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The four types of breads of the Korban Todah represent four aspects of true thanksgiving. The chametz represents the yetzer hara, the confession that even the misfortune and calamity were for our benefit and were brought about by our sins.
The Matzah that is boiled first in water so that it will absorb and hold in the oil is symbolic of the ability to contain oneself and admit that the county one received is unearned and undeserved.
The Matzah made of flour saturated with oil is symbolic of the feelings of gratitude that permeate one's entire being.
And finally, the Matzah fried in oil from without symbolizes the responsibility to publicize and share with others the enlightenment one receives from experiencing God's Divine Providence.

http://www.aish.com/tp/i/oai/Four-Aspects-of-Thanksgiving.html

The fourth is always different/transcendent

Four Aspects of Thanksgiving
"If he shall offer it for a thanksgiving offering, then shall he offer unleavened loaves mixed with oil, unleavened wafers smeared with oil, and loaves of scalded fine flour mixed with oil..." (Leviticus 7:12)
The Korban Todah, thanksgiving offering, is basically a "peace offering" (Shelamim). But unlike any other peace offering it is brought with four different types of flour offerings, ten of each type. Three are types of Matzah, and the fourth is chametz.

http://www.aish.com/tp/b/mt/48955716.html

Four and Ten
When God says to Moses that He is going to bring the Jews out of Egypt, He uses four different ways of saying the same thing (Exodus 6:6-7):
"I shall take you out from under the burdens."
"I shall rescue you."
"I shall redeem you."
"I shall take you to Me for a people."
Why this redundancy?
These four statements are really four different types of redemption. You may recall at the Passover Seder, where the four cups of wine symbolize these four phrases. So what does each of these phrases mean?
"I shall take you out from under the burdens." Even if God did not take us out, He still stopped the servitude, for which we are grateful.
"I shall rescue you." To rescue is to remove the problem altogether. We ask God to get us out of Egypt, so we won't have to worry about the problem happening again.
"I shall redeem you." The word "redemption" implies removing the effects of the problem - our slave mentality, our lack of wealth, our lack of infrastructure for an independent society.
"I shall take you to Me for a people." When God takes us to Him, He gives us a new purpose, something positive and proactive to do.
* * *
FOUR STEPS TO TESHUVA
Teshuva means to return. When we do something that we know took us away from the Infinite and holiness, we don't beat ourselves up, wallow in guilt, or crawl into a hole. We do something called teshuva. We try to correct ourselves. We return to the Almighty.
This is a four-step process, hinted to in the verses of redemption from Egypt:
Stop the problem - resolve not to do the transgression again.
Rescue - put yourself in a circumstance where you won't be tempted to do the transgression again. If every time you hang out with a group of people, you end up gossiping, consider not hanging out with that group anymore.
Remove the effects of the transgression - If you stole something, you need to return it. If you became insensitive to people, you need to read material on how to be more sensitive.
Do something positive - Every transgression comes from a misplaced desire. Look for opportunities to increase a positive activity that removes the desire for transgression. If you find yourself saying something negative about a friend, think of three constructive ways you can help your friend change.
* * *
GOD'S NAME
Every significant "four" in the Torah relates back to God's four-letter name (see Exodus 6:2). There are many names of God which refer to different attributes. The primary name which implies His infiniteness, and His love and mercy, is the four letter name - spelled Yud, Hey, Vav, Hey - sometimes referred to as the tetragrammaton.
In this week's Torah portion, God introduces Himself to Moses in a way that appears to change the relationship that God and the Israelites are meant to have from now on. Abraham, Isaac and Jacob related to one aspect of the Infinite, while Moses and the nation of Israel from now on will relate to the four-letter name.
Until now, we related to God through an aspect of strict justice. From now on we will relate to Him through His qualities of love and mercy. The idea of redemption and the process of teshuva are expressions of God's love and mercy.
* * *
WHAT DOES FOUR REPRESENT?
Every significant "ten" in the Torah can be broken down to two sets of "five." The Ten Commandments are written on two tablets: five commandments relating to the dynamic between man and man, and five between man and God. Similarly, we have ten fingers, five on each hand.
Furthermore, each five can be broken down into "four plus one." Like the fingers on a hand are four plus a thumb.
Each foursome can be further broken down into "three plus one."
Each threesome is an expression of the three primary forces in the universe: Love, Justice and Harmony. Just like the legs of a stool must be three to support the seat, the universe rests on three principles. Just as a stool is usually a temporary seat, while a chair is more sturdy and permanent, so too, the foursome in the Torah always represents permanence.
* * *
TEN PLAGUES
Like the other tens in the Torah, the Ten Plagues also can be reduced conceptually. This is one reason why this week's Torah portion contains seven plagues, and the next portion, Bo, contains three.
The process of redemption and the process of teshuva can be done with three steps, but the fourth step - taking positive action - adds permanence.
When you stop and prevent evil in the universe, you are doing the will of God. But when you also include something positive, you are becoming like God.
* * *
Spiritual Exercise:
Think of one single area of personal improvement, and take it through the four steps.

The Four Sons

submitted by: David Minkoff

One afternoon, Moshe, David, Nathan and Daniel, four students at New York University, are drinking coffee in Moshe’s room. Suddenly, Moshe puts down his cup and shouts, "Oy!"

 

David then puts down his cup and shouts, "Oy vey!"

 

Nathan then puts down his cup and shouts out, "So nu?"

 

On hearing what his three friends have been shouting, Daniel gets up and starts to walk towards the door. "Where are you going, Daniel?" the other three ask him.

 

"Listen," he replies, "if you don’t stop talking about Israeli politics, I’m leaving!"

 

http://www.aish.com/j/j/201808531.html

http://www.aish.com/tp/i/sms/84338802.html

 

SHABBOS AND SHALOSH REGALIM

This analysis gives us a fascinating insight into the nature of the yamim tovim vis-a-vis the weekly Shabbos. Each of the shalosh regalim, the three major Festivals, can be linked to one of the crowns we mentioned above. Pesach was the moment when klal Yisrael became a royal nation, fit for special treatment by God. This corresponds to the crown of malchus. Shavuos, when the Torah was given to klal Yisrael, obviously corresponds to the crown of Torah. Finally, Sukkos corresponds to the crown of kehunah, for Sukkos and Aharon, the founding father of the priesthood and the quintessential kohen, are intimately linked.

Each of these three festivals has the inherent danger we discussed earlier. As such, extra care must be taken at these times to avoid misusing their great spiritual potential for selfish uses. Indeed, each of the shalosh regalim has an element of judgment associated with it, which reflects the fact that one's service of God is under scrutiny at these times:

At four junctures of the year the world is judged: on Pesach for the grain, on Shavuos for the fruit, on Sukkos for the water... (Mishnah, Rosh HaShanah 1:2)

This element of judgment, however, is not present on Shabbos. This is analogous to the Menorah, which has no golden rim. According to the philosophy of the Arizal, there is no potential for abuse present in the atmosphere which prevails on Shabbos; everything can be used for spiritual progress on that day.

We can now understand another, related issue. The portable Mishkan, the construction of which is detailed in this parsha, was replaced by the Beis HaMikdash, which was a permanent structure. Although it was many years after klal Yisrael entered Eretz Yisrael before the Mishkan fell into disuse, it was clear from the outset that the Mishkan had a limited life and would one day become defunct.

My holy father noted that the very names of these sacred structures reveal the difference in their essence. Mishkan means "dwelling place," indicating that this was essentially a place where the Divine was manifest. Mikdash, on the other hand, means "holy place," for the Beis HaMikdash was primarily a place of exceptional sanctity, qualitatively different from anywhere else on earth. It is important to note that these names were not absolute, but were somewhat interchangeable. The Mishkan was also referred to as a mikdash and the Mikdash was referred to as a mishkan. It is the primary focus that the main name describes.

In the wilderness, klal Yisrael lived on a miraculous plane - they ate the mon, an angelic food which produced absolutely no waste, drank water from the well of Miriam, and lived in the presence of the Divine pillars of cloud and fire. In these circumstances, they already experienced life beyond the norm and did not need their center of worship to be anything other than a focus for God's presence. Thus their Mishkan was just that - a place where God was manifest. This was analogous to the Menorah, which had no rim, symbolizing the absolute lack of distractions and spiritual dangers. Since they lived such miraculous lives, their Mishkan was automatically a mikdash - a place which was different from any other.

Once klal Yisrael entered the land, all of these miracles stopped. They worked the land and lived more normal lives. Of necessity, they became involved with the physical world and were therefore at some risk of falling into materialistic lifestyles. They thus needed a place of religious focus which was different and separated from normal physical life, to remind them that successful Jewish life takes place beyond the material. So they required a mikdash, a place of exceptional holiness, which enabled a primarily agricultural nation to fulfill their spiritual potential. It would then automatically be a mishkan. This concern for the dangers inherent in the more worldly lifestyle of the post-desert generations is similar to the necessity for the golden rim on the three vessels in the Beis HaMikdash, for they remind us to use our powers for Godly, rather than self-oriented, pursuits.

But despite the apparent preference for the desert lifestyle, we can see that the reality of Eretz Yisrael and the vicissitudes of life within it are actually superior. It is clear that one can make matzah only from grains that could, if left for too long, become chametz. This underscores the concept that the greatest kedushah, holiness, is achieved in the arena where there is danger, but it is overcome and utilized for Godliness. As such, the Eretz Yisrael lifestyle is the ideal one, despite the potential dangers inherent within it. This means that the Beis HaMikdash was the greatest expression of klal Yisrael's spirituality. Thus, when they entered the land, they worked toward the day when they would build a mikdash to replace the Mishkan, which had only a temporary role to play.

Rabbi Shimon said, "There are three crowns: the crown of Torah, the crown of kehunah (priesthood), and the crown of malchus (kingship). But the crown of a good name is greater than them all." (Avos 4:13)
According to rabbis the fourth crown is the most important and transcendent.
Three of the four primary objects in the holiest part of the Beis HaMikdash had crowns, that is, golden rims decorating them: the Ark of the Covenant, the Golden Table, and the Golden Altar had rims, but the Menorah did not. The Ark, which contained the two tablets given by God to Moshe, obviously corresponds to the crown of Torah; the Golden Altar, on which the kohanim offered the incense, corresponds to the crown of kehunah; and the Golden Table, on which the special bread was placed, corresponds to the crown of malchus. The Midrash (Bemidbar Rabba 14:9) tells us that the Menorah, which had no crown, corresponds to the crown of a good name. Let us investigate the meaning behind all of this.
* * *
WHAT'S IN A CROWN?
The word used by the Torah for the decorative crowns on the sacred objects in the Mishkan is zer. This word is closely related to the word nazir, designating a nazirite, someone who dedicates his life to holy purposes by abstaining from wine and certain other things for a designated period. The Torah teaches us that he must avoid contact with corpses for:
...the nezer [crown] of God is upon his head. (Bamidbar 6:7)
The crown of God is upon his head - know that all humans serve earthly desires, but the true king, who has the crown and diadem of malchus on his head, is one who is free from earthly desires. (Ibn Ezra loc. cit.)
So it seems that the zer symbolizes raising oneself above the usual desires of humanity and entering a holier and more spiritual realm. Just as a crown sits on the king's head, above his whole person, so too, the spiritual crown sets a person above the norms of the physical world.
Each of the three vessels in the Mishkan, which represent the Torah, malchus, and kehunah, indicates that there is a need to rise above the potentially harmful elements inherent in each concept. Torah study, while clearly essential to Jewish life, carries the possibility of arrogance. Indeed, excellence at Torah study can result in a false feeling of superiority over one's peers. The king must obviously be very careful not to overrate himself and lord it over his subjects, for he is automatically showered with honor and respect. The extra restrictions applicable to a king testify to the necessity for care in this area. Similarly, the kohen commands a position of great respect in the community, whose atonement, Torah study, and many other factors depend on him. This position can be abused to the spurious advantage of the unscrupulous; great care is needed to avoid this. So each of these three great gifts to klal Yisrael - Torah, malchus, and kehunah - need special attention to ensure that they are used only for holy rather than self-seeking purposes. The crowns on the Ark, Table, and Altar represent this constant need.
However, the Menorah, which represents the good name attainable by every member of klal Yisrael, has no rim. The brightly burning lamps of the Menorah shine forth with the glow of Godly light, which can be received and internalized by all who seek it. There is no potential bad associated with this pure Divine influence, only good for those who are prepared for it. Thus the Menorah, alone among the vessels in the Beis HaMikdash, has no golden rim.

http://www.aish.com/tp/i/sms/84338802.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Sephardic_Synagogues

The Four Sephardic Synagogues are located in the Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. They form a complex which comprises four adjoining synagogues which were built at different periods to accommodate the religious needs of the Sephardic community, each congregation practising a different rite. Today, most of them are in active use.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Sephardic_Synagogues

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerusalem
Jerusalem has throughout history been seen as the Axis Mundi
During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times.[2] The oldest part of the city was settled in the 4th millennium BCE.[3] In 1538, walls were built around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Quarters.[

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerusalem

The fourth is transcendent

The classic Torah commentaries offer several interpretations of Jacob's ladder. According to the Midrash, the ladder signified the exiles which the Jewish people would suffer before the coming of the Messiah. First the angel representing the 70-year exile of Babylonia climbed "up" 70 rungs, and then fell "down". Then the angel representing the exile of Persia went up a number of steps, and fell, as did the angel representing the exile of Greece. Only the fourth angel, which represented the final exile of Rome/Edom (whose guardian angel was Esau himself), kept climbing higher and higher into the clouds. Jacob feared that his children would never be free of Esau's domination, but God assured him that at the End of Days, Edom too would come falling down.
The fourth square is always transcendent.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tefillin

2 by 2 is the quadrant
Tefillin (Askhenazic: /ˈtfɪlɨn/; Israeli Hebrew: [tfiˈlin], תפילין) also called phylacteries (/fɪˈlæktəriːz/ from Ancient Greek φυλακτήριον phylacterion, form of phylássein, φυλάσσειν meaning "to guard, protect") are a set of small black leather boxes containing scrolls of parchment inscribed with verses from the Torah, which are worn by observant Jews during weekday morning prayers
The ultimate origin of Hebrew "tefillin" is uncertain.[3] The word "tefillin" is not found in the Bible, which calls them ṭoṭafot. The Septuagint renders "ṭoṭafot" ἀσαλευτόν, "something immovable."[2] Some believe it refers to a charm, similar to the Hebrew neṭifot, "round jewel."[2] The Talmud (Sanhedrin 4b) explains that the word ṭoṭafot is combination of two foreign words: Tot means "two" in the "Caspi" language and Fot means "two" in the "Afriki" language,[4] hence tot and fot means "two and two", corresponding to the four compartments of the head-tefillin.[5] Menahem ben Saruq explains that the word is derived from the Hebrew Ve'hateif and Tatifoo, both expressions meaning "speech", "for when one sees the tefillin it causes him to remember and speak about The Exodus from Egypt."[6]
The Vilna Gaon, who wore the tefillin of Rashi, rejected the stringency of also laying Rabbeinu Tam, pointing out that there were sixty-four permutations for the arrangement of the tefillin scrolls
64 is four quadrant models. It is also the number of the Merkaba vector field elucidated by Nassim Haramein.
W is normally written with three peaks, but on the totafot worn between the Jews eyes has four.
Four biblical passages which refer to the tefillin are placed inside the leather boxes.[2] These are: "Sanctify to me..." (Exodus 13:1-10); "When YHW and H brings you..." (Exodus 13:11-16); "Hear, O Israel..." (Deuteronomy 6:4-9); and "If you observe My Commandments..." (Deuteronomy 11:13-21). They are written by a scribe with special ink on parchment scrolls (klaf).[2] The Hebrew Ashuri script must be used and there are three main styles of lettering used: Beis Yosef – generally used by Ashkenazim; Arizal – generally used by Hasidim; Velish – used by Sefardim.[19] The passages contain 3,188 letters usually take between 10–15 hours to complete.[20] The arm-tefillin has one large compartment, which contains all four biblical passages written upon a single strip of parchment.[2] The head-tefillin has four separate compartments in each of which one scroll of parchment is placed
On both sides of the head-tefillin, the Hebrew letter shin (ש) is moulded. The knot of the head-tefillin strap forms the letter dalet (ד) or double dalet (ד) (known as the square-knot) while the strap that is passed through the arm-tefillin is formed into a knot in the shape of the letter yud (י). These three letters spell Shaddai (שדי), one of the names of God.[2]
The shin on the forehead is made up of four peaks, which is abnormal. But it is elucidating the quadrant four in my opinion.
Like

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiastic_structure

Chiasma means cross.
Chiastic structure, or chiastic pattern, is a literary technique in narrative motifs and other textual passages. An example of chiastic structure would be two ideas, A and B, together with variants A' and B', being presented as A,B,B',A'. Alternative names[citation needed] include ring structure, because the opening and closing 'A' can be viewed as completing a circle, palistrophe,[1] or symmetric structure. It may be regarded as chiasmus scaled up from clauses to larger units of text.

These often symmetrical patterns are commonly found in ancient literature such as the epic poetry of the Odyssey and the Iliad. Various chiastic structures are also seen in the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament, where biblical writers used it to illustrate or highlight details of particular importance.

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/capital-punishment

 

Talmudic law distinguished four methods of judicial execution (arba mitot bet din): stoning, burning, slaying, and strangling. In no area can the genius of the talmudic law reformers better be demonstrated than in that of capital punishment. Two general theories were propounded which, though dated from a period too late to have ever stood the test of practical application (see below), reflect old traditions and well-established ways of thinking: namely, first, that "love your neighbor as yourself" (Lev. 19:17) was to be interpreted as applying even to the condemned criminal – you love him by giving him the most humane ("the most beautiful") death possible (Sanh. 45a, 52a; Pes. 75a; Ket. 37a); secondly, that judicial execution should resemble the taking of life by God: as the body remains externally unchanged when God takes the life, so in judicial executions the body should not be destroyed or mutilated (Sanh. 52a; Sifra 7:9).

THE FOUR TERMS OF REDEMPTION

Shmos 6:6-7

Sources: Rabeinu Bechaye 6:6

When the Torah describes how the Jews will be freed from Egypt, He uses four words: "V'hotzeisi" (and I will take out), "V'hitzalti" (and I will save), "V'goalti" (and I will redeem), "V'lokachti" (and I will take). Each of these four words also describes one of the four redemptions from the four exiles which our people have suffered. The last exile, which we are in now, is nearly over, and then all four expressions will be fulfilled.

There are also four terms of redemption listed by the prophet Ezekiel (34:13), all applying to the future redemption: "I will take them out (from among the nations) and collect them (from the lands) and bring them (to their land) and feed them (on the mountains of Israel)."

http://www.congregationlubavitch.org/page.asp?pageID=%7B43D43CD2-12FF-41B6-B016-2F6D2EEA3206%7D

http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/tmm/tmm06.htm

 

The 'four carpenters' to whom the prophet also refers, are Elijah, Melchizedek, the Messiah of war, called by some Messiah son of Joseph, and the true Messiah. These Messiahs are referred to in the 32nd chapter of Isaiah, and their existence is constantly mentioned. Seven or eight Messiahs are sometimes said to be promised in the words of the Prophet Micah (5. 5), 'Then shall we raise against him seven shepherds and eight principal men,' but it is held that there will be but four (Zech. 1. 20), and these are they: Elijah the Tishbite, an unnamed man of the tribe of Manasseh, Messiah of war--an Ephraimite, and Messiah the Great, the descendant of David.--Midr. Song of Songs 2.

http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/tmm/tmm06.htm

 I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy. 

http://www.khouse.org/articles/2001/331/

THERE ARE FOUR ACROSTICS OF YHW AND H IN THE BOOK OF ESTHER AND THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT--- ESTHER IS KNOWN FOR NOT MENTIONING G- IN THE TEXT BUT THE NAME IS FOUR TIMES IN ACROSTIS

 

An acrostic can be a mechanism for including a hidden message. In the Book of Esther we encounter some remarkable surprises. The name of God is hidden no less than eight times in acrostics in the text. Four times it appears as an acrostic, the famed Tetragammaton, "YHWH" or "Yahweh" or "YeHoVaH"; once as "EHYH" or "I AM" as at the Burning Bush. Also, Meshiach ("Messiah"), Yeshua ("Jesus"), and El Shaddai ("The Almighty"), also appear as equidistant letter sequences.9

YHW AND H IS THE FOUR LETTER NAME OF GOD THERE ARE FOUR ACROSTICS IN THE BOOK OF ESTHER. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT THERE IS A YHW AND H ACROSTIC ON THE SIGN OF THE CROSS

http://jimspace3000.blogspot.com/2016/03/esthers-acrostic-secret.html

When Queen Esther found out that Haman wanted to kill all the Jews in the Persian Empire, she began her plan by saying: “let the king and Haman come today to a banquet that I have prepared for the king.” (Esther 5:4). Now, look carefully at the original Hebrew text:

 

"יָבוֹא הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהָמָן הַיּוֹם, אֶל-הַמִּשְׁתֶּה אֲשֶׁר-עָשִׂיתִי לו"

 

The first four letters of the first four words form together the Hebrew name of God: י-ה-ו-ה (Y-H-W-H). We see that in the most critical moment of Esther’s plan, God is present after all.

 

 

 

The above Tetragrammaton acrostic is one of four, together with a fifth on the divine identification at Exodus 3:14. As the “All Scripture Is Inspired of God and Beneficial” book says on page 91:

 

While it is true that God is not directly mentioned, in the Hebrew text there appear to be four separate instances of an acrostic of the Tetragrammaton, the initial letters of four successive words, spelling out YHWH (Hebrew, יהוה), or Jehovah. These initials are made especially prominent in at least three ancient Hebrew manuscripts and are also marked in the Masora by red letters. Also, at Esther 7:5 there is apparently an acrostic on the divine pronouncement “I shall prove to be.”—See [NWT-Ref] footnotes on Esther 1:20; 5:4, 13; 7:7, as well as Esther 7:5.

Aside from the example in Esther 5:4, these acrostics appear to be randomly implemented on the text (that is, the texts by themselves do not seem to be special). Also, there is another Tetragrammaton acrostic found at Psalm 96:11, as noted in the NWT-Ref footnote, and at 1 Chronicles 16:31.

 

Titular Tetragrammaton acrostic?

Some have claimed that the inscription on the “Titulus Crucis,” the “sign on the crux,” as recorded in John 19:19-20 has a seventh Tetragrammaton acrostic. This was written in Hebrew: “Jesus the Nazarene the King of the Jews.” For this to work, it would have to have been written as “Yeshua HaNazarei WMelech HaYehudim.” However, the word “and” (W) was not there but “the” (H for ha), breaking the supposed Tetragrammaton acrostic.

http://www.betemunah.org/four.html

Creation consists of four stages, alluded to in the verse:

Yeshayahu (Isaiah) 43:7 “All that is called by My Name,

(1) for My glory,

(2) I have created it,

(3) I have formed it,

(4) and I have made it.”

These four stages are represented by the four letters of the Tetragrammaton, HaShem’s Name Yod Hay Vav Hay. The first stage is “HaShem’s Glory”, where things exist conceptually, but not in actuality. The next stage is “creation“, which represents creation ex nihilo, “something out of nothing”. Then comes “formation” where the primeval substance attains the first semblance of form. Finally comes making,” where the process is completed and yields a finished product. Our sages also teach us that the world was created with ten sayings. These are the ten times that the expression “and HaShem said” appears in the account of creation:

http://www.betemunah.org/four.html

http://www.betemunah.org/four.html

A key tenet of Chasidic thought is that the microcosm emanates from and reflects the macrocosm. So we also find many other sets of fours reflected in nature. For example, Chasidut speaks of four categories of being in the natural world: the inanimate (domem); the vegetative (tzomeach); the animal (chai); and the speaking (medaber). These four types of natural existence levels also exist within each person, so to speak. Or, there are four seasons of the year and four directions of the compass. Indeed, the traditional understanding of the physical world as composed of four elements -- fire, air, water, earth -- could also be translated into the language of modern science: the matter of our physical world assumes one of four states: solid, liquid, gas, active combustion; or the four elements can be said to correspond to the four basic chemical elements of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen; or to the four elements of subatomic phenomena; or to the four forces known to modern physics (gravity, electromagnetic, strong, weak).

On a spiritual plane, there are numerous fours: the four types of sons mentioned in the Haggada; the four components of a Torah text (cantillations, vowels, crowns, letters); the four basic levels of Torah interpretation (Pshat - literal, Remez - allusion, Drash - allegory, Sod - secret), etc.

Jewish mysticism also explains that each of the four higher spiritual worlds possesses the entire spectrum of the so-called ten sefirot. The sefirot are HaShem’s creative attributes or characteristics which emanate to, structure, and are reflected in all existence, including the spiritual powers of the human soul. (Materially, each thing in the world also reflects this ten-ness; it can be said to have nine sides or dimensions: width, length, height; beginning, middle, end; and the tenth aspect is the thing itself taken as a whole)

FOUR EXILES OF ISRAEL

http://www.betemunah.org/four.html

 

According to our Sages, Edom is one of the four great exiles: Babylonian, Persian, Greek and Edom. The pattern for these four major exiles is found in the account of the four kings versus the five kings:

Bereshit (Genesis) 14:1-9 And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of nations: [That these] made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, which is Zoar. All these were joined together in the vale of Siddim, which is the salt sea. Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer, and in the thirteenth year they rebelled. And in the fourteenth year came Chedorlaomer, and the kings that [were] with him, and smote the Rephaims in Ashteroth Karnaim, and the Zuzims in Ham, and the Emims in Shaveh Kiriathaim, And the Horites in their mount Seir, unto El-paran, which [is] by the wilderness. And they returned, and came to En-mishpat, which [is] Kadesh, and smote all the country of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites, that dwelt in Hazezon-tamar. And there went out the king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (the same [is] Zoar;) and they joined battle with them in the vale of Siddim; With Chedorlaomer the king of Elam, and with Tidal king of nations, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar; four kings with five.

The narrative, in Bereshit 14, describes the battle between the four kings and the five kings. Who were these kings and their subjects? The five kings were kings of cities in the Jordan Valley plains. The four kings were kings of cities in Babylon and Assyria. The armies of the five kings lost to the armies of the four, and subsequently served the strongest of the victors, Chedorlaomer.[5]

It is worth noting that the Amalekites are mentioned in the above pasuk long before Amalek was even born! Concerning this anomaly, the Midrash writes:

Midrash Rabbah - Genesis XLII:7 AND THEY TURNED BACK, AND CAME TO EN - MISHPAT-THE SAME IS KADESH (XIV, 7). R. Aha said: They came only in order to attack the eyeball of the world; the eye which executed judgment in the world they desire to blind! THE SAME (HI) IS KADESH: R. Aba said: This is written hu (he): it was he [Abraham] that sanctified (kiddash) the name of the Holy One, blessed be He, in the fiery furnace.1 AND THEY SMOTE ALL THE COUNTRY OF THE AMALEKITES. Amalek had not yet arisen, yet you say, AND THEY SMOTE ALL THE COUNTRY OF THE AMALEKITES! But, He declareth the end from the beginning (Isa. XLVI, 10). AND ALSO THE AMORITES, THAT DWELT IN HAZAZON--TAMAR: this means, in En-gedi of the palm-trees. AND THERE WENT OUT THE KING OF SODOM... FOUR KINGS AGAINST THE FIVE (XIV, 8 f.). Four kings waged war with five and defeated them.

Alternatively, this was not a battle between two alliances of cities. Rather, this was a battle between a coalition of five cities and a confederation of four countries. The four kings joined forces in order to conquer the world. The reason, therefore, that the five kings paid tribute to Chedorlaomer, wasn’t because he was the strongest of the four kings, but rather because the territory of their five cities fell out in his lot of the world.[6]

The war was fought over only one thing, money.

It was midnight, we are told, when Avraham reached northern Israel and battled the four kings. Avraham’s deliverance came at midnight, as we read in the haggada. The idea of midnight is the that this is a time for prayer to be heard and redemption to be accomplished. Night time also alludes to the galut, the exile.

Midrash Rabbah - Genesis XLII:2 R. Abin said: Just as he commenced with four kings, so will he conclude with four kings. [He commences with four kings, viz.]: With Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar (Gen. XIV, 9); so he ends with four kingdoms: the kingdom of Babylon, the kingdom of Media, the kingdom of Greece, and the empire of Edom [i.e. Rome]. R. Phinehas quoted in R. Abin’s name: But they know not the thoughts of the Lord, neither understand they His counsel, for He hath gathered them as the sheaves to the threshing- floor (Micah IV, 12). Thus, why Came all these as allies (Gen. XIV, 3)? In order that they might come and fall by the hands of Abraham; hence it is written, AND IT CAME TO PASS IN THE DAYS OF AMRAPHEL, etc.

Midrash Rabbah - Genesis XLII:4 AND IT CAME TO PASS IN THE DAYS OF AMRAPHEL. He was called by three names: Cush, Nimrod, and Amraphel. Cush, because he was indeed a Cushite; Nimrod, because he incited the world to revolt (himrid) Amraphel denotes: he made a declaration (amar imrah), ‘ I will cast down (appilah).’ [Another interpretation is] that he made sport of (amar we-afle) the world, also that he made sport of Abraham; again, that he ordered Abraham to be thrown (amar we-hippil) into the furnace. ARIOCH KING OF ELLASAR. R. Jose of Milhaya said: Why are they [hazel-nuts] called elsarin? Because [they grow in the territory] of Ellasar. CHEDORLAOMER KING OF ELAM, AND TIDAL KING OF GOIIM. R. Levi said: There is a place which is so called there [sc. in Babylon], and [its inhabitants] took a certain man and made him king over them. R. Johanan said: And his name was Tidal. Another interpretation: AND IT CAME TO PASS IN THE DAYS OF AMRAPHEL KING OF SHINAR: this alludes to Babylon; ARIOCH KING OF ELLASAR: that alludes to Greece; CHEDORLAOMER KING OF ELAM: that is Media; AND TIDAL THE KING OF GOYIM [lit. ‘nations’]: this alludes to the wicked Power [i.e. Rome] which levies troops from all the nations of the world. R. Eleazar b. R. Abina said: When you see the Powers fighting each other, look for the coming [lit. ‘ feet ‘] of the King Messiah. The proof is that in the days of Abraham, because these Powers fought against each other, greatness came to Abraham.

“Ma’aseh Avot siman l’banim”

The actions of the father are a sign for the children.

The four kings represent a world-view where everything in creation is subsumed under the “forces of nature.” This view holds that there is nothing else in this world, except this world. Four always denotes completion or fullness in this world.

Avraham and the five kings were focused on an existence beyond this world. This is the world view represented by the number five. Five in Hebrew is represented by the letter v heh. If you look at the letter v heh, you will see that it is composed of the letter s dalet (which stands for four) plus the letter h yod. h Yod is a unique letter. It is the only letter which doesn’t touch the line on which you write. It is no more than the smallest dot floating above the line, representing intangible, spiritual existence. The written letter v heh, then, is a pictogram of this world focused and revolving around that which is above this world — the s dalet (the “four” of this world) with the h yod of spirituality at its axis. Avraham fought on behalf of the five kings against the four kings. Avraham was the first person to look at this world and see an existence beyond. If there was a creation, there had to be a Creator. After Avram fought the war against the four kings, HaShem added a letter to his name. Not surprisingly, that letter was the letter v heh. For Avraham stood for all that the v heh represents, that this world revolves around a Higher Existence.

The number five thus represents the perfection of the natural order (the number four), with the addition of one: HaShem Himself.

Bereshit (Genesis) chapter 14 contains the Torah account of a cosmic battle which will reverberate till we hear the footsteps of the Mashiach. This was the cataclysmic battle of ascendancy of the great forces of the world.

The battle of the four kings against the five kings leads to victory for the four kings. These four kings, in turn, are defeated by Avraham and his trusty servant, Eliezer.

The Torah is foreshadowing Jewish, and world, history. There will be four kingdoms that will rule the world. These four will ultimately be conquered by Avraham’s descendants.

In the end of days this battle will occur again. As in the beginning, so it will be in the end. The kings of the world will fight against each other and the redeemer of the Children of Israel will defeat the victors. The captives will be set free and a tithe will be paid to the King of Righteousness.

In this next pasuk we see one of the keys to understand Edom:

Bereshit (Genesis) 25:26 And after that came his brother out, and his hand took hold on Esau’s heel; and his name was called Jacob: and Isaac [was] threescore years old when she bare them.

The final exile is called ‘Galut Edom,’ the ‘Exile of Edom’. The exile of Edom, who descended from Esau, coincides with the last 2,000 years of history referred to by the Talmud as, the ‘Footsteps of Mashiach!’

Sanhedrin 97a [Wherewith thine enemies have reproached, O Lord,’ wherewith they have reproached the footsteps of thine anointed.] it has been taught, R. Judah said: in the generation when the son of David comes, the house of assembly will be for harlots, Galilee in ruins, Gablan lie desolate, the border inhabitants wander about from city to city, receiving no hospitality, the wisdom of scribes in disfavor, God-fearing men despised, people be dog-faced, and truth entirely lacking, as it is written, Yea, truth faileth, and he that departeth from evil maketh himself a prey. What is meant by ‘yea, truth faileth [ne’edereth ]’? — The Scholars of the School of Rab said: This teaches that it will split up into separate groups and depart. What is the meaning of ‘and he that departeth from evil maketh himself a prey [mishtollel ]’? — The School of R. Shila said: He who departs from evil will be dubbed a fool by his fellow-men.

Thus we see that the Mashiach will come at the end of the galut Edom.

The present exile is seen as an extension of the Roman exile (Edom is Rome), since culturally and legally, Western civilization shares the values and worldview of ancient Rome. A subset of this exile is that of Ishmael, the Arabs, who are seen as an antithesis of Roman civilization and values, and who will rule over the Jewish people for a time concurrently with the exile of Rome.

An essay - by HaRav Shammai Zahn, zt”l

Shemot 6:6 Therefore, say to the Bnei Israel all, I am HaShem, and I shall take you out shall take you out from under the burdens of Mitzrayim, and I shall rescue you from their slavery, and I shall redeem you with an outstretched Arm and with great judgments, and I shall take you to Me as a Nation.

Chazal teach us that these four terminologies of redemption which HaShem used to spell out His salvation to the Jewish People, correspond to the four empires which ruled over us during our history as a Nation. The four kingdoms are: Bavel, Porat Umodai, Yavan, and Edom.

The first exile began with the Churban Bayit Rishon (the destruction of the first Temple). Nevuchadnetzar burned the Bet HaMikdash (Temple) and waged war against the Bnei Israel in Eretz Israel. Then he ruthlessly killed thousands, R”l. However, for those remaining, it was a relatively light exile during which there were no persecutions, and no mass killings. They were brought to Bavel as slaves, yet enjoyed a peaceful life. They only bemoaned the fact that they could not return to Eretz Israel all, as stated, “Al naharot Bavel, shom yoshavnu gam bochinu!”[7]

Regarding this first exile, HaShem promised us “and I will take you out; I promise you that you will return to Eretz Israel, and there will be an end to this exile”.

The second kingdom, the Persian empire of Porat Umodai who conquered the Babylonians, was the kingdom of Achashverosh. The wicked Haman “sought to wipe out, destroy, and annihilate all the Jews”. Regarding this decree came HaShem’s promise of “I will rescue you from the danger of death and annihilation”. This was the miracle of Purim.

The Greek empire -- Malchut Yavan -- ruled during the second Beit HaMikdash (Temple). The Jewish Nation then dwelled in Eretz Israel, but we were not independent. The Greeks decreed terrible laws to cause us “to forget Your Torah, and remove us from the laws of Your Will”. Regarding these decrees, HaShem promised us “and I will redeem you”. We would triumph over the Greeks, succeeding to be free once again to keep the Torah as we wished.

Malchut Edom, the Roman Empire, is the one who destroyed the second Beit HaMikdash. Thereafter, began our long and difficult exile of close to two thousand years! We have been dispersed among the nations, to all four corners of this earth. As a result, many became assimilated, forgetting their priceless heritage as the children of Avraham, Yitzchak, and Yaakov. Many have gravitated terribly towards the ways of the Gentiles!

In regard to this exile, HaShem promised us “and I will take you to Me for a Nation”. The Ba’al HaTurim explains that this means even if it is against our will. HaShem will return assimilated Jews to the fold, to once again become a nation apart, even if it is against their will. Time and again, the anti-Semitism, which has arisen throughout the generations, served as a reminder, that nothing would work to bring us to be like “all the rest”. We are a separate people, and will remain that way forever.

In our present-day Edom exile, which is typified by assimilation, we have additionally tasted a bit of all the previous exiles combined. At times, our exile was relatively easy, with hardly any persecutions and almost no troubles, as was the Babylonian exile. Yet as we were threatened during the Media-Persian exile, we have undergone terrible mass killings, ruthless pogroms, and the previous generation suffered the destruction of Europe at the hands of Hitler yemach shemo.

In Spain over five hundred years ago, we suffered laws against the Torah similar to the Greek exile. We have undergone so, so much, yet we have always emerged to see the salvation of HaShem. As we recite in the Haggada of Pesach.

The Eitz Yosef,[8] explains the following: The paragraph “Tzur Israel” immediately preceding the morning Shemoneh Esrei is recited specifically then, in keeping with Chazal’s adage to mention the exile in our prayers. This means that there is an attempt to refer to redemption immediately prior to praying the Shemoneh Esrei. In this paragraph, the word “Israel” is mentioned five times. Four times, is a reference to the four empires which HaShem redeems us from. The fifth one refers to the geulas hanefesh, the spiritual redemption of our souls, which is up to us. We request the help of Heaven for this, so that we are successfully redeemed from our bondage in this area as well.

THE FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT THE FIFTH IS ULTRA TRANSCENDENT

http://www.betemunah.org/four.html

Four and Five

Four is always associated with five. As the four fingers are associated with a thumb, so four is always associated with five.

We have four sons at the seder, where is the fifth? The fifth son is the father who is also someone’s son. We have four questions, where is the fifth? The fifth is the answer provided by the “fifth” son. The father of the four sons is himself also a son. The father is the fifth son.

We drink four cups of wine at the Pesach seder. Where is the fifth cup? The fifth cup is the cup of Elijah. And so it goes that wherever we see four, we will also see five.

FOUR JUDGEMENTS PER YEAR AND FOUR TIMES EAT ON SABBATH

http://www.betemunah.org/four.html

In Succoth

The holiday of Succoth has many special commandments, one of these is to take four species (ארבעת המינים‎), hold them together, and wave them. These species are:

Etrog (אתרוג) - an unusual citrus fruit

Lulav (לולב) - a frond from a date palm

Hadas (הדס) - myrtle and

Arava (עַרְבֵי) - the water willow.

The Etrog is a beautiful yellow fruit, with both a pleasant taste (especially when made into jam after the holiday!) and pleasant smell. Therefore Chazal tell us that this fruit represents a Jew who has both Torah knowledge and good deeds. The Lulav, by comparison, has no smell, but dates do have a pleasant taste, representing Torah knowledge. The Hadas, myrtle, has only a pleasant smell, while the Arava, the willow, has neither. So these four species, which we bring together on Succoth, encompass all types of Jews.

One of the rules concerning performance of the commandment to take four species is that all four are critical, meaning that even if one lacks only the lowly Arava, it is impossible to fulfill this commandment.

‘At four junctures of the year the world is judged... and on the Festival of Succoth they are judged for the water (i.e., the rainfall)’ - Rosh Hashanah 1:2.

FOUR IN THE TEMPLE

 

In The Temple

http://www.betemunah.org/four.html

A ceremony of Succoth, the illumination of the Temple, also had it’s source in Jewish tradition. According to the Mishna, at the end of the first day of the feast of Tabernacles, the priests and Levites went down to the court of the women. Four enormous golden candlesticks were set up in the court (fifty cubits high) with four golden bowls placed upon them and four ladders resting against each. Four youths of priestly descent stood at the top of the ladders holding ten-gallon pitchers filled with pure oil, which they poured into each bowl.[9]

The willow branches that had been brought by the Kidron procession were used to build a Succah over the altar, and as soon as that was done the morning sacrifice was offered, followed by the special festival sacrifices. On the first day of the festival, the sacrifices would be thirteen bullocks, two rams, fourteen lambs, and a goat, as a sin offering. During the sacrifices, the Levites would chant the Great Hallel. At three points during the chant, the people would wave their lulavs toward the altar: once when the Levites reached the phrase “Hodu L’Adonai Ki Tov” (“Thank HaShem, for he is good” Psalm 118:29), once when they sang, “O work then now salvation, HaShem,” and at the end when they sang again “O give thanks unto HaShem.” When the chant was over, the priests marched around the altar chanting “Hosanna, HaShem, deliver us, HaShem, let us prosper”.[10] Finally, there came the benediction, and the people were dispersed, amid the exclamation, “How beautiful art thou, O altar!” or “To HaShem and thee, O altar, we give thanks!” At night, the Court of Women was illuminated by four giant oil lamps, in which the cast-off breeches and girdles of the priests were used for wicks. In order to burn all night, the lamps required tending, so against each lamp was a ladder, and on each ladder a boy from the tribe of Levi, whose job it was to keep the fire burning. The light from these lamps is said to have illuminated the entire city. Distinguished men would dance around the lamps, carrying lighted torches and singing praises to HaShem. On the fifteen steps leading into the court stood the Levites, singing psalms and playing musical instruments. This holy merriment continued until dawn.

The priests and Levites used their own worn-out liturgical clothing for wicks. The light emanating from the four candelabra was so bright that the Mishna says, “There was no courtyard in Jerusalem that was not lit up with the light at the libation water-well ceremony”.[11]

Yochanan (John) 8:12 When Yeshua spoke again to the people, he said, “I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.”

http://www.betemunah.org/four.html

Heart = The base of the altar.

The sacrificial blood was dashed against the altar and then poured out at the base of the altar. As the altar has four corners, so too does the heart have four chambers. As the heart has a higher and lower part, so too does the altar have a red line that marks the upper and lower parts (some offerings had their blood dashed above and some had the blood dashed below).

* * *

Midrash Rabbah - Vayikra (Leviticus) X:6 AND THE GARMENTS (VIII, 2). R. Simon said: Even as the sacrifices have an atoning power, so too have the [priestly] garments atoning power, as we have learnt in the Mishnah: The High Priest officiated in eight garments, and an ordinary priest in four, namely in a tunic, breeches, a mitre, and a girdle. The High Priest wore, in addition, a breastplate, an ephod, a robe, and a head-plate

Fasts

Zecharyiah (Zechariah) 8:19 Thus saith HaShem of hosts; The fast of the fourth [month], and the fast of the fifth, and the fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth, shall be to the house of Judah joy and gladness, and cheerful feasts; therefore love the truth and peace.

Four fast days are mentioned in this pasuk.

Torah Interpretation

The Torah is understood and interpreted according to the level being discussed. The Torah can be understood on four levels, while other writings may be confined to only one level. For example, Bereshit (the book of Genesis) can be understood on all four levels, while the Midrash and sefer Matityahu (Matthew) can only be understood on the drash level. The following chart details these four levels.

THE AUTHOR OF THIS ARTICLE RECOGNIZES THE 3+1 IN THE BIBLE

https://philologos.org/__eb-nis/four.htm

 

THE DEATH AND LIFE OF CHRIST

are set forth by a four-fold type and record.

 

His death. the four great offerings (Psa 40:6).*

 

a. "Sacrifice [peace offering], and offering [meal offering], Thou wouldest not:

 

b. Mine ears hast Thou opened.

 

a. Burnt offering and sin offering hast Thou not required.

b. Then said I, Lo, I come," etc.

 

* Here the alternate structure shows that "b" and "b" relate to the obedience of Christ as the fifth great offering to which the four pointed.

THE RABBI RECOGNIZES THE 4+3 PATTERN (QUADRANT PATTERN)

https://philologos.org/__eb-nis/four.htm

THE SEVEN PARABLES OF MATTHEW 13

are divided into four and three; and while the three are spoken inside the house (v 36) to the disciples, and reveal esoteric (or inner explanatory) truth, the four relate to exoteric truth, and concern the outward aspect of things in relation to the world, and hence were spoken outside the house (v 1).

 

But it is as composed of

 

Three PLUS one

https://philologos.org/__eb-nis/four.htm

THE 3+1 PATTERN THE RABBI NOTICED IN THE BIBLE

Three PLUS one

that we see the most marked illustrations of the ideal significance of the number four, the "one" marking an election out of the earth.

 

Of the four great offerings, three were connected with blood and life; while one was meal.

 

The meal offering (Lev 2) was either baked in three ways (oven, flat-plate, or frying-pan); or not at all.

 

The sin offering (Lev 4) was offered for three classes of individuals—

 

The Priest that is anointed (v 3),

The Ruler (v 22),

The Common person (v 27)—

or for the whole congregation as one (v 13).

The materials of the Tabernacle were four, three being metals (gold, silver, brass); and one non-metal (wood).

 

The coverings of the Tabernacle were four,—three animal (goats' hair, rams' skins, and badger skins*); and one vegetable (fine linen).

 

* No badgers were ever found so far south as Palestine. The word #$xata (Tachash) is a word of uncertain meaning, but it refers to an animal the skins of which were used (Exo 25:5, 26:14; Num 4:6,8, etc.). The ancient versions understand it as a colour (the LXX, Chald., and Syr., as red, Arabic, black). It was probably the red or dark skins of the larger sacrificial animals; the two smaller animals are named as being goats and rams.

 

The ornamentations of the curtains were four, three being colours (blue, purple and scarlet); while one was a pattern (the cherubim).

The Priests and Levites were of four orders or persons: one was Aaron and his sons (Aaronites); the three were the sons of Gershon, Kohath, and Merari (Levites).

 

The Manna (Exo 16:14,31) has a four-fold description, three referring to sight or appearance (small, white, round); and one to taste (sweet).

 

Of the four prohibited or unclean animals, three chewed the cud, but did not divide the hoof (camel, hare, and coney); while one divided the hoof, but did not chew the cud (the swine); and thus the swine stands out in marked contrast to the other three.

 

Of the four Houses of God (i.e., erected by Divine plan) in the earth, three were, or will be, material, viz., the Tabernacle, the Temple (Solomon's), and Ezekiel's; whilst the one is a Spiritual house (1 Peter 2:5).

 

Four houses were built by Solomon; three were for himself,—his own house (1 Kings 7:1), the house of the forest of Lebanon (v 2), the house for Pharaoh's daughter (v 8); while one was the House of the LORD (1 Kings 6:37).

 

God's four sore judgments in the earth (Eze 14:21): three are inanimate (the sword, famine, and pestilence); while one is animate (the noisome beast).

 

In Jeremiah 15:3, they are still four, but three are animate (dogs, fowls, and beasts), and one is inanimate (the sword).

 

Of the four kinds of flesh in 1 Corinthians 15:39, three are animals (beasts, birds, and fishes); while one is human (man).

 

The four glories of 1 Corinthians 15:40, 41: three are celestial and are detailed (the sun, moon, and stars); while one is not detailed and is terrestrial.

 

The body is sown and raised (1 Cor 15:42-44) in three ways that relate to corruptibility:

 

sown "in corruption, raised in incorruption";

sown "in dishonour, raised in glory";

sown "in weakness, raised in power";

while in the one, "it is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body."

 

In the parable of the sower (Matt 13) the kinds of soil are four; but three are characterised as being all alike in contrast to the one (viz., the wayside, the stony ground, and the thorns). These are all unprepared! while the one is good because it is prepared! The essence of the parable lies in this. It reduces the four soils to two, and confirms what is said of the two religions on pp. 96, 97.

 

In the Lost Son's welcome (Luke 15), three things were material (the robe, the ring, and the shoes); while one was moral (the kiss).

 

"The Seventy" went forth with a four-fold prohibition (Luke 10:4), of which three related to matters (carry no purse, no scrip, no shoes); while one related to action ("salute no man by the way").

 

God's four-fold witness in the earth (Heb 2:4): three are impersonal (signs, wonders, and miracles), and one personal (the gifts of the Holy Ghost).

https://philologos.org/__eb-nis/four.htm

FOURS OF PERSONS

The four of the Book of Job:—

 

Eliphaz

Bildad

Zophar (friends)

Elihu (mediator)

The children of Lamech:—

 

Jubal

Jabal

Tubal-Cain (sons)

Naamah (daughters)

The four bound with brass:—

 

Samson (Judg 16:21) [not liberated]

Jehoiachim (2 Chron 36:6) [not liberated]

Zedekiah (2 Kings 25:7; Jer 52:11, 39:7) [not liberated]

Manasseh (2 Chron 33:11) [liberated]

The four whose names were changed:—

 

Abram (Gen 27:5) [in blessing]

Sarai (Gen 27:15) [in blessing]

Jacob (35:10, 37:28) [in blessing]

Pashur (Jer 20:3) [in judgment]

Four Prophetesses of the Old Testament:—

 

Miriam (Exo 15:20) [good]

Deborah (Judg 4:4) [good]

Huldah (2 Kings 22:14) [good]

Noadiah (Neh 6:14) [bad]

The four "children" of the Book of Daniel:—

 

Daniel [alone]

Shadrach [together]

Meshach [together]

Abednego [together]

The four in the furnace:

 

Shadrach [human]

Meshach [human]

Abednego [human]

The son of God, Spiritual.*

* There is no article. It is literally "a son of God," i.e. an angel.

The four kings named in Daniel:—

Nebuchadnezzar (1-4) [the first of Babylon]

Belshazzar (5) [the last of Babylon]

Darius (6) "the Median" (5:31)

Cyrus (6:28, 10:1) "the Persian"

The four women in the Lord's genealogy (Matt 1):—

 

Thamar (Gen 38:27, &c.; Matt 1:3)

Rahab (Ruth 4:20; Matt 1:5)

Ruth (Ruth 4:13,14; Matt 1:5)

Wife of Uriah (2 Sam 12:24; Matt 1:6)

Four names of Satan in Revelation 20:2:—

 

The Dragon [rebellious and apostate]

The Old Serpent [seductive]

The Devil [accusing]

Satan [personal]

The four-fold witness to show Nature's inability to find wisdom (Job 28:7,8):—

 

The fowl.

The vulture's eye.

The lion's whelps.

The fierce lion.

Four things "little and wise" (Prov 30:24-28):—

 

The ant.

The coney.

The locust.

The spider.

The brazen altar which displayed the Divine judgment is four sided, and had four horns. So with the golden altar.

 

The camp was four-square.

 

The rainbow, which has special reference to the earth and its judgment, is mentioned four times,—twice in the Old Testament (Gen 9 and Eze 1:28) and twice in the New Testament (Rev 4:3, 10:1).

 

The fulness of material blessing in the earth is described in Isaiah 60:17:—

 

For brass I will bring gold.

For iron I will bring silver.

For wood I will bring brass.

For stones I will bring iron.

The sphere of suffering is four-fold in 2 Corinthians 4:8, 9:—

 

Troubled, but not distressed.

Perplexed, but not in despair.

Persecuted, but not forsaken.

Cast down, but not destroyed.

The prophecy of Zechariah which has special reference to the earth:—

 

In Chapter 1 we have the four horns or Gentile powers, and the four carpenters to fray them.

In chapter 4 we have the four chariots with horses of four colours, signifying the spirits of the heavens acting for God in the midst of the four Gentile powers.

GEMATRIA

https://philologos.org/__eb-nis/four.htm

This is too large a subject to enter on here, but it is most significant that we get the number four in its concentrated form in connection with q#&em@ed@a, DAMASCUS, which is the oldest city in the world. The number of its name is 444: thus—

 

d = 4 444

m = 40

# = 300

q = 100

ACCORDING TO JOSEPHUS THERE WERE FOUR JEWISH SECTS AT THE TIME OF JESUS- THE FOURTH WAS DIFFERENT AND WAS EVEN CALLED "THE FOURTH SECT" WHEREAS THE OTHERS WERE CALLED NAMES

http://www.deliriumsrealm.com/jewish-sects/

Judaism had a number of flavors as well. According to Josephus, there were four main types. Most attribute the Book of Enoch and other apocayptic writings as well as the Dead Sea Scrolls community to the Essenes. Regardless, many of those living in antiquity believed they were living at the end of times. This can be seen in the writings of the Dead Sea Scroll sect, Christianity, and in other apocalyptic writings such as Baruch and 2 Ezra.

 

After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, the Pharisees gained control over the Jewish people and Rabbinic Judaism was born. The rabbinical form of Judaism maintains that it is the task of every Jew to become “like God,” and it’s purpose and goal was what would happen at the end of time – i.e. the coming of the Messiah. Christianity had found its own solution to this destruction by proclaiming that the Messiah had already come (though the Christian Messiah was quite different than the traditional Jewish concept of the Messiah.)

 

Sadducees

The Sadducees were priestly and aristocratic families who interpreted the law more literally than the Pharisees. They dominated the Temple worship and its rites, including the sacrificial cult. The Sadducees only recognized precepts derived directly from the immortality of the soul, the resurrection of the body, and the existence of angels. The Sadducees were unpopular with the common people.

 

Pharisees

The Pharisees, unlike the Saddducees, maintained the validity of the oral as well as the written law. They were flexible in their interpretations and willing to adapt the law to changing circumstances. They believed in an afterlife and in the resurrection of the dead. By the first century C.E., the Pharisees came to represent the beliefs and practices of the majority of Palestinian Jewry.

 

Essenes

The Essenes were a separatist group, some of whom formed an ascetic monastic community and retreated to the wilderness of Judea. They shared material possessions and occupied themselves with disciplined study, worship, and work. They practiced ritual immersion and ate their meals communally. One branch did not marry. Many scholars equate this group with the Dead Sea Scroll Sect, and some believe Christianity grew out of this movement.

 

4th Group (revolutionaries)

This group agrees with the Pharisees in all respects except that it follows the anarchistic ideology “No king but God!” They are usually thought of as the Sicarii and Zealots.

THE FOURTH BEAST IS DIFFERENT IT EXPLICITLY SAYS IT IN THE BIBLE THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT AND THAT PATTERN IS EVERWHERE IN THE BIBLE IT IS EVERYWHERE IN EXISTENCE IT IS EXISTENCE

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_7

Daniel 7 (the seventh chapter of the Book of Daniel) tells of Daniel's vision of four world-kingdoms replaced by the kingdom of God. Four beasts come out of the sea, the Ancient of Days sits in judgement over them, and "one like a son of man" is given eternal kingship. An angelic guide interprets the beasts as kingdoms and kings, the last of whom will make war on the "holy ones" of God, but he will be destroyed and the "holy ones" will be given eternal dominion.

 

It is generally accepted that the Book of Daniel is a product of the mid-2nd century bc.[1] It is an apocalypse, a literary genre in which a heavenly reality is revealed to a human recipient;[2] it is also an eschatology, a divine revelation concerning the moment in which God will intervene in history to usher in the final kingdom.[3] Its context is oppression of the Jews by the Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV, who outlawed Jewish customs and built an altar to Zeus in the Temple (the "abomination of desolation"), sparking a popular uprising which led to the retaking of Jerusalem and the Temple by Judas Maccabeus.[4][5] Chapter 7 introduces the theme of the "four kingdoms", which is that Israel would come under four successive world-empires, each worse than the last, until finally God would end oppression and introduce the eternal kingdom.[6]

 

Contents [hide]

1 Summary

2 Structure and composition

2.1 Book of Daniel

2.2 Chapter 7

3 Genre and themes

3.1 Genre

3.2 Themes

4 Interpretation

4.1 Historical background: from Babylon to the Greeks

4.2 Imagery and symbolism

5 Millennial interpretation

5.1 Seventh-day Adventists

5.2 Methodists

5.3 Futurist views

6 Appendix

7 See also

8 Citations

9 Bibliography

Summary[edit]

In the first year of Belshazzar, king of Babylon (probably 553 bc), Daniel receives a dream-vision from God. He sees the "great sea" stirred up by the "four winds of heaven," and from the waters emerge four beasts, the first a lion with the wings of an eagle, the second a bear, the third a winged leopard with four heads, and the fourth a beast with ten horns, and a further horn appeared which uprooted three of the ten. As Daniel watches, the Ancient of Days takes his seat on the throne of heaven and sits in judgement in the midst of the heavenly court, the fourth and worst beast is put to death, and a being like a human ("like a son of man") approaches the Ancient One in the clouds of heaven and is given everlasting kingship. A heavenly being explains the vision: the four beasts are four earthly kings (or kingdoms), "but the holy ones of the Most High shall receive and possess the kingdom forever." Regarding the fourth beast, the ten horns are ten kings of this last and greatest earthly kingdom; the eleventh horn (king) will overthrow three kings and make war on the "holy ones of God", and attempt to change the sacred seasons and the law he will have power "for a time, two times and a half", but when his allotted time is done he will be destroyed, and the holy ones will possess the eternal kingdom.[7]

 

Structure and composition[edit]

Main article: Book of Daniel § structure

 

Detailed structure of Daniel 7. The text is arranged to read top-to-bottom, and parallel left-to-right. (Words in bold font indicate parallel phrases, colors indicate the different kingdoms.[8]

Book of Daniel[edit]

It is generally accepted that the Book of Daniel originated as a collection of folktales among the Jewish community in Babylon and Mesopotamia in the Persian and early Hellenistic periods (5th to 3rd centuries bc), expanded by the visions of chapters 7-12 in the Maccabean era (mid-2nd century bc).[1] Modern scholarship agrees that Daniel is a legendary figure.[9] It is possible that the name was chosen for the hero of the book because of his reputation as a wise seer in Hebrew tradition.[10] The tales are in the voice of an anonymous narrator, except for chapter 4 which is in the form of a letter from king Nebuchadnezzar II.[11] Chapters 2-7 are in Aramaic (after the first few lines of chapter 2 in Hebrew,) and are in the form of a chiasmus, a poetic structure in which the main point or message of a passage is placed in the centre and framed by further repetitions on either side:[12]

 

A. (2:4b-49) – A dream of four kingdoms replaced by a fifth

B. (3:1–30) – Daniel's three friends in the fiery furnace

C. (4:1–37) – Daniel interprets a dream for Nebuchadnezzar

C'. (5:1–31) – Daniel interprets the handwriting on the wall for Belshazzar

B'. (6:1–28) – Daniel in the lions' den

A'. (7:1–28) – A vision of four world kingdoms replaced by a fifth

Chapter 7[edit]

Chapter 7 is pivotal to the larger structure of the entire book, acting as a bridge between the tales of chapters 1-6 and the visions of 7-12. The use of Aramaic and its place in the chiasm link it to the first half, while the use of Daniel as first-person narrator and its emphasis on visions link it to the second. There is also a temporal shift: the tales in chapters 1-6 have run from Nebuchadnezzar to Belshazzar to Darius, but in chapter 7 we move back to the first year of Belshazzar and the forward movement starts over again, to the third year of Belshazzar and then the third year of Cyrus.[13] Most scholars accept that the chapter was written as a unity, possibly based on an early anti-Hellenistic document from around 300 bc; verse 9 is usually printed as poetry, and may be a fragment of an ancient psalm. The overall structure can be described as follows:[8]

 

Introduction (verses 1-2a)

Vision report: vision of the four beasts; vision of the "little horn"; throne vision; vision of judgement; vision of a figure on the clouds (2b-14)

Interpretation (15-18)

Additional clarification of the vision (19-27)

Conclusion (28)

Genre and themes[edit]

Genre[edit]

The Book of Daniel is an apocalypse, a literary genre in which a heavenly reality is revealed to a human recipient. Apocalypses are characterized by visions, symbolism, an other-worldly mediator, an emphasis on cosmic events, angels and demons, and pseudonymity (false authorship).[2] Apocalypses were common from 300 bc to ad 100, not only among Jews and Christians, but Greeks, Romans, Persians and Egyptians.[14] Daniel, the book's hero, is a representative apocalyptic seer, the recipient of the divine revelation: has learned the wisdom of the Babylonian magicians and surpassed them, because his God is the true source of knowledge. Daniel is one of the maskilim, the wise, whose task is to teach righteousness.[14] The book is also an eschatology, meaning a divine revelation concerning the end of the present age, a moment in which God will intervene in history to usher in the final kingdom.[3]

 

Themes[edit]

The overall theme of the Book of Daniel is God's sovereignty over history.[15] Written to encourage Jews undergoing persecution at the hands of Antiochus Epiphanes, the Seleucid king of Syria, the visions of chapters 7-12 predict the end of the earthly Seleucid kingdom, its replacement by the eternal kingdom of God, the resurrection of the dead, and the final judgement.[16] Chapter 7 introduces the specific apocalyptic theme of the "four kingdoms", which is that Israel (or the world) would come under four successive world-empires, each worse than the last, until finally God and his hosts would end oppression and introduce the eternal kingdom.[6]

 

Interpretation[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Four monarchies.

Historical background: from Babylon to the Greeks[edit]

In the late 7th and early 6th centuries bc the Neo-Babylonian empire dominated the Middle East. The Kingdom of Judah began the period as a Babylonian client state, but after a series of rebellions Babylon reduced it to the status of a province and carried off its élite (not all its population) into captivity. This "Babylonian exile" ended in 538 bc when Medes and Persians led by Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon and ushered in the Persian or Achaemenid empire (with the Achaemenids as the ruling dynasty). The Persian empire in turn succumbed to Alexander the Great in the second half of the 4th century, and following Alexander's death in 323 bc his generals divided his empire between themselves. The Roman Empire in turn eventually took control over those parts of the Middle East to the west of Mesopotamia. Palestine fell first under the control of the Ptolemies of Egypt, but around 200 bc it passed to the Seleucids, then based in Syria. Both dynasties were Greek and both promoted Greek culture, usually peacefully, but the Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV, also called Antiochus Epiphanes (reigned 175-164 bc) proved an exception. Interpreting Jewish opposition as motivated by religion and culture, he outlawed Jewish customs such as circumcision, kosher dietary restrictions, Sabbath observance, and the Jewish scriptures (the Torah). In his most infamous act he built an altar to Zeus over the altar of burnt offerings in the Temple (the "abomination of desolation"), sparking in 167 bc a massive popular uprising against Hellenic Greek rule which led to the retaking of Jerusalem and the Temple by Judas Maccabeus[4][5] (164 bc).

 

Imagery and symbolism[edit]

The imagery of Daniel 7 comes ultimately from the Canaanite myth of Baʿal's battle with Yamm (lit. "Sea"), symbolic of chaos.[17] The four beasts are chaos monsters[17] which appeared as serpents in the Baʿal Cycle discovered in the ruins of Ugarit in the 1920s. In Daniel 7, composed sometime before Judas Maccabeus purified the temple in 164 bc, they symbolise Babylon, the Medes, Persia and Greece:[18]

 

The lion: Babylon. Its transformation into a man reverses Nebuchadnezzar's transformation into a beast in chapter 4, and the "human mind" may reflect his regaining sanity; the "plucked wings" reflect both loss of power and the transformation to a human state.

The bear: the Medes - compare Jeremiah 51:11 on the Medes attacking Babylon.

The leopard: Persia. The four heads may reflect the four Persian kings of Daniel 11:2-7.

The fourth beast: The Greeks and particularly the Seleucids of Syria.

The "ten horns" that appear on the beast stand for the ten Seleucid kings between Seleucus I, the founder of the kingdom, and Antiochus Epiphanes. The "little horn" is Antiochus himself. The "three horns" uprooted by the "little horn" reflect the fact that Antiochus was fourth in line to the throne, and became king after his brother and one of his brother's sons were murdered and the second son exiled to Rome. Antiochus was responsible only for the murder of one of his nephews, but the author of Daniel 7 holds him responsible for all.[19] Anthiochus called himself Theos Epiphanes, "God Manifest", suiting the "arrogant" speech of the little horn.[20]

 

The next scene is the divine court. Israelite monotheism should have only one throne as there is only one god, but here we see multiple thrones, suggesting the mythic background to the vision. The "Ancient of Days" echoes Canaanite El, but his wheeled throne suggests Ezekiel's mobile throne of God. He is surrounded by fire and an entourage of "ten thousand times ten thousand", an allusion to the heavenly hosts attending Yahweh, the God of Israel, as he rides to battle against his people's enemies. There is no battle, however; instead "the books" are opened and the fate of Israel's enemies is decided by God's sovereign judgement.[21]

 

The identity of the "one like a son of man" who approaches God on his throne has been much discussed. The usual suggestion is that this figure represents the triumph of the Jewish people over their oppressor; the main alternative view is that he is the angelic leader of God's heavenly host, a connection made explicitly in chapters 10-12, where the reader is told that the conflict on Earth is mirrored by a war in heaven between the Michael, the angelic champion of Israel, assisted by Gabriel, and the angelic "princes" of Greece and Persia; the idea that he is the messiah is sometimes advanced, but Daniel makes no clear reference to the messiah elsewhere.[22]

 

The "holy ones" seems to refer to the persecuted Jews under Antiochus; the "sacred seasons and the law" are the Jewish religious customs disrupted by him; the "time, two times and a half" is approximately the time of the persecution, from 167 to 164 bc, as well as being half the "perfect number" seven.[23]

 

"Their kingly power is an everlasting power": the hasidim (the sect of "the pious ones"), who produced the Book of Daniel, believed that the restoration of Jewish worship in the temple would usher in the final age.[24]

 

Millennial interpretation[edit]

See also: Prophetic beasts of Daniel (Appendix) § Daniel chapter 7

Just as scholars note parallels between the prophetic chapters in Daniel and Revelation, so too have historicists since the Protestant Reformation. "The Reformation ... was really born of a twofold discovery--first, the rediscovery of Christ and His salvation; and second, the discovery of the identity of Antichrist and his subversions."[25] "The reformers were unanimous in its acceptance. And it was this interpretation of prophecy that lent emphasis to their reformatory action. It led them to protest against Rome with extraordinary strength and undaunted courage. ... This was the rallying point and the battle cry that made the Reformation unconquerable."[26]

 

The following is a historicist-based illustration of the parallels.

 

Chapter Parallel sequence of prophetic elements as understood by Historicists[27][28]

Past Present Future

Daniel 2 Head

Gold

(Babylon) Chest & 2 arms

Silver

(Persia) Belly and thighs

Bronze

(Greece) 2 Legs

Iron

(Rome) 2 Feet with toes

Clay & Iron Rock

God's unending kingdom

left to no other people

Daniel 7 Winged Lion Lopsided Bear 4 Headed/4 Winged

Leopard Iron toothed Beast

w/Little Horn Judgment scene

Beast w/Horn

slain A son of man comes in clouds

Given everlasting dominion

He gives it to the saints.

 

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Seventh-day Adventists[edit]

The Centuriators of Magdeburg, a group of Lutheran scholars in Magdeburg headed by Matthias Flacius, wrote the 12-volume "Magdeburg Centuries" to discredit the papacy and identify the pope as the Antichrist. This was studied by early Seventh-day Adventists and writers Uriah Smith, James White and Ellen White expanded on the general historicist school common among Protestants.

 

Concerning the "little horn", interpreters of the historicist school (e.g. Adventist) identify the "little horn" as Papal Rome that came to power among the 10 barbarian tribes (the 10 horns) that had broken up the pagan Roman empire. The reference to changing "times and law" (Daniel 7:25) refers to the change of the Sabbath from Saturday to Sunday. The "time, times and half a time" (Daniel 7:25) was the 1260 years spanning 538 to 1798, when the Roman Church dominated the Christian world. (See Day-year principle for details)

 

Seventh-day Adventists teach that the Little Horn Power which as predicted rose after the breakup of the Roman Empire is the Papacy. In 533, Justinian, the emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, legally recognized the bishop (pope) of Rome as the head of all the Christian churches. Because of the Arian domination of some of the Roman Empire by the barbarian tribes, this authority could not be exercised by the bishop of Rome. Finally, in 538, Justinian's general Belisarius routed the Ostrogoths, the last of the barbarian kingdoms, from the city of Rome and the bishop of Rome could begin establishing his universal civil authority. So, by the military intervention of the Eastern Roman Empire, the bishop of Rome became all-powerful throughout the area of the old Roman Empire.

 

Like many reformation-era Protestant leaders, the writings of Adventist pioneer Ellen White speak against the Catholic Church as a fallen church and in preparation for a nefarious eschatological role as the antagonist against God's true church. She held that the pope is the Antichrist. Many Protestant reformers such as Martin Luther, John Knox, William Tyndale and others held similar beliefs about the Catholic Church and the papacy when they broke away from the Catholic Church during the reformation.[29]

 

Ellen White writing of what Adventist believe [30] of the Daniel 2 prophecy, and how it points to Papal Rome writes,

 

His word has given warning of the impending danger; let this be unheeded, and the Protestant world will learn what the purposes of Rome really are, only when it is too late to escape the snare. She is silently growing into power. Her doctrines are exerting their influence in legislative halls, in the churches, and in the hearts of men. She is piling up her lofty and massive structures in the secret recesses of which her former persecutions will be repeated. Stealthily and unsuspectedly she is strengthening her forces to further her own ends when the time shall come for her to strike. All that she desires is vantage ground, and this is already being given her. We shall soon see and shall feel what the purpose of the Roman element is. Whoever shall believe and obey the word of God will thereby incur reproach and persecution.[31]

 

Seventh-day Adventists view the length of time the apostate church unbridled power was permitted to rule as shown in Daniel 7:25 "The little horn would rule a time and times and half a time" or 1,260 years. The papacy ruled supremely in Europe from 538 when the last of the Arian tribes was forced out of Rome and into oblivion, until 1798 when the French general Berthier took the pope captive, which history records a period of 1,260 years.

 

Methodists[edit]

Adam Clarke's commentary published in 1831 supports the interpretation that the little horn is Papal Rome by this comment "Among Protestant writers this is considered to be the popedom."[32]

 

He stated that the 1260-year period should commence in 755, the year Pepin the Short actually invaded Lombard territory, resulting in the Pope's elevation from a subject of the Byzantine Empire to an independent head of state.[33] The Donation of Pepin, which first occurred in 754 and again in 756 gave to the Pope temporal power of the Papal States. His time line, which began in 755 will end in 2015. But his introductory comments on Daniel 7 added 756 as an alternative commencement date [34] Based on this, commentators anticipate the end of the Papacy in 2016:

 

"As the date of the prevalence and reign of antichrist must, according to the principles here laid down, be fixed at AD 756, therefore the end of this period of his reign must be AD 756 added to 1260; equal to 2016, the year of the Christian era set by infinite wisdom for this long-prayed-for event. Amen and amen!" [35][36]

 

Futurist views[edit]

In the Futurist view, the "little horn" is identified as the future antichrist who will rise to power through the "revived Roman Empire"(the fourth beast). The "time, times and half a time" (Daniel 7:25) is taken as a literal 3½ year period corresponding to the last half of the 7 year tribulation within the 70th week of Daniel 9:24-27.

FOUR LETTERS OF MOSHIACH AND FOUR CONCEPTS

 

http://blogs.timesofisrael.com/vayahkel-the-secret-from-the-beginning-2/

Among the three fathers Jacob represents the highest level, as he harmonizes the dichotomy of Abraham on the right side and Isaac on the left side. Still, this is only the beginning, as the ultimate end of Torah is to develop Jacob into Israel.

When Adam and Eve failed their missions in the garden, the stage was set for the process of rectification, which process in a nutshell is modeled after the so-called four chariots, corresponding to Chesed (Abraham), Gevurah (Isaac), Tiferet (Jacob – Israel) and Malchut (David).

Malchut is the end, the ultimate purpose of creation, which will be established by Mashiach, being the son of David, the King of Israel.

The rectification process in gematria:

in the

beginning

Abraham אַבְרָהָם 248

Isaac יִצְחָק 208

Jacob יַעֲקֹב 182

at the end Israel יִשְׂרָאֵל 541

Mashiach מָּשִׁיחַ 358

1537

Adding number 4 (the four chariots) to 1537, the sum is transformed to 1541, which is exactly the gematria of Israel יִשְׂרָאֵל with the letter Alef having the gematria of both 1 and 1000.

This comes to teach us that the first thought, the end, as well as the intermediary process are all about Israel.

This comes to teach us that Mashiach is also in the thought of God prior to creation.

We have now established that prior to creation the following 4 concepts are one:

YHVH יְהוָה 26

Mashiach מָּשִׁיחַ 358

Torah תּוֹרָה 611

Israel יִשְׂרָאֵל 541

1536

The average number is 1536 / 4 = 384, which is exactly the gematria of “Mashiach of YHVH” מָּשִׁיחַ יְהוָה. This comes to teach us that the four concepts are actually one, and Mashiach represents the primordial Divine thought of God, for the four letters of Mashiach מָּשִׁיחַ can be rearranged to mean: “there is mind” יֵשׁ מֹחַ.

http://yearsofawe.blogspot.co.il/2011/11/how-to-recognize-righteous-gentile_02.html

 

http://yearsofawe.blogspot.co.il/…/how-to-recognize-righteo…

Also there are four obscene Arayot (sexual immoralities) which are forbidden to a Noachide. Two of them are forbidden because they are not natural, and since Elokim is Nature's G-d, unnatural things are necessarily forbidden: male homosexuality (with penetration) and bestiality. Also adultery is forbidden because it involves stealing another man's wife. The wife is also killed for the crime if she is a willing participant. If she was raped and could not scream out, that is a different matter. Rape itself is not one of the sexual immorality sins.

http://yearsofawe.blogspot.com/2005/05/secret-of-vav-in-hashems-name.html

FOUR SEPHARDIC RABBIS FOUR BOOKS OF TORAH CORRESPOND TO FOUR SPECIES

http://yearsofawe.blogspot.com/2005/05/secret-of-vav-in-hashems-name.html

QMRThe first letter deals with the idea that 5766 is a keitz where Mashiach could come and, according to the four Sephardic Rabbis, is coming b’ito. The b’ito moment is a result of the divine power of the letter vav is G-d’s name. Vav has the value of six, and vav repeating is 666666…. According to the Zohar on page 119a of Vayera: The redemption of Israel will come about through the mystic force of the letter vav (in Hashem’s name), namely in the 6th millennium, and more precisely, after 6 seconds and half the time that remains. This is the Zohar’s way of saying the 666th year of the 6th millennium, 6 ½ months into the year. This of course is the first day of Pesach which is 6 ½ months after Rosh Hashana. 6 ½ days later is the seventh day of Pesach. This of course leads to the notion that Mashiach can potentially come b’ito starting on the afternoon of the seventh day of Pesach in the year 5666. From this the Rebbe Rashab introduced four cups of wine in the third meal of the last day of Pesach, starting in the year 5666. Another possible interpretation of this verse is that he could come b’ito in the year 5666, 2/3 of the way through the year, but the Rebbe Rashab’s interpretation stands as it is. Taking into account a repeat of the miracle in Parshat Vayera, we arrive at the keitz as calculated by the mekubalim of our generation as being Pesach 5766. At this point I will let my response to one of the letters that I have received take over, for it discusses what I believe to be the calculation for this keitz:

The only item in the list of four whose rectification will come after this year according to Vayera is the expulsion of Ishmael for his ruthless violent behavior. Mashiach ben David will need to handle that one once he is firmly in control. Let us all pray that he establishes his Kingdom of G-d sooner as opposed to later.

The second letter response is about a question about the four states of matter as they correspond to the four species of the Feast of Sukkot (Tabernacles) and the four letters of Hashem’s name. I then discuss the recently concluded Pesach Seder and how the final redemption begins with the Vav in Hashem’s name being attached to the Yud and the Hey that were the source of the redemption from Egypt. Of course the four cups of wine correspond to the four letters of His Name:

As far as the correspondence of the four species with the four letters in G-d's name, my source is the Vilna Gaon who said that the Yud and the first Hey correspond with Bereishit (Genesis) and Shmot (Exodus) while the Vav and the 2nd Hey in His name corresponds with BaMidbar (Numbers) and D'varim (Deuteronomy) respectively. In the old Aish HaTorah Arachim sefer published by Aish Hatorah through the auspices of the Rothman Foundation, there is a detailed discussion of the deep structures of the torah on how these four books correspond with each of the four species respectively (pp. 100-102 in this sefer). It is an amazing and convincing proof that the Aravah (willow branch) corresponds with Bereishit (Genesis) and the Yud in His name. The lulav corresponds with Shemot and the first Hey in Hashem's name. The Hadas corresponds with Bamidbar and the Vav in Hashem's name. And the Etrog corresponds with Devarim and the final Hey in His name.

http://yearsofawe.blogspot.com/…/secret-of-vav-in-hashems-n…

72 COMES FROM GEMATRIA OF TETRAGRAMMATON IN TETRACTYS

https://www.scribd.com/document/306117886/Studies-in-the-History-of-Christian-Traditions-179-Wilkinson-Tetragrammaton-Western-Christians-and-the-Hebrew-Name-of-God-2015

24 The 72 angel names from the original (1533 Cologne) edition of

72 DERIVES FROM GEMATRIA FO THE TETRAGRAMMATON IN THE TETRACTYS AND ALL OTHER LETTERED NAMES OF GOD DERIVE FROM TETRAGRAMMATON- TETRA IS FOUR

http://www.cs.utah.edu/~spiegel/kabbalah/jkm10.htm

 

10.12 The 72 Letter Name of God

As the 42 Letter Name associates with creation, the 72 Letter Name associates with redemption. Urbach in “The Sages” describes a papyrus, which portrayed the Divine name in a triangular structure.[1223] At the base were 12 positions for the 12 Letter Name, and then 42 positions for the 42 Letter Name and then the full 72 positions ending at top. Adjusting the rows one can see the pyramid structure.

Text 10-42: Urbach on the Names of God According to the Magical Papyri

The writing of the Names in amulets and for magical purposes was performed according to the usual practice in this art. The Name of twelve letters, mentioned in a Babylonian Baraita, and the Name of forty-two letters, of which Rav speaks in Kiddushin 71a, and the Name of seventy-two letters, with which, R. Avin tells us, the Holy One, blessed be He, redeemed the children of Israel from Egypt—none of these is explained either in the Talmud or in the Amoraic Midrashim. On the other hand, there are numerous philosophical and mystical explanations. But undoubtedly the discovery of the magical papyri has served to clarify the subject of these Names, as M. Gaster and L. Blau have shown. In these papyri the sounds of the Greek alphabet are used for combinations of names in various patterns. This combination of letters, which is called (Greek omitted), was achieved by Jews by means of the Tetragrammaton. Writing it three times produced the Name of twelve letters. A triangular structure, whose base consists of twelve letters – that is, three times the Tetragrammaton – and the succeeding lines contain progressively one letter less, until at the apex the Tetragrammaton is attained, comprises a total of seventy-two letters. The first four rows form the Name of forty-two letters. Since these Names, which were called the ‘Great Name’, were based upon the Tetragrammaton, it is not surprising that the same rules of caution were applied to their transmission.[1224]

We are forbidden to take the name of G-d in vain. One is punishable if, G-d forbid, he curses someone with this name of G-d.[1225] That the gematria of Hesed – חסד is 72 teaches that the 72-letter name is an overflowing of kindness beyond consideration of merit that brings our redemption.

Figure 10-2: The Papyrus with the Seventy-Two Letter Divine Name Structure

jkm024.png

Three transcriptions of the Tetragrammaton make up the bottom row, while the Forty Two Letter Name makes up the bottom four rows and the whole structure, the Seventy Two Letter Name. The top row is the Tetragrammaton. Because the 12 Letter Name is not a subset of the Forty Two Letter Name by the actual letters, the papyrus does not explain the origin of the specific letters of these names. Being a Greek papyrus, the structure represents the influence of Greek thought on Jewish mysticism.[1226]

Text 10-43: Midrash Rabbah Genesis on the Seventy-two Letter Name of God

R. Eleazar said in R. Jose's name: The Holy One, blessed be He, promised our forefather that He would redeem his children with these two letters;[1227] but if they repented, He would redeem them with seventy-two letters. R. Judan said: In the passage, “ [Or hath God assayed] to go and take Him a nation from the midst of another nation, by trials, by signs, and by wonders, and by roar, and by a mighty hand, and by an outstretched arm, and by great terrors” (Deut. IV, 34), You will find seventy-two letters; and should you object, that there are seventy-five, deduct the second ’nation,’ which is not to be counted. R. Abin said: He redeemed them by His name, the Name of the Holy One, blessed be He, consisting of seventy-two letters. [1228]

Rabbi Judan is referring to the following verse of 72 letters. If we are worthy, our Master will redeem us by justice, and if not, He will redeem us with mercy.

FOUR BATTLES

https://www.lifeinmessiah.org/hanukkah/

Within three years the Syrian invaders were driven from the land and the focus changed to the cleansing of the Temple. There were four major battles against the Syrians before the Temple was regained. On the 25th day of Kislev (November/December) in 165 B.C. (some scholars say 164 B.C.) exactly three years to the day after its desecration, the Temple and the altar were rededicated. Judah also commanded that the pagan altar be torn down and Yahweh’s altar rebuilt (1 Macc 4:26-61). This victory by the Maccabees over the Syrians was just a foretaste of what Messiah would bring.

THE FOURTH KEY IS DIFFERENT AND TRANSCENDENT

 

http://www.yashanet.com/studies/revstudy/rev5hd.htm

Boel is mentioned only one other place in the Zohar, where he is seen as being the one to unite the letters of the name YHVH at the end of days, referred to as "keys" (i.e., the "Key of David" which we will discuss in our text analysis):

Soncino Zohar, Shemoth, Section 2, Page 133b - At the time when the Spouse is united with the Matrona a herald comes forth from the south, crying: "Awaken, O ye supernal hosts, and unfurl the banners of love in honour of your Lord!" Then one of the leaders of the celestial array-he whose name is Boel (God is in him)- stands forth, and in his hands are four keys which he obtained one from each of the four corners of the earth. One key has upon it the sign of the letter Yod engraved; the second the letter He’; and the third the letter Vau; and these three keys he lays beneath the boughs of the Tree of Life. Then these three become one. Then the fourth and last key, which bears upon it the second letter He’, joins the three which have become one. And all the angelic hosts enter by means of those keys into the Garden of Eden, where with one voice they proclaim the Divine unity at the selfsame moment as it is proclaimed here below. Then the Shekinah, the Bride, is conducted to the Palace of the King, Her Bridegroom, for now He stands complete in all His supernal goodness and can supply Her with all that She needs.

THE FOUR MITZVOTH OF PURIM AND UNITING THE FOUR LETTERS OF GOD

http://www.israelnationalnews.com/Articles/Article.aspx/16586

When God in the Torah reveals His ongoing battle with Amalek and the doubt Amalek engenders, He uses unusual language to describe this war – “Ki yad al keis kah …” He puts His hand on His throne to symbolize taking an oath to continue this war from generation to generation. But the words used to describe God’s throne are incomplete. The word for throne should be kisay, but the letter aleph,representing the One God, is missing, as are two letters from God’s four-lettered name. Rabbi Leff explains that God’s throne is incomplete while Amalek exists. How? The four-lettered name of God Y-H-V-H incorporates all time, past, present and future. With the two letters here, we have allusions to God’s throne existing in the past and in the future, as we can see from studying history or from studying the prophecies. But recognizing God’s sovereignty and involvement in the present is missing here. Purim represents seeing God in the present, in the daily processes of the world.

Rabbi Pinchas Friedman in Shvilei Pinchas, explains how we want to reunite the four letters of God’s name and effect the completion of His throne. Citing the Baal Shem Tov, he describes how giving tzedakah to the poor, one of the four mitzvoth we must fulfill on Purim, symbolically creates these four letters. The coin we give is small, like the letter yud. We take it in our hand of five fingers, equal to the letterheh. We then extend our arm that now resembles the straight letter vov. Finally, we put it into the five fingers of the recipient, giving us the final heh.

TETRAGRAMMATON- FOUR SIDES REPRESENT FOUR EXILES

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Xj-3o0Qptw

The monument is designed with 3 standard measurements: the inch, the foot and the ancient and (27.5 inches). It also has a few standard dimensions because of its special shape: its height, base (width), apothem, and perimeter of its base. Let’s start with the standard measure of its base (width), which is 756.25 feet long. That’s long.

And similarly, the height of this monument is 481.25 feet high, not only towers 48 stories over the desert below, but matches up with the Hebrew word for year, Shanah (ShNH), which likewise when taken in its more potent gematria milui (spelled-out) value (ShYN NVN HY) gives us 481. So while “year” and “50” seem to go together beautifully in the concept of the critical “jubilee year” concept,

simple arithmetic gives us (756 – 481) = 275, which, if you recall from our article on the derivation of the ancient and future cubit, was the total value of the Tetragrammaton in its full form, encompassing all four aspects, which collectively totaled 232 + 39 letters + 4 Names = 275. And since 275/10 sefirot = 27.5, the secret measure of the Holy cubit, 27.5 inches. So we have this divine bond between 756 and 481, or alternatively between the letters Nun (50) and Shanah.

The world knows it as the Great Pyramid of Cheops (Khufu), which has helped to conceal its true import.

The South base, since all four are slightly different, yet extremely precise,, which is exactly 756.25 feet wide and the exact height of the pyramid is precisely 481.25 feet tall. The basic measurements of the

pyramid (756.25 – 481.25 = 275) give the exact dimension of the ancient and future cubit in terms of the Divine Name of G-d.

examine closer the Hebrew letter Nun (NVN)

spelled out and see that its gematria milui value (50+6+50) is 106 and that the 4 letter Nuns (NVN) that represent the 4 bases of the pyramid add up to 106 x 4 = 424, the exact numerical value of Moshiach Ben

David (the Messiah).

The number 4, as in the 4 sides and the 4 letters in the Tetragramamton (YHVH), in Hebrew is represented by

the letter dalet (D), and as we said, the number 50 is represented by the letter Nun (N). Together, they

represent the combination DN, which Abraham, the Patriarch, informed us in his Sefer Yetzirah, are the letters

that control the destiny of the month of Cheshvan (Scorpio) and moreover, they are directly connected with the

revelation of Moshiachould very well represent the 4 Letters of the Tetragrammaton (YHVH), after all

the secret entrance to the pyramid was located 55 feet off the ground with a futuristic YHVH engraved

Odd if an Egyptian pharaoh was the architect or builder, don’t you think—but the 4 sides could also represent the 4 exiles, starting with the one in Egypt that began with Joseph and lasted 210 years.

Now, there might be more to that than you think. Remember the height of the pyramid is 481.25 feet, the

same as the gematria (481) of the Hebrew word for years, and 481.25 feet = 210 cubits, which is also the

same as the exact number of levels of stone in the pyramid, 210.

Please note, that the number 210 in Hebrew counting is comprised of the letters, Resh (R) and Yud (Y), the two letters that Abraham Avinu advised controlled the destiny of the month of Elul (Virgo).

Obviously, the height of the pyramid could very well mark the 210 years of the Israelite exile in Egypt.

But the height of the pyramid may reveal something else as well, because 481.25 feet is also 5775 inches, or in terms of years, 5775 would be the year 2015 CE and 3 years shy of the date given to us by Rav Ashlag and marked by the Divine Calendar, etc for Moshiach and the geula: 5778.

THE FOUR CAMPS OF ISRAEL THE FOUR CUPS THE FOUR LEVELS OF REPENTANCE

http://www.sie.org/templates/sie/article_cdo/aid/2419964/jewish/Moshiachs-Seudah.htm

That Moshiach’s festival is celebrated specifically on the last day of Pesach is not merely because Moshiach will redeem us from the last exile. Being last has a significance beyond mere numerical order, for that which is last performs a unique function. When the Jews journeyed in the desert after leaving Egypt, they marched in a specific order, divided into four camps. The last to march was the camp of Don, which is described by Torah as “ma’asaf l’chol hamachanos” — “gatherer of all the camps.”6 Rashi explains this as meaning that “The tribe of Don...would journey last, and whoever would lose anything, it would restore it to him.”

The four cups of wine also allude to the Messianic Age, for which the dissemination of Chassidus — especially Chabad Chassidus — is the preparation.26 The four cups symbolize:

— the four expression of redemption.27

— the four cups of retribution G‑d will force the nations of the world to drink.27

— the four cups of comfort G‑d will bestow upon the Jews.27

— the four letters of G‑d’s Name which will be revealed.28

— the four general levels of repentance.29

THE FOUR PARTS OF T'FILLA

 

http://www.beismoshiach.org/Moshiach/moshiach312.htm

We see now more than ever through DNA the achdus in all of creation. All of creation is essentially a united existence with one imprint on all of it, the four components, reflecting the four letters of Hashem.

The DNA is shaped like a ladder and double helix, reflecting its source, the "rungs" of Seider Hishtalshlus. Accordingly, the stairs of the Beis HaMikdash, the source for all energy in this world, were spiral!

The real core behind DNA, the four letters of the name of Hashem, may be reached through the four parts of t’filla. Every letter of the davening is like another strand of spiritual DNA. It is no wonder then to consider how careful the Rebbe is in pronouncing every letter in davening.

FOUR WORLDS OF KABALLAH AND FOUR CHEMICALS THAT MAKE UP ALL TISSUE - THE FOUR BOOKS OF THE SHULCHAN ARUCH THE FOUR KLIPOS, FOUR PARTS OF DAVENING

http://www.beismoshiach.org/Moshiach/moshiach312.htm

For this taste and awareness of Hashem in all of creation, we have always seen the number four, which is the name of Hashem, Yud Kei Vav Kei, through which everything was created, reflected in so many essential areas of creation.

The four spiritual worlds Atzilus, Briah, Yetzira, Asiya. The four essential levels of creation domem (inanimate objects) tzomeiach ( vegetation) , chai ( living creatures ), medaber (human beings). The four ways to interpret Torah, Pardes. The four Books of the Shulchan Aruch, the four klipos, four parts of the davening, the four letters of Hashem’s name, which, through different combinations, give life to every hour of the day, etc.

Now comes modern science and discovered what we have known for thousands of years. There are basically four essential elements that constitute the essence of all matter. Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Torah already told us, that at the essence of all existence there are four elements. The element of afar (earth), mayim (water), eish (fire), and ruach (air).

At the core of these above mentioned four chemicals there is the DNA of all living tissue. Four components that pair into two. Exactly like Yud & Hei, Vav & Hei, the source of all creation and the potential for all. By the way, Torah and Chassidus already tells us zachar u’nekeiva bara osam. Everything at all levels, comprises of a pair, mashpia and mekabel, a giver and receiver.

DREIDAL FOUR LETTERS REPRESENT FOUR LETTERS OF MOSHIACH AND FOUR EXILES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dreidel

When the dreidel game spread to Jewish communities that were unfamiliar with Yiddish, the denotations of the Hebrew letters were not understood. There arose as a result Jewish traditions to explain their assumed meaning. Some claimed the 4 letters cyphered Babylon, Persia, Greece and the Roman Empire, the four ancient empires that tried to destroy Israel; a gematriya reading yielded the number 358, identical to the value of the 4 letters used for Moshiach (Messiah). A third popular conjecture had it that the letters abbreviated the words nes gadol haya sham (a great miracle happened there), an idea that became attached to dreidels when the game entered into Hanukkah festivities. [2]

http://www.beingjewish.com/mitzvos/tzitzis.html

The smaller four-cornered garment, the arba kanfos," that men wear throughout the day, there is also the larger tallis, which men wear only during the morning prayers. This is also called a tallis gadol, which means something like "large wrap-around garment." Some peoplecall this a "prayer shawl," but it is supposed to be much larger than a shawl. The tallis, since it has four corners, must also have tzitzis, and the Laws for them are the same.

Before putting on any four-cornered garment, we must carefully check each corner to make sure the tzitzis are on correctly. For example, every morning, when we get dressed, and we put on our small "arba kanfos," we may not put it on before we have checked to make sure the tzitzis are intact. If the tzitzis were bought from a reliable store, we do not have to check everything about the tzitzis. We just have to check that none of the strings have been torn off, and that each is at least about 1 and 1/2 inches long. If one string has torn and is now less than that length, the tzitzis are still acceptable. If two or more strings on the same corner have torn, and are both now shorter than 1 and 1/2 inches long, then the tzitzis are invalid and must be replaced. You can usually take it to a good Judaica store and ask them to do this for you for a small fee.

The same is true for a tallis, of course.

THE FOUR GREAT RABBIS- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

http://www.jewishhistory.org/the-four-captives/

Jewish history works in strange and surprising ways. A perfect example is how the Diaspora spread from Babylonia to North Africa and Spain. Oddly enough, it began with a kidnapping.

For centuries, the yeshivas of Babylonia, the birthplace of the Talmud, were the center of Jewish life. At the end of the 8th century, however, they faced a serious economic crisis, as yeshivas are wont to do. They therefore adopted the time-honored formula of sending fundraisers overseas. And because the situation was so desperate, they did not just send out any collectors. They sent the heads of the yeshivas themselves, along with their wives and families. The names of three of them are known to us: Rabbi Shmaryahu, Rabbi Chushiel, and Rabbi Moshe. The fourth man has remained anonymous.

The four great rabbis set out together, but in those times, the Mediterranean was a dangerous place. Aside from the storms and the uncertain fate of ships, pirates abounded. And not only did these pirates look for booty, they looked for people whom they could kidnap and sell on the slave market.

The pirates knew that if they could capture Jews, especially prominent Jews, they could collect a great ransom. Redeeming the kidnapped is one of the primary mitzvos of the Torah. We’re even allowed to sell a Torah scroll to raise money to save a Jew. Jewish law always had its priorities straight. Jews are not museums, not artifacts, and not a culture – we’re people. People have to be saved from kidnappers. A Torah scroll won’t do anyone any good if there are no Jews to learn from it.

Aware of this, the pirates were always on the lookout. They had spies, informers who told them, “This-and-this ship is sailing from this-and-this port with these-and-these people.” The pirates got wind of the fact that there were four great rabbis on this ship, and two or three days out of port, the rabbis were captured.

The rabbis were brought to the slave markets in Alexandria, where Rabbi Shmaryahu was ransomed. But the pirates were unable to get a high enough price for all four rabbis, so the remaining captives were brought west to the slave markets of Tunis and Fez.

Back then, Tunis and Fez were like the Western frontier. There were Jews there, but they were never able to attract great rabbinic leadership. So now they saw a golden opportunity, and they struck a deal. They told the pirates, “Before we bid on the rabbis, we’d like to talk to them.”

Then they made the rabbis an offer. They would ransom them, but they wanted them to stay and build up a thriving Jewish community.

Rabbi Chushiel and his son Rabbi Chananel agreed. Rabbi Moshe was ransomed in Spain, though according to the legend, his wife, unfortunately, threw herself into the Mediterranean and drowned rather than submit to the advances of the pirate leader. The fourth rabbi was sold off in Sicily.

From these rabbis grew strong Jewish communities, and that is how the scene began to shift. As we know from the history of American Jewry, it only takes a few great people to make a difference. The four rabbis built yeshivas, and eventually students emigrated to come and learn with them. They set a standard that changed the entire complexion of Jewish life so that within 50 to 80 years, North African Jewry no longer felt subservient to Babylonian rule. And that is how the west opened up. Jewish history develops through unexpected twists and turns.

JEWISH PRIESTS WORE FOUR COVERINGS. HIGH PRIESTS WORE FOUR MORE COVERINGSD

http://thetorah.com/garments-of-the-high-priest-anthropomorphism-in-the-worship-of-god/

The four garments peculiar to the High Priest are unlike any normal articles of clothing. Their shape and design show that they are not intended to provide protection from the elements or to fulfill the requirements of modesty. In addition to fabrics, they contain gold and precious stones. On three of them, words are inscribed. Their weight and the manner in which they are placed on the High Priest’s body render them neither practical nor comfortable. The High Priest is said to “wear” them only when he enters the sanctuary interior, which he is commanded to do twice daily, morning and evening. Most important, each one of the High Priest’s “garments” is said to function in a specific way whenever the High Priest enters the sanctuary “wearing” it.

 

The Functions of the High Priest’s Garments

 

Ephod

The ephod’s precious stones, inscribed with the names of the twelve tribes, are said to serve as אַבְנֵי זִכָּרוֹן “stones of reminder” to remind God of Israel, and the same is true of the twelve stones on the breastplate. Thus by his very person, which we might call the “body politic,” the High Priest personifies the whole of the Israelite people לִפְנֵי ה’ “before YHWH,” i.e. when standing in God’s presence (Exodus 28:12, 29; 39:7).

 

Breastplate

The Urim and Thummim, connected with the breastplate, enable Aaron, each time he enters the sanctuary, to inquire of God for judgment (Exodus 28:30), which probably means in order to ascertain the correct decision in legal proceedings.

 

Robe

The robe is “worn” for its bells, their sound alerting the divine presence to Aaron’s approach as he enters the sanctuary “so that he not die” (Exodus 28:35) – which might happen if he were to disturb the divine repose too abruptly.

 

Diadem

Finally the diadem on Aaron’s head is said to remove from God’s abode any wrongdoing connected with Israel’s offerings and to ensure, by means of the inscription proclaiming that Israel’s worship is קֹדֶשׁ לַה’ “Holy to Yhwh,” that God graciously accept (that is the meaning of רָצוֹן in P) their sacrifices (Exodus 28:38).

 

When one considers the daily ritual acts involving these “garments,” it becomes clear that in P they are not viewed as apparel at all. They are called בְּגָדִים, “garments,” and technically they are – but only because the High Priest bears them on his person. Essentially, they are ceremonial, ritual objects. They transform the High Priest who “wears” them into a walking embodiment of the whole nation of Israel, and they play indispensable roles in the regular (note the repeated use of the word “tāmîd”) pageant of worship that he enacts on Israel’s behalf.

FOUR COMPARTMENTS OF JEWISH PHYLACTERIES AND FOUR BIBLICAL PASSAGES- ALSO THE SHIN ON THE PYLACTERY HAS FOUR STROKES INSTEAD OF THE USUAL THREE- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT- RABBIS SAY IT IS NOT KNOWN WHY THERE ARE FOUR STROKES INSTEAD OF THREE BUT THAT MOSHIACH WOULD EXPLAIN

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/12125-phylacteries

The hand-phylactery has only one compartment, which contains the four Biblical selections written upon a single strip of parchment in four parallel columns and in the order given in the Bible (Men. 34b). The head-phylactery has four compartments, formed from one piece of leather, in each of which one selection written on a separate piece of parchment is deposited perpendicularly. The pieces of parchment on which the Biblical selections are written are in either case tied round with narrow strips of parchment and fastened with the thoroughly washed hair of a clean animal (Shab. 28b, 108a), preferably of a calf ("Yad," l.c. iii, 8; Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 32, 44). There was considerable discussion among the commentators of the Talmud (Men. 34b) as to the order in which the Biblical selections should be inserted into the head-phylactery. The chief disputants in this case were R. Solomon Yiẓḥaḳi (Rashi) and R. Jacob b. Meïr Tam (Rabbenu Tam), although different possible arrangements have been suggested by other writers ("Shimmusha Rabba" and RABaD). The following diagram shows the arrangements of the Bible verses as advocated respectively by Rabbenu Tam and Rashi (comp. Rodkinssohn, "Tefillah le-Mosheh," p. 25):

 

The box containing the head-phylactery has on the outside the letter ש, both to the right (with three strokes: ש) and to the left (with four strokes: ש; Men. 35a; comp. Tos., s.v. "Shin"; probably as a reminder to insure the correct insertion of the four Biblical passages); and this, together with the letters formed by the knots of the two straps, make up the letters of the Hebrew word "Shaddai" ( = "Almighty," one of the names of God; Men. 35b; Rashi, s.v. "Ḳesher"). The measurements of the boxes are not given; but it is recommended that they should not be smaller than the width of two fingers ('Er. 95b; Tos., s.v. "Maḳom"; Men. 35a; Tos., s.v. "Shin"). The width of the straps should be equal to thelength of a grain of oats. The strap that is passed through the head-phylactery should be long enough to encircle the head and to allow for the knot; and the two ends, falling in front over either shoulder, should reach the navel, or somewhat above it. The strap that is passed through the hand-phylactery should be long enough to allow for the knot, to encircle the whole length of the arm, and then to be wound three times around the middle finger ("Yad," l.c. iii. 12; Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 27, 8, 11).

http://www.beingjewish.com/mitzvos/tzitzis.html

Hashem told Moses, Speak to the Children of Israel and tell them that they should make "tzitzis" on the four corners of their clothing. This pertains to all generations of Jews.

You shall put on the tzitzis of each corner one thread of t'chailes.

You will have these tzitzis, and when you see them you will remember all the Commandments of Hashem and you will do them, and you will not pursue the desires of you hearts or eyes.

So that you remember and do all My Commandments, and you will be holy to your G-d. For I am Hashem your G-d Who has taken you out of Egypt so that I could be your G-d.

I am Hashem your G-d.

16 SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL 16 GRANDSONS OF NOAH

https://amazingbibletimeline.com/blog/tracing-the-sons-of-noah/

Tracing the Sons of Noah

son_of_noah

‘Noah dividing the world between his sons (a Russian picture from the 18th century).’

Find out about each of the 16 grandsons of Noah and the nations they populated.

 

Open The Bible Timeline Online for the years after the flood

 

Click on each of the 16 grandsons of Noah to learn about him and his descendants.

 

Each link takes you to complete information on the grandson, his nations, the Biblical references and additional online resources.

 

 

Here’s a synopsis of what you’ll find

 

1. Sons of Ham

 

Cush is Ethiopia

 

Mizraim is Egypt

 

Phut is Lybia

 

Canaan or Palestine Israel and Palestine today

 

2. Sons of Shem (the Semites)

 

Elam,Persia (Iran)

 

Asshur, Assyria

 

Arphaxad,Chaldeans, Hebrews and Arabians

 

Lud, Lydia (western Turkey)

 

Aram Syria

 

3. Japheth:

Gomer: Gauls who settled France, Spain, Wales, Armenia, northern Turkey

 

Magog: Goths, Finns, Sweden, Southern Russia

 

Madia: Medes India

 

Javan: Ionians of Greece

 

Tubal: Throughout Europe, Turkey and Siberia

 

Meshech: Muscovites, Armenians, Caucasians

 

Tiras:

 

China, Japan and the eastern countries: by Kittim Grandson of Japheth.

 

However other Biblical scholars believe differently. For example this article suggests the Chinese are descended from Shem.

THERE ARE 16 SQUARES IN THE QUADRANT MODEL- THERE WERE 16 JUDGES OF ISRAEL- THEN THE 16TH JUDGE ELECTED SAUL AS KING

https://bibleview.org/en/bible/3kings/samuelanointssaul/

Samuel the sixteenth Judge of Israel anoints Saul, 1 Samuel 10:1-27

 

 

Samuel was asked by God to anoint Saul and later David as Kings of Israel. At this time Samuel was the 16th Judge of Israel and a prophet of Israel.

http://www.biblestudy.org/bibleref/meaning-of-numbers-in-bible/16.html

16 SQUARES QMR

There were sixteen Judges (or group of Judges) that governed Israel from the time the Israelites took possession of the promised land to the time Saul was anointed their first human king. They were Joshua, Othniel, Ehud, Deborah and Barak, Eli, Gideon, Abimelech (North only), Tola (North only), Jephthah (East only), Samson (in the South and West only), Samuel, Ibzan (East only), Jair (North only), Elon (East only) and Abdon (East only). Samuel's sons comprised the sixteenth and final Judge over Israel. Designated Judges by Samuel when he was old and could no longer perform his duties, they soon became so corrupt in their responsibilities that the Israelites requested a human king be placed over them.

16[edit]- INTERESTING THAT 16 IS THE QUADRANT MODEL AND LIKE THE NAME OF GOD IS NOT TO BE WRITTEN DOWN IN JUDAISM OR AT LEAST IT IS WRITTEN IN A DIFFERENT WAY- SO IS 16

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Significance_of_numbers_in_Judaism

16 is one of two numbers that is written differently from the conventions of writing numbers in Hebrew in order to avoid writing the name of G-d. The other is 15.

http://www.oldtestamentstudies.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/HagMal.pdf

 

II. Exegetical Analysis

In analyzing the content of Haggai, the book can be broken down into four sections: message 1: rebuilding the temple (1:1–15), message 2: the promised glory for the new temple (2:1–9), message 3: blessings for a defiled people (2:10–19), message 4: Zerubbabel, the Lord’s signet ring (2:20–23).

A. Message 1: Rebuilding the Temple, 1:1–15

The objective of Haggai in this chapter was to challenge the leaders and the people of Israel about their indifferenc...

Continue Reading

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Septuagint

The oldest surviving translation of Hebrew Scripture was the Greek Septuagint, which was undertaken by Jewish scholars in Alexandria in the third century before Christ (BC). The Greek codices arranged the books in a fourfold division, in a different way than Hebrew Scripture, by placing the Law of Moses first, then the Historical Books, then the Wisdom books, and then the Prophets

chiasma is cross- CHIASM IS CROSS CHIASTIC STRUCTURE OF HOSEA

https://bible.org/seriespage/introduction-hosea-literary-and-theological-context

Hosea was a master literary craftsman. His prophetic style is so elevated that it is often difficult to distinguish between his prose and poetry. Andersen and Freedman conclude that chapters 1-3 are basically written in prose narrative, while chapters 4-14 are typical of poetry.1 As a rule of thumb such an estimate is largely helpful, but it must be pointed out that “most of the prophets were poets and their oracles were delivered and have been preserved in poetic form.”2 Indeed, “one may expect that all of the major genres with the exception of some types of instructional accounts will take on the heightened speech, literary richness, and urgency of tone and message that so characterized poetry.”3 Nevertheless, it is true that chapters 1-3 due bear marks much more characteristic of prose. For example, these chapters are distinctly more narrative in style and the oracles embedded in them are brought together as clusters within the narrative. The narrative itself is arranged in chiastic structure around the marriage theme (see Outline).

THE BOOKS OF SAMUEL AND KINGS WERE DIVIDED INTO FOUR BOOKS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Books_of_Kings

In the Septuagint, Samuel and Kings was divided into four books and Kings became III and IV Kings (Greek: Βασιλειῶν, "Kings").

 

When this was translated into Greek in the last few centuries BCE, Kings was joined with Samuel in a four-part work called the Book of Kingdoms. The Greek Orthodox branch of Christianity continues to use the Greek translation (the Septuagint), but when a Latin translation (called the Vulgate) was made for the Western church, Kingdoms was first retitled the Book of Kings, parts One to Four, and eventually both Kings and Samuel were separated into two books each.[7]

 

Then, what it is now commonly known as 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel are called by the Vulgate, in imitation of the Septuagint, 1 Kings and 2 Kings respectively. What it is now commonly known as 1 Kings and 2 Kings would be 3 Kings and 4 Kings in old Bibles before the year 1516 such as the Vulgate and the Septuagint respectively.[8] The division we know today, used by Protestant Bibles and adopted by Catholics, came into use in 1517. Some Bibles still preserve the old denomination, for example, Douay Rheims bible.[9]

The Neviim = The Prophets. This collection was divided in:

a. Neviim Rishonim = The first prophets, or the first group of prophets. This collection contains four books: Joshua, Judges, I and II Samuel and I and II Kings (the two books of Samuel used to be one book, the same as the two books of Kings).

b.Neviim Acharonim = The later prophets or the second group of prophets. This collection also contains four books, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and 'the twelve', that is the twelve 'minor prophets' in one book.

16 IS THE SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL- 16 BOOKS OF PROPHECY- FOURFOLD STRUCTURE OF OLD TESTAMENT AND NEW TESTAMENT- NEW TESTAMENT IS ALSO DIVIDED INTO FOUR PARTS GOSPELS ACTS EPISTLES AND REVELATIONS

http://www.thescriptures.org/bible/

The Old Testament books are commonly divided into four categories; the New Testament books, likewise. The Old Testament has the following fourfold division: the books of law of which there are five, commonly known as the Pentateuch; the books of poetry of which there are six (alternately described as the Psalms); the books of history of which there are twelve; and finally, the books of prophecy of which there are sixteen. The New Testament, similarly, has its own fourfold division: the Gospels, History (Acts), the Epistles, and Prophecy (Revelation).

https://www.hsutx.edu/hsubb/learningobjects/overviewoftheoldtestament/pages/2.html

 

Nebiim, Heb. = "prophets"

i. Comprised of two sections with four "books" each

➀ The Former Prophets: Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel (originally one book); 1 and 2 Kings (originally one book)

➁ The Latter Prophets: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Book of the Twelve (=Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi).

FOUR METHODS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahya_ben_Asher

Among R Bahya's principal works was his commentary on the Torah (the five books of Moses), in the preparation of which he thoroughly investigated the works of former Biblical exegetes, using all the methods employed by them in his interpretations.
He enumerates the following four methods, all of which in his opinion are indispensable to the exegete:
The peshat, the "plain" meaning of the text in its own right.
The midrash or the aggadic exegesis.
Logical analysis and philosophical exegesis. His aim is to demonstrate that philosophical truths are already embodied in the Bible, which as a work of God transcends all the wisdom of man. He therefore recognizes the results of philosophical thought only insofar as they do not conflict with Jewish tradition.
The method of the Kabbalah, termed by him "the path of light," which the truth-seeking soul must travel. It is by means of this method, Rabbeinu Behaye believes, that the deep mysteries hidden in the Bible may be revealed.

BOOK THE TABLE OF FOUR THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahya_ben_Asher

Another work of R Bahya, also published frequently, and in the first Mantua edition of 1514 erroneously ascribed to Rabbi Moses ben Nahman, Nahmanides, bears the title of Shulkhan Arba ("Table [of] Four"). It consists of four chapters, the first three of which contain religious rules of conduct regarding the various meals, while the fourth chapter treats of the banquet of the righteous in the world to come.

16 PROPHETIC BOOKS OLD TESTAMENT 16 SQUARES QMR

 

https://bible.org/seriespage/30-understanding-writing-prophets

 

Historical Context – It is interesting to note that the 16 prophetic books of the Old Testament come from a rather narrow band in the whole panorama of Israelite history. Why is there such a concentrated writing down of prophetic word during the time between Amos and Malachi? It is probably because this period in Israel’s history called especially for covenant enforcement mediation, which was the task of the prophets. That is along with the evident desire of God to record for all subsequent history the warnings and blessings that those prophets announced on His behalf during those pivotal years.

For example, of the hundreds of prophets in ancient Israel in Old Testament times, only 16 were chosen to speak oracles that would be collected and written down into books. We know that other prophets, such as Elijah and Elisha, played a very influential role in delivering God’s Word to His people and to other nations as well. But we know more about these prophets than we do of their actual words. What they did is described in far greater length than what they said -- and when we are told what they said, it is placed very specifically and clearly in the context of the narratives in which they appear. Generally, in the narrative books of the Old Testament, we hear about prophets and very little from prophets. In the prophetic books, however, we hear from the prophets and very little about the prophets themselves. That single difference accounts for most of the problem people have making sense of the prophetic books.

https://www.davidhalperin.net/lost-horizon-deadly-paradise-quaternity-tales-part-1/

 

I put this in one of my quadrant model books about the four sages who entered paradise and only rabbi akiva came out safely the fourth is always different

Qmr

Except maybe one passage …

“Four entered Pardes. One looked and died; one looked and went mad; one mutilated the young plants; one entered safely and came out safely.”

THE FOUR USED THE TETRAGRAMMATON TO ASCEND TO HEAVEN

http://www.chabad.org/kabbalah/article_cdo/aid/380344/jewish/Four-Who-Entered-Paradise.htm

They ascended to Heaven by using the Holy Name.

The Talmud (Chagiga 14b, Zohar I, 26b and Tikunei Zohar, Tikun 40) reports the following incident regarding four Mishnaic Sages:

 

The Rabbis taught: Four [Sages] entered the Pardes [literally "the orchard."]. Rashi explains that they ascended to heaven by utilizing the [Divine] Name [i.e., they achieved a spiritual elevation through intense meditation on G‑d's Name] (Tosafot, ad loc). They were Ben Azzai, Ben Zoma, Acher [Elisha ben Avuya, called Acher-- the other one -- because of what happened to him after he entered the Pardes] and Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Akiva said to them [prior to their ascension]: "When you come to the place of pure marble stones, do not say, 'Water! Water!' for it is said, 'He who speaks untruths shall not stand before My eyes' (Psalms 101:7)." Ben Azzai gazed [at the Divine Presence - Rashi] and died. Regarding him the verse states, "Precious in the eyes of G‑d is the death of His pious ones" (Psalms 116:15). Ben Zoma gazed and was harmed [he lost his sanity -- Rashi]. Regarding him the verse states, "Did you find honey? Eat only much as you need, lest you be overfilled and vomit it up" (Proverbs 25:16). Acher cut down the plantings [he became a heretic]. Rabbi Akiva entered in peace and left in peace.

Here is another excerpt from my book the Quadrant Model of Reality

Sukkot is a Jewish holiday which commemorates the 40 years that the Jews wandered in the desert. Jews take four species of plant. Rabbinic Jews use four branches and one fruit, and kairite Jews use four plants. In the talmud the plants are In Talmudic tradition, the four plants are identified as

Square 1: a lulav – a ripe, green, closed frond from a date palm tree. The lulav has taste but no smell, symbolizing those who study Torah but do not possess good deeds. 
Square 2: an aravah- branches with leaves from a willow tree. The aravah has neither taste nor smell, symbolizing those who lack both Torah and good deeds.
Square 3: a hadass – boughs with leaves from the myrtle tree.The hadass has a good smell but no taste, symbolizing those who possess good deeds but do not study Torah. 
Square 4: an etrog– the fruit of a citron tree. The fourth is different from the previous three.The etrog has both a good taste and a good smell, symbolizing those who have both Torah and good deeds.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ex_nihilo

In this book, Saadia Gaon gives four proofs for the doctrine of the creation of the world ex nihilo (yesh me-ayin).

SAADIA GAON SAYS THERE ARE FOUR SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE AND THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT/TRANSCENDENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emunoth_ve-Deoth

After a general presentation of the causes of infidelity and the essence of belief, Saadia describes the three natural sources of knowledge: namely, the perceptions of the senses, the light of reason, and logical necessity, as well as the fourth source of knowledge possessed by those that fear God, the "veritable revelation" contained in the Scriptures. He shows that a belief in the teachings of revelation does not exclude an independent search for knowledge, but that speculation on religious subjects rather endeavors to prove the truth of the teachings received from the Prophets and to refute attacks upon revealed doctrine, which must be raised by philosophic investigation to the plane of actual knowledge.

THERE IS FOUR CUPS FOR THE CEDER THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT (THE FOUR ARE BASED ON A QUADRANT PATTERN)- THERE IS ALSO A FIFTH CUP FOR ELIJAH - THE FIFTH IS ALWAYS ULTRA TRANSCENDENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elijah

 

 

One such decision was whether the Passover Seder required four or five cups of wine. Each serving of wine corresponds to one of the "four expressions of redemption" in the Book of Exodus:

 

"I am the Lord, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver you from their bondage, and I will redeem you with an out-stretched arm and with great acts of judgment, and I will take you for my people, and I will be your God; and you shall know that I am the Lord your God, who has brought you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians" (Exodus 6:6–7).

 

The next verse, "And I will bring you into the land which I swore to give to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; I will give it to you for a possession. I am the Lord." (Exodus 6:8) was not fulfilled until the generation following the Passover story, and the rabbis could not decide whether this verse counted as part of the Passover celebration (thus deserving of another serving of wine). Thus, a cup was left for the arrival of Elijah.

 

In practice the fifth cup has come to be seen as a celebration of future redemption. Today, a place is reserved at the seder table and a cup of wine is placed there for Elijah. During the seder, the door of the house is opened and Elijah is invited in. Traditionally, the cup is viewed as Elijah’s and is used for no other purpose.[56][57]

FOR WING BEATS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elijah

Elijah is also equated with the Archangel Sandalphon,[59] whose four wing beats will carry him to any part of the earth.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Holy_Cities

The Four Holy Cities (Hebrew: ארבע ערי הקודש‎‎, Yiddish: פיר רוס שטעט‎) is the collective term in Jewish tradition applied to the cities of Jerusalem, Hebron, Safed and, later, Tiberias, the four main centers of Jewish life after the Ottoman conquest of Israel.[1] The "holy cities" concept dates to the 1640s,[1] with Tiberias joining in 1740,[1] resulting from the creation of an association between the cities for the collection of halukka (funds for the needy).

 

According to the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia: "Since the sixteenth century the Holiness of Palestine, especially for burial, has been almost wholly transferred to four cities—Jerusalem, Hebron, Tiberias, and Safed."[2]

 

Jerusalem has been the holiest city in Judaism and the spiritual center of the Jewish people since the 10th century BC when the site was chosen during the lifetime of King David to be the location of the Holy Temple.[3]

Hebron is the burial place of the Jewish patriarchs: Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca and Jacob and Leah (Cave of the Patriarchs). As such Hebron is the second holiest city to Jews, and is one of the three cities where Israelite biblical figures purchased land (Abraham bought a field and a cave east of Hebron from the Hittites (Genesis 23:16-18), King David bought a threshing floor at Jerusalem from the Jebusite Araunah (2 Samuel 24:24), and Jacob bought land outside the walls of Shechem from the Shechemites (Genesis 33:18-19)). Historically, Hebron is the first capital of King David.

Safed (Tz'fat) came to be regarded as a holy city after the influx of Jews following the expulsion of Jews from Spain in 1492 and became known as a center of kabbalistic scholarship.

Tiberias was significant in Jewish history as the place where the Jerusalem Talmud was composed and as the home of the Masoretes, but its status as a holy city is due to the influx of rabbis who established the city as a center for Jewish learning in the 18th and 19th centuries. According to Jewish tradition, the redemption will begin in Tiberias and the Sanhedrin will be reconstituted there.[4] The Messiah will arise from the lake of Tiberias, enter into the city, and be enthroned at Safed on the summit of a lofty hill.[5]

excerpt from qmr
In another legendary narrative Samuel has an experience that fits the quadrant model pattern.
*Square one: Samuel is asleep and is called by God. He runs to Eli and says "Here I am; You called me". But Eli says, "I did not call you go back and lie down".
*Square two: Samuel hears the voice of God and again runs to Eli saying, "Here I am; You called me". Eli says "I did not call. Go back and lie down". These two first squares are very similar, forming the duality. 
*Square three: God calls Samuel a third time. Again Samuel goes to Eli with the same response. But Samuel says, "Go and lie down, and if he calls you, say, ‘Speak, Lord, for your servant is listening.’” In other words, “Take action—do something”. The third square is doing.

*Square four: This time Samuel hears the Lord say, "Samuel; Samuel". This time, the Lord is reported to have come and stood there, calling as at the other times. Then Samuel said, “Speak, for your servant is listening.”' The fourth transcends the previous three; it is responsive directly to God. The fourth is always different from the previous three.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%27Zot_HaBerachah

GOD COMES FROM FOUR DIRECTIONS

Interpreting the words of Deuteronomy 33:2, "The Lord came from Sinai," the Sifre taught that when God came to give the Torah to Israel, God came not from just one direction, but from all four directions. The Sifre read in Deuteronomy 33:2 a list of three directions, when it says, "The Lord came from Sinai, and rose from Seir to them; He shined forth from Mount Paran, and He came from Ribeboth-kodesh." And the Sifre found the fourth direction in Habakkuk 3:3, which says, "God comes from the south."[72] Thus, the Sifre expanded on the metaphor of God as an eagle in Deuteronomy 32:11, teaching that just as a mother eagle enters her nest only after shaking her chicks with her wings, fluttering from tree to tree to wake them up, so that they will have the strength to receive her, so when God revealed God's self to give the Torah to Israel, God did not appear from just a single direction, but from all four directions, as Deuteronomy 33:2 says, "The Lord came from Sinai, and rose from Seir to them," and Habakkuk 3:3 says, "God comes from the south."[73]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%27Zot_HaBerachah

A Midrash taught that as God created the four cardinal directions, so also did God set about God's throne four angels — Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, and Raphael — with Michael at God's right.

FOUR THINGS REQUIRE ATTENTION

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%27Zot_HaBerachah

The Rabbis taught in a Baraita that four things require constant application of energy: (1) Torah study, (2) good deeds, (3) prayer, and (4) one's worldly occupation. In support of the first two, the Baraita cited God's injunction in Joshua 1:7: "Only be strong and very courageous to observe to do according to all the law that My servant Moses enjoined upon you." The Rabbis deduced that one must "be strong" in Torah and "be courageous" in good deeds. In support of the need for strength in prayer, the Rabbis cited Psalm 27:14: "Wait for the Lord, be strong and let your heart take courage, yea, wait for the Lord." And in support of the need for strength in work, the Rabbis cited 2 Samuel 10:12: "Be of good courage, and let us prove strong for our people."[165]

FOUR GROUPS OF LEVITES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amram

According to critical scholars, the Torah's genealogy for Levi's descendants, is actually an aetiological myth reflecting the fact that there were four different groups among the levites – the Gershonites, Kohathites, Merarites, and Aaronids;

FOUR MITOCHONDRIAL LINEAGES OF ASHKENAZI JEWS

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/09/science/ashkenazi-origins-may-be-with-european-women-study-finds.html

This uncertainty seemed to be resolved by a survey published in 2006. Its authors reported that the four most common mitochondrial DNA lineages among Ashkenazis came from the Near East, implying that just four Jewish women were the ancestresses of nearly half of today’s Ashkenazim. Under this scenario, it seemed more likely that the Ashkenazim were the result of a migration of whole communities of men and women together.

 

But decoding DNA was still quite expensive at that time and the authors of the 2006 survey analyzed only a short length of the mitochondrial DNA, containing just 1,000 or so of its 16,600 DNA units, in all their subjects.

 

The four mitochondrial lineages common among Ashkenazis are now very rare elsewhere in the Near East and Europe, making it hard to identify with certainty the lineages from which they originated.

It is clear that the seven days of Genesis reveal a pattern, and that the pattern is the quadrant model pattern. Most theologians say that Genesis is poetry, and not meant to be taken literally. Whether it is taken literally or not does not matter so much as does the fact that what seems to be random in its structure reveals the underlying structure of the quadrant model pattern.
A very important feature of the garden of Eden is the existence of the four rivers of Eden. The names of these rivers fit the quadrant model pattern. Even more incredibly their 

very geographic locations fit the nature of the quadrant model pattern. The four are:
*Square one: Pishon. Pishon means to increase. The first square is the Idealist. The idealist is optimistic. Something has to increase before it can do anything. The first square is not yet doing anything. The first square is conservative. This is the thinking square of the quadrant model. Recall the first square of the third square is thinking.
*Square two: Gihon. The names, Pishon and Gihon have a similar sound; they are the duality. The Bible associates the Gibon river with riches; riches are always associated with the second square, which is the belonging square. Riches are often referred to as belongings. Guardians can be quite wealthy. The second square is associated with order, which is associated with riches. Caucasians are the ethnic group associated with the second square; they are associated with being rich. Gihon means “bursting fourth”. This is the emotion square; the second square of the Quadrant 3 is emotion. Emotion has an association of bursting forth, meaning to cause to move. When something is about to burst forth it is in a state of readiness to move. The second square is not yet action. Pihon and Gihon are leading to the third square, which is the doing square.
*Square three: Hiddekel--the third river, separated from the Pishon and the Gihon rivers, it is characteristically an individual. The first two squares are always more conservative--the third more physical and action-oriented. The third square is about doing its own thing. Also Hiddekel means rapid which is associated with action. The first two squares were building up to the action; the bursting fourth, and moving rapidly.
*Square four: Euphrates--means fruitful. Fruit in the Bible is related to sex--to be fruitful is to have many offspring- or doing productive things. Sex is related to knowledge. The fourth quadrant is the knowledge quadrant. This would be the dreaming square. The dreaming square is the fourth square of Quadrant 3. The names of these rivers fit the qualities of the first, second, third, and fourth squares of the quadrant model.

Another example are the four laws for fish diets.
*Square one: fins and no scales cannot be eaten. An example is dolphins.
*Square two: no fins and no scales cannot be eaten. An example is octopus.
*Square three: no fins and has scales cannot be eaten. 
*Square four: fins and scales can be eaten. The fourth is always different from the previous three. No fins would be concrete, and fins would be abstract. Scales would be utilitarian, and no scales would be cooperative.

FOUR ANIMALS SPECIFICALLY IDENTIFIED- AND FOUR EXCEPTIONS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosher_foods

The Torah permits only animal species which both chew the cud and have cloven hooves.[1][2] Four animals are specifically identified as being forbidden for this reason; the hare, hyrax, camel, and pig – although the camel has two toes, and the hare and hyrax are hindgut fermenters rather than ruminants.[3]

 

The Torah forbids creeping things that crawl the earth (Hebrew: sheqets)[6] and "flying creeping things",[7][8] with four exceptions: two types of locust, the beetle/cricket, and the grasshopper.[9]

FOUR CRITERIA FOR KOSHER BIRDS FOURTH IS DIFFERENT- I STUDIED THIS AND RABBIS DESCRIBE IT AS FOUR CRITERIA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashrut

Non-kosher birds are listed outright (Deuteronomy 14:12–18) but the exact zoological references are disputed and some references refer to families of birds (24 are mentioned). The Mishnah[26] refers to four signs provided by the sages.[27] First, a dores (predatory bird) is not kosher. Additionally, kosher birds possess three physical characteristics: an extra toe in the back (which does not join the other toes in supporting the leg), a zefek (crop), and a korkoban (gizzard) with a peelable lumen. However, individual Jews are barred from merely applying these regulations alone; an established tradition (masorah) is necessary to allow birds to be consumed, even if it can be substantiated that they meet all four criteria. The only exception to this is turkey. There was a time when certain authorities considered the signs enough, so Jews started eating this bird without a masorah because it possesses all the signs (simanim in Hebrew).[28]

I SAW AT A JEWISH INSTITUTE YEARS AGO IN 2012 JEWS REPRESENT THE FOUR POSSIBLITIES OF ANIMALS THE FOURTH IS KOSHER LITERALLY IN A QUADRANT

 

NO CLEFT HOOF DOESNT CHEW CUD

NO CLEFT HOOF CHEWS CUD

CLEFT HOOF DOESNT CHEW CUD

CLEFT HOOF CHEW CUD- KOSHER

Known as the JEPD model, this respected historical description of how the Torah was compiled and created fits the quadrant model pattern.
*Square one: J (Jahwist) source—apparently compiled around 950 BCE in the southern kingdom of Judah, not long before the split between the northern kingdom of Israel and the southern kingdom of Judah. The documentary hypothesis argues that anthropomorphic descriptions of Yahweh, personal visits from Yahweh, and the use of the name Yahweh prior to Exodus 3 are products of the J source. The E, D, and P sources use the term Yahweh, but the J source is the only one to use the name Yahweh prior to Exodus 3. The J source, using narratives, makes up half of Genesis, half of Exodus, and a small part of Numbers. Family is an important part of the J source. The first square is conservative as well as intellectual--the first square is the mind. Idealists, who are the first square, are focused on family, as are Guardians, who are the second square. There are also sequences of sin, punishment, and mercy in the J source. Conservative Idealists want to follow rules, but also value the notion of mercy. They like to make people feel good about themselves, and therefore are optimistic. 
*Square two: E (Elohist) source—apparently compiled around 850 BCE in the Kingdom of Israel. The first and second squares are always the duality. The J source uses the name, Yahweh, and the E source Elohim, a more impersonal name for God. The call to Abraham is that his descendants will bless the world and become a great family--the second square is always about family. According to the documentary hypothesis the two sources are difficult to distinguish; the first and second squares are the duality, and are always highly interconnected. E comprises a third of Genesis, half of Exodus, and parts of Numbers. The main themes of the E source are prophetic leadership, fear of God, covenant, and theology of history. The second square is always associated with obedience and faith; faith in God is related to relationship with God--the second square is the most relational. The idea of covenant is a notion of a relationship between God and Israel.
*Square three: D (Deuteronomist) source—apparently compiled around 600 BCE in Jerusalem during a period of religious reform. The D source is supposed to have been written during the Babylonian dispersion, allegedly to describe how punishments of Israel are deserved. The third square is always bad and destructive. The third square is doing; the third quadrant is thinking, emotion, doing, and dreaming. The D source describes Israel's punishment as due to their disobedience. D, in the torah, is exclusively in the book of Deuteronomy,referring always to God as Yahweh Elohenu, "the Lord our God". The intention of D source, according to scholars, was to show the Israelites that they had abandoned God's law, and to get them to return. The nature of the third quadrant is that it has broken out of the second. The second quadrant is belief, faith, behavior, and belonging; the second quadrant is following God's law. The third is breaking free; the third square is associated with the Artisan personality, who is more rebellious.
*Square four: P (Priestly) source alleged to have been compiled around 500 BCE by Kohanim (Jewish priests) in exile in Babylon. It depicts the P source as using the name Elohim in Genesis 1-11. The P source also uses the name El Shadai, which is the first special name for God, controversially translated as “God Almighty”. P has many lists, genealogies, numbers, laws, and dates. The fourth quadrant is associated with the Rational type, who is good at mathematics and logical issues. Also the P source describes God as the Creator of the Earth, describing the work as “Good”. At times D duplicates J and E, but changes details to emphasize the importance of the priesthood, thereby pointing beyond the other three. P comprises about a fifth of Genesis, much of Exodus and Numbers, and almost all of Leviticus. The style of P is not extremely elegant. The P source depicts God as interested in ritual, and dietary laws, circumcision, and the tabernacle, all a part of God's divine plan.
JEDP Model

Four meals of sabbath

Three main chavez meals
MaarizFriday night meals corresponds to yitzak
Cshacharis chavez day meal abraham
Minchah salsh seudoa yakov
Fourth separate not as much part of three musas meal of melava malka

The fourth meal of the sabbath is different the first three are related to the patriarchs the fourth is only sometimes followed

https://books.google.com/books?id=mrBKAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA247&lpg=PA247&dq=four+meals+sabbath&source=bl&ots=ObLChDfkBA&sig=K_wnQx-WzTQvyGi2aQ2P2c3boVM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjKt7uSrZXTAhVR9WMKHe2uC1YQ6AEIIjAB#v=snippet&q=four&f=false

 

FOUR ELLS WIDE IS QUADRANT MODEL 16 SQUARED- IN THE TALMUD THE SABBATH REGULATIONS UPON MOVING AND WORK ALWAYS REVOLVES AROUND 4 AND 4 SQUARED 16 ACCORDING TO MY FRIEND WHO STUDIED IT- LIKE IF YOU GO A CERTAIN DISTANCE YOU MUST STAY WITHIN A FOUR BY FOUR SQUARE 16 SQUARES

ACCORDING TO THE TALMUD THERE ARE FOUR TYPES OF PREMISES- THE PRIVATE GROUND IS FOUR SPANS WIDE- WHICH IS FOUR BY FOUR WHICH IS 16 SQUARES- 16 SQUARES QMR

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=mrBKAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA247&lpg=PA247&dq=four+meals+sabbath&source=bl&ots=ObLChDfkBA&sig=K_wnQx-WzTQvyGi2aQ2P2c3boVM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjKt7uSrZXTAhVR9WMKHe2uC1YQ6AEIIjAB#v=snippet&q=four&f=false

FOUR SABBATH MEALS FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melaveh_Malkah

Melaveh Malkah (also, Melave Malka or Melava Malka) (Hebrew: מלווה מלכּה‎‎, lit. "Escorting the Queen") is the name of a meal that, as per halakha, is customarily held by Jews after their Sabbath (Shabbat), in other words, on Saturday evening. The intent of the meal is to figuratively escort the "Sabbath Queen" (the traditional metaphor for Shabbat in Jewish liturgy) on her way out via singing and eating, as one would escort a monarch upon his departure from a city. This meal is alternatively called "the fourth meal."

FOUR-STRAND BRAIDED CHALLAH

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Published: 01/01/2008

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Steven Shareshttp://www.kingarthurflour.com/recipes/four-strand-braided-challah-recipe

Four-Strand Braided Challah Recipe Four-Strand Braided Challah Recipe

Rich with eggs and butter (or oil, to keep it kosher with a meat-based meal), challah is shaped in various braids and coils, and often gilded with a sprinkle of poppy seeds. Though not quite as rich, it's similar to French brioche; and, like brioche, it makes wonderful toast and French toast.

Four-Strand Challah

http://www.secretofchallah.com/50708/Braiding-Instructions

four-strand challah

1. Divide dough into 4 equal parts. Knead each part into a smooth ball and roll each ball into a ropelike strand. Lay the strands side by side and pinch together at the top.

 

2. Grasp the leftmost strand and pass it to the right, under the two strands adjacent to it, and then back toward the left, over one strand (the one closest to it now).

 

3. Grasp the rightmost strand and pass it to the left, under the two strands adjacent to it (which have already been braided), and then back to the right, over one strand.

 

4. Alternately repeat steps 2 and 3.

 

5. When done braiding, pinch the ends of the strands together.

FOUR ACTS

http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/t01/t0109.htm

 

MISHNA I.: There are two acts constituting transfer 1 of movable things (over the dividing line of adjoining premises, based on biblical statutes). The two acts are, however, increased to four on the inside and to a like amount on the outside of the premises (by the addition of rabbinical statutes). How so? A mendicant stands outside and the master of a house inside. The mendicant passes his hand into the house (through a window or door) and puts something into the hand of the master, or he takes something out of the master's hand and draws it back (toward him). In such a case the mendicant is guilty (of transfer) and the master of the house is free. If the master of the house passes his hand outside and puts a thing into the hand of the mendicant, or takes something out of the mendicant's hand and brings it into the house, the master of the house is culpable and the mendicant is free. 2 If the mendicant extends his hand into the house and the master takes something out of it, or puts something into it which is drawn to the outside by the mendicant, they are both free. If the master of the house extends his hand outside and the mendicant takes something out of it, or puts something into it which is drawn to the inside by the master, they are both free.

 

GEMARA: We were taught (Shebuoth, IV. 2): "The acts

 

p. 2

 

of transfer on the Sabbath are two, respectively four." Why is this teaching here specified as two respectively four on the inside, and two respectively four on the outside, and there no such specification was made? Said R. Papa: Here the special subject of treatment is the Sabbath, and the Mishna enumerated the cases which involve guilt and those which do not involve guilt; while there the principal subject of treatment is a different one, and he mentions only the cases that involve guilt, leaving the cases that do not involve guilt untouched. But the cases that involve guilt are those by which acts of transfer are committed, and such are only two? Nay, there are two acts of transfer from within and two from without. But the Mishna says, "Yetziath" (which in a literal sense means transfer from within)? Said R. Ashi: The Tana calls transfer from without by the same term. And for what reason? Because every act of removing a thing from its place is called Yetziah. Said Rabbina: The Mishna also bears out this sense; for it speaks of Yetziath and immediately illustrates its remark by citing a case from without. This bears it out. Rabha, however, says: He (the Tana) speaks about divided premises (whose line of division is crossed), and in this case there are only two (in each of which there may be four acts of transfer).

FOUR ELLS SQUARED IS 16 SQUARES- A QUADRANT MODEL

http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/t01/t0109.htm

 

"The mendicant extended his hand," etc. Why is he culpable? (To complete the act) there must be a transfer from a place that is four ells square and a depositing into a place of the same area, and such was not the case here. Said Rabba: Our

 

p. 5

 

[paragraph continues] Mishna is in accordance with R. Aqiba's opinion, who holds that as soon as the air of a place surrounds a thing it is equal to the thing being deposited in that place. But may it not be that depositing does not require four ells, for the reason stated above, but removing does? Said R. Joseph: The teaching of this paragraph agrees (not with the opinion of R. Aqiba), but with that of Rabbi, as we have learned in the following Boraitha:

 

If one threw an object from one street into the other, and there was a private ground between them, Rabbi declared him culpable, and the sages freed him. Hereupon R. Jehudah in the name of Samuel said: Rabbi declared the man guilty of two offences: one for having removed the thing from its place, and one for having deposited it in another place. Hence in both, the four ells in question are not required.

 

But with reference to this it was taught that both Rabh and Samuel said that Rabbi's declaration of culpability treated of a case where the private ground (that divided the two streets) was roofed, for the assumption is that a house must be regarded as a solid object that fills out all the space it occupies, but not when it was unroofed?

 

Therefore said Rabha: (All these views can be dispensed with, as) the hand of a man (because of its value) is considered as a piece of ground four ells square. And so, also, was declared by Rabin, when he came from Palestine, in the name of R. Johanan.

 

R. Abhin in the name of R. Ila'a, quoting R. Johanan, said: If one threw a thing and it rested in the hands of another man, he is culpable.

 

Why the repetition--has not R. Johanan declared above, already, that the hand of a man is considered as a space of four ells square? Lest one say that this is only when he intended to put it into his hand (and the intention makes it valuable as the space in question), but not otherwise. Therefore the repetition.

FOUR SPANS SQUARED IS 16 SQUARES

http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/t01/t0109.htm

Rabba, of the school of R. Shila, said: When R. Dimi came from Palestine, he said in the name of R. Johanan: No space can be considered unclaimed ground unless it has an area of four spans square, and R. Shesheth added that it holds good up to ten spans square. What does it mean? Shall we assume that only if it has a partition of ten spans it is unclaimed ground? Has not R. Giddell in the name of R. Hyya bar Joseph, quoting

 

p. 10

 

[paragraph continues] Rabh, said: A house that is not ten spans high, but which is raised to that height by the ceiling, one may handle on the roof over its entire area; inside of the house, however, only within four ells square? Therefore we must say that the statement: "It holds good up to ten spans," implies that the law of unclaimed ground is valid when the height does not exceed ten spans. As Samuel said to R. Jehudah: "Ingenious scholar! treat not on laws of the Sabbath exceeding ten spans in height." And to what does it apply? To private ground it could not apply, as it is known that private ground is so considered to the sky; hence it is only to unclaimed ground that above ten spans does not exist, as the rabbis have invested unclaimed grounds with the lenient regulations pertaining to private ground--viz.: If the place have an area of four spans square, it is unclaimed ground; if it has a lesser area, it is not subservient to any jurisdiction. And with the lenient regulations of public ground--viz.: The place is regarded as unclaimed ground only to the height of ten spans; beyond that it ceases to be unclaimed ground.

 

The text says: "In a house the inside of which is not ten spans high," etc. Said Abayi: If, however, one has cut in it an excavation four ells square, so as to complete the height of ten spans, one may handle things freely in the whole house. Why so? Because in such a case the entire space of the house (around the excavation) would be considered like holes on private ground, and it has been taught that such holes are regarded the same as the private ground itself. As to holes on public ground, Abayi said: They are like public ground. Rabha, however, says that they are not. Said Rabha to Abayi: According to your theory, holes on public ground are to be considered the same as the ground itself. In which respect, then, does this case differ from what R. Dimi said above (p. 8) in the name of R. Johanan? Let, according to thy opinion, such a corner be considered as a hole in public ground. Nay, the use of the corner is not considered favorable by people, while no one objects to the use of a hole in the street.

FOUR PRAYERS ON DAY OF ATONMENT

http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/t01/t0110.htm

If the Day of Atonement happens to fall on a Sabbath day, mention of the Sabbath must be made even in the Neilah prayer (the last of the four different prayers of the Day of Atonement). Why so? Because the Sabbath and the Day of Atonement are now one, and four prayers are indispensable to the services of the day.

FOUR EVIDENCES

http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/t01/t0110.htm

The rabbis taught: There are four evidences: an evidence of sin is dropsy; an evidence of hate without cause is jaundice; an evidence of pride is poverty; an evidence of calumny (spreading evil reports about others) is croup. The sickness of croup becomes epidemic for (the sin of neglecting to give) tithes; but R. Elazar b. Jose said, only for the sin of calumny.

THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT

 

http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/t01/t0110.htm

(The contrary is the case when a bee-hive is concerned;

 

p. 60

 

in that case Rabba said: A bee-hive of two kurs 1 one may move on the Sabbath; of three, one shall not. R. Joseph, however, said that one may move even a hive of three kurs, but one of four is forbidden. Said Abayi: I have inquired of the master at the time of the deed, and he did not even permit me to move one of two kurs.)

ON THE SABBATH A JEW CAN MOVE THORNS- FOUR ELLS AT A TIME

http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/t01/t0111.htm

 

Sabbath), he holds with R. Simeon; but as to the performance of labor, not for its own sake, he sides with R. Jehudah. Said Rabina: "Since it is permitted to perform labor (prohibited by rabbinical law), in order to prevent injury, it is also permitted to remove thorns from public ground, little by little, in distances of less than four ells at a time (in order to prevent injury); but upon unclaimed ground it may be done in greater distances."

FOUR ANIMALS

http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/t01/t0113.htm

R. Ishmael b. Jossi answered: "Thus my father said: Four animals may go about with a bridle on--the horse, the mule, the camel, and the ass." A Boraitha states: Lydda asses and camels may go about with a bridle on. The following Tanaim, however, differ as to this point (whether a superfluous safeguard is a burden or not): one maintains that no animal may go about burdened with a chain; but Hananya says a chain or anything else that is intended as a safeguard is permitted.

FOUR MEN DIED OF ORIGINAL SIN

http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/t01/t0113.htm

Another objection was raised: (There is a tradition:) Only four men died in consequence of original sin. They are Benjamin ben Jacob, Amram, the father of Moses; Jesse, the father of David; and Kilab ben David. Whose opinion does this Boraitha agree with? The Tana who related the legend of the angels holds that Moses and Aaron also died in consequence of original sin. So must be then in accordance with R. Simeon b. Elazar, as said above. Thus we see that although Moses and Aaron died on account of their own sins, still death without sin and affliction without transgression are possible; hence R. Ami's theory is objected to.

BATTLE OF THE FOUR KINGS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shem

 

According to some Jewish traditions (e.g., B. Talmud Nedarim 32b; Genesis Rabbah 46:7; Genesis Rabbah 56:10; Leviticus Rabbah 25:6; Numbers Rabbah 4:8.), Shem is believed to have been Melchizedek, King of Salem whom Abraham is recorded to have met after the battle of the four kings.

http://www.jewfaq.org/glossary.htm

Dechiyah (pl. Dechiyot) (d'-KHEE-yah; d'-khee-YOHT)

A rule postponing the date of the new year when calculating the Jewish Calendar. There are four dechiyot, but some are more commonly applied than others. See The Jewish Calendar: A Closer Look - Calculating the Calendar.

http://www.jewfaq.org/glossary.htm

Four Parshiyot (pahr-shee-OHT)

Four special Torah readings added to the weekly cycle of readings during the month before Pesach (Passover).

FOUR CHARACTERISTIC BLASTS OF THE RAMS HORN

Shevarim (she-vahr-EEM)

http://www.jewfaq.org/glossary.htm

One of four characteristic blasts of the shofar (ram's horn). See Rosh Hashanah.

Special Shabbatot

http://www.jewfaq.org/special.htm#Four

Level: Intermediate

 

Some sabbaths have special Torah readings

A handful of Shabbatot (plural for Shabbat) deserve special mention. These Shabbatot have special Torah readings associated with them. The most noteworthy of these special Shabbatot are known as the Four Parshiyot (the Four [Torah] Portions).

 

The Four Parshiyot

 

The Four Parshiyot are special Torah readings added to regular weekly Torah readings in preparation for Pesach (Passover). These additional readings come from a different portion of the Torah than the regular weekly reading, and ordinarily require a separate Torah scroll, or at least a strong person to roll the scroll to the extra reading and a patient congregation to wait while he does it! The additional reading is read after the regular weekly reading, and is referred to as the maftir portion. These four Shabbatot are the only ones (other than holidays and Rosh Chodesh) that have an extra Torah portion.

THE TITLE IS "THREE SUBJECTS OF STUDY" BUT IT MENTIONS THERE IS A FOURTH BRANCH AND IT MENTIONS THAT STUDENTS MUST BE FAMILIAR WITH FOUR BRANCHES OF KNOWLEDGE- IT SAYS THE FOURTH IS A "SPECIAL BRANCH"- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS TRANSCENDENT

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/14213-talmud

The Three Subjects of Study.

The old trichotomy of traditional literature was changed, however, by the acceptance of the Mishnah of Judah I., and by the new study of the Talmud designed to interpret it. The division termed "Halakot" (singular, "Halakah") in the old classification was then called "Mishnah," although in Palestine the Mishnah continued to be designated as "Halakot." The Midrash became a component part of the Talmud; and a considerable portion of the halakic Bible hermeneuties of the Tannaim, which had been preserved in various special works, was incorporated in the Babylonian Talmud. The Haggadah (plural, "Haggadot") lost its importance as an individual branch of study in the academies, although it naturally continued to be a subject of investigation, and a portion of it also was included in the Talmud. Occasionally the Haggadah is even designated as a special branch, being added as a fourth division to the three already mentioned. Ḥanina ben Pappa, an amora of the early part of the fourth century, in characterizing these four branches says: "The countenance should be serious and earnest in teaching the Scriptures, mild and calm for the Mishnah, bright and lively for the Talmud, and merry and smiling for the Haggadah" (Pesiḳ. 110a; Pes. R. 101b; Tan., Yitro, ed. Buber, p. 17; Massek. Soferim, xvi. 2). As early as the third century Joshua ben Levi interpreted Deut. ix. 10 to mean that the entire Law, including Miḳra, Mishnah, Talmud, and Haggadah, had been revealed to Moses on Sinai (Yer. Pes. 17a, line 59; Meg. 74d, 25), while in Gen. R. lxvi. 3 the blessings invoked in Gen. xxvii. 28 are explained as "Miḳra, Mishnah, Talmud, and Haggadah." The Palestinian haggadist Isaac divided these four branches into two groups: (1) the Miḳra and the Haggadah, dealing with subjects of general interest; and (2) the Mishnah and the Talmud, "which can not hold the attention of those who hear them" (Pesiḳ. 101b; see Bacher, "Ag. Pal. Amor." ii. 211).

 

According to a note of Tanḥuma ben Abba (of the latter part of the 4th cent.) on Cant. v. 14 (Cant. R. ad loc.), a student must be familiar with all four branches of knowledge, Miḳra, Mishnah, Halakah (the last-named term used here instead of "Tatmud"), and Haggadah; while Samuel b. Judah b. Abun, a Palestinian amora of the same century, interpreted Prov. xxviii. 11 as an allusion to the halakist ("man of the Talmud") and to the haggadist ("man of the Haggadah"; Yer. Hor. 48c; see also Pesiḳ. 176a; Lev. R. xxi., Talmud and Haggadah). Here may be mentioned also the concluding passage of the mishnaic treatise Abot (v., end): "At the age of five to the Bible; at the age of ten to the Mishnah; at the age of fifteen to the Talmud." This is ascribed by many to the ancient tanna Samuel ha-Ḳaṭon (see Bacher, "Ag. Tan." i. 378), although the sequence of study which it mentions is evidently that which was customary during the amoraic period (comp. also the saying of Abaye in Ket. 50a).

EVERY PAGE OF THE TALMUD HAS FOUR LONG LINES OF RASHI- AND IT IS A "HINT TO THE FOUR LETTER NAME OF GOD"

http://lavlor.blogspot.com/2012/03/purim-shem-in-megilla.html  

(Similarly, I've once heard that this is why every Talmud page has always four long lines of Rashi and Tosfot at the very top. It is presumably a hint to the four-letter name of God, Yud-Kei-Vav-Key. )

 

Be it as it may, scribes don't only use the Hamelech layout to highlight Hashem in the Megilla. Below is a 200 year old Megilla where the scribe wrote the four-letter of Hashem in big font (it is actually reversed).

FOUR WAYS

http://images.shulcloud.com/618/uploads/PDFs/Divrei_Torah/shemot.pdf

The Talmud also tells us that one of four ways to avoid something bad happening to you is to change your name [Rosh Hashana 16b]. This gave rise to the custom of changing the name of a very sick person to fool the

FOUR KINGS V FIVE FOUR WINS (THE BATTLE OF THE FOUR KINGS)

http://www.templestudiesgroup.com/Papers/Robert_Hayward.pdf

The chapter also narrates the account of a battle: the language of conflict is pervasive from Gen. 14:2 onwards, where we are told that four kings, Ampraphel, Arioch, Chedarlaomer, and Tidal “king of nations” made

war against five other kings

FINNEGANS WAKE IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR PARTS

http://www.finwake.com/1024chapter24/1024finn24.htm

and the wild geese and the gannets and the migratories and the

mistlethrushes and the auspices and all the birds of the rockby-

suckerassousyoceanal sea, all four of them, all sighing and sob-

bing, and listening. Moykle ahoykling!

They were the big four, the four maaster waves of Erin, all

listening, four. There was old Matt Gregory and then besides old

Matt there was old Marcus Lyons, the four waves, and oftentimes

they used to be saying grace together, right enough, bausnabeatha,

in Miracle Squeer: here now we are the four of us: old Matt Gre-

gory and old Marcus and old Luke Tarpey: the four of us and

sure, thank God, there are no more of us: and, sure now, you

wouldn't go and forget and leave out the other fellow and old

Johnny MacDougall: the four of us and no more of us and so

now pass the fish for Christ sake, Amen: the way they used to be

saying their grace before fish, repeating itself, after the interims

of Augusburgh for auld lang syne. And so there they were, with

their palms in their hands, like the pulchrum's proculs, spraining

their ears, luistening and listening to the oceans of kissening, with

their eyes glistening, all the four, when he was kiddling and

cuddling and bunnyhugging scrumptious his colleen bawn and

dinkum belle, an oscar sister, on the fifteen inch loveseat, behind

the chieftaness stewardesses cubin, the hero, of Gaelic champion,

the onliest one of her choice, her bleaueyedeal of a girl's friend,

neither bigugly nor smallnice, meaning pretty much everything

to her then, with his sinister dexterity, light and rufthandling,

vicemversem her ragbags et assaucyetiams, fore and aft, on and

offsides, the brueburnt sexfutter, handson and huntsem, that was

palpably wrong and bulbubly improper, and cuddling her and

kissing her, tootyfay charmaunt, in her ensemble of maidenna

blue, with an overdress of net, tickled with goldies, Isolamisola,

and whisping and lisping her about Trisolanisans, how one was

whips for one was two and two was lips for one was three, and

dissimulating themself, with his poghue like Arrah-na-poghue,

the dear dear annual, they all four remembored who made the

world and how they used to be at that time in the vulgar ear

 

385 UP

cuddling and kiddling her, after an oyster supper in Cullen's barn,

from under her mistlethrush and kissing and listening, in the good

old bygone days of Dion Boucicault, the elder, in Arrah-na-

pogue, in the otherworld of the passing of the key of Two-

tongue Common, with Nush, the carrier of the word, and with

Mesh, the cutter of the reed, in one of the farback, pitchblack

centuries when who made the world, when they knew O'Clery,

the man on the door, when they were all four collegians on the

nod, neer the Nodderlands Nurskery, whiteboys and oakboys,

peep of tim boys and piping tom boys, raising hell while the sin

was shining, with their slates and satchels, playing Florian's fables

and communic suctions and vellicar frictions with mixum mem-

bers, in the Queen's Ultonian colleges, along with another fellow,

a prime number, Totius Quotius, and paying a pot of tribluts

to Boris O'Brien, the buttler of Clumpthump, two looves, two

turnovers plus (one) crown, to see the mad dane ating his

vitals. Wulf! Wulf! And throwing his tongue in the snakepit. Ah

ho! The ladies have mercias! It brought the dear prehistoric

scenes all back again, as fresh as of yore, Matt and Marcus, natu-

ral born lovers of nature, in all her moves and senses, and after

that now there he was, that mouth of mandibles, vowed to pure

beauty, and his Arrah-na-poghue, when she murmurously, after

she let a cough, gave her firm order, if he wouldn't please mind,

for a sings to one hope a dozen of the best favourite lyrical

national blooms in Luvillicit, though not too much, reflecting on

the situation, drinking in draughts of purest air serene and re-

velling in the great outdoors, before the four of them, in the fair

fine night, whilst the stars shine bright, by she light of he moon,

we longed to be spoon, before her honeyoldloom, the plaint effect

being in point of fact there being in the whole, a seatuition so

shocking and scandalous and now, thank God, there were no more

of them and he poghuing and poghuing like the Moreigner

bowed his crusted hoed and Tilly the Tailor's Tugged a Tar in the

Arctic Newses Dagsdogs number and there they were, like a

foremasters in the rolls, listening, to Rolando's deepen darblun

Ossian roll, (Lady, it was just too gorgeous, that expense of a

 

386 UP

lovely tint, embellished by the charms of art and very well con-

ducted and nicely mannered and all the horrid rudy noisies locked

up in nasty cubbyhole!) as tired as they were, the three jolly

topers, with their mouths watering, all the four, the old connu-

bial men of the sea, yambing around with their old pantometer,

in duckasaloppics, Luke and Johnny MacDougall and all wishen-

ing for anything at all of the bygone times, the wald times and

the fald times and the hempty times and the dempty times, for a

cup of kindness yet, for four farback tumblerfuls of woman

squash, with them, all four, listening and spraining their ears for

the millennium and all their mouths making water.

Johnny. Ah well, sure, that's the way (up) and it so happened

there was poor Matt Gregory (up), their pater familias, and (up)

the others and now really and (up) truly they were four dear

old heladies and really they looked awfully pretty and so nice and

bespectable and after that they had their fathomglasses to find

out all the fathoms and their half a tall hat, just now like the old

Merquus of Pawerschoof, the old determined despot, (quiescents

in brage!) only for the extrusion of the saltwater or the auctioneer

there dormont, in front of the place near O'Clery's, at the darku-

mound numbur wan, beside that ancient Dame street, where the

statue of Mrs Dana O'Connell, prostituent behind the Trinity

College, that arranges all the auctions of the valuable colleges,

Bootersbay Sisters, like the auctioneer Battersby Sisters, the pru-

misceous creaters, that sells all the emancipated statues and

flowersports, James H. Tickell, the jaypee, off Hoggin Green,

after he made the centuries, going to the tailturn horseshow, be-

fore the angler nomads flood, along with another fellow, active

impalsive, and the shoeblacks and the redshanks and plebeians

and the barrancos and the cappunchers childerun, Jules, every-

one, Gotopoxy, with the houghers on them, highstepping the

fissure and fracture lines, seven five threes up, three five

sevens down, to get out of his way, onasmuck as their withers

conditions could not possibly have been improved upon,

(praisers be to deeseesee!) like hopolopocattls, erumping oround

their Judgity Yaman, and all the tercentenary horses and priest

 

387 UP

hunters, from the Curragh, and confusionaries and the authori-

ties, Noord Amrikaans and Suid Aferican cattleraiders (so they

say) all over like a tiara dullfuoco, in his grey half a tall hat and

his amber necklace and his crimson harness and his leathern jib

and his cheapshein hairshirt and his scotobrit sash and his para-

pilagian gallowglasses (how do you do, jaypee, Elevato!) to find

out all the improper colleges (and how do you do, Mr Dame

James? Get out of my way!), forkbearded and bluetoothed and

bellied and boneless, from Strathlyffe and Aylesburg and North-

umberland Anglesey, the whole yaghoodurt sweepstakings and

all the horsepowers. But now, talking of hayastdanars and

wolkingology and how our seaborn isle came into exestuance,

(the explutor, his three andesiters and the two pantellarias) that

reminds me about the manausteriums of the poor Marcus of Lyons

and poor Johnny, the patrician, and what do you think of the four

of us and there they were now, listening right enough, the four

saltwater widowers, and all they could remembore, long long ago

in the olden times Momonian, throw darker hour sorrows, the

princest day, when Fair Margrate waited Swede Villem, and Lally

in the rain, with the blank prints, now extincts, after the wreak

of Wormans' Noe, the barmaisigheds, when my heart knew no

care, and after that then there was the official landing of Lady

Jales Casemate, in the year of the flood 1132 S.O.S., and the

christening of Queen Baltersby, the Fourth Buzzersbee, accord-

ing to Her Grace the bishop Senior, off the whate shape, and

then there was the drowning of Pharoah and all his pedestrians

and they were all completely drowned into the sea, the red sea,

and then poor Merkin Cornyngwham, the official out of the

castle on pension, when he was completely drowned off Erin

Isles, at that time, suir knows, in the red sea and a lovely

mourning paper and thank God, as Saman said, there were no

more of him. And that now was how it was. The arzurian deeps

o'er his humbodumbones sweeps. And his widdy the giddy is

wreathing her murmoirs as her gracest triput to the Grocery

Trader's Manthly. Mind mand gunfree by Gladeys Rayburn!

Runtable's Reincorporated. The new world presses. Where the

 

388 UP

old conk cruised now croons the yunk. Exeunc throw a darras

Kram of Llawnroc, ye gink guy, kirked into yord. Enterest at-

tawonder Wehpen, luftcat revol, fairescapading in his natsirt.

Tuesy tumbles. And mild aunt Liza is as loose as her neese. Ful-

fest withim inbrace behent. As gent would deem oncontinent.

So mulct per wenche is Elsker woed. Ne hath his thrysting. Fin.

Like the newcasters in their old plyable of A Royenne Devours.

Jazzaphoney and Mirillovis and Nippy she nets best. Fing. Ay,

ay! Sobbos. And so he was. Sabbus.

Marcus. And after that, not forgetting, there was the Flemish

armada, all scattered, and all officially drowned, there and then, on

a lovely morning, after the universal flood, at about aleven thirty-

two was it? off the coast of Cominghome and Saint Patrick, the

anabaptist, and Saint Kevin, the lacustrian, with toomuch of tolls

and lottance of beggars, after converting Porterscout and Dona,

our first marents, and Lapoleon, the equestrian, on his whuite

hourse of Hunover, rising Clunkthurf over Cabinhogan and all

they remembored and then there was the Frankish floot of Noahs-

dobahs, from Hedalgoland, round about the freebutter year of

Notre Dame 1132 P.P.O. or so, disumbunking from under

Motham General Bonaboche, (noo poopery!) in his half a grey

traditional hat, alevoila come alevilla, and after that there he was,

so terrestrial, like a Nailscissor, poghuing her scandalous and very

wrong, the maid, in single combat, under the sycamores, amid

the bludderings from the boom and all the gallowsbirds in Arrah-

na-Poghue, so silvestrious, neer the Queen's Colleges, in 1132

Brian or Bride street, behind the century man on the door. And

then again they used to give the grandest gloriaspanquost univer-

sal howldmoutherhibbert lectures on anarxaquy out of doxarch-

ology (hello, Hibernia!) from sea to sea (Matt speaking!) accord-

ing to the pictures postcard, with sexon grimmacticals, in the

Latimer Roman history, of Latimer repeating himself, from the

vicerine of Lord Hugh, the Lacytynant, till Bockleyshuts the rah-

jahn gerachknell and regnumrockery roundup, (Marcus Lyons

speaking!) to the oceanfuls of collegians green and high classes

and the poor scholars and all the old trinitarian senate and saints and

 

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sages and the Plymouth brethren, droning along, peanzanzangan,

and nodding and sleeping away there, like forgetmenots, in her

abijance service, round their twelve tables, per pioja at pulga

bollas, in the four trinity colleges, for earnasyoulearning Erin-

growback, of Ulcer, Moonster, Leanstare and Cannought, the

four grandest colleges supper the matther of Erryn, of Killorcure

and Killthemall and Killeachother and Killkelly-on-the-Flure,

where their role was to rule the round roll that Rollo and Rullo

rolled round. Those were the grandest gynecollege histories

(Lucas calling, hold the line!) in the Janesdanes Lady Anders-

daughter Universary, for auld acquaintance sake (this unitarian

lady, breathtaking beauty, Bambam's bonniest, lived to a great

age at or in or about the late No. 1132 or No. 1169, bis, Fitzmary

Round where she was seen by many and widely liked) for teach-

ing the Fatima Woman history of Fatimiliafamilias, repeating her-

self, on which purposeth of the spirit of nature as difinely deve-

loped in time by psadatepholomy, the past and present (Johnny

MacDougall speaking, give me trunks, miss!) and present and

absent and past and present and perfect arma virumque romano.

Ah, dearo, dear! O weep for the hower when eve aleaves bower!

How it did but all come eddaying back to them, if they did but

get gaze, gagagniagnian, to hear him there, kiddling and cuddling

her, after the gouty old galahat, with his peer of quinnyfears and

his troad of thirstuns, so nefarious, from his elevation of one

yard one handard and thartytwo lines, before the four of us, in

his Roman Catholic arms, while his deepseepeepers gazed and

sazed and dazecrazemazed into her dullokbloon rodolling olo-

sheen eyenbowls by the Cornelius Nepos, Mnepos. Anumque,

umque. Napoo.

Queh? Quos?

Ah, dearo dearo dear! Bozun braceth brythe hwen gooses

gandered gamen. Mahazar ag Dod! It was so scalding sorry for all

the whole twice two four of us, with their familiar, making the toten,

and Lally when he lost part of his half a hat and all belongings to

him, in his old futile manner, cape, towel and drawbreeches, and

repeating himself and telling him now, for the seek of Senders

 

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Newslaters and the mossacre of Saint Brices, to forget the past,

when the burglar he shoved the wretch in churneroil, and con-

tradicting all about Lally, the ballest master of Gosterstown, and

his old fellow, the Lagener, in the Locklane Lighthouse, earing his

wick with a pierce of railing, and liggen hig with his ladder up, and

that oldtime turner and his sadderday erely cloudsing, the old

croniony, Skelly, with the lether belly, full of neltts, full of keltts,

full of lightweight beltts and all the bald drakes or ever he had up

in the bohereen, off Artsichekes Road, with Moels and Mahmullagh

Mullarty, the man in the Oran mosque, and the old folks at home

and Duignan and Lapole and the grand confarreation, as per the

cabbangers richestore, of the filest archives, and he couldn't stop

laughing over Tom Tim Tarpey, the Welshman, and the four

middleaged widowers, all nangles, sangles, angles and wangles.

And now, that reminds me, not to forget the four of the Welsh

waves, leaping laughing, in their Lumbag Walk, over old Battle-

shore and Deaddleconchs, in their half a Roman hat, with an an-

cient Greek gloss on it, in Chichester College auction and, thank

God, they were all summarily divorced, four years before, or so

they say, by their dear poor shehusbands, in dear byword days,

and never brought to mind, to see no more the rainwater on the

floor but still they parted, raining water laughing, per Nupiter

Privius, only terpary, on the best of terms and be forgot, whilk was

plainly foretolk by their old pilgrim cocklesong or they were sing-

ing through the wettest indies As I was going to Burrymecarott we

fell in with a lout by the name of Peebles as also in another place by

their orthodox proverb so there was said thus That old fellow

knows milk though he's not used to it latterly. And so they parted.

In Dalkymont nember to. Ay, ay. The good go and the wicked

is left over. As evil flows so Ivel flows. Ay, ay. Ah, well sure,

that's the way. As the holymaid of Kunut said to the haryman

of Koombe. For his humple pesition in odvices. Woman. Squash.

Part. Ay, ay. By decree absolute.

Lucas. And, O so well they could remembore at that time, when

Carpery of the Goold Fins was in the kingship of Poolland, Mrs

Dowager Justice Squalchman, foorsitter, in her fullbottom wig

 

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and beard, (Erminia Reginia!) in or aring or around about the

year of buy in disgrace 1132 or 1169 or 1768 Y.W.C.A., at the

Married Male Familyman's Auctioneer's court in Arrahnacuddle.

Poor Johnny of the clan of the Dougals, the poor Scuitsman,

(Hohannes!) nothing if not amorous, dinna forget, so frightened

(Zweep! Zweep!) on account of her full bottom, (undullable

attraxity!) that put the yearl of mercies on him, and the four

maasters, in chors, with a hing behangd them, because he was

so slow to borstel her schoon for her, when he was grooming her

ladyship, instead of backscratching her materfamilias proper, like

any old methodist, and all divorced and innasense interdict, in

the middle of the temple, according to their dear faithful. Ah, now,

it was too bad, too bad and stout entirely, all the missoccurs; and

poor Mark or Marcus Bowandcoat, from the brownesberrow in

nolandsland, the poor old chronometer, all persecuted with ally

croaker by everybody, by decree absolute, through Herrinsilde,

because he forgot himself, making wind and water, and made

a Neptune's mess of all of himself, sculling over the giamond's

courseway, and because he forgot to remember to sign an old

morning proxy paper, a writing in request to hersute herself, on

stamped bronnanoleum, from Roneo to Giliette, before saying

his grace before fish and then and there and too there was

poor Dion Cassius Poosycomb, all drowned too, before the

world and her husband, because it was most improper and most

wrong, when he attempted to (well, he was shocking poor in

his health, he said, with the shingles falling off him), because

he (ah, well now, peaces pea to Wedmore and let not the song go

dumb upon your Ire, as we say in the Spasms of Davies, and we

won't be too hard on him as an old Manx presbyterian) and after

that, as red as a Rosse is, he made his last will and went to con-

fession, like the general of the Berkeleyites, at the rim of the rom,

on his two bare marrowbones, to Her Worship his Mother and

Sister Evangelist Sweainey, on Cailcainnin widnight and he was

so sorry, he was really, because he left the bootybutton in the

handsome cab and now, tell the truth, unfriends never, (she was

his first messes dogess and it was a very pretty peltry and there

 

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were faults on both sides) well, he attempted (or so they say)

ah, now, forget and forgive (don't we all?) and, sure, he was only

funning with his andrewmartins and his old age coming over

him, well, he attempted or, the Connachy, he was tempted to

attempt some hunnish familiarities, after eten a bad carmp in the

rude ocean and, hevantonoze sure, he was dead seasickabed (it was

really too bad!) her poor old divorced male, in the housepays for

the daying at the Martyr Mrs MacCawley's, where at the time

he was taying and toying, to hold the nursetendered hand, (ah,

the poor old coax!) and count the buttons and her hand and

frown on a bad crab and doying to remembore what doed they

were byorn and who made a who a snore. Ah dearo dearo

dear!

And where do you leave Matt Emeritus? The laychief of Ab-

botabishop? And exchullard of ffrench and gherman. Achoch!

They were all so sorgy for poorboir Matt in his saltwater hat,

with the Aran crown, or she grew that out of, too big for him, of

or Mnepos and his overalls, all falling over her in folds — sure he

hadn't the heart in her to pull them up — poor Matt, the old peri-

grime matriarch, and a queenly man, (the porple blussing upon

them!) sitting there, the sole of the settlement, below ground,

for an expiatory rite, in postulation of his cause, (who shall say?)

in her beaver bonnet, the king of the Caucuses, a family all to

himself, under geasa, Themistletocles, on his multilingual tomb-

stone, like Navellicky Kamen, and she due to kid by sweetpea

time, with her face to the wall, in view of the poorhouse, and

taking his rust in the oxsight of Iren, under all the auspices, amid

the rattle of hailstorms, kalospintheochromatokreening, with her

ivyclad hood, and gripping an old pair of curling tongs, belong-

ing to Mrs Duna O'Cannell, to blow his brains with, till the

heights of Newhigherland heard the Bristolhut, with his can of

tea and a purse of alfred cakes from Anne Lynch and two cuts of

Shackleton's brown loaf and dilisk, waiting for the end to come.

Gordon Heighland, when you think of it! The merthe dirther!

Ah ho! It was too bad entirely! All devoured by active parlour-

men, laudabiliter, of woman squelch and all on account of the

 

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smell of Shakeletin and scratchman and his mouth watering, acid

and alkolic; signs on the salt, and so now pass the loaf for Christ

sake. Amen. And so. And all.

Matt. And loaf. So that was the end. And it can't be helped.

Ah, God be good to us! Poor Andrew Martin Cunningham!

Take breath! Ay! Ay!

And still and all at that time of the dynast days of old konning

Soteric Sulkinbored and Bargomuster Bart, when they struck coil

and shock haunts, in old Hungerford-on-Mudway, where first I

met thee oldpoetryck flied from may and the Finnan haddies and

the Noal Sharks and the muckstails turtles like an acoustic pot-

tish and the griesouper bullyum and how he poled him up his

boccat of vuotar and got big buzz for his name in the airweek's

honours from home, colonies and empire, they were always with

assisting grace, thinking (up) and not forgetting about shims and

shawls week, in auld land syne (up) their four hosenbands, that

were four (up) beautiful sister misters, now happily married, unto

old Gallstonebelly, and there they were always counting and con-

tradicting every night 'tis early the lovely mother of periwinkle

buttons, according to the lapper part of their anachronism (up

one up two up one up four) and after that there now she was,

in the end, the deary, soldpowder and all, the beautfour sisters,

and that was her mudhen republican name, right enough, from

alum and oves, and they used to be getting up from under, in

their tape and straw garlands, with all the worries awake in their

hair, at the kookaburra bell ringring all wrong inside of them

(come in, come on, you lazy loafs!) all inside their poor old Shan-

don bellbox (come out to hell, you lousy louts!) so frightened,

for the dthclangavore, like knockneeghs bumpsed by the fister-

man's straights, (ys! ys!), at all hours every night, on their mistle-

toes, the four old oldsters, to see was the Transton Postscript

come, with their oerkussens under their armsaxters, all puddled

and mythified, the way the wind wheeled the schooler round,

when nobody wouldn't even let them rusten, from playing

their gastspiels, crossing their sleep by the shocking silence,

when they were in dreams of yore, standing behind the

 

394 UP

door, or leaning out of the chair, or kneeling under the sofa-

cover and setting on the souptureen, getting into their way

something barbarous, changing the one wet underdown convi-

brational bed or they used to slumper under, when hope was there

no more, and putting on their half a hat and falling over all synop-

ticals and a panegyric and repeating themselves, like svvollovv-

ing, like the time they were dadging the talkeycook that chased

them, look look all round the stool, walk everywhere for a jool,

to break fyre to all the rancers, to collect all and bits of brown,

the rathure's evelopment in spirits of time in all fathom of space

and slooping around in a bawneen and bath slippers and go away

to Oldpatrick and see a doctor Walker. And after that so glad

they had their night tentacles and there they used to be, flapping

and cycling, and a dooing a doonloop, panementically, around

the waists of the ships, in the wake of their good old Foehn

again, as tyred as they were, at their windswidths in the

waveslength, the clipperbuilt and the five fourmasters and

Lally of the cleftoft bagoderts and Roe of the fair cheats, ex-

changing fleas from host to host, with arthroposophia, and he

selling him before he forgot, issle issle, after having prealably

dephlegmatised his gutterful of throatyfrogs, with a lungible fong

in his suckmouth ear, while the dear invoked to the coolun dare

by a palpabrows lift left no doubt in his minder, till he was in-

stant and he was trustin, sister soul in brother hand, the subjects

being their passion grand, that one fresh from the cow about

Aithne Meithne married a mailde and that one too from Engr-

vakon saga abooth a gooth a gev a gotheny egg and the park-

side pranks of quality queens, katte efter kinne, for Earl Hooved-

soon's choosing and Huber and Harman orhowwhen theeupon-

thus (chchch!) eysolt of binnoculises memostinmust egotum

sabcunsciously senses upers the deprofundity of multimathema-

tical immaterialities wherebejubers in the pancosmic urge the

allimmanence of that which Itself is Itself Alone (hear, O hear,

Caller Errin!) exteriorises on this ourherenow plane in disunited

solod, likeward and gushious bodies with (science, say!) peril-

whitened passionpanting pugnoplangent intuitions of reunited

 

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selfdom (murky whey, abstrew adim!) in the higherdimissional

selfless Allself, theemeeng Narsty meetheeng Idoless, and telling

Jolly MacGolly, dear mester John, the belated dishevelled, hack-

ing away at a parchment pied, and all the other analist, the

steamships ant the ladies'foursome, ovenfor, nedenfor, dinkety,

duk, downalupping, (how long tandem!) like a foreretyred schoon-

masters, and their pair of green eyes and peering in, so they say, like

the narcolepts on the lakes of Coma, through the steamy win-

dows, into the honeymoon cabins, on board the big steamadories,

made by Fumadory, and the saloon ladies' madorn toilet chambers

lined over prawn silk and rub off the salty catara off a windows

and, hee hee, listening, qua committe, the poor old quakers, oben

the dure, to see all the hunnishmooners and the firstclass ladies,

serious me, a lass spring as you fancy, and sheets far from the lad,

courting in blankets, enfamillias, and, shee shee, all improper, in a

lovely mourning toilet, for the rosecrumpler, the thrilldriver, the

sighinspirer, with that olive throb in his nude neck, and, swayin

and thayin, thanks ever so much for the tiny quote, which sought

of maid everythingling again so very much more delightafellay,

and the perfidly suite of her, bootyfilly yours, under all their

familiarities, by preventing grace, forgetting to say their grace be-

fore chambadory, before going to boat with the verges of the

chaptel of the opering of the month of Nema Knatut, so pass the

poghue for grace sake. Amen. And all, hee hee hee, quaking, so

fright, and, shee shee, shaking. Aching. Ay, ay.

For it was then a pretty thing happened of pure diversion

mayhap, when his flattering hend, at the justright moment, like

perchance some cook of corage might clip the lad on a poot of

porage handshut his duckhouse, the vivid girl, deaf with love,

(ah sure, you know her, our angel being, one of romance's fade-

less wonderwomen, and, sure now, we all know you dote on

her even unto date!) with a queeleetlecree of joysis crisis she

renulited their disunited, with ripy lepes to ropy lopes (the dear

o'dears!) and the golden importunity of aloofer's leavetime,

when, as quick, is greased pigskin, Amoricas Champius, with one

aragan throust, druve the massive of virilvigtoury flshpst the

 

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both lines of forwards (Eburnea's down, boys!) rightjingbangshot

into the goal of her gullet.

Alris!

And now, upright and add them! And plays be honest! And

pullit into yourself, as on manowoman do another! Candidately,

everybody! A mot for amot. Comong, meng, and douh! There

was this, wellyoumaycallher, a strapping modern old ancient

Irish prisscess, so and so hands high, such and such paddock

weight, in her madapolam smock, nothing under her hat but

red hair and solid ivory (now you know it's true in your

hardup hearts!) and a firstclass pair of bedroom eyes, of most

unhomy blue, (how weak we are, one and all!) the charm

of favour's fond consent! Could you blame her, we're saying,

for one psocoldlogical moment? What would Ewe do? With

that so tiresome old milkless a ram, with his tiresome duty

peck and his bronchial tubes, the tiresome old hairyg orangogran

beaver, in his tiresome old twennysixandsixpenny sheopards

plods drowsers and his thirtybobandninepenny tails plus toop!

Hagakhroustioun! It were too exceeding really if one woulds

to offer at sulk an oldivirdual a pinge of hinge hit. The

mainest thing ever! Since Edem was in the boags noavy. No, no,

the dear heaven knows, and the farther the from it, if the whole

stole stale mis betold, whoever the gulpable, and whatever the

pulpous was, the twooned togethered, and giving the mhost

phassionable wheathers, they were doing a lally a lolly a dither

a duther one lelly two dather three lilly four dother. And it was

a fiveful moment for the poor old timetetters, ticktacking, in tenk

the count. Till the spark that plugged spared the chokee he

gripped and (volatile volupty, how brieved are thy lunguings!)

they could and they could hear like of a lisp lapsing, that

was her knight of the truths thong plipping out of her chapell-

ledeosy, after where he had gone and polped the questioned.

Plop.

Ah now, it was tootwoly torrific, the mummurrlubejubes! And

then after that they used to be so forgetful, counting mother-

peributts (up one up four) to membore her beaufu mouldern

 

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maiden name, for overflauwing, by the dream of woman the

owneirist, in forty lands. From Greg and Doug on poor Greg

and Mat and Mar and Lu and Jo, now happily buried, our four!

And there she was right enough, that lovely sight enough, the

girleen bawn asthore, as for days galore, of planxty Gregory.

Egory. O bunket not Orwin! Ay, ay.

But, sure, that reminds me now, like another tellmastory re-

peating yourself, how they used to be in lethargy's love, at the

end of it all, at that time (up) always, tired and all, after doing the

mousework and making it up, over their community singing

(up) the top loft of the voicebox, of Mamalujo like the senior

follies at murther magrees, squatting round, two by two, the four

confederates, with Caxons the Coswarn, up the wet air register

in Old Man's House, Millenium Road, crowning themselves in

lauraly branches, with their cold knees and their poor (up) quad

rupeds, ovasleep, and all dolled up, for their blankets and materny

mufflers and plimsoles and their bowl of brown shackle and

milky and boterham clots, a potion a peace, a piece aportion, a

lepel alip, alup a lap, for a cup of kindest yet, with hold take hand

and nurse and only touch of ate, a lovely munkybown and for

xmell and wait the pinch and prompt poor Marcus Lyons to be not

beheeding the skillet on for the live of ghosses but to pass the teeth

for choke sake, Amensch, when it so happen they were all syca-

more and by the world forgot, since the phlegmish hoopicough,

for all a possabled, after ete a bad cramp and johnny magories, and

backscrat the poor bedsores and the farthing dip, their caschal

pandle of magnegnousioum, and read a letter or two every night,

before going to dodo sleep atrance, with their catkins coifs, in

the twilight, a capitaletter, for further auspices, on their old one

page codex book of old year's eve 1132, M.M.L.J. old style, their

Senchus Mor, by his fellow girl, the Mrs Shemans, in her summer

seal houseonsample, with the caracul broadtail, her totam in

tutu, final buff noonmeal edition, in the regatta covers, uptenable

from the orther, for to regul their reves by incubation, and Lally,

through their gangrene spentacles, and all the good or they

did in their time, the rigorists, for Roe and O'Mulcnory a

 

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Conry ap Mul or Lap ap Morion and Buffler ap Matty Mac

Gregory for Marcus on Podex by Daddy de Wyer, old baga-

broth, beeves and scullogues, churls and vassals, in same, sept

and severalty and one by one and sing a mamalujo. To the

heroest champion of Eren and his braceoelanders and Gowan,

Gawin and Gonne.

And after that now in the future, please God, after nonpenal

start, all repeating ourselves, in medios loquos, from where he got

a useful arm busy on the touchline, due south of her western

shoulder down to death and the love embrace, with an interesting

tallow complexion and all now united, sansfamillias, let us ran on

to say oremus prayer and homeysweet homely, after fully realis-

ing the gratifying experiences of highly continental evenements,

for meter and peter to temple an eslaap, for auld acquaintance, to

Peregrine and Michael and Farfassa and Peregrine, for navigants

et peregrinantibus, in all the old imperial and Fionnachan sea and

for vogue awallow to a Miss Yiss, you fascinator, you, sing a

lovasteamadorion to Ladyseyes, here's Tricks and Doelsy, de-

lightfully ours, in her doaty ducky little blue and roll his hoop

and how she ran, when wit won free, the dimply blissed and aw-

fully bucked, right glad we never shall forget, thoh the dayses

gone still they loves young dreams and old Luke with his

kingly leer, so wellworth watching, and Senchus Mor, possessed

of evident notoriety, and another more of the bigtimers, to name

no others, of whom great things were expected in the fulmfilming

department, for the lives of Lazarus and auld luke syne and she

haihaihail her kobbor kohinor sehehet on the praze savohole

shanghai.

Hear, O hear, Iseult la belle! Tristan, sad hero, hear! The Lambeg

drum, the Lombog reed, the Lumbag fiferer, the Limibig brazenaze.

 

Anno Domini nostri sancti Jesu Christi

FINNEGANS WAKE FOUR PART BOOK FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finnegans_Wake

Finnegans Wake comprises seventeen chapters, divided into four Parts or Books. Part I contains eight chapters, Parts II and III each contain four, and Part IV consists of only one short chapter. The chapters appear without titles, and while Joyce never provided possible chapter titles as he had done for Ulysses, he did title various sections published separately (see Publication history below). The standard critical practice is to indicate part number in Roman numerals, and chapter title in Arabic, so that III.2, for example, indicates the second chapter of the third part.

FINNEGANS WAKE FOUR OLD MEN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finnegans_Wake

II.4, ostensibly portraying the drunken and sleeping Earwicker's dream, chronicles the spying of four old men (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John) on Tristan and Iseult's journey.[68] The short chapter portrays "an old man like King Mark being rejected and abandoned by young lovers who sail off into a future without him",[69] while the four old men observe Tristan and Isolde, and offer four intertwining commentaries on the lovers and themselves which are "always repeating themselves".[70]

WHETHER ONE FOURTH OR THREE FOURTHS WINE- ALSO FOUR- ALSO TEN TIMES FOUR ELLS OR FOUR TIMES TEN ELLS

http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/t01/t0116.htm

considered wine at all. Said Abayi: "There are two objections to this: Firstly, there is a Mishna that wine fit to drink is such as has been mixed with two-thirds water, like the wine of Sharon; secondly, do you think that the water in the pitcher (intended for mixing with the wine) is counted in?" Rejoined Rabha: The first objection does not hold good, as Sharon wine is an exception, which although weak is nevertheless good; or it may be that there the particularity is the color, which is not changed by an addition of two-thirds; but concerning taste, I say that only one which can bear three-fourths of water is considered. As to the second objection, concerning water in the pitcher, it is also nothing as concerning Sabbath. The quality and not the quantity is considered, and the wine in question is of that quality.

 

The rabbis taught: One who is about to eat a hearty meal should walk ten times four ells or four times ten ells, then perform a (natural) necessity, and after that go in and sit down to the meal.

FIVE DIFFERENT SEEDS CAN BE PLANTED IN A QUINCUNX FOUR EACH CORNER ONE IN THE CENTER A QUINCUNX IS CROSS OF FIVE PARTS

http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/t01/t0117.htm

MISHNA III.: (R. Aqiba said:) Whence do we adduce that in a patch of ground six spans long by six spans wide five different kinds of seed may be planted--one kind each in each of the four corners and one in the centre of the patch? From the passage [Isaiah, lxi. 11]: "For as the earth bringeth forth her growth, and as a garden causeth what is sown therein to spring forth." (We see then) it is not written "as a garden causeth its seed to spring forth," but what is sown therein.

 

GEMARA: How is this to be understood from that passage? Said R. Jehudah: The passage cited in the above Mishna is to be thus explained: "The earth bringeth forth her growth." "Bringeth forth" (which is in the singular) can be counted for "one" (kind of seed). Her "growth" (also singular) can also be counted for "one." (Now we have two.) "What is grown therein" (evidently plural) can be counted for two more (making four), and "to spring forth" (in the singular again) can be counted as one, making five in all; and (as far as the six spans square are concerned) the rabbis are quite certain (through tradition) that five different kinds of seed in a patch six spans square do not interfere with one another. But whence do we know that the assurance of the rabbis can be depended upon? Answered R. Hyya b. Aba in the name of R. Johanan, from the passage [Deut. xix. 14]: "Thou shalt not remove the landmark of thy neighbor, which they of old time have set," which is to be explained: "Thou shalt not go beyond what is limited by those

THE SECOND TRACT OF THE TALMUD IS THE TRACT ERUBIN- THERE ARE FOUR TYPES OF ERUBIN- ONLY THREE ARE DESCRIBED IN THE TRACT- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT

 

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Altogether there are four kinds of Erubin, only three of which will be discussed in this treatise. They are: The combining of courts, the combining of limits, and the combining of streets, also known as junction. The other commixture is called combining of cookery, which will be treated at length in Tract Yom Tob.

THE THIRD VOLUME OF THE TALMUD IS THE TRACT ERUBIN- THERE ARE FOUR TYPES OF ERUBIN- ONLY THREE ARE DESCRIBED IN THE TRACT- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT

 

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Altogether there are four kinds of Erubin, only three of which will be discussed in this treatise. They are: The combining of courts, the combining of limits, and the combining of streets, also known as junction. The other commixture is called combining of cookery, which will be treated at length in Tract Yom Tob.

FOUR ELLS FOUR CATS FOUR EMPTY CASKS

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One who is pursued by a snake should, if he is in company of a friend, jump on the friend's back and have the friend carry him at least four ells so as to hide the scent of his footsteps, or, if alone, should jump over a stream or pond of water. At

 

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night he should place his bed on four empty casks, then tie four cats to the casks, and sleep in an unroofed space. He should also place a lot of twigs and dry branches in front of his bed, so that if the snake glide among them they will rustle, in which event the cats will hear the noise and devour the snake. If one is pursued by a snake, he should run to a sandy place, where it is hard for a snake to glide.

ONE MAY FOLD CLOTHES "EVEN FOUR OR FIVE TIME SON THE SABBATH"

 

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MISHNA: One may fold his clothes (just removed) even four or five times (on the Sabbath). On the eve of Sabbath one may prepare his beds for use on the Sabbath, but not at the close of Sabbath for use after the Sabbath is gone. R. Ishmael says: "One may arrange his clothes and prepare his beds on the Day of Atonement for the Sabbath; further, the sacrificial tallow left over from the Sabbath may be offered up on the Day of Atonement (if the two succeed one another, before the Jewish calendar was arranged); but not such as is left over from the Day of Atonement on the Sabbath." R. Aqiba said: "Neither that (tallow) left over from the Sabbath may be offered up on the Day of Atonement, nor that of the Day of Atonement on the Sabbath."

FOURTH SIDE IS DIFFERENT THAN OTHER THREE SIDES WITH TWO BEAMS

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"In a closed space surrounded by walls." What is to be understood by the term "closed space"? Said R. Hisda: "This refers to a lane surrounded on three sides by walls and having on the fourth side two beams. If the lane have three walls and two beams it is a closed space, if it have only one beam on the fourth side it is an open place, and the Tana of the Mishna as well as Ben Bathyra hold in accordance with the opinion of R. Eliezer, who decided to that effect elsewhere." Said Rabba to R. Hisda: "Dost thou call a space surrounded by three walls and one beam an open place? If this be so, according to the sages, why cannot victuals and beverages also be brought there, not alone Scriptures? In my opinion, two walls and two beams, one on each side, form a closed space, and two walls with only one beam constitute an open space. And the two Tanaim of the Mishna are not in accord with R. Eliezer, but with R. Jehudah, who opposes him (in Tract Erubin)."

16 MEALS - 16 SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL- IF IT FOUR MEALS ON SABBATH

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"How so: If a conflagration," etc. The rabbis taught: How many meals should a man eat on the Sabbath? Three. R. 'Hidka said four. Said R. Johanan: Both the rabbis and R.

 

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[paragraph continues] 'Hidka adduced their opinions from the same passage, as follows [Exodus xvi. 25]: "And Moses said, Eat it to-day; for a Sabbath is this day unto the Lord: to-day ye will not find it in the field." R. 'Hidka holds that, day being mentioned three times, three meals should be eaten during the day and one at night, and the rabbis hold that the day includes the night and only three meals are required. Our Mishna, however, which decrees that only enough for three meals should be saved, does therefore not agree with R. 'Hidka. According to whose opinion, however, will the following Mishna be? (Tract Peah): "If a poor man have sufficient for two meals, he must not apply for another at the public kitchen (where food is distributed), but he may apply to the general charity fund. If he have, however, sufficient for fourteen meals (for the week) he must not even apply to the general charity fund!" If the Mishna were of the opinion of R. 'Hidka, he should have had sufficient for sixteen meals, so as to afford him four meals on the Sabbath, and, according to the rabbis, for fifteen meals in order to have three meals on the Sabbath? It is therefore neither in accord with R. 'Hidka nor with the rabbis. Nay; it is in accord with the rabbis, and the poor man should eat his Sabbath-night meal on the Sabbath day, so with his Friday-night meal it will make three meals on the Sabbath. It may also be said that the Mishna holds with R. 'Hidka, and that the poor man should leave his Friday meal for the Sabbath. Shall we make the poor man then fast on Friday? It would therefore be better to hold the Mishna's opinion to be in accord with R. Aqiba, who says, that the poor man should make Sabbath equal to a weekday in order not to be forced to rely upon charity. Thus fourteen meals are sufficient, and he may eat only two on Sabbath.

ARGUMENT OVER IF THERE SHOULD BE FOUR OR THREE MEALS ON THE SABBATH- ULTIMATELY THERE ARE FOUR THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

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"How so: If a conflagration," etc. The rabbis taught: How many meals should a man eat on the Sabbath? Three. R. 'Hidka said four. Said R. Johanan: Both the rabbis and R.

 

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[paragraph continues] 'Hidka adduced their opinions from the same passage, as follows [Exodus xvi. 25]: "And Moses said, Eat it to-day; for a Sabbath is this day unto the Lord: to-day ye will not find it in the field." R. 'Hidka holds that, day being mentioned three times, three meals should be eaten during the day and one at night, and the rabbis hold that the day includes the night and only three meals are required. Our Mishna, however, which decrees that only enough for three meals should be saved, does therefore not agree with R. 'Hidka. According to whose opinion, however, will the following Mishna be? (Tract Peah): "If a poor man have sufficient for two meals, he must not apply for another at the public kitchen (where food is distributed), but he may apply to the general charity fund. If he have, however, sufficient for fourteen meals (for the week) he must not even apply to the general charity fund!" If the Mishna were of the opinion of R. 'Hidka, he should have had sufficient for sixteen meals, so as to afford him four meals on the Sabbath, and, according to the rabbis, for fifteen meals in order to have three meals on the Sabbath? It is therefore neither in accord with R. 'Hidka nor with the rabbis. Nay; it is in accord with the rabbis, and the poor man should eat his Sabbath-night meal on the Sabbath day, so with his Friday-night meal it will make three meals on the Sabbath. It may also be said that the Mishna holds with R. 'Hidka, and that the poor man should leave his Friday meal for the Sabbath. Shall we make the poor man then fast on Friday? It would therefore be better to hold the Mishna's opinion to be in accord with R. Aqiba, who says, that the poor man should make Sabbath equal to a weekday in order not to be forced to rely upon charity. Thus fourteen meals are sufficient, and he may eat only two on Sabbath.

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273:2 By a temporary tent, says Rashi, is meant principally a sheet put up on four poles to serve as a roof, but screens on the sides are not considered a tent. The putting up of a window-blind in a building, however, is regarded by R. Eliezer as an addition to the building.

ONE MAY CLEAR OFF "FOUR OR FIVE CHESTS ON THE SABBATH"

 

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CHAPTER XVIII.

 

REGULATIONS REGARDING THE CLEARING OFF OF REQUIRED SPACE, THE ASSISTANCE TO BE GIVEN CATTLE WHEN GIVING BIRTH TO THEIR YOUNG AND TO WOMEN ABOUT TO BE CONFINED.

 

MISHNA: One may even clear off four or five chests of straw or grain, in order to provide room for guests, and to remove obstacles to instruction; but one must not clear out a whole barn. Further, one may clear off: heave-offerings, grain (of which it is not certain that the tithes have been set apart), first tithes of which the heave-offering has been taken off, second tithes and consecrated things which have been redeemed, and dried broad-beans, which serve the poor (others say, the goats) for food. But one must not clear off mixed grain (of which tithes have not yet been separated), nor first tithes. of which the heave-offering had not yet been taken off, nor second tithes nor consecrated things which had not yet been redeemed, nor arum (wake-robin) nor mustard. R. Simeon ben Gamaliel permits arum (wake-robin) to be cleared off, because it serves the (house) raven for food.

 

Bundles of straw, bundles of stalks, and bundles of reeds may be handled, provided they are designed for cattle-fodder, otherwise they must not be handled.

 

GEMARA: The Mishna says, "four or five chests." Why say four or five? If five may be cleared off, surely four may! Said Samuel: This is said only as a customary saying; but in reality it means to say that any number maybe cleared off; but by saying "one must not clear off a whole barn," the Mishna means to state, that all the straw should not be removed for fear lest pits be noticed in the ground, and the man might fill them up. Even if the whole barn be full and as yet untouched, one may commence to remove as much as is necessary, and the Mishna is in accordance with the opinion of R. Simeon, who disregards the law of Muktza.

ONE MAY CLEAR OFF "FOUR OR FIVE CHESTS ON THE SABBATH"- THE RABBIS ARGUE "WHY DOES IT SAY FOUR OR FIVE" WHY DOES IT NOT JUST SAY FIVE- PEOPLE WOULD UNDERSTAND FOUR BY JUST SAYING FIVE---- THEY REALIZE IT SAYS FOUR OR FIVE- IT SAYS FOUR BECAUSE OF THE QUADRANT MODEL

 

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CHAPTER XVIII.

 

REGULATIONS REGARDING THE CLEARING OFF OF REQUIRED SPACE, THE ASSISTANCE TO BE GIVEN CATTLE WHEN GIVING BIRTH TO THEIR YOUNG AND TO WOMEN ABOUT TO BE CONFINED.

 

MISHNA: One may even clear off four or five chests of straw or grain, in order to provide room for guests, and to remove obstacles to instruction; but one must not clear out a whole barn. Further, one may clear off: heave-offerings, grain (of which it is not certain that the tithes have been set apart), first tithes of which the heave-offering has been taken off, second tithes and consecrated things which have been redeemed, and dried broad-beans, which serve the poor (others say, the goats) for food. But one must not clear off mixed grain (of which tithes have not yet been separated), nor first tithes. of which the heave-offering had not yet been taken off, nor second tithes nor consecrated things which had not yet been redeemed, nor arum (wake-robin) nor mustard. R. Simeon ben Gamaliel permits arum (wake-robin) to be cleared off, because it serves the (house) raven for food.

 

Bundles of straw, bundles of stalks, and bundles of reeds may be handled, provided they are designed for cattle-fodder, otherwise they must not be handled.

 

GEMARA: The Mishna says, "four or five chests." Why say four or five? If five may be cleared off, surely four may! Said Samuel: This is said only as a customary saying; but in reality it means to say that any number maybe cleared off; but by saying "one must not clear off a whole barn," the Mishna means to state, that all the straw should not be removed for fear lest pits be noticed in the ground, and the man might fill them up. Even if the whole barn be full and as yet untouched, one may commence to remove as much as is necessary, and the Mishna is in accordance with the opinion of R. Simeon, who disregards the law of Muktza.

PEOPLE SHOULD CARRY SOMETHING FOUR ELLS AT A TIME

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How is it if the man have nobody along, no Gentile, no ass, no deaf-mute, no idiot, and no minor? What should he do then? Said R. Itz'hak: "There was another mode of procedure, which the sages would not reveal." What was that? He should carry it less than four ells at a time (i.e., carry it a little less than four ells and stop, then start and carry it on again for less than four ells, and so on). Why would the sages not reveal this? Because it is written [Proverbs xxv. 2]: "It is the honor of God to conceal a thing; but the honor of kings is to search out a matter." Where is the honor of God concerned in this matter? Perhaps the man will not stop, but go on and carry, it over four ells.

FOUR SPANS SQUARE IS 16 SQUARES
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MISHNAS I., II., III., and IV. If there be an aperture, four spans square, etc., between two courts. If in the attic of a house there was a hole for the purpose of fastening a ladder therein, should the house be considered solid? If there be a wall ten spans high and four spans wide between two courts. If a man comes to diminish the size of the wall referred to in the Mishna. An Egyptian ladder does not diminish a wall, but a ladder of Tyre does. If one erected two benches, one above the other, at the foot of a wall. What is the law if several pegs be placed on the pillar in question? I have a tradition that a ladder standing straight against a wall also diminishes its size. What is the law if a man used a tree, which grew right at the wall, for a ladder? If two courts are separated by a ditch, ten spans deep and four wide. "Thou wouldst prove a contradiction from a law pertaining to uncleanness to a Sabbath-law?" If there be between two courts a straw-rick, ten spans high. If a house which was filled with straw stand between two courts? 179-189

IT ALL CENTERS AROUND FOUR ELLS- 16 SQUARES

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how much lower should it be made? How much lower? As much as is necessary. The question here is, how much of the space below the cross-beam must be diminished in order to make the space only twenty ells high. R. Joseph said: "One span underneath the cross-beam is sufficient"; but Abayi said, four spans, and they differ merely as to the precautionary measure involved; the latter claiming, that one span may be impaired through stepping upon it, while the former holds that there is no danger of such a thing happening.

 

How is it if the entry was less than ten spans high and sufficient ground had to be excavated in order to make it the prescribed height? How much ground should be excavated? How much? As much as is necessary? The question, therefore, is not as to how much must be excavated in height, but in the width of the entry. R. Joseph said: "For the width of four spans," and Abayi said, "For four ells." (The reason R. Joseph says four spans in this case, while only requiring one span in the above case, is because in the first instance a wall for the entry already existed, and merely the space had to be diminished, but in this instance, if the wall is less than ten spans high, it cannot be considered a wall and by excavating the ground the wall will be made; hence four spans at least must be excavated in order to constitute such a wall, the wall of an entry. Abayi, however, holds that in this case four spans would be insufficient, and at least four ells are necessary, because an entry is not considered such, unless it is four ells wide.)

 

Said Abayi: "Whence do I know that four ells are required? From the statement of Rami bar Hama in the name of R. Huna, that if a beam protrude from one of the walls of the entry for a distance of less than four ells, it may serve as the side-beam of such entry and be valid, although it was not intended to serve for that purpose. If such a beam protrude for a distance of four ells or more, it is considered as part of the wall and cannot serve as a side-beam, but a new side-beam must be made in order to make the entry valid." (If a beam protrude from a wall of an entry and was even not intended to serve as a side-beam, it may be ever so small, it is considered as a side-beam for the entry and is valid. If it protrude, however, for a distance of four ells or more, and was not originally intended for a side-beam, it cannot serve the purpose, because the entire width of the entry is only supposed to be four ells and for that reason the protruding beam is considered part of the wall. Hence in order to make the entry

 

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valid, another side-beam must be constructed. From this it may be seen, that Abayi bases his opinion concerning the width of the entry upon the dictum of Rami bar Hama, that an entry must be four ells wide.) R. Joseph, however, declares, that the decree of Rami bar Hama does not conflict with his own decision; for it is true that a beam, if it be four ells wide is not considered a side-beam, because it has not the appearance of a side-beam; still the reason for this is not because the width of the entry itself should be four ells, but because the side-beam is too large, and, as for the entry itself, it is sufficient, if it be only four spans wide.

FOUR SPANS/FOUR ELLS ARE NECESSARY/ 16 SQUARES AND FOUR WALLS/ NOT THREE ARE NECESSARY- THERE IS DEBATE ON WHETHER THERE SHOULD BE FOUR OR THREE WALLS- THERE IS ALWAYS A DYNAMIC BETWEEN FOUR AND THREE

 

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R. Shesheth met Rabba the son of Samuel on the street; and he asked him: "Did the master teach anything concerning an apparent door?" Rabba answered: "Yea! We have learned concerning an arch, R. Meir decreed, that a Mezuzah (sign on the door-post) must be fastened to it, but the sages say, that it is not necessary." (The reason the sages say, that a Mezuzah is not necessary is because the zenith of the arch is not four spans wide, and no door is properly a door that is not at least four spans wide.) All agree, however, that if the arch is ten spans wide at its base (i.e., before the curve commences, then it is certain that for at least ten spans upwards the arch has a width of four spans), a Mezuzah is necessary, and Abayi said: "All agree, that if the arch is ten spans high and the base is less than three spans wide, or if the base is three spans wide but the arch is less than ten spans high, no Mezuzah is necessary (because a door cannot be

 

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less than ten spans high), but wherein do they differ? In a case where the base of the arch was less than four spans wide, and the arch itself ten spans high, but at the top of the arch the width could, by hollowing. out the wall, be increased to four spans' width, R. Meir holds that a Mezuzah is necessary, because the possibility of increasing its width renders it equivalent to having been increased, but the sages hold that a Mezuzah is not necessary, because it had not yet been increased in width." (Thence we see that R. Meir holds that the possibility of accomplishing an act renders it equivalent to having been performed, and, in consequence, he holds that if a pole was merely suspended above two poles it is the same as if it were placed on top of the poles.) Said R. Shesheth to him: "If thou shouldst meet the members of the house of the Exilarch, tell them nothing of the Boraitha concerning the arch."

 

MISHNA: To legalize (the carrying within) an entry, Beth Shammai hold that a side and cross beam are required, but Beth Hillel hold, that either a post or a beam is sufficient. R. Eliezer said, "Two side-beams are necessary." In the name of R. Ishmael, a disciple stated before R. Aqiba: "Beth Shammai and Beth Hillel do not differ as to an entry less than four ells in width, for both agree, that such an entry becomes legalized either through a cross-beam or a side-beam." Wherein do they differ? Concerning entries of more than four and up to ten ells in width. Regarding these, Beth Shammai hold, that both a side and cross beam are necessary, and Beth Hillel hold, that either a side or a cross beam is sufficient. R. Aqiba, however, said: "They (the two schools) differ in both instances."

 

GEMARA: According to whose opinion is the Mishna? It is neither according to the opinion of the first Tana nor to that of Hananiah (see page 10). Said R. Jehudah: The Mishna means to state the following: "To legalize a closed entry (one enclosed on three sides) Beth Shammai hold that a side and cross beam are necessary, while Beth Hillel hold, that either one is sufficient." Shall we assume that in order to constitute a private ground from a biblical point of view, according to Beth Shammai, four walls are necessary (because the entry by the addition of a side and cross beam would be turned into a seeming wall)? Nay; throwing to or from public ground in ground enclosed by three walls, makes one culpable from a biblical point of view, but carrying is permitted only in ground enclosed by four walls by the rabbinical law, according to Beth Shammai.

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LOOK HOW THE PICTURE IS A QUADRANT

SECOND TRACT OF TALMUD- THE FIRST TRACT IS ALL ABOUT THE FOUR ELLS AND 16 SQUARES. I ALREADY TALKED TO A RABBI ABOUT THIS WHO TOLD ME THAT IT WAS ALL ABOUT THE 16 SQUARES. THIS IS THE SECOND TRACT OF THE TALMUD
I DISCUSSED I READ THROUGH THE TALMUD THE RAMAYANA I WENT THROUGH ALL THAT STUFF BACK IN THE DAY AND IT WAS ALL SERIOUSLY BASED AROUND THE QUADRANT PATTERN EVERYTHING FROM EVERYHTING BUDDHIST TEXTS EVERYTHIGN
IN JUDAISM THE WALLS MUST BE FOUR BOARDS- EACH MAY BE OF THREE ANIMALS ABREAST OR AS IT SAYS FOUR- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT
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MISHNA: Enclosures (partitions) must be made around wells. They must be made of four boards, placed at an angle (of forty-five degrees) at the corners of the well, so that the four boards appear like eight (see illustration). Such is the dictum of R. Jehudah; but R. Meir saith: Eight boards must be used which will appear as twelve, namely, four boards placed at an angle at the corners which appear as eight, and four boards placed between the corner boards. The height of the boards must be ten spans, the width six spans, and the thickness whatever it may be. The space between the two corner boards on the same side must not be wider than to permit of the passing through of two teams of cattle, each team of three animals abreast. Such is the decree of R. Meir. R. Jehudah, however, maintains, that each team may be of four animals abreast, meaning of cattle yoked together in a team, but not walking unyoked, so that one enters as the other passes out.

THERE IS THE CONSTANT TENSION BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR- THERE IS ALWAYS A DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR- ONE RABBI SAYS THREE THE OTHER SAYS FOUR ANIMALS OF LENGTH

 

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ells in circumference, all agree, that no centre-boards are necessary. For a well of twelve ells in circumference, all agree that they are necessary. Where they differ is concerning a well that is between eight and twelve ells in circumference. According to R. Meir centre-boards are necessary, and according to R. Jehudah they are not. What would R. Papa inform us? We have learned this in our Mishna; for R. Jehudah says two teams of four animals each and R. Meir two teams of three each, so the difference is the size of two animals but not the size of one. R. Papa did not know of the Boraitha stating the size of a cow, so he came to teach us the measure.

MUST BE FOUR SPANS

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A wood-shed of over two saahs' capacity which was not fenced in for a dwelling and was made smaller by planting trees therein, is not considered diminished in size. If, however, a pillar was erected within it, ten spans high and four wide, it is considered diminished. If the pillar was less than three spans wide, all agree, that it is of no account; but if it be over three spans and less than four, Rabha said, that the wood-shed is thereby diminished because a thing which is over three spans wide does not come within the law of "lavud" (attachment), and is hence considered an independent subject; Rabha, however, maintains that it is not diminished, for a subject which is less than four spans is of no account.

 

If a partition was made in the wood-shed four spans distant from the wall, things may be carried over the entire wood-shed. If the partition was less than three spans from the wall, all agree that this would be unlawful. If over three and less than four, Rabba said it is lawful, and Rabha said it is not. R. Shimi, however, taught this ordinance in a more lenient form, namely: If the partition was over three and less than four spans from the wall, all agree, that it is lawful; but if it was less than three then there is a difference of opinion.

http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/t02/eru07.htm--- CENTERS AROUND FOUR ELLS

GEMARA: Said Rabha: (If the Erub rolled outside of the limit of the Sabbath distance) for a distance of over four ells it is not valid; but if it rolled for less than four ells, the man who deposited the Erub is allowed four ells to move in, outside of the limits, consequently the Erub is valid.

THE FOUR OLD SAGES

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"The Halakha prevails according to the opinion of the four old sages and in conformity with R. Eliezer, who says, that the two days have different degrees of sanctification; and the four old sages are: R. Simeon ben Gamaliel, R. Ishmael the son of R. Johanan ben Berokah, R. Elazar ben R. Simeon and R. Jose ben R. Jehudah. The last of these is generally quoted by Rabbi anonymously wherever his opinion seems to be justifiable and according to another version, one of the four sages is R. Elazar ben Samua instead of R. Jose ben R. Jehudah. Rabh's information on this point was derived from a tradition, which was to the effect, that those four sages held in accordance with R. Eliezer concerning the two degrees of sanctification for both days.

THE MISHNA (THE GEMARRA DERIVES FROM THE MISHNA) SAYS THAT YOU CANNOT GO FARTHER THAN FOUR ELLS (WITHIN 16 SQUARES OF ELLS) AND THIS WAS TAUGHT BY THE FOUR SAGES- IT TALKS ABOUT HOW THE FOUR SAGES WERE ONCE ON A VESSEL AND DID NOT ENTER THE HARBOR UNTIL AFTER DARK

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MISHNA: If foes, or an evil spirit (a fit of insanity?), caused one to go beyond the Sabbath limit, he after recovering his freedom must not move further than four ells; if the foes or the fit have carried him back within the limit, it is as if he had not gone beyond it. If they have carried him into another town, or into a pen or a fold for cattle, he according to Rabbon Gamaliel and R. Eliezer ben Azariah, may go about throughout the entire extent (of the town, pen or fold). R. Joshua and R. Aqiba maintain, that he must not move further than four ells. It once happened that these four sages came together from Parendisim (Brundusium, or Brindisi) and their vessel was still at sea on the Sabbath. Rabbon Gamaliel and R. Eliezer ben Azariah walked about throughout the whole vessel; but R. Joshua and R. Aqiba did not move beyond four ells, as they wished to take upon themselves the rigid observance. Once these FOUR sages were on board a vessel and did not enter the harbor until after dark (on the eve of Sabbath); so they inquired of Rabbon Gamaliel: "What are we to do as to descending from the vessel?" He answered them: Ye may descend; for I observed, that we had already entered the limits of the Sabbath-distance before dusk.

TALKS ABOUT THE FOUR SAGES AND STAYING WITHIN FOUR SPANS

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R. Hananiah propounded a question: Is there such a thing as a legal limit above ten spans from the ground or not? Concerning a pillar ten spans high and four spans wide one side of which was outside of the legal limit there is no question; for it is equal to the ground itself, but concerning a pillar, that was ten spans high and less than four spans wide or a man who went on board of a ship, does the law of legal limits apply or not? R. Hosea answered: "Come and hear! It once happened that four sages came together from Parendisim, etc. (see Mishna). If we say, that the law of legal limits applies to objects higher than ten spans, then it can be understood why R. Joshua and R. Aqiba took upon themselves the rigid observance (for concerning a ship in motion they do not disagree with the other sages), viz.: on account of the law of legal limits, but if this law does not apply to a ship, what rigid observance could they have taken upon themselves?" Rejoined R. Hananiah: "It may be that their ship was passing through shallow water, as related elsewhere by Rabha, and was not over ten spans from the ground."

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IT DISCUSSES THAT RABBIS GET THE FOUR ELLS BY THE EXODUS PASSAGE THAT SAYS THAT A MAN STAY IN HIS PLACE- AND A MAN IS THREE ELLS BUT IF HE STRETCHES HE IS FOUR ELLS (THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT)

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Thereupon Rabha said: "Let the rams be sold to the inhabitants of Mabrakhta; for that city is to the rams as four ells (being equal to the case of where a man was brought into a pen or a fold against his will and may in consequence traverse the entire extent of the pen or fold, as if they were only four ells)."

 

R. Hyya taught: "If the legal limits of two cities terminated in the water and a partition was made to denote the place where they met, by means of a fishing-net, it is not sufficient; for an iron partition is necessary in order that the water of both limits should not mingle." R. Jose bar Hanina laughed at this teaching. Why did he laugh at it? Because Rabh decreed, that the sages were very lenient with all things pertaining to water (see page 24).

 

"But the sages hold, that he has only the right to move four ells." Is R. Jehudah not of the same opinion as the first Tana? Said Rabha: Nay; they differ to the extent of eight square ells. The sages hold that he may go four ells in every direction, that is, in all, eight square ells; but R. Jehudah says, that he may go only four ells in one direction. We have also learned to this effect in a Boraitha: "He may move in eight square ells, so saith R. Meir." Said Rabha: "They differ as to the extent that the man may traverse, but as for carrying things all agree, that he may do so only for a distance of four ells."

 

The questions seem to be centred in four ells. Whence do we derive these four ells? As we have learned in a Boraitha: From the passage [Exodus xvi. 29]: "Remain ye, every man in his place," etc. By "his place" is meant the size of his body. What is the size? Three ells, and one ell additional in case he wishes to stretch his limbs. So said R. Meir. R. Jehudah, however, said: "Three ells are allowed for the size of the body and an additional ell in case he wishes to take a thing at his feet and place it underneath his head." What is the point of variance between the two? According to one, the four ells

 

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must be exactly measured, and according to the other, an approximate distance only is necessary.

 

R. Mesharshia said to his son: "When thou goest to see R. Papa, ask him whether the four ells are measured proportionately to the size of the man concerned or whether they are the holy ells (i.e., ells measuring six spans). If he should tell thee, that the holy ells are meant, what should a man do who is as tall as Og, King of Bashan, and if he should tell thee, that the proportionate ells are meant, why were the four ells not included in the Boraitha, which teaches, that all things should be reckoned according to the proportionate ells."

A MAN CAN GO FOUR THOUSAND ELLS AFTER DARK ON SABBATH

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"For all those who go forth on an errand of safety, "etc. Even such as go beyond four thousand ells? In the first part of the Mishna it is stated that they only have two thousand ells in each direction? What question is this? This is a case of where a man goes forth on an errand of safety, and on such an errand it may be permitted to go beyond four thousand ells. If there is a question it can be made upon the following Mishna: "Those who go to assist others in case of conflagration, or of an attack of robbers, or of flood, or of rescuing people from the ruins of a falling building are considered for the time being as inhabitants of that place, and may go thence on the Sabbath, two thousand ells in every direction." Thus here it is stated, that they may go only two thousand ells and our Mishna does not limit the distance? Said R. Jehudah in the name of Rabh: Our Mishna means to imply, that they may even return to their homes with all their implements of war, as we have learned in a Boraitha: In former times, they used to deposit their arms in a house nearest

 

 

R. Jehudah bar Isht'tha brought a basket of fruit to R. Nathan bar Oshiya on the eve of Sabbath (and the distance from his house to that of R. Nathan was four thousand ells). He started to return and R. Nathan let him go as far as the first step and then said to him: "Remain here over night." On the morrow, he arose and returned to his home.

NO ISRAELITE HEARD THE CHAPTER LESS THAN FOUR TIMES- AARON, MOSES BROTHER, HEARD IT THE MOST, FOUR TIMES (THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS TRANSCENDENT) RABBIS RECOMMEND EMULATING AARON AND LEARNING IT AT LEAST FOUR TIMES

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After the elders had finished, the rest of the Israelites who wished to learn would enter and would learn the same chapter. Thus we see, that Aaron heard the same chapter four times, his sons three times, the elders twice, and the rest of the people once. After the last reading Moses would depart and Aaron would again repeat the chapter to the others; then he would depart and his children would teach the chapter; after them the elders would do so, so that no one heard it less than four times. From this R. Eliezer deduced, that every teacher should recite his teaching to his disciples four times, holding that as Aaron who learned from Moses, who in turn learned from the might of God, had to learn one thing four times so much more ought an ordinary man to do so when learning from another.

R. PREIDA DID NOT JUST TEACH SOMETHING FOUR TIMES BUT WOULD TEACH IT FOUR HUNDRED TIMES- NOTICE THE REPETITION OF FOURS IN THE TALMUD

 

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R. Preida had a disciple, whom he would teach a thing four hundred times and then the disciple would understand it. One day R. Preida was invited to attend the celebration of a circumcision and as he was just teaching his disciple, he finished the teaching for the four hundredth time but still the disciple did not understand. So he asked him: "What is the difficulty?" and the disciple replied, that from the moment the master was invited to the celebration, he could not pay proper attention, thinking that every moment he would be going away. So R. Preida said: "Pay proper attention and I will teach thee again," and he accordingly repeated the teaching another four hundred times. A heavenly voice was heard at that time which said: "What wouldst thou rather, that thou live another four hundred years, or that thou and the entire generation in which thou livest should be given a share in the world to come." R. Preida answered: "I would rather accept the latter proposition." Said the Holy One, blessed be He: "Give him both."

CITY CENTERED AROUND FOUR THOUSAND ELLS- AGAIN REPETITION OF FOURS

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R. Huna said: If a town was in the form of an arch and the distance between the two ends of the arch was less than four thousand ells, the enclosed space is considered as filled with houses and two thousand ells may be measured from the extreme ends. If the distance was more than four thousand ells, the two thousand ells must be measured from the centre of the arch. What distance should a man have from his house to the end whence the two thousand ells are measured. Rabba bar R. Huna said: "Two thousand ells" and Rabha the son of Rabba bar R. Huna said: "Even more than two thousand ells." Said Abayi: "It seems to me that the latter opinion is correct, because, if the man chose, he could go through all the houses in the arch to that end, then why should he not be permitted to cross over the space between his house and the end of the arch?"

AGAIN CENTERS AROUND FOUR ELLS---- A MOUNTAIN MUST NOT BE CUT THROUGH EXCEPT WITH A LINE MEASURING FOUR ELLS

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If the sounding line cannot be used, what distance may he go to find another location for measuring?

Said Abimi and also Rami bar Ezekiel: "Four ells."

 

"If a hillock is encountered," etc. Said Rabha: "This refer to a hillock with a base of five ells and a peak of ten spans; but a hillock with a base of four ells and a peak of ten spans should be merely estimated and the measurement resumed."

 

The man at the foot of the mountain should hold the line to his breast and the man at the summit should hold it to his feet. Said Abayi: There is a tradition to the effect, that the mountain must not be cut through (measured) except with a line measuring four ells.

AGAIN CENTERS AROUND FOUR ELLS---- A MOUNTAIN MUST NOT BE CUT THROUGH EXCEPT WITH A LINE MEASURING FOUR ELLS- ALSO A PARTITION MUST BE FOUR ELLS HIGH

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If the sounding line cannot be used, what distance may he go to find another location for measuring?

Said Abimi and also Rami bar Ezekiel: "Four ells."

 

"If a hillock is encountered," etc. Said Rabha: "This refer to a hillock with a base of five ells and a peak of ten spans; but a hillock with a base of four ells and a peak of ten spans should be merely estimated and the measurement resumed."

 

The man at the foot of the mountain should hold the line to his breast and the man at the summit should hold it to his feet. Said Abayi: There is a tradition to the effect, that the mountain must not be cut through (measured) except with a line measuring four ells.

 

R. Joseph said in the name of Rami bar Abba quoting R. Huna: "If a town was standing on the steep banks of a lake and there was a partition made on the brink of the banks four ells high, the measurement of the legal limits may be commenced from that partition. If there was no partition, however, the measurement must be commenced from the entrance of the house (nearest the lake)." Said Abayi: "Why dost thou require in this case a partition four ells high? Generally four spans are sufficient!" Because usually, no fear is entertained as to the use of the place, while in this case there is constant fear of falling over the banks (hence that place cannot be taken into consideration and the measurement must be made from the houses).

FOUR HIGH AND FOUR WIDE IS 16 SQUARES

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R. Jehudah said in the name of Samuel: "If a Gentile have in his court a door, four spans wide and four ells high, opening into a valley, even should he lead cattle, camels, and wagons through the entry to the court all day long, he does not interfere with the Israelites inhabiting the court, because his door is of more use to him than the common entry, and serves to separate him from the others."

AGAIN THE MISHNA IS FOCUSING ON FOUR SQUARED- 16 SQUARES- THERE IS THIS REPETITION OF FOUR SQUARED WHICH IS 16, WHICH IS THE QUADRANT MODEL

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REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE PREPARATION OF ERUBIN FOR COURTS SEPARATED BY APERTURES, WALLS, DITCHES, AND STRAW-RICKS. COMBINATION OF ERUBIN IN ALLEYS.

 

MISHNA: If there be an aperture, four spans square, and less than ten spans high (from the ground), between two courts, the inmates of each court may prepare two separate Erubin; or if they prefer it, may combine in one Erub. If the aperture be less than four spans square or over ten spans from the ground, they are each obliged to prepare a separate Erub, and must not combine in one.

 

GEMARA: Shall we say that this anonymous Mishna, is in accordance with R. Simeon ben Gamaliel, who holds that the law of "lavud" (attached) applies for a distance of less than four spans and not for a distance of less than three spans as maintained by the sages? Nay; this Mishna may be even in accordance with the opinion of the sages, for the question of "lavud" does not arise here. It is merely a case of an aperture which is less than four spans square, hence it is not considered a door and this is admitted by the sages also, who hold that if an aperture is four spans square or more, it is considered a door, but if less than four spans square it is not.

 

"If the aperture be less than four spans square," etc. Why this repetition? Is this not self-evident? The first clause of the Mishna states, that if there be an aperture four spans square and less than ten spans high from the ground, the inmates of the courts may either prepare separate Erubin or combine in one. Hence if the aperture be less than four spans square and more than ten spans high, it is obvious that they cannot have their choice? The Mishna means to teach us, that if the aperture was partly less than ten spans high from the ground and partly more than ten spans high the inmates of the court still have their choice of either making separate Erubin or combining in one, and only if the entire aperture was over ten spans high

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THE REST OF THIS CHAPTER, GEMARA, KEEPS REPEATING AND FOCUSING ON THIS NOTION OF FOUR PANS SQUARE (THE QUADRANT) AND IT ALSO MENTIONS THE EGYPTIAN LADDER- WHICH IS A LADDER THAT HAS NOT FOUR RUNGS

 

An Egyptian ladder does not diminish a wall but a ladder of Tyre does. What is meant by an Egyptian ladder? One that has not four rungs. So said the school of R. Janai.

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THE REST OF THIS CHAPTER, GEMARA, KEEPS REPEATING AND FOCUSING ON THIS NOTION OF FOUR SPANS SQUARE (THE QUADRANT) AND IT ALSO MENTIONS THE EGYPTIAN LADDER- WHICH IS A LADDER THAT HAS NOT FOUR RUNGS

 

An Egyptian ladder does not diminish a wall but a ladder of Tyre does. What is meant by an Egyptian ladder? One that has not four rungs. So said the school of R. Janai.

THE NEXT MISHNA OF THE CHAPTER THEN ASKS ABOUT A DITCH FOUR SPANS WIDE- THAT IS 16 SQUARES

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MISHNA: If two courts be separated by a ditch, ten spans deep and four wide, the inmates of each court should prepare separate Erubin and must not join in one, even though the ditch be filled with stubble or with straw. Should it however be filled with earth or pebbles, the inmates must join in one Erub and not prepare two separate ones. If a board four spans wide had been put across the ditch, and likewise, if two projecting balconies, one opposite the other, have been connected by means of such a board, or plank, the inmates of the courts may prepare separate Erubin, or if they prefer it, they may join in one; if the board, however, was less (than four spans) wide, they must each prepare a separate Erub, and not join in one.

 

R. Ashi, however, said: Thou wouldst base a contradiction on an ordinance concerning a room to that concerning a ditch. A ditch was made to be filled up, but is then a room also made to be filled up?

 

"If a board four spans wide had been put across the ditch." Said Rabha: "When must the board be four spans wide? If it was laid crosswise across the ditch, but if it was laid lengthwise across the ditch it makes no difference how wide the board is, because the width of the ditch was decreased to less than four spans.

THE FIRST RABBI SAYS A KABH IS ENOUGH FOR FOUR PEOPLE- THE OTHER SAID IT IS ENOUGH FOR NINE- AFTER MATHEMATICS THE CONCLUSION COMES THAT THERE IS NOT MUCH OF A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FOUR AND NINE- AGAIN THERE IS REPETITION OF THE NUMBER FOUR

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It is sufficient to effect the combination if the loaf used therefor be worth a Pundian, when the price of flour is one selah for four saah. R. Simeon said: Two-thirds of a loaf (is sufficient), such as go three to one kabh of flour. (The time it takes to eat) half (of such a loaf, is the prescribed time for remaining) in the house of a leper, 1 and the half of a half of such a loaf (which were it unclean) would make the body unclean. 2

 

According to R. Johanan one kabh will provide four meals, and according to R. Simeon one kabh will produce nine meals? Said R. Hisda: "Deduct one-third as the profit of the dealer." Then according to R. Johanan one kabh will provide six meals and according to R. Simeon nine. Say in accordance with the dictum of R. Hisda at another time, that one half should be deducted as the profit of the dealer. Then

 

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according to one a kabh contains sufficient for eight meals and according to the other, nine. 1 Hence we have already heard that there was not much difference between R. Simeon and R. Johanan.

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ACCORDING TO THE MISHNA WHAT IS CONSIDERED CLOSE IS WHATEVER IS LESS THAN FOUR SPANS AWAY

 

What is considered close? Whatever is less than four spans distance.

AGAIN REPETITION OF FOUR ELLS- AND FOUR ELLS SQUARE WHICH IS A QUADRANT MODEL- AGAIN EVERYTHING IS CENTERED AROUND FOUR ELLS SQUARE AND FOUR SPANS- WHICH ARE QUADRANT MODELS- SO FAR IN THE FIRST TWO TRACTATES OF THE TALMUD EVERYTHING HAS CENTERED AROUND THE QUADRANT MODEL FOUR AND 16

 

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R. Jehudah in the name of Samuel said: "If between two courts there was a small alley, into which the doors of the courts did not open, but which contained a well four spans distant from the wall of each court, the inhabitants of each court may put up a projecting board no matter how small on top of the wall, and draw water from the well through their windows. (In reality this was unnecessary, because the alley was not used as a thoroughfare, but as the two courts had not joined in an Erub and used the well in common the boards were erected as a sign)." R. Jehudah himself continued: "A projecting board is not necessary, for even any small stick is sufficient."

 

R. Jehudah said what we have learned in the Mishna and R. Hananiah ben Aqabia as we have learned in the Boraitha, viz.: "In a balcony four ells square a hole four spans square may be cut out and water may be drawn through that hole (and although there were no partitions surrounding the balcony, it is considered as if it reached the ground by the application of the law of Gud Achith 1).

 

Said R. Huna the son of R. Jehoshua: If the well stood in a corner between two courts, the partition to be erected on the other side of the well (which is not between the two walls) should be ten spans high and a span and a trifle wide on each side (and when applying the law of Lavud to the partition on both sides a partition will be effected on every side of the well, providing the well was only four spans square).

 

Said R. Jehudah: "It happened that water was drawn from "the canal flowing into the city of Sepphoris from the walls, around it 1 (the canal flowing from the moat) with the sanction of the elders," but the sages said to him: "Wouldst thou place this in evidence? In that case the canal was not ten spans deep nor four spans wide."

 

We have learned in another Boraitha: "A canal which flows between two walls which contained apertures, if it was less than three spans wide, a bucket may be let down from the apertures and water drawn from the canal; but if it was over three spans wide this must not be done (on Sabbath). R. Simeon ben Gamaliel, however, says, that if the canal was less than four spans wide, water may be drawn therefrom, but if over four spans, this must not be done." In which class of legal ground can such a canal be placed? Shall we say: in the class of unclaimed ground? Then the statement of R. Dimi in the name, of R. Johanan to the effect that there is no unclaimed ground less than four spans will not be in accordance with the opinion of all the sages but merely with that of part of them; for according to the sages of the above Boraitha, even three spans may constitute unclaimed ground? Zera said: "The sages of the Boraitha do differ with R. Simeon ben Gamaliel concerning this

 

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point whether unclaimed ground maybe three spans or four, and the statement of R. Dimi is merely in accordance with the opinion of part of the Tanaim."

 

Why should a canal between two walls containing apertures not be considered as the holes in unclaimed ground; for prior to its entering the space between the two walls it was undoubtedly over four spans wide, and hence unclaimed ground (as holes in public or private ground are considered as part of public or private ground respectively, see Tract Sabbath, p. 11)? Abayi bar Abhin and R. Hanina bar Abhin both declare, that this theory (of holes being equal to the ground) does not exist where unclaimed ground is concerned.

 

R. Ashi, however, said: Even if the theory does apply to unclaimed ground it applies only then, if the ground is near to the hole (in a wall of the ground), but if it is a distance off as it must be in the case of this canal, the theory can under no circumstances be applied. Rabhina, however, said: The three, respectively four spans discussed in the Boraitha do not apply to the canal, but to partitions which were erected at the entrance and outlet of the canal at each end of the alley, and both parties to the dispute merely adhere to their respective theories concerning Lavud, one side maintaining that three spans constitute "Lavud," and the other that even four spans accomplish this object.

 

MISHNA: If there be a balcony above the water, it is not lawful to draw water therein on the Sabbath, unless a partition be made ten hands high, either above or below the balcony. Thus, also, if there be two balconies, one above the other: Should a partition have been made for the upper and not for the lower, it is unlawful to draw water through either, unless they have been combined by an Erub.

 

GEMARA: Our Mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Hananiah ben Aqabia, who holds, that in a balcony four ells square, a hole may be cut out four spans square, etc., as, related previously (page 207), but R. Johanan in the name of R. Jose ben Zimra said: "Hananiah ben Aqabia permitted this to be done only in the case of a balcony erected above the waters of the sea of Tiberias for the reason as stated previously, but not above other waters."

THE NEXT MISHNA AGAIN FOCUSES ON FOUR ELLS SQUARE WHICH IS A QUADRANT
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MISHNA: If a court be less than four ells square, it is not permitted to pour water therein on Sabbath, unless a sewer is made, which has a capacity of two saahs exclusive of the walls, either outside or within the court. If the sewer has been made outside it must be covered up (with boards), while on the inside it need not be covered up. R. Eliezer ben Jacob said: "Into a gutter, which is covered up to the extent of four ells in public ground, it is permitted to pour water on the Sabbath"; the sages, however, hold, that even though the court or roof be one hundred ells long, it is not permitted to pour water down the gutter (direct); but the water may be poured out on the roof, so as to drop down into the gutter. (In computing the four ells) mentioned in the first clause of this Mishna, the hall may be added. Thus, also, if there be two habitations facing each other (in one court) and the inmates of one have made a sewer, but were not joined in making it by the inmates of the other habitation, those who made the sewer are permitted to throw water into it, but those that did not make it, are not permitted to do so.

GEMARA: What is the reason that water must not be poured into a court less than four ells square? Said Rabba:

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[paragraph continues] "A man generally consumes two saahs of water every day. If his court be four ells square or more he pours out the water in order to lay the dust; but if it be less than four ells square, he merely would throw out the water in order to have it run out into the street (and that is prohibited as a precaution, lest he should pour out the water into the street direct)."

R. Zera said: "A court of four ells square absorbs two saahs of water, hence, even should part of it run out into the street, it was not the intention of the man who poured it out that it should, but if the court is less than four ells square it does not absorb that quantity of water and part of it must needs run out into the street, hence it is prohibited to pour it out." Wherein lies the difference between Rabba and R. Zera? Said Abayi: "If the court was oblong, say eight ells by two. It absorbs the water undoubtedly, but as for laying the dust in a court of that size a man would not trouble himself to pour out water for that purpose." An objection was made based upon our Mishna, which states in computing the four ells square of the court the hall may be added. Would this not prove that the reason is according to R. Zera? "According to Rabba," explained R Zera, "the Mishna might refer to a hall which, surrounding the court, made it in the form of a square, e.g., if the court was four ells long by two wide, and the hall added two ells to the width."

REPETITION OF FOUR ELLS AND FOUR SPANS- ALSO THE ILLUSTRATION OF THE BUILDING IS A QUADRANT- AGAIN SO FAR THE TALMUD HAS FOCUSED ON FOUR ELLS AND THE QUADRANT MODEL SOLELY AND IT IS ONE MORE CHAPTER LEFT IN THE TRACTATE

 

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'Where there are two distinct premises both of which, however, are legally private ground, e.g., a pillar, ten spans high and four spans wide standing in private ground, and which must not be used to shoulder burdens thereon on the Sabbath, lest a heap of the same size standing in public ground be used for the same purpose,' so it is also in this case, where a roof is ten spans lower or higher than the rest the same precautionary measure applies."

 

The two brothers hearing this from Abayi thought, that according to R. Meir the same case applied to a mortar or kettle,

 

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ten spans high; said Abayi to them: "My master told me, that R. Meir said, this precaution applied only to a pillar and a millstone because for these two objects special places are designated, but as for other utensils, even if they be ten spans high, the precaution is unnecessary."

 

"The sages, however, hold, that each roof constitutes a separate private ground." It was taught: Rabh said: "On every roof things must not be handled except within a limit of four ells," but Samuel said: "They may be handled in the whole extent of the roof." If the roofs are separated and the separation is apparent, all agree, that carrying things on those roofs is permissible (because in this case the walls underneath are considered as if they reached up to the tops of the roofs) but they differ concerning roofs that are separated, where the separation is not apparent. Rabh holds that things must not be carried on those roofs (where the separation is not apparent) except for a distance of four ells, because he does not admit, in this case, the theory of Gud Assik (possibility of the walls reaching up to the tops of the roofs), while Samuel, who does admit the theory, holds, that carrying is permitted in the entire extent of the roofs (because he admits of the possibility of the walls reaching the tops of the roofs).

 

An objection was made based upon our Mishna: The sages hold, that each roof constitutes a separate private ground. This is in accordance with Samuel's opinion but is contradictory to the opinion of Rabh. The disciples of Rabh said in his name, that the statement, "things must not be handled except within a limit of four ells," meant to signify, "two ells in each adjoining roof" (but in the one roof things may be handled throughout its entire extent).

 

Abayi said: "If a man erected an attic on top of his house and provided it with a small door four spans wide, he may carry things in all the roofs." (The reason for this statement is, that the fact of the man having made an attic and provided it with a door is proof, that the other inmates had resigned their right to the use of the roof in his favor.) Said Rabha: "It may happen, that the small door with which the attic was provided may prevent the man from using the other roofs" (even according to R. Meir). How so? If the door in the attic faced a garden below and the partition made by the attic separated his roof from the others, it might be said, that he made that door merely so as to be able to watch his garden and renounced his right to the use of the roofs.

 

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(It was taught:) Roofs, level one to the other in which, according to R. Meir, it is permitted to carry things, and a single roof which may be used according to the sages, may according to Rabh be used throughout their whole extent, while according to Samuel, it is only allowed to use them for an extent of four ells. Would not this be a contradiction by Rabh to his previous statement and by Samuel to his own former dictum? This can be explained thus: Rabh's previous statement referred to a case, where the separation between the roofs was not apparent while in this case the separation is apparent and Samuel's former dictum referred to a roof that had less than two saahs' capacity, while in this case it refers to a roof that has a capacity of more than two saah. Why should a roof of that size not be allowed to be used? The possibility of the walls reaching the tops of the roofs is not admitted, for the reason that partitions which enclose dwellings are made downwards and are not supposed to extend upwards, and of a space which is not enclosed by partitions of dwellings and has a capacity of over two saah, only four ells may be used.

 

It was taught: Concerning a ship, Rabh said, one may carry things throughout the whole extent of the ship, because the space of a ship is enclosed with partitions, and Samuel said, one may carry only to the extent of four ells. Why so? Because the partitions were not made for the purpose of making the space inhabitable but merely to keep out the water. Said R. Hyya bar Joseph to Samuel: "According to whose opinion does the Halakha prevail? According to thy opinion or according to Rabh's," and Samuel answered, "The Halakha prevails according to Rabh."

 

R. Giddel in the name of R. Hyya bar Joseph said: "Rabh agrees with Samuel's opinion, concerning a ship that was in dry dock and turned over, that it was only permitted to carry things for a distance of four ells." For what purpose was the ship turned over? If people lived within it, why should it not be allowed to carry things throughout its whole extent? Is the bottom of the ship not equal to a roof, when the ship was turned over? Nay; the ship was turned over for a coating of tar.

 

R. Jehudah said: When we shall arrive at the final conclusions of R. Meir we shall find that all roofs are considered as one private ground in their own right, i.e., that carrying from one roof to the other is permissible; also that all courts are considered as one private ground and likewise all woodsheds, but

 

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from the final conclusions of the sages we shall learn, that roofs and courts constitute one private ground, i.e., that it is permitted to carry things from the roof to the court and vice versa, which, according to R. Meir is not allowed. The woodsheds, however, are considered according to the sages a separate private ground, i.e., things may be carried from one woodshed to another but not from a woodshed into a court. The final conclusions of R. Simeon denote, that all roofs, courts, and woodsheds are considered as one private ground.

 

We have learned one Boraitha in support of Rabh and another in support of R. Jehudah. The one supporting Rabh reads as follows: "All roofs of the town are considered as one private ground; but it is prohibited to carry things from the roofs to the courts, and vice versa." Vessels which were situated in the court before the Sabbath set in, may be carried in all the courts, and those situated in the roofs before the Sabbath set in may be handled in all the roofs, provided there is not a roof ten spans higher or lower than the rest. Such is the dictum of R. Meir; but the sages said: Every roof constitutes a separate ground and things must not be carried in it for a distance of over four ells. This bears out the statement of Rabh in which he says that when the separation between the roofs is not apparent one must not carry except in a limit of four ells.

 

In support of R. Jehudah we have learned the following Boraitha: Rabbi said: "When we learned the Law at R. Simeon's in the city of Thequa, we would carry towels and oil from one roof to another, from that to the court, and from that to another, and from the other court to a woodshed, and from that to another, until we would come to the springs where we would bathe."

 

Said R. Jehudah: "It happened in a time of danger, that we brought up the sacred scrolls from a court to a roof, from the roof to another court, and from that to a woodshed in order to read therein." The sages answered: "Acts committed during a time of danger do not serve as evidence."

 

"R. Simeon said: 'Roofs as well as courts and woodsheds,'" etc. Said Rabh: "The Halakha prevails according to R. Simeon, providing no Erub was made, but if an Erub was effected, it is not so, because there is fear, lest the utensils from the houses be carried out on the Sabbath and are then carried about in all the courts." (R. Simeon himself admits, that they form one private ground for the carrying of such utensils as were actually

 

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within the courts or roofs when the Sabbath set in but nor for such utensils as were within the house.) Samuel, however, as well as R. Johanan, said: "There is no difference whether an Erub was made or not."

 

R. Hisda opposed this: According to Samuel and R. Johanan there will be two kinds of vessels in the court, one kind, which had already been situated in the court when the Sabbath set in, and the other, which was brought out from the house during; Sabbath. Is then not the precautionary measure decreed by Rabh really necessary? Simeon holds to his theory that precautionary measures are not necessary.

 

Rabha, through R. Shmaiah ben Zera, sent the following query to Abayi: "Do we not find as a matter of fact that a partition at times proves a detriment? Did we not learn in a Boraitha, that concerning the partitions of a vineyard there are instances where they make the observance of laws more lenient and on the other hand there are instances where they make it more rigorous." How so? If the vines are planted hard by the partition, one may on the other side of the partition plant whatever he chooses. If there were no partition, however, he would have to measure off four ells whence the vines grew and then plant whatever he chose. This is an instance of leniency caused by the partition. When does it make the law more rigorous? If the vines were planted to within eleven ells of the partition, it is not allowed to plant other seed anywhere within those eleven ells; but if there were no partition, four ells would suffice between the vineyard and the place where other seed was to be planted. Rejoined Abayi: "Why base thy query upon a Boraitha, if in thy opinion the partition is the main issue? Why not cite the following Mishna? (Kilaim, Chapter IV., Mishna 2:) 'If the space between the vineyard and the fence which surrounds it be less than twelve square ells, no other seed may be sown therein; but if it measure that superficies, a vacant space must be allowed for the cultivation of the vines growing near it, and the rest of the ground may be used for saving (other seed).'" We must say, that because in the Mishna the partition is not the issue, but it is a question of the space between the four ells allowed for the cultivation of the vineyard and the four ells allowed to the hedge or fence, and if such space is four ells wide (i.e., if the whole is twelve) other seed may be sown therein, but if less than four, it is abandoned. Hence we might say, that the same issue is treated of in the Boraitha?

MUST HAVE FOUR DISTINCT PARTITIONS AND FOUR ELLS

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Was it not taught that concerning a gallery in a valley, Rabh said, it is permitted to carry throughout the whole extent of the valley, because the edges of the gallery are supposed to reach down to the ground and thus form a partition for the entire valley, whereas Samuel maintained that this supposition cannot be considered and hence it is only permitted to carry for a distance of four ells? This would not present a difficulty, for in that case Samuel maintains, that the edges of the gallery must not be supposed to reach down to the ground because there must be four distinct partitions, but where only three are necessary he would admit the feasibility of such a supposition. The difficulty concerning the two sides of the house where the breach measured over ten ells still remains! In the same manner as the disciples of Rabh referred to a house where the corner walls had fallen in together with their slanting roof, Samuel may refer to a house, the corner walls of which had sustained a breach four ells in width on each corner, or eight ells in all, and five ells in length

 

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on one side, and five ells and a trifle on the other side, or slightly over ten ells in all. Hence it would be necessary to suppose that the edges of the roof reach down on four sides of the breach two in width and two in length and that would be contrary to the theory of Samuel!

 

Why does Samuel not hold with Rabh? Because the Mishna does not mention a slanting roof and Rabh does not hold with Samuel because he (Rabh, as we have seen in the instance of the gallery in the valley) permits of the supposition, that the edges of a gallery or a roof can reach down on four sides.

THERE IS ALWAYS A DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR- THE QUESTION IS RAISED "WHO DO WE ONLY HAVE TO CHECK THREE TEPHILIN- SHOULDN'T WE ALSO CHECK FOUR, OR FIVE- THE ANSWER IS THAT YOU COULD ALSO CHECK FOUR, BUT ONLY THREE IS NECESSARY- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT- AND AGAIN THE REPETITION OF FOUR ELLS

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...be examined and likewise the third? According to Rabbi why is a third required? When bunches of tephilin are concerned, Rabbi also admits that they should all be examined, because the expert probably receives the bunches from different makers and for that reason two of each bunch, one for the head and one for the arm, should be examined. Then why only three? Four or five should be examined? Such is really. the case, any amount should be examined but three only are mentioned as a rule, that in this instance the theory of Hazakah 1 does not apply.

 

"He should remain with them till dark and then bring them in." Why not bring them in in single pairs? Said R. Itz'hak the son of R. Jehudah: "My father explained the Mishna thus: If the man can bring them all in, pair by pair, before darkness sets in, he may do so, but if he cannot, i.e., if some would still remain, by the time it gets dark, he should rather remain with them until it becomes dark and then bring them all in at once."

 

"In times of danger, however, he covers them up," etc. Have we not learned that in times of danger he should carry them less than four ells at a time? Said Rabh: "This presents no difficulty. Our Mishna treats of times of danger arising from religious persecutions by the Gentiles while in the Boraitha the danger is supposed to be that arising from robbers." Said Abayi 2 to him: "Thou sayest that our Mishna treats of danger arising from religious persecutions, how then will the latter clause of the Mishna correspond with this? R. Simeon said: 'He should hand them to his companion,' etc. Would this not involve still greater danger?" Answered Rabh: "The Mishna is not complete and should read thus: 'In times of danger, however, he covers them up and passes on.' When is this the case? When the danger arises from religious persecutions, but if it be dangerous on account of robbers he should carry them for a distance of four ells at a time." R. Simeon, however, said: "(In the latter case), he should hand them to his companion," etc.

 

Upon what point do R. Simeon and the first Tana differ? The first Tana holds that the method adopted by R. Simeon would be too ostentatious and would seem like a violation of the

 

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[paragraph continues] Sabbath, whereas carrying for a distance of less than four ells is by no means objectionable. R. Simeon, however, holds, that when a man is obliged to carry things for a distance of less than four ells at a time, he might forget and carry for a distance of four ells or more, whereas handing the things from one man to another is perfectly safe.

 

"So, likewise, his child," etc. How came his child on the field or on the road? The disciples of Menasseh taught: "This refers to a child that was born on the road (or in the field)." What does R. Simeon mean to say by "even if it pass through (the hand of) an hundred?" He means to tell us, that although passing it through many hands is not good for the child, still it is preferable to carrying it for less than four ells at a time.

THE MISHNA IS WHAT THE GEMARA ANALYZES- AGAIN THE NEXT MISHNA REPEATS THE RULE OF NOT MOVING BEYOND FOUR ELLS

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MISHNA: A man may stand in private ground and move things that are in public ground; or he may stand in public ground and move things that are in private ground, provided, that he does not move them beyond four ells. A man must not, standing in private ground, make water in public ground on (Sabbath), nor may he standing in public ground make water in private ground. In like manner he must not, standing in one (kind of) ground spit into another. R. Jehudah said: He who (when coughing) has brought up phlegm into his mouth, must not go four ells before expectorating.

 

GEMARA: Said R. Joseph: If he did so (meaning if he expectorated, etc.) he is culpable and liable for a sin-offering. But is it not necessary in the first place, that there be a transfer from a certain fixed place and that the article transferred rest in another fixed place of four ells square? Yea, the intention of the man, however, brings about that condition. For if this were not so, how could Rabha have said elsewhere, that if a man threw a thing and it fell into the mouth of a dog or into a furnace, he is culpable? Is it not necessary that it rest in a space

 

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of four ells? Therefore we must say, that the intention of the man is equal to the deed and such is also the case in this instance.

FOUR JEWISH NEW YEARS DAYS

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The prehistoric Mishna, which always formed the law, in conformity with the existing custom, and not vice versa, 1 found four different New Year's days in four different months, and, with the object in view of making the custom uniform in all Jewish communities, taught its adherents to observe four distinct New Year's days, at the beginning of the four respective months in which certain duties were accomplished. Thus the text of the opening Mishna of this tract, prior to its revision by Rabbi Jehudah Hanassi, read as follows: "There are four different New Year's days; viz., the first day of Nissan, the first of Elul, the first of Tishri, and the first of Shebbat." The different purposes for which these days were established as New Year's days were well known at that time, and it was therefore deemed unnecessary to specify them. At the time

 

From the statement in the Mishna to the effect that "there are four periods in each year on which the world is judged," it appears that in the Mishnaic period the New Year's day was considered a day of repentance; and since the principal features of repentance arc devotion to God and prayers for forgiveness of sin, Rabbi states, in the Mishna, that devotion is the only requirement during the days of penitence, i.e., the days between New Year's Day and the Day of Atonement. The legend relating that on the New Year's day books (recording the future of each person) were opened was yet unknown in Rabbi's time.

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MISHNA II. At four periods in each year the world is judged. All are judged on New Year's Day and the sentence is fixed on the Day of Atonement. R. Nathan holds man is judged at all times. God said: "Offer before Me the first sheaf of produce on Passover, so that the standing grain may be blessed unto you. Recite before Me on New Year's Day the Malkhioth, that you proclaim Me King; the Zikhronoth, that your remembrance may come before Me, for good, and how (shall this be done)?" By the sounding of the cornet. Three circumstances cause a man to remember his sins. Four things avert the evil decree passed (by God) on man; viz., charity, prayer, change of name, and improvement

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There are four kinds of cedars.

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R. Itz'hak

 

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preached: Four things avert the evil decree passed (by God) on man--viz.: charity, prayer, change of name, and improvement.

FOUR NEW YEARS DAYS

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MISHNA I.: There are four New Year days, viz.: The first of Nissan is New Year for (the ascension of) Kings and for (the regular rotation of) festivals; 1 the first of Elul is New Year for the cattle-tithe, 2 but according to R. Eliezer and R. Simeon, it is on the first of Tishri. The first of Tishri is New Year's day, for ordinary years, and for sabbatic years 3 and jubilees; and also for the planting of trees 4 and for herbs. 5 On the first day of Shebhat is the New Year for trees, 6 according to the school of Shammai; but the school of Hillel says it is on the fifteenth of the same month. 7

 

MISHNA: At four periods in each year the world is judged: on Passover, in respect to the growth of grain; on Pentecost, in respect to the fruit of trees; on New Year's Day all human beings pass before Him (God) as sheep before a shepherd, as it is written [Psalms, xxx. 9]: "He who hath fashioned all their hearts understandeth all their works"; 1 and on Tabernacles judgment is given in regard to water (rain).

THE RABBIS QUESTION WHY THERE ARE FOUR NEW YEARS AND NOT FIVE- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS TRANSCENDENT- FIFTH IS QUESTIONABLE- THEY QUESTION IF THE NEW YEAR FOR CATTLE TITHES IS A NEW YEAR- THE FIFTH IS ALWAYS QUESTIONABLE THEY CONCLUDE THERE ARE ONLY FOUR KIND OF LIKE THERE ARE REALLY ONLY FOUR TRUE EUCLID POSTULATES THE FIFTH IS QUESTIONABLE AND ACTUALLY NOT TRUE

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"On the first of Elul is the new year for the cattle-tithes." According to whose opinion is this? Says R. Joseph: It is according to Rabbi's own opinion which he formed in accordance with the opinions of different Tanaïm. With regard to the festivals he holds with R. Simeon and with regard to the cattle-tithe he holds to the opinion of R. Meir. If that is so, are there not

 

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five beginnings of years instead of four? Rabha answered that the Mishna mentioned only the four, which are not disputed by any one. According to R. Meir there are four, if that "for the festivals" be excluded, and according to R. Simeon there are four, if that "for the cattle-tithes" be excluded. R. Na'hman bar Itz'hak, however, says: (No such explanation is needed); the Mishna means that there are four (months) in which there are (or may be) many beginnings of years.

FOUR FASTS MENTIONED IN ZECHARIAH

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It was taught: Rabh and R. Hanina say: The Rolls of Fasts (which contained the names of minor holidays on which it was prohibited to fast) is annulled, but R. Johanan and R. Jehoshua ben Levi say: "It is not." When Rabh and R. Hanina say that it is annulled they mean: In the time of peace the (fast) days are days of joy and gladness, but in the time of persecution they are fast days, and so also with other (days mentioned in the Rolls of Fasts); and when R. Johanan and R. Jehoshua ben Levi say it is not annulled (they mean) that those (four fasts mentioned in Zachariah) the Bible makes dependent on the rebuilding of the Temple; but those (mentioned in the Rolls of Fasts) remain as they are appointed.

FOUR TYPES OF CEDAR

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"How were these bonfires lighted? They brought long staves of cedar wood," etc. R. Jehudah says: There are four kinds of cedars: the common cedar, the Qetros, the olive tree, and the cypress. Qetros says Rabh is (in Aramaic) Adara or a species of cedar. Every cedar, said R. Johanan, that was carried away from Jerusalem, God will in future times restore, as it is written [Isa. xli. 19]: "I will plant in the wilderness the cedar tree," and by "wilderness" He means Jerusalem, as it is written [Isa. lxiv. 19]: "Zion is (become) a wilderness." R. Johanan says again: Who studies the law, and teaches it in a place where there is no other scholar, is equal to a myrtle in the desert, which is very dear. The same says again: "Woe to the Romans, for whom there will be no substitution," as it is written [Isa. lx. 17]: "Instead of the copper, I will bring gold, and for iron I will bring silver, and for wood, copper, and for stones, iron." But what can He bring for R Aqiba and his comrades (who were destroyed by Rome)? Of them it is written [Joel, IV. 21]: "I will avenge (but for) their (Aqiba's and his comrades') blood I have not yet avenged."

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IF YOU TRAVEL 2000 ELS YOU CANNOT TRAVEL FOUR ELLS MORe

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How much must the quantity of the dough under discussion be? Said R. Ishmael the son of R. Johanan ben Berokah: "If made of wheat it must be two Kabh, but if made of barley three Kabh." Did we not learn in another Boraitha that the same R. Ishmael said: "If made of wheat, three Kabh, and if made of barley four?" This presents no difficulty. One Boraitha treats of good grain and the other of poor grain.

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The rabbis taught: "From the proceeds of four professions one can never perceive a sign of blessing, and they are: the professions of the scribes, the criers, those who earn their money from orphans, and the men who carry on their traffic at sea"

THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT

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The rabbis taught: Three things were intended to be instituted, and if they were not intended to be instituted, it would be well if such were still the case. They are: that a corpse should putrefy, that the dead should be forgotten after a certain period, and that grain should rot (by exposure). Others add a fourth thing, namely, that coins should be minted, for without them traffic would be impossible.

TREE SHOULD NOT BE FOUR ELLS FROM ANOTHER

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GEMARA: "They would graft palm-trees," etc. How would they do this? Said R. Jehudah: "They would take a damp myrtle-branch, bayberries of which they made an extract, and barley meal, and would boil them in a vessel which had not been made more than forty days before. This brew they would pour into the core of the tree. Any tree which stood within four ells of a tree which was thus treated would, unless receiving the same treatment, wither and die immediately." R. A'ha the son of Rabha, however, said: "They would graft a twig of a male tree on a female tree."

FOUR SHOUTS IN THE TEMPLE

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The rabbis taught: Four shouts were sent up by (the people in) the court of the Temple. The first shout was: "Go away from the Temple, ye children of Eli, who have defiled God's house" (I Samuel 11.). The second shout was: "Leave the Temple, Issachar, man of the village of Barkai," who by his arrogance desecrated the sanctity of Heaven. He would envelop his hands in silk while performing his services as a priest. The third shout was: "Raise your heads, O ye gates, and let Ishmael ben Piakhi the disciple of Pinhas enter and assume the office of the High Priest." The fourth shout was: "Raise your heads, O ye gates, and let Johanan ben Narbayi enter and fill his bowels with the holy sacrifices." Of Johanan ben Narbayi it was said that he (and his family, which was very large) would consume 300 calves, 300 jugs of wine, and 40 saah of young doves as dessert after his meals. It was also said that during his administration as high-priest there never was any remainder left over of the sacrifices from one day to the next.

FOUR ACTS NECESSARY TO MAKE A SACRIFICE

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Again, the first instance can apply to all the four acts necessary to make it a sacrifice, namely, to the slaughtering, receiving its blood, bringing it to the altar, and sprinkling the blood; but the latter instance cannot apply to all four acts, because we have already learned that in the sprinkling of the blood the partakers of the sacrifice are not considered."

FOUR EOPLE IN A QUADRANT

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R. Abba bar Mamal made an objection: "We have learned elsewhere, that if four persons carried it on rods and the first pair stepped outside of the wall of the Temple while the other pair remained on the inside, the clothes of the first pair become unclean but not those of the second pair. There was, however, no deposit of the sacrifice in a certain place; why should they become unclean?" The questioner himself answered this by saying: "This was a case where the sacrifice was not carried, but dragged on the ground (hence there was a deposit in a certain place)."

FOUR PROPHETS PROPHECIED ONE DAY

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It is written [Hosea i. 1]: "The word of the Lord that came unto Hosea the son of Beëri, in the days of Uzziyah, Jotham, Achaz, and Hezekiah, the kings of Judah." At the same time four prophets prophesied, and the greatest among them was Hosea, as it is written further [ibid. 2]: "The beginning of the word of the Lord by Hosea was," which was explained by R. Johanan to mean the first of the four prophets that prophesied in that day, and they are: Hosea, Isaiah, Amos, and Micah. The Holy One, blessed be He, said to Hosea thus: "Thy children have sinned," and Hosea should have answered: "They

ISRAEL IS ONE OF THE FOUR ACQUISITIONS THE LORD ACQUIRED IN THE WORLD

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So the Lord replied: "If then thou, who hast a wife of prostitution and whose children thou knowest not even whether they be thine, canst not separate thyself from her, how then can I cast off my children (Israel), whose fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob I have tried--Israel, which is one of the four acquisitions which I have acquired in my world [see Aboth, Chap. VI., and Exod. xv. 16], and thou wouldst tell me to exchange them for another nation!"

THERE WAS NOT A PROPHET WHO OUTLIVED FOUR KINGS

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R. Johanan said: Woe is to a dominion that overwhelms its own master, for we find that there was not one prophet who did not outlive four kings, as it is written [Isaiah i. 1]: "The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziyahn, Jotham, Achaz, and Hezekiah, the kings of Judah," and this also with the other prophets.

FOUR OF THE FIVE SACRIFICES WERE FIT TO BE EATEN

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According to others, Abayi did not make the above statement with reference to the Mishna but with respect to the Boraitha which follows: "If five skins of five different sacrifices were mixed and a blemish was found on the skin of one, all five sacrifices must be burned, but still neither one of the five owners need bring a second Passover-sacrifice." Commenting on this, Abayi said: "They need not bring a second sacrifice if the skins had become mixed after the sprinkling of the blood; for when the blood was sprinkled there were four of the sacrifices fit to be eaten. But if they had become mixed prior to the sprinkling, in which case none of the five were yet fit to be eaten, the owners are in duty bound to bring second Passover-offerings."

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THE RABBIS TAUGHT THE SUN MOVES IN FOUR DIFFERENT PATHS

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The rabbis taught: The sun moves in four different paths. During the months of Nissan, Iyar, and Sivan it moves over the top of the mountains, in order to melt the snow. During Tamuz, Ab, and Elul it moves in the cultivated portions of the earth, in order to ripen the fruit. In Tishri, Mar-Cheshvan, and Kislev it moves over the seas, in order to dry up the lakes; and in Tebeth, Shebat, and Adar it moves in the desert, in order not to parch the seed sown.

THE MEAL OF THE FOUR CUPS OF WINE- IN THIS TRACT THERE IS ALL SORTS OF NUMBERS BUT THAT IS BECAUSE THE FOUR IS THE FOCUS- IF SOMETHING IS FOUR THEN IT HAS OTHER NUMBERS ALL OVER THE PLACE BUT THE FOUR IS THE FOCUS

 

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REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE MEAL ON THE EVE OF PASSOVER AND THE FOUR CUPS OF WINE TO BE DRUNK WITH THE MEAL.

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MISHNA: On the eve of any Passover it is not lawful for a person to eat anything from the time of Min'hah (afternoon prayer) until after dusk. Even the meanest in Israel shall not eat until they have arranged themselves in proper order at ease round the able; nor shall a person have less than four cups of wine, even if they must be given him from the funds devoted to the charitable support of the very poor.

 

R. Jehoshua ben Levi said again: "Women must also drink the four cups, because they were also included in the miracles which delivered us all from Egypt."

 

R. Jehudah said in the name of Samuel: "Each cup must contain wine which, when mixed with three parts of water, will be good wine. If unmixed wine was drunk, the duty has nevertheless been fulfilled. If all the four cups were poured into one and drunk, the duty has also been fulfilled. If the household was allowed to drink part of the four cups, the duty has also been fulfilled." Rabha, however, said: "If the wine was drunk unmixed the duty of drinking the wine has been acquitted, but the symbolical feature thereof has not been carried out," and in the case of where the four cups were poured into one, Rabh said: "The duty of drinking wine has been accomplished, but the duty of the four cups has not." If the household was allowed to drink part of the four cups, R. Na'hman said: "The master of the house has fulfilled the duty of drinking the four cups, provided he drunk the larger part thereof."

 

We have learned in a Boraitha, R. Jehudah said: "The cup must contain the taste and the color of red wine." Said Rabha: "What is the reason of R. Jehudah's statement? Because it is written [Proverbs xxiii. 31]: 'Do not look on the wine when it is red' (whence we adduce, that wine must be red)."

 

The rabbis taught: "The duty of drinking the four cups devolves upon all alike--men, women, and even children." R. Jehudah, however, said: "What benefit would children derive from wine? They should rather be given nuts, parched corn, etc., on the eve of Passover, so as to keep them awake at night, and that may make them inquire into the reason of the festivity."

 

"Nor shall a person have less than four cups of wine." How can the rabbis order a thing which might involve danger? 2 Have we not learned in a Boraitha, that a man should not eat two dishes, nor drink two cups, nor do anything by twos? Said R. Na'hman: "It is written [Exod. xii. 42]: 'A night to be observed was this unto the Lord,' which signifies that on that night one is exempt from danger." Rabha said: "The cup of benediction (after meals) is only counted in for good purposes but never for evil, because its very name implies that it is for good, and thus only three cups are virtually drunk." Rabhina, however, said: "At all events, the four cups cannot be conjoined, for each one represents a different duty." 3

THERE WERE FOUR CHAMBERS IN THE HEATING HOUSE

 

There were four chambers: one that of the lambs, one that of the seals, one that of the heating house, and one chamber

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where the showbread was made. There is a contradiction to the Mishna in Midoth (I., 7): "Four chambers were in the heating house, like small rooms opening into a great hall: two belonged to the sanctuary, and two were profane; and small wickets parted the sacred ones from the profane ones. And what was their use? The southwestern was for the lambs for the sacrifices. The southeastern was that in which the showbread was made. In the northeastern the Maccabees (Hasmoneans) had hidden the stones of the altar profaned by the Greeks. The northwestern was used as a passage to the bath-house." (There is, then, a contradiction between the two about the names and use of the chambers and situation of the chamber of lambs?)

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THE HIGH PREIST CAN TAKE FOUR OR FIVE LOAVES OF THE SHOWBREAD- AGAIN WHY DOES IT NOT JUST SAY- HE CAN TAKE FIVE- THE RABBIS ALREADY ASKED THAT QUESTION WHY NOT JUST SAY FIVE- ITS SIGNIFICANT IT ALWAYS SAYS "FOUR OR FIVE"- BECAUSE FOUR IS THE QUADRANT

 

taking a portion the first? He may say of which sin-offering or trespass-offering he desires to partake. And he can take one of the two loaves. He can also take four or five of the loaves of the showbread. Rabbi said: He always took five loaves, because it is written [Lev. xxiv. 9]: "And it shall belong to Aaron and to his sons." We interpret it thus: Half should belong to Aaron (or the high-priest) and half to the children of Aaron (priests). Does not this Boraitha contradict itself? First it is said, he takes one of the two loaves--that means, the half--and this is according to Rabbi, who maintains that the high-priest always takes the half. Now the middle part, which says that he takes four or five, must be according to the rabbis, who say he does not take the exact half; and in the conclusion it is said, Rabbi says he always takes five. It seems, then, that the first part and conclusion are according to Rabbi, and the middle part according to the sages? Said Abayi: The first part and the middle part are according to the rabbis, but they admit that out of two loaves the high-priest could not but receive one, as it was not becoming to give him half a loaf.

THE OPENING MISHNA SAYS (THE GEMARA EXPLAINS THE MISHNA) FIRST THERE WAS A RULE THAT WHICHEVER PRIEST MADE IT TO WITHIN FOUR ELLS FIRST GOT TO CLEAN THE ASHES- AGAIN EVERYTHING CENTERS AROUND FOUR ELLS BECAUSE FOUR IS THE QUADRANT-

 

BUT THEN PRIESTS ENDED UP GETTING HURT BECAUSE THEY WOULD RACE EACH OTHER AND ONE PRIEST HURT HIMSELF- SO THEY CHANGED IT TO DRAWING FOUR LOTS- AGAIN THE REPETITION OF FOUR

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MISHNA: Formerly, whoever desired to clear the altar of the ashes did so. When there were many of them (priests), they ran on the staircase (leading to the top of altar). Whoever first came within FOUR ells, merited it. When two were on a par, the superintendent said to them (all priests): Put forth your fingers. Which did they put forth? One or two, but not the thumb in the Temple (which were counted instead of the persons they belonged to, and the service was given to the last).

 

Once an accident happened: one of two who were running up the staircase pushed his companion, so that he fell, and broke his foot. Seeing that it is attended by accidents, the Beth Din made the reform, that the altar should be cleared by lot. There were FOUR lots: this is the first lot.

DAVID WAS PUNISHED FOURFOLD FOR BATHSHEBA- WITH FOUR PUNISHMENTS

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"For the ewe he shall pay fourfold." What were the four punishments? The death of Bath-Sheba's child, the death of Amnon, the misfortune of Tamar, and Absalom. But for numbering Israel he was also chastised? As it is written [2 Sam. xxiv. 15]: "And the Lord sent a pestilence in Israel from the morning even to the time appointed." In that case all Israel was chastised, but not he himself. But in those instances it was also his children on whom the wrath was visited) not on

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FOUR SERVICES OF A LAY MERITED CAPITAL OFFENSE

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Rabh said: For performing the following four services a lay. man deserves capital punishment: namely, sprinkling, offering of incense officiating at the water-offering and the wine-offering. And so also Levi taught in his Boraitha; also as to the lifting of the ashes. What is the reason of Rabh's decree? Because it is written [Num. xviii. 7]: "And thou and thy sons with thee shall keep your priesthood concerning every matter of the altar, and for that within the vail, where ye shall serve; as a service of gift do I give you your priesthood; and the stranger that cometh nigh shall be put to death." Service of gift, but not of removing. Levi says: It is written, "Every matter of the altar," which includes all things. Rabha pro. pounded a question: How about a service of removing from an altar in the Temple (inner)? Is this considered by Rabh like a service of gift, or like a service of removal? Rabha decided later, it is written [ibid.], "and for that within the vail"; but it is written, "and within the vail": that makes the service like to a service of removing. We have learned in one Boraitha according to Rabh, and in another according to Levi. According to Rabh we have learned as follows: "The services for which the layman is guilty of death are: Sprinkling of blood, inside or in the Holy of Holies (on the Day of Atonement); sprinkling the blood of a sin-offering of a bird; wringing-out of a bird's blood which is a burnt-offering [Lev. i. 15]; and officiating at the offering of three lugs of water or three lugs of wine." We

PRIESTS WOULD DRAW FOUR LOTS TO SEE WHO CLEARED THE ALTAR

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MISHNA: The third lot was drawn by new (priests) who had not yet fumed incense; the fourth, by new and old ones, (to determine) who should take up the members (parts) from the staircase to the altar.

ACCORDING TO THE TALMUD SOMETIMES THE LOTS AMOUNTED TO 16- THERE ARE 16 SQUARES IN THE QUADRANT MODEL

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R. Hiya taught: The lots amounted sometimes to thirteen, sometimes to fourteen, or fifteen, or sixteen (fourteen on the Feast of Tabernacles, for the pitcher of water; fifteen on the Sabbath; sixteen for the Sabbath during the Feast of Tabernacles).

HE TOOK FOUR QUILLS IN HIS FOUR FINGERS AND WOULD WRITE FOUR LETTER WORDS INCLUDING THE NAME OF G- AT ONCE

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The rabbis taught: Ben Kamtsar did not want to teach the art of writing. It was said of him: He used to take four quills between his four fingers, and when he had to write a word of four letters, he wrote it at once. (Jehovah's name is of four letters.) When they inquired of him: Why dost thou not teach it to others? he found no answer. Therefore of the first it is said "he memory of the just is blessed"; and of Ben Kamtsar and his tribe it is said: "The name of the wicked shall rot." What is meant by "rot"? How can a name "rot"? Said R. Elazar: Their name shall contract such a rottenness that children shall not be named after them.

THE BLOOD WAS MIXED ON THE FOURTH ROW OF THE ALTAR AND THERE WERE ALWAYS FIRE FIRES BURNING- ON ONE DAY FIVE (THE FIFTH IS ALWAYS QUESTIONABLE)- BUT THERE WAS ALWAYS FOUR FIRES BURNING

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MISHNA: He slaughtered it [the bull], and received in a basin its blood, giving (presenting) it to him who stirred (mixed) it, on the fourth row of marble stones in the Temple, that it should not become congealed. He took the censer, mounted the top of the altar, and cleared the coals on either hand: taking a censerful of the inner glowing coals, then he came down again, and placed it [the censer] on the fourth row of stones in the forecourt.

 

Every day he scooped up with a silver censer, and emptied into a golden vessel. On this day he filled a golden censer, and also carried it in. Every day he used to scoop [the coals] up in one measuring 4 Kabs, and poured them into one Of 3 Kabs; but on this day he filled one Of 3 Kabs, and also carried them in it. R. Jose says: Every day he filled one of a Seah [6 Kabs], and emptied it into one Of 3 Kabs; but on this day he filled one Of 3 Kabs, and carried them in it. 1 On all days it was a heavy (massive) one, but on this day he took a light one. Every day its handle was short, on this day long; all days its gold was yellow, but on that day red. This is according to R. Mena'hem. On all days he used to offer half a Mina [50 Dinars in weight] of incense in the morning, and one half in the evening; but on this day added a handful more. Every day it was pounded finely, but on this day it was the finest [Lev. xvi. 12]. On all days priests went up on the eastern staircase [of the altar], and descended on the western. On this day the high-priest went up on the middle one, and came down on the same. R. Jehudah says: The high-priest ever mounts and descends on the middle one. All days the high-priest washed his hands from the laver, and on this day from the golden pitcher [cyathus]. R. Jehudah says: The high-priest ever washes his hands and feet from a golden pitcher. All days there were four fires [on the altar]; on that day five: this is according to R. Meir. R. Jose says:

 

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[paragraph continues] Every day three, and on this day four. R. Jehudah says: Every day two, on this day three.

 

GEMARA: The Mishna states: He gave it to one who stirred it, on the fourth row of the marble stones. Is it not written [Lev. xvi. 17]: "And there shall not be any man in the tabernacle"? Said R. Jehudah: Read not "of the Temple, but "from the Temple"--the fourth row of stones away from the Temple.

ALWAYS FOUR FIRES BURNED- I DISCUSSED THE ZOROASTRIANS BURNED 16 FIRES ON THEIR MOST IMPORTANT FIRE CEREMONY- 16 SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL

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R. Elazar said in the name of Bar Qapara: R. Meir said, if members of the burnt-offering were left from the day before, he made a separate fire, and had them consumed, even on Sabbath. What does he come to teach us? We have learned in the Mishna that there were four fires? Said R. Abhin: He informs us, that even the members of a burnt-offering which had become invalid, were burnt by a separate fire, provided that they had been already attacked by the fire of the day before, but not those not touched by the fire.

ACCORDING TO THE TALMUD THERE WERE "FOUR PIECES OF MATTER AND OF THEM WAS COMPOSED THE WORLD"

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"A stone, Shethia." We have learned in a Boraitha: The word Shethia means, that the universe has been created from it, as Shethia means foundation. This is according to him who says, that from Zion the world began to be created, as we have learned in the following Boraitha: R. Eliezer said: The world was created from the very middle, as it is written [Job xxxviii. 38]: "When the dust is poured out as molten metal, and the clods are made to cleave fast together" (first the central piece was made, then the other parts adhered to it). R. Joshua says: The world was created beginning with the extremities, as it is written [ibid. xxxvii. 6]: "For to the snow he saith, Be thou earth. Likewise to the pouring rain, and to the pouring rains of his strength." Four times the word "rain" is repeated here (in Hebrew, but "rain" means in Talmudic dialect "matter"). There were then four pieces of matter, and of them was composed the world.

A REGULAR PRIEST WORE FOUR PIECES OF CLOTHING- THE HIGH PRIEST WORE FOUR MORE

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MISHNA: The high-priest ministers in eight articles of dress; a common priest in four: in a robe and breeches, a mitre and a girdle. To the high-priest's are added: a breastplate and an ephod, and a coat and a tsits [plate on the forehead, [Ex. xxviii. 36]. The Urim and Tumim were inquired of only when he was thus attired; but inquiries were not made for a common man: only for the king, the chief of the Beth Din, and for a person of whom the public had need.

THE RABBIS QUESTION HOW THEY GOT THE NUMBER 24- THEY CONCLUDE THAT IT WAS 6 TIMES 4 BECAUSE THERE WERE FOUR KINDS--- THEN THEY QUESTION HOW THEY GOT THE NUMBER 28 THEY CONCLUDE THAT FOUR WAS ADDED TO THE 6 TIMES FOUR BECAUSE THEY CONCLUDE THERE WERE FOUR TYPES OF GOLD- THEY ASK HOW DO THEY KNOW THERE WAS 4 TYPES OF GOLD AND NOT 6 AND THEY CONCLUDE BECAUSE THE GOLD IS THIN- ON HOW THEY KNEW THAT IT WAS 6 TIMES FOUR THEY SAY PRETTY MUCH THAT ITS OBVIOUS AND ITS "UNNECESSARY TO DELIBERATE UPON"--- (FOUR IS THE QUADRANT)

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"And thou shalt make the robe of the ephod altogether of blue woollen yarn." Here it is also inferred from an analogy of expression, as "blue" is mentioned speaking of the value also, as there every thread was six times twisted (since four kinds were twenty-four), so here, since it is written "altogether," it should be two times six. How do we know that the vail was of a material of threads twenty-four times twisted? Because it was of four kinds, and that each should not be less than six times twisted, it is unnecessary to deliberate upon. How do we know that that of the breastplate and ephod was of threads twenty-eight times twisted? Because it is written [Ex. xxviii. 15]: "And thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment of weavers' work; after the work of the ephod thou shalt make it: of gold, of blue, of purple, and scarlet yarn, and twisted linen, shalt thou make it." Four kinds, each six-fold, is twenty-four; and the gold four times, this makes twenty-eight. How is it known that the gold is four times? Perhaps also six times? Said R. Ashi: Because it is written [ibid. xxxix. 3]: "To work it in the blue and in the purple." Therefore it must be at least thinner than those threads.

THE RABBI IS ASKED IF HE KNOWS ABOUT THE FOUR DIFFERENCES MADE IN ATONEMENTS WHICH R. ISHMAEL LECTURED- THE RESPONSE IS THERE IS ACTUALLY THREE BUT THE FOURTH IS COMBINED WITH THE PREVIOUS THREE- THAT IS THE QUADRANT PATTERN

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R. Mathiah b. Heresh asked R. Elazar b. Azariah at Rome: Have you heard of the four differences made in atonements, about which R. Ishmael lectured? He replied to him: There are only three, and penitence is combined with each. When one has transgressed a positive commandment, and done penance, he is atoned for before he goes away from his place. As it is written [Jerem. iii. 14]: "Return, O backsliding children." If he has transgressed a negative commandment, penitence suspends (the sentence), and the Day of Atonement atones. As it is written [Lev. xvi. 30]: "For on that day shall he make atonement for you, to cleanse you from all your sins." If he has committed sins for which the penalties are Karoth, or death by Beth Din, then penitence and the Day of Atonement suspend (the sentence in Heaven) and afflictions wipe it out. As it is written [Ps. lxxxix. 33]: "Then will I visit with the rod their transgressions, and with plagues their iniquity." But he who has on his conscience the defamation (profaning) of God, neither penitence can suspend, nor the Day of Atonement atone for, nor sufferings wipe out. But all the three only suspend, and death wipes out, as it is written [Is. xxii. 14]: "And it was revealed in my ears by the Lord of hosts: Surely this iniquity shall not be forgiven unto you, until ye die."

R. JOHANAN SAID THAT HE SHOULD NOW WALK FOUR ELLS WITHOUT TORAH ON HIS MIND- OR HE IS PROFANING GOD

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R. Johanan says: For instance, when I should walk four ells without Torah (in my mind), I profane God.

ACCORDING TO THE RABBI IN THE GEMARA IF YOU SIN ONE TIME YOU ARE PARDONED- TWICE PARDONED THREE TIMES PARDONED- BUT THE FOURTH TIME YOU ARE NOT PARDONED- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT

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We have learned in a Boraitha: R. Jose b. R. Jehudah said: When a man sins the first time he is pardoned; the second time, he is pardoned; the third time, he is pardoned; the fourth time, he is not pardoned, as it is written [Amos ii. 6]: "Thus hath said the Lord, For three transgressions of Israel, and for four, will I not turn away their punishment." And it is written [Job xxxiii. 29]: "Lo, all these things doth God two or three times with man." [What is the second passage required for? From the first we might think it is only the case with a congregation; but the second shows to us that it is true in case of an individual also.]

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THEN THE TALMUD TALKS ABOUT THE FOUR MEN WHO WENT INTO THE HEAVENLY GARDEN- THE FOURTH WAS DIFFERENT- ONLY THE FOURTH DEPARTED IN PEACE

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The rabbis taught: Four men went up into the heavenly garden, 1 and they were: Ben Azzai and Ben Zoma, A'her and R. Aqiba. Ben Azzai gazed and died; 2 to him the scriptural passage may be applied [Ps. cxvi. 15]: "Grievous in the eyes of the Lord is the death of his pious ones." Ben Zoma gazed and went mad; to him the scriptural passage may be applied [Prov. xxv. 16] Hast thou found honey? eat so much as is sufficient for thee, lest thou consume too much of it, and have to vomit it forth." A'her cut the plants. 3 R. Aqiba departedin peace. 1 ----

THE NEXT MISHNA THEN GOES ON TO TALK ABOUT UNCLEAN THINGS UP TO THE FOURTH DEGREE

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MISHNA: More rigorous rules hold in sacred things than in a heave-offering, for we may dip vessels in the midst of vessels for a heave-offering, but not for sacred things. The outside and the inside and the place for laying hold are reckoned as distinct in the heave-offering, but not in the sacred things. One who takes up that which has been made unclean by pressure, may offer the heave-offering, but not the sacred things. The garments of those that eat the heave-offering are unclean through pressure in regard to sacred things. The manner of the heave-offering is not as the manner of the sacred things. For in the case of sacred things, one loosens a knot and wipes and dips and afterwards ties up again, but in the case of a heave-offering he ties up and afterwards dips.

 

Vessels finished in purity need dipping for sacred things, but not for a heave-offering. The vessel includes what is within it for sacred things, but not for heave-offering.

 

The unclean in the fourth degree in the case for sacred things is disqualified, but in the third degree in the case of heave-offering.

 

Though one of his hands be unclean in the case of heave offering, its fellow is clean; in the case of sacred things, how ever, both are dipped, for the hand makes its fellow unclean in the case of hallowed things, but not in the case of heave-offering. One may eat dry food with ordinary (not ceremonially clean) hands in the case of heave-offering, but not in the case of sacred things.

 

A mourner, before the burial of the dead (who has not defiled himself yet on the dead), and one who lacks atonement, need dipping in a legal bath for sacred things, but not for heave-offering.

THEN THE GEMARA EXPOUNDS UPON UNCLEANNESS TO THE FOURTH DEGREE

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"The unclean in the fourth degree," etc. We have learned in a Boraitha: R. Jose said: Whence do we deduce the case of the unclean in the fourth degree, that in the matter of sacred things he is disqualified? By an a fortiori argument. For he who has entered on the last stage of his atonement, while he is free as regards heave-offering, he is disqualified as regards sacred things, so much the more when one is unclean in the third degree who defiles heave-offering that he should become disqualified as regards sacred things if unclean in the fourth degree. We have learned, however, that he who is unclean in the third degree is disqualified as regards sacred things, biblically, and that he who is in the fourth degree--by an a fortiori argument, namely: It is written [Lev. vii. 9]: "And the flesh that toucheth any unclean thing shall not be eaten." Are we not here treating of the touching of a thing of secondary uncleanness? And nevertheless the Scripture says, it shall not be

 

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eaten? That which is unclean in the fourth degree is proved to be disqualified by the a fortiori argument stated above.

 

"And though one of his hands be unclean."

THE MISHNA AGAIN IS WHAT THE GEMARA DESCRIBES- THE NEXT MISHNA AGAIN MENTIONS FOUR SAYING "A FOURTH PART"- AGAIN THE REPETITON OF FOUR

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MISHNA: More rigorous rules, on the other hand, hold in a heave-offering, for in Judea people are believed with regard to,

 

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purity of wine and oil all the days of the year, but at the time of the vintage and the oil-pressing, with regard to heave-offering also.

 

When the vintage and the oil-pressing are over, and a cask of wine for heave-offering was brought, it must not be received, but it may be left for the next vintage. But if he say to him, I have separated and put into the midst of it a fourth part of something consecrated for sacred things, he is believed. In the case of jugs of wine and jugs of oil which are mixed, men are believed with regard to them at the time of vintage and oil-pressing and for seventy days before the vintage.

AGAIN MENTION OF THE FOUR OLD SAGES- ALSO ALL FLYING INSECTS THAT WALK UPON FOUR LEGS ARE UNCLEAN

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Shall we assume that Rabh holds that both are of one and the same sanctitude? Did not Rabh say that the Halakha prevails according to the four old sages 1 who are in accordance with R. Eliezer, who said that Sabbath and the festivals are of different sanctitudes? Nay, here they do not differ concerning the sanctitudes, but as to the law of preparation mentioned above in the name of Rabba. Rabh is in accordance with this theory and R. Johanan is not.

 

The rabbis taught: A pullet which was born on a festival must not be eaten on the same day. R. Eliezer ben Jacob said even on a week-day it is not allowed to eat it on the same day, because its eyes are not yet open. We also learn in the following Boraitha: It is written [Lev. xi. 22]: "All flying insects that walk upon four legs shall be an abomination to you." By "all" it is meant to add the pullet whose eyes are not as yet open.

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AGAIN WE SEE THE PATTERN OF THREE THINGS- BUT A FOURTH THING THAT IS DIFFERENT THAT IS ADDED- THE RABBIS SAY THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF MEN WHOS LIVES DON'T COUNT AT ALL, BUT AT THE END IT IS ADDED "ACCORDING TO OTHERS, HE WHO HAS NO MORE THAN ONE SHIRT"- A DIFFERENT FOURTH

 

The rabbis taught: There are three men whose lives are not counted as lives at all: He who is dependent on the table of his neighbor; he whose wife dominates over him; and he who has bodily suffering. According to others, he who has no more than one shirt.

AGAIN IT IS MENTIONED "FOUR OR FIVE CHESTS"- THE RABBIS IN THE GEMARA ASK- "WHY IS IT THAT IT SAYS FOUR OR FIVE CHESTS RATHER THAN JUST FIVE CHESTS- IT WOULD BE ALREADY IMPLIED FOUR IF YOU JUST SAY FIVE"-

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THE REASON FOUR IS MENTIONED IS BECAUSE OF THE QUADRANT MODEL

 

MISHNA: It is allowed to throw down fruit (kept on the roof for drying) by a trap-door (into the yard) on the festival, but not on Sabbath. It is also allowed to cover fruit, or jars of wine or oil, with vessels to protect them from rain. One may also place a vessel to receive rain on Sabbath.

 

GEMARA: Of which quantity does the Mishna speak? Said R. Zera in the name of R. Assi, according to others R. Assi in the name of R. Johanan: The same quantity which we have learned in the Mishna (in Sabbath, p. 276). One may even clear off four or five chests of straw or grain in order to remove obstacles to instruction, etc. But perhaps there it is different, because there are obstacles to instruction; but here, where it is not the case, it may be a less quantity? Or, on the contrary, there the Mishna speaks of Sabbath, which is rigorous, therefore a slight quantity is allowed. But here it is a festival, perhaps a greater quantity is allowed? It can be interpreted even in another way: There, where there are no damages of money, a quantity from four to five is allowed; but here, where there can be damages of money, even more is also allowed? And another question: There the Mishna teaches that one must not clear out a whole barn, and Samuel explained this that the Mishna meant he shall not clear out the whole barn for fear he will notice pits and would like to fill them up (ibid. 276). How is the law in our case? Shall we assume that because Sabbath is rigorous, the precautionary measure must be taken; but in the case of the festival, which is lenient, it need not be taken? Or, on the contrary, there, where although the reason is the fear of interruption in the house of learning, yet it is not allowed to clear the whole barn, how much the more here, where such a reason does not exist? And another question: Here the Mishna teaches that fruit must be thrown through a trap-door, and R. Na'hman said in addition

AGAIN SO FAR I HAVE GONE THROUGH THE FIRST SEVEN OR SO TRACTATES OF THE TALMUD- IT HAS BEEN PERMEATED WITH FOUR ----- AND IT HASN'T BEEN PERMEATED BY ANY OTHER NUMBER- THERE HAVE BEEN A FEW SIXES A COUPLE SEVENS SOME THREES BUT IT HAS MAINLY BEEN PERMEATED BY FOUR AND THE QUADRANT PATTERN OF THE FOURTH BEING DIFFERENT--- THAT IS NOT JUST WITH THE TALMUD I STUDIED THE HINDU SCRIPTURES ALL TYPES OF STUFF IT WAS ALL DOMINATED BY FOUR AND THE QUADRANT PATTERN WAS THE MAIN COMPONENT OF EVERYTHING- BECAUSE THE QUADRANT IS THE FORM OF BEING

TRACT SUCCAH BEGINS WITH ANOTHER MISHNA WHERE AGAIN IT MENTIONED "FOUR POLES" FOR THE SUCCAH- THE FOUR AGAIN BEING THE DOMINANT THEME

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MISHNA I. About the legal height and width of the booth which is to be used during the seven days of Tabernacles. What was to be done when it was higher or lower than the prescribed size? If one has placed four poles and roofed them, how is the law? The different opinions of R. Jacob and the sages on this point.

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FOUR AGAIN IS MENTIONED IN THE UPCOMING MISHNAS- AGAIN I WANT TO REPEAT OTHER NUMBERS ARE NOT BEING MENTIONED THIS GOES FOR THE HINDU TEXTS FOR OTHER THINGS- THERE HAS BEEN MENTIONED OTHER NUMBERS BUT FOUR HAS ALWAYS BEEN DOMINANT AND IF THERE IS OTHER NUMBERS IT IS USUALLY SURROUNDING FOURS BECAUSE THE QUADRANT PATTERN IS ALWAYS THE PROMINENT ASPECT THAT IS ILLUMINATED- THE TIMES WHEN YOU SEE OTHER NUMBERS IS USUALLY WHEN THE FOUR IS MOST PROMINENT LIKE THE TRACTATE ON THE FOUR GLASSES OF WINE THE GEMARA STARTED MENTIONING OTHER NUMBERS BUT THOSE NUMBERS WERE SURROUNDING THE FOUR GLASSES OF WINE- THIS IS NOT JUST TRUE IN TALMUD IT WAS TRUE IN EVERY TEXT I STUDIED AND THE QUADRANT PATTERN IS NOT JUST FOUR BUT IT IS THE THREE PLUS ONE PATTERN AND THE FOUR PLUS THREE PATTERN THAT JUNG DISCUSSED WHERE THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT

 

When the sun and the moon are eclipsed, it is an ill omen to the enemies of Israel, so maintains R. Meir. On account of four things the sun is eclipsed. For four things the property of householders becomes annihilated, 33-41

THE RABBIS TAUGHT FOR FOUR THINGS THE SUN BECOMES ECLIPSED AND FOR FOUR THINGS THE PROPERTY OF HOUSEHOLDERS BECOMES ANNIHILATED

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The rabbis taught: On account of the following four things the sun becomes eclipsed: When a chief judge dies, and is not lamented becomingly; when a betrothed virgin calls for help in the town, and is not aided; unnatural vice; when two brothers are killed on the same day; and on account of the following four things both the sun and the moon are eclipsed: Forgery, false witness, when fruit-bearing trees are cut out, and when sheep and goats are kept in Palestine. On account of four things the property of householders is transferred (confiscated) to the government: When paid notes are kept; usury; and when men had the

 

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power to prevent, but would not; and when charity was promised to the people, and was not given. Rabh said: For four things the property of householders becomes annihilated: When they keep workers, and do not pay them in time; for robbing them; when the strangers free themselves from the yokes on their necks and put them on their neighbors' necks; and for arrogance. And arrogance is the worst of all. But of those who are modest is written [Ps. xxxvii. 11]: "But the meek shall inherit the land, and shall delight themselves because of the abundance of peace."

THE RABBIS TAUGHT FOR FOUR THINGS THE SUN BECOMES ECLIPSED AND FOR FOUR THINGS THE PROPERTY OF HOUSEHOLDERS BECOMES ANNIHILATED AND FOR FOUR THINGS PROPERTY IS TRANSFERRED TO THE GOVERNMENT

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The rabbis taught: On account of the following four things the sun becomes eclipsed: When a chief judge dies, and is not lamented becomingly; when a betrothed virgin calls for help in the town, and is not aided; unnatural vice; when two brothers are killed on the same day; and on account of the following four things both the sun and the moon are eclipsed: Forgery, false witness, when fruit-bearing trees are cut out, and when sheep and goats are kept in Palestine. On account of four things the property of householders is transferred (confiscated) to the government: When paid notes are kept; usury; and when men had the

 

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power to prevent, but would not; and when charity was promised to the people, and was not given. Rabh said: For four things the property of householders becomes annihilated: When they keep workers, and do not pay them in time; for robbing them; when the strangers free themselves from the yokes on their necks and put them on their neighbors' necks; and for arrogance. And arrogance is the worst of all. But of those who are modest is written [Ps. xxxvii. 11]: "But the meek shall inherit the land, and shall delight themselves because of the abundance of peace."

A SUCCAH MUST HAVE FOUR WALLS

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But did not R. Simeon held the same theory, that a Succah must be a permanent dwelling (because his decree is that it must have four walls), and nevertheless he does not allow to sleep under the bed?

A SUCCAH MUST HAVE FOUR WALLS

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But did not R. Simeon held the same theory, that a Succah must be a permanent dwelling (because his decree is that it must have four walls), and nevertheless he does not allow to sleep under the bed?

ACCORDING TO THE TALMUD A BOOTH MUST BE MADE OF FOUR KINDS- IT IS AGAIN QUESTIONED IF THERE IS A FIFTH- THE FIFTH IS ALWAYS QUESTIONABLE- THE ANSWER IS THERE IS ONLY ACTUALLY FOUR AND IT MAY SEEM LIKE THERE IS FIVE BUT THERE IS ACTUALLY FOUR- IT IS LIKE EUCLIDS FIFTH AXIOM WHICH WAS PROVEN INCORRECT AND UNNECESSARY

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GEMARA: Said Rabha: With the bark or the root of the same tree it may be tied. And he says again: What is, the reason of R. Jehudah's decree? Because according to him the Lulab must not be used unless it is tied, and if it be tied with another kind, it should be five kinds, and not four. He says again: Whence do I deduce that the bark and the root of the palm tree are considered of the same kind as the Lulab itself? From the following Boraitha: It is written: "Ye shall dwell in booths." That signifies, a booth of any materials: so is the decree of R. Meir. R. Jehudah, however, said: A booth must be made only of the four kinds used for the Lulab. And it seems to me that such is right, because if a Lulab which is used only in the day, and not in the night, must have the four kinds only, for a Succah which is used both by day and by night, so much the more are the four kinds needed. Replied the sages to him: Every law which is at the beginning more rigorous, and is finally more lenient, is no law at all. And our case, according to your opinion, if one did not find the four kinds, he should sit in his house, doing nothing; and the Torah says: "Seven days ye shall dwell in booths." Therefore we say a Succah should be made of any materials. And so it is written in Nehemiah, viii. 15: "Go forth unto the mountain and fetch olive leaves, and oleaster leaves, and myrtle leaves, and palm leaves, and leaves of the three-leaved myrtle to make booths." R. Jehudah, however, explains this verse thus: That olive leaves and oleaster leaves are for the walls of the Succah, and myrtle leaves, etc., are for the covering. And we have learned in a previous Mishna: It may be roofed with boards, so is the decree of R. Jehudah. Hence we see that, although R. Jehudah requires only the four kinds for the covering, nevertheless, if one has covered it with boards, it is valid, because the boards of the bark and of the roots of the same tree are considered by him of the same kind. But have we not learned in a Boraitha that if one has covered it with boards of cedar, it is valid according to R. Jehudah? By cedar is also Meant myrtle, as Rabha bar R. Huna says elsewhere: There are ten kinds of cedar, and the myrtle is among them, as it is written [Is. xli. 19]: "I will place in the wilderness the cedar, the acacia, the myrtle."

THIS TRACTATE DISCUSSES THE FOUR KINDS- IT IS INTERESTING THAT THE RABBIS SAY THAT THE FOUR PLANTS SHOULD NOT GO BEYOND FOUR SPANS- ALSO DURING THE HOLDIAY OF SUKKOT THE JEWS WAVE THE FOUR FRUITS FOUR PLANTS (the fourth is different) IN THE FOUR DIRECTIONS ALL TOGETHER- (CREATING THE QUADRANT 16)

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Does R. Jehudah require that a citron shall be beautiful? Did we not learn in a Boraitha: The four kinds that are with the Lulab, as there must not be less, so nothing shall be added to them? If one did not find a citron, he cannot replace it with a lemon or a pomegranate, or anything else; and if they are withered they are valid, but if dried, then invalid. R. Jehudah, however, said: Even when dry, they are valid. And he says again: The inhabitants of great cities used to transmit their Lulabs to their grandchildren. And they answered him: This cannot prove, because the places where such things are rarities do not prove. Hence we see that R. Jehudah said that even dry ones are valid, and this includes also citrons? Nay, R. Jehudah meant only the Lulab when he said dry ones are valid.

 

"A Lulab three spans long." Said R. Jehudah in the name of Samuel: The prescribed size for a myrtle bough and willow is three spans, and of the Lulab four, so that the Lulab shall be one span higher than the myrtle bough and willow when they are tied, R. Parnach in the name of R. Johanan said: (Not the leaves, but) the back of the Lulab, should be one span higher. Come and hear: The prescribed size of a myrtle bough and willow is three spans, of a Lulab four spans: is it not meant with the leaves? Nay, it is meant, besides the leaves. The Boraitha says farther on: R. Tarphon says: It shall be measured with an ell of five spans. Said Rabha: May the Lord forgive R. Tarphon for such teaching: A myrtle bough of three spans is not to be found, and he calls for a myrtle bough of the length of five spans. When Rabbin came from Palestine, he said that R. Tarphon meant to say so: An ell which was five spans, consider it as if it was six spans, and three spans of this take off for the myrtle bough, and the remainder, which is about two and a half, for the Lulab. If it is so, then it is a contradiction to Samuel, for according to R. Tarphon the myrtle bough would be only two and a half spans, and Samuel said it must be three spans? Samuel was not particular in his decision, and said more rigorously, three. But, nevertheless, R. Huna says in his name that the Halakha prevails according to R. Tarphon.

IF SUKKOT FALLS ON A SABBATH THE DATE OF SUKKOT IS CHANGED SO AS NOT TO CARRY THE FOUR SPECIES MORE THAN FOUR ELLS

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REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE FOUR KINDS TIED WITH THE LULAB, CONCERNING HALLEL, POURING THE WATER ON THE ALTAR.

 

GEMARA: Why? It is only handling it, and as the commandment of this is biblical, that it shall be taken in the Temple all the seven days, why shall it not be preferred to Sabbath? Said Rabba: As a precautionary measure, lest one take it into his hand to go with it to an expert to learn the performance, and at the same time one will carry it four ells in public ground. And the same reason is with the cornet, and the same reason is

THE NEXT MISHNA AGAIN REPEATS FOURS- THERE ARE FOUR CANDELABRAS, FOUR GOLDEN BASINS, AND FOUR LADDERS, WITH FOUR LADS---- ALL TOGETHER 16 IS MENTIONED- THE QUADRANT MODEL 16

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MISHNA: He who has not witnessed the rejoicings at the water-drawing has, throughout the whole of his life, witnessed no real rejoicing. At the expiration of the first holiday of the festival they descended into the women's court, where a great transformation was made. Golden candelabra were placed there, with four golden basins at the top of each; and four ladders were put to each candelabrum, on which stood four lads from the rising youth of the priesthood, holding jars of oil containing 120 jugs, with which they replenished each basin.

THE TALMUD THEN DISCUSSES THE FOUR CARPENTERS OF ZECARIAH- and four eggs

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"And four ladders," etc. It was taught in a Boraitha, that the height of every candelabrum was fifty ells.

 

"And four lads," etc. The schoolmen propounded a question: Is it meant that each of them held a pitcher that contained 120 lugs, or the 120 lugs was the joint capacity of all the four? Come and hear: And in their hands were pitchers of oil containing each 30 lugs, which altogether amounted to 120. And a Boraitha states that they were praised more than the son of Martha the daughter of Baithus. It was said of the latter that he used to take two legs from the large ox which was bought for a thousand Zuz, in his hands, and went with them slowly, step by step. And his fellow-priests did not let him do so, because it is written [Prov. xiv. 28]: "In the multitude of the people is the king's glory" (i.e., if more men carried, God's glory were greater). What is meant by, "They were praised more than the son of," etc.? Shall we assume the 30 lugs were heavy--the legs were heavier? Yea, but there was only one step, and it was square; but here was a ladder, and standing upright (and it was more difficult for children to carry the burden).

AGAIN THE ONLY NUMBERS MENTIONED IN THIS CHAPTER ARE THE QUADRANT FOUR

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The Boraitha states further on that R. Jose said that the same was the case with the hunters and fishers of Achu and the manufacturers of grits of Sepphoris.) Abayi said: "It is called grits, if it (the kernel) is crushed into two; pearl grits, if into three; and meal, if crushed into four parts."

AGAIN THE CENTRAL FOUR ELLS

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And whence do we know that the court has power to excommunicate him and to prohibit to eat or drink in his company, or to stand near him within a distance of four ells?

 

For how long, however, is our rebuke? For one day only, as seen from the following: Samuel and Mar Uqba, studying together, the latter used to sit (out of respect to Samuel) four ells distant from the former; but when sitting as a court, the reverse used to be the case, and Mar Uqba used to sit on a low platform (near the candelabrum 2) in order that his voice might be heard

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The rabbis taught: Egypt measures four hundred square Parsah

THE FOUR ARTICLES FO THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES

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"Because the four articles 1 of the Feast of Tabernacles are used only for the purpose of favorably inclining the judgment concerning rain; and as those four articles cannot grow without water, neither can the world exist without water, therefore mention of rain must be made even in the morning."

AGAIN THE REPETITION OF FOUR IN THE NEXT MISHNA WHERE THERE IS THREE PERIODS OF THE YEAR (ON FAST DAYS, FASTS OF THE STANDING MEN AND THE DAY OF ATONEMENT) THAT PRIESTS RAISE THEIR HANDS FOUR TIMES IN THE DAY DURING FOUR PRAYERS- AND THEY FAST FOUR TIMES DURING THE WEEK

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MISHNA: At three periods of the year the priests shall raise their hands (to bless the people) at each prayer, (, i.e.) four times on each day; viz., during the morning, additional, afternoon, and closing prayer. (The three periods mentioned are:) On the fast-days, on the fast of the standing men, and on the Day of Atonement.

 

The standing men used to fast four times in the week; viz., from Monday until Thursday (inclusive), but they did not fast on Friday, on account of the honor due the Sabbath, nor on Sunday, that they might not (too suddenly) pass over from rest and pleasure to weariness and fasting--for that might endanger their lives. On Sunday the standing men read (the sections commencing): "In the beginning," etc. [Genesis, i. 1 to 5], and, "Let there be an expansion," etc. [ibid. 6, etc.]; on Monday they read: "Let there be an expansion," and, "Let the waters," etc. [ibid. 9, etc.]; on Tuesday: "Let the waters," and, "Let there be

 

GEMARA: "At three periods of the year," etc. Is there then an additional prayer on fast-days and for the standing men? The Mishna is not complete, and should read thus: "At three periods of the year the priests shall raise their hands (to bless the people) at each prayer, and among such periods there are days when this is done four times during the day: viz., during the morning, the additional, the afternoon, and the closing prayers; and the three periods of the year are on fast-days, on the fast of the standing men, and on the Day of Atonement . Said R. Na'hman in the name of Rabba bar Abbahu: "Such is the dictum of R. Meir. But the sages maintain that during the morning and additional prayers the priests raise their hands; but not during the afternoon and closing prayers." Whose opinion is that attributed to the sages? That is the opinion of R. Jehudah, as we have learned in the following Boraitha: "In all the four prayers mentioned above, the priests are to raise their hands. This is the dictum of R. Meir, but R. Jehudah said that this is not done in the afternoon and closing prayers, while R. Jose maintains that it is not done in the afternoon prayer, but it is done in the closing prayer." Said R. Na'hman: "The Halakha prevails according to the opinion of R. Jose." And so it remains.

AGAIN THE REPETITION OF THE QUADRANT NUMBERS--- THERE ARE 24 WATCHES FOR THE ISRAELITES---- BUT ACCORDING TO THE TALMUD MOSES ESTABLISHED FOUR WATCHES ONLY WHEN THE ISRAELITES LEFT EGYPT

NOTICE THE REPETITION OF FOURS

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MOSES ESTABLISHED FOUR WATCHES

 

THEN LATER MOSES ESTABLISHED ANOTHER FOUR WATCHES MAKING EIGHT-

 

THEN ELAZAR THE PRIEST ADDED FOUR WATCHES

 

THEN SAMUEL THE PROPHET ADDED FOUR WATCHES AND AS THE TALMUD SAID THAT MADE 16 (THE QUADRANT MODEL 16)-

 

FINALLY DAVID ADDED EIGHT MORE MAKING 24

 

R. Hama bar Guria said in the name of Rabh: Moses established for the Israelites only eight watches; viz., four for the descendants of Elazar the priest and four for those of Ithamar. Subsequently Samuel the prophet increased the number to sixteen, and finally David further increased them to twenty-four, as it is written [I Chronicles, vi. 26]: "In the fortieth year of David were they inquired into, and there were found among them mighty men of valor at Ya'zer and Gil'ad."

 

The rabbis taught: "Four watches went up out of exile, and they are: Yida'yah, Harim, Pash'hor, and Imar. And the prophets who went with them increased them to twenty-four." How was this done? They threw lots into an urn, and Yida'yah came and drew lots for himself and companions to the number of six. Then came Harim, and drew lots for himself and for his companions to the number of six. Likewise did Pash'hor, and thus also Imar; and the prophets also enacted that, even should Jehoyoreb, the chief of the watches, come up out of exile, he should not displace Yid'ayah, but Yid'ayah should be first, and Jehoyoreb act merely as an additional (to Yid'ayah).

 

The rabbis taught: The men of the watch would pray that the sacrifices of their brethren should be favorably accepted; and the standing men would congregate in the synagogues and fast four fast-days; viz., from Monday until Thursday, inclusive. On the first fast-day they would fast for those who plied the seas; on the second, for those who traverse the desert; the third, that the children might be saved from the disease of croup; and the last day, for pregnant women and for those suckling their babes--that the former might be happily delivered and the latter retain their strength. On the day preceding the Sabbath they would not fast, in honor of the Sabbath, and most assuredly not on the Sabbath itself. Why did they not fast on Sunday? Said R. Samuel ben Na'hmeni: "Because that is the third day (after man was created)"; and Resh Lakish said: "Because of the second soul that is given to man on the Sabbath, and which leaves him at the close of the Sabbath day" (hence he would be too weak to fast on the following day).

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Rabha said: The first of the three men (on other days it is four or more men) who goes to read in the Torah, if he has read four verses, he may be praised; if not the first, but the second did it, he may be praised; if the third did this, he may be praised (and if all three read four verses each, all may be praised). It happened once R. Papa came to the synagogue of Abiguber; and he read four verses to the first, and R. Papa praised him.

SAGES PERMIT IT TO BE SOLD EXCEPT FOR THE FOUR USES-- AGAIN IT IS THE FOUR AND THE QUADRANT FOUR THAT HAS BEEN BEING REPEATED- NOT OTHER NUMBERS NOT OTHER PATTERNS BUT THE QUADRANT PATTERN

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A prayer-house may be sold, according to R. Meir, only conditionally (that if they want it, it shall be returned to them). But the sages permit it to be sold permanently, except for the four following uses: to be made a bathing-house, a tanning-place, a legal diving-bath, or laundry. R. Jehudah says: It may be sold on the condition that it be made an open court, and then the purchaser is at liberty to turn it to what purpose he pleases.

AGAIN CENTERING AROUND FOUR ELLS- A MAN MAY LET WATER WITHIN FOUR ELLS OF THE PRAYER HOUSE

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GEMARA: "But the sages permit to be sold permanently." Said R. Jehudah in the name of Samuel: A man may let water within four ells of a prayer-house. Said R. Joseph, what does he come to teach us? We have learned this in a Mishna, R. Jehudah said, he may sell it for a court-yard, and the buyer can do what he pleases. And even according to the rabbis, who forbid it, it is only in case of a prayer-house whose sacredness is permanent; but in regard to the four ells before the prayer-house, which have no sacredness, even the rabbis admit. One Tana taught in the presence of R. Na'hman: One who prays, and wants to let water, shall step away four ells and do so; and he who has done so must walk away four ells before he may pray. Said R. Na'hman to him: "The last teaching is right, because we have learned in a Mishna that he must withdraw from such things to a distance of four ells; but that he who prays should go away four ells, why is this? By this teaching you make all streets of Nahardea sacred, for there is no place. there where men have not prayed; hence letting water would be unlawful in them? Therefore teach, he must tarry for the length of time required for walking four ells, but need not walk."

 

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[paragraph continues] It is right that he who has let water should wait as long as walking four ells requires, because the feet can be besprinkled and he must wait till they dry; but why shall he who has prayed wait for that time? Said R. Ashi: Because for that length of time the prayer is still in his mind and his lips still keep moving, if he had been praying. The disciples of R. Zakkai asked him: In reward of what have you been living so many years? He replied: I never let water within four ells from a prayer-house, and I never called my neighbor nicknames. It never happened I should pronounce the morning benediction of the Sabbath without a goblet of wine: it happened once I had no money to buy with, and my old mother sold the cap from her head and brought me wine for Kiddush.

R. Adda bar Ahba SAID THAT HE NEVER WALKED MORE THAN FOUR ELLS WITHOUT THINKING ABOU TTHE LAW AND WITHOUT PHYLACTERIES- AND HE SAID THAT IS WHY HE LIVED SO LONG - AGAIN THE RECURRING FOUR ELLS

 

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The disciples of R. Adda bar Ahba 1 asked him: Why have you lived so long? He answered: I never was angry in my house, I never preceded a superior, I never thought of Divine subjects in unclean alleys, and I never walked four ells without thinking about the Law and without phylacteries, and I never took a nap in the house of learning; I never rejoiced when my neighbor was in misfortune, and I never called my fellowmen nicknames.]

FOUR HALAKHOTH AND FOUR ROWS OF GOLD

 

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We have learned in a Mishna in Aboth: "Who uses the crown, is lost." Resh Lakish taught: That means, if one uses for his service a man who learns Halakhoth, which are the crown of the Law. Said Ula: A man can use the service of one who learns four Halakhoth, but not of one who teaches four Halakhoth; as happened with Resh Lakish, who walked on the road, and had to cross a stream. A man came, took Resli Lakish on his shoulders, and carried him across. Resh Lakish asked him: Can you read in the Torah? He said yes. Can you read in the Mishna? He said: I have studied four sections of the Mishna. Said Resh Lakish to him: You have cut out for yourself four rows of gold, and still you carried the son of Lakish on your shoulders? Throw him into the water! Said the man: It is agreeable to me to serve the Master. Said he: You may do it only when you will have learned from me something (and then he taught him a Halakha).

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The four sages that came to console R. Ishmael when his sons died, and what they said.

FOUR FORMS OF CAPITAL PUNISHMENT

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9:H3 There are different penalties for crimes: Kareth; death by Heaven; and death by the court, which latter was in four different forms.

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THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT

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On the first three days if a mourner is greeted he shall say: "I am a mourner." However, from the fourth day onward he may answer half-heartedly.

 

The rabbis taught: "A mourner on the first Sabbath B1 must be confined to his house. On the second he may leave the house, but he may not occupy his usual seat (in the prayer-house); on the third he may occupy his usual seat, but he must refrain from conversation; and on the fourth Sabbath he is as any other person."

FOUR SONS

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H. R. Aqiba said: There is a king who has four sons. One is struck and is silent; the second rebels; the third prays for mercy; and the fourth says to his father: Strike me (because I am deserving). Abraham was struck but was silent, as it is written [Gen. xxii. 2]: "Take now thy son, thy only one, whom thou lovest, even Isaac . . . and offer him there for a burnt-offering." He ought to have said: The other day thou didst tell me: "For in Isaac shall thy seed be called" [Gen. xxi. 12]? and nevertheless it is written [ibid. xxii. 3]: And Abraham rose up early in the morning," etc. Job was struck and rebelled, as it is written [Job, x. 2]: "I will say unto God, do not condemn me: let me know for what cause thou contendest against me." Hezekiah was struck, and he prayed for mercy, as it is written [II Kings, xix. 15]: "And Hezekiah prayed before the Lord," etc. According to others, even Hezekiah rebelled, because he said: "Did I not do what is good in thy eyes?" [ibid. xx. 3]. H1 But David is the one who said to his father: Strike me (because I am deserving), as it is written [Psalms, li. 4]: "Wash me thoroughly from my iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin."

THE FOUR MESSENGERS- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

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I. The study of the Torah must not be interrupted till the soul is out of the dying one. When R. Simeon the son of R. Aqiba was ill, I1 he (R. Aqiba) did not absent himself from the college, but inquired about him through messengers. The first

 

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messenger announced that he was yet ill. He nevertheless said to the disciples: "Question!" The second announced that he was worse, and still he did not interrupt his studies. The third one announced that he was in the struggle of death, and yet he said: "Question!" till the fourth one announced the death. Whereupon he arose, removed his phylacteries, rent his garments, and said to them: "Brother Israelites, listen to me! Till now we were obliged to study the Law; now, however, we are obliged to honor the dead."

ENSLAVEMENT 400 YEARS

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The same is true of the reverse. Israel was destined to be enslaved, even if Pharaoh should not have existed, as it is written [Gen. xv. 13]: "And they will make them serve, and they will afflict them four hundred years."

THE FOUR ELDER SAGES

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The rabbis taught: When the sons of R. Ishmael died, four elder sages came to console with him; viz., R. Tarphon, R. Jose the Galilean, R. Elazar b. Azariah, and R. Aqiba. Said R. Tarphon to the other three: "You must know that he (R. Ishmael) is very wise and he is well versed on Agada, and therefore none of you must intrude when the other will be speaking." Said R. Aqiba: "And I will be the last one." R. Ishmael began: "His sins have increased, his mournings have succeeded one another, and he has inconvenienced his instructors once and twice." R. Tarphon then arose and said: "It is written [Lev. x. 6]: 'But your brethren, the whole house of Israel, may bewail the burning,' etc. If this was ordered over the death of Nadob and Abihu, who have observed only one commandment, as it is written [ibid. ix. 9]: 'And the sons of Aaron brought the blood unto him,' etc., so much the more so over the death of the sons of R. Ishmael." R. Jose then followed and said: "It is written [I Kings, xiv. 13]: 'And all Israel shall mourn for him, and bury him.' If so much was done for Abiyah the son of Jeroboam, who has performed one kind deed only, as it is written [ibid., ibid.]: 'Because there had been found in him some good thing,' so much the more so over the death of the sons of R. Ishmael." [What was the good thing? R. Zera and R. Hanina bar Papa: one says that he suspended his office and made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem on the feasts; the other says: he has abolished the guards which were established by his father to prevent the pilgrimage to Jerusalem.] R. Elazar b. Azariah then began: "It is written [Jerem. xxxiv. 5]: 'In peace shalt thou die; and as burnings were made for thy fathers,' etc., if so much

AGAIN REPETITION FO FOUR ELLS

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A. One who gathers or guards the bones is exempt from reading Shema, prayer, and all the precepts commanded in the Torah, and if he desires to be rigorous with himself, he must not do so, for the honor of the dead. R. Johanan b. Nuri, however, said: He should step outside a distance of four ells and read. Ben Azai said: If they were with him in a boat he should remove them to another place and read. R. Itzhak said: Only from the bones of relatives he is exempt; from strangers, however, he is not. R. Simeon said: He is exempt only on week-days, but not on Sabbath. R. Nathan, however, said: He is exempt only when the bundle (of the bones) is on his shoulders, because the duty of guarding it is on him, but not of prayer.

SCHOLARS ARE DIVIDED INTO FOUR CLASSES AND THERE ARE FOUR MEANS OF FORGIVENESS

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The scholars are divided into four classes . One studies but does not teach others, etc. If one honor his friend for pecuniary considerations, he will in the end be dismissed in disgrace, etc. On account of the four different means of forgiveness, etc. Repentance must be to every one of them. However, one who has profaned the name of heaven has not the power to repent. Wherefore do scholars die before their time. Be careful in greeting thy neighbor He who neglects the words of the Law on account of his riches. There is a case where one transgresses ignorantly, etc. One who connects himself with transgressors, etc. The punishment of the liar is that even when he tells the truth he is not believed, 95-103

MORE REPETITIONS OF QUADRANT PATTERN FOURS IN THE MISHNA

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MISHNAS P TO GG. There are four kinds of dispositions among men. There are four kinds of pupils. There are four kinds of charity-givers. There are four kinds of visitors of the house of learning. There are four kinds of the disciples of the wise. Love inspired by ulterior motives, etc. Whatsoever gainsaying is for the sake of Heaven will have good results. Whosoever causes many to be righteous, sin prevails not over him. In whomsoever are the following three things, he is a disciple of Abraham, etc, Be courageous as the panther, light-winged as the eagle, swift as the deer, and strong as the lion, One five years old should study Scripture, etc. Turn it and turn it again, for everything can be found therein, 131-133

FOUR THINGS

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Also Hezekiah, King of Judah, did four things of his own volition which were in accordance with the will of the Lord (see Pesachim, p. 99 in the Mishna): "And Hezekiah prospered in all his works" [II Chron. xxxii. 30].

THE MISHNA SAYS THAT HOUSES SHOULD HAVE FOUR ENTRANCES AT THE FOUR DIRECTIONS- LIKE THE HOUSE OF JOB

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2 "Thy house should be wide open." This means that one's house should be wide open south, east, west, and north, as was

 

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the house of Job, which had four entrances made, so that the poor should not have the trouble of walking around the house looking for the entrance, but should find it whichever way they came without any difficulty.

FOUR THINGS

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It happened that Hillel the First, while on a journey, met men carrying wheat. He inquired how much was a saah, and was told two dinars. Afterward he met others, who gave him the price of the same as three dinars. He said: "Did not the first men say it was only two dinars?" They rejoined: "Thou foolish Babylonian, dost thou not know that the reward is according to the trouble?" (They came from a farther distance.) But he said: "Is that your answer to my civil question?" Finally he succeeded in making them gentle and accommodating.

 

He also used to say four things in the Babylonian dialect:

 

"A name made great is a name destroyed." It means, a man shall not desire to have his name proclaimed to the government, for the reason stated above, p. 45.

 

"And he who does not desire to learn from his masters." It was said that it happened to an inhabitant of Beth Ramah who adopted the customs of the pious, and Rabban Johanan b. Zakkai sent one of his disciples to examine him. He found him occupied in heating oil on a range and then pouring it into peeled grain. On being questioned what he was doing, he answered, I am careful with the heave-offering, to eat it in its

 

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purity, just as if I were a high-priest. Then he asked again: Is this range clean or unclean? He rejoined: Do we then find anywhere in the Torah that a range can be unclean? An oven only is mentioned, as it is written [Lev. xi. 33]: "Whatsoever is in it shall be unclean." Then the disciple again rejoined: The law of the oven applies also to the range, as it is written [ibid., ibid. 35]: "An oven or range shall be broken down, they are unclean." The same added: If such was thy habit, thou hast never in thy life eaten clean heave-offerings.

 

"He who increases not, decreases." How so? If one has learned one, two, or even three treatises, and has not added anything thereto, he will finally forget even that.

 

"And he who serves himself with the tiara perishes." Any one that uses the name of the Lord, as it is written, which is prohibited, has no share in the world to come.

THERE IS DEBATE WHETHER IT WAS THREE OR FOUR OXEN- AGAIN THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT

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And whence is it derived that he roasted for them three oxen? From the following [ibid., ibid. 7]: "And Abraham ran unto the herd," etc. "The herd" means one, "a calf" one, "tender" one. According to others it was four, because the word "good," which is added, is also counted as one. "And gave it unto a young man" [ibid.]. This means Ishmael his son, to accustom him to religious practice.

400

REPETITION OF FOUR HUNDRED

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Whence is it derived that the wicked promise much and do nothing? From Ephron, who said to Abraham [Gen. xxiii. 15]: "A piece of land worth four hundred shekels of silver, what is that between me and thee?" Nevertheless, in the end he accepted the whole sum of the money, as it is written [ibid., ibid. 16]: "And Abraham understood the meaning of Ephron; and Abraham weighed out to Ephron the silver."

"Do not allow thyself to be easily angered." That is, one should be as meek as Hillel the Elder, and not as irritable as Shammai the Elder. It is said about Hillel that two men once wagered the sum of four hundred zuz upon his patience; the one who could succeed to provoke his anger was to receive the amount. (See Sabbath, p. 50; the whole legend ending with): "Take care of thy temper. A Hillel is, worthy that twice that amount be lost through him; a Hillel must not get excited."

THE MISHNA SYS THREE THINGS BUT A FOURTH IS ADDED- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT

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MISHNA A. Aqabia b. Mahalallel used to say: "Consider three things, and thou wilt not fall into transgression: know whence thou comest, whither thou art going, and before whom thou art about to give account and reckoning; know whence thou comest--from a fetid drop, and whither thou art going--to worm and maggot; and before whom thou art about to give account and reckoning: before the King of the kings of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He."

 

Tosephtha--Aboth of R. Nathan.

 

1"Said Aqabia b. Mahalallel, whoever takes to his heart the following four things will never sin": Whence he comes; whither he goes; what will become of him; and who is his judge. Whence he comes? from a dark place! Whither he goes? to a dark place! What will become of him? dust and worms! And who is his judge? the King of the kings of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He!

AGAIN THREE THINGS ARE MENTIONED- BUT A FOURTH (THE CROWN OF A FAIR NAME) IS ADDED AND IT IS SAID (EXCELLETH THEM ALL)- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT/TRANSCENDENT

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MISHNA O. R. Simeon was wont to say: "There are three crowns--the crown of the Law, the crown of the priesthood, and the crown of royalty. But the crown of a fair name excelleth them all."

SO THIS IS THE PHENOMENON I HAVE BEEN POINTING OUT- FOUR HAS BEEN THE DOMINANT NUMBER MENTIONED AND ESPECIALLY THE QUADRANT PATTERN AND THAT IS NOT JUST TALMUD THAT IS EVERY HOLY TEXT---- BUT OTHER NUMBERS ARE MENTIONED BUT THE OTHER NUMBERS ARE MENTIONED WHEN THE FOUR IS STILL DOMINANT AND THE MOST PROMINENT- FOR INSTANCE HERE IT SAYS THAT THERE ARE THREE CLASSES OF DISCIPLE- BUT THE THREE CLASSES STUDY THE FOUR AREAS OF KNOWLEDGE AND THE THIRD TYPE HAS FOUR SURFACES- THE THREE IS MENTIONED BUT BECAUSE THE FOUR IS PROMINENT AND HAS MADE ITS PRESENCE DOMINANT

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R. Elazar b. Shamua said: "The disciples are divided into three classes: Hewn stones, corner-stones, and a polished stone. A disciple who has studied Midrash, and only knows how to answer the question of the scholar appertaining to Midrash, and answers in that is compared to a hewn stone which has only one surface; one who has studied Midrash as well as Halakhoth, and he is able to answer a scholar in both, is like a corner-stone which has two surfaces; and one who has acquired a knowledge in Midrash, Halakhoth, Agadoth, and Tosephthas, and is enabled to answer in all four branches, is like a polished stone which has four surfaces, one on each of its four sides."

FOUR CLASSES OF SCHOLAR - A QUADRANT PATTERN

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Abba Saul (b. Nanes) said: "The scholars are divided into four classes: One studies, but does not teach others; a second teaches others, but does not study himself; a third one both studies for himself and teaches others; and a fourth neither studies himself nor teaches others. The first class learn a chapter, or two or three, study them repeatedly until they know them by heart, but do not teach them to others; the second learn an entire section two or three times, teach it to others, but not having studied it repeatedly forget it; the third learn one, or two, or even three, entire sections, teach them to others, and study them themselves, and therefore do not forget them; and the fourth class are those who have learned an entire section two or three times, but have not taught it to others, neither have they studied it themselves, and thus they forget it."

AGAIN THE REPETITION OF FOUR ELLS

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There is a tradition that when R. Eliezer fell ill, it was on the eve of a Sabbath. When R. Aqiba and his comrades visited him, he was sleeping in his chamber; so they stayed in the dining-room. When Hyrcanus his son entered to remove his phylacteries, he was prevented from doing so by his father, who began to cry. He left the chamber, and said to the sages: "My masters, methinks that my father is not clear in his mind." R. Eliezer, however, overheard him, and rejoined: "My son, it is not I who am not clear in my mind, but thou. For thou hast neglected the lighting of the lamps, for which thou art liable to a death penalty by the hand of heaven, and hast instead occupied thyself with the removal of my phylacteries, for which thou art guilty only because of Shbuth." When the sages heard that his mind was clear, they sat down at a distance of FOUR ELLS 1 from his bedside.

FOUR REGULATIONS

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Rabban Gamaliel said: "The following four regulations of the Romans annihilated the subjugated nations: the unlimited taxes, the high license on bath-houses, and theatres, and grain tithe."

FOUR MEANS OF FORGIVENESS AND FOUR CONTRADICTORY PASSAGES

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On account of the four different means of forgiveness, R. Mathia b. Heresh went to visit R. Ishmael b. Elazar the Kapar in Ladakia. He interrogated him: "Hast thou heard the four different means of forgiveness on which R. Ishmael used to lecture?" He rejoined: "I have heard they are three, but repentance must be to every one of them." It is written [Jer. iii. 22]: "Return, ye backsliding children, I will heal your backslidings." And again [Lev. xvi. 30]: "For on that day shall (the high-priest) make an atonement for you to cleanse you." Also [Ps. lxxxix. 33]: "Then will I visit with the rod their transgressions, and with plagues their iniquity." And also [Is. xxii. 14]: "Surely this iniquity shall not be forgiven unto you until ye die." How can these four contradictory passages be explained? Thus: If one has violated a positive precept, and has repented, he is forgiven immediately--to this case the first passage is applied. If one has violated a negative precept and has repented, the repentance is suspended until the Day of Atonement, when he is forgiven--to this the second passage is applied. If one has committed a sin for which he is liable to Kareth, or death by the court, and has repented, the repentance and the Day of Atonement are suspended until he is cleared by sufferings--to this case the third passage is applied. However, one who has profaned the name of heaven has not the power to repent, and no sufferings clear him, and the Day of Atonement does not atone for him; but repentance and sufferings are suspended, and only death absolves him--to him is applied the last passage.

A LOT OF QUADRANT MODEL FOURS

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MISHNA O. Four kinds of views are held by men concerning property. He who says: "What belongs to me shall continue to be mine, and thou shalt keep thine own," holds the common view. Some consider this the view of

 

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the men of Sodom. 1 "Mine shall be thine, and thine shall be mine," thus say the ignorant. "Mine shall be thine, and thou shalt also keep thine own," thus says the magnanimous. "Thine shall be mine, and mine shall continue to be mine," are the words of the godless.

 

MISHNA P. There are four kinds of dispositions among men. Some are easily enraged, but as quickly soothed--there the fault is neutralized by the merit. Some are slow to anger, but are calmed only with difficulty--there the merit is counterbalanced by the fault. One is slow to anger and easily pacified--he is of a gentle disposition. Another is easily irritated and hard to soothe--he is a wicked man.

 

MISHNA Q. There are four kinds of pupils: one understands readily but forgets soon--there the advantage is swallowed by the failing; another grasps but slowly, and seldom forgets--there the failing is outweighed by the talent; a third understands readily and is slow to forget--his is a good portion; a fourth understands slowly and forgets quickly--his is a poor endowment.

 

MISHNA R. There are four kinds of charity-givers: He who gives but does not care that others should give--his eye is evil towards others (i.e., the charity-giver shall not have the pleasure of doing charity and the poor shall be deprived of it); he who makes others give, but does not give himself, does not make the best use of his own; he who gives, and makes others give, is pious; but he who neither gives nor suffers others to give is a cruel man.

 

MISHNA S. There are four kinds of visitors of the house of learning: he that goes and does not practise (i.e., he accepts the lessons without any examination or study of them), the reward of going only remains with him; he that practises (i.e., he who studies at home) and does not go, the reward of practice remains with him; he

 

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that does both is pious; he that enrols among the college visitors, but neither goes nor practises, is wicked.

 

MISHNA T. There are four kinds of the disciples of the wise: sponge, funnel, strainer, and sieve; sponge--sucking up all things; funnel--allowing all that is received in the one end to flow out at the other; strainer--letting the wine run through and retaining the dregs; sieve--blowing off the bran and keeping the flour.

THIS IS INTERESTING HERE IS THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR - THIS IS THE FOUR PLUS THREE PATTERN- HE MENTIONS THE THREE PATRIARCHS AND FOUR MATRIARCHS THE THREE KINGS THE FOUR COMMONERS - HE THEN MENTIONS THE SVEN DWELLING PLACES BUT ITS A FOUR PLUS THREE PATTERN FOUR WINDS AND THREE OTHER THINGS- I POSTED THE BOOK IN MY TIMELINE SHOWING THE FOUR PLUS THREE PATTERN JUNG SAW THROUGHOUT MYTHOLOGY WHERE HE WOULD SEE THE FOUR WHERE THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT- BUT THOSE FOUR WOULD BE CONNECTED- THEN THERE WOULD BE A SEPARATE THREE- THIS IS ELUCIDATING THE QUADRANT PATTERN

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With seven things God created the world. They are as follows: Wisdom, understanding, knowledge, strength, might, kindness, and mercy. And as He has created the world with seven things, so also has He created seven ancestors--three fathers and four mothers.

 

 

 

There are three kings and four commoners who have no share in the world to come. The three kings are: Jeroboam, Achab, and Menasseh; the, four commoners are: Balaam, Doeg, Achitophel, and Gechazi. Said R. Jehudah: Menasseh has already repented, as it is written [II Chron. xxxiii. 13]: "And he prayed unto him, and he permitted himself to be entreated by him . . . and brought him back to Jerusalem, unto his kingdom." They argued against him thus: "Had the verse stated merely, 'and brought him back to Jerusalem,' we would then agree with thee, but since it is added, 'unto his kingdom,' it can be said that He returned him to His kingdom, but not to a life in the world to come."

AT FOUR SEASONS THE PESTILENCE WAXES

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MISHNA N. At four seasons the pestilence waxes: in the fourth year, in the Sabbatical year; at the ending of the latter, and at the ending of the Feast in every year--in the fourth, on account of the poor's tithe in the third; in the seventh, on account of the poor's tithe in the sixth; and at the ending of the seventh, on account of the fruit of the Sabbatical year; and at the ending of the feast in every year, on account of the largesses of the poor.

MORE REPETITIONS OF FOUR

1There are four things which bear good fruit in this world, and yield greater benefits for the world to come, if man observes

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them. They are honoring of parents, conferring favors, reconciliation of adversaries, and, above all, the study of the Law. There are four things for which one who is guilty of them is punished both in this and in the world to come; namely, idolatry, incest, shedding of blood, and, above all, slander.

 

 

"There are four characters among men," etc.

 

There are four characters among disciples: one who desires to teach and that others shall do likewise, he is of a good disposition; if he desires to teach, but does not like to see others do the same thing, he is of bad disposition. That others shall teach, and not he--this is medium. According to others, this is the character of Sodom (as the Sodomites did not want any one to derive any benefit from them). If, however, he wishes that neither he nor others shall teach, he is decidedly wicked.

 

There are four characters among those who sit in the house of learning. One who becomes friendly (with the sages who

 

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study there) and studies with them has a share (with the sages); one who befriends himself but does not study with them has no share; one who estranges himself (from the sages) but studies himself has a share; and the one who both estranges himself and does not study has no share.

 

"There are four different characters among students," etc. One resembles a sponge: as a sponge absorbs all liquids, so does that kind of student absorb all that he studies: Scripture, Mishnah, Midrash, Halakhoth, and Agadoth. One is like a sieve: as a sieve passes through the fine flour and retains the coarse particles, so an intelligent student retains what is good in the study and leaves out what is not. One is like a funnel: as it lets in the liquid through one opening and lets it out through the other, so is it with the unintelligent student--what enters his one ear goes out through the other, until all is gone. The fourth student is like a wine-strainer which lets the wine pass through and absorbs the dregs: so also the wicked student forgets the good teachings and retains the bad ones.

 

R. Eliezer b. Jacob named the last one a horn (which lets in the liquids at one end and lets them out at the other). How so? For instance, a child who is given a pearl, he will drop the latter when given a slice of bread; and when given a potsherd he will drop the bread, and finally he has nothing but the potsherd.

 

As to disciples, R. Gamaliel the elder compares them to the following four kinds of fish: an unclean, a clean fish, a fish found

 

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in the Jordan, and one found in the Ocean. By an unclean fish is meant a disciple of poor intellect, who, notwithstanding his study of Scripture, Mishna, Halakhoth, and Agadoth, still remains poor-minded. By a clean fish is meant a disciple of rich intellect, who studies Scripture, Mishna, Halakhoth, and Agadoth, and develops his mind. By a fish from the Jordan is meant a scholar who has studied all the mentioned subjects, but has not acquired the faculty of answering questions put to him. And by a fish found in the Ocean is meant a scholar who studied all the above subjects and has the ability of answering the questions put to him.

 

With regard to sight, it may be said that there are four different misfortunes: those that see and are visible, e.g., the wolf, the lion, the leopard, the bear, the hyena, the serpent, robbers, and soldiers (who in time of war commit robbery); those that are visible but do not see, e.g., the sword, the arrow, the spear, the knife, the stick, the lance; those that see but are not visible, e.g., the plague of an evil spirit; and those that neither see nor are visible, e.g., the plague of stomach trouble.

 

There are four sages: One who sees R. Johanan b. Nuri in his dream may hope to be fearful of sin; R. Elazar b. Azariah--he may hope for riches and greatness; R. Ishmael--he may hope for wisdom; R. Aqiba--he may fear being chastised.

TECHNICALLY THERE IS A FOURTH IF YOU FOLLOW THE QUADRANT TO ITS FULL--- IT DID NOT INCLUDE THE ONE WHO IS ABLE TO ANSWER BUT NOT TO ASK QUESTIONS

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There are three different kinds among scholars; one who is able to ask questions and to answer them is a wise one; one who is only able to ask questions but not to answer them is inferior to him; but he who is able neither to ask nor to answer questions is not to be considered at all.

ON ACCOUNT OF FOUR THINGS ESTATES ARE DESTROYED

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On account of the following four things an eclipse of the sun occurs, etc. On account of the following four things an eclipse of both the sun and the moon occurs, etc. On account of the following four

 

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things the estates of the citizens are destroyed, etc. Do not fret thyself to be equal to the evil-doers. There is no sitting above, neither is there eating, etc., 1-6

BY FOUR THINGS THE SCHOLAR IS RECOGNIZED AND FOUR THINGS ARE DEROGATORY TO SCHOLARS

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A SCHOLAR must not eat standing, etc., etc. By four things the scholar is recognized, etc. The beauty of wisdom is modesty. The beauty of noble performance is secrecy. Four things are derogatory to scholars, etc. When entering, the greater shall be first, etc. For saying benediction, the greater is first. The first step to sin is in one's thoughts. A scholar must be careful in his eating, drinking, washing, anointing, etc. After peace but not after war. Rather follow behind a lion than behind a woman. Who respects the sages?, etc. Keep aloof from anger. Love the poor in order that your children shall not come to poverty, etc. If you keep your mouth from slander, you will spend all the days of life in peace. When you see your neighbor has become poor, do not refuse to help him. If you lower yourself, the Lord will lift you up. This world resembles the eyeball of a Man, etc., 27-31

AGAIN A LOT OF FOUR THINGS

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On account of the following four things an eclipse of the sun occurs (see Succah, p. 40): When the head of a college (Ab Beth Din) died and was not properly lamented; when a betrothed damsel cried for help (Deut. xxii. 23-28) in town and no one offered help; male sodomy; and the shedding of the blood of two brothers at one and the same time (there is no explanation of this

 

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in any of the commentaries, and it seems to us that there happened something like that in the author's time which is unknown to us).

 

On account of the following four things the eclipse of both the sun and the moon occurs: Those who write defamatory reports about others, giving false testimony, raising tender cattle, and destroying fruit-bearing trees. On account of the following four things the personal property of citizens is seized by the government: For keeping paid notes (with the intention to demand another payment), for the practice of usury, for not exercising one's power to prevent sin when he could do so, for subscribing publicly to charity and not paying the subscription.

 

On account of the following four things the estates of the citizen are destroyed: For robbing or withholding the wages of a wage-earner [Lev. xix. 13]; for removing the yoke from one's own neck and placing it upon the neck of another, and for haughtiness above all.

FOUR THINGS

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BEN AZAI said: One who bears in mind the following four things, and never loses sight of them, will never sin namely, whence he came, and whither he goes, who is his judge, and what will become of him. Whence he came?,--from a place of darkness; and whither he goes?--to darkness. Whence he came?--from a dirty place; whither he goes?--to make unclean every one who will touch him. Whence he came?--from a fetid secretion, and from a place which is invisible to a human being; whither he goes?---to sheol and Gehenna, to be, burned in fire. And who is his Judge? Remember that his Judge is not of flesh and blood, but the Lord of all the creation, blessed be He, before whom there is no, iniquity, no oblivion, no consideration of person, no, bribery. And what will become of him?--worms and

THE FOUR ELDERS

 

AGAIN OTHER NUMBERS HAVE NOT BEEN BEING REPEATED OTHER NUMBERS OTHER THAN FOUR HAVE NOT BEEN BEING SAID (AT LEAST FOUR HAS BEEN THE MOST PROMINENT)- AND FOUR HAS BEENL STARTING OFF EACH SECTION OF THE TALMUD- THIS PHENOMENA IS NOT JUST IN THE TALMUD IT IS IN EVERY HOLY TEXT- WHERE FOUR IS THE MAIN NUMBER- AND THE QUADRANT PATTERN 3 PLUS 1

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THE FOUR ELDERS

 

NEVER shall a man enter the house of his neighbor without permission, and this conduct may be learned,

 

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from the Holy One, blessed be He, who stood at the gate of the garden, and called to Adam [Gen. iii. 9]: "And the Lord God called unto the man, and said unto him, Where art thou?" It happened with the four elders Rabban Gamaliel, R. Jehoshua, R. Elazar b. Azariah, and R. Aqiba, who went to the interior cities of Rome, in one of which there lived a friend of theirs, a philosopher--R. Jehoshua asked Rabban Gamaliel if he would like to go and see their friend the philosopher, and he answered he would not

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AGAIN THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR- IF IT IS A COLD BEVERAGE FOUR DRAUGHTS IF WARM THREE

ONE who enters a house shall not ask for food, but shall wait until invited. When the goblet is filled, he shall drink it slowly. What is meant by slowly? If it is a cold beverage--in four draughts; if a warm beverage--in three.

A SCHOLAR IS RECOGNIZED BY FOUR THINGS

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A SCHOLAR must not eat standingly, nor lick his fingers, nor yawn in presence of others. Talk little, laugh little, sleep little, indulge little in pleasure, say little "yea" and little "nay." One has always to know with whom he is sitting, near whom he is standing, with whom he is eating, with whom he is conversing, for whom he signs contracts and notes of debt. By four things the scholar is recognized: his pocket, his goblet, his anger, and his dress; and, some say, even his talk. The beauty of the Law is wisdom; the beauty of wisdom is modesty; the beauty of modesty is the fear of Heaven; the beauty of the fear of Heaven is noble performance; the beauty

FOUR THINGS ARE DEROGATORY TO SCHOLARS

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FOUR things are derogatory to scholars: to walk alone in the dark (and arouse suspicion); to be perfumed; to be the last in entering a prayer-house, and to hold much discourse at a meeting of dunces.

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INTRODUCTION TO THE THREE GATES OF SECTION JURISPRUDENCE,

 

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SYNOPSIS OF SUBJECTS OF VOL. X.--TRACT BABA KAMA (THE FIRST GATE),

 

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CHAPTER I.

 

 

THE FOUR PRINCIPAL TORT-FEASORS; THE DIFFERENT MODES OF RESTITUTION; THE VICIOUS AND NON-VICIOUS ANIMALS THE APPRAISEMENT BEFORE THE COURT,

 

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CHAPTER II.

 

 

RULES REGULATING THE PRINCIPLE OF VICIOUSNESS; AND NON-VICIOUSNESS IN THE FOUR PRINCIPAL TORT-FEASORS ENUMERATED IN THE FIRST MISHNA,

THE MISHNA OF THE NEXT TRACT OF THE TALMUD BEGINS WITH THE FOUR PRINCIPAL CSES OF TORT AND IT TALKS ABOUT HOW THE FOUR PRINCIPALS ARE ENUMERATED SEPARATELY IN THE SCRIPTURE- AND THE TALMUD ASKS WHY THIS IS SO

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MISHNA I. There are four principal cases of tort, etc. One thing is common to all. They are all likely to do damage and must be guarded against. The case of doing damage by digging up gravel. The different explanations of the word "mabeh" by Rabh and Samuel (foot-note). There are thirteen principal tort-feasors. The depository, 2 etc. There are twenty-four principal tort-feasors. What are the derivatives of all those principals? Why are the four principals, ox, excavation, mabeh, and fire, enumerated separately in the Scripture? From what and what kind of property must damage be collected? When the standard is taken, is it taken of one's own lands or of those of the public in general? In order not to close the door to borrowers, the sages have enacted that creditors should be paid out of the medium estates. If one conveys his estates to one or several persons, from whom and from what estates shall the creditors collect the money due them? In case one does a meritorious thing he shall do it up to one-third, 1-16

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AGAIN IT SAYS FOUR AND FIVE FOLD- NOT JUST FIVE FOLD BUT FOUR AND FIVE FOLD

MISHNA I. The payment of double is more rigorous than the payment of four and five fold. The law about one who stole a lamb, and while in his possession it grew into a ram, etc. That a change acquires title is both written and taught. Why did the Scripture say that if he slaughtered and sold it he must pay four and five fold? A stolen thing, which the owners have not resigned hope to regain, cannot be consecrated, etc. The pious man used to place money in the vineyard on a Sabbatical year, declaring: "All that is plucked and gathered of this fruit shall be redeemed by this money." A writ of replevin which does not contain the following directions "Investigate, take possession, and retain it for yourself," is invalid, 149-159

CHAPTER VIII.

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THE NEXT MISHNA TALKS ABOUT THE FOUR ITEMS OF DAMAGE

MISHNAS I. AND II. The four items of damage: pain, healing, loss of time, and disgrace. How so? It happened that an ox lacerated the arm

THE FOUR PRINCIPAL TORT-FEASORS; THE DIFFERENT MODES OF RESTITUTION; THE VICIOUS AND NON-VICIOUS ANIMALS; THE APPRAISEMENT BEFORE THE COURT.

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MISHNA I: There are four principal causes of tort (expressly mentioned in the Scripture): the ox; the (uncovered) excavation; the mabeh (the pasture of one's cattle in another's field); and the fire. The measure of the damages done by the ox is different from that of the damages done by the mabeh, and vice versa; and that of both, which are animated beings, is not like that of the damages caused by the fire, which is not animated. And the measure of damages caused by the three last mentioned, which are movable, is different from that of the damages caused by the (uncovered) excavation, which is stationary. One thing, however, is common to all, and that is, that they are all likely to do damage, which must be guarded against, and if damage is done, the one responsible for it must make good from his best estates.

FOUR RULES

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R. Simeon b. Elazar laid down four rules in regard to damages: "If done on ground exclusively belonging to the plaintiff and not to the defendant, the liability is for the whole (even if done by the horn and in case of a non-vicious animal); if vice versa there is no liability at all; if on ground belonging to both, as e.g. a partnership courtyard or valley, there is no liability for the foot and tooth, but for goring, pushing, biting, lying upon, and kicking, a non-vicious pays one-half and a vicious pays the whole. If on ground belonging to neither of them, as, for instance, a courtyard belonging to neither of them, there is a liability for the tooth and foot; for goring and biting, pushing and lying upon and kicking, a non-vicious ox pays one-half and a vicious pays the whole damage."

TALKS ABOUT GORING A FOURTH TIME

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GEMARA: What is R. Jehudah's reason? Said Abayi: It is written [Ex. xxi. 36]: "In time past" (in the original: "Mi-tmol, Shilshom"). It could have been written "tmol" (yesterday), and then would have counted only once, but it is written "Mi-tmol" (since yesterday), therefore it signifies twice; when "shilshom" is added it signifies thrice, and then follows, "and his owner hath not kept him in" [ibid.], which means that viciousness begins upon goring the fourth time (for the third time, however, only half is paid). Rabha, however, is not so particular about the addition of "mi" to "tmol," and therefore this word signifies only once, and the word "shilshom" signifies twice, hence "and his owner," etc., means the third time, when the ox becomes vicious, and he pays the whole damage.

FOUR THINGS

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Let a man (that kills another wilfully, but without warning, in which case he is neither to suffer the death penalty nor to be banished) pay a sum of money in atonement by the following a fortiori argument: An ox which is not liable to the payment of the four certain things (mentioned above, page 6) must nevertheless pay a sum of money in atonement; for a man who is liable to the payment of the above four things, is it not logical that he should be liable to the payment of a sum of money in atonement? To this the Scripture reads [ibid. 30], "whatever

 

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may be laid upon him," which means upon him only (the ox), but not upon a man.

 

Now let the ox be liable to the payment of the four things by the following a fortiori argument: A man who is not liable to the payment of money in atonement is nevertheless liable to the payment of the four things; for an ox, which is liable to the payment of atonement money, is it not logical that he should pay the four things? To this the Scripture reads [Lev. xxiv. 19]: "And if a man, etc., in his neighbor," which does not mean an ox, etc.

FOUR THINGS AND FOUR ELLS

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GEMARA: The Mishna teaches if one blind the eye of his neighbor that, as in the case of breaking one's vessels, only damage is paid for, but not the four things; so also in the former case only for the damage, but not the four things, is to be paid (when done unintentionally). Whence is that deduced (that the damage is paid for even when unintentionally)? Said Hyzkiah, and so also was it taught by his disciples: The passage says [Ex. xxi. 25] "wound for wound" (which is superfluous, for it is stated [Lev. xxiv. 19]: "And if a man cause a bodily defect"), to make one liable for unintentional as for intentional damage, and for an accidental as for a deliberate act. But do we not need this passage to make one liable for the pain (which is one of the four things explained above) where damages are paid? If so, let the passage say "wound for wound," why then "wound instead 1 of a wound"? Infer from this both.

 

Rabba said: One who carries a stone in his lap without being aware of it, and while getting up from his seat drops it, as regards damages he is liable (for there is no difference whether it was intentional or not), but as regards the four things he is not; regarding the Sabbath the Scripture prohibits only intentional work; as to banishment (if a human being was killed thereby), he is not liable; as to his liability to a slave (if it fell on a slave and blinded him), R. Simeon b. Gamaliel and the rabbis differ (as to whether he must manumit him or not [Ex. xxi. 26]). If in the above case he was at first aware of the presence of the stone,

 

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but subsequently forgot it, as to damages he is liable, as to the four things he is not (for the fact that he forgot it cannot be considered wilfulness); as to banishment he is liable, as regards Sabbath he is not; as regards a slave, R. Simeon b. Gamaliel and the rabbis differ. If he intended to throw the stone two (ells) distant and threw it four, as to damages he is liable; as to the four things he is not; as regards Sabbath, intention is necessary; as to banishment, the Scripture said [ibid. xxi. 13]: "And if he did not lie in wait," excepting this case under discussion; as regards a slave, R. Simeon b. Gamaliel and the rabbis differ. If he intended to throw four (ells) and threw it eight (ells) distant, as to damages he is, as to the four things he is not liable; as regards Sabbath he is free unless he said: Let it fall wherever it may; as regards banishment the above-quoted passage means to except such a case as to his liability to a slave. R. Simeon b. Gamaliel and the rabbis also differ. 1

THE FOUR THINGS

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Guilty of what? Said R. Jose b. Hanina: It means the liability to pay the four certain things, but he is free from banishment, for it is not equal to the case of a forest, which is considered the ground of every one who enters it, but in this case he entered his neighbor's estate. Said Rabha: Is not the following a fortiori conclusion to be drawn here: A

 

He is liable to pay the four things, but he is free from banishment (and the difference is thus): That he who explains that it refers to the latter part of the above Boraitha, so much the more as to the first part; but according to R. Papa, he who explains that it refers only to the first part, in the latter part where be entered by request he is to be banished. Is that so? Have we not learned in the following Boraitha: "One who enters a blacksmith's shop and was struck by an escaping spark and died, there is no liability, even if he entered with permission"? The case here is that it was the blacksmith's apprentice. Assuming that it is so, may he be killed? It was that his employer insisted that he

 

Said R. Jose b. Hanina: He is not to be banished, but he must pay the four things.

FOUR SUBSTITUTE

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"If he delivered him to a bailee," etc. The rabbis taught: The following four substitute the owner: The gratuitous bailee, the borrower, the bailee for hire, and the hirer. If the ox under the control of the above killed a man while being non-vicious, .he must be put to death, and no atonement money is paid; if while being vicious, also atonement money is paid; and all of them with the exception of gratuitous bailee must pay the value of the ox to its owner. Let us see how was the case. If they guarded him as required, let all of them be free; if they have not guarded him as required, let even the gratuitous bailee also pay? The case was that they have not sufficiently guarded him. For the gratuitous bailee it is considered sufficient, and therefore he is free, but for all others it is not sufficient (because a greater degree of care is required of them). Let us see, according to whom is this Boraitha? If according to R. Meir, who says that a hirer is equal to a gratuitous bailee: "Why did not the Boraitha add to the gratuitous bailee also the hirer? And if it is according to R. Jehudah, who says that a hirer is equal to a bailee for hire, why did not the Boraitha add to the gratuitous bailee also that all of them in the case of a vicious ox are free from atonement money" (as R. Jehudah holds that even slight care is sufficient for the above substitutes)? Said R. Huna b. Hinua: The Boraitha is in accordance with R. Eliezer, who says that there is no guard for a vicious ox unless the knife, and he

FOURTH GORING

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82:1 Rashi explains this as follows: After the first goring he saw another ox and did not gore and after the second goring he saw two or three other oxen and did not gore them, and so after the third and fourth gorings in which case he is not considered vicious even in alternate order, as explained further on in the text.

 

83:1 This is very complicated, and the commentaries differ as to the explanation and illustration thereof. Rashi maintains that if the value of the fifth one was only fifty zuz, the carcass being of no value, he collects from the body of the goring ox his full half of twenty-five zuz, and turns over the balance to the fourth one, whose ox was of the value of one hundred zuz, who collects nevertheless only twenty-five zuz, for the reason that the twenty-five zuz collected by the fifth one are deducted from his half damage, because the ox was then under his control, and the balance is turned over to the third one, applying the same rule; one full half value of the ox, however, belongs to the owner, as the ox was not under his control since the first goring. Hananel's illustration of this rule, however, is in reverse order: The first one whose ox was of the same value of the goring ox, who had to collect one hundred zuz out of the body of the goring ox, loses fifty if the goring ox gores another of the value of one hundred while under his control, and so the second pays to the third the one half of the damage done to him, so that only the last one takes his full half damage, as the ox was not under his control. Tosphath remarks that in such cases it can happen that the third and fourth should collect nothing, and even the filth one may not be able to collect his full half. See the objection of Samuel Eidlis (Marsha) to these remarks of Tosphath and the answer of Sabbati Kohen in his commentary on the Schulchan Aruch, §401, and their illustrations.

BEGINNING OF NEXT MISHNA TALKING ABOUT ONE FOURTHS

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MISHNA I.: Should an ox gore a cow and the new-born calf be found dead at her side, and it be not known whether she gave birth to it before the goring or by reason of the goring, the owner of the ox pays half the damage for the cow and one-fourth for the calf. So also should a cow gore an ox and her new-born calf be found alive at her side, and it be not known whether she gave birth before the goring or by reason of the goring, the owner of the cow pays half the damage from the body of the cow and one-fourth from that of the calf.

AGAIN REPETITIONS OF FOUR THINGS

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"There is no other care for a vicious one than the knife." It can be said that the Mishna is in accordance with R. Meir also, but the tooth and foot are different, for the Scripture required only slight care with them, as R. Elazar, and according to others a Boraitha taught: "There are four things regarding which the Scripture diminished the amount of care, and they are the pit, the fire, the tooth, and the foot: The pit, as it is written [ibid., ibid. 33]: "And if a man open a pit, or if a man dig a pit, and do not cover it"; but if he had only covered it (without placing a layer of earth on it), it is sufficient. Fire, as it is written [ibid. xxii. 5]: "He that kindled the fire shall surely make restitution," which signifies that it must be done purposely. The tooth and foot, as it is written [ibid., ibid. 4]: "And he let his beasts enter, and they fed in another man's field," which signifies an intentional act, but not otherwise. Said Rabba: From our Mishna it is also to be inferred (that the reason is because the Scripture diminished the amount of care), for it states sheep instead of ox (although sheep require less care), of which it treats throughout. We must say, then, that this is because the Law requires only slight care, and therefore the Mishna mentioned only sheep, which usually do damage only with the tooth and foot, and not with the horn, and also for the reason that the tooth and foot are considered vicious from the beginning, which is not the case with the horn. Infer from all this that slight care only is required.

 

We have learned in a Boraitha: "R. Jehoshua said: There are four things (for which) one who does them cannot be held responsible before an earthly tribunal, although he will be punished for them by the Divine court, and they are: he who breaks the fence of the stall where his neighbor's cattle are kept (only when the fence was shaky); he who bends his neighbor's growing crop in the direction of fire (only during the prevalence of an unusual wind); he who hires a false witness (only for the benefit of his neighbor); and he who suppresses his own testimony and thereby deprives his neighbor from its benefit (only if he was the sole witness). But if the circumstances are different, he is liable also to an earthly tribunal.

AGAIN REPETITION OF FOUR ELLS

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MISHNA V.: If the fire passed over a fence four ells high, or through a public highway or a river, there is no liability.

 

GEMARA: But have we not learned in a Boraitha, as regards a fence of such height, that there is a liability? Said R. Papa: The Tana of our Mishna counts regressively, viz.: For six, five, and down to (and including) four ells there is no liability; while the Tana of the Boraitha counts progressively, viz.: For two, three, up to (but not including) four, there is a liability. (Hence for four ells, according to both, there is no liability.) Said Rabha: The rule that for four ells there is no liability applies also to a field filled with thorns (which makes it very inflammable). Said R. Papa: The four ells begin to count from the edge of the thorns upwards.

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From the four distinct expressions of robbery, wages, lost things, and deposit from which we deduce it?"

FOUR PARTNERS

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Rabha said again: "If there were four partners to a barn, three of them took out the grain of it, and when the collector of duties came he found only the share of the fourth partner. He may take from it for all the four partners, and it is not considered robbery, even if the collector was a contractor of the government. The case, however, is when they were partners; but if some of them were only gardeners, who took for their trouble a share of the grain, the collector has not to take the duties for them who are absent, because the gardeners only took what belonged to themselves."

AGAIN THE RABBIS KEEP ASKING WHY IS IT THAT IT INSTEAD OF SAYING JUST FIVE AND INFERRING FOUR- IT SAYS FOUR OR FIVE- (IT SAYS FOUR OR FIVE BECAUSE IT IS EMPHASIZING THE FOUR THE QUADRANT)

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GEMARA: The rabbis taught: "One must not buy from the shepherds goats, kids, sheared or plucked off; garments of wool, however, are excluded, because it belongs to them; milk and cheese may be bought in deserts, but not in inhabited places. Four or five sheep or fleeces of wool together may be bought, but not two." R. Jehudah said: "Domestic sheep (which are brought home at night-time) may be bought, but not of deserts." This is the rule concerning buying of shepherds, an article which the owner of it perceives may be bought, but not articles which are not.

 

"The Master says, 'Four or five sheep,'" etc. If four may be bought, so much the more five? Said R. Hisda: "Four from a small flock and five from a large one." But is not this text contradicting itself? It states four or five, from which it is to be inferred but not three; and immediately it states but not

 

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two, from which one may infer that three is allowed. This presents no difficulty. If the three are of the best sheep, they may; and if from the lean ones, they may not be bought. The schoolmen propounded a question: "R. Jehudah, who says that domestic ones," etc., made his condition of the first part; namely, that for the four or five in question, and he is more rigorous than the first Tana of the above Boraitha, or his condition is for the second negative part, which states but not two sheep, and he, R. Jehudah, comes to teach that only from outside, but domestic, even two may be bought, and he is lenient. Come and hear the following Boraitha: R. Jehudah said: "Domestic ones may be bought of them, but not others; in any place, however, four or five sheep together may be bought." Hence his decision was lenient.

THE NEXT MISHNA SAYS FOUR SILVER DINAS TO EACH SALA- AGAIN FOUR IS BEING EMPHASIZED AND REPEATED OVER AND OVER

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Cheating, which according to law makes the sale null and void, is in case where the sum of which he was cheated counts four silver dinars. Until what time the retraction may take place? The law of fraud applies to the buyer as well as to the seller, to a private as well as to a merchant. There is no cheating concerning a specialist who knows the value. If one is doing business with his neighbor in trust. (See foot-note, p. 127). How much less of the quantity of a sala should be effaced, that the law of fraud could not be claimed? The prescribed quantity for cheating is four silver dinars to each sala,

AGAIN THE CONTINUOUS REPETITION OF FOUR ELLS- OTHER NUMBERS HAVE NOT REALLY BEEN BEING MENTIONED FOUR AND THE QUADRANT PATTERN HAS BEEN CONSISTENTLY DOMINANTLY PERVADING EVERY SINGLE CHAPTER AND THE MAIN PART OF EVERY CHAPTER OF THE TALMUD- NOT JUST THE TALMUD EVERY HOLY TEXT

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GEMARA: Said Resh Lakish in the name of Aba Kahna Bardala: "The four ells of a man gives title to him at every place. Why so? The rabbis made this enactment to prevent quarrels." (This sentence will be explained in the following discussion.) Said Abaye: R. Hyya bar Joseph objected to this from the following Mishna [Peah, IV., 3]: "If one took a part of the Peah and threw it on the remainder, he lost his share in it entirely." If one of the poor fall upon the Peah, or he spreads his garment upon it (with the intention of acquiring title to it), his act is ignored, and the garment must be removed. The same is the case with the forgotten sheaf [Peah, IV., 3]. Now if the statement of Resh Lakish is correct, why does he not acquire title to it with his "four ells" (when he has fallen upon it)?

 

The case was that he did not say: "I intend to acquire title to it." But if the above enactment of the sages exists, even if he did not say anything, what is it? With his falling he convinces us that only with this act he wishes to acquire title to it, but not with the four ells in question. R. Papa, however, said: The enactment of the sages regarding the four ells had reference only to a public place, but not on a private field; and although the Merciful One has privileged him to go in and to gather the Peah, he is entitled only to do that, but he is not privileged to consider it as his own property.

 

Said Rabha: "R. Jacob bar Idi objected the above saying of Resh Lakish from the Law of Damages stated in our Mishna: 'If one falls upon a found article and another took hold of it at the same time, the latter acquires title to it.' Now if Resh Lakish's

 

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statement is correct, did not the former acquire title with his four ells?" This objection is answered in the very same manner as Abaye's objection. R. Shesheth, however, says: "The enactment of the sages is only in a semita (a kind of sidewalk where it is not so crowded), but not in the public street, where there is always a crowd and many have the same four ells." But did not Resh Lakish say: "In every place?" With this expression he means to include the sidewalks of the public streets.

 

Resh Lakish said again in the name of the same authority: "A minor female has not the right to acquire title in her property, and also the law of the four ells does not apply to her." R. Johanan, however, in the name of R. Janai said: That both of the above laws apply also to her. The two sages, however, do not differ--the former speaks of a divorce, the law of which will be explained in Tractate Gittin (Divorces); and the latter treats about a found article, which was in her four ells or on her property, she does acquire title.

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There are four kinds of bailees: A gratuitous bailee, a borrower, a bailee for hire, and a hirer

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There are four kinds of bailees: A gratuitous bailee, a borrower, a bailee for hire, and a hirer

Ulla said: An individual who owns a tree that is within sixteen cubits of a boundary is a robber, [since it draws nourishment from the neighbor’s land,] and one does not bring first fruits from it, [since that would be a mitzva that is fulfilled by means of a transgression]...  But  And do roots extend sixteen cubits and no more? Didn’t we learn in a Mishnah (25b): One must distance a tree twenty-five cubits from a cistern? [This indicates that tree roots reach more than sixteen cubits.] Abaye said: The roots extend farther, but they drain the earth of nutrients within sixteen cubits; with regard to an area any more distant than that, they do not drain the earth.

REPETITION OF FOUR ZUZ- DYNAMIC OF THREE AND FOUR
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GEMARA: The Mishna does not state that the servants have retracted, but that they have deceived one another, which is to be understood, the servants have deceived one another. How was the case? The employer appointed one of his servants to hire laborers for him, and he deceived them. (Let us see.) How was it? If the employer told him to hire men for four zuz a day, and he hired them for three, they have agreed for the price, and what has resentment to do here? On the other hand, if the employer told him to hire men for three zuz, and he promised four, then, if he told them that they would receive their payment from himself, let him pay the difference from his own pocket, as we have learned in the following Boraitha: "If one hires a laborer to do his work, and thereafter instructed him to do the work of another, he must pay him the full payment, and the reward for his labor he may demand from the employer?" The case was, he said to the laborer that the employer will pay, i.e., he has not fixed any price. But let them see how the price for a day for laborers stands? The case was that there were some employers who paid three, and some who paid four, and the laborers may claim: "If

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we did not understand from your words that we were to get four, we would take the trouble to look for other employers who pay four." And if you wish, it may be said that the Mishna treats of servants who possess their own fields (and they do not hire themselves unless for a higher price than the ordinary), and they may claim: "If we did not understand that we were to get four, it would be a humiliation for us to hire ourselves for a lower price." It can also be explained that the Mishna treats of laborers who are doing work only for others, and nevertheless they may claim: "Because we understood that we were to get four zuz, we troubled ourselves to make a good job." But, then, their work should be examined? The case was, they were engaged in digging a trench which was filled with water, and could not be examined. And if you wish, it may be said that the employer told the servant to hire laborers for four zuz a day, and he hired them for three; and although they agreed to work for the price, they may be angry with the hirer, saying: "Do you not hold to the verse [Proverbs, iii. 27]: Withhold not a benefit . . . when it is in the power of thy hand to do it'?" 

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DYNAMIC OF THREE AND FOUR

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Johanan in one thing, but differs from him on the other point.

 

The rabbis taught: He who muzzles the cow while threshing is punished with stripes, and pays for the cow four kabs, and for an ass three kabs of fodder. But how is it possible that one

 

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should be punished for one crime with two punishments?

FOUR KIND OF BAILEES AND THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR- IT IS SAID THAT THERE ARE FOUR KINDS OF BAILEES, ONE RABBI SAYS THAT THERE ARE THREE

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MISHNA VII.: There are four kinds of bailees: a gratuitous bailee, a borrower, a bailee for hire, and a hirer. (In case of loss,) the first is acquitted on taking an oath that he has not neglected his duty; the second has to pay under all circumstances; the third and fourth are acquitted in case the property entrusted to them has been broken, confiscated, or has died, but not when it has been lost or stolen.

 

GEMARA: Who is the Tana who states that there are four kinds of bailees? Said R. Na'hman, in the name of Rabba h. Abuhu: It is R. Mair. Said Rabba to him: Is there one who does not hold the theory of the four bailees? R. Na'hman rejoined: I mean to say that the only one who holds that a hirer and a bailee for hire are equal in law is R. Mair.

 

Is this so? Has not R. Mair said the contrary in the following Boraitha? For what loss must a hirer pay? R. Mair said: For the same that a gratuitous bailee must pay. R. Jehudah, however, said: For the same loss as a bailee for hire. (Hence R. Mair holds that a hirer is the same as a gratuitous bailee?) Rabba b. Abuhu has changed the names (in the quoted Boraitha). If so, then there are three, not four, kinds of bailees. Said R. Na'hman b. Itzhak: There are four kinds; the laws concerning them, however, are only three.

HE TALKS ABOUT FOUR COWS AND THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

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As he cannot swear, he must pay. And according to Rami bar Hama, who holds that all the four kinds of bailees are liable only when they admit a part and deny a part, the first part of the Mishna is to be explained that the claim was for three cows for half a day, or a day as a loan and the other as a hire; and the plaintiff claims that all the three died at the time when they were borrowed. The defendant, however, denies one of them altogether, and for the remainder he claims that only one of them died in the time for which it was borrowed, and concerning the other, he is doubtful; and in the second part the plaintiff claims that he has given him four cows: three of them as a loan and the one as a hire, and the three which were borrowed died.

THERE IS THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR- SOME SAY THAT YOU DO NOT HAVE TO SOW AFTER THE THIRD- SOME SAY YOU DO NOT HAVE TO SOW AFTER THE FOURTH- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT

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There is one Boraitha which states that if this happened once, he has to sow it the second time and also the third, but not if it happened the third time also. And another Boraitha states that he has to sow it even after the third time, but not after the fourth.

FOUR ELLS FORBIDDEN TO SOW- AGAIN THE REPETITION OF THE FOUR ELLS

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R. Jehudah said to R. Ada, the land-surveyor: You should be very particular in your business. Bear in mind that every inch of the earth is fit for sowing saffron. And he said again to the same: When you are measuring the trench from the river to the fields, you should not be particular with the four ells near the trench which the owners are forbidden to sow. However, that which remains on the shore for anchoring, do not measure at all, but leave it so that it should be conspicuous enough; and this advice is in accordance with his theory, that the four ells of the trench belong only to those who are benefited by them, but that of the shore belongs to every one.

FOUR LEGAL CUSTOMS CONCERNING SALES FOUR LEGAL CUSTOMS CONCERNING SELLERS

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There are four legal customs concerning sales. If one sold dark-red wheat and it was found to be white, or vice versa, etc. By what acts is title given to fruit and to flax? The vessels of the buyer give title to him in every place, except on public ground. There are four legal customs concerning sellers, etc.

THE GEMARA EXPLAINS THE MISHNA- AGAIN THE MISHNA KEEPS ON CONSTANTLY REPEATING FOUR ELLS AND FOUR SPANS- NOT OTHER NUMBERS BUT I HAS KEPT ON REPEATING FOUR ELLS AND FOUR SPANS- HERE THOUGH THERE IS AGAIN THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE SPANS AND FOUR SPANS FOUR AND THREE

 

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MISHNA I.: One must not dig a well near that of his neighbor, nor a channel, cave, aqueduct, or basin, for washing, unless it be removed to a distance of at least three spans from that of his neighbor, and plastered with lime. Olive or poppy waste, dung, salt, lime, and flint-stones must also be removed to a distance of three spans, and must be covered with lime. To the same distance, seeds, ploughing, and urine must be removed from the wall; a handmill to a distance of three spans from the lower millstone, which is four from the upper millstone; and an oven three spans from the foundation, which is four spans from the upper rim.

AGAIN THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR- AND THE REPETITION OF FOUR ELLS

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"Nor a basin for washing," etc. Said R. Na'hman in the name of Rabba b. Abuhu: The case is when it is a basin for soaking clothes (they used to soak clothes for several days in canine dung); but if it is a basin for washing, it is to be removed four ells (because of splashing while washing). And so also we have learned in the following Boraitha: "A basin for washing--four ells." But in our Mishna it is stated "three spans." Hence it must be explained that the Boraitha treats of a basin for washing, and is in accordance with R. Na'hman.

AGAIN DYNAMIC BETWEEN FOUR AND THREE

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MISHNA II.: One must not place an oven in a lower story of a house, unless there be an empty space of four ells above it. If the oven is placed in an upper chamber, there must be at least three spans of stone-flooring under it; under a cooking stove only one span of stone-flooring is required. Yet when damage is caused, it must be repaired. R. Simeon, however, says: All these measurements are ordained so that, when they are complied with and damage is caused, one is not held responsible for it.

 

One must not establish a bakery or a dyer's shop under another's granary; and also not a stable. In reality, it was said that a bakery may be established under a wine store; but, at all events, not a stable.

 

GEMARA: But have we not learned in a Boraitha that an oven requires four spans, and a stove three? Said Abayi: That Boraitha speaks of bakers, ovens and stoves, and the oven mentioned in our Mishna is that of a private man, and similar to a baker's stove.

REPETITION OF FOUR ELLS

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Our Mishna states that, for windows, wherever they may be placed, a space of FOUR ells is needed; to which a Boraitha adds: "If a window is placed at the top, the wall in question must reach such a height that when the owner stands upon it and stoops, he should be unable to see anything by looking in at the window. And if a window is placed at the bottom--to such a height that he could not see when standing upon it. And if the window be opposite the wall, he must leave such a space as would not darken the window." We see, then, that the reason of the

 

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regulation concerning a parallel wall is the darkening, but not the treading mentioned above? The Boraitha speaks of a side-wall. How much space, however, must one leave, in order that the window will not be darkened? Said R. Jyobha, the father-in-law of Ashian b. Nadbach, in the name of Rabh: As much as the width of the window. But from such a height one can still look in at the window? Said R. Zebid: He speaks of a wall with a gable-top. But does not the Mishna state four ells? This presents no difficulty. The Boraitha speaks of one side-wall to which the space of the width of a window suffices; and our Mishna speaks of two side-walls; then four ells are needed, so that the window be not darkened. Come and hear: One must leave a space of four ells near the drains of his neighbor's roof, so that the latter may be able Ito place a ladder there. (It speaks, in case the owner of the house. is allowed to direct his drains to the neighbor's yard; and, while he allows him this, he must also allow him a space for a ladder.) We see again that the purpose of leaving the space is for placing a ladder, and not for treading upon the earth? It speaks of a slanting roof overhanging the neighbor's yard, with the drains placed at the edge, which does not prevent the treading in the yard under it; and, therefore, there could be no reason but the latter.

 

MISHNA V.: One must remove the ladder in his yard from his neighbor's pigeon-coop to the distance of FOUR ells, that a weasel should be unable to jump from it to the latter; and also his wall from his neighbor's roof-drains to a distance of four ells, to enable his neighbor to place a ladder there.

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evening at the northwest corner, it is diverted by this wind and ascends above the sky.

A FIELD AND THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR BOUNDARIES- THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR

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adjoining fields on the west side belonged to A and B, and on the east side to C and D, and in the bill of sale was specified from the boundary of A and B to the boundary of D on the other side, then even Rabh admits that it is to be considered he sold him a triangle, as the boundary of C was not mentioned.

 

If E owns a field adjoining A's field from east to west, and B's from north to south, and he comes to sell it, he must write in the bill of sale: "I sell you the field adjoining A's field from both sides, and also B's from both sides." And it is not sufficient that he should write: "My field, which is between A's and B's fields," as then he could claim that he sold to him the half of it only (i.e., a half on west side adjoining A's and a half on south side adjoining B's, and the remainder he reserved for himself). If in the bill of sale the three boundaries of the field were specified, but not the fourth, according to Rabh title is given to the buyer from all three boundaries, except a bed of the fourth, which was not specified in the bill of sale. Samuel, however, maintains that title is given to the whole, even to the fourth. But R. Assi maintains that title is given to the buyer for one bed all over this field only. And the reason of his theory is that he agrees with Rabh, that from the fact that the fourth boundary is omitted in the bill of sale, it is to be assumed that he reserved it for himself. And this being reserved for himself, so was his intention with the other boundaries, and the specifying of the three was meant to give him title to one bed all over the field.

 

Said Rabha: The Halakha prevails that the buyer acquires title to the whole field, even to the fourth boundary, provided it is contained in the three boundaries; but if it is not contained, title is not given. And even if it is, but it contains inoculated trees, or the fourth boundary was of a size in which nine kabs of grain could be sown, it is excluded.

 

Let us see! Rabha states that if there were inoculated trees, or it were nine kabs, title is not given, from which it is to be understood that if it is not contained properly, title is not given to the fourth boundary, although it does not contain the above. We may infer from this statement that although he has not written in the bill of sale that he reserved nothing for himself (as is said above that so it must be written in a bill of sale), it is supposed that he reserved nothing for himself, and also that the Halakha prevails that if it is contained title is given, provided there were not trees, and the size was less than nine kabs. But

SIXTEEN SQUARES QMR

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And if it was said: "Give him a share from my well for his pots," not less than a twelfth part is considered; and if it was said: "Give him for his small vessels," then a sixteenth part 1 of the well is meant.

16 SQUARES IN THE QUADRANT MODEL--- 16 ELLS SQUARE IS A QUADRANT MODEL

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How much space is to be left between the trees in question, that it should be considered the buyer's? R. Joseph in the name of R. Jehudah, quoting Samuel, said: From four to eight

 

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ells. And Rabha in the name of R. Na'hman, quoting Samuel, said: From eight to sixteen. Said Abayi to R. Joseph: Do not quarrel with R. Na'hman, as there is a Mishna (Kilaim, IV. 9) in accordance with him: If one has planted his vineyard sixteen ells square, he may sow other seeds between the rows. And R. Jehudah said: It happened in the city of Zalmon that one had planted his vineyard sixteen ells square.

16 SQUARS QMR

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Said Rabha: The Halakha prevails--from four to sixteen

 

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ells; and there is a Boraitha which supports him as follows: What is meant by being near one to another? Four ells. And what is meant by being far? Sixteen ells. In the latter case, if one bought the trees he bought also the ground, and also the shrubs between; and, therefore, if it happens that a tree withers or is cut off, the ground remains his. If, however, it were less or more than the above space, or he bought the trees not at one time, but one after another, the ground and the shrubs between do not belong to him; and, therefore, if a tree becomes withered or is cut off, he has no right to the ground (to plant another instead).

16 SQUARES QMR

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Hillel questioned Rabbi: If a cedar tree intervened, how is the law? And he answered: Then title is given to him in the trees, as well as in the cedar. How should the trees be situated so that the sixteen ells in question should be measured?

ACCORDING TO THE NEXT MISHNA THERE ARE FOUR LEGAL CUSTOMS CONCERNING SALES

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There are four legal customs concerning sales: If one alleges having sold good wheat and thereafter it was found to be bad, the buyer may retract; if he alleged having sold bad and thereafter it was found good, the seller may retract. If, however, it was found as alleged, neither of them can retract (although from the sale of the wheat to the delivery the price for same has increased or decreased). If one sold dark red wheat and it was found to be white, or vice versa; trees of olives, and they were found to be sycamore, or vice versa; wine, if it was found to be vinegar, or vice versa--both have a right to retract.

THERE ARE FOUR LEGAL CUSTOMS CONCERNING SELLERs

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Come and hear the following Tosephtha: There are four legal customs concerning sellers: (a) If the measure does not belong to both of them and it was placed on public ground, or in a yard that does not belong to both, then, if the measure was not as yet filled up and the seller wishes for some reason to recede from his sale, he may do so; but if it was filled up, then it is considered already the buyer's (as it is supposed that for this purpose it was lent to the buyer, that as soon as filled he might take it with its contents); (b) if the measure belongs to one of them, to every atom that is put in the measure the owner of the measure acquires title, provided it was at those places named above; (c) if it was on the premises of the seller, the buyer does not acquire title unless he lifts it up or removes it from the seller's premises; and (d) if it was on the premises of the buyer, as soon as the seller agreed to sell him the grain for such and such a price the buyer has acquired title. If, however, the grain in question was deposited previously by the seller without the intention of selling it, and thereafter the depositary bought it from him, title is not given unless the seller agrees to renounce his right to the place where the grain is now placed, or the buyer hires it. We see, then, that if the measure was filled up title is given to the buyer, even if it was on the public ground? Also, here, by public ground is meant a semita; but if so, why the repetition, "a yard that does not belong to both"? Is it not the same as a semita? By this expression is also meant that the whole yard does not belong to one of them, as they were partners in it.

THE QUADRANT NUMBERS- A PUBLIC THOROUGHFARE IS SIXTEEN ELLS- THE WAY TO THE CITIES OF REFUGE IS 32 ELLS- 32 IS TWO TIMES SIXTEEN- PRIVATE WAY IS FOUR ELLS A QUADRANT- A WAY FROM ONE CITY TO THE OTHER IS EIGHT ELLS (two quadrants) ALL TOGETHER FOUR ARE MENTIONED

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"A public thoroughfare is sixteen ells." The rabbis taught: A private way is four ells, a way from one city to the other is eight ells, a public way is sixteen ells, and the way to the cities of refuge (Num. xxxv. ii) thirty-two. [Said R. Huna: Whence is this deduced? From the Scripture (Deut. xix. 3): "The way to them." It should be "a way," and the word "the" makes it double.] The way of the government has no limit, as the king has the right to erect partitions, houses, and no one has a right to prevent him, and the way for burying a corpse has no limit, because of the honor of the dead. 1

THE NEXT MISHNA SAYS- PRIVATE IS FOUR ELLS PUBLIC IS 16 ELLS- 4 is the QUADRANT 16 IS THE QUADRANT MODEL

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MISHNA VII.: If there was a public thoroughfare through one's field and he took it for himself and designated another one at the side of his field, what he has given is considered the public's, and to that which he took for himself he does not acquire title. If one sells a path in his field for a private thoroughfare it must be four ells, for the public it must be no less than sixteen. A way for the government has no limit. The way for carrying a corpse to the grave has also no limit; however, the space where the people stand for condoling was determined by the judges of Ziboras of a space where four kabhs may be sown.

FOUR HUNDRED

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Four hundred children were born to David by the handsome women whom he took captive

FOUR KINDS OF DEATH IN THE SCRIPTURES

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MISHNAS I. TO V. Four kinds of capital punishment are prescribed to the court by the Scriptures. According to R. Simeon, burning is more rigorous than stoning. With her father, burning applies; with her father-in-law, stoning applies. How is this to be understood? Do you come to teach a Halakha which will be used only then when the Messiah will appear? The prescribed punishment of burning was this: The sinner was placed in waste knee-deep. Then placing a twisted scarf of coarse material within a soft one, etc. But why should burning not be inferred from the offerings of the bullocks, which were burned bodily? Nadob said to Abihu: When will the two old men die, and you and I be leaders of Israel? The prescribed punishment of slaying was thus: He was decapitated, etc. The prescribed punishment of choking was thus: The sinner was placed in waste knee-deep, etc. To the following sinners stoning applies: viz., one who had connection with his mother, etc. "A man" means to exclude a minor. [Lev. xxii.]: "That lieth with his father's wife" means, that there is no difference whether she is his mother or not, 150-164

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Four sects will not receive the glory of the Shekhina, viz., scorners, liars, hypocrites, and slanderers

SOLOMON HAD FOUR THOUSAND STALLS AND FOUR THOUSAND STABLES

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"And Solomon had four thousand stalls for horses and chariots, and twelve thousand whom he quartered in the cities for chariots, and near the king at Jerusalem." How is it to be understood? If there were forty thousand stables, every one of them contained four thousand stalls; and if it were only four thousand stables, then each contained forty thousand stalls. R. Itz'hak propounded the following contradiction: It reads [I Kings, x. 21]. "None were of silver; it was not in the

 

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least valued in the days of Solomon"; and [ibid. 27]: "And the king rendered the silver in Jerusalem like stones." (Hence it had some value?) This presents no difficulty. The first verse speaks of before Solomon married the daughter of Pharaoh, and the second after this.

AGAIN REPETITION OF FOUR ELLS

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MISHNA III.: When he came to four ells from the place of execution, he was stripped of his garments. If a male, he was covered in front; and if a female, she was covered on both sides. So said R. Jehudah. The sages, however, say: A male was stoned while naked, but not a female.

FOUR KINDS OF DEATH PRESCRIBED BY SCRIPTURE

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RULES AND REGULATIONS CONCERNING THE FOUR KINDS OF DEATH PRESCRIBED IN THE SCRIPTURE, AND HOW THEY OUGHT TO BE EXECUTED. THE ENUMERATION OF THOSE WHO COME UNDER THE CATEGORY OF STONING. HOW THE EXAMINATION CONCERNING BLASPHEMY SHOULD BE CONDUCTED. CONCERNING THOSE WHO TRANSFER THEIR CHILDREN TO MOLECH; FAMILIAR SPIRITS, ETC. CONCERNING CURSING FATHER AND MOTHER, SEDUCERS AND MISLEADERS, ETC.

 

MISHNA I.: Four kinds of capital punishment are prescribed to the court by the Scriptures; viz., stoning, burning, slaying by the sword, and choking. R. Simeon, however, maintains: Their order is: burning, stoning, choking, and slaying by the sword. The laws of stoning are already explained above (in the preceding chapter).

 

GEMARA: Rabha in the name of R. S'hora, quoting R. Huna, said: Where the sages give an arrangement (plan of action), one must not be particular with it, as it does not matter if one changes the order and acts with the latter before the former, except in the case of the seven dyes with which a spot of menstruum is to be tested, which are mentioned in Chapter IX., Mishna 4, of Tract Nida, of which the Mishna says: If one tested with them not according to the order mentioned, or one mixed all the seven together and tested with them, he has done nothing. R. Papa the Elder in the name of Rabh said: The same is the case in the four kinds of capital punishment mentioned in our Mishna. As R. Simeon differs in their order, it must be understood that the Mishna is particular in their arrangement. But why does not R. Huna mention them? R. Huna speaks of that in which all agree, but where there is dissension he does not. R. Papa himself said: Also concerning the arrangement of worshipping on the Day of Atonement (when the Temple was in existence), as there is a Mishna (Yoma, p. 84). All the rites on the Day of Atonement, whose order is prescribed by the Bible . . . if they are performed in a wrong order, one has done nothing. R. Huna, however, did not mention this.

TWO FOUR CORDS DIVIDED INTO FOUR

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Two fire cords came out from the Holy of Holies chamber, and were divided into four: two of them entered the nostrils of one, and two the nostrils of the other, and burnt them

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REPETITION OF FOUR ELLS

 

R. Tachlifa of the West taught in the presence of R. Abuhu concerning those who play ball: If the ball killed one by rebounding within a distance of four ells from the wall, he is free from exile, but if it exceeded four ells, he is guilty.

ONLY AFTER THE FOURTH CRIME THE COURT IMPRISONS HIM

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An objection was raised from the following: He who has committed a crime twice to which the punishment of stripes applies receives the stripes twice; repeating same a third time, the court puts him in the kyphos. Abba Shaul, however, maintains that even to the third time he receives stripes, and only after he has committed the crime a fourth time does the court imprison him.

FOUR THINGS

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When R. Dimi, or Rabbin, came from Palestine, he said that the court of the Maccabees decreed: He who does so transgresses concerning the following four things: Neda (menstruation), Shif'ha (female-slave), Goiye (strangers in faith), and prostitution.

THE TALMUD SAYS THAT THE PHYLACTORIES MUST CONTAIN FOUR PORTIONS AND IT EMPHASIZES THAT IT IS FOUR AND NOT FIVE AND THAT IF ANYBODY WERE TO SAY IT WAS FIVE AND NOT FOUR AND GO AGAINST THE SCRIPTURE IT WOULD BE AN OFFENSE

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MISHNA V.: The punishment of him who transgresses the decision of the scribes is more rigorous than for that which is plainly written in the Scriptures, e.g., if one says, "I do not see any commandment in the Torah about tephyilin (phylacteries)," with the intention of transgressing that which is written concerning them (i.e., giving another interpretation to Deut. vi. 8, etc.), he is free. However, if he (the rebelling judge) should

 

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decide that the phylacteries must contain five Totaphoth (portions), instead of the four enacted by the scribes, he is guilty.

 

GEMARA: Said R. Elazar in the name of R. Oshia: One is not considered a rebelling judge unless he decides upon a thing the sources of which are in the Scripture and the explanation is by the scribes, and there is something to add. However, if it is added, it harms the whole matter; and we cannot find such a thing in the whole Scripture but phylacteries, according to E. Jehudah (who maintains the four portions in question are to be attached one to the other 1).

THE TALMUD MENTIONS FOUR CRIMES AND EMPHASIZES HOW THE FOURTH IS DIFFERNET- IN THE QUADRANT PATTERN THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

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The rabbis taught: The following four crimes must be heralded--of a seducer, a stubborn and rebellious son, a rebelling judge, and collusive witnesses. Concerning the first three it reads: "All the people of Israel (shall hear and be afraid)." And concerning collusive witnesses it reads [Deut. xix. 20]: "And those who remain shall hear"--because not all of Israel are qualified to be witnesses.

THE FOUR MEN IN THE FIRE- THE FOURTH WAS DIFFERENT

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The disciples of R. Eliezer b. Jacob taught: Even at the time of danger one shall not change the dress belonging to his dignity. As it reads: [ibid., ibid. 21]: "Then were these men bound in their mantles," etc. Said R. Johanan: Upright men are greater than angels, as it reads [ibid., ibid. 25]: "He answered and said, So, I see four men unbound, walking in the midst of the fire, and

 

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there is no injury on them; and the appearance of the fourth is like a son of the gods." (Hence the angels are mentioned last.)

SIX MIRACLES OCURRED AND ONE WAS MEN FROM FOUR KINGDOMS WERE BURNED- OTHER NUMBERS LIKE SIX ARE USUALLY MENTIONED IN THE CONTEXT OF FOUR SO AS TO MAINTAIN AND REPRESENT THAT FOUR IS DOMINANT- MOSTLY OTHER NUMBERS ARE MENTIONED NOT JUST IN TALMUD BUT EVERYWHERE IF IN THE CONTEXT OF FOUR BEING DOMINANT FOUR INSTANCE THERE ARE PARTS OF THE CELL WITH SIX PARTS- BUT THERE WILL BE FOUR OF THOSE PARTS OF THE CELL SO ON AND SO FOURTH

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The rabbis taught: Six miracles occurred on that day: (a) The caldron floated upwards; (b) it broke; (c) its foundation was crumbled by the heat; (d) the golden image fell upon his face; (e) men from four kingdoms were burned; and (f) Ezekiel restored the dead in the valley of Dura. All of them are known tradition. ally. However, concerning the men from the four kingdoms, there is to be found in the Scripture [Dan. iii. 2]: "And King Nebuchadnezzar sent to assemble (his) lieutenants, the superintendents and the governors, the judges, the treasurers, the counsellors, those learned in the law, and all rulers of the provinces; and [ibid., ibid. 12]: "There are certain Jewish men," etc., and further on (27) it reads: "And the lieutenants, superintendents and governors, and the king's counsellors, being assembled together, saw these men," etc. (Hence four of those mentioned in verse 2 are missed.)

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Zeruyah used to wash his head with four pitchers of water, and spots of blood appeared on the water

THE FOUR STEPS

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Thou art wondering that I have rewarded that wicked for the four steps he was running for the sake of my glory: how much more will you wonder when I will come to pay the reward of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, who used to run for me like horses! And this is what is written [ibid. xxiii. 9]: "To the prophets--Broken is my heart within me; all my bones shake; I am like a drunken man, because of the Lord, and because of his holy words."

 

But what four steps arc meant? Those of [Isa. xxxix. i]: At that time sent Merodach-baladon, the son of Baladon, the king of Babylon, letters and presents to Hezekiah, for he had heard that he had been sick, and was becoming strong again." And to this it reads also [II Chron. xxxii. 31]: "And in the same manner in the business of the ambassadors . . . who sent unto him to inquire concerning the wonder that had happened in the land." (And what is it?) What R. Johanan said: That the day on which Achaz died consisted of only two hours. And when Heskiah became sick and thereafter recovered, the Holy One, blessed be He, returned the ten hours to that day, as it reads [Isa. xxxviii. 8]: Behold, I will cause the shadow of the degrees, which is gone down on the dial of Achaz by the sun, to return backward ten degrees. So the sun returned ten degrees, by the degrees which he was gone down." Merodach-baladon then questioned why that day is so long. And he was told, because Hiskia was sick and recovered. He said then: If there is such a man, must he not be greeted? Write him a letter of greeting. And they wrote, Peace to the king Hiskiah, peace to the city of Jerusalem, and peace to the great God.

 

At that time Nebuchadnezzar was Merodach's scribe. But this letter was written in his absence. When he returned and heard of this he asked them what they wrote. And they told him so and so. And he exclaimed: Ye named Him the great God, and greet Him at the end! It ought to have been written, Peace to the great God, peace to the city of Jerusalem, and peace to Hiskiah! And they told him that the dictator of the letter

 

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should be the messenger. He then ran after the messenger to make him return. But after he ran four steps Gabriel came and stopped him. And R. Johanan said: If Gabriel would not have stopped there would be no remedy for the people of Israel.

DAYS OF MESSIAH FORTY REJOICE FOUR DAYS YEARS IN DESERT FORTY- ANOTHER RABBI SAID DAYS OF MESSIAH FOUR HUNDRED YEAR

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There is another Boraitha: The days of the Messiah are forty years, as it reads [Deut. viii. 3]: "And he afflicted thee, and suffered thee to hunger," and [Ps. xc. 15]: "Cause us to rejoice as many days as those wherein thou hast afflicted us," Hence, as their journey in the desert was forty years, so long will be the days of the Messiah; so R. Eliezar. R. Dusa, however, said: Four hundred years, as in [Gen. xv. 13]: "And they will afflict them four hundred years." And as the above cited verse reads, "to rejoice as many days as thou afflicted us," hence it is four

FOUR ELDERS

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The rabbis taught: When R. Eliezar became sick four elders entered to make him a sick call--R. Tarphun, R. Jehoshua, R. Elazar b. Asaryah, and R. Aqiba. Exclaimed R. Tarphun: You are better to Israel than drops of rain, as the latter are only in this world, While you are in both, in this and in the world to come. Exclaimed R. Jehoshua: You are better to Israel than the planet of the sun, which is only in this world, while you are in both. And R. Elazar b. Asaryah exclaimed: You are better to Israel than a father and mother, who are only in this world, etc. R. Aqiba, however, exclaimed: Pleased are chastisements. And R. Eliezar answered: Support me, and I will hear the statement of Aqiba, my disciple, who says: "Pleased are chastisements." And he said: Aqiba, whence is this known to you? And he answered: From the following: It reads [II Kings, xxi. 1 and 2]: "Twelve years old was Menasseh when he became king, and fifty and five years did he reign in Jerusalem . . . and he did what is evil in the eyes of the Lord." It reads also [Prov. xxv. 1]: "Also these

THERE WERE FOUR JUDGE IN SODOM- EACH HAD A NAME THAT MEANT FALSE- REPETITION OF FOUR ZUZ

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There were four judges in Sodom. Every one of them had a name which meant false, lie, etc. If it happened that one struck a woman and she miscarried, they used to decide that the woman should be given to the striker, and he shall return her when she will be pregnant again. If it happened that one cut off the ear of his n