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64 SQUARES IS FOUR 16S FOUR QUADRANT MODELS---- 16 FORCES OF CREATION

https://communiu.home.xs4all.nl/Studymat/Briasha/B0400Asha.htm

The Creation of the World

 

ACCORDING TO THE ZEND AVESTA

 

Back

 

After the Creation of the Universe, we have sixty-four squares divided between Light and Darkness, representing the Cosmos. These sixty-four squares are a kind of stage upon which the drama of Creation is enacted, as life on our planet is created. In the Zend Avesta, this event is told in the form of a dialogue between Ahura Mazda, the Creator, and Zarathustra. Through archeological reconstruction, we can present here this dialogue of creation, watching each of the sixteen forces of nature and the cosmos bring to life the Cosmic Order, ASHA, on the great stage of the universe.

 

Voice of Ahura Mazda:

 

I, Ahura Mazda, the CREATOR:

 

First I have made the Kingdom of Light.

 

Voice of Zarathustra:

 

You shall use your creative powers;

 

Your role on this planet

 

Is to continue the work of the CREATOR!

 

The second of the Good Kingdoms

 

Which I, Ahura Mazda, created, Was Ahura PRESERVER.

 

You shall PRESERVE all useful things

 

In the Kingdom of Ahura Mazda.

 

You shall prevent damage

 

To whatever has value; whether a tree,

 

Plant, house, love, or harmony in any form!

 

The third of the Good Kingdoms

 

Which I, Ahura Mazda, created,

 

Was the Ahura of ETERNAL LIFE.

 

To reach ETERNAL LIFE

 

You shall have sincerity in all you do

 

And with everyone you meet!

 

The fourth of the Good Kingdoms

 

Which I, Ahura Mazda, created,

 

Was the Ahura of WISDOM.

 

Gain WISDOM

 

Through the Good Thoughts

 

of Ahura Mazda!

 

The fifth of the Good Kingdoms

 

Which I, Ahura Mazda, created,

 

Was the Ahura of WORK.

 

You shall perform your daily WORK

 

With honesty and efficiency!

 

The sixth of the Good Kingdoms

 

Which I, Ahura Mazda, created,

 

Was the Ahura of LOVE.

 

You shall speak

 

Only gentle and kind words

 

Through the LOVE of Ahura Mazda!

 

The seventh of the Good Kingdoms

 

Which I, Ahura Mazda, created,

 

Was the Ahura of PEACE.

 

You shall maintain PEACE,

 

Create it within yourself and around you.

 

Prevent inharmony, enmity and violence!

 

The eighth of the Good Kingdoms

 

Which I, Ahura Mazda, created,

 

Was the Ahura of POWER.

 

You shall perform good deeds

 

Through the POWER of Ahura Mazda!

 

The ninth of the Good Kingdoms

 

Which I, Ahura Mazda, created,

 

Was the Fravashi of SUN.

 

You shall expose your body

 

To the Golden Rays of the SUN!

 

The tenth of the Good Kingdoms

 

Which I, Ahura Mazda, created,

 

Was the Fravashi of WATER.

 

You shall purify yourself with water

 

Every morning, and drink every day

 

The Life-giving WATER of Ahura Mazda!

 

The eleventh of the Good Kingdoms

 

Which I, Ahura Mazda, created,

 

Was the Fravashi of AIR.

 

You shall be outdoors

 

And breathe the Life-giving AIR

 

Of Ahura Mazda!

 

The twelfth of the Good Kingdoms

 

Which I, Ahura Mazda, created,

 

Was the Fravashi of EARTH.

 

You shall create more abundant life

 

On this EARTH by growing plants

 

And begetting children!

 

The thirteenth of the Good Kingdoms

 

Which I, Ahura Mazda, created,

 

Was the Fravashi of FOOD.

 

You shall eat living FOOD

 

From the gardens of Ahura Mazda!

 

The fourteenth of the Good Kingdoms

 

Which I, Ahura Mazda, created,

 

Was the Fravashi of HEALTH.

 

You shall use all good forces:

 

Sun, Water, Air, Food, Man, Earth and Joy.

 

Harmony with all good forces

 

Will give you vibrant HEALTH!

 

The fifteenth of the Good Kingdoms

 

Which I, Ahura Mazda, created,

 

Was the Fravashi of MAN.

 

Oh, MAN! You shall strive incessantly

 

On the ascending path toward the

 

Light of Ahura Mazda!

 

The sixteenth of the Good Kingdoms

 

Which I, Ahura Mazda, created,

 

Was the Fravashi of JOY.

 

Be always JOYOUS and happy

 

In the Service of the Law!

 

 

 

An Ancient Representation of the Art of Asha: Sun (right top) as Cosmic Fire, Fire on Altar (right bottom) as Planetary Fire, Zarathustra or Mazdean Priest (left bottom) as Internal Fire of Life Ahura Mazda, the Creator (center top) as Cosmic Ocean of Thought. The Whole represents Communion between Man and the Cosmos

 

As we will see in greater detail later, when we learn the rules of the Art of Asha, each of these sixteen natural and cosmic forces represents one source of energy, harmony and knowledge at our disposal, for us to use in our lives-one force in the field of forces surrounding man. The positive forces of nature were called Fravashis, and the positive forces of the cosmos were called Ahuras. Together they formed the Army of Light of Ahura Mazda, the Creator. Their opposites on the side of Darkness were the Khrafstras and the Devas, led by the Destroyer, Ahriman. But as the negative forces represent only the absence of Light, they are not included in this re-enactment of the Creation of Life on our planet, this powerful dialogue between Ahura Mazda and Zarathustra, between the Creator and Man, whose role it is to continue the work of creation on earth.

 

On the tapestry of ASHA, Man, one of the sixteen forces, stands directly in front of the Creator. This means that we have a duty and a right at the same time: a duty to establish harmony with all these sixteen forces, and the privilege to absorb these forces as sources of harmony, energy and knowledge. According to the Zend Avesta, we live in a dynamic universe, and we must know how to respond to these forces which permanently surround us and flow toward us. Intelligence is the ability to adapt ourselves adequately to unexpected changes in our environment, and this parallelogram of forces which surrounds us is constantly changing. Therefore, we must learn to adapt our thoughts, our words and our deeds to each one of these forces, so we can learn to utilize their energy, harmony and knowledge.

 

The Art of Asha is a universe within itself, a collection of various methods employing music, drama, art, weaving, gardening, even self-analysis, in order to keep our attention fixed on the reality of these forces in every segment of our daily lives. For these forces are realities, not sterile meta­physical speculation, or dry scriptural abstractions. Every one of the sixteen forces is a tangible part of the world we live in, from the air we breathe and the food we eat, to the joy we feel and the wisdom we seek. "Good thoughts, good words, good deeds. . ." these words of Zarathustra are the most simple and direct of all moral codes. We will learn through the Art of Asha how to use them to further our own individual evolution, as well as that of our planet.

16 SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL

http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/avestan-geography

HE TALKS ABOUT THE 16 DISTRICTS OR GOOD LANDS CREATED BY AHURA MAZDA- AND MENTIONS BUDDHIST AND JAINIST SOURCES ALSO MENTION 16 DISTRICTS

 

As already pointed out, the main Avestan text of geographical interest is the first chapter of the Vidēvdād. This consists of a list of sixteen districts (asah- and šōiθra-) created by Ahura Mazdā and threatened by a corresponding number of counter-creations that Aŋra Mainyu set up against them (paityāra-). The structure of this chapter is very simple: Twenty paragraphs, consisting of an introduction, fourteen paragraphs dedicated to one district each, four dedicated to two districts (two paragraphs for each of the two districts), and a final paragraph stating that there existed still more districts worthy of praise. It is likely that paragraphs 2 and 14, dealing with Airyana Vaēǰah and Haētumant are interpolations or later additions, as they interrupt the flow of the whole text which gives one single paragraph to each district. In fact, paragraphs 2 and 13 deal with Airyana Vaēǰah and Haētumant respectively. The period the text belongs to is uncertain: While the contents and lack of any reference to western Iran suggest that it should date back to the pre-Achaemenian period, the form in which it survives would seem to place it in the Parthian period.

 

Set right at the beginning of a whole nask of the Avesta, dedicated to prescriptions for purification and the rules for the atonement of sins, the first chapter of the Vidēvdād probably has the same purpose as the lists of the sixteen Great Districts, Ṣoḍaśa mahājanapada, in the Buddhist and Jainist sources and the epic poetry of India in the sixth century B.C., which were subject to the Aryan element

16 GREAT TURKISH EMPIRES 16 SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/16_Great_Turkic_Empires

16 Great Turkic Empires

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Erdoğan and Abbas with actors representing the "16 Great Turkic Empires" (2015)

The 16 Great Turkic Empires (Turkish: 16 Büyük Türk Devleti, also translated as "16 Great Turkish Empires") is a concept in Turkish ethnic nationalism, introduced in 1969 by Akib Özbek[1] and widely invoked by Turkish authorities during the 1980s, under the government of Kenan Evren.

 

Contents [hide]

1 The list

2 Reception

3 See also

4 References

The list[edit]

The "16 Great Turkic Empires" are the following:

 

Flag[2] Name Turkish name Leader[3] Dates[4]

Great Hunnic Empire flag.jpg Great Hunnic Empire Büyük Hun İmparatorluğu Teoman 220 BC-46 BC

Western Hunnic Empire flag.jpg Western Hunnic Empire Batı Hun İmparatorluğu Panu 48-216

Hunnic Empire flag.jpg European Hunnic Empire Avrupa Hun İmparatorluğu Attila 375-469

White Hunnic Empire Hepthalite flag.jpg White Hunnic Empire Akhun İmparatorluğu Aksunvar 390-577

Gok1.png Göktürk Empire Göktürk İmparatorluğu Bumin Kağan 552-745

Avar Empire flag.png Avar Khaganate Avar İmparatorluğu Bayan Kağan 565-835

Khazar Empire flag.png Khazar Khaganate Hazar İmparatorluğu Hazar Kağan 651-983

Uyghur Empire flag.jpg Uyghur Khaganate Uygur Devleti Kutluğ Kül Bilge Kağan 745-1369

Qaraxanlı bayrağı.jpg Kara-Khanids Karahanlılar Bilge Külkadir Han 840-1212

GhaznavidFlag attributed.svg Ghaznavids Gazneliler Alp Tekin 962-1186

Flag of Sultanate of Rum.svg Great Seljuq Empire Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu Selçuk Bey 1040–1157

Flag of the Khwarezmian Empire.png Khwarazmids Harzemşahlar Muhammed Harzem Şah 1097–1231

Флаг Золотой Орды.png Golden Horde Altınordu Devleti Batu Han 1236–1502

TimuridFlag attributed.svg Timurid Empire Büyük Timur İmparatorluğu Timur 1368–1501

Gules pile sinister or.svg Mughal Empire Babür İmparatorluğu Babür Şah 1526-1858

Fictitious Ottoman flag 7.svg Ottoman Empire Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Osman Bey 1299-1922

Reception[edit]

 

Flags of the Sixteen Great Turkish Empires displayed in the Istanbul Military Museum

 

Presidential Seal of Turkey

Turkish nationalist writer, novelist, poet and philosopher, Hüseyin Nihâl Atsız, supporter of the pan-Turkist or Turanism ideology, had noted that while some states with questionable Turkic identity were included in the list, some ostensibly Turkic states (such as Akkoyunlu) were left out, and labeled the list a "fabrication."[5]

 

In spite of Atsız' criticism, the concept has was made a mainstream topos in Turkish national symbolism in the wake of the 1980 Turkish coup d'état, under the presidency of Kenan Evren, when "Turkish-Islamic synthesis" was declared the official nature of Turkish national identity. The Turkish Postal administration issued a series of stamps dedicated to the 16 Empires in 1984, showing portraits of their respective founders as well as attributed flags.[2] In 1985, Özbek's 16 Empires were invoked as a retrospective explanation of the 16 stars in the presidential seal of Turkey (introduced in 1936).[6]

 

Several municipal buildings and public parks in Turkey have collections of busts or statues of the supposed founders of the "16 Empires" alongside a statue of Kemal Atatürk, including the municipal buildings of Keçiören (Ankara), Mamak, Ankara, Etimesgut, Niğde, Nevşehir, Pınarbaşı, Kayseri, etc.[3]

 

In 2000, Türk Telekom produced a series of smart cards dedicated to the topic.[7]

 

In January 2015, Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan received Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas in the Turkish Presidential Palace with a guard of 16 "warriors", actors wearing loosely historical armour and costume, intended to symbolise the 16 empires.[8] The costumes were ridiculed in the Turkish media, and one of the costumes in particular was mocked as a "bathrobe", becoming a trend on social media under the name of Duşakabinoğul (as it were "son of the shower cabin").[9]

https://prezi.com/pyiy2bwjbbqb/the-first-four-civilizations/

Mesopotamians worshiped 4 different Gods- An, Enlil, Nin-kursag, and Enki.

https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=1002601459791879&id=233644650020901

Swastika of St. Sargis monastery, Ushi, Armenia, reconstructed.

In Armenia swastika is called "arevakhach" and "kerkhach" (Armenian: կեռխաչ) and is the ancient symbol of eternity and eternal light (i.e. God). Swastikas in Armenia were found on petroglyphs. During the bronze age it was depicted on cauldrons, belts, medallions and other items. Among the oldest petroglyphs is the seventh letter of the Armenian alphabet - "E" (which means "is" or "to be") - depicted as half-swastika.

The earliest swastika in Armenia belongs to the Neolithic period of human cultural evolution, found on rock art dating back about 7000-5000 BC. The Indo-European ‘Aryan’ tribes who lived in what later came to be known as the Armenian Highlands were one of the earliest cultures to be using the swastika as a religious symbol. The main value of the Arevakhach is the sun, and the light, the movement of life, prosperity, joy, eternity and good luck.

Swastikas can also be seen on early Medieval churches and fortresses, including the principal tower in Armenia's historical capital city of Ani. The same symbol can be found on Armenian carpets, cross-stones (khachkar) and in medieval manuscripts, as well as on modern monuments as asymbol of eternity.

Sources:

- Concise Armenian Encyclopedia, Yerevan, v. II, p. 663

- T. Wilson The swastika, the earlist known symbol and its migrations, p. 807, 951

- N. Holding & D. Holding, Armenia: With Nagorno Karabagh, p.148

- Comparative analysis of the armenia and World roCk art Vahan Vahanyan, XXIII Valcamonica Symposium 2009

#armenia #swastika #ancient #pagan #religion #history

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_stars

In Astrology, the Royal Stars of Persia were regarded as the guardians of the sky in approximately 3000 BCE during the time of the Ancient Persians in the area of modern day Iran.[1] The Persians believed that the sky was divided into four districts with each district being guarded by one of the four Royal Stars.[2] The stars were believed to hold both good and evil power and the Persians looked upon them for guidance in scientific calculations of the sky, such as the calendar and lunar/solar cycles, and for predictions about the future.

SASSANIAN QUADRIPARTITE CASTE SYSTEM

http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/class-system-iv

For Ṭūsī, society was divided into four classes that should be maintained in their proper place by the ruler: men of the pen, including scholars, jurisprudents (foqahāʾ), religious judges (qożāt), scribes (kottāb), mathematicians, geometricians, astronomers, physicians, and poets; men of the sword; men of affairs, like mer­chants, craftsmen, artisans, and tax collectors; and farm­ers. Jalāl-al-Dīn Davānī (d. 908/1502), in Aḵlāq-e jalālī (pp. 138-39; tr. pp. 388-90), followed Ṭūsī closely in dividing society into four functional strata and, like him, emphasized that “in order to preserve this political equi­poise, there is a correspondence to be maintained between the various classes.” Wāʿeẓ-e Kāšefī (d. 910/1504), a popular preacher and author, in his Aḵlāq-e moḥsenī (p. 48), also divided people into four classes and advised the ruler to keep them in their proper places.

 

The Sasanian quadripartite theory of social stratifica­tion was introduced into the Islamic world by historians and authors of mirrors for princes and books of ethics. Ebn Moqaffaʿ (in his introduction to Nāma-ye Tansar, pp. 45-49; tr. pp. 26-30) and Jāḥeẓ (1332/1914, pp. 23-26; tr. pp. 32-33) were among the first medieval authors to mention the Sasanian model of stratification. According to Ṭabarī (d. 310/923; I, pp. 179-80), the mythical king Jamšīd established the classes of warriors, men of reli­gious learning, men of the pen, and husbandmen and craftsmen. Following Ṭabarī, Ṯaʿālebī (Ḡorar, pp. 11-­12), Ferdowsī (d. 416/1025; Šāh-nāma, ed. Ḵāleqī, I, pp. 42-43), Ebn Balḵī (pp. 30-31), Gardīzī ( ed. Ḥabībī, p. 2), and Ebn al-Aṯīr (I, p. 46), among others, referred to the Sasanian quadripartite strata. The influence of both Islamic egalitarian ideas and Plato’s meritocratic func­tional theory modified the functionalism that emerged in Islamic culture, so that it was only a faint image of the original, pre-Islamic model (for a study of functionalism in Persia, see Marlow, pp. 10-68, 173-232; Mojtabāʾī, passim).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Summons_of_the_Lord_of_Hosts

Another symbol used by Bahá'u'lláh in describing the Haykal is through the four letters (H, Y, K, and L) that compose the word in the Arabic. Bahá'u'lláh in the tablet explains the spiritual significance of each letter: H is for Huwiyyah (Essence of Divinity), Y is for Qadír (Almighty), K is for Karím (All Bountiful), and L is for Fadl (Grace).

FOUR EFFULGENCES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tablets_of_Bahá’u’lláh_Revealed_After_the_Kitáb-i-Aqdas

The Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas are selected tablets written by Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, and published together as of 1978. The current edition bears the title Fountain of Wisdom: A Collection of Writings from Bahá'u'lláh.

The tablet is written as four tajallís, or effulgences, which are:

 

The knowledge of God can only be obtained through the Manifestation of God.

Steadfastness in the cause of God is obtained by recognizing the Manifestation of God, and through faith in his wisdom and teachings.

It is incumbent upon everyone to acquire knowledge in the arts, crafts, and sciences, but only those that can help humanity advance, and "not those which begin with words and end with words."

Recognition of the divinity of the Manifestations of God.

ZOROASTRIANS USE 16 FIRES- 16 SQUARES QMR AND FOUR MOST SACRED INVOCATIONS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denkard

Book 9 is a commentary on the gathic prayers of Yasna 27 and Yasna 54. Together, these make up Zoroastrianism's four most sacred invocations: the ahuna vairya (Y 27.13), the Ashem Vohu (Y 27.14), the yenghe hatam (Y 27.15) and the airyaman ishya (Y 54.1).

FOUR SACRED FORMULAS ZOROASTRIANISM

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airyaman_ishya

Windfuhr, Gernot (2001), "Cosmic numerology in Zoroastrianism: the four sacred formulas", Philologica et Linguistica (Festschrift für Helmut Humbach zum 80.), Trier: WVT, pp. 562–571.

FOUR GREAT INVOCATIONS IN ZOROASTRIANISM- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT AND IS RECITED FOUR TIMES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airyaman_ishya

The airyaman ishya (airyaman išya, airyə̄mā išyō) is Zoroastrianism's fourth of the four Gathic Avestan invocations.

 

In relation to the other formulas[edit]

Like the other three formulas (Ahuna Vairya, Ashem vohu, Yenghe hatam), the airyaman ishya is in Gathic Avestan. While the first three formulas are located at Yasna 27.13-27.15, immediately preceding the Gathas, the airyaman ishya - at Yasna 54.1 - provides the closure. Also unlike the first three, the theological exegesis of the airyaman ishya is not embedded in the Yasna liturgy itself. Like the yenghe hatam, the third of the four formulas, the airyaman ishya is a prayer.[3] Both it and the yenghe hatam are without the enigmatic "pronounced magical character"[4] of the first two formulas.

 

Besides being recited (four times) during the Yasna ceremony, the prayer is also part of the Ashirvad, the blessings invoked during a Zoroastrian marriage ceremony.

 

Like the ahuna vairya invocation (the first of the four great formulas), the airyaman ishya is "the most excellent, the most mighty, the most efficacious, the most smiting, the most victorious, the most healing, the greatest" of the formulas. (Yasht 1.1-1.3, 3.5-3.6 and 11.3[6]) Also like the ahuna vairya, the airyaman ishya has the power to elicit good thoughts, words and deeds, and so further asha and weaken the druj. (Visperad 24.0-2).

The Afrinagans[edit]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avesta#Afrinagan

The Afrinagans are four "blessing" texts recited on a particular occasion: the first in honor of the dead, the second on the five epagomenal days that end the year, the third is recited at the six seasonal feasts, and the fourth at the beginning and end of summer.

THE NUMBER 40

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/40_(number)

Yazidism[edit]

In the Yazidi faith, The Chermera Temple (meaning “40 Men” in the Yazidi dialect) is so old that no one remembers how it came to have that name but it is believed to derive from the burial of 40 men on the mountaintop site.

Funerary customs[edit]

Some Russians believe that ghosts of the dead linger at the site of their death for forty days.

Many Christian Filipinos mark the end of the initial mourning period on the fortieth day after death, and have a Mass said. They believe that the soul remains on the earthly plane for forty days before entering the afterlife, recalling how Christ ascended to heaven forty days after his Resurrection.

Hinduism[edit]

In Hinduism, some popular religious prayers consist of forty shlokas or dohas (couplets, stanzas). The most common being the Hanuman Chalisa (chaalis is the Hindi term for 40).

In Hindu system some of the popular fasting period consist 40 days and is called the period One 'Mandl kal' Kal means a period and Mandal kal means a period of 40 days. For example, the devotees of 'Swami Ayyappa', the name of a Hindu God very popular in Kerala, India ( Sabarimala Swami Ayyappan ) strictly observed forty days fasting and visit ( Only male devotees are permitted to enter into the God's Temple) with their holy submittance or offerings on 41st or a convenient day after a minimum 40 days practice of fasting. The offering is called 'Kanikka'.

40 SACRED NUMBER TO SUMERIANS- THE GOD ENKI WAS REPRESENTED BY THE NUMBER 40

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/40_(number)

Sumerian[edit]

Enki ( /ˈɛŋki/) or Enkil (Sumerian: dEN.KI(G)𒂗𒆠) is a god in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Akkadian and Babylonian mythology. He was originally patron god of the city of Eridu, but later the influence of his cult spread throughout Mesopotamia and to the Canaanites, Hittites and Hurrians. He was the deity of crafts (gašam); mischief; water, seawater, lakewater (a, aba, ab), intelligence (gestú, literally "ear") and creation (Nudimmud: nu, likeness, dim mud, make bear). He was associated with the southern band of constellations called stars of Ea, but also with the constellation AŠ-IKU, the Field (Square of Pegasus). Beginning around the second millennium BCE, he was sometimes referred to in writing by the numeric ideogram for "40," occasionally referred to as his "sacred number."

A large number of myths about Enki have been collected from many sites, stretching from Southern Iraq to the Levantine coast. He figures in the earliest extant cuneiform inscriptions throughout the region and was prominent from the third millennium down to Hellenistic times.

 

The exact meaning of his name is uncertain: the common translation is "Lord of the Earth": the Sumerian en is translated as a title equivalent to "lord"; it was originally a title given to the High Priest; ki means "earth"; but there are theories that ki in this name has another origin, possibly kig of unknown meaning, or kur meaning "mound". The name Ea is allegedly Hurrian in origin while others claim that it is possibly of Semitic origin and may be a derivation from the West-Semitic root *hyy meaning "life" in this case used for "spring", "running water." In Sumerian E-A means "the house of water", and it has been suggested that this was originally the name for the shrine to the God at Eridu.

Tammuz was represented by a cross

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tammuz_(deity)

Tammuz (Syriac: ܬܡܘܙ; Hebrew: תַּמּוּז, Transliterated Hebrew: Tammuz, Tiberian Hebrew: Tammûz; Arabic: تمّوز Tammūz; Akkadian: Duʾzu, Dūzu; Sumerian: Dumuzid (DUMU.ZI(D), "faithful or true son") was the name of a Sumerian god of food and vegetation, also worshiped in the later Mesopotamian states of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia.

CROSS AS SIGN OF TAMMUZ AND GREEK GODDESS DIANA

https://www.pcog.org/articles/345/the-cross-pagan-symbol-or-symbol-of-faith

Seeing as Christ was crucified, is it okay to wear a cross symbolizing our faith?

 

First, are you sure that Christ died on the cross? History, and more recently archeology, show that the cross was used as a religious symbol centuries before Christ. The shape of the two-beamed cross had its origin in ancient Chaldea and was used to represent the god Tammuz. Tammuz is the deified Nimrod, the first man to lead the opposition against God after the great Flood. He founded the city of Babylon, and along with his mother/wife Semiramis, founded the pagan Babylon mystery religion—the origin of all false religion today. The Egyptians used crosses in abundance, as did the Hindus. The British Museum, for example, exhibits statues of the ancient Assyrian kings wearing almost perfect Maltese crosses around their necks.

 

The ancient Greek goddess Diana is pictured with a cross over her head, in much the same way the “Virgin Mary” is represented by many medieval artists. Bacchus (the Greek god of wine) is often pictured wearing a headdress adorned with crosses. Different types of crosses were used in Mexico centuries before the Spaniards arrived.

 

The widespread use of the cross did not begin until the time of Constantine, three centuries after Christ. Archaeologists have not found any Christian use of the symbol before that time. According to one W.E. Vine, the cross as a “Christian” symbol was taken directly from the pagans (Vine’s Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words).

EGYPTIANS USED THE CROSS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_cross

The Christian Cross, seen as a representation of the instrument of the crucifixion of Jesus, is the best-known symbol of Christianity.[1] It is related to the crucifix (a cross that includes a usually three-dimensional representation of Jesus' body) and to the more general family of cross symbols.

The basic forms of the cross are the Latin cross (✝) and the Greek cross, with numerous variants used heraldry and in various confessional contexts.

History of use Edit

Pre-Christian Edit

The cross-shaped sign, represented in its simplest form by a crossing of two lines at right angles, greatly predates, in both East and West, the introduction of Christianity. It goes back to a very remote period of human civilization. It is supposed to have been used not just for its ornamental value, but also with religious significance.[2] It may have represented the apparatus used in kindling fire, and thus as the symbol of sacred fire or as a symbol of the sun, denoting its daily rotation. It has also been interpreted as the mystic representation of lightning or of the god of the tempest, or the emblem of the Aryan pantheon and the primitive Aryan civilization.[2]

Another associated symbol is the ansated cross (ankh or crux ansata) of the ancient Egyptians, often depicted in the hands of the goddess Sekhet, and as a hieroglyphic sign of life or of the living. Egyptian Christians (Copts) adopted it as the emblem of the cross.[2] In his book, The Worship of the Dead, Colonel J. Garnier wrote: "The cross in the form of the 'Crux Ansata' ... was carried in the hands of the Egyptian priests and Pontiff kings as the symbol of their authority as priests of the Sun god and was called 'the Sign of Life'." [3]

S34

Another Egyptian symbol is the Ndj (Cross-ndj_(hieroglyph))

Aa27

- Uses for the hieroglyph: 1— "to protect, guard, avenge", and "protector, advocate, avenger" 2— "homage to thee", (a form of salutation to gods) 3— "discuss a matter with someone", "to converse", "to take counsel". And yet another Egyptian symbol is the nfr

F35

- meaning: beauty or perfect.

In the Bronze Age a representation of the cross as conceived in Christian art appeared, and the form was popularised. The more precise characterization coincided with a corresponding general change in customs and beliefs. The cross then came into use in various forms on many objects: fibulas, cinctures, earthenware fragments, and on the bottom of drinking vessels. De Mortillet believed that such use of the sign was not merely ornamental, but rather a symbol of consecration, especially in the case of objects pertaining to burial. In the proto-Etruscan cemetery of Golasecca every tomb has a vase with a cross engraved on it. True crosses of more or less artistic design have been found in Tiryns, at Mycenæ, in Crete, and on a fibula from Vulci.[2]

According to Swami Vivekananda the Christian cross is nothing but the Shivalinga converted into two across.[4][5]

According to W. E. Vine, the cross was used by worshipers of Tammuz, an Ancient Near East deity of Babylonian origin who had the cross-shaped taw (tau) as his symbol.[6]

SWASTIKA IN ANCIENT SYNAGOGUE AND I DESCRIBED IN ESOTERIC JEWISH TEXT THERE WAS LITERAL SWASTIKA USED

https://vnnforum.com/showthread.php?t=44983

Miracle of Ancient Synagogue: Mosaic Antique Swastikas

Epoch Times Israel Staff Feb 16, 2007

 

In 1974, the kibbutz founder Avshalom Yakobi lied to the soldiers who were about to commence construction of a military project on this land. They had accidentally come across some archeological treasures of antiquity and he told them that it was a synagogue. One of the officers replied, "When guns roar, muses become silent." But in the end, the construction work was cancelled.

 

He felt remorse for telling a lie, and Avshalom made a decision that after his work day was over, he would go and dig out the ancient relics. It was thus that he labored for 3 additional hours every day.

 

One day he had dug no more than 8 inches, and discovered a red ornament depicting a menorah.

 

Avshalom informed the Department of Archeology about "the underground miracle," and since then, archeologists have unearthed the entire synagogue. What Avshalom had originally believed to be a lie turned out to be true! During further scientific inspection and analysis, it was found that there were 3 synagogues. Originally, it was just a simple structure, but later some Roman basilica-style structures with windows that were traditionally pointed towards Jerusalem were added.

 

The floors were paved with small stones of about 70 different hues depicting Itzhak's sacrifice, the Ark of the Covenant, inscriptions in Hebrew and Aramaic, traditional Jewish symbols, such as the menorah, customary national ornaments, and many different swastikas.

 

Avshalom, who is 91, has an excellent memory and possesses a detailed historical knowledge of this place, which dates back to 400-600 A.D. He relayed his fascinating story over the course of 3 hours. As it turned out, there was an ancient Bedouin cemetery and an ancient Arabian village under the base of the synagogue. In the next layer of the excavation, they found the 3rd century Jewish settlement named Baala, where Jews had lived for more than 300 years (the settlement of Baala is mentioned in 1 of the 3 parts of the Old Testament).

 

When asked about how swastikas found their way into a synagogue, Avshalom answered, "All Jewish archeologists that had been working here did not pay any attention to swastikas. People all over the world have been using this ancient symbol of happiness for millennia. This swastika is hundreds of years old. At that time, Hitler was not born yet, how could this fiend be more powerful than the world's history, world's art, and world's culture? I think now it is a right time for all of mankind to put in order some acquired erroneous concepts regarding the swastika symbol."

The One Unit (Urdu: ون یونٹ‎) was a geopolitical program launched by the government of Pakistan led by then-Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra on 22 November 1954. The program was believed to be enacted after the government faced difficulty of administrating the two unequal polities of Pakistan separated from each other by more than a thousand miles.[1] To diminish the differences between the two regions, the program merged the Four Provinces of West Pakistan into a single province as was the case with East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One_Unit

Pakistani scholars and researchers maintain that the One Unit program was viewed as a counterbalance against the political and population domination of the ethnic Bengali population of East Pakistan. The One Unit program was met with great resistance and grievances from the Four Provinces since its establishment, and it remained in effect until 1970.[1] Finally, President General Yahya Khan imposed Legal Framework Order No. 1970 to end the One Unit program and reinstate the provisional status of the Four Provinces as of August 1947.[1]

FOUR TOMBS SHAPED AS CROSSES/ A QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naqsh-e_Rustam

Achaemenid tombs[edit]

Four tombs belonging to Achaemenid kings are carved out of the rock face at a considerable height above the ground. The tombs are sometimes known as the Persian crosses, after the shape of the facades of the tombs. The entrance to each tomb is at the center of each cross, which opens onto to a small chamber, where the king lay in a sarcophagus. The horizontal beam of each of the tomb's facades is believed to be a replica of a Persepolitan entrance.

BAHUALLAH FOUR QUALITIES

http://bahaiblog.net/site/2016/05/4-qualities-bahaullah-loved-see/

When we aspire to live up to the teachings of Baha’u’llah and strive to emulate the immense array of virtues, we can become a little overwhelmed. It can be helpful to limit the range of qualities we focus on. Luckily, there are four qualities that Baha’u’llah especially liked.

 

Baha’u’llah is said to have often remarked:

 

There are four qualities which I love to see manifested in people: first, enthusiasm and courage; second, a face wreathed in smiles and a radiant countenance; third, that they see with their own eyes and not through the eyes of others; fourth, the ability to carry a task once begun, through to its end.1

 

There are so many virtues that we are called to develop, so why did Baha’u’llah single out these four qualities? Here are my thoughts:

BAHAUALLAH FOUR HANDS OF CAUSE- FOUR HANDS APPOINTED BY ABDUL BAHA

http://www.bahai-encyclopedia-project.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=64:hands-of-the-cause-of-god&catid=36:administrationinstitutions

He named as Hands of the Cause four distinguished individuals, all living in Iran.

 

TABLE 1: HANDS OF THE CAUSE OF GOD APPOINTED BY BAHÁ’U’LLÁH

NAME MALE/

FEMALE DATE OF

BIRTH PLACE OF

BIRTH DATE OF

DEATH PLACE OF

DEATH

Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar Shahmírzádí, known as Hájí Ákhúnd M 1258/

1842–43 Shahmírzád, near Semnān [Simnán], Iran 21 Safar 1328/

4 Mar. 1910 Tehran, Iran

Áqá Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí Abharí, also known by the designation Ibn Abhar [Ibn-i-Abhar] M 1270/1853–54 Abhar, between Qazvin and Zanjan, Iran 27 Rabí` II 1337/30 Jan. 1919 Tehran, Iran

Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan Tálaqání, also known by the title Adíbu’l-‘Ulamá and the designation Adíb M Shavvál 1264/Aug.–Sept. 1848 Karkabúd, near Tálaqán, Iran 6 Dhi’l-Qa`dih 1337/3 Aug. 1919 Tehran, Iran

Áqá Mírzá ‘Álí-Muhammad, also known by the designation Ibn Asdaq [Ibn-i-Asdaq] M 1267/1850–51 Mashhad, Iran 13 Farvardín 1307/2 Apr. 1928 Tehran, Iran

 

 

‘Abdu’l-Bahá honored several notable Iranian Bahá’ís who died before the end of the nineteenth century by conferring the title Hand of the Cause on them posthumously. He appointed no living Hands of the Cause. The four Hands appointed by Bahá’u’lláh and the four known to have been appointed posthumously by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá do not necessarily constitute a complete list of the Hands of the Cause from this early period. Shoghi Effendi clarifies that "The Hands of the Cause, of Bahá’u’lláh’s days, will be known . . . when the history of the Cause in Persia and the Near East is written and available."5 The Research Department of the Universal House of Justice has observed that those conditions have not yet been met.6

 

TABLE 2: OUTSTANDING BELIEVERS REFERRED TO POSTHUMOUSLY AS HANDS OF THE CAUSE BY ‘ABDU’L-BAHÁ*

NAME MALE/

FEMALE DATE OF

BIRTH PLACE OF

BIRTH DATE OF

DEATH PLACE OF

DEATH

Áqá Muhammad Qá’iní, also known by the designation Nabíl Akbar [Nabíl-i-Akbar] M 23 Ramadán 1244/29 March 1829 Naw-Firist, near Bīrjand [Bírjand], Iran 9 Dhi’l-Hijjih 1309/5 July 1892 Bukhara, Russian Turkistan, now in Uzbekistan

Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad, also known by the nom de plume and designation Varqá M unknown Yazd, Iran 17 Dhi’l-Qa`dih 1313/1 May 1896 Tehran, Iran

Shaykh Muhammad-Ridá Yazdí

[Note: No clear evidence has so far been found to resolve the identity of the man by this name mentioned by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.]

Mullá Sádiq Muqaddas Khurásání, also known by the designation Ismu’lláhu’l-Asdaq M unknown Mashhad, Iran 1291/1874–1875 Hamadan, Iran

The triad generally belongs to the male, although the female Divinities were sometimes of triple constitution. (7). If we turn to the analysis of the subject according to Rawlinson, we find taht the first and most sacred trinity - three persons in one God -consisted of Asshur, or Asher, or Ashur, whose sacred names were Il, Ilos, and Ra; Anu and Hea, or Hoa. (8) Beltis was the Goddess associated with him. (9) These four, that is, Asher, Anu, Hea, and Beltis, made up ARBA, or ARBA-IL, the Four Great Gods, the quadrilateral, the perfect Creator https://www.spellsandmagic.org/holy-grail/triad.html

MANI- MANICHEANISM (I think Augustine was originally a Manichean)- FOUR BOOKS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mani_(prophet)

The Christian tradition of Mani is based on Socrates of Constantinople, a historian writing in the 5th century. According to this account, one Scythianos, a Saracen, husband of an Egyptian woman, "introduced the doctrine of Empedocles and Pythagoras into Christianity"; that he had a disciple, "Buddas, formerly named Terebinthus," who travelled in Persia, where he alleged that he had been born of a virgin, and afterwards wrote four books, one of Mysteries, a second The Gospel, a third The Treasure, and a fourth Heads

MANI CRUCIFIED

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mani_(prophet)

Mani's followers depicted Mani's death as a crucifixion in a conscious analogy to the death of Christ; Al-Biruni says that Bahram ordered the execution of Mani. He was flayed alive and his skin stuffed with straw, was nailed to a cross and suspended over the main gate of the great city of Jundishapur as a terrifying spectacle for those who followed his teachings. His corpse was decapitated and the head placed on a spike. Bahram also ordered the killing of many Manicheans.[18]

FOUR MAIN DEITIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumerian_religion

The earliest Sumerian literature of the 3rd millennium BC identifies four primary deities; Anu, Enlil, Ninhursag and Enki

THE FOUR GREAT GODS THE FOURTH DIFFERENT

https://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sumer_anunnaki/esp_sumer_annunaki12c.htm

The were named "The Great Gods of the younger generation", headed by Enlil.

 

These gods were :

Anu, the god of heaven

Ki (Kiki), the goddess of earth

Enlil, the god of air

Enki (who later became Ea by the Babylonians), the god of water

It is notable that the Sumerians themselves may not have grouped these four as a set and that the grouping has been made because of the observations of Scholars.

 

Three of the four Great Gods were part of the, so called "Triad" of Gods, they were the leaders of ALL Gods and were the most powerful of all.

 

They Were:

Anu

Enlil

Enki/Ea

 

His consort is Ninlil with whom he has at least four children:

Nanna

Nergal

Ninurta

Nisaba

SUMERIANS THE FOUR GREAT GODS THE FOUR CREATOR DEITIES THE FOURTH WAS DEPICTED AS DIFFERENT- FOUR REGIONS OF COSMOLOGY THE FOUR DEITIES RESPONSIBLE FOR

http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Misc/Sumer/Sumerian_Religion.htm

Hundreds of deities were recognized in the Sumerian pantheon. Many were wives, children, and servants of the more powerful deities. The gods were organized into a caste system. At the head of the system was the king or supreme ruler. The four most important deities were An, Enlil, Enki, and Ninhursag. These were the four creator deities who created all of the other gods. An was initially the head of the pantheon, though he was eventually seceded by Enlil. Enlil is seen as the most important god. He is known as "the king of heaven and earth," "the father of the gods," and "the king of all the gods." Enlil developed the broad designs for the universe. However, it was Enki who further developed and carried out his plans. Ninhursag was regarded as the mother of all living beings.

 

Sumerian Cosmology

From verses scattered throughout hymns and myths, one can compile a picture of the universe's (anki) creation according to the Sumerians. The primeval sea (abzu) existed before anything else and within that, the heaven (an) and the earth (ki) were formed. The boundary between heaven and earth was a solid (perhaps tin) vault, and the earth was a flat disk. Within the vault lay the gas-like 'lil', or atmosphere, the brighter portions therein formed the stars, planets, sun, and moon.

Each of the four major Sumerian deities is associated with one of these regions. An, god of heaven, may have been the main god of the pantheon prior to 2500 BC., although his importance gradually waned. (Kramer 1963 p. 118) Ki is likely to be the original name of the earth goddess, whose name more often appears as Ninhursag (queen of the mountains), Ninmah (the exalted lady), or Nintu (the lady who gave birth). It seems likely that these two were the progenitors of most of the gods.

MARDUK FOUR EYES FOUR EARS

http://www.ancient.eu/article/225/

95 Four were his eyes, four his ears,

96 Flame shot forth as he moved his lips.

97 His four ears grew large,

93 And his eyes likewise took in everything.

99 His figure was lofty and superior in comparison with the gods,

100 His limbs were surpassing, his nature was superior.

101 'Mari-utu, Mari-utu,

102 The Son, the Sun-god, the Sun-god of the gods.'

103 He was clothed with the aura of the Ten Gods, so exalted was his strength,

104 The Fifty Dreads were loaded upon him.

105 Anu formed and gave birth to the four winds,

FOUR DREADFUL JUDGEMENTS BY GOD- AGAIN I BROUGHT YOU THROUGH THE RELGIOUS TEXTS OTHER NUMBERS WERENT REALLY MENTIONED FOUR WAS MENTIONED A LOT

 

http://biblehub.com/ezekiel/14-21.htm

 

"For this is what the Sovereign LORD says: How much worse will it be when I send against Jerusalem my four dreadful judgments--sword and famine and wild beasts and plague--to kill its men and their animals!

TETRA IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zuz_(Jewish_coin)

Four Zuz, denarii or drachmas make a Shekel, a Sela or a Tetradrachm.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetradrachm

The tetradrachm (Greek: τετράδραχμον, tetrádrakhmon) was an Ancient Greek silver coin equivalent to four drachmae.[1] In Athens it replaced the earlier "heraldic" type of didrachms and it was in wide circulation from c. 510 to c. 38 BC.[2]

FOUR TABLETS MARDUK- FIRST FORTY LINES PRAISE- REPETITION OF FOURS

http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/amgg/listofdeities/marduk/

Assyriologists refer to this poem as Ludlul bēl nēmeqi "Let me praise the Lord of Wisdom," after its first line, or alternatively as "The Poem of the Righteous Sufferer" (Foster 2005: 392-409; also see the more recent but problematic edition by Annus and Lenzi 2010). The literary composition, which consists of four tablets of 120 lines each, begins with a 40-line hymnic praise of Marduk, in which his dual nature is described in complex poetic wording: Marduk is powerful, both good and evil, just as he can help humanity, he can also destroy people.

FOUR TABLETS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludlul_bēl_nēmeqi

Ludlul bēl nēmeqi ("I Will Praise the Lord of Wisdom"), also sometimes known in English as The Poem of the Righteous Sufferer, is a Mesopotamian poem (ANET, pp. 434–437) written in Akkadian that concerns itself with the problem of the unjust suffering of an afflicted man, named Shubshi-meshre-Shakkan.

 

The poem was written on four tablets in its canonical form and consisted of 480 lines. Alternate names for the poem include the Poem of the Righteous Sufferer or the Babylonian Job.[2] According to William Moran, the work is a hymn of thanksgiving to Marduk for recovery from illness.[3]

THE SEVEN GODS WHO DECREE FATE TO THE SUMERIANS WERE A FOUR PLUS THREE PATTERN- THE FOUR PRIMARY GODS PLUS THREE SKY GODS http://7seals.yuku.com/topic/1049#.WSs3v1KZMy4

 

The Ancient Sumerians had 7 gods who decree fate. The 4 Primary gods/creator deities were Anu, Enlil, Enki, & Ninhursag. The Three Sky gods were Inanna/Ishtar, Nanna/Sin, & Utu/Shamash.

 

Anu: god of heaven, the firmament.

Enlil: god of the air (from Lil = Air); patron deity of Nippur.

Enki: god of freshwater, male fertility, and knowledge; patron deity of Eridu.

Ereshkigal: goddess of the underworld, Kigal or Irkalla.

THE FOUR MAIN SUMERIAN GODS CONNECTED TO THE FOUR REGIONS OF THE COSMOS

http://www.iun.edu/~hisdcl/h113_2001/ancientmesopotamia.htm

Major deities:

 

First gods: An, the god of heaven; Ki, the goddess of earth; Enlil, the god of air; and Enki, the god of water.

Heaven, earth, air, and water were regarded as the four major components of the universe.

ENKIDU RAISED BY FOUR WILD ASSES

 

http://www.iun.edu/~hisdcl/h113_2001/ancientmesopotamia.htm

 

The Epic of Gilgamesh that captures much of ancient Sumerian religion also reflects on many aspects of ancient Sumerian culture:

 

1. the blurring of nature and civilization as in the creation of Enkidu, whose "parents" were gods of both human and animal forms.

 

Enkidu, your mother, the gazelle,

and your father, the wild donkey, engendered you,

four wild asses raised you on their milk,

and the herds taught you all the grazing lands.

(tablet 8)

THE BABYLONIANS DIVIDED THE WEEK AS SEVEN DAYS SO IT COULD HAVE A MONTH OF FOUR QUARTERS

http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/whic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?disableHighlighting=&displayGroupName=Reference&source=DirectLinking&prodId=&mode=view&jsid=2c2e0731adf7e7ab867fc669a8d61ca6&limiter=&display-query=&contentModules=&action=e&sortBy=&windowstate=normal&currPage=&dviSelectedPage=&scanId=&query=&search_within_results=&p=WHIC%3AUHIC&catId=&u=mlin_m_highrock&displayGroups=&documentId=GALE%7CCX2587200015&activityType=&failOverType=&commentary=

Therefore in some years they had to add a thirteenth month to make the calendar work out right. To divide the month, they used the four phases of the Moon as it goes from a new moon to a full moon and back again. A twenty-eight day month divided by four yields a seven-day week—yet another Babylonian contribution to everyday life.

THE FOUR WORDS ON THE WALL

http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/whic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?disableHighlighting=&displayGroupName=Reference&source=DirectLinking&prodId=&mode=view&jsid=2c2e0731adf7e7ab867fc669a8d61ca6&limiter=&display-query=&contentModules=&action=e&sortBy=&windowstate=normal&currPage=&dviSelectedPage=&scanId=&query=&search_within_results=&p=WHIC%3AUHIC&catId=&u=mlin_m_highrock&displayGroups=&documentId=GALE%7CCX2587200015&activityType=&failOverType=&commentary=

During this time, he left his son Belshazzar (bel-SHAZZ-ur) on the throne, and Belshazzar became the unfortunate main character in a chilling story from the fifth chapter of the Book of Daniel. In Daniel's account, while feasting and drinking, the king was surprised to look up and see a finger—apparently unattached to a hand—writing four strange words of the wall of his palace: "MENE, MENE, TEKEL, UPARSIN" (min-AY, min-AY, tekUHL, oo-PAR-sin.) Terrified by words he did not understand, he called for Daniel, and Daniel interpreted the message: "God has numbered the days of your reign and brought it to an end.… You have been weighed on the scales and found wanting.… Your kingdom [will be] divided and given to the Medes and the Persians." Daniel concludes the chapter by saying, "That very night Belshazzar … was slain [killed], and Darius the Mede took over the kingdom" (Daniel 5:26-28, 30).

MARDUK HAD FOUR DOGS-

https://www.varchive.org/itb/jupiter.htm

[Jupiter’s four Galilean moons may have been known to the ancients. Marduk was said to be accompanied by four dogs. Cf. Jensen, Die Kosmologie der Babylonier, p. 131: “Die vier Hunden des Marduk. ‘Mein Herr mit den Hunden.’” In Egyptian mythology Horus, or Jupiter, was often associated with his four sons. Cf. S. Mercer, Horus, the Royal God of Egypt, (1942).]

JEWISH FOUR SIDED CAKES AND THE SACRED FIGURE OF THE THREE JADS AND THE TAU (THE FIRST THREE ARE SIMILAR AND THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT)- THE TAU IS THE CROSS

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=KxrCXHdWLWMC&pg=PA506&lpg=PA506&dq=marduk+four+dogs&source=bl&ots=Lc5Edj2k59&sig=OQIixMpYXQnP1tqRSSHGGWQ4Nkc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjildHkxJPUAhUH4GMKHURJBVwQ6AEILjAB#v=onepage&q=four&f=false

QUADRANT

VANENINIAN PRIMARY TETRAD- TETRA IS FOUR

http://www.equip.org/article/the-gnostic-god/

He quotes a Valentinian Gnostic teacher who explained the “primary Tetrad” (fourfold emanation from ultimate reality): “There is a certain Proarch who existed before all things, surpassing all thought, speech, and nomenclature” whom he called “Monotes” (unity). Along with this power there is another power called Hentotes (oneness) who, along with Monotes produced “an intelligent, unbegotten, and undivided being, which beginning language terms ‘Monad.'” Another entity called Hen (One) rounds out the primal union.37 Irenaeus satirically responds with his own suggested Tetrad which also proceeds from “a certain Proarch”:

But along with it there exists a power which I term Gourd; and along with this Gourd there exists a power which again I term Utter-Emptiness. This Gourd and Emptiness, since they are one, produced…a fruit, everywhere visible, eatable, and delicious, which fruit-language calls a Cucumber. Along with this Cucumber exists a power of the same essence, which again I call a Melon.38

Irenaeus’s point is well taken. If spiritual realities surpass our ability to name or even think about them, then any name under the sun (or within the Tetrad) is just as appropriate — or inappropriate — as any other, and we are free to affirm with Irenaeus that “these powers of the Gourd, Utter Emptiness, the Cucumber, and the Melon, brought forth the remaining multitude of the delirious melons of Valentinus.”39 Whenever a Gnostic writer — ancient or modern — simultaneously asserts that a spiritual entity or principle is utterly unknown and unnameable and begins to give it names and ascribe to it characteristics, we should hark back to Irenaeus. If something is ineffable, it is necessarily unthinkable, unreportable, and unapproachable.

THE GNOSTICS NASSENES SAW THE FIRST BEING AS THREEFOLD- BUT THEY ADD A FOURTH PART--- THE FOURTH PART IS DIFFERENT- THAT IS THE QUADRANT PATTERN- THEY SAY THERE ORIGINALLY WAS THREE SUBSTANCES BUT THEY ADD A FOURTH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naassenes

The Naassene work known to Hippolytus would seem to have been of what we may call a devotional character rather than a formal exposition of doctrine, and this perhaps is why it is difficult to draw from the accounts left us a thoroughly consistent scheme. Thus, as we proceed, we are led to think of the first principle of nature, not as a single threefold being, but as three distinct substances; on the one hand the pre-existent, otherwise spoken of as the Good being, on the other hand the "outpoured Chaos," intermediate, between these one called Autogenes, and also the Logos. Chaos is naturally destitute of forms or qualities; neither does the preexistent being himself possess form, for though the cause of everything that comes into being, it is itself none of them, but only the seed from which they spring. The Logos is the mediator which draws forms from above and transfers them to the world below. Yet he seems to have a rival in this work; for we have reference made to a FOURTH BEING, whence or how brought into existence we are not told, a "fiery God," Esaldaios, the father of the idikos kosmos. That is to say, it was this fiery being, the same who appeared to Moses in the burning bush, who gave forms to the choical or purely material parts of nature. It is he who supplies the fiery heat of generation by which these forms are still continued. In this work the Logos had no part, for "all things were made through him, and without him was made nothing." The "nothing" that was made without him is the kosmos idikos. On the other hand, it is the Logos, who is identified with the serpent, and this again with the principle of Water, who brings down the pneumatic and psychical elements, so that through him man became a living soul. But he has now to do a greater work, namely, to provide for the release of the higher elements now enslaved under the dominion of matter, and for their restoration to the good God.[citation needed]

THE GNOSTICS NASSENES SAW THE FIRST BEING AS THREEFOLD- BUT THEY ADD A FOURTH PART--- THE FOURTH PART IS DIFFERENT- THAT IS THE QUADRANT PATTERN- THEY SAY THERE ORIGINALLY WAS THREE SUBSTANCES BUT THEY ADD A FOURTH- THE FOURTH BEING IS Esaldaios---- WHICH IS CALLED ARCHON NUMBER FOUR  OR TETRARTOS  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naassenes

The Naassene work known to Hippolytus would seem to have been of what we may call a devotional character rather than a formal exposition of doctrine, and this perhaps is why it is difficult to draw from the accounts left us a thoroughly consistent scheme. Thus, as we proceed, we are led to think of the first principle of nature, not as a single threefold being, but as three distinct substances; on the one hand the pre-existent, otherwise spoken of as the Good being, on the other hand the "outpoured Chaos," intermediate, between these one called Autogenes, and also the Logos. Chaos is naturally destitute of forms or qualities; neither does the preexistent being himself possess form, for though the cause of everything that comes into being, it is itself none of them, but only the seed from which they spring. The Logos is the mediator which draws forms from above and transfers them to the world below. Yet he seems to have a rival in this work; for we have reference made to a FOURTH BEING, whence or how brought into existence we are not told, a "fiery God," Esaldaios, the father of the idikos kosmos. That is to say, it was this fiery being, the same who appeared to Moses in the burning bush, who gave forms to the choical or purely material parts of nature. It is he who supplies the fiery heat of generation by which these forms are still continued. In this work the Logos had no part, for "all things were made through him, and without him was made nothing." The "nothing" that was made without him is the kosmos idikos. On the other hand, it is the Logos, who is identified with the serpent, and this again with the principle of Water, who brings down the pneumatic and psychical elements, so that through him man became a living soul. But he has now to do a greater work, namely, to provide for the release of the higher elements now enslaved under the dominion of matter, and for their restoration to the good God.[citation needed]

Eden[edit]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naassenes
The Garden of Eden, in the Naassene system, is the brain, and Paradise the human head, with the four rivers having special significance:

Pishon, "that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone."[16]
Eyes (because of its dignity and colors that bear witness to what is said)
Gihon, "the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia."[17]
Hearing (because of its being labyrinthine)
Tigris, "that which flows the opposite way to the Assyrians."
Breathing (because "the current of it is very rapid; and it 'flows the opposite way to the Assyrians,' because after the breath is breathed out, on breathing in again, the breath that is drawn in from without, from the air, comes in more rapidly, and with greater force.")
Euphrates[18]
Mouth (because through prayer and food, a "man is rejoiced, and nourished and expressed.")

https://books.google.com/books?id=9eY4CQAAQBAJ&pg=PA9220&lpg=PA9220&dq=Archon+Esaldaios+four&source=bl&ots=7uh--xXZN_&sig=IoJGkYYU5xs337HZWokfB0mgqn4&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjzrsPHy5PUAhUWzWMKHcXqBF0Q6AEIOzAD#v=onepage&q=esaldaios&f=false

JUNG TALKS ABOUT THE GNOSTIC QUATERNITY OF THE NASSENES (WHERE THEY ADD THE FOURTH TO THE THREE) AND HOW EVEN WHEN THEY DESCRIBE THE FIVE ELEMENTS FROM WHICH MAN WAS MADE IT IS A FOUR PLUS ONE PATTERN (WHERE THE FOUR IS EMPHASIZED)

ASSYRIAN CITY ARBELA MEANS CITY OF THE FOUR GODS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erbil

The name Erbil was mentioned in Sumerian holy writings of third millennium BC as Urbilum, Urbelum or Urbillum,[5] which appears to originate from Arbilum[10] in the language of the Hurrians who inhabited the area.[11] Later, the Akkadians and Assyrians by a folk etymology rendered the name as arba'ū ilū to mean four gods.[10] The city became a centre for the worship of the Assyro-Babylonian goddess Ishtar. In classical times the city became known as Arbela (Ἄρβηλα), from the Syriac language and Assyrian Neo-Aramaic form of the name. In Old Persian the city was called Arbairā.[12]

VIATNAMESE GODS FOUR CATEGORIES- FOUR IMMORTALS- ALL OF THIS STUFF IS ALREADY IN MY OVER 60 QUADRANT MODEL BOOKS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnamese_folk_religion

Deities[edit]

 

Lạc Long Quân Shrine in Phú Thọ.

 

The largest Ca Ong in Vietnam at Vạn Thủy Tú temple.

A rough typological identification of Vietnamese gods categorises them into four categories:[37]

 

Heavenly gods (thiên thần) and nature gods (nhiên thần) of grottoes, rocks and trees, rivers and oceans, rain and lightning, generative or regenerative powers of the cosmos or a locality, with geo-physical or anthropomorphic representations (sometimes using iconographic styles of Buddhist derivation).

Tutelary gods or deified ancestors or progenitors (nhân thần), originally either consecrated by villagers or installed by the Vietnamese or Chinese rulers. They include heroes, founding patriarchs, able men and founders of arts and crafts. This category can include impure spirits (dâm thần).

Various hierarchical or court-like pantheons inherited from the Taoist patterns, headed by the Heavenly Emperors, the immortals (tiên), the holy sages (thánh), including the local "divine ensembles" (chư vị). They are mostly Vietnamese formations, but often with sinicised motifs.

Deities of Cham, Khmer, and other Southeast Asian ethnic origin, such as Po Yan Inu Nagar (Thiên Y A Na), Ca Ong the whale god, and the rocks Neak Ta (Ong Ta).

Some of the most popular gods are: Kinh Dương Vương and his son Lạc Long Quân—who, with his wife Âu Cơ, gave rise to the Vietnamese race—, The Four Immortals (Tản Viên Sơn Thánh, Thánh Gióng, Chử Đồng Tử, and Liễu Hạnh), the Four Palaces' goddesses (Mẫu Thượng Thiên, Mẫu Thượng Ngàn, Mẫu Thoải, and Mẫu Địa Phủ), Trần Hưng Đạo, Sơn Tinh and Thủy Tinh, Bà Chúa Kho, Bà Chúa Xứ, Thần Nông, Bà Đen, Quán Thế Âm, the bà mụ, and others. The Vietnamese mythology is the body of holy narrative telling the actions of many of these gods.

VIETNAM FOUR IMMORTALS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tản_Viên_Sơn_Thánh

Tản Viên Sơn Thánh (chữ Hán: 傘圓山聖), also known as Sơn Tinh (山精) is one of The Four Immortals in traditional Vietnamese mythology. He is the god of Ba Vì mountain range[1] and figures also in the romance of Sơn Tinh - Thủy Tinh ("the God of the Mountain and the God of the Water," 山精 水精).

http://turtledove.wikia.com/wiki/The_Four

The Arabs traditionally worshiped four gods: Aluzza, Allat, Manah and Hubal - known collectively as "The Four". Moabites had support from the Arabs in their ongoing guerrilla war against the Philistinians and their graffiti showed it with slogans such as "The Sword Buddha and the Four with Chemosh!". This also indicated support from the Turks of Babylonia and their fanatical religion of Sword Buddhism.[1]

http://turtledove.wikia.com/wiki/The_Four

The Arabs traditionally worshiped four gods: Aluzza, Allat, Manah and Hubal - known collectively as "The Four". Moabites had support from the Arabs in their ongoing guerrilla war against the Philistinians and their graffiti showed it with slogans such as "The Sword Buddha and the Four with Chemosh!". This also indicated support from the Turks of Babylonia and their fanatical religion of Sword Buddhism.[1]

FOUR PRINCIPAL IDOLS

http://www.islamhelpline.net/node/5891

The names Lat, Uzza, Manat and Hubaal were four amongst the 360+ names and images assigned to the self-invented and false deities, gods and goddesses which were worshipped by the pagans of Arabia at the time of the advent of the Prophet (saws).

These four self-invented and false deities were recognized and honored as the principal idols of pagan Arab idolatry in the days of ignorance in Arabia.

FOUR OF THEM

http://alkman1.blogspot.com/2007/01/daughters-of-allah.html

The most famous of these were Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, Manat and Hubal. The first three were thought to be the daughters of Allah (God) and their intercessions on behalf of their worshippers were therefore of great significance. Hubal was associated with the Semitic god Ba’l and with Adonis or Tammuz, the gods of spring, fertility, agriculture and plenty...Hubal’s idol used to stand by the holy well inside the Sacred House.

http://turtledove.wikia.com/wiki/The_Four
The Arabs traditionally worshiped four gods: Aluzza, Allat, Manah and Hubal - known collectively as "The Four". Moabites had support from the Arabs in their ongoing guerrilla war against the Philistinians and their graffiti showed it with slogans such as "The Sword Buddha and the Four with Chemosh!". This also indicated support from the Turks of Babylonia and their fanatical religion of Sword Buddhism.[1]

FAMILY OF FOUR- FOURTH DIFFERENT

http://sakina.wikidot.com/arabian-deities

In Arabian archaeology a large number of inscriptions on rocks, tablets and walls, have pointed to the worship of a family of four; one male and his three ‘daughters’ or goddesses. Those three goddesses are sometimes engraved together with Allah, represented by a crescent moon above them. But Allah was the ‘Lord of the Kaaba… Lord of Manat, al-Lat, and al-Uzza…and even as ‘Lord of Sirius’.’(Peters, Muhammad, 98.) His ‘daughters’ were his associates, helpers and were themselves worshipped, after the manner of ancient Babylonian customs and symbolised by astronomical symbols.

http://sakina.wikidot.com/arabian-deities

When they went out on a journey the last thing they did was rubbing against their family deity and when they returned the first thing they did was also the same. They carried with them along with the articles of travel four crude stones, three to form oven and the one to worship. If they were unable to carry four they would take one of the stones used for oven and worship it with great piety and veneration.

FOUR LEVELS

QUATERNITY

Hell also has, symmetrically, four levels. For the souls whose good actions exactly balance their evil ones, there is an intermediate place.

The Mazdean quaternity is reflected in the calendar at Nisa in 90 bce. The Zurvanite speculation that preceded it probably dates back to the first centuries of the Arsacid period and thus was born in the wake of Hellenism and in connection with the spread of astrology.

CORDOZA QUATERNITY THREE PLUS ONE THREE MEN AND A WOMAN

https://www.thinkaboutit-ufos.com/the-magonia-problem/

One day not long after the year 800, Agobard, archbishop of Lyon, found himself in exactly the right place to stop a lynching. Lucky thing for three men and one woman, who were said to have fallen from ships that sailed through the sky.

 

But we have seen and heard of many people overcome with so much foolishness, made crazy by so much stupidity, that they believe and say that there is a certain region, which is called Magonia, from which ships come in the clouds. In these ships the crops that fell because of hail and were lost in storms are carried back into that region; evidently these aerial sailors make a payment to the storm-makers [Tempestariis], and take the grain and other crops. Among those so blinded with profound stupidity that they believe these things could happen we have seen many people in a kind of meeting, exhibiting four captives, three men and one woman, as if they had fallen from these very ships. As I have said, they exhibited these four, who had been chained up for some days, with such a meeting finally assembling in our presence, as if these captives ought to be stoned. But when the truth had prevailed, however, after much argument, the people who had exhibited the captives, in accordance with the prophecy (Jeremiah 2:26), “were confounded … as the thief is confounded when he is taken.”

 

From this time of exile and humiliation, Cardozo reports the following experience:

 

On Tammuz 11, 5443 [= July 5, 1683], one hour before nightfall, as I was descending into my garden from my upper chamber, I looked up and saw the moon. “I see what appear to be shapes on the moon,” I said to the people of my household. They looked and said: “There are four shapes: Messiah ben David, Rabbi Nathan, Rabbi Isaac Luria, and a fourth shape that looks to be a woman.”

 

(Am I the only one who’s reminded of the Anglican missionary William Booth Gill, who on June 26-27, 1959, at Boianai, Papua New Guinea, saw close-up a hovering illuminated disk with four humanoid pilots? And who interrupted his contemplation of the extraordinary craft to eat dinner and lead a church service?)

 

Cardozo also knows a divine, or at least messianic, quaternity. It’s the same Jungian 3 + 1 pattern—three alike, the fourth tied to the three yet in some significant way different. Developing an ancient Jewish tradition of two Messiahs, Cardozo tells us there will be four: Messiah son of David, Messiah son of Joseph, Moses redivivus, and Elijah returned from heaven. Only—here Cardozo bowls a major googly—he’s not quite sure whether the fourth Messiah will really be Elijah after all. Maybe it will be a she, a woman Messiah, the She-Who-Brings-Good-News-To-Zion of Isaiah 40:9. This female Messiah has no precedent in Jewish tradition. She’s the Jungian Fourth, in a quaternity that’s no longer 3 divine + 1 demonic (as in Ezekiel’s vision), but 3 male + 1 female.

256 four to fourth power

https://historyofislam.com/contents/the-classical-period/al-khwarizmi/

“If from a square I subtract four of its roots and then take one-third of the remainder, finding this equal to four of the roots, the square will be 256.”

 

He explained it in the following manner:

 

“Since one-third of the remainder is equal to four roots, one knows that the remainder itself will equal 12 roots. Therefore, add this to the four, giving 16 roots. This (16) is the root of the square. The above can also be stated in terms of modern notation as 1/3 (x2 – 4x) = 4x.”

 

Khwarizmi, in a chapter on commercial transactions, states that “mercantile transactions and all things pertaining thereto involve two ideas and four numbers.” Karpinski in his translation of the book explains: The two ideas appear to be the notions of quantity and cost; the four numbers represent unit of measure and price per unit, quantity desired and cost of the same.

completing square is a quadrant

https://historyofislam.com/contents/the-classical-period/al-khwarizmi/

The geometric proof by completing the square follows. Al-Khwarizmi starts with a square of side x, which therefore represents x2 (Figure 1). To the square we must add 10x and this is done by adding four rectangles each of breadth 10/4 and length x to the square (Figure 2). Figure 2 has area x2 + 10 x which is equal to 39. We now complete the square by adding the four little squares each of area. 5/2* 5/2 = 25/4.

could do up to fourth degree equations

 

completing square is a quadrant

https://historyofislam.com/contents/the-classical-period/al-khwarizmi/

The geometric proof by completing the square follows. Al-Khwarizmi starts with a square of side x, which therefore represents x2 (Figure 1). To the square we must add 10x and this is done by adding four rectangles each of breadth 10/4 and length x to the square (Figure 2). Figure 2 has area x2 + 10 x which is equal to 39. We now complete the square by adding the four little squares each of area. 5/2* 5/2 = 25/4.

 

ARABIC MATHEMATICS WORLDWIDE (19)

 

In the 11th century, the Arab mathematical foundation was one of the strongest in the world. The Muslim mathematicians had invented geometrical algebra and had taken it to advanced levels, capable of solving third and fourth degree equations. The world witnessed a new stage in the development of mathematical science, driven by the numerous translated works from Arabic into European languages.

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bororo settlements divided into four clans the three plus one where three are indigenous and the fourth is "captured" outsider

quadrant

FOUR PROFESSIONS

http://www.heritageinstitute.com/zoroastrianism/worship/fire.htm

 

The fire is built from the hearth fires of representatives from four professions: the asronih (priests), the (r)atheshtarih (soldiers and civil servants), the vastaryoshih (farmers and herdsmen) and the hutokshih (artisans and labourers). The consecration of the Adaran fire requires eight priests and can take between two and three weeks.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoroastrianism

In Khorasan in the northeastern Iran, a 10th-century Iranian nobleman brought together four Zoroastrian priests to transcribe a Sassanid-era Middle Persian work titled Book of the Lord (Khwaday Namag) from Pahlavi script into Arabic script

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umayyad_Caliphate

The first four caliphs created a stable administration for the empire, following the practices and administrative institutions of the Byzantine Empire which had ruled the same region previously.[51] These consisted of four main governmental branches: political and military affairs, tax collection, and religious administration. Each of these was further subdivided into more branches, offices, and departments.

 

The Umayyad Caliphate exhibited four main social classes:

 

Muslim Arabs

Muslim non-Arabs (clients of the Muslim Arabs)

Non-Muslim free persons (Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians)

Slaves

 

Modern Arab nationalism regards the period of the Umayyads as part of the Arab Golden Age which it sought to emulate and restore.[dubious – discuss] This is particularly true of Syrian nationalists and the present-day state of Syria, centered like that of the Umayyads on Damascus.[citation needed] White, one of the four Pan-Arab colors which appear in various combinations on the flags of most Arab countries, is considered as representing the Umayyads.[citation needed]

 

Genealogic tree of the Umayyad family. In blue: Caliph Uthman, one of the four Rashidun Caliphs. In green, the Umayyad Caliphs of Damascus. In yellow, the Umayyad emirs of Córdoba. In orange, the Umayyad Caliphs of Córdoba. Abd Al-Rahman III was an emir until 929 when he proclaimed himself Caliph. Muhammad is included (in caps) to show the kinship of the Umayyads with him.

It is natural to revere fire, for it is one of the primal elements of nature (in modern terms, it is "plasma", one of the four states of matter) and it is one of the things which makes civilization possible. It drives away the cold and the wild beasts, cooks food, burns away trash and uncleanness, sheds light in the darkness, serves as a signal to travellers, and brings people together around the hearth. It is LIGHT, WARMTH, and ENERGY.

 

http://www.pyracantha.com/Z/atarsh.html

Quadrant

Mistress of All or "She who Bore the Gods": Originally, Nut was said to be lying on top of Geb (Earth) and continually having intercourse. During this time she birthed four children: Osiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Geb,_Nut,_Shu.jpg NUT IN CRUCIFIXION POSE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nut_(goddess)

Nut is also the barrier separating the forces of chaos from the ordered cosmos in the world. She was pictured as a woman arched on her toes and fingertips over the earth; her body portrayed as a star-filled sky. Nut's fingers and toes were believed to touch the four cardinal points or directions of north, south, east, and west.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BastetTHREE OUT OF FOUR SIDES The description offered by Herodotus and several Egyptian texts suggest that water surrounded the temple on three (out of four) sides, forming a type of lake known as isheru, not too dissimilar from that surrounding the temple of the mother goddess Mut in Karnak at Thebes.[5] These lakes were typical of temples devoted to a number of lioness goddesses who are said to represent one original goddess, daughter of the Sun-God Ra / Eye of Ra: Bastet, Mut, Tefnut, Hathor, and Sakhmet.[5] Each of them had to be appeased by a specific set of rituals.[5] One myth relates that a lioness, fiery and wrathful, was once cooled down by the water of the lake, transformed into a gentle cat, and settled in the temple.[5]

THE FOUR DEITIES OF THE OSIRIS MYTH

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osiris_myth

The Osiris myth is the most elaborate and influential story in ancient Egyptian mythology. It concerns the murder of the god Osiris, a primeval king of Egypt, and its consequences. Osiris's murderer, his brother Set, usurps his throne. Meanwhile, Osiris's wife Isis restores her husband's body, allowing him to posthumously conceive a son with her. The remainder of the story focuses on Horus, the product of the union of Isis and Osiris, who is at first a vulnerable child protected by his mother and then becomes Set's rival for the throne. Their often violent conflict ends with Horus's triumph, which restores order to Egypt after Set's unrighteous reign and completes the process of Osiris's resurrection. The myth, with its complex symbolism, is integral to the Egyptian conceptions of kingship and succession, conflict between order and disorder, and especially death and the afterlife. It also expresses the essential character of each of the four deities at its center, and many elements of their worship in ancient Egyptian religion were derived from the myth.

RAMSES PLUS THREE STATE GODS QUATERNITY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memphis,_Egypt

This small temple, adjoining the southwest corner of the larger Temple of Ptah, was dedicated to the deified Rameses II, along with the three state gods: Horus, Ptah and Amun. It is known in full as the Temple of Ptah of Rameses, Beloved of Amun, God, Ruler of Heliopolis.[41]

FOUR COLLOSI STATUES

The facade of the Great Temple of Ramses is about 38 meters long and 31 meters high. The temple is dedicated to the most important gods of the New Kingdom, Ptah (the creator god of Memphis), Amun-Re (the great god of Thebes) and Re-Harakhte (sun god of Heliopolis), as well as to the Pharaoh Ramses II himself. The four colossi, statues of Ramses II (c. 1290-1224 BCE), are more than 20 meters high and about 4 meters from ear to ear.