PAKISTAN FOUR PROVINCES
The administrative units of Pakistan consist of four provinces
PAKISTAN HAS FOUR PROVINCES
The single province in the eastern wing, East Bengal, had four divisions – Chittagong, Dacca, Khulna and Rajshahi. The province of West Punjab had four divisions – Lahore, Multan, Rawalpindi and Sargodha. The North-West Frontier Province (as it was then called) had two divisions – Dera Ismail Khan and Peshawar.
FOUR WARS PAKISTAN
The Kashmir conflict remains the major point of rift; three of their four wars were over this territory
FOUR WARS- THE FOURTH DIFFERENT
Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts
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Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of modern States of India and Pakistan, the two South Asian countries have been involved in four wars, including one undeclared war, and many border skirmishes and military stand-offs.
FOUR TRIBAL CONFEDERACIES
The Pashtun tribes or Pukhtun tribes (Pashto: پښتانه ټبرونه يا پښتانه قبايل) are the large family units of the Eastern Iranian ethnic groups who use the Pashto language and follow Pashtunwali code of conduct. They are found primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan and form the world's largest tribal society, comprising over 49 million people and between 350 and 400 tribes and clans. They are traditionally divided into four tribal confederacies: the Sarbani (سربڼي), the Bettani (بېټني), the Gharghashti (غرغښتي), and the Karlani (کرلاڼي).
THE HELVETIANS WERE DIVIDED INTO FOUR GROUPS
The Helvetii were a Gallic tribe or tribal confederation occupying most of the Swiss plateau at the time of their contact with the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC. According to Julius Caesar, the Helvetians were divided into four subgroups or pagi
BRITHISH INDIA THE FOUR GRAND DIVISIONS
The Four Grand Divisions of India
The four governmental divisions in 1851 consisted of:
Bengal Presidency with its capital at Calcutta
Bombay Presidency with its capital at Bombay
Madras Presidency with its capital at Madras
North-Western Provinces with the seat of the Lieutenant-Governor at Agra. The original seat of government was at Allahabad, then at Agra from 1834 to 1868. In 1833, an Act of the British Parliament (statute 3 and 4, William IV, cap. 85) promulgated the elevation the Ceded and Conquered Provinces to the new Presidency of Agra, and the appointment of a new Governor for the latter, but the plan was never carried out. In 1835 another Act of Parliament (statute 5 and 6, William IV, cap. 52) renamed the region the North Western Provinces, this time to be administered by a Lieutenant-Governor, the first of whom, Sir Charles Metcalfe, would be appointed in 1836.
THE FOUR EMPIRES OF MESOPOTAMIA
OTTOMAN EMPOERER WORE A SYMBOLIC FOUR TIERED HELMET
Agostino Veneziano's engraving of Ottoman emperor Suleiman the Magnificent. Note the four tiers on the helmet, which he had commissioned from Venice, symbolizing his imperial power, and excelling the three-tiered papal tiara. This tiara was made for 115,000 ducats and offered to Suleiman by the French ambassador Antonio Rincon in 1532. This was a most atypical piece of headgear for a Turkish sultan, which he probably never normally wore, but which he placed beside him when receiving visitors, especially ambassadors. It was crowned with an enormous feather.
The Quartet on the Middle East or Middle East Quartet, sometimes called the Diplomatic Quartet or Madrid Quartet or simply the Quartet, is a foursome of nations and international and supranational entities involved in mediating the Israeli–Palestinian peace process. The Quartet are the United Nations, the United States, the European Union, and Russia. The group was established in Madrid in 2002, recalling Madrid Conference of 1991, as a result of the escalating conflict in the Middle East. Tony Blair resigned as the Quartet's Special Envoy on 27 May 2015.
The Giver Quartet is a series of four young adult novels by Lois Lowry. The quartet consists of The Giver (1993), Gathering Blue (2000), Messenger (2004) and Son (2012). The first book won the 1994 Newbery Medal and has sold more than 10 million copies. The story takes place in the world of the Giver. Each book has a different protagonist, but is set in the same futuristic era.
1 Plot overview
1.1 The Giver
1.2 Gathering Blue
2 Film adaptation
Cyrus the Great founded the empire as a multi-state empire, governed by four capital states; Pasargadae, Babylon, Susa and Ekbatana
The Persian Cavalry was crucial for conquering nations, and had maintained its importance in the Achaemenid army to the last days of the Achaemenid Empire. The cavalry were separated into four groups. The Chariot Archers, Horse cavalry, the Camel cavalry, and the Elephant Cavalry.
Many Achaemenid rulers built tombs for themselves. The most famous, Naqsh-e Rustam, is an ancient necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, with the tombs of four of the kings of the dynasty carved in this mountain: Darius I, Xerxes I, Artaxerxes I and Darius II
FOUR TOMBS- THE FOUR TOMBS SHAPED AS QUADRANTS/CROSSES
The tomb of Darius I (Darius the Great) is one of the four tombs of Achaemenid kings at the historical site of Naqsh-e Rustam located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, Iran. They are all at a considerable height above the ground. One of the tombs is explicitly identified by an accompanying inscription to be the tomb of Darius I (c. 522–486 BC). The other three tombs are believed to be those of Xerxes I (c. 486–465 BC), Artaxerxes I (c. 465–424 BC), and Darius II (c. 423–404 BC).
THE FOUR TOMBS ARE KNOWN AS THE "PERSIAN CROSSES"- EACH ONE IS A QUADRANT- THEREFORE FOUR QUADRANTS- A QUADRANT MODEL 16 SQUARES- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT/SEPARAT
Four tombs belonging to Achaemenid kings are carved out of the rock face at a considerable height above the ground. The tombs are sometimes known as the Persian crosses, after the shape of the facades of the tombs. The entrance to each tomb is at the center of each cross, which opens onto to a small chamber, where the king lay in a sarcophagus. The horizontal beam of each of the tomb's facades is believed to be a replica of a Persepolitan entrance.
TAJ MAHAL IS 16 SQUARES QUADRANT MODEL- IT ALSO HAS 256 FLOWER BEDS FOUR TO THE FOURTH POWER
TAJ MAHAL GARDEN IS 16 SQUARE QUADRANT MODEL I POSTED PICTURES AND STUFF ALONG TIME AGO- ALL THE EASTERN PLACES WERE BUILT AROUND QUADRANT
The complex is set around a large 300-metre (980 ft) square charbagh or Mughal garden. The garden uses raised pathways that divide each of the four quarters of the garden into 16 sunken parterres or flowerbeds. Halfway between the tomb and gateway in the centre of the garden is a raised marble water tank with a reflecting pool positioned on a north-south axis to reflect the image of the mausoleum. The raised marble water tank is called al Hawd al-Kawthar in reference to the "Tank of Abundance" promised to Muhammad.
LOOK HOW THE FOURTH FAMOUS PERSIAN TOMB THE FOURTH PERSIAN CROSS IS SEPARATE FROM OTHER THREE
FOUR FOUR WINGED GUARDIANS
The four winged guardian figure of Cyrus, with four wings, a two horned crown, and a royal Elamite clothing
Perhaps one of the most memorable remaining architectural and artistic works is the bas-relief of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae. This is a bas-relief cut upon a stone slab depicting a figure or a guardian man, most likely a resemblance of Cyrus himself, possessing four wings shown in an Assyrian style, dressed in Elamite traditional clothing, assuming a pose and figure of an Egyptian god, and wearing a crown that has two horns, in what resembles an Ovis longipes palaeoaegyptiacus. The structure originally had an upper stone slab that in three different languages, (Old Persian, Elamite, Babylonian) declared, "I, (am) Cyrus the king, an Achaemenid." This carved in limestone writing was in place when Sir Robert Ker Poter described the piece in 1818 but, at some point has been lost.
David Stronach has suggested that there were originally four such figures, set against doorways to the Palace of Cyrus in Pasargadae. That this bas-relief has such an eclectic styling with elements of Egyptian, Elamite, and Assyrian, reflects "..'the oecumenical attitude of the Achaemenian kings, who from the time of Cyrus, onward adopted a liberal policy of tolerance and conciliation toward the various religions embraced within their empire'..." It would therefore depict the eclectic nature of Achaemenid life from policies of the kings to their choice of architecture.
Herodotus, recounts that Cyrus saw in his sleep the oldest son of Hystaspes, [Darius the Great] with wings upon his shoulders, shadowing with the one wing Asia, and with the other wing Europe. Noted Iranologist, Ilya Gershevitch explains this statement by Herodotus and its connection with the four winged figure in the following way:
Herodotus, therefore as I surmise, may have known of the close connection, between this type of winged figure, and the image of the Iranian majesty, which he associated with a dream prognosticating, the king's death, before his last, fatal campaign across the Oxus.
This relief sculpture, in a sense depicts the eclectic inclusion of various art forms by the Achaemenids, yet their ability to create a new synthetic form that is uniquely Persian in style, and heavily dependent on the contributions of their subject states. After all, that is what distinguishes Achaemenid architecture from those of other kingdoms. It is its originality in context of fusion and inclusion of existing styles, in such a way as to create awe-inspiring structures.
The Four Kingdoms on the Eve of
In the year 549 B.C.E., four powers dominated the Ancient Near East; two large kingdoms (Egypt and Lydia) and two vast empires (Babylonia and Media).
Egypt – With its capital in Sais in the Nile Delta, Egypt was ruled by the penultimate Pharaoh of the 26th (Saite) dynasty, Amasis II (570-526 B.C.E.).
Lydia – A kingdom covering the western half of Anatolia (Turkey), with its capital in Sardis. It was ruled by King Croesus (560-546 B.C.E.), famous for his wealth.
Babylonia/Chaldea – Under king Nabonidus (556-539 B.C.E.), Babylonia ruled from the city of Babylon (southern Iraq) in the east, up through Assyria (northern Iraq and Syria) and down through Lebanon, Israel, and Judah in the West.
Media – The largest of the four, with its capital in Ecbatana, King Astyages (585-550 B.C.E.) ruled from Bactria in the east (Turkmenistan), through Parthia, Persia (Iran), and Armenia, up to Cappadocia (eastern Turkey) on the border of Lydia in the west.
FOUR TIERED SETTLEMENT HIERARCHIES
DIVIDED INTO FOUR GREATER TRIBAL GROUPS
The tribal system has several levels of organisation: the tribe, tabar, is divided into kinship groups called khels, in turn divided into smaller groups (pllarina or plarganey), each consisting of several extended families called kahols. Pashtun tribes are divided into four 'greater' tribal groups: the Sarbani, the Bettani, the Gharghashti, and the Karlani.
FOUR TRIBAL GROUPINGS
The Pashtun tribes or Afghan tribes (Pashto: پښتانه ټبرونه يا پښتانه قبايل) are the large family units of the Eastern Iranian ethnic groups who use the Pashto language and follow Pashtunwali code of conduct. They are found primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan and form the world's largest tribal society, comprising over 49 million people and between 350 and 400 tribes and clans. They are traditionally divided into four tribal confederacies: the Sarbani (سربڼي), the Bettani (بېټني), the Gharghashti (غرغښتي), and the Karlani (کرلاڼي).
Flag of the Durrani (Abdali or Ebodalo) tribes of the Sarbani confederacy
Folkloric genealogies trace the descendants of the Pashtuns to Qais Abdur Rashid and his three sons Sarbaṇ (سربڼ), Beṭ (بېټ), and Gharghax̌t (غرغښت) as well as his fourth son, the Karlani confederacy Ormur Baraki, who became the progenitor of the Karlani.:33
CARUS FOUR RACES DYNAMIC THREE OR FOUR DEBATE
FOUR MIRRORS CHEST PLATE
In Arms and Armour: Traditional Weapons of India it is read that the wrastrana, a breast plate, has been in use since prehistoric times though the most popular is the char-aina meaning four mirrors is a coat of mail overlaid with four elaborately designed plates. The helmets consisted of a sliding nose guard with a piece of chainmail hanging from it designed to protect the neck and shoulders
FOUR MIRRORS ARMOUR
Mirror armour (Old East Slavic: зерцало / zertsalo meaning "mirror"; Chinese: 护心镜 / hùxīnjìng, meaning "protect-heart mirror"), sometimes referred to as disc armour or as chahār-āyneh / char-aina (Persian: چهاﺮآﻳنه meaning "four mirrors"; hence Kazakh: шар-айна / şar-ayna), was a type of cuirass used mainly in Asia, the Middle East and Eastern Europe including Indian, Persia, Tibet, Russia and the Ottoman Empire. It literally translates to "four mirrors" which is a reflection of how these pieces looked, which resembles four (sometimes more) metal discs or rectangular armour plates. Mirror armor was used in some cultures into the 20th century.
Classic Indian char-aina, also chahar-aina or chahar-ai-ne (the four mirrors), Persian (چهاﺮآﻳنه ), shown with kulah khud helmet and madu shield, Mumtaz Mahal Museum, Red Fort, Delhi India.
FOUR STAGES PERSIAN TACTICS
Persian tactics primarily had four stages involving archers, infantry and cavalry. The archers, which wielded longbows, would fire waves of arrows before the battle, attempting to cut the enemy numbers down prior battle. The cavalry would then attempt to run into the enemy and sever communications between generals and soldiers. Infantry would then proceed to attack the disorientated soldiers, subsequently weakened from the previous attacks.
FOUR STAGES Persian tactics primarily had four stages involving archers, infantry and cavalry. The archers, which wielded longbows, would fire waves of arrows before the battle, attempting to cut the enemy numbers down prior battle. The cavalry would then attempt to run into the enemy and sever communications between generals and soldiers. Infantry would then proceed to attack the disorientated soldiers, subsequently weakened from the previous attacks.
Quadrant SELEUCID SYRIA FOUR SATRAPIES
Astarte riding in a chariot with four branches protruding from roof, on the reverse of a Julia Maesa coin from Sidon
The new rulers divided Syria into four districts (junds): Damascus, Homs, Jordan, and Palestine
Political history. The history of the Seleucids can be divided into four periods: (1) a period of expansion followed by relative stability under, respectively, Seleucus I and Antiochus I (312-261 BCE); (2) a period of contraction and internal conflict (261-223 BCE); (3) the revival of the empire under Antiochos III and Antiochus IV (223-164 BCE); and (4) the gradual decline and eventual collapse of the kingdom (164-64 BCE). Throughout its existence, the Seleucid empire was plagued by wars over the succession and local uprisings accompanying the inauguration of virtually each new king. In this respect, the Seleucids were not very different from the preceding Achaemenids.
Quadrant FOUR PRINCIPAL CHARACTERS EPIC OF SAUN
quadrant PROVERBS 30:29
FOUR CLASSES SASSANIDS
Sassanid society was immensely complex, with separate systems of social organization governing numerous different groups within the empire. Historians believe society comprised four social classes:
Classical and Medieval Armenian Architecture is divided into four separate periods.
The first Armenian churches were built between the 4th and 7th century, beginning when Armenia converted to Christianity, and ending with the Arab invasion of Armenia. The early churches were mostly simple basilicas, but some with side apses. By the fifth century the typical cupola cone in the center had become widely used. By the seventh century, centrally planned churches had been built and a more complicated niched buttress and radiating Hrip'simé style had formed. By the time of the Arab invasion, most of what we now know as classical Armenian architecture had formed.