most common feature of b-boy music exists in musical breaks, or compilations formed from samples taken from different songs which are then looped and chained together by the DJ. The tempo generally ranges between 110 and 135 beats per minute with shuffled sixteenth and quarter beats in the percussive pattern. History credits DJ Kool Herc for the invention of this concept[25]:79 later termed the break beat.

16 is the number of squares in the quadrant model.

"Flow" is defined as "the rhythms and rhymes"[52][53][54] of a hip-hop song's lyrics and how they interact – the book How to Rap breaks flow down into rhyme, rhyme schemes, and rhythm (also known as cadence).[55] 'Flow' is also sometimes used to refer to elements of the delivery (pitch, timbre, volume) as well,[56] though often a distinction is made between the flow and the delivery.

MCs stay on beat by stressing syllables in time to the FOUR beats of the musical backdrop.[6][58] Poetry scholar Derek Attridge describes how this works in his book Poetic Rhythm – "rap lyrics are written to be performed to an accompaniment that emphasizes the metrical structure of the verse".[6] He says rap lyrics are made up of, "lines with FOUR stressed beats, separated by other syllables that may vary in number and may include other stressed syllables. The strong beat of the accompaniment coincides with the stressed beats of the verse, and the rapper organizes the rhythms of the intervening syllables to provide variety and surprise".[6]

The same technique is also noted in the book How to Rap, where diagrams are used to show how the lyrics line up with the beat – "stressing a syllable on each of the FOUR beats gives the lyrics the same underlying rhythmic pulse as the music and keeps them in rhythm... other syllables in the song may still be stressed, but the ones that fall in time with the FOUR beats of a bar are the only ones that need to be emphasized in order to keep the lyrics in time with the music".[59]


Niggaz4Life (also known as EFIL4ZAGGIN or Efil4zaggin) is the second and final studio album by gangsta rap group N.W.A, released in 1991.
I do not think it is a coincidence there is a 4 in the title.
It was their final album, as the group disbanded later the same year after the departure of Dr. Dre and songwriter The D.O.C. for Death Row Records; the album features only four members of the original line-up, as Ice Cube had already left the group in 1989.
Niggaz4Life debuted at number 2 on the Billboard 200, selling over 954,000 copies, but in its second week peaked at number 1.


Westhoff, Ben (2011-12-30). "Hip-Hop's Four Elements: The Old Ones Suck. Here's Our Suggestions for New Ones". L.A. Weekly. Retrieved 2016-12-22.

Jump up ^


Hip hop or hip-hop is a sub-cultural movement that formed during the early 1970s largely by African American youths residing in the South Bronx in New York City.[2][3][4][5][6] It became popular outside of the African American community in the late 1980s and by the 2010s became the most listened-to musical genre in the world.[7] It is characterized by four distinct elements, all of which represent the different manifestations of the culture: rap music (oral), turntablism or DJing (aural), b-boying (physical) and graffiti art (visual). Even while it continues to develop globally in myriad styles, these four foundational elements provide coherence to hip hop culture.[3] The term is often used in a restrictive fashion as synonymous only with the oral practice of rap music. Even while it continues to develop globally in myriad styles, these four foundational elements provide coherence to hip hop culture.[3] The term is often used in a restrictive fashion as synonymous only with the oral practice of rap music.[8]


The A-flat major scale (A♭ major scale) consists of the pitches A♭, B♭, C, D♭, E♭, F, and G. Its key signature has four flats.


Its relative minor is F minor. Its parallel minor, A♭ minor, is usually replaced by G♯ minor, since A♭ minor, which would contain seven flats, is not normally used. G♯ major, with eight sharps, including the Fdouble sharp, has a similar problem, and so A♭ major is often used as the parallel major for G♯ minor. The same enharmonic situation occurs with the keys of D♭ major and C♯ minor, with C♯ major having seven sharps and D♭ minor having eight flats, including the Bdouble flat.


It was used quite often by Franz Schubert; twenty-four of Frédéric Chopin's piano pieces[quantify] are in A-flat major, more than any other key.


Compositions in A-flat major[edit]

Beethoven chose A-flat major as the key of the slow movement for most of his C minor works, a practice which Anton Bruckner imitated in his first two C minor symphonies and also Antonín Dvořák in his only C minor symphony.


Since A-flat major was not often chosen as the main key for orchestral works of the 18th century, passages or movements in the key often retained the timpani settings of the preceding movement. For example, Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 in C minor has the timpani set to C and G for the first movement. With hand tuned timpani, there is no time to retune the timpani to A-flat and E-flat for the slow second movement in A-flat; accordingly, the timpani in this movement are reserved for the passages in C major. In Bruckner's Symphony No. 1 in C minor, however, the timpani are retuned between the first movement in C minor and the following in A-flat major.


Charles-Marie Widor considered A-flat major to be the second best key for flute music.[1]


A-flat major was the flattest major key to be used as the home key for the keyboard and piano sonatas of Domenico Scarlatti, Joseph Haydn and Ludwig van Beethoven, with each of them using the key for two sonatas: Scarlatti's K. 127 and K. 130, Haydn's Hob XVI 43 and 46, and Beethoven's Op. 26 and Op. 110, while Franz Schubert used it for one piano sonata. It was also the flattest major key to be used for the preludes and fugues in Johann Sebastian Bach's Well-Tempered Klavier, as flatter major keys were notated as their enharmonic equivalents.


Felix Mendelssohn, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, John Field, and Friedrich Kalkbrenner each wrote one piano concerto in A-flat (Mendelssohn's being for two pianos); they had the horns and trumpet tuned to E-flat. Max Bruch's Concerto for Two Pianos in A-flat minor has its last movement in A-flat major, which is the parallel major; this concerto plays with the contrast between the two keys.


Works for stringed instruments in this key include Antonín Dvořák's String Quartet No. 14 and Benjamin Godard's Violin Sonata No. 4.


Franz Schubert – Impromptu op. 90 no.4 in A flat Major (Begins in A-flat minor)

Franz Schubert – Impromptu op. 142 no.2 in A flat Major

Franz Schubert – Moment Musical op. 94 no.2 in A flat Major

Franz Schubert – Moment Musical op. 94 no.6 in A flat Major (Ends with an A-flat minor context)

Arnold Bax – Symphony No. 7

Ludwig van Beethoven – Piano Sonata No. 31

Johannes Brahms – Waltz in A-flat major, Op. 39

Frédéric Chopin – "Heroic" Polonaise, Op. 53

Frédéric Chopin – Impromptu No. 1 in A flat major, Op. 29

Frédéric Chopin – Waltz in A-flat major, Op. 69, No. 1

Frédéric Chopin – Preludes, Op. 28, No. 17

Edward Elgar – Symphony No. 1 in A-flat major

Scott Joplin – "Maple Leaf Rag"

Franz Liszt – Liebestraum No. 3

Aphex Twin – Avril 14th

Four Lions is a 2010 British black comedy film, directed by Chris Morris in his directorial debut, and written by Morris, Sam Bain and Jesse Armstrong.[3] The film is a jihad satire following a group of homegrown terrorist jihadis from Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England.

The Four Lovers was a band formed in 1956 that was the result of vocalist Frankie Valli joining The Variatones (Tommy DeVito, lead guitar; Henry Majewski, rhythm guitar; Frank Cattone, accordion; and Billy Thompson, drums) in 1954. The Four Lovers' achieved minor success before a name change to The Four Seasons in 1960. During those five years, group members also included Nicolas DeVito (vocals, electric bass), Hugh Garrity (vocals, guitar), Nick Massi (bass, vocals), and Bob Gaudio (keyboards, vocals).

The bass sound in reggae is thick and heavy, and equalized so the upper frequencies are removed and the lower frequencies emphasized. The bass line is often a repeated two or FOUR bar riff when simple chord progressions are used. The simplest example of this might be Robbie Shakespeare's bass line for the Black Uhuru hit "Shine Eye Gal". In the case of more complex harmonic structures, such as John Holt's version of "Stranger In Love", these simpler patterns are altered to follow the chord progression either by directly moving the pattern around or by changing some of the interior notes in the phrase to better support the chords.


In Steppers, the bass drum plays every quarter beat of the bar, giving the beat an insistent drive. An example is "Exodus" by Bob Marley and the Wailers. Another common name for the Steppers beat is the "four on the floor". Burning Spear's 1975 song "Red, Gold, and Green" (with Leroy Wallace on drums) is one of the earliest examples. The Steppers beat was adopted (at a much higher tempo) by some 2 Tone ska revival bands of the late 1970s and early 1980s.



4 (quadruple time) Quadruple time signature is the most common time signature used in most forms of Western popular music. Quadruple time signature is the most common time signature in rock, blues, country, funk, and pop

Stylistically, reggae incorporates some of the musical elements of rhythm and blues (R&B), jazz, mento, calypso, African, and Latin American music, as well as other genres.

Reggae is played in 4/4 time because the symmetrical rhythmic pattern does not lend itself to other time signatures such as 3/4 time. One of the most easily recognizable elements is offbeat rhythms; staccato chords played by a guitar or piano (or both) on the offbeats of the measure, often referred to as the skank.[21]

This rhythmic pattern accents the second and fourth beats in each bar and combines with the drum's emphasis on beat three to create a unique sense of phrasing. The reggae offbeat can be counted so that it falls between each count as an "and" (example: 1 and 2 and 3 and 4, etc.) or counted as a half-time feel at twice the tempo so it falls on beats 2 and 4. This is in contrast to the way most other popular genres focus on beat one, the "downbeat".[

The Brothers Four are an American folk singing group, founded in 1957 in Seattle, Washington, known for their 1960 hit song "Greenfields

"Four Strong Winds" is a song written by Ian Tyson in the early 1960s and recorded by Canadian folk duo Ian and Sylvia. A significant part of the early 1960s folk revival,[1] the song is a melancholy reflection on a failing romantic relationship. The singer expresses a desire for a possible reunion in a new place in the future ("You could meet me if I sent you down the fare") but acknowledges the likelihood that the relationship is over ("But our good times are all gone/And I'm bound for moving on ...").

The song has a clear Canadian context and subtext, including an explicit mention of the province Alberta as well as references to long, cold winters. In 2005, CBC Radio One listeners chose this song as the greatest Canadian song of all time on the series 50 Tracks: The Canadian Version.

The thirty-two-bar form, also known as the AABA song form, American popular song form and the ballad form, is a song structure commonly found in Tin Pan Alley songs and other popular music, especially in the first half of the twentieth century. A standard thirty-two-bar form song or song section contains four 8-measure sections, with the third section (also known as the "B" section, "the Bridge", "Middle Eight" or "the Release") being musically and lyrically different than the other three sections (known as the "A" sections).

"In this form, the musical structure of each chorus is made up of FOUR eight bar sections, in an AABA pattern... Thousands of Tin Pan Alley tunes share this scheme and Adorno is quite justified in arguing that to listeners of the time it would be totally predictable."[2]

Examples for the thirty-two-bar AABA form include "Deck the Halls":[3]

A: Deck the hall with boughs of holly! Fa-la-la-la-la la la la la.

A: 'Tis the season to be jolly. Fa-la-la-la-la la la la la.

B: Don we now our gay apparel. Fa-la-la fa-la-la la la la.

A: Troll the ancient Yuletide carol. Fa-la-la-la-la la la la la

The popular chorus form is often referred to as a quaternary form, because it usually consists of four phrases."



Some Tin Pan Alley songs composed as numbers for musicals precede the main tune with what was called a "sectional verse" or "introductory verse" in the terminology of the early 20th century. This introductory section is usually sixteen bars long and establishes the background and mood of the number, and is musically undistinguished in order to highlight the attractions of the main tune. The sectional verse is often omitted from modern performances.[citation needed] It is not assigned a letter in the "AABA" naming scheme.


Examples of 32-bar AABA form songs include "Over the Rainbow", "What'll I Do", "Make You Feel My Love",[2] "Blue Skies",[citation needed] and Willie Nelson's "Crazy".[3]

16 is the squares of the quadrant model (32 is two times sixteen and made up of FOUR eight bar sections)


Sixteen-bar blues

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The sixteen-bar blues can be a variation on the standard twelve-bar blues or on the less common eight-bar blues. Sixteen-bar blues is also used commonly in ragtime music.[citation needed]


Contents [hide]

1 Adaptation from twelve-bar progression

2 Adaptation from eight-bar progression

3 See also

4 References

Adaptation from twelve-bar progression[edit]

Most sixteen bar blues are adapted from a standard twelve-bar progression.[citation needed] The standard twelve-bar blues progression is




D D or S T T

About this sound Play in C (help·info)

where each cell in the table represents one measure (or "bar"), T represents the tonic chord, S the subdominant chord, and D the dominant chord. Twelve-bar progressions are formed by applying one of several formulae, including the following.


One adaptation extends the first section of tonic chords (bars 1–4) by doubling or repeating to become the first half (bars 1–8) of the sixteen-bar progression,





D D / S T T

Examples include "I'm Your Hoochie Coochie Man",[1] "Close to You", written by Willie Dixon and first performed by Muddy Waters, and "Oh, Pretty Woman", written by A.C. Williams and first recorded by Albert King (in this song, the instrumental sections are twelve bars).


Instead of extending the first section, one adaptation extends the third section. Here, the twelve-bar progression's last dominant, subdominant, and tonic chords (bars 9, 10, and 11–12, respectively) are doubled in length, becoming the sixteen-bar progression's 9th–10th, 11th–12th, and 13th–16th bars,[citation needed]




D D D / S D / S


Examples include "Trigger Happy" by "Weird" Al Yankovic (the verse has this sixteen bar structure, with additional ornamentation and "turnaround" applied to tonic chord in bars 13–16).


Instead of extending the first or third section, one might repeat the second section. In this version, the twelve-bar middle section (subdominant on bars 5–6, tonic on 7–8) is repeated, often along with its lyrical-melodic material:





D D / S T T

Examples include "rural" (as opposed to "urban") versions of "See See Rider"[2] (as interpreted by, among others, Mississippi John Hurt, Lead Belly and Big Bill Broonzy); most renditions of "Going Down The Road Feelin' Bad" AKA "Lonesome Road Blues", e.g. by Henry Whitter (the first recording of this tune in 1924), the Blue Ridge Duo (George Reneau and Gene Austin) and Woody Guthrie; and "Sleepy Time Time" by Cream.


In a further repeating variation, the transition from the ninth (dominant) to tenth (subdominant) twelve-bar chord is repeated twice,[citation needed]




D D / S D D / S

D D / S T T

About this sound Play in C (help·info)

This can be heard, for example, in "Watermelon Man" by Herbie Hancock.


In a final style, the transition from ninth (dominant) to tenth (subdominant) twelve-bar chord is repeated once and the last tonic chord bars are doubled in length,






Examples include "Let's Dance," written by Jim Lee, first performed by Chris Montez, and covered by bands including the Ramones.[citation needed]


Adaptation from eight-bar progression[edit]


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Alternatively, a sixteen bar blues can be adapted from a standard eight bar blues by repeating each measure of the eight-bar progression and playing the result at double speed (doppio movimento).[citation needed]


In Popular Music thirty-two-bar form uses four sections, most often eight measures long each (4×8=32), two verses or A sections, a contrasting B section (the bridge or "middle-eight") and a return of the verse in one last A section (AABA).[17] Verse-chorus form or ABA form may be combined with AABA form, in compound AABA forms. Variations such as a1 and a2 can also be used. The repetition of one chord progression may mark off the only section in a simple verse form such as the twelve bar blues.[

The piece was originally penned in the key of D♭ major. The song melody uses four notes of the five-note pentatonic scale, first rising, then falling. A rhythmic interest in the song is that the tune keeps behind the main pulse, with the three "I got..." phrases syncopated, appearing one beat behind in the first bar, while the fourth phase "Who could..." rushes in to the song. The song's chorus is in a 34-bar (FOUR SECTION) AABA form.[1] Its chord progression (although often reduced to a standard 32-bar structure, for the sake of improvised solos), is known as the "rhythm changes", and is the foundation for many other popular jazz tunes. The song was used as the theme in Gershwin's last concert piece for piano and orchestra, the Variations on "I Got Rhythm", written in 1934. The song has become symbolic of the Gershwins, of swing, and of the 1920s.


Ira also wrote that although the phrase "who could ask for anything more?" is repeated FOUR times in the song, he decided not to make it the title because "somehow the first line of the refrain sounded more arresting and provocative."[2]

"Great Balls of Fire" is a 1957 popular song recorded by Jerry Lee Lewis on Sun Records[4] and featured in the 1957 movie Jamboree. It was written by Otis Blackwell and Jack Hammer. The Jerry Lee Lewis 1957 recording was ranked as the 96th greatest song ever by Rolling Stone. The song is in a FOUR SECTION AABA form.

Anahid Kassabian separated popular music into four categories; "popular as populist," or having overtones of liberation and expression; "popular as folk," or stating that the music is written by the people, for themselves; "popular as counterculture," or empowering citizens to act against the oppression they face; and "popular as mass," or the music becomes the tool for oppression.[15] A society's popular music reflects the ideals that are prevalent at the time it is performed or published.[16] David Riesman states that the youth audiences of popular music fit into either a majority group or a subculture. The majority group listens to the commercially produced styles while the subcultures find a minority style to transmit their own values.[14] This allows youth to choose what music they identify with, which gives them power as consumers to control the market of popular music.[14]

Anahid Kassabian separated popular music into FOUR categories; "popular as populist," or having overtones of liberation and expression; "popular as folk," or stating that the music is written by the people, for themselves; "popular as counterculture," or empowering citizens to act against the oppression they face; and "popular as mass," or the music becomes the tool for oppression.[15] A society's popular music reflects the ideals that are prevalent at the time it is performed or published.[16] David Riesman states that the youth audiences of popular music fit into either a majority group or a subculture. The majority group listens to the commercially produced styles while the subcultures find a minority style to transmit their own values.[14] This allows youth to choose what music they identify with, which gives them power as consumers to control the market of popular music.[14]

Pianist Herbie Hancock (a Davis alumnus) released four albums in the short-lived (1970–1973) psychedelic-jazz subgenre: Mwandishi (1972), Crossings (1973) and Sextant (1973). The rhythmic background was a mix of rock, funk, and African-type textures.

Musicians who had previously worked with Davis formed the four most influential fusion groups: Weather Report and Mahavishnu Orchestra emerged in 1971, and were soon followed by Return to Forever and The Headhunters.

For Four Orchestras is an album by American jazz saxophonist and composer Anthony Braxton recorded in 1978 and first released on the Arista label a triple LP.[1][2][3] The album features a composition by Braxton written for four separate orchestras recorded in quadraphonic sound which was subsequently rereleased on CD on The Complete Arista Recordings of Anthony Braxton released by Mosaic Records in 2008.

Four Keys is an album by pianist Martial Solal with saxophonist Lee Konitz, guitarist John Scofield and bassist Niels-Henning Ørsted Pedersen recorded in West Germany in 1979 and released on the MPS label.[1][2][3] The album was also released in the US on Pausa Records.


Contents [hide]

1 Critical reception

2 Track listing

3 Personnel

4 References

Critical reception[edit]

Professional ratings

Review scores

Source Rating

Allmusic 4.5/5 stars[4]

The Rolling Stone Jazz Record Guide 4/5 stars[5]

Scott Yanow of Allmusic said "An all-star quartet explores seven diverse Solal originals that range from chamberlike pieces to fairly free group improvising. The results are often exciting if cool in both tone and volume. Thoughtful yet unpredictable music".[4]



Cuban percussionist Mongo Santamaria first recorded his composition " Afro Blue" in 1959. "Afro Blue" was the first jazz standard built upon a typical African three-against-two (3:2) cross-rhythm, or hemiola. The song begins with the bass repeatedly playing 6 cross-beats per each measure of 12/8, or 6 cross-beats per 4 main beats—6:4 (two cells of 3:2). The following example shows the original ostinato "Afro Blue" bass line. The slashed noteheads indicate the main beats (not bass notes), where you would normally tap your foot to "keep time."


During this period, there was an increased use of the typical African 12/8 cross-rhythmic structure in jazz. Herbie Hancock's "Succotash" on Inventions and Dimensions (1963) is an open-ended modal, 12/8 jazz-descarga (jam), improvised on the spot, with no written music. Accompanied by Paul Chambers on bass, and the Latin percussionists Willie Bobo and Osvaldo Martinez "Chihuahua", Hancock's pattern of attack-points, rather than the pattern of pitches, is the primary focus of his improvisations. Martinez plays a traditional Afro-Cuban chekeré part, while Bobo plays an Abakuá bell pattern on a snare drum with brushes.




Abakuá bell pattern played on a snare with brushes by Willie Bobo on Herbie Hancock's "Succotash" (1963).

The first jazz standard composed by a non-Latino to use an overt African 12/8 cross-rhythm was Wayne Shorter's " Footprints" (1967). On the version recorded on Miles Smiles by Miles Davis, the bass switches to 4/4 at 2:20. The 4/4 figure is known as tresillo in Latin music and is the duple-pulse correlative of the cross-beats in triple-pulse. "Footprints" is not, however, a Latin jazz tune; Cuban music is not serving as the conduit to African rhythmic structures. Those structures are accessed directly by Ron Carter (bass) and Tony Williams (drums), via the rhythmic sensibilities of swing. Throughout the piece, the four beats, whether sounded or not, are maintained as the temporal referent. In the example below the main beats are indicated by slashed noteheads. They are shown here for reference, and do not indicate bass notes.




The cornetist Buddy Bolden led a band often mentioned as one of the prime movers of the style later to be called "jazz". He played in New Orleans around 1895–1906. Bolden's band is credited with creating the big four, the first syncopated bass drum pattern to deviate from the standard on-the-beat march. As the example below shows, the second half of the big four pattern is the habanera rhythm.


The cornetist Buddy Bolden led a band who are often mentioned as one of the prime originators of the style later to be called "jazz". He played in New Orleans around 1895–1906, before developing a mental illness; there are no recordings of him playing. Bolden's band is credited with creating the big four, the first syncopated bass drum pattern to deviate from the standard on-the-beat march.[75] As the example below shows, the second half of the big FOUR pattern is the habanera rhythm.


An innovative music composition program that combines the sample playing abilities of a tracker with conventional music notation (which was usually only found in MIDI software) is called Quartet (after its four-note polyphonic tracker, which displays one monophonic stave at a time on color screens).

she talks about the four letters sahb at 1:00


The TurboGrafx-16 Entertainment SuperSystem, known in Japan and in France as the PC Engine (PCエンジン Pī Shī Enjin?), is a home video game console joint-developed by Hudson Soft and NEC, released in Japan on October 30, 1987, in the United States on August 29, 1989, and in France on November 22, 1989. It was the first console released in the 16-bit era, albeit still utilizing an 8-bit CPU. Originally intended to compete with the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), it ended up competing against the Mega Drive/Genesis, and later on the Super Famicom/Super NES.

The TurboGrafx-16 has an 8-bit CPU and a dual 16-bit GPU.

16 is the number of squares in the quadrant model.

Tipsy By J Kwon with lyrics

J Kwon's song Tipsy was a hit when it came out. It begins with 1 here comes the 2 to the 3 to the 4. He begins it by saying the quadrant model four.
The 4 Cats (Arabic: الفور كاتس‎‎) is a Lebanese band made up of four Lebanese female singers. The members in the band have changed frequently and until today (2016)


"Four Women" is a song written by jazz singer, composer, pianist and arranger Nina Simone, released on the 1966 album Wild Is the Wind. It tells the story of four different African-American women. Each of the four characters represents an African-American stereotype in society. Thalami Davis of The Village Voice called the song "an instantly accessible analysis of the damning legacy of slavery, that made iconographic the real women we knew and would become."[1]


Contents [hide]

1 African-American female archetypes

2 Style

3 Misinterpretation

4 Cover versions and uses in popular culture

5 References

African-American female archetypes[edit]

The first of the four women described in the song is "Aunt Sarah" a character who represents African-American enslavement. Nina Simone's description of the woman emphasizes the strong and resilient aspects of her race, "strong enough to take the pain" as well as the long-term suffering her race has had to endure, "inflicted again and again".

The second woman who appears in the song is dubbed "Safronia", a woman of mixed race ("my skin is yellow") forced to live "between two worlds". She is portrayed as an oppressed woman and her story is once again used to highlight the suffering of the black race at the hands of white people in positions of power ("My father was rich and white/He forced my mother late one night").

The third woman is that of a prostitute referred to as "Sweet Thing". She finds acceptance with both black and white people, not only because "my hair is fine", but also because she provides sexual gratification ("Whose little girl am I?/Anyone who has money to buy").

The fourth and final woman is very tough, embittered by the generations of oppression and suffering endured by her people ("I'm awfully bitter these days/'cause my parents were slaves"). Simone finally unveils the woman's name after a dramatic finale during which she screams, "My name is Peaches!"


The Lemminkäinen Suite (also called the Four Legends, or Four Legends from the Kalevala), Op. 22, is a work written by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius in the early 1890s. Originally conceived as a mythological opera, Veneen luominen (The Building of the Boat), on a scale matching those by Richard Wagner, Sibelius later changed his musical goals and the work became an orchestral piece in four movements.[citation needed] The suite is based on the character Lemminkäinen from the Finnish national epic, the Kalevala. The piece can also be considered a collection of symphonic poems. The second/third section, The Swan of Tuonela, is often heard separately (the work's inner movements are often reversed as their order is a subject of disagreement among scholars).


Lemminkäinen and the Maidens of the Island: this is based on Runo 29 ("Conquests"[1]) of the Kalevala, where Lemminkäinen travels to an island and seduces many of the women there, before fleeing the rage of the men on the island.

The Swan of Tuonela: this is the most popular of the four tone poems and often is featured alone from the suite in orchestral programs. It has a prominent cor anglais solo. The music paints a gossamer, transcendental image of a mystical swan swimming around Tuonela, the island of the dead. Lemminkäinen has been tasked with killing the sacred swan, but on the way he is shot with a poisoned arrow, and dies himself.

Lemminkäinen in Tuonela: this is based on Runos 14 ("Elk, horse, swan"[2]) and 15 ("Resurrection"[3]). Lemminkäinen is in Tuonela, the land of the dead, to shoot the Swan of Tuonela to be able to claim the daughter of Louhi, mistress of the Northland, in marriage. However, the blind man of the Northland kills Lemminkäinen, whose body is then tossed in the river and then dismembered. Lemminkäinen's mother learns of his death, travels to Tuonela, recovers his body parts, reassembles him and restores him to life.

Lemminkäinen's Return: the storyline in the score roughly parallels the end of Runo 30 ("Jack Frost"[4]), where after his adventures in battle, Lemminkäinen journeys home.

The above order of the movements matches their numbering within opus 22. However, Sibelius revised the order in 1947, transposing the middle two movements, which is the order in which most concert performances are played.[citation needed]


The suite is scored for two flutes (one doubling on the piccolo), two oboes (one doubling on the cor anglais), two clarinets (in B) (one doubling on bass clarinet), two bassoons, four horns (in E and F), three trumpets (in E and F), three trombones, tuba, timpani, triangle, bass drum, cymbals, tambourine, harp, and strings.


Tristan Murail's Gondwana incorporates a substantial passage directly modelled upon Lemminkäinen in Tuonela.[5]



The original versions of Lemminkäinen and the Maidens of the Island and Lemminkäinen's Return have been recorded by Osmo Vänskä and the Lahti Symphony Orchestra (BIS CD-1015). Other recordings of the full published suite are by the Helsinki Radio Symphony Orchestra under Okko Kamu, the Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra under Neeme Järvi, The Philadelphia Orchestra under Eugene Ormandy, and The London Symphony Orchestra under Sir Colin Davis.


Sixteen Squares, 2000

documentation site

Sixteen Squares is a sound installation composed of sixteen sensored mats which, when walked on, trigger the movement of sound in and between four speakers. Sixteen spoken fragments of a poem are mapped to sixteen square mats, laid out in grid formation, in this piece. The respective position of the occupied square to those bordering it indicates the placement of sound. Standing on a square triggers the sounds associated with each bordering square. Moving from one square to the next displaces sound into the space which was formerly occupied, causing sound to move across the space.The spoken word uniquely demonstrates perceived properties of sound such as weight, color, and shape, and encourages a process of visualization in listening.



Complete lyrics to the Star Spangled Banner are included at the bottom of this document. Contrary to popular thought, the original words to the American National Anthem include four complete verses. Traditionally we sing only the first of the four.


The Cross of Snow Related Poem Content Details


In the long, sleepless watches of the night,

A gentle face — the face of one long dead —

Looks at me from the wall, where round its head

The night-lamp casts a halo of pale light.

Here in this room she died; and soul more white

Never through martyrdom of fire was led

To its repose; nor can in books be read

The legend of a life more benedight.

There is a mountain in the distant West

That, sun-defying, in its deep ravines

Displays a cross of snow upon its side.

Such is the cross I wear upon my breast

These eighteen years, through all the changing scenes

And seasons, changeless since the day she died.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.




Hanuman Chalisa has 40 verses, each verse is four lined (chaupi)


"Cleansing the mirror of my mind with the dust from the Lotus-feet of Divine Guru, I describe the unblemished glory of Lord Rama, which bestows four fruits of Righteousness (Dharma), Wealth (Artha), Pleasure (Kama) and Liberation (Moksha) "

Four Scottish Dances (Op.59) is an orchestral set of light music pieces composed by Malcolm Arnold in 1957 for the BBC Light Music Festival.

Contents [hide]

1 The Dances

2 Arrangements

3 Selected commercial recordings

3.1 Of John Paynter's wind band arrangement

4 See also

5 References

6 External links

The Dances[edit]

Arnold's set, or suite, consists of four dances inspired by, although not based on, Scottish country folk tunes and dances. Although the individual dances are not titled, each is denoted by a separate tempo or style marking.


The composer's notations in the score,[1] including his metronome indications (M.M.), are:


I. Pesante (quarter note = 104)

II. Vivace (quarter note = 160)

III. Allegretto (quarter note = 96)

IV. Con brio (quarter note = 144)

While Arnold did not title the four pieces individually, his music publisher (Novello & Co) has provided notes,[2] which are often employed by annotators for orchestral and concert programs. The first dance, Novello observes, is "in the style of a strathspey"; the second, a "lively reel." The song-like and graceful third dance evokes "a calm summer's day in the Hebrides"; while the last is "a lively fling."[3]


The dances are collectively intended to evoke Scotland, and utilize timbres intended to imitate bagpipes, as well as musical devices such as reel and Scotch snap rhythms. The composer also employs comic elements, such as a "tipsy" middle section in the second dance, in which the ensemble abruptly slows from a lively vivace to meno mosso (quarter note = 112), whereupon a single bassoon plays a plodding solo marked by upward and downward slides, or glissandi, as well as staggering, syncopated rhythms. (Beethoven employs a solo bassoon for somewhat similar comic effect in the rustic third-movement scherzo — "Merry Gathering of Country Folk" — of his Pastoral Symphony.)


The first performance was given at the Royal Festival Hall on 8 June 1957 with the BBC Concert Orchestra conducted by the composer.



for wind band by John Paynter, 1978

for brass band by Ray Farr, 1984

for piano by John York

for piano & violin by David Gedge

Selected commercial recordings[edit]

1959 Malcolm Arnold conducting the London Philharmonic Orchestra on Everest Records SDBR 3021 (re-released on Everest 9006).

1979 Malcolm Arnold conducting the London Philharmonic Orchestra on Lyrita LP and CD: SRCD.201

1996 Andrew Penny conducting the Queensland Symphony Orchestra on Naxos Records 8.553526 (Sir Malcolm Arnold: Dances)

Of John Paynter's wind band arrangement[edit]

1995 Jerry Junkin conducting the Dallas Wind Symphony on Reference Recordings RR-66CD (Arnold for Band)


The Addams Family Theme

(Flex Band)

arr. Johnnie Vinson - Hal Leonard Corporation

2 reviews

Click to review

You'll know you're in for a good time from the very beginning! Everyone will be able to name this famous TV theme after the first four notes and two finger snaps. Written with flexible scoring, this entertaining arrangement is playable with almost any instrumentation.


The Addams Family Theme Song

Leave a reply

What’s the most famous four-note musical introduction phrase of all time? Beethoven’s Fifth? Probably, but The Addams Family theme song comes a close second.


The show featured a very memorable and catchy theme song composed and sang by Vic Mizzy, who also composed the theme to Green Acres. It features a harpsichord and finger snaps as percussion. Vic Mizzy overdubbed himself so that it would sound like a group of vocalists singing. The “neat,” “sweet” and “petite” before the last stanza were said by actor Ted Cassidy, using his character Lurch’s voice.




They’re creepy and they’re kooky

Mysterious and spooky

They’re all together ooky

The Addams Family


Their house is a museum

Where people come to see ’em

They really are a scream

The Addams Family


(Neat), (Sweet), (Petite)


So get a witches shawl on

A broomstick you can crawl on

We’re gonna pay a call on

The Addams Family.


What’s the most famous four-note musical phrase of all time? If you said the opening to Beethoven’s Fifth, try again. The honor could arguably go to the catchy, literally finger-snapping theme song from the eccentrically eerie ’60s sitcom, The Addams Family. Even so, according to its composer, the well-known melody almost didn’t make it into Paramount’s eagerly awaited upcoming Christmas film version of The Addams Family, starring Anjelica Huston as Morticia, Raul Julia as Gomez, and Christopher Lloyd as Uncle Fester.

Psyché is a massive symphonic poem in four parts that Franck composed in 1886-87 at the same time as his Violin Sonata. It is one of five poèmes symphoniques he composed under the influence of Franz Liszt.

The four part of the Symphonic Poem recount only the first, innocent part of the story:

Sommeil de Psyché (Psyche’s Sleep): The movement opens with a slow, somnolent introduction, Example 1 but Franck soon introduces a motive, probably portraying either Psyche herself or, more likely, the impression the sleeping girl makes upon Eros as he wounds himself with his arrow. Example 2


Psyché enlevée par les Zéphyrs (Psyche carried off by the Zephyrs) describes Psyche’s flight as the winds carry her to Eros’ abode. Rapid figures in the flutes and first violins are a bit of obvious tone painting. Example 3 As Psyche arrives, Franck repeats her motive in the clarinet. Example 4


Les jardins d’Eros (Eros’ Gardens): After two movements of slow, sensual music, Franck must have decided to increase the tempo and turn Eros' garden into a rather vibrant place. Example 5


Psyché et Eros: The final movement portrays the lovers’ first meeting – the initial slow, hesitant moments suggesting an initial shyness Example 6 – and presumably the consummation of their love before Psyche’s disastrous act of disobedience. Even Apuleius is rather prim about what exactly the two are up to during their meetings. Eros and Psyche have their own themes, his initially stated in the cellos and brass, Example 7 hers in the violins. Example 8 The music is sentimentally erotic, the themes initially flowing together like a conversation between the two lovers. Franck later develops and entwines them contrapuntally.{Example 9

The Finale is a marvel of energy and concision, its main theme an example (the most famous of which, although clearly not the first, is the opening of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony) of what a composer of genius can accomplish with only four notes. Haydn, however, delays his main theme with a startling horn call, which then engages in a contrapuntal tussle with the main theme. That four-note motif is subsequently heard in numerous guises until it is ultimately combined with the horn call - now stated by all the brass and woodwinds - in a riotously brilliant, galloping conclusion.

Four by the Beatles- FOUR SONGS

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For the similarly titled EP, see 4-by The Beatles.

Four by the Beatles


EP by The Beatles

Released 11 May 1964

Recorded 1963, EMI Studios, London

Genre Rock

Length 9:33

Label Capitol

Producer George Martin

The Beatles EP chronology

Souvenir of Their Visit to America

(1964) Four by the Beatles

(1964) Long Tall Sally


Four by the Beatles was the second of three Beatles EPs released in the United States, and the first of two by Capitol Records (catalogue number EAP 1-2121). The album featured four songs that had previously been heavily imported into the US as Canadian singles.[1] It made #92 on the US Billboard Hot 100 singles chart.[2]

4-By the Beatles was the third of three EPs released in United States, but second of two Beatles' EPs released by Capitol Records (catalogue number R-5365) in the US.- 4 SONGS


Contents [hide]

1 History

2 Track listing

3 See also

4 References

5 External links


Though the first Beatles' EP released by Capitol did not succeed as much as the label would have hoped, it did well on the singles chart, which enabled Capitol to create a new series called the "4-By" series, which acted like a "super single." The idea was to market a set of four songs to "complement the artist's singles and albums and not compete with the performer's current hit single."[1] Accordingly, the series name is a reference to the limited success of that first EP by the Beatles that Capitol had released: Four by the Beatles.


Although initially intended to appear as a single by releasing the "4-By" in a soft sleeve and thus "distinguish the '4-By' product from EP's," the Beatles "4-By" was released in a hard cardboard sleeve, similar to regular EP releases.[1] Billboard did not chart this "4-By" as a single either, instead as an EP, with it charting as high as 68 on the Hot 100, the highest it reached in the Cash Box chart as well.[1]


Capitol deleted this release from its catalog on 31 December 1965, less than a year after it was released.[1]


Track listing[edit]

The "4-By" featured four songs that were previously released on Beatles '65 in December 1964.

Side one

"Honey Don't" (Carl Perkins) - 2:56

"I'm a Loser" (Lennon–McCartney) - 2:30

Side two

"Mr. Moonlight" (Johnson) - 2:39

"Everybody's Trying to Be My Baby" (Perkins) - 2:25


Paraneoptera is a monophyletic superorder of insects which includes four orders, the bark lice, true lice, thrips, and hemipterans, the true bugs.[1] The mouthparts of the Paraneoptera reflect diverse feeding habits. Basal groups are microbial surface feeders, whereas more advanced groups feed on plant or animal fluids.[1]


"Abraham, Martin and John" is a 1968 song written by Dick Holler and first recorded by Dion. It is a tribute to the memory of four assassinated Americans, all icons of social change, Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King, Jr., John F. Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy. It was written in response to the assassination of King and that of Robert Kennedy in April and June 1968, respectively.

"I'm a Slave 4 U" is a song recorded by American singer Britney Spears for her third and eponymous studio album, Britney (2001)

Said halleluyah- to the 16 LOYAL FANS- 16 squares QMR



4 notes hunger games and romeo juliet love theme

"40", also known as "40 (How Long)", is the tenth and final track from U2's 1983 album, War. The song is noted for its live performances, often involving the audience singing along for minutes after the band has left the stage. The lyrics are a modification of the Bible's Psalm 40.

40oz. to Freedom is the 1992 debut album by the Southern California ska-punk band Sublime released by Skunk Records and again by MCA. 40oz. to Freedom received mixed critical reviews upon its first release, but has earned an improved public perception since. Sublime would not achieve any mainstream success until the release of their eponymous album, two months after the death of their lead singer and guitarist, Bradley Nowell, in 1996 (see 1996 in music). As of 2011, the album has certified sales of two million copies in the US, and is Sublime's second best-selling studio album there (the self-titled album leads with six million). Along with The Offspring's 1994 album Smash, 40oz. to Freedom is one of the highest-selling independently released albums of all time.[citation needed]

"Forty Shades of Green" is a song about Ireland, written and first performed by American country singer Johnny Cash. Cash wrote the song in 1959 while on a trip to Ireland; it was first released as a B-side of the song "The Rebel–Johnny Yuma" in 1961. It is also included in two of Cash's albums: Ring of Fire: The Best of Johnny Cash, released on Columbia Records in 1963, and Johnny Cash: The Great Lost Performance – Live at the Paramount Theatre, Asbury Park, New Jersey, recorded live in 1990 and released in 2007.


Cash once recalled performing the song in Ireland and being told by an old man afterwards that it must have been an old Irish folk tune.[1]


"Forty Shades of Green" has also been recorded by Daniel O'Donnell, Foster and Allen, and Ruby Murray, among others.

Q: Could you give us a brief history of Chinese music?

GY: From excavated instruments, we know that Chinese music dates back over 9,000 years. Over time, four genres developed: folk, literati, religious, and court music.



On 10 March 1988, younger brother Andy died, aged 30, as a result of myocarditis, an inflammation of the heart muscle due to a recent viral infection. His brothers acknowledge that Andy's past drug and alcohol use probably made his heart more susceptible to this illness. Just before Andy's death, the brothers had decided that Andy would join them, which would have made them a four-piece group. The Bee Gees' following album, One (1989), featured a song dedicated to Andy, "Wish You Were Here". The album also contained their first US top ten hit (No. 7) in a decade, "One" (an Adult Contemporary No. 1). After the album's release, the band embarked on its first world tour in ten years.

Tribes were a four-piece indie rock band, based in Camden Town, London, that formed in 2010. The group consisted of former Operahouse members Johnny Lloyd (vocals and guitar), Dan White (guitar) and Jim Cratchley (bass), along with White's childhood friend, Miguel Demelo (drums).

Gucci Mane didn't have a Dad neither did Eminem- My Dad abandoned me but he didn't realize that I knew the greatest theory in history 




"my own Momma turned her back on me and that's my Momma"

The cuatro is any of several Latin American instruments of the guitar or lute families. Many cuatros are smaller than a guitar. Cuatro means four in Spanish, although current instruments often have more than four strings. The cuatro is found in Puerto Rico and in South America, and other territories of the West Indies. Certain variants are considered the national instrument of some countries (e.g., Venezuela). Its 15th century predecessor was the Portuguese Cavaquinho, which, like the cuatro had four strings. The cuatro is widely used in ensembles in Jamaica, Mexico, and Surinam to accompany singing and dancing. In Trinidad and Tobago it accompanies Parang singers. In Puerto Rico and Venezuela, the cuatro is an ensemble instrument for secular and religious music, and is played at parties and traditional gatherings. [1]

Contents [hide]

1 Venezuelan cuatro

2 Puerto Rico cuatros

3 Cuatro Cubano

4 See also

5 References

6 Further reading

7 External links

Venezuelan cuatro[edit]

Main article: Cuatro (Venezuela)

The cuatro of Venezuela has four single nylon strings, tuned (A4,D5,F♯5,B4) or (A3,D4,F♯4,B3). It is similar in shape and tuning to the ukulele, but their character and playing technique are vastly different. It is tuned in a similar fashion to the traditional D tuning of the ukulele, but the B is an octave lower. Consequently, the same fingering can be used to shape the chords, but it produces a different inversion of each chord. There are variations on this instrument, having five strings or six strings.





Venezuelan Cuatro


Venezuelan Concert Cuatro



Other Venezuelan cuatro variants include: cinco cuatro (5 strings in 4 courses); seis cinco (6 strings in 5 courses); cinco y medio (5 strings and a short extra string from the top of the body); cuatro y medio (4 strings plus a short extra string); and octavo (8 strings in 4 double courses).[3]


Puerto Rico cuatros[edit]

Main article: Puerto Rican Cuatro


A Puerto Rican Cuatro

The Puerto Rican cuatro is shaped more like a violin than a guitar, and is the most familiar of the three instruments of the Puerto Rican orquesta jíbara (i.e., the cuatro, the tiple and the bordonua). The Puerto Rican cuatro has ten strings in five courses, tuned in fourths from low to high, with B and E in octaves and A, D and G in unisons: B3 B2♦E4 E3♦A3 A3♦D4 D4♦G4 G4


Several sizes of the instrument exist, including a Cuatro Soprano, Cuatro Alto, Cuatro Tradicional (the standard instrument, also called Cuatro Tenor), and Cuatro Bajo (Bass Cuatro): all have ten strings and are tuned in fourths. There is also a Cuatro Lírico ("lyrical cuatro"), which is about the size of the Tenor, but has a deep jelly-bean shaped body; a Cuatro Sonero, which has 15 strings in five courses of three strings each; and a Seis, which is a Cuatro Tradicional with an added two-string course (usually a lower course), giving it a total of 12 strings in 6 courses.[2]


Cuatro Cubano[edit]

The Cuban Cuatro (Cuatro Cubano, or "Tres Cuatro"), is similar to a Cuban Tres, but with 4 courses of doubled strings, instead of the usual 3. It is usually tuned G4 G3•C4 C4•E4 E4•A4 A4.


The bouzouki (also buzuki) (Greek: μπουζούκι pronounced [buˈzuci]; plural: μπουζούκια) is a Greek musical instrument that was brought to Greece in the 1900s by Greek immigrants from Asia Minor, and quickly became the central instrument to the rebetika genre and its music branches.[1] A mainstay of modern Greek music, the front of the body is flat and is usually heavily inlaid with mother-of-pearl. The instrument is played with a plectrum and has a sharp metallic sound, reminiscent of a mandolin but pitched lower. There are two main types of bouzouki. The trichordo (three-course) has three pairs of strings (known as courses), and the tetrachordo (four-course) has four pairs of strings.


The type of the instrument used in Rembetika music was a three-stringed instrument, but in the 1950s a four-string variety by Manolis Chiotis was introduced.[3]


Following the 1919–1922 war in Asia Minor and the subsequent exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey, the ethnic Greeks fled to Greece. The early bouzoukia were mostly three-string (trichordo), with three courses (six strings in three pairs) and were tuned in different ways, as to the scale one wanted to play. At the end of the 1950s, four-course (tetrachordo) bouzoukia started to gain popularity. The four-course bouzouki was made popular by Manolis Chiotis, who also used a tuning akin to standard guitar tuning, which made it easier for guitarists to play bouzouki, even as it angered purists. However it allowed for greater virtuosity and helped elevate the bouzouki into a truly popular instrument capable of a wide range of musical expression. Recently the 3 course bouzouki has gained in popularity. The first recording with the 4-course instrument was made in 1956.[7][8]


The Irish bouzouki, with four courses, a flatter back, and differently tuned from the Greek bouzouki, is a more recent development, stemming from the introduction of the Greek instrument into Irish music by Johnny Moynihan around 1965, and its subsequent adoption by Andy Irvine, Alec Finn, Dónal Lunny, and many others.[9]


The luthiers of the time often used sets of four tuners on trichordo instruments, as these were more easily available, being also used on mandolins.[11]


The four-course bouzouki (tetrachordo)[edit]

This type of bouzouki has 8 metal strings, which are arranged in 4 pairs, known as courses, typically tuned C3 C4•F3 F4•A3 A3•D4 D4 (i.e., one whole step below the four high strings of a guitar). In the two higher-pitched (treble) courses, the two strings of the pair are tuned to the same note. In the two lower-pitched (bass) courses, the pair consists of a thick wound string and a thin string tuned an octave apart. On the bouzouki the lower-pitched string comes first in these courses, the reverse of most other instruments with octave-paired courses (e.g., 12-string guitar; charango; bajo sexto; et al) These 'octave strings' add to the fullness of the sound and are used in chords and bass drones (continuous low notes that are played throughout the music). The guitar-like tuning was introduced by composer and soloist Manolis Hiotis, who found it better suited to the kind of virtuoso playing he was famous for. Today, the tetrachordo is the most common bouzouki used in Greek music, though a few traditionalists still prefer the trichordo, particularly for the older rebetika style of playing.[12


A mandolin (Italian: mandolino pronounced [mandoˈliːno]; literally "small mandola") is a musical instrument in the lute family and is usually plucked with a plectrum or "pick". It commonly has four courses of doubled metal strings tuned in unison


Much of mandolin development revolved around the soundboard (the top). Pre-mandolin instruments were quiet instruments, strung with as many as six courses of gut strings, and were plucked with the fingers or with a quill. However, modern instruments are louder—using four courses of metal strings, which exert more pressure than the gut strings


Brescian mandolins that have survived in museums have four gut strings instead of six.[76] The mandolin was tuned in fifths, like the Neapolitan mandolin.[76]


In his 1805 mandolin method, Anweisung die Mandoline von selbst zu erlernen nebst einigen Uebungsstucken von Bortolazzi, Bartolomeo Bortolazzi popularised the Cremonese mandolin, which had four single-strings and a fixed bridge, to which the strings were attached.[77][78] Bortolazzi said in this book that the new wire strung mandolins were uncomfortable to play, when compared with the gut-string instruments.[77] Also, he felt they had a "less pleasing...hard, zither-like tone" as compared to the gut string's "softer, full-singing tone."[77] He favored the four single strings of the Cremonese instrument, which were tuned the same as the Neapolitan.[77][78]



Juan Oliver's c.1330 painting at Pamplona Cathedral, showing a musician playing a gittern. The instrument is strung with four courses of two strings, just as most mandolins are strung today.

The Neapolitan style has an almond-shaped body resembling a bowl, constructed from curved strips of wood. It usually has a bent sound table, canted in two planes with the design to take the tension of the eight metal strings arranged in four courses. A hardwood fingerboard sits on top of or is flush with the sound table. Very old instruments may use wooden tuning pegs, while newer instruments tend to use geared metal tuners. The bridge is a movable length of hardwood. A pickguard is glued below the sound hole under the strings.[34][35][69] European roundbacks commonly use a 13-inch (330 mm) scale instead of the 13


The instrument has had to compete in Ukraine with native instruments that have been revived, such as the kobza. The orchestral variant of the kobza is similar to the Mandolin, having four strings and being tuned in fifths.[127]

The Puerto Rican cuatro is the national instrument of Puerto Rico. It belongs to the lute family of string instruments, and is guitar-like in function, but with a shape closer to that of the violin. The word cuatro means "four", which was the total of strings of the very first Puerto Rican cuatro.


The yueqin or yue qin (Chinese: 月琴, p yuèqín), formerly romanized as yüeh-ch‘in and also known as the moon guitar, moon zither, gekkin, laqin, or la-ch‘in, is a traditional Chinese string instrument. It is a lute with a round, hollow wooden body which gives it the nickname moon guitar. It has a short fretted neck and four strings tuned in courses of two (each pair of strings is tuned to a single pitch), generally tuned to the interval of a perfect fifth

The northern instruments range from single to four stringed instruments. Regardless of the neck size or strings, all yueqin are tuned around the same treble pitch level. A common technique in performance is "snapping" the pick on the string (similar to Japanese shamisen.) Yueqin is the loudest member of the plucked lute family of Chinese instruments; one instrument can easily be heard over a full Chinese orchestra.


Traditional yueqin[edit]

The yueqin in China has four strings, tuned in two "courses," D and A (low to high). Yueqin used for Beijing opera, however, have two single strings, only one of which is actually used, the lower string being there purely for sympathetic resonance. In Beijing opera, the player uses a small wood dowel instead of a plectrum to perform, and only plays in first position; this requires the performer to use octave displacement in order to play all the pitches within a given melody.


Modern forms of the instrument have three or four strings made of steel[citation needed] (or steel-wrapped nylon), each tuned to a different pitch. The strings are attached to the anchor by looping them through their own end-loops.


3-string instruments are often tuned A D

4-string instruments are often tuned to A D a d; however, in recent practice, the instrument is tuned G D g d so modern liuqin and ruan players can easily double on yueqin.


The banjolin is different from the banjo-mandolin in the number of strings that it has. Banjolins today are supposed to have four strings instead of 8 strings (in courses or pairs). However, that distinction is not universal; the banjolin name was patented in 1885 by John Farris for an instrument with 8 strings. The Farris banjolin was offered in soprano, alto, tenor, and bass models. However, he "converted it to a four-string instrument," maintaining the mandolin and violin scale length and tuning (GDAE).[2]


A Vega mandolin-banjo ca. 1920 with four pairs of strings.


The twelve-string guitar is a steel-string guitar with twelve strings in six courses, which produces a richer, more ringing tone than a standard six-string guitar. Typically, the strings of the lower four courses are tuned in octaves, with those of the upper two courses tuned in unisons.


Nashville Tuning refers to a way of simulating a twelve-string guitar sound, using two six-string guitars playing in unison. This is achieved by replacing the lower four courses on one 6-string with the higher octave strings for those four courses from a 12-string set, and tuning these four strings an octave higher than normal tuning for those courses on a 6-string. Double-tracking this guitar with the standard-tuned 6-string is commonly used in recording studios to achieve a "cleaner" 12-string effect.[8]


The octave mandolin is a fretted string instrument with four pairs of strings tuned in fifths, G, D, A, E (low to high), an octave below a mandolin. It has a 20 to 23-inch scale length and its construction is similar to other instruments in the mandolin family. Usually the courses are all unison pairs but the lower two may sometimes be strung as octave pairs with the higher-pitched octave string on top so that it is hit before the thicker lower-pitched string. Alternate tunings of G, D, A, D and A, D, A, D are often employed by Celtic musicians.



Also called Four-hammer dulcimer

The strings of the hammered dulcimer are often tuned according to a circle of fifths pattern.[3][4] Typically, the lowest note (often a G or D) is struck at the lower right-hand of the instrument, just to the left of the right-hand (bass) bridge. As a player strikes the courses above in sequence, they ascend following a repeating sequence of two whole steps and a half step. With this tuning, a diatonic scale is broken into two tetrachords, or groups of four notes. For example, on an instrument with D as the lowest note, the D major scale is played starting in the lower-right corner and ascending the bass bridge: D – E – F♯ – G. This is the lower tetrachord of the D major scale. At this point the player returns to the bottom of the instrument and shifts to the treble strings to the right of the treble bridge to play the higher tetrachord: A – B – C♯ – D. The player can continue up the scale on the right side of the treble bridge with E – F♯ – G – A – B, but the next note will be C, not C♯, so he or she must switch to the left side of the treble bridge (and closer to the player) to continue the D major scale. See the drawing on the left above, in which "DO" would correspond to D (see Movable do solfège).


The shift from the bass bridge to the treble bridge is required because the bass bridge's fourth string G is the start of the lower tetrachord of the G scale. The player could go on up a couple notes (G - A - B), but the next note will be a flatted seventh (C natural in this case), because this note is drawn from the G tetrachord. This D major scale with a flatted seventh is the mixolydian mode in D.


The tetrachord markers found on the bridges of most hammered dulcimers in the English-speaking world were introduced by the American player and maker Sam Rizzetta in the 1960s.[5]


The original bandurrias of the Medieval period had three strings. During the Renaissance they gained a fourth string. During the Baroque period the bandurria had 10 strings (5 pairs).


The modern bandurria has 12 strings (6 pairs). The strings are tuned in unison pairs, going up in fourths from the low G#. The lowest four strings are a major-third above those of a standard guitar and the highest two strings are a fourth above a standard guitar, i.e. G♯, c♯, f♯, b, e and a.[2]


The mandocello (Italian: mandoloncello, Liuto cantabile, liuto moderno) is a plucked string instrument of the mandolin family. It is larger than the mandolin, and is the baritone/bass instrument of the mandolin family. Its eight strings are in four paired courses, with the strings in each course tuned in unison. Overall tuning of the courses is in fifths like a mandolin, but beginning on bass C (C2). It can be described as being to the mandolin what the cello is to the violin..[1][2]


The mandocello generally has four courses of two strings each. Because of the heavy gauge of the lowest course, some folk mandocello players remove one of the C strings to prevent rattling while playing fortissimo.


Mandolin ensembles were popular in the late Baroque period, and a number of instruments were added to the family around this time, including the mandalone a flat-backed, bass instrument, "much larger than the liuto" with "four heavy wound strings" tuned (in fourths) to A2-D3-G3-C4. This instrument may have been the direct precursor of the mandocello. [4] The popularity of mandolin ensembles began to wane during the late Classical (1750-1825) period, and after 1815 the mandolin largely transitioned to the status of a folk instrument, and the mandolone all but disappeared.[5]


Tuning and range[edit]

Usually, courses of 2 adjacent strings are doubled (tuned to the same pitch). The standard mandocello tuning of C2 C2•G2 G2•D3 D3•A3 A3 is equivalent to that of the violoncello:


fourth (lowest tone) course: C2 (65.4064 Hz)

third course: G2 (97.9989 Hz)

second course: D3 (146.832 Hz)

first (highest tone) course: A3 (220.000 Hz)

The four-string guitar is better known as the tenor guitar. One of its best-known players was Tiny Grimes, who played on 52nd Street with the beboppers and played a major role in the Prestige Blues Swingers. Multi-instrumentalist Warren Ellis (musician) of Dirty Three and Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds is a contemporary player who includes a tenor guitar in his repertoire.

The four-string guitar is normally tuned CGDA, but some players, such as Tiny Grimes, tune to DGBE in order to preserve familiar 6-string guitar chord fingerings. The tenor guitar can also be tuned like a soprano, concert, or tenor ukulele, using versions of GCEA tuning.


Bridge and tailpiece systems[edit]

The bridge and tailpiece, while serving separate purposes, work closely together to affect playing style and tone. There are four basic types of bridge and tailpiece systems on electric guitars. Within these four types are many variants.



A hard-tail guitar bridge anchors the strings at or directly behind the bridge and is fastened securely to the top of the instrument.[15] These are common on carved-top guitars, such as the Gibson Les Paul and the Paul Reed Smith models, and on slab-body guitars, such as the Music Man Albert Lee and Fender guitars that are not equipped with a vibrato arm.


Floating tailpiece[edit]

A floating or trapeze tailpiece (similar to a violin's) fastens to the body at the base of the guitar. These appear on Rickenbackers, Gretsches, Epiphones, a wide variety of archtop guitars, particularly Jazz guitars, and the 1952 Gibson Les Paul.[16]


Vibrato arms[edit]

Pictured is a tremolo arm or vibrato tailpiece style bridge and tailpiece system, often called a whammy bar or trem. It uses a lever ("vibrato arm") attached to the bridge that can temporarily slacken or tighten the strings to alter the pitch. A player can use this to create a vibrato or a portamento effect. Early vibrato systems were often unreliable and made the guitar go out of tune easily. They also had a limited pitch range. Later Fender designs were better, but Fender held the patent on these, so other companies used older designs for many years.



Detail of a Squier-made Fender Stratocaster. Note the vibrato arm, the 3 single-coil pickups, the volume and tone knobs.

With expiration of the Fender patent on the Stratocaster-style vibrato, various improvements on this type of internal, multi-spring vibrato system are now available. Floyd Rose introduced one of the first improvements on the vibrato system in many years when, in the late 1970s, he experimented with "locking" nuts and bridges that prevent the guitar from losing tuning, even under heavy vibrato bar use.


String-through body[edit]


Tune-o-matic with "strings through the body" construction (without stopbar)

The fourth type of system employs string-through body anchoring. The strings pass over the bridge saddles, then through holes through the top of the guitar body to the back. The strings are typically anchored in place at the back of the guitar by metal ferrules. Many believe this design improves a guitar's sustain and timbre. A few examples of string-through body guitars are the Fender Telecaster Thinline, the Fender Telecaster Deluxe, the B.C. Rich IT Warlock and Mockingbird, and the Schecter Omen 6 and 7 series.



The history of the seven-string guitar stretches back more than 230 years. During the Renaissance period (ca. 1400-1600 CE), the European guitar generally had four courses, each strung with two gut strings, and the pair of strings within each course tuned in unison. By the mid-Baroque period (ca. 1600-1750) it more commonly had five courses (still double-strung) and used a variety of tunings, some of them re-entrant. By the early eighteenth century six double-strung courses had become common.



Instruments called "guitars" were first mentioned in literature in the 13th century, though many of these medieval records describe instruments that in modern times are classified as gitterns.[2] The first incarnation of what is now called the guitar first appeared during the Renaissance. The Renaissance guitar contained four pairs of strings called courses. The Renaissance guitar shared most similarities with the Spanish vihuela, a six-coursed instrument with similar tuning and construction.[3] Juan Bermudo in 1555 published Declaración de Instrumentos Musicales, a treatise containing a section on plucked string instruments. This publication examined the relationship between the guitar and vihuela, and also differentiated between four- and five-course guitars. The five-course guitar did not phase out the four-course instrument until the Baroque period.


"The first incontrovertible evidence of five-course instruments can be found in Miguel Fuenllana's Orphenica Lyre of 1554, which contains music for a vihuela de cinco ordenes. In the following year Juan Bermudo wrote in his Declaracion de Instrumentos Musicales: "We have seen a guitar in Spain with five courses of strings." Bermudo later mentions in the same book that "Guitars usually have four strings," which implies that the five-course guitar was of comparatively recent origin, and still something of an oddity". Tom and Mary Anne Evans Guitars: From the Renaissance to Rock. Paddington Press Ltd 1977 p. 24


The cittern is one of the few metal-strung instruments known from the Renaissance period. It generally has four courses (single, pairs or threes) of strings


The acoustic bass guitar (also called ABG or acoustic bass) is a bass instrument with a hollow wooden body similar to, though usually somewhat larger than a steel-string acoustic guitar. Like the traditional electric bass guitar and the double bass, the acoustic bass guitar commonly has four strings, which are normally tuned E-A-D-G, an octave below the lowest four strings of the 6-string guitar, which is the same tuning pitch as an electric bass guitar.


Like the traditional electric bass and the double bass, the acoustic bass guitar commonly has four strings, which are normally tuned E-A-D-G, an octave below the lowest four strings of the 6-string guitar. Like the electric bass guitar, models with five or more strings have been produced, although these are less common. In part, this is because the body of an acoustic bass guitar is too small to produce a resonance of acceptable volume at lower pitches on the low "B" string. One solution uses the five string acoustic bass to add an additional high string ("E-A-D-G-C") instead of adding a low "B". Another solution is to rely on amplification to reproduce the low "B" string's notes.


Saga Musical Instruments produces a four-string bass resonator guitar under their Regal brand name.videos National Reso-Phonic Guitars also produce three models of resonator bass guitar.[1



Although the 9×9 grid with 3×3 regions is by far the most common, many other variations exist. Sample puzzles can be 4×4 grids with 2×2 regions; 5×5 grids with pentomino regions have been published under the name Logi-5; the World Puzzle Championship has featured a 6×6 grid with 2×3 regions and a 7×7 grid with six heptomino regions and a disjoint region. Larger grids are also possible. The Times offers a 12×12-grid "Dodeka Sudoku" with 12 regions of 4×3 squares. Dell Magazines regularly publishes 16×16 "Number Place Challenger" puzzles (using the numbers 1-16 or the letters A-P). Nikoli offers 25×25 "Sudoku the Giant" behemoths. A 100×100-grid puzzle dubbed Sudoku-zilla was published in 2010.[12]


From July 2005, Channel 4 included a daily Sudoku game in their Teletext service. On August 2, the BBC's program guide Radio Times featured a weekly Super Sudoku with a 16×16 grid.



Main article: Tiple


Tiple Colombiano


American tiple


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The national instrument of Columbia, the tiple Colombiano, has four courses of three strings each. Its higher-pitched relative, the tiple requinto, is similarly triple-strung.


The American tiple, a smaller instrument loosely derived from the Columbian tiple, uses two double-strung courses and two triple-strung courses.


Twelve-string bass[edit]

Main article: twelve-string bass


Detail of twelve string bass

The electric twelve-string bass has twelve strings in four triple courses.


The twelve-string bass is an electric bass with three courses on each of four strings.


Normal tuning is eeE-aaA-ddD-ggG, with one string of each course tuned similarly to the corresponding string of the four-string bass, and the remaining two strings tuned to the octave.


The standard design for the electric bass guitar has four strings, tuned E, A, D and G,[28] in fourths such that the open highest string, G, is an eleventh (an octave and a fourth) below middle C, making the tuning of all four strings the same as that of the double bass (E1, A1, D2, G2). This tuning is also the same as the standard tuning on the lower four strings on a six-string guitar, only an octave lower.


Acoustic bass


Acoustic bass guitar

Main article: Acoustic bass guitar

The acoustic bass guitar is a bass instrument with a hollow wooden body similar to, though usually somewhat larger than, that of a 6-string acoustic guitar. Like the traditional electric bass guitar and the double bass, the acoustic bass guitar commonly has four strings, which are normally tuned E-A-D-G, an octave below the lowest four strings of the 6-string guitar, which is the same tuning pitch as an electric bass guitar. It can, more rarely, be found with 5 or 6 strings, which provides a wider range of notes to be played with less movement up and down the neck.


Hybrids of acoustic and electric guitars are also common. There are also more exotic varieties, such as guitars with two, three,[11] or rarely four necks, all manner of alternate string arrangements, fretless fingerboards (used almost exclusively on bass guitars, meant to emulate the sound of a stand-up bass), 5.1 surround guitar, and such.


Electric bass

Main article: Bass guitar


A Fender Precision Bass-style bass guitar.

The bass guitar (also called an "electric bass", or simply a "bass") is similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, but with a longer neck and scale length, and four to six strings. The four-string bass, by far the most common, is usually tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest pitched strings of a guitar (E, A, D, and G). The bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds (as is the double bass) to avoid excessive ledger lines. Like the electric guitar, the bass guitar has pickups and it is plugged into an amplifier and speaker for live performances.

The Cantigas have survived in four manuscript codices: two at El Escorial, one at Madrid's National Library, and one in Florence, Italy. The E codex from El Escorial is illuminated with colored miniatures showing pairs of musicians playing a wide variety of instruments. The Códice Rico (T) from El Escorial and the one in the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence (F) are richly illuminated with narrative vignettes.


Far from being considered an example of Islamic culture, the instrument was used for one occasion to illustrate principles of Christian religious doctrine. French theologian Jean Gerson compared the four cardinal virtues to "la guiterne de quatre cordes" (the gittern of four strings). Italian statesman and poet Dante Alighieri, referring to the qualities (and possibly the structure) of the gittern, said, "...just as it would be a blameworthy operation to make a spade of a fine sword or a goblet of a fine chitarra."


Most gitterns were depicted as having three or (more commonly) four courses of double strings. Although there is not much direct information concerning gittern tuning, the later versions were quite possibly tuned in fourths and fifths like the mandore a few decades later. Frets were represented in a few depictions (mainly Italian and German), although apparently absent in most French, Spanish and English depictions. The gittern's sound hole was covered with a rosette (a delicate wood carving or parchment cutting), similar to the lute.


The Kwitra (also kouitra and quitra) is a stringed instrument from Algeria. It is a regional instrument in the Lute family of instruments, related to Chitarra Italiana. [1] [2]


It has 8 strings in 4 courses. It is tuned G3 G3, E4 E4, A3 A3, D4 D4. The traditional strings are made of animal intestines.

Names in German: quintern, chiterna, quinterna - possibly derived from the later development of a five course instrument (overlay of Latin quinctus 'five' with chiterna or similar). Juan Bermudo mentioned having seen a 5 course guitarra but that 4 course instruments were normal. The quinterna that appears in the German Michael Praetorius treatise on musical instruments of 1618, Syntagma Musicum (Plate 16) - has pegs inserted sideways in the pegbox but the body is now a flat figure-of-8 shape. Like Bermudo, Praetorius also mentions 5 course instruments but considers 4 courses normal. The surviving instrument by Hans Oth is unusual in comparison to historical depictions, the strings pass over the bridge and are fastened to the lower edge of the body. The strings in historical illustrations are normally shown fastened to the bridge, which may suggest the instrument was converted from four courses at a later date to its construction and the original bridge detached.


There has also been a twelve-string (three strings per course) type and an instrument with sixteen-strings (four strings per course).


Bandola andina colombiana: this instrument has six courses of strings in several different arrangements. It may have 12 strings in doubled courses, 14 strings with the first two courses tripled and the rest doubled, 16 strings with the first four courses tripled and the last two doubled, or 18 strings in triple courses. The instrument strongly resembles its ancestor, the Spanish bandurria.[2] This instrument resembles the Mexican bandolón.

Bandola oriental: like the bandola llanera but with a deeper body and four double courses with eight strings in all, with both nylon and metal strings.

Bandola guayanesa: played in Venezuela's Guayana Region, with eight metal strings, paired in four courses.[3] The instrument combines techniques of the oriental and llanera bandolas.[4][5]


Historically, the banjo was played in the clawhammer style by the Africans who brought their version of the banjo with them.[18] Several other styles of play were developed from this. Clawhammer consists of downward striking of one or more of the four main strings with the index, middle or both finger(s)while the drone or fifth string is played with a 'lifting' (as opposed to downward pluck) motion of the thumb. The notes typically sounded by the thumb in this fashion are, usually, on the off beat. Melodies can be quite intricate adding techniques such as double thumbing and drop thumb. In old time Appalachian Mountain music, there is also a style called two finger up-pick, and a three finger version that Earl Scruggs developed into the famous "Scruggs" style picking, nationally aired in 1945 on the Grand Ole Opry.[19]


Four-string banjos[edit]


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Plectrum banjo from Gold Tone

See also: Four-String Banjo Hall of Fame Members

Four-string banjos, both plectrum and tenor, can be used for chordal accompaniment (as in early jazz), for single string melody playing (as in Irish traditional music), in "chord melody" style (a succession of chords in which the highest notes carry the melody), in tremolo style (both on chords and single strings), and a mixed technique called duo style that combines single string tremolo and rhythm chords.


Plectrum banjo[edit]

The plectrum banjo is a standard banjo without the short drone string. It usually has 22 frets on the neck and a scale length of 26 to 28 inches, and was originally tuned C3 G3 B3 D4. It can also be tuned like the top four strings of a guitar, which is known as "Chicago tuning." As the name suggests, it is usually played with a guitar-style pick (that is, a single one held between thumb and forefinger), unlike the five-string banjo, which is either played with a thumbpick and two fingerpicks, or with bare fingers. The plectrum banjo evolved out of the five-string banjo, to cater to styles of music involving strummed chords. The plectrum is also featured in many early jazz recordings and arrangements.


The four-string banjo is used from time to time in musical theater. Examples include: Hello, Dolly!, Mame, Chicago, Cabaret, Oklahoma!, Half a Sixpence, Annie, Barnum, The Threepenny Opera, Monty Python's Spamalot, and countless others. Joe Raposo had used it variably in the imaginative 7-piece orchestration for the long-running TV show Sesame Street, and has sometimes had it overdubbed with itself or an electric guitar. The banjo is still (albeit rarely) in use in the show's arrangement currently.

The čelović - originally two double strings and two single strings; now four single strings are more common.

The čelo (cselló) - four strings, similar in size to the bugarija and plays a counterpoint line which is usually improvised.

The bas or berda (tamburabőgő), also called begeš (bőgős) - four strings. It is the largest instrument in the tamburica family, and is similar to contrabass. It can only be played standing and is used for playing bass lines.


The cavaquinho (pronounced [kɐvɐˈkiɲu] in Portuguese) is a small string instrument of the European guitar family with four wire or gut strings. A cavaquinho player is called a cavaquista.



Portuguese cavaquinhos

The most common tuning is D–G–B–D (from lower to higher pitches); other tunings include D–A–B–E (Portuguese ancient tuning, made popular by Júlio Pereira) and G–G–B–D and A–A–C♯–E. Guitarists often use D–G–B–E tuning to emulate the highest four strings of the guitar (also the same tuning as the baritone ukulele).[1] The G–C–E–A tuning is sometimes used to emulate the soprano/tenor ukulele,[2] an instrument developed from the braguinha and rajão, brought to Hawaii by Portuguese immigrants, from Madeira Island, in the late 19th century.[3]



Previously, they also used the Portuguese musical instrument called cavaquinho, a four steel stringed musical instrument that looks like a guitar; however, cavaquinho was then modified into a prounga, a 3 nylon stringed instrument with low pitch, and a macina, a 4 nylon stringed instrument with high pitch


Short evolution is divided into four periods:[7]


Songs in this category include Terang Bulan, Potong Padi, Nina Bobo, Sarinande, O Ina Ni Keke, Bolelebo, and many others. The structure is A – B – A – B or A – B – C – D (16 bars):


Among the songs in this category are Si Jampang and Jali-Jali. The structure is A – B – A – C (16 bars):


I... .... .... IV, ,

, , , , , V7, I, ,

, , , , , , V7, ,

, , , , , , I, ,

Stamboel III

The structure is Prelude – A – Interlude – B – C (16 bars):


This structure has a binary form, like a pop song: Verse A – Verse A – Bridge B – Verse A (32 bars):


Verse A: V7, , I, , IV, V7, I, , I, , V7, , V7, , I, ,

Verse A: V7, , I, , IV, V7, I, , I, , V7, , V7, , I, ,

Bridge B: I7, , IV, , IV, V, I, , I, , II#, , II#, , V, ,

Verse A: V7, , I, , IV, V7, I, , I, , V7, , V7, , I, ,

Stamboel Keroncong

Stamboel Keroncong has the form (A-B-A-B') x 2 = 16 bars x 2 = 32 bars. It is a modification of the 16-bar stambul II, doubled to give 32 bars.


I... .... .... IV, ,

IV, , IV, , IV, V, I, ,

I, , I, , I, , V, ,

V, , V, , V, , I, ,

I, , I, , I, , IV, ,

IV, , IV, , IV, V, I, ,

I, , I, , I, , V, ,

V, , V, , V, , I, ,

Keroncong Asli

Keroncong Asli has A-B-B' structure made up of 8 rows of 4 bars. It begins with a 4-bar instrumental prelude based on the 7th row. After the A section, there is a 4-bar interlude.



The cello (/ˈtʃɛloʊ/ chel-oh; plural cellos or celli) or violoncello (/ˌvaɪələnˈtʃɛloʊ/ vy-ə-lən-chel-oh;[1] Italian pronunciation: [vjolonˈtʃɛllo]) is a bowed or plucked string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. The strings from low to high are generally tuned to C2, G2, D3 and A3, an octave lower than the viola. It is a member of the violin family of musical instruments, which also includes the violin and viola and the double bass. The cello is used as a solo musical instrument, as well as in chamber music ensembles (e.g., string quartet), string orchestras, as a member of the string section of symphony orchestras, and some types of rock bands. It is the second-largest and second lowest (in pitch) bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra, the double bass being the largest and having the lowest (deepest) pitch.


Cetera or cetara is a plucked string instrument played in Corsica. It has sixteen metal strings, running in paired courses,[1] with a body similar to the mandolin, but larger, and is plucked with a plectrum made of horn or tortoiseshell.[2]


The chitarra battente comes in three sizes. The medium and large instruments are the most common. The instrument may have five or four courses of strings. These courses are typically double or triple, a“course” being a group of 2 or 3 strings plucked as a single unit. Thus chitarra battente is typically a five or four-course instrument.


The choghur[1] (Azerbaijani: Çoğur; Georgian: ჩონგური) is a plucked string musical instrument common in Azerbaijan and Georgia. It has 4 nylon strings.[2][3][4]


Originally, the dan bau was made of just four parts: a bamboo tube, a wooden rod, a coconut shell half, and a silk string. The string was strung across the bamboo, tied on one end to the rod, which is perpendicularly attached to the bamboo. The coconut shell was attached to the rod, serving as a resonator. In present days, the bamboo has been replaced by a wooden soundboard, with hardwood as the sides and softwood as the middle. An electric guitar string has replaced the traditional silk string. While the gourd is still present, it is now generally made of wood, acting only as a decorative feature. Also, most dan bau now have modern tuning machines, so the base pitch of the string can be adjusted. Usually the instrument is tuned to one octave below middle C, about 131 Hz, but it can be tuned to other notes to make it easier to play in keys distant from C.


16 SQUARES QMRĐàn_tranh

The standard version of the đàn tranh, or the đàn thập lục had 16 strings and had been used between the nineteenth century and the late 1980s


The ruan (Chinese: 阮; pinyin: ruǎn) is a traditional Chinese plucked string instrument. It is a lute with a fretted neck, a circular body, and four strings. Its four strings were formerly made of silk but since the 20th century they have been made of steel (flatwound for the lower strings). The modern ruan has 24 frets with 12 semitones on each string, which has greatly expanded its range from a previous 13 frets. The frets are commonly made of ivory or in recent times of metal mounted on wood. The metal frets produce a brighter tone as compared to the ivory frets. It is sometimes called ruanqin, particularly in Taiwan.


The gehu (革胡; pinyin: géhú) is a Chinese instrument developed in the 20th century by the Chinese musician Yang Yusen (杨雨森, 1926-1980). It is a fusion of the Chinese huqin family and the cello. Its four strings are also tuned (from low to high) C-G-D-A, exactly like the cello's. Unlike most other musical instruments in the huqin family, the bridge does not contact the snakeskin, which faces to the side.

The domra (Russian: домра) is a long-necked Russian string instrument of the lute family with a round body and three or four metal strings.

Contents [hide] 
1 History
2 Orchestral instruments
3 Performers
4 See also
5 References
6 External links
In 1896, a student of Vasily Vasilievich Andreyev found a broken instrument in a stable in rural Russia. It was thought that this instrument may have been an example of a domra, although no illustrations or examples of the traditional domra were known to exist in Russian chronicles (the traditional domra was only known through numerous mentions in folklore, though examples of a related Turkic instrument, the dombra, existed). A three-stringed version of this instrument was later redesigned in 1896, patented, and introduced into the orchestra of Russian folk instruments.[1]

The three-stringed domra uses a tuning in 4ths.

Later, a four-stringed version was developed employing a violin tuning by Moscow instrument maker, Liubimov, in 1905.


The lowest note of a double bass is an E1 (on standard four-string basses) at approximately 41 Hz or a C1 (≈33 Hz), or sometimes B0 (≈31 Hz), when five strings are used. This is within about an octave above the lowest frequency that the average human ear can perceive as a distinctive pitch. The top of the instrument's fingerboard range is typically near D5, two octaves and a fifth above the open pitch of the G string (G2), as shown in the range illustration found at the head of this article. Playing beyond the end of the fingerboard can be accomplished by pulling the string slightly to the side.


The Appalachian dulcimer (many variant names; see below) is a fretted string instrument of the zither family, typically with three or four strings


Both single-player and two-player instruments have been made, as have multi-neck single player units (see Variants). The vast majority of Appalachian dulcimers are single-neck, single player instruments, and these have been made with anywhere from two to a dozen strings, three being the most common number on older instruments. Modern instruments typically have 3, 4, 5, or 6 strings, arranged in either three or four courses. Many possible string arrangements exist, but the following are typical:[10]


3-string: Three single-string courses.

4-string: Three courses, two single-strung; one double-strung. The doubled course is almost always the highest-pitched (melody) course.

4-string: Four single-string courses.

5-string: Three courses: Two double-strung; one single-strung. The single string is usually the middle course, with the bass and melody courses being double strung.

5-string: Four courses: One double-strung; three single-strung. The double strung course is the melody course.

6-string: Three double-strung courses.


The Appalachian dulcimer (many variant names; see below) is a fretted string instrument of the zither family, typically with three or four strings


Both single-player and two-player instruments have been made, as have multi-neck single player units (see Variants). The vast majority of Appalachian dulcimers are single-neck, single player instruments, and these have been made with anywhere from two to a dozen strings, three being the most common number on older instruments. Modern instruments typically have 3, 4, 5, or 6 strings, arranged in either three or four courses. Many possible string arrangements exist, but the following are typical:[10]


3-string: Three single-string courses.

4-string: Three courses, two single-strung; one double-strung. The doubled course is almost always the highest-pitched (melody) course.

4-string: Four single-string courses.

5-string: Three courses: Two double-strung; one single-strung. The single string is usually the middle course, with the bass and melody courses being double strung.

5-string: Four courses: One double-strung; three single-strung. The double strung course is the melody course.

6-string: Three double-strung courses.


Like the violin, it tended to have four strings, but came in a variety of shapes and sizes. Another family of instruments that contributed to the development of the modern fiddle are the viols, which are held between the legs and played vertically, and have fretted fingerboards.


The tenor guitar or four-string guitar is a slightly smaller, four-string relative of the steel-string acoustic guitar or electric guitar. The instrument was initially developed in its acoustic form by Gibson Guitar Company and C. F. Martin & Company so that players of the four-string tenor banjo could double on guitar.[1]


The pipa (Chinese: 琵琶; pinyin: pípa, [pʰǐpʰǎ]) is a four-stringed Chinese musical instrument, belonging to the plucked category of instruments. Sometimes called the Chinese lute, the instrument has a pear-shaped wooden body with a varying number of frets ranging from 12 to 26. Another Chinese four-string plucked lute is the liuqin, which looks like a smaller version of the pipa.


A Hardanger fiddle (or in Norwegian: hardingfele) is a traditional stringed instrument used originally to play the music of Norway. In modern designs, this type of fiddle is very similar to the violin, though with eight or nine strings (rather than four as on a standard violin) and thinner wood. Four of the strings are strung and played like a violin, while the rest, aptly named understrings or sympathetic strings, resonate under the influence of the other four.

The viola's four strings are normally tuned in fifths: the lowest string is C (an octave below middle C), with G, D and A above it. This tuning is exactly one fifth below the violin, so that they have three strings in common—G, D, and A—and is one octave above the cello.

The Four Families of the Orchestra
To start, we can break the instruments into four families. Each family is grouped by the way the instrument produces vibration. This kind of classification gives us the string family, the woodwind family, the brass family and the percussion family.

The String Family
When you think of the orchestra, you most likely think of the violin, or at least some sort of string instrument. This is probably because they make up the majority of the instruments in the orchestra, so good thinking! All string instruments use string vibration to produce sound, so it makes sense that they are called the string family! There are four main string instruments. These are the violin, the viola, the cello and the bass. Each of these instruments can be plucked or bowed.

The instruments in the string family vary in size.
String Family
As you can see here, the main difference between the four instruments is their size. As with any instrument, the smaller it is, the higher the pitches it plays, and the larger the instrument is, the lower the pitches it plays. A very common arrangement would have the violins playing the melody and the violas, cellos and basses playing supporting roles. This is not always the case, but it's important to know.


The Huobosi (simplified: 火不思; pinyin: Huǒbùsī; ) is a stringed musical instrument from China. The name is a transliteration into Chinese of a Turkmenian name for the instrument.


It has four strings in four courses and is tuned E, A, D, G. Three of the strings are made of silk and the highest is steel.


It was developed through a rationalisation of an earlier Turkmenian instrument of the same name. The models were developed, soprano alto and tenor.


The original Greek bouzouki was a three course/six-string instrument (trichordo). In the 1950s, a four course/eight-string (tetrachordo) version was developed. The newer tetrachordo bouzouki was introduced into Irish traditional music in the mid-1960s by Johnny Moynihan[3]:67 of the popular folk group Sweeney's Men.



The talharpa, also known as a tagelharpa (tail-hair harp) or the stråkharpa (bowed harp), is a four-stringed bowed lyre from northern Europe. It was formerly widespread in Scandinavia, but is today played mainly in Estonia, particularly among that nation's Swedish community. It is similar to the Finnish jouhikko and the Welsh crwth.


The kabosy is a box-shaped wooden guitar commonly played in music of Madagascar. It has four to six strings and is commonly thought to be a direct descendant of the Arabic oud. The kabosy has staggered frets, many of which do not even cross the entire fretboard, and is generally tuned to an open chord.


Traditionally kamanchehs had three silk strings, but modern instruments have four metal strings.


A fretted version of the kobza was used by Paul Konoplenko-Zaporozhetz, who recorded a disc of kobza music for Folkways. Konoplenko first picked up the fretted kobza before the Revolution in 1917 in Kiev from Vasyl' Potapenko and played on this instrument after emigrating to Winnipeg, Canada. Konoplenko's instrument had eight strings strung along the neck and four treble strings strung on the soundboard. The tuning used was reminiscent to that of the seven-string Russian guitar tuning (open G tuning).


Fretted kobzas were also developed by Mykola Prokopenko, who wrote a PhD dissertation in 1976 on his efforts to reconstruct and resurrect the fretted Kobza. Prokopenko suggested that the four-stringed domra, an instrument widely taught in music schools in Ukraine but considered a Russian folk instrument but actually not used in Russia, be replaced by the fretted kobza. Although Prokopenko's suggestion was not supported in 1976, it is currently being resurrected by musicians in Ukraine in the Academic folk instrument movement, particularly at the Kiev conservatory.


Orchestral kobza, with four strings tuned in fifths using tunings that parallel those used by the instruments of the violin family. The instruments are made in prima (soprano), alto and tenor and contrabass sizes.


The liuqin (Chinese: 柳琴, p liǔqín) is a four-stringed Chinese mandolin with a pear-shaped body


Throughout its history, the liuqin came in variations ranging from two (which only had a range of one and a half octaves) to four strings. However, the earliest precursor of the modern four-stringed version of the instrument appeared and experienced popularity during the Qing Dynasty . This version had two strings, and was only used for accompaniment purposes in traditional operas, as mentioned before.


The two-stringed liuqin remained in use for much of dynastic China from the Qing Dynasty until the late 20th century. With the modernization of traditional Chinese music in the 1970s, the four-stringed liuqin was developed as an improvement to its musical range, and the body of the instrument was enlarged to allow the player to handle the instrument with greater ease.


Playing technique, tones and range[edit]


Liuqin tuning.


The front and back of a vintage Liuqin

Its technique is closer to that of the mandolin than that of the pipa, using a plectrum and frequently using the tremolo technique. Its strings are either tuned in fifths, G-D-A-E (as a mandolin or violin), or else in a mixture of fourths and fifths, as for example G-D-G-D, which is a more common tuning employed by mainstream players of the liuqin. This makes playing of the liuqin exactly the same as the ruan, hence players of either the liuqin or the ruan often double on both instruments.


The modern liuqin has four steel strings. Like the ruan, the number of the liuqin's frets was increased from 7 to 29 over the course of the 20th century. These frets are arranged in half-step intervals. Its refreshing and jubilant tonal quality is more delicate than that of the yueqin.


There are three major types of Cretan lyras:


the lyraki (Greek: λυράκι), a small model of lyra, almost identical to the Byzantine lyra devoted only to the performance of dances (Anoyanakis, 1976)

the vrontolyra (Greek: βροντόλυρα), which is gives a very strong sound, ideal for accompaniment songs.

the common lyra (Greek: λύρα κοινή), popular in the island today; designed after the combination of lyraki with the violin.

The influence of the violin caused the transformation of many features of the old form of Cretan Lyra (lyraki) into the contemporary lyra, including its tuning, performance practice, and repertory. In 1920, the viololyra was developed in an effort of local instrument manufacturers to give the sound and the technical possibilities of the violin to the old Byzantine lyraki. Twenty years later a new combination of lyraki and violin gave birth to the common lyra. Other types include the four-stringed lyra.


The large four-string mandobass has a much longer neck and is tuned EADG, like a double bass. It was popular in early 20th century American and European mandolin ensembles. Early examples had very large bodies and were often played in an upright position like a double bass is.[1] Later examples often have smaller bodies and are intended to be played guitar style.[2]

The small four-string mandobass is identical, but built on a smaller scale and usually tuned GDAE, two octaves below the mandolin. Though not as resonant as the larger instrument, players often preferred it as easier to handle and more portable.[3][4]


The large four-string mandobass has a much longer neck and is tuned EADG, like a double bass. It was popular in early 20th century American and European mandolin ensembles. Early examples had very large bodies and were often played in an upright position like a double bass is.[1] Later examples often have smaller bodies and are intended to be played guitar style.[2]

The small four-string mandobass is identical, but built on a smaller scale and usually tuned GDAE, two octaves below the mandolin. Though not as resonant as the larger instrument, players often preferred it as easier to handle and more portable.[3][4]


The mandola (US and Canada) or tenor mandola (Ireland and UK) is a fretted, stringed musical instrument. It is to the mandolin what the viola is to the violin: the four double courses of strings tuned in fifths to the same pitches as the viola (C-G-D-A low-to-high), a fifth lower than a mandolin.[1] The mandola, although now rarer, is the ancestor of the mandolin, the name of which means simply "little mandola".


The octave mandolin is a fretted string instrument with four pairs of strings tuned in fifths, G, D, A, E (low to high), an octave below a mandolin. It has a 20 to 23-inch scale length and its construction is similar to other instruments in the mandolin family. Usually the courses are all unison pairs but the lower two may sometimes be strung as octave pairs with the higher-pitched octave string on top so that it is hit before the thicker lower-pitched string. Alternate tunings of G, D, A, D and A, D, A, D are often employed by Celtic musicians.


A tricordia (also trichordia or tricordio) or mandriola is a twelve-stringed variation of the mandolin.[1] The tricordia is used in Mexican folk music, while its European cousin, the mandriola, is used identically to the mandolin. It differs from a standard mandolin in that it has three strings per course. Mandriolas only use unison tuning (G3 G3 G3 • D4 D4 D4 • A4 A4 A4 • E5 E5 E5), while tricordias use either unison tuning or octave tuning (G2 G3 G3 • D3 D4 D4 • A3 A4 A4 • E4 E5 E5).


There are also non-standard variants. On some pianos (grands and verticals), the middle pedal can be a bass sustain pedal: that is, when it is depressed, the dampers lift off the strings only in the bass section. Players use this pedal to sustain a single bass note or chord over many measures, while playing the melody in the treble section. On the Stuart and Sons piano as well as the largest Fazioli piano, there is a fourth pedal to the left of the principal three. This fourth pedal works in the same way as the soft pedal of an upright piano, moving the hammers closer to the strings.[34]



An upright pedal piano by Challen

The rare transposing piano (an example of which was owned by Irving Berlin) has a middle pedal that functions as a clutch that disengages the keyboard from the mechanism, so the player can move the keyboard to the left or right with a lever. This shifts the entire piano action so the pianist can play music written in one key so that it sounds in a different key. Some piano companies have included extra pedals other than the standard two or three. Crown and Schubert Piano Co. produced a four-pedal piano. Fazioli currently offers a fourth pedal that provides a second soft pedal, that works by bringing the keys closer to the strings.


There are also non-standard variants. On some pianos (grands and verticals), the middle pedal can be a bass sustain pedal: that is, when it is depressed, the dampers lift off the strings only in the bass section. Players use this pedal to sustain a single bass note or chord over many measures, while playing the melody in the treble section. On the Stuart and Sons piano as well as the largest Fazioli piano, there is a fourth pedal to the left of the principal three. This fourth pedal works in the same way as the soft pedal of an upright piano, moving the hammers closer to the strings.[34]



An upright pedal piano by Challen

The rare transposing piano (an example of which was owned by Irving Berlin) has a middle pedal that functions as a clutch that disengages the keyboard from the mechanism, so the player can move the keyboard to the left or right with a lever. This shifts the entire piano action so the pianist can play music written in one key so that it sounds in a different key. Some piano companies have included extra pedals other than the standard two or three. Crown and Schubert Piano Co. produced a four-pedal piano. Fazioli currently offers a fourth pedal that provides a second soft pedal, that works by bringing the keys closer to the strings.


Aliquot stringing is the use of extra, un-struck strings in the piano for the purpose of enriching the tone. Aliquot systems use an additional (hence fourth) string in each note of the top three piano octaves. This string is slightly higher than the other three strings so that it is not struck by the hammer. Whenever the hammer strikes the three conventional strings, the aliquot string vibrates sympathetically. Aliquot stringing broadens the vibrational energy throughout the instrument, and creates an unusually complex and colorful tone.


The Ramkie (also called an Afri-can) is a type of guitar usually made in South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Namibia and Malawi. It is made using a discarded oil can (or similar) for the soundbox. It has three or four strings (rarely six like a guitar), made of fishing wire or bicycle brake wire, and may be fretted or fretless.[1][2][3][4] The instrument has apparently always been used for repetitive chord-playing, not melodic patterns.[5]


The machete (Portuguese: machete de braga) is a small stringed instrument from Madeira, Portugal. The instrument has four metal strings, in contrast to its slightly larger cousin, the machete de rajão, which has five metal strings. Historians believe the machete was introduced in Madeira as Braguinha from Braga, and it is the immediate predecessor of the ukulele, being introduced to Hawaii by Portuguese immigrants in the late 19th century.[1] See also cavaquinho.

The rebab, though valued for its voice-like tone, has a very limited range (little over an octave), and was gradually replaced throughout much of the Arab world by the violin and kemenche. The Iraqi version of the instrument (jawza or joza) has four strings.

FOUR STRINGED VERSION DEVELOPED- fourth always different

The sanxian (Chinese: 三弦, literally "three strings") is a Chinese lute — a three-stringed fretless plucked musical instrument. It has a long fingerboard, and the body is traditionally made from snake skin stretched over a rounded rectangular resonator. It is made in several sizes for different purposes and in the late 20th century a four-stringed version was also developed. The northern sanxian is generally larger, at about 122 cm in length, while southern versions of the instrument are usually about 95 cm in length.



The šargija (Cyrillic: Шаргија, Albanian: Çallgi, Sharki) is a plucked, fretted long necked chordophone used in the folk music of various Balkan countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Albania, Kosovo and Serbia.Šargija

The šargija originated in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the rule of Ottoman Empire, and is played by Bosniaks, Albanians, Serbs and Croats. Its original four strings have been increased to six or even seven. The šargija usually accompanies the violin, and has a jangling sound, similar to the Turkish saz. The sharki (or sargija) is a similar instrument as the two-string qiftelia, but with more strings and looking more like a primitive saz. Spelling is sometimes: sarkia or sharki or sharkia. Usually there are three courses of metal strings. The frets are often inlaid metal frets, in a non-western pattern. Body could be made from separate staves, or carved from one piece of wood.


The Setar (Persian: سه‌تار‎‎, from seh, meaning "three" and tār, meaning "string") is an Iranian musical instrument. It is a member of the lute family, which is played with the index finger of the right hand. Two and a half centuries ago, a fourth string was added to the setar. it has 25 - 27 moveable frets which are usually made of animal intestines or silk. It originated in Persia before the spread of Islam.[1]


The socavon is a stringed instrument from Panama. It has 4 nylon strings in 4 courses. It is tuned G3, D4, A4, B3.


The Bulgarian tambura has 8 steel strings in 4 doubled courses. All the courses are tuned in unison, with no octaves. It is tuned D3 D3, G3 G3, B3 B3, E4 E4. It has a floating bridge and a metal tailpiece. The instrument body is often carved from a single block of wood and is therefore quite heavy.


The Macedonian tambura[edit]

The Macedonian tambura has 4 steel strings in 2 doubled courses. It is tuned A A , D D (or another pitch but at the same relative intervals of a fourth) when playing melodies based on A tonic upon A drone. It also may be tuned G G , D D (or another pitch but at the same relative intervals of a fifth) when playing melodies based on G tonic upon G drone. Sometimes octave strings are used on the lower course. It has a floating bridge and a metal tailpeice. The instrument body is more often made from staves like a lute.


The tanpura (or tambura, tanpuri) is a long-necked plucked string instrument found in various forms in Indian music; it does not play melody but rather supports and sustains the melody of another instrument or singer by providing a continuous harmonic bourdon or drone. A tanpura is not played in rhythm with the soloist or percussionist: as the precise timing of plucking a cycle of four strings in a continuous loop is a determinant factor in the resultant sound, it is played unchangingly during the complete performance. The repeated cycle of plucking all strings creates the sonic canvas on which the melody of the raga is drawn. The combined sound of all strings, each string a fundamental tone with its own spectrum of overtones, is a rich and vibrant, dynamic-yet-static tone-conglomerate, due to interactive harmonic resonances that will support and blend with the external tones sung or played by the soloist.


The timple (or more correctly tiple, meaning "treble") is a traditional 5-string plucked string instrument of the Canary Islands.[1]


In La Palma island and in the north of the island of Tenerife, many timple players omit the fifth (D) string, in order to play the timple as a four-string ukulele, though this is considered less traditional by players and advocates of the five-string version. The players of the four-string style, in return, say that they are simply playing the timple in the old-fashioned way from before the time when a fifth string was introduced in the late nineteenth or early twentieth century.[citation needed] The common tuning is GCEAD.


The Tahitian ukulele (ʻukarere or Tahitian banjo) is a short-necked fretted lute with eight nylon strings in four doubled courses, native to Tahiti and played in other regions of Polynesia. This variant of the older Hawaiian ukulele is noted by a higher and thinner sound and an open back,[1] and is often strummed much faster.


It has a long tubular body made of wood or bamboo with a length between 54 and 62 inches. Two large, round resonators, made of dried and hollowed gourds, are attached under the tube. Twenty-four brass-fitted raised wooden frets are fixed on the tube with the help of wax. There are 4 main strings and 3 chikari strings.


The violin is a wooden string instrument in the violin family. It is the smallest and highest-pitched instrument in the family in regular use. Smaller violin-type instruments are known, including the violino piccolo and the kit violin, but these are virtually unused in the 2010s. The violin typically has four strings tuned in perfect fifths, and is most commonly played by drawing a bow across its strings, though it can also be played by plucking the strings with the fingers (pizzicato).


The guzheng (Chinese: 古箏), also known as the Chinese zither, is a Chinese plucked string instrument with a more than 2,500-year history. It has 16 (or more) strings and movable bridges


The sihu (Chinese: 四胡; pinyin: sìhú) (known as a ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠢᠷ / Хуучир / Khuuchir in Mongolia, where this term define the whole hugin family) is a Chinese bowed string instrument with four strings. It is a member of the huqin family of instruments.


Contents [hide]

1 Construction

2 Technique

3 Use

4 See also

5 External links


The instrument's name comes from the words sì (四, meaning "four" in Chinese, referring to the instrument's number of strings) and hú (胡, short for huqin, the family of instruments of which the sihu is a member). Its soundbox and neck are made from hardwood and the playing end of the soundbox is covered with python, cow, or sheep skin.


There are several sizes of sihu; the lowest of these is generally tuned C, C, G, G; the medium size is tuned G, G, D, D; and the smallest size is tuned D, D, A, A.


The zhongruan (Chinese: 中阮; pinyin: zhōngruǎn; literally: "tenor ruan"), is a Chinese plucked string instrument. The zhongruan has a straight neck with 24 frets on the fingerboard and 4 strings. It is usually played with a plectrum (guitar pick). It can also be played with fingers (index finger and thumb with acrylic nails), which is similar to the way of playing the pipa (琵琶). The zhongruan is a tenor-ranged instrument in the family of ruan (阮). In ancient China, the ruan was called Qin pipa (Qin [Dynasty] pipa, 秦琵琶) or Ruan xian (阮咸). Now the ruan has expanded to different sizes and the zhongruan is the "medium" one.


Four string alto balalaikas are also encountered and are used in the orchestra of the Piatnistky Folk Choir.


There are multiple instruments referred to as a bass banjo. The first to enter real production was the five-string cello banjo, tuned one octave below a five-string banjo. This was followed by a four-string cello banjo, tuned CGDA in the same range as a cello or mandocello, and modified upright bass versions tuned EADG. More recently, true bass banjos, tuned EADG and played in conventional horizontal fashion have been introduced.


Four-string cello banjo[edit]

In 1919,[5] Gibson began manufacturing a 4-string cello banjo, known as the CB-4.[6] Other vintage manufacturers of four-string bass banjos include Bacon & Day.[7] Gold Tone is the only contemporary manufacturer.[8]


In January 2011, the g16, a smaller 16 string model with a four octave range (from C2 to C6) and mono output, was introduced. All harpejjis use an electronic muting system to dampen unfretted strings and minimize the impact of sympathetic vibrations

The English pendant ocarina, invented in the 1960s by John Taylor, produces an entire octave using just four finger holes.


This name is spelled "Rüspfeiff" in Agricola (1529, fol. 5r), where the same instrument is also referred to as a "klein Flötlein mit 4 löchern" (small little flute with four holes)

In July 1995, Slovenian archaeologist Ivan Turk discovered a bone carving in the northwest region of Slovenia. The carving, named the Divje Babe Flute, features four holes that Canadian musicologist Bob Fink determined could have been used to play four notes of a diatonic scale. Researchers estimate the flute's age at between 43,400 and 67,000 years, making it the oldest known musical instrument and the only musical instrument associated with the Neanderthal culture.[4] However, some archaeologists and ethnomusicologists dispute the flute's status as a musical instrument.[5] German archaeologists have found mammoth bone and swan bone flutes dating back to 30,000 to 37,000 years old in the Swabian Alps. The flutes were made in the Upper Paleolithic age, and are more commonly accepted as being the oldest known musical instruments.[6]


An ancient Hindu system named the Natya Shastra, written by the sage Bharata Muni and dating from between 200 BC and 200 AD, divides instruments into four main classification groups: instruments where the sound is produced by vibrating strings; percussion instruments with skin heads; instruments where the sound is produced by vibrating columns of air; and "solid", or non-skin, percussion instruments.[114] This system was adapted to some degree in 12th-century Europe by Johannes de Muris, who used the terms tensibilia (stringed instruments), inflatibilia (wind instruments), and percussibilia (all percussion instruments).[116] In 1880, Victor-Charles Mahillon adapted the Natya Shastra and assigned Greek labels to the four classifications: chordophones (stringed instruments), membranophones (skin-head percussion instruments), aerophones (wind instruments), and autophones (non-skin percussion instruments).[114]

The Natyashastra defines drama in verse 6.10 as that which aesthetically arouses joy in the spectator, through the medium of actor's art of communication, that helps connect and transport the individual into a super sensual inner state of being.[61] The Natya connects through abhinaya, that is applying body-speech-mind and scene, wherein asserts Natyashastra, the actors use two practices of dharmi (performance), in four styles and four regional variations, accompanied by song and music in a playhouse carefully designed to achieve siddhi (success in production).[61] Drama in this ancient Sanskrit text, thus is an art to engage every aspect of life, in order to glorify and gift a state of joyful consciousness.[62]

The text describes four means of communication between the actors and the audience – words, gestures, dresses and aharya (make ups, cosmetics), all of which should be harmonious with the temperament envisioned in the drama

A song also has four basic architectural varna to empower its meaning, and these tone patterns are ascending line, steady line, descending line and the unsteady line.[79]

The ancient Indian tradition, before the Natyashastra was finalized, classified musical instruments into four groups based on their acoustic principle (how they work, rather than the material they are made of).[90] The Natyashastra accepts these four categories as given, and dedicates four separate chapters to them, one each on stringed instruments (chordophones), hollow instruments (aerophones), solid instruments (idiophones), and covered instruments (membranophones).[90]



Erich von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs adopted Mahillon's scheme and published an extensive new scheme for classification in Zeitschrift für Ethnologie in 1914. Hornbostel and Sachs used most of Mahillon's system, but replaced the term autophone with idiophone.[114]


The original Hornbostel-Sachs system classified instruments into four main groups:


Idiophones, which produce sound by vibrating the primary body of the instrument itself; they are sorted into concussion, percussion, shaken, scraped, split, and plucked idiophones, such as claves, xylophone, guiro, slit drum, mbira, and rattle.[117]

Membranophones, which produce sound by a vibrating a stretched membrane; they may be drums (further sorted by the shape of the shell), which are struck by hand, with a stick, or rubbed, but kazoos and other instruments that use a stretched membrane for the primary sound (not simply to modify sound produced in another way) are also considered membranophones.[118]

Chordophones, which produce sound by vibrating one or more strings; they are sorted into according to the relationship between the string(s) and the sounding board or chamber. For example, if the strings are laid out parallel to the sounding board and there is no neck, the instrument is a zither whether it is plucked like an autoharp or struck with hammers like a piano. If the instrument has strings parallel to the sounding board or chamber and the strings extend past the board with a neck, then the instrument is a lute, whether the sound chamber is constructed of wood like a guitar or uses a membrane like a banjo.[119]

Aerophones, which produce a sound with a vibrating column of air; they are sorted into free aerophones such as a bullroarer or whip, which move freely through the air; flutes, which cause the air to pass over a sharp edge; reed instruments, which use a vibrating reed; and lip-vibrated aerophones such as trumpets, for which the lips themselves function as vibrating reeds.[120]


An idiophone is any musical instrument that creates sound primarily by the instrument as a whole vibrating—without the use of strings or membranes. It is the first of the four main divisions in the original Hornbostel–Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification (see List of idiophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number). The early classification of Victor-Charles Mahillon called this group of instruments autophones.


Most percussion instruments that are not drums are idiophones. Hornbostel–Sachs divides idiophones into four main sub-categories. The first division is the struck idiophones (sometimes called concussion idiophones). This includes most of the non-drum percussion instruments familiar in the West. They include all idiophones made to vibrate by being struck, either directly with a stick or hand (like the wood block, singing bowl, steel tongue drum, triangle or marimba) or indirectly, by way of a scraping or shaking motion (like maracas or flexatone). Various types of bells fall into both categories.


The oldest known scheme of classifying instruments is Chinese and dates from the 3rd millennium BC.[citation needed] It grouped instruments according to the materials they are made of. Instruments made of stone were in one group, those of wood in another, those of silk are in a third, and those of bamboo in a fourth, as recorded in the Yo Chi (record of ritual music and dance), compiled from sources of the Chou period (9th-5th centuries BC) and corresponding to the four seasons and four winds.[1][2]


Victor-Charles Mahillon later adopted a system very similar to this. He was the curator of the musical instrument collection of the conservatoire in Brussels, and for the 1888 catalogue of the collection divided instruments into four groups: strings, winds, drums, and other percussion. This scheme was later taken up by Erich von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs who published an extensive new scheme for classication in Zeitschrift für Ethnologie in 1914. Their scheme is widely used today, and is most often known as the Hornbostel-Sachs system (or the Sachs-Hornbostel system).

Three or four vents[edit]

It tends to be British players who prefer baroque trumpets with three or four holes, allowing the player to make half-step transpositions and blow a relatively easy high C.[7]


An example of a multi-hole baroque trumpet is the coiled Jägertrompete made by Helmut Finke,[8] used by the Concentus musicus Wien on many of their early recordings. However, this model has fallen out of favor with period instrument groups, and is seldom used nowadays.


A core standard valve layout based on the action of three valves had become almost universal by (at latest) 1864 as witnessed by Arban's Method published in that year. The effect of a particular combination of valves may be seen in the table below. This table is correct for the core 3-valve layout on almost any modern valved brass instrument. The most common four-valve layout is a superset of the well-established 3-valve layout and is noted in the table, despite the exposition of four-valve and also five-valve systems (the latter used on the tuba) being incomplete in this article.


In most trumpets and cornets, the compensation must be provided by extending the third valve slide with the third or fourth finger, and the first valve slide with the left hand thumb (see Trigger or throw below). This is used to lower the pitch of the 1-3 and 1-2-3 valve combinations. On the trumpet and cornet, these valve combinations correspond to low D, low C♯, low G, and low F♯, so chromatically, to stay in tune, one must use this method.


In instruments with a fourth valve, such as tubas, euphoniums, piccolo trumpets, etc. that valve lowers the pitch by a perfect fourth; this is used to compensate for the sharpness of the valve combinations 1-3 and 1-2-3 (4 replaces 1-3, 2-4 replaces 1-2-3). All three normal valves may be used in addition to the fourth to increase the instrument's range downwards by a perfect fourth, although with increasingly severe intonation problems.


When four-valved models without any kind of compensation play in the corresponding register, the sharpness becomes so severe that players must finger the note a half-step below the one they are trying to play. This eliminates the note a half-step above their open fundamental.


Manufacturers of low brass instruments may choose one or a combination of four basic approaches to compensate for the tuning difficulties, whose respective merits are subject to debate:


Modern trumpets have three (or infrequently four) piston valves, each of which increases the length of tubing when engaged, thereby lowering the pitch. The first valve lowers the instrument's pitch by a whole step (2 semitones), the second valve by a half step (1 semitone), and the third valve by one-and-a-half steps (3 semitones). When a fourth valve is present, as with some piccolo trumpets, it usually lowers the pitch a perfect fourth (5 semitones). Used singly and in combination these valves make the instrument fully chromatic, i.e., able to play all twelve pitches of classical music. For more information about the different types of valves, see Brass instrument valves.


There are many distinct types of trumpet, with the most common being pitched in B♭ (a transposing instrument), having a tubing length of about 1.48 m (4 ft 10 in). Early trumpets did not provide means to change the length of tubing, whereas modern instruments generally have three (or sometimes four) valves in order to change their pitch. Most trumpets have valves of the piston type, while some have the rotary type. The use of rotary-valved trumpets is more common in orchestral settings, although this practice varies by country. Each valve, when engaged, increases the length of tubing, lowering the pitch of the instrument.


The smallest trumpets are referred to as piccolo trumpets. The most common of these are built to play in both B♭ and A, with separate leadpipes for each key. The tubing in the B♭ piccolo trumpet is one-half the length of that in a standard B♭ trumpet. Piccolo trumpets in G, F and C are also manufactured, but are rarer. Many players use a smaller mouthpiece on the piccolo trumpet, which requires a different sound production technique from the B♭ trumpet and can limit endurance. Almost all piccolo trumpets have four valves instead of the usual three — the fourth valve lowers the pitch, usually by a fourth, to assist in the playing of lower notes and to create alternate fingerings that facilitate certain trills. Maurice André, Håkan Hardenberger, David Mason, and Wynton Marsalis are some well-known trumpet players known for their additional virtuosity on the piccolo trumpet.


The trumpet is often confused with its close relative the cornet, which has a more conical tubing shape compared to the trumpet's more cylindrical tube. This, along with additional bends in the cornet's tubing, gives the cornet a slightly mellower tone, but the instruments are otherwise nearly identical. They have the same length of tubing and, therefore, the same pitch, so music written for cornet and trumpet is interchangeable. Another relative, the flugelhorn, has tubing that is even more conical than that of the cornet, and an even richer tone. It is sometimes augmented with a fourth valve to improve the intonation of some lower notes.


The sound production technique is basically the same as that used on the larger B♭ trumpet. Air pressure and tonguing are different, and players use a shallower mouthpiece for the piccolo trumpet. Almost all piccolo trumpets have four valves instead of three — the fourth valve usually lowers the pitch by a fourth. This extends the low range and provides alternate fingerings and improved intonation for some notes.[citation needed]


The Horn Concertos by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart were written for his friend Joseph Leutgeb whom he had known since childhood. Leutgeb was a skilled player, as the works are very difficult to perform on the natural horn of the period, requiring lip trills, much hand-stopping, and rapid tonguing.



Horn Concerto No. 1 in D major, K. 412 (1791, unfinished at Mozart's death)

Horn Concerto No. 2 in E-flat major, K. 417 (1783)

Horn Concerto No. 3 in E-flat major, K. 447 (c. 1784–87)

Horn Concerto No. 4 in E-flat major, K. 495 (1786)


Professional models have three top-action valves, played with the first three fingers of the right hand, plus a "compensating" fourth valve, generally found midway down the right side of the instrument, played with the left index finger; such an instrument is shown at the top of this page. Beginner models often have only the three top-action valves, while some intermediate "student" models may have a fourth top-action valve, played with the fourth finger of the right hand. Compensating systems are expensive to build, and there is in general a substantial difference in price between compensating and non-compensating models. For a thorough discussion of the valves and the compensation system, see the article on brass instruments.



A euphonium (left) and tuba (right), the two lowest conical-bore instruments

The euphonium has an extensive range, comfortably from C2 to about B♭4 for intermediate players[citation needed] (using scientific pitch notation). In professional hands this may extend from B0 to as high as B♭5. The lowest notes obtainable depend on the valve set-up of the instrument. All instruments are chromatic down to E2, but four-valved instruments extend that down to at least C2. Non-compensating four-valved instruments suffer from intonation problems from E♭2 down to C2 and cannot produce the low B1; compensating instruments do not have such intonation problems and can play the low B1.[note 2] From B♭1 down lies the "pedal range", i.e., the fundamentals of the instrument's harmonic series. They are easily produced on the euphonium as compared to other brass instruments, and the extent of the range depends on the make of the instrument in exactly the same way as just described. Thus, on a compensating four-valved instrument, the lowest note possible is B0, sometimes called double pedal B, which is six ledger lines below the bass clef.


There is a common misconception that three-valve instrument is a baritone and that the four-valve instrument is a euphonium. Euphoniums often have a fourth valve as an alternate fingering for 1&3 split fingering with improved intonation. The fourth valve can also be viewed in the same way as an F trigger on trombone, repitching the instrument to expand the lower range. A fourth valve is rarely seen on baritones, but absence of a fourth valve is not a defining characteristic.[4]


On a string instrument, position is the relative location of the hand on the instrument's neck, indicated by ordinal numbers (e.g., 3rd). Fingering, independent of position, is indicated by numbers, 1-4, and string is indicated by Roman numerals, I-IV. Different positions on the same string are reached through shifting.


With experience, string players become accustomed to the required shape and position of the left hand. Some positions are located relative to certain touch references, or landmarks on the instrument. For example, fourth position on the cello (used in the example below) has the player's thumb resting in the "saddle" of the neck root. Similarly, higher positions on the violin make use of the instrument's "shoulder" (treble-side edge of the top's upper bout) as a touch reference. Some electric string instruments, without a traditionally shaped body, still incorporate a reference feature imitating that shoulder's shape.



On a string instrument, shifting, or a shift, is a movement of the fingers of the left hand from one position to another on the same string. Position is indicated through ordinal numbers (e.g., 3rd). Strings may be indicated through Roman numerals, I-IV, and fingering may be indicated through numbers, 1-4. When done skillfully shifting avoids string noise.



Possible string technique and notation demonstrated on a bit of "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star", played on a cello. Note the string change to A avoided through shifting and the string change to the G string: the A could have been played open like the D and the entire line could have been in 1st position.

In reference to classical guitar, "Fernando Sor recommends that one should 'be sparing of the operations called barring and shifting'."[1]


Trombone position[edit]

See also: Trombone technique

The trombone produces notes within its range by extending the main slide to different positions. In first position, the length of the bore is at its shortest; seventh position puts the slide at its furthest extension, at the edge of the inner slide's stockings. (These are sections of slightly greater diameter at the ends of the inner slide tubes.) Positions 3 and 4 may be located by referring the player's right hand to the bell of the instrument. Each player "has a different way of visualizing where the positions of the slide trombone are in relation to each other"[2] Positions, especially in the higher register, may need to be shortened or lengthened (sharpened or flattened) to play in tune. Lower-numbered (shorter) positions are closer together than higher-numbered ones. Positions six and seven are primarily useful in the lower part of the trombone's range.


Some notes may be sounded at more than one position; for example, D4 may be sounded either in position 1 or 4. As a result, trombonists often spend time studying a part to determine how to approach a particular phrase.


The flugelhorn is built in the same B♭ pitch as many trumpets and cornets. It usually has three piston valves and employs the same fingering system as other brass instruments, but four-piston valve and rotary valve variants also exist. It can thus be played without too much trouble by trumpet and cornet players, though some adaptation to their playing style may be needed. It is usually played with a more deeply conical mouthpiece than either trumpets or cornets (though not as conical as a horn mouthpiece).


Some modern flugelhorns feature a fourth valve that lowers the pitch a perfect fourth (similar to the fourth valve on some euphoniums, tubas, and piccolo trumpets, or the trigger on trombones). This adds a useful low range that, coupled with the flugelhorn's dark sound, extends the instrument's abilities. More often, however, players use the fourth valve in place of the first and third valve combination, which is somewhat sharp (compensated for on trumpets and cornets and some three-valve flugelhorns by an easily-movable slide for the first or third valve).


The double horn combines two instruments into a single frame: the original horn in F, and a second, higher horn keyed in B-flat. By using a fourth valve (operated by the thumb), the horn player can quickly switch from the deep, warm tones of the F horn to the higher, brighter tones of the B-flat horn. The two sets of tones are commonly called "sides" of the horn. Using the fourth valve not only changes the basic length (and thus pitch) of the instrument, it also causes the three main valves to use proportionate slide lengths.



Thee second most famous tala is Jhaptal- it has four divisions with ten beats. It still has four divisions. Ten brings to mind to me the tetracyst

Jhaptal is one of the most famous talas of Hindustani music, after Teental. It presents quite a different rhythmical structure from teental, unlike which, it is not symmetrical.


Jhaptal is a 10-beat pattern used in raga exposition. It has ten beats in four divisions (vibhag), of 2-3-2-3, the third of which is the khali, or open division. To follow the tal the audience claps on the appropriate beat, which in jhaptal is beats 1, 3 and 8 (the first beat in each full division). A wave of the hand indicates beat 6, the first beat of the khali section.

Series of Claps and Waves: clap, 2, clap, 2, 3, wave, 2, clap, 2, 3


Tintal (or teental, trital; Hindi: तीन ताल) is one of the most famous talas of Hindustani music. It is also the most common tal in North India. The structure of tintal is so symmetrical that it presents a very simple rhythmic structure against which a performance can be laid.[1]


Contents [hide]

1 Arrangement

2 Uses

3 Theka

4 References


Tintal has sixteen (16) beats[2] in four equal divisions (vibhag). The period between every two beats is equal. The first beat out of 16 beats is called sam and the 9th beat is called khali ('empty'). To count the Teental, the audience claps on the first beat, claps on the 5th beat, then waves on the 9th beat and lastly again claps on the 13th beat; these three claps (Hindi tin 'three' + tāl 'clap') give the rhythm its name.

Four is the fourth studio album by British indie rock band Bloc Party. It was recorded in late 2011 and early 2012 at Stratosphere Sound, New York City, with producer Alex Newport. Newport also produced Wreckonomics—the EP of bassist Gordon Moakes' side project, Young Legionnaire. It was released on 20 August 2012 on independent label Frenchkiss Records,[4] and was made available to stream the week preceding its release. The album peaked at number 3 in the UK Albums Chart, and at number 36 on the Billboard 200 chart in the United States.[5][6] It is the last album featuring the original line-up with Gordon Moakes and Matt Tong.
Despite four years of hiatus making this the largest gap between album releases, the band recorded the album using a more guitar-oriented sound, reminiscent of their debut album, Silent Alarm.
The band has four members
The album cover is a circle within a circle within a circle within a circle. The four circles are different colors

16 is the squares of the quarant model

The most popular rhythm cycle in India1 16 beat




Tilwada or Tilwara (Hindi: तिलवाडा, tilvāḍā ?) is a tala of Hindustani music.[1] Like Tintaal, Tilwada tala also has 16 beats.[2][3] Tilwada is often used in Kheyal.[1]


Cyclical series of equally periodical beats consisted of recurring claps and waves:

clap, 2, 3, 4, clap, 2, 3, 4, wave, 2, 3, 4, clap, 2, 3, 4

or counted out as:

clap, 2, 3, 4, clap, 6, 7, 8, wave, 10, 11, 12, clap 14, 15, 16


This tala has the following arrangement:[1]

Taal signs X 2 0 3

Maatra 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Bols Dha TiRiKaTa Dhin Dhin Dha Dha Tin Tin Ta TiRiKaTa Dhin Dhin Dha Dha Dhin Dhin

Clap/Wave Clap 2

The four-string tenor banjo is played as a melody instrument by Irish traditional players, and is commonly tuned GDAE, an octave below the fiddle. It was brought to Ireland by returned emigrants from the United States, where it had been developed by African slaves. It is seldom strummed in Irish music (although older recordings will sometimes feature the banjo used as a backing instrument), instead being played as a melody instrument using either a plectrum or a "thimble".[11]



A notable year in the history of Jamaican music was 1907, when Walter Jekyll's Jamaican Song and Story was first published. The Contents of this book include four parts entitled Anancy Stories, Digging Sings, Ring Tunes, and Dancing Tunes. Each part has an introduction, songs, stories, and melodies.


Rural polyphonic chanting of the tenores is sung with four vocal parts. They are bassu, mesa boghe, contra and boghe (respectively to be properly translated to English from Sardinian as "bass", "middle", "counter" and "soloist"). The most popular group is Tenores di Bitti. In November 2005, the Cantu a Tenore vocal style of the Sardinian pastoral culture was proclaimed a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO.



Highwayman" is a song written by American singer-songwriter Jimmy Webb, about a soul with incarnations in four different places in time and history: as a highwayman, a sailor, a construction worker on the Hoover Dam, and finally as a captain of a starship


In 1984, Glen Campbell played the song "Highwayman" for Johnny Cash, who was making a quartet album with Willie Nelson, Waylon Jennings, and Kris Kristofferson. A few years earlier, Webb brought the song to Jennings, but Jennings, having heard the Campbell version, said "I just couldn't see it then".[5] The four were all together in Switzerland doing a television special and decided that they should do a project together.[6] While the four were recording their first album, Marty Stuart again played the song for Cash, saying it would be perfect for them—four verses, four souls, and four of them.[7] Campbell then played the song again, this time to all four of them, and the quartet had the name for their new supergroup, The Highwaymen, the name of their first album, Highwayman, and the name of their first single. The four thought it was a perfect name for them because they were always on the road and all four had the image of being outlaws in country music.[6]


In The Highwaymen version of the song, each of the four verses was sung by a different performer: first Nelson as the highwayman, then Kristofferson as the sailor, then Jennings as the dam builder, and finally Cash as the starship captain. Webb later observed, "I don't know how they decided who would take which verse, but having Johnny last was like having God singing your song (laughs)."[1] Rosanne Cash has said her father didn't realize the song was about reincarnation until she explained it to him. A black-and-white music video was released, which used actors to reenact the song's lyrics, including the deaths of the first three characters. Each of the performers is seen briefly in the sky singing a few lines, as their segment of the song concludes.[8]


On February 6, 1788, Massachusetts ratified the Constitution by a vote of 186 to 168. To the ringing of bells and the booming of cannon, the delegates trooped out of Brattle Street Church.[citation needed] Before many days had passed, the citizens sang their convention song to the tune of "Yankee Doodle." Here are the lyrics to their song:


The vention did in Boston meet,

The State House could not hold 'em

So then they went to Fed'ral Street,

And there the truth was told 'em...

And ev'ry morning went to prayer,

And then began disputing,

Till oppositions silenced were,

By arguments refuting.

Now politicians of all kinds,

Who are not yet decided,

May see how Yankees speak their minds,

And yet are not divided.

So here I end my Fed'ral song,

Composed of sixteen verses;

May agriculture flourish long

And commerce fill our purses!


Full version[edit]

The Spirit of '76 (aka Yankee Doodle)

Sprit of '76.2.jpeg

Artist Archibald MacNeal Willard

Year circa 1875

Type oil

Dimensions 61 cm × 45 cm (24 in × 18 in)

Location United States Department of State

The full version of the song, as it is known today, goes:[26][27]


Yankee Doodle went to town

A-riding on a pony,

Stuck a feather in his cap

And called it macaroni.


Yankee Doodle keep it up,

Yankee Doodle dandy,

Mind the music and the step,

And with the girls be handy.

Father and I went down to camp,

Along with Captain Gooding,

And there we saw the men and boys

As thick as hasty pudding.


And there we saw a thousand men

As rich as Squire David,

And what they wasted every day,

I wish it could be savèd.


The 'lasses they eat every day,

Would keep a house a winter;

They have so much, that I'll be bound,

They eat it when they've a mind to.


And there I see a swamping gun

Large as a log of maple,

Upon a deuced little cart,

A load for father's cattle.


And every time they shoot it off,

It takes a horn of powder,

And makes a noise like father's gun,

Only a nation louder.


I went as nigh to one myself

As 'Siah's underpinning;

And father went as nigh again,

I thought the deuce was in him.


Cousin Simon grew so bold,

I thought he would have cocked it;

It scared me so I shrinked it off

And hung by father's pocket.


And Cap'n Davis had a gun,

He kind of clapt his hand on't

And stuck a crooked stabbing iron

Upon the little end on't


And there I see a pumpkin shell

As big as mother's basin,

And every time they touched it off

They scampered like the nation.


I see a little barrel too,

The heads were made of leather;

They knocked on it with little clubs

And called the folks together.


And there was Cap'n Washington,

And gentle folks about him;

They say he's grown so 'tarnal proud

He will not ride without 'em.


He got him on his meeting clothes,

Upon a slapping stallion;

He sat the world along in rows,

In hundreds and in millions.


The flaming ribbons in his hat,

They looked so tearing fine, ah,

I wanted dreadfully to get

To give to my Jemima.


I see another snarl of men

A-digging graves, they told me,

So 'tarnal long, so 'tarnal deep,

They 'tended they should hold me.


It scared me so, I hooked it off,

Nor stopped, as I remember,

Nor turned about till I got home,

Locked up in mother's chamber.



Transliteration Hebrew text English translation

Hava nagila

הבה נגילה

Let's rejoice

Hava nagila

הבה נגילה

Let's rejoice

Hava nagila ve-nismeḥa

הבה נגילה ונשמחה

Let's rejoice and be happy


Hava neranenah

הבה נרננה

Let's sing

Hava neranenah

הבה נרננה

Let's sing

Hava neranenah ve-nismeḥa

הבה נרננה ונשמחה

Let's sing and be happy


Uru, uru aḥim!

!עורו, עורו אחים

Awake, awake, my brothers!

Uru aḥim be-lev sameaḥ

עורו אחים בלב שמח

Awake my brothers with a happy heart

(repeat line four times)

Uru aḥim, uru aḥim!

!עורו אחים, עורו אחים

Awake, my brothers, awake, my brothers!

Be-lev sameaḥ

בלב שמח

With a happy heart

The hymn retells Jewish history in poetic form and celebrates deliverance from four ancient enemies, Pharaoh, Nebuchadnezzar, Haman and Antiochus. Like much medieval Jewish liturgical poetry, it is full of allusions to Biblical literature and rabbinic interpretation. Thus, malchut eglah denotes Egypt (Jeremiah 46:2); noges is Nebuchadnezzar; y’mini is Mordechai (Esther 2:5); y’vanim is Antiochus; shoshanim is the Jewish people (Shir HaShirim 2:2); b’nei vinah are the rabbinic sages; and shir refers to the Hallel psalms.[3][4]


The mandocello (Italian: mandoloncello, Liuto cantabile, liuto moderno) is a plucked string instrument of the mandolin family. It is larger than the mandolin, and is the baritone/bass instrument of the mandolin family. Its eight strings are in four paired courses, with the strings in each course tuned in unison. Overall tuning of the courses is in fifths like a mandolin, but beginning on bass C (C2). It can be described as being to the mandolin what the cello is to the violin..[1][2]


The mandocello (Italian: mandoloncello, Liuto cantabile, liuto moderno) is a plucked string instrument of the mandolin family. It is larger than the mandolin, and is the baritone/bass instrument of the mandolin family. Its eight strings are in four paired courses, with the strings in each course tuned in unison. Overall tuning of the courses is in fifths like a mandolin, but beginning on bass C (C2). It can be described as being to the mandolin what the cello is to the violin..[1][2]



In 2012, a one-hour documentary film about Shimabukuro's life and career was released, titled Jake Shimabukuro: Life on Four Strings. The film won the Audience Award for Best Documentary at the Ashland Independent Film Festival,[22] the Audience Award for Best Documentary Film and the Best Editor award at the Los Angeles Asian Pacific Film Festival,[23] the Honorable Mention for Best Documentary Feature at the Urbanworld Film Festival,[24] and the Best Medium Length/Essay Award at the DocuWest International Documentary Film Festival.[25] The film aired nationally on PBS in May 2013. It was released on DVD July 2013.[26]


Following the dissolution of the Music Is Good Medicine program, Shimabukuro founded his own non-profit organization, the Four Strings Foundation, in 2013.[34] It creates music education workshops nationwide and provides ukuleles, materials, and training tools to schools and music teachers. It also hosts concerts and publishes music media, lobbies to increase music education, encourages schools to make music programs culturally relevant, conducts research in music education and children's social/emotional learning, and provides funding for music education in schools nationwide.[35]


Shimabukuro stated: "The Four Strings Foundation was created as a vehicle to give people opportunities to make a difference. My primary focus is to inspire kids through music to help them discover their passion in life. The message is simple – strive to be the best, live drug-free and have fun."[35] The mission statement of Four Strings is: "To create new opportunities for people of all ages to participate in the act of making music and to use those experiences as a vehicle to promote personal empowerment and fulfillment."[36][37]

Indeed, on the orchestral string section instruments, four strings are the norm, with the exception of five strings used on some double basses.

Indeed, on the orchestral string section instruments, four strings are the norm, with the exception of five strings used on some double basses.

four members fourth different
A Tribe Called Quest is an American hip-hop group formed in 1985[2] and originally composed of MC and producer Q-Tip, MC Phife Dawg and DJ and producer Ali Shaheed Muhammad. A fourth member, MC Jarobi White, left the group in 1991 after the release of their debut album. He continued to contribute to the band sporadically before rejoining for their 2006 reunion.


The tour was described as a "rock driven dancetastic journey". It was divided into four acts: Pimp, where S&M was the main theme, Old School, where Madonna's classic songs were performed while displaying work of deceased artist Keith Haring, Gypsy, a fusion of Romani folk music and dance with the performances ranging from melancholy to joyous, and Rave, where high-energy uptempo songs were performed. The last section of the show included a special 'request song', to which the audience was invited to sing-along. Some changes were made to the set list during the second European leg of the tour in 2009, including a dance tribute to deceased singer Michael Jackson. The tour generated positive reviews from critics.


In March 2010, Suzy joined fellow members Fei, and Jia to form the group miss A. The trio began their first official promotional activities in China as a group by signing up with the Samsung Electronics group in China. The group released a song used for the commercial called "Love Again" for the Samsung Beat Festival. The song was written by Korean composer Super Changddai, and the music video was directed by Hong Won-ki.[6][7] The group was later joined by a fourth member, Min.


The four piece girl group eventually made their debut in July 2010 through JYP Entertainment, with the single "Bad Girl Good Girl"[8] After a successful promotion period of seven weeks, the group came back in October with a new title track, "Breathe", from the second single Step Up. They promoted the song for a month and had their last goodbye stage on November 7.


A MIDI link can carry sixteen independent channels of information. The channels are numbered 1–16, but their actual corresponding binary encoding is 0–15. A device can be configured to only listen to specific channels and to ignore the messages sent on other channels ("Omni Off" mode), or it can listen to all channels, effectively ignoring the channel address ("Omni On"). An individual device may be monophonic (the start of a new "note-on" MIDI command implies the termination of the previous note), or polyphonic (multiple notes may be sounding at once, until the polyphony limit of the instrument is reached, or the notes reach the end of their decay envelope, or explicit "note-off" MIDI commands are received). Receiving devices can typically be set to all four combinations of "omni off/on" versus "mono/poly" modes.[2]:14–18


MIDI (/ˈmɪdi/; short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a technical standard that describes a protocol, digital interface and connectors and allows a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers and other related devices to connect and communicate with one another.[1] A single MIDI link can carry up to sixteen channels of information, each of which can be routed to a separate device.


One notable early polyphonic synthesizer was the Sequential Circuits Prophet 5, which was released in 1978 and had five-voice polyphony. Six-voice polyphony was standard by the middle 1980s. With the advent of digital synthesizers, 16-voice polyphony became standard by the late 1980s. 64-voice polyphony was common by the middle 1990s and 128-note polyphony arrived shortly after. There are several reasons for providing such large numbers of simultaneous notes:


Even with only ten fingers, it is possible to play more than ten notes at once. Notes may continue to sound even after a key is released. The synthesizer's resources may still be in use to produce the sound of the previously struck notes tapering off, especially when a sustain pedal is used.

A "sound" (also called a "timbre" or "patch") may be generated by more than one oscillator or sound-source to allow more complicated sounds to be produced. A synthesizer with 16 oscillators may be capable of 16-note polyphony only when simple, single-oscillator sounds are produced. If a particular patch requires four oscillators, then the synthesizer is only capable of four-note polyphony.

Synthesizers may be configured to produce multiple timbres (multitimbral), particularly necessary when sounds are layered or sequenced. Multitimbral instruments are always polyphonic but polyphonic instruments are not necessarily multitimbral. Some multitimbral instruments have a feature which allows the user to specify the amount of polyphony reserved or allowed for each timbre.


The Evolver's sound comes from 4 oscillators, 2 of which are analog and 2 of which are digital


The sequencer on the Evolver is a 4x16 analog-style step sequencer. This means up to four sequences (each being 16 steps each) can be used as modulation sources, and can be routed to any of the modulation destinations in the Evolver. The sequencer can be stepped by the internal clock, by the MIDI clock (for beat syncing), or by MIDI notes.


Simpler electronic keyboards have switches under each key. Depressing a key connects a circuit, which triggers tone generation. Most keyboards use a keyboard matrix circuit, in which eight rows and eight columns of wires cross — thus, 16 wires can provide (8x8=) 64 crossings, which the keyboard controller scans to determine which key was pressed.


When an acoustic musical instrument produces sound, the loudness and spectral content of the sound change over time in ways that vary from instrument to instrument. The "attack" and "decay" of a sound have a great effect on the instrument's sonic character.[69][70] Sound synthesis techniques often employ an envelope generator that controls a sound's parameters at any point in its duration. Most often this is an (ADSR) envelope, which may be applied to overall amplitude control, filter frequency, etc. The envelope may be a discrete circuit or module, or implemented in software. The contour of an ADSR envelope is specified using four parameters:


Attack time is the time taken for initial run-up of level from nil to peak, beginning when the key is first pressed.

Decay time is the time taken for the subsequent run down from the attack level to the designated sustain level.

Sustain level is the level during the main sequence of the sound's duration, until the key is released.

Release time is the time taken for the level to decay from the sustain level to zero after the key is released.


The CZ-101 and CZ-1000 had only eight digital oscillators. For patches using one oscillator per voice, this allowed 8-note polyphony, but if two oscillators per voice were used, this restricted polyphony to four voices. The CZ-3000, CZ-5000, and CZ-1 had sixteen digital oscillators, making them sixteen- or eight-voice synthesizers. Each of the oscillators in a two-oscillator patch could be independently programmed.


As basic material, sixteen digital wave cycle waveforms were available to the user through a system Korg called DWGS for Digital Waveform Generator System. The DWGS system can be thought of as an early sample playback system where only extremely short, single cycle waveforms are stored on four 256 Kilobit ROM chips, played back through the two digital oscillators and processed by relatively familiar subtractive synthesis facilities. The waveforms themselves were the usual staple sine, sawtooth, and pulse waveforms, but more unusually featured waveforms such as emulations (imitations) of acoustic piano and saxophone. To aid the user in appropriate selection, each of the sixteen wave samples are printed on the right hand end of the operating panel along with the parameter reference below. Any two of the digitised waveforms could be used by the two digital oscillators provided. A noise source could be added separately to add further timbre or tone colour.


SD (Spectrum Dynamic) Synthesis was modeled on traditional DCO-VCF-DCA analog synthesis but used waveforms that included predefined variations over time. The SD sound source is a 4-bit (16-step) digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) that uses preprogrammed waveforms including triangle, sawtooth, squares of different widths, and some unusual pulses, plus various combinations thereof. The DCO has preprogrammed control of the timbre of the waveform, and some (but not all) of the available waveforms are "moving", meaning that their spectra are designed to change as the DCA envelope progresses. For example, one waveform has an octave-unison effect where the higher harmonics fade in over time. This predefined temporal motion of the harmonic spectrum yields the term "Spectrum Dynamic." The user has very limited influence over the spectrum dynamic using the DCA envelope, and doing so is something of a trial-and-error process. In effect, each so-called "waveform" of an SD synth consists of 2 layered subvoices with independent preset volume envelopes (that cannot be changed by the user).[citation needed] Thus, some "waveforms" crossfade between timbres without filter sweep to simulate e.g. the brighter attack phase of metallic clangs or picked strings.


Most SD synthesizers use a single DCO (plus a digital noise generator for certain waveforms) per voice, and offer 32 possible waveforms. The top-of-the-line Casio HT-6000 offered 64 possible waveforms, 4 DCO's per voice, velocity, detuning, ring-modulation, and an expanded SD parameter set. In SD synthesis, an analog voltage-controlled resonant filter (VCF) is used to shape the DCO's waveform (whereas on Casio CZ Synthesizers the phase distortion engine could only emulate a resonant filter). The SD sound is further shaped by a digitally controlled amplitude (DCA) envelope. Both the VCF and DCA are programmed with traditional 4-stage attack/decay/sustain/release (ADSR) curves [whereas the CZ line used sophisticated 8-stage envelopes and also included a pitch envelope]. Finally, like on the CZ's, a low-frequency oscillator (LFO) is programmable to modulate the DCO pitch, but unfortunately it cannot modulate the VCF or DCA. Nearly all of the SD synth parameters had 5-bit precision, allowing a stepwise range of 0-31.

128 IS 16 TIMES 8- 512 IS 256 TIMES 4- 256 IS FOUR TO THE FOURTH POWER- 512 WAVEFORMS- 4 expanision slots- four tones- 16 TRACK SEQUENCER


The XP-50's sound engine utilizes a custom 32-bit RISC chip to accommodate its sound generation and effects processing. There are 640 patches and 128 performances on board. The XP-50's internal memory includes 512 waveforms, which can be expanded with up to four user-installable SR-JV80 expansion boards. Presets include a General MIDI soundset, and a wide selection of sounds, including ambient and techno sounds representative of the time of the XP-50's release.


The sample + synthesissound engine's structure consists of "tones," each with a waveform, amplifier, filter, three envelope generators, and a pair of LFOs. Up to four "tones" can be combined in one of ten different "structures" or configurations to create a "patch." For multitimbral use, "patches" are slotted into "parts" to comprise a "Performance."


Some of the more desirable features of the XP-50's sound engine are frequency cross-modulation, tone delay variations, MIDI clock sync, high/low/band pass and peaking resonant filter options, and syncronizable LFOs.


The XP-50 has 4 expansion slots which take any of the SR-JV series of cards.


The built-in 16-track sequencer is derived from the Roland MC-series hardware sequencers, and can import sequences saved on those machines. The XP-50 sequencer also accepts standard MIDI files. The sequencer can store up to 60,000 notes and 100 patterns.


The MC-909 has a ROM-based sound generator (sometimes referred to as a rompler.) Its patches are built from up to four tones. The tones are based on waves stored in the machine. Patches can also utilize user-created samples. Roland's literature states that the MC-909 has "new-generation XV synthesis", the synth in the MC-909 is a very similar sound engine to that of the XV-5050 64-Voice Synthesizer Module. The number of PCM waveforms is 693, ranging from vintage synths to strings, drums, guitars and pianos. It can be expanded by adding one SRX card from 12 different cards available.


The MC-909 is always in sequencer mode, as opposed to other workstations that have also a simple Voice or Combination mode for straight playing. Straight playing via an external keyboard is however possible directly from the sequencer mode by simply selecting one of the 16 tracks (parts) where a Patch (voice, sound) is stored. In this case the 909 performs as a regular, 16-part multitimbral sound module, that happens to have a sequencer, too. In essence, the 909 can be used as a very capable sound module without ever needing to fire up its sequencer.


The MC-909 is the first Roland groovebox to feature a sampler. It can record audio from any of the external audio inputs, SPDIF connectors, or import wav and aiff files from a computer using a USB port. The sampler can be upgraded up to a total of 272 MB RAM (16 MB User + 256 MB PC-100 or PC-133 168-Pin DIMM Module), and the samples can be also be stored on a 128 MB 3.3 volt Smartmedia card. The unit is also able to store on two 128 MB Smartmedia cards, if you have larger than 256 MB DATA in its user memory. There are tricks from user forum sites that have found ways to go beyond this limitation using xD-Picture Cards as other means for storage.



The 909's sequencer is based on pattern composition. Each pattern has 16-tracks (parts) and can have up to 999 measures (bars). The "pattern" in the Groovebox concept as developed by Roland (and thence adopted by other manufacturers) is intended to be a 4-to-16 bars-long small musical phrase made up of 8-to-16 tracks, and the chaining of several patterns together (with seamless passage between one another) will create a full song, or the patterns can be looped as wanted and messed with using the onboard realtime controls. However, if this was more properly true in the older MC-303 and 505, in the 909 the massive capacity of the sequencer makes the patterns capable of storing almost 1000 bars, and 16 tracks, rendering them, by all means, capable of storing complete songs with arrangements and drum styles. Each of the 16 parts (tracks) is set to a specific patch, with its own mixer settings (pan, volume, key, effect, routing, and so on). There are a variety of editing modes: The main modes allow realtime recording, step recording and TR-REC recording. In step recording, notes or chords can be added one at a time. In TR-REC mode, each of the 16 pads represents a point along a musical measure. This speeds up the entry of percussion tracks. Patterns can be strung together into "songs", which, in fact, are mislabelled, merely being chains of patterns played in a specific order. In fact, there is no recording or sequencing capability in Song mode besides pattern chaining and some playback settings. The sequencer can load Standard Midi Files (albeit with some workaround in order to avoid some loading bugs that have never been fixed) and play them back. Additionally, the sequencer will also include samples stored into its memory in the pattern tracks.

16 TRACK SEQUENCER 16 TONES- 16 PADS= four waveforms

The 808's sound generator produces sound from two different kinds of patches. A "standard" patch is made up of four tones. Each tone can have two different waveforms, one for the left channel and one for the right channel. Waveforms can be either preset waveforms, or samples (both work the same way.) Rhythm patches are made up of 16 tones, each one assigned to a note. Rhythm tones can be made up of up to four waveforms.[1]


The sequencer can play patterns, or songs which are made up of a series of patterns. Each pattern can have up to 16 parts. Each part is assigned to a patch.


Parts contain a sequence of MIDI events such as notes and control changes. There are three ways to record data to a part. Step recording, realtime recording and TR-Rec. Step recording allows the entry of notes step by step. Realtime recording allows both notes and control changes to be added. TR-Rec allows each of the 16-pads to represent a beat, and makes it easy to enter percussion tracks. There is also a "microscope" editing mode allowing detailed event editing.[1]


Songs are made up of steps with each step having a pattern associated with it. Muting and unmuting parts can be done for each step. The overall level of each part can be modified at each step as well.


The microKORG groups its 128 factory preset sound patches into 8 groups:






Hip hop/Vintage


Special Effects/Hit


A large knob changes the selected sound group. Each group has 16 different patches (2 banks of 8), selected by the 8 lighted buttons on the front with a side A/B button to toggle between sets of 8. All patches are user editable, and do not necessarily have to follow the groupings listed on the face plate.


The Roland TR-909 Rhythm Composer is a partially analog, partially sample-based, drum machine introduced by the Japanese Roland Corporation in 1984.[1] The brainchild of Tadao Kikumoto, the engineer behind the Roland TB-303,[2] it features a 16-step step sequencer and a drum kit that aimed for realism and cost-effectiveness. It is fully programmable, and like its predecessor, the TR-808, it can store entire songs with multiple sections, as opposed to simply storing patterns. It was the first MIDI-equipped drum machine. Around 10,000 units were produced.[3]


Part of the charm of the TR-909 comes from its 16-step sequencer — the 16 buttons along the bottom of the interface correspond to the 16th notes of a single bar in 4/4 meter. For example, punching the buttons 1, 5, 9 and 13 on the bass drum part would create a simple "four to the floor" beat. Multiple patterns can be grouped or chained together which allows the user to create drum patterns that are longer than one bar in length or, alternatively, create drum patterns in compound meters outside of 3/4 or 4/4.


While the sequencer is running, a light runs from step 1 to step 16.



The TR-909 has several editing modes: pattern editing where one focuses solely on the 16 steps, and track editing, which allows for chaining various patterns in a row. Because it has MIDI, it's also possible to control other instruments with the sequencer.

GENERATES 16 SOUNDS 16 SQUARES QMR- 32 patterns 32 is two 16s

The 808 generates 16 different sounds in imitation of acoustic percussion: bass drum, snare, toms, conga, rimshot, claves, handclap, maraca, cowbell, cymbal, and hi-hat (open and closed).[9] It is completely analog, meaning its sounds are generated via hardware rather than sampled; TR stands for "Transistor Rhythm".[10] Users can program up to 32 patterns using the step sequencer,[5] each with a maximum of 768 measures,[11] and place accents on individual beats, a feature introduced with the CR-78.[5] Users can also set the tempo[5] and time signature, including unusual signatures such as 5/4 and 7/8.[12] The machine has multiple audio outputs and a DIN sync port (a precursor to MIDI) to synchronize with other devices, considered groundbreaking at the time.[5]


The Chroma has sixteen synthesizer "channels" each consisting of one oscillator, waveshaper, filter and amplifier. Sound programs can use one channel per voice to produce sixteen voice polyphony. However, most sound programs use two channels per voice which delivers a fatter sound, but reduces the polyphony to eight voices.



The Chroma's sixteen synthesizer channels consist of one Voltage Controlled Oscillator, Waveshaper, Filter, and Amplifier under software control via multiplexed analog voltage control channels. The channels are grouped into eight pairs. One channel in each pair is labelled "A" and the other "B".


Although the oscillators, filters and amplifiers themselves are voltage controlled, the overall control of the synthesizer channels is entirely in software. The embedded computer generates thirty-two Attack Decay Release envelopes (two per channel, one with delay) and sixteen Low Frequency Oscillator sweep signals in software. Signals from the levers, pedals, control panel or the keyboard are all encoded digitally, processed by the computer, and sent to the synthesizer channels on the voice cards via several multiplexed analog control lines and a number of digital control registers.


Sound programs can use one channel per voice to produce sixteen voice polyphony. However, more synthesizer power is available when channels are paired together. This yields two oscillators, two waveshapers, two filters, two amplifiers, two glides, two LFO sweeps, and four ADR envelopes, in addition to the performance controls.

An AKAI MPC2000 sampling sequencer (1997)


Before all tracks are filled, any number of existing tracks can be "bounced" into one or two tracks, and the original tracks erased, making more room for more tracks to be reused for fresh recording. In 1963, The Beatles were using twin track for Please Please Me. The Beatles' producer George Martin used this technique extensively to achieve multiple track results, while still being limited to using only multiple four-track machines, until an eight-track machine became available during the recording of the Beatles' White Album. The Beach Boys' Pet Sounds also made innovative use of multitracking with 8-track machines of the day (circa 1965).[2] Motown also began recording with 8-track machines in 1965 before moving to 16-track machines in mid-1969.


The Synare 1[edit]

Four rubber rectangular pads connected to a main module with one oscillator producing pulse and sawtooth waveforms. It also had a white noise generator, Low Frequency Oscillator (LFO) with triangle and pulse waveforms, a mixer and a low-pass filter with Resonance and Cutoff controls. It also had an envelope generator with attack, decay, sustain, and release. Made from 1975 to 1981.


The Synare 2[edit]

This model was manufactured from 1976 to 1982 and was Star's flagship. It was very much like the Synare 1, with one oscillator providing sawtooth, pulse, or white noise. It added assignable functions, such as the ability to route the LFO in order to simultaneously modulate several parameters. The LFO also provided a sawtooth waveform. The pitch of the oscillator could set to a wide range of octaves, then fine tuned with a separate parameter. A major improvement over the Synare 1 was the introduction of a fairly advanced sequencer with multiple patterns, and the ability to change patterns and octaves on the fly. This model also featured sixteen pads rather than the four of the Synare 1. The retail price in 1976 was $1,395.00, and as a result the Synare 2 remains a very rare item.


The LinnDrum Midistudio has sixteen 8-bit 10 kHz ~ 50 kHz digitally sampled drum sounds: bass, snare, cross stick, hihat, two crash symbols, two ride symbols, four toms, cabasa, tambourine, cowbell and clap. The Midistudio has virtually all the same features as the Linn 9000. Also, many optional 9000 features (like digital sampling capability and a floppy disk drive) are standard on the Midistudio.[1]


Both machines have large (1.25-inch-square) velocity- and pressure-sensitive rubber performance pads. But the 9000 has 18 pads in a three-high by six-wide pattern, where the Midistudio has 16 pads in the distinctive, four-by-four pattern, that would become the hallmark of the Akai MPC series of Music Production Centers, starting with the Akai MPC60.


The Drum Buddy, invented by New Orleans Ninth Ward one-man band Quintron, is a light-activated oscillating drum machine which operates on the principles of an optical sound theremin. An electronic instrument developed in the Spellcaster Lodge QElectronics laboratory, only 44 units hand-assembled by Quintron exist. Its four voices – Space, Snare, Bass and Kick, are triggered by activating a photoelectric cell either intermittently or with an on/off DIP switch in combination with exposure to light.


The onboard sequencer can hold 256 patterns which can be chained together to form a "song". Up to 16 "songs" can be stored in the EM-1's internal memory.



The Korg Electribe R was released in 1999 as a dedicated electronic drum machine to complement the Korg Electribe A bass synthesizer. It features a 64 step sequencer and is MIDI-controllable. The sound is generated by digital signal processor circuits but can be manipulated in realtime (analog modeling synthesizer principle). A cross modulation function (replacing the previous ring modulation of the Mk I version) can be applied to percussion synthesizers 1 and 2 in the ER-1 Mk II version. The only other differences were new preset rhythm patterns and the metal casing. Because of the easy programming possibilities and competitive pricing the ER-1 quickly became popular among DJs and studio musicians. The overall sound character can be described as, although synthetic, similar to classic analog drum machines. However, the sound remains completely "tweakable" allowing realtime human variation and interaction, not unlike 4 simultaneous percussion synthesizers. In 2010, Korg released iElectribe R, a software version of the Electribe R for the iPad.


Contents [hide]

1 Korg Electribe R mkII Features

2 See also

3 References

4 External links

Korg Electribe R mkII Features[edit]


Korg ER-1 Mk II front panel

Analog modeling system plus PCM

Powerful Cross Modulation

Audio Input function

Step Sequencer

Motion Sequence function

Low Boost and Delay effects

Tap Tempo and MIDI Clock

4 synthesizer parts

4 PCM parts

2 audio-in parts

One accent part

256 patterns, 16 songs

Delay effects: Normal, Motion Sequence, Tempo Delay

Motion Sequences: synthesizer part-3 parameters, drum part-2 parameters, accent part-one parameter, 64 events

Pattern sequencer: 64 steps maximum per part; one parameter per part; 64 events per part; 256 patterns maximum per song; 35,700 events maximum

256 phrases 4 TIMES 4- 16 SONGS- KEYBOARD HAS 16 KEYS

Keyboard :

Number of keys : 16

Can send on simultaneous MIDI channels

Responds to : Note on/off, MIDI control change

Sounds can be split by : Cannot be split



The EA-1 can store a total of 256 (64 x 4 banks) phrases or patterns plus 16 songs consisting of multiple patterns.[3]


The TR-707 provides four levels of shuffle that operate globally on the rhythm, as well as flam that can be applied to any step. The device offers 64 programmable patterns, which are editable via step-write or tap-write, that can be sequenced together into any of four different tracks. Patterns and tracks can be stored on the device (providing that two AA batteries are inserted) or onto an optional memory cartridge with twice the capacity.


8-bit color graphics is a method of storing image information in a computer's memory or in an image file, such that each pixel is represented by one 8-bit byte. The maximum number of colors that can be displayed at any one time is 256.


Three- or four-conductor (TRS or TRRS) 2.5 mm and 3.5 mm sockets are common on cell phones, providing mono (three conductor) or stereo (four conductor) sound and a microphone input, together with signaling (e.g., push a button to answer a call). Three-conductor 2.5 mm connectors are particularly common on older phones, while four-conductor 3.5 mm connectors are more common on newer smartphones. These are used both for handsfree headsets (esp. mono audio plus mic, also stereo audio plus mic, plus signaling for call handling) and for (stereo) headphones (stereo audio, no mic). Wireless (connectorless) headsets or headphones usually use the Bluetooth protocol.


There is no recognised standard for TRRS connectors or compatibility with three conductor TRS. The four conductors of a TRRS connector are assigned to different purposes by different manufacturers. Any 3.5 mm plug can be plugged mechanically into any socket, but many combinations are electrically incompatible. For example, plugging TRRS headphones into a TRS headset socket (or the reverse), plugging TRS headphones or headsets into a TRRS socket, or plugging TRRS headphones or headsets from one manufacturer into a TRRS socket from another may not function correctly, or at all. Mono audio will usually work, but stereo audio or microphone may not work, depending on wiring. Signaling compatibility depends both on wiring compatibility and the signals sent by the hands-free/headphones controller being correctly interpreted by the phone.[original research?] Adapters that are wired for headsets will not work for stereo headphones and conversely. Further, as TTY/TDDs are wired as headsets, TTY adapters can also be used to connect a 2.5 mm headset to a phone.


Military aircraft and civil helicopters have another type termed a U-174/U. These are also termed 'NATO plugs' or Nexus TP120[40] telephone plugs. They are similar to  1⁄4 in (6.35 mm) plug, but with a 7.10 mm (0.280 in) diameter short shaft with an extra ring, i.e. four conductors in total, allowing two for the headphones (mono), and two for the microphone. There is a confusingly similar four pole (or four conductor) British connector with a slightly smaller diameter and a different wiring configuration used for headsets in many UK Military aircraft and often also referred to as a NATO or 'UK NATO' connector.


Record labels are often under the control of a corporate umbrella organization called a "music group". A music group is typically owned by an international conglomerate "holding company", which often has non-music divisions as well. A music group controls and consists of music publishing companies, record (sound recording) manufacturers, record distributors, and record labels. As of 2007, the "big four" music groups control about 70% of the world music market, and about 80% of the United States music market.[16][17] Record companies (manufacturers, distributors, and labels) may also constitute a "record group" which is, in turn, controlled by a music group. The constituent companies in a music group or record group are sometimes marketed as being "divisions" of the group.


Although Greene objected strongly to being described as a Roman Catholic novelist, rather than as a novelist who happened to be Catholic, Catholic religious themes are at the root of much of his writing, especially the four major Catholic novels: Brighton Rock, The Power and the Glory, The Heart of the Matter, and The End of the Affair;[7] which are regarded as "the gold standard" of the Catholic novel.

On Aarni's official website, the band section contains four members (also referred to as "Responsible Cultists"), as well as information concerning each of them. The four members of the band are Master Warjomaa, Comte de Saint-Germain, Doomintroll and Mistress Palm. Warjomaa commented on this in a 2004 interview:


The number of Aarni is five and five is the number of Aarni. Think a while about this and you will see... because Aarni consists of four personalities plus me. Why four? Because I've chosen to adhere to the (Jungian) concept of quaternity - four personality types, four seasons, four equinoxes, four elements, four stations of the sun, four stages of the human life, four cardinal directions, four Qabbalistic worlds, four limbs of the human body, four main themes in Aarni's songs, four basic human brain circuits of Timothy Leary's theory etc. Visualize the pentagram representing human existence: there's four points combined in/ruled by the fifth. It's all of course symbolic. Or is it?



"4 Page Letter" is a contemporary R&B song recorded by American singer Aaliyah. The song was written by producer Tim "Timbaland" Mosley and Missy Elliott. Mosley produced the song and Elliott provided background vocals. It is the fourth single (third in North America) released from Aaliyah's second studio album, One in a Million (see 1997 in music).


The Sixteen Men of Tain is the tenth studio album by guitarist Allan Holdsworth, released in March 2000 through Gnarly Geezer Records (United States), Polydor Records (Japan) and JMS–Cream Records (Europe); a remastered edition was reissued in 2003 through Globe Music Media Arts.[3] The album's title is a reference to the Glenmorangie distillery in Scotland.[4] This was the last recording to be made at Holdsworth's personal recording studio The Brewery.[5][6]


Critical reception[edit]

Professional ratings

Review scores

Source Rating

All About Jazz Favourable[7]

AllMusic 4.5/5 stars[1]

All About Jazz described The Sixteen Men of Tain as a "very comfortable listen" and recommended it highly, whilst noting that the album is less rock-orientated than past Holdsworth releases. David R. Adler at AllMusic gave it 4.5 stars out of five, calling it "startlingly superb" and "full of fresh ideas and unadulterated improvisational brilliance".[1] Both reviews also highlighted Holdsworth's more restrained use of the SynthAxe, an instrument featured prominently on all of his albums since Atavachron (1986).